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Sample records for biebrza river valley

  1. Water storage capacity of the natural river valley - how sedge communities influence it. Case study of Upper Biebrza Basin (Poland) based on ALS and TLS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brach, Marcin; Chormański, Jarosław

    2014-05-01

    The exact determination of water storage capacity in river valley is an important issue for hydrologists, ecologist and flood modellers. In case of natural river valley, the dense and complexity vegetation of the natural ecosystems can influence the proper identification of the water storage. Methods considered to be sufficient in other cases (urbanized, agricultural) may not produce correct results. Sedge communities in natural river valleys form characteristic tussocks, built from the species roots, other organic material and silt or mud. They are formed due to partial flooding during the inundation, so the plants can survive in hard, anaerobic conditions. They can growth even up to 0.5 meters, which is not so visible due to very dense vegetation in the valleys. These tussocks form a microtopography or a river valley. Currently, the most commonly used technology to register the terrain topography is an Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS), but in the case of the tussocks and the dense vegetation it generates high errors on elevation in the areas of the sedges (Carex appropinquata). This study concerns the Upper Biebrza Valley which is located in the northeastern Poland. For purpose of our work we used Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) technology to determine microtopography of selected fields. Before measurements, the green part of the sedge was cut in selected measurements fields. It make possible to register only tussocks shape. Next, step was collection of the airborne ALS data of the valley with density of 8 points/sq m. The experimental field was divided on two sub-fields: one was cut and scanned using TLS before ALS collection, while the second after. Data collected as ALS and the TLS were then compared. The accuracy of the ALS data depends on the land cover of an area, while TLS accuracy is around 2 millimeters (when georeferenced it depends on the accuracy of reference points - in our case it was made using GPS RTK which gave us accuracy of few centimeters). The

  2. The analysis of changes in oxbow lakes characteristics using remote sensing data. A case study from Biebrza River in Poland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slapinska, Malgorzata; Chormanski, Jaroslaw

    2014-05-01

    Biebrza River Valley is located in North-Eastern part of Poland. Biebrza is a river of intermediate size with almost natural character. River has numerous of oxbow lakes. Biebrza River Valley consists of three Basins: Upper, Middle and Lower, which are characterized by different geomorphological structure. Biebrza River Valley is an area of significant ecological importance, especially because it is one of the biggest wetlands in Europe. It consists of almost undisturbed floodplain marshes and fens. Biebrza river is also characterised by low contamination level and small human influence. Because of those characteristics Biebrza River can be treated as a reference area for other floodplains and fen ecosystems in Europe. Since oxbow lakes are the least known part of the river valleys there is a need for more research on them. The objective of this study is the characterisation of the oxbow lake water quality and indirectly oxbow lake state using remote sensing method. For achieving the objective two remote sensing datasets has been analysed: IKONOS and hyperspectral camera AISA. The utility of both data sources was compared and time variability of oxbow lakes was defined. The first part of the remote sensing analysis of oxbow lakes was held with the usage of the satellite images from IKONOS satellite from 20.07.2008 (images were taken from Biebrza National Park resources). All analysis were made in ArcGIS 10.0 and ENVI 5.0. The second part of the image analysis was conducted with the data gained from airborne hyperspectral camera AISA Eagle in August 2013. The oxbow lakes have been described on: state of the habitat, transparency, state of overgrowing, connectivity with the river, maximum area and maximum length. The general method of describing oxbow lakes is visual habitat state, related with natural succession. Three main habitat states of oxbow lakes were designated: privileged (described as 'good'), eutrophic and disappearing. The results confirm the fact that

  3. Derivation from the Landsat 7 NDVI and ground truth validation of LAI and interception storage capacity for wetland ecosystems in Biebrza Valley, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suliga, Joanna; Chormański, Jarosław; Szporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Kleniewska, Małgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; van Griensven, Ann; Verbeiren, Boud

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands are very valuable areas because they provide a wide range of ecosystems services therefore modeling of wetland areas is very relevant, however, the most widely used hydrological models were developed in the 90s and usually are not adjusted to simulate wetland conditions. In case of wetlands including interception storage into the model's calculation is even more challenging, because literature data hardly exists. This study includes the computation of interception storage capacity based on Landsat 7 image and ground truthing measurements conducted in the Biebrza Valley, Poland. The method was based on collecting and weighing dry, wet and fully saturated samples of sedges. During the experiments measurements of fresh/dry biomass and leaf area index (LAI) were performed. The research was repeated three times during the same season (May, June and July 2013) to observe temporal variability of parameters. Ground truthing measurements were used for the validating estimation of parameters derived from images acquired in a similar period as the measurements campaigns. The use of remote sensing has as major advantage of being able to obtain an area covering spatially and temporally distributed estimate of the interception storage capacity. Results from this study proved that interception capacity of wetlands vegetation is changing considerably during the vegetation season (temporal variability) and reaches its maximum value when plants are fully developed. Different areas depending on existing plants species are characterized with different values of interception capacity (spatial variability). This research frames within the INTREV and HiWET projects, funded respectively by National Science Centre (NCN) in Poland and BELSPO STEREO III.

  4. Synthetic River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  5. Valley evolution by meandering rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, Ajay Brian Sanjay

    Fluvial systems form landscapes and sedimentary deposits with a rich hierarchy of structures that extend from grain- to valley scale. Large-scale pattern formation in fluvial systems is commonly attributed to forcing by external factors, including climate change, tectonic uplift, and sea-level change. Yet over geologic timescales, rivers may also develop large-scale erosional and depositional patterns that do not bear on environmental history. This dissertation uses a combination of numerical modeling and topographic analysis to identify and quantify patterns in river valleys that form as a consequence of river meandering alone, under constant external forcing. Chapter 2 identifies a numerical artifact in existing, grid-based models that represent the co-evolution of river channel migration and bank strength over geologic timescales. A new, vector-based technique for bank-material tracking is shown to improve predictions for the evolution of meander belts, floodplains, sedimentary deposits formed by aggrading channels, and bedrock river valleys, particularly when spatial contrasts in bank strength are strong. Chapters 3 and 4 apply this numerical technique to establishing valley topography formed by a vertically incising, meandering river subject to constant external forcing---which should serve as the null hypothesis for valley evolution. In Chapter 3, this scenario is shown to explain a variety of common bedrock river valley types and smaller-scale features within them---including entrenched channels, long-wavelength, arcuate scars in valley walls, and bedrock-cored river terraces. Chapter 4 describes the age and geometric statistics of river terraces formed by meandering with constant external forcing, and compares them to terraces in natural river valleys. The frequency of intrinsic terrace formation by meandering is shown to reflect a characteristic relief-generation timescale, and terrace length is identified as a key criterion for distinguishing these

  6. Betsiboka River Valley, Madagascar

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-06-24

    STS007-03-058 (18-24 June 1983) --- The Island of Madagascar in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Africa. The colorful area is the mouth of the Betsiboka River near the city of Majunga. The photograph was taken with a 70mm handheld camera aimed through the aft flight deck?s overhead windows on the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Challenger.

  7. 1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, VIEW OF NORTH ELEVATION OF INTAKE ON EAST SIDE OF DAM - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  8. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter...

  9. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter...

  10. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter...

  11. 27 CFR 9.57 - Green Valley of Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Green Valley of Russian... Areas § 9.57 Green Valley of Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Green Valley of Russian River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this...

  12. 4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROPOSED SECTION OF DIVERSION DAM ACROSS SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 1 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  13. 3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PROFILE AND ALIGNMENT OF DAM ACROSS WEST CHANNEL OF SNAKE RIVER, SHEET 3 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  14. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Russian River Valley. 9.66... Russian River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Russian River Valley.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Russian...

  15. 2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SNAKE RIVER VALLEY IRRIGATION DISTRICT DAM, PHOTOGRAPHIC COPY OF DRAWING, PLAN, SHEET 5 OF 5, 1924 (on file at the Idaho State Office of Water Resources, Boise, Idaho) - Snake River Valley Irrigation District, East Side of Snake River (River Mile 796), Shelley, Bingham County, ID

  16. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of...

  17. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of...

  18. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of...

  19. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of...

  20. 27 CFR 9.208 - Snake River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Snake River Valley. 9.208... Snake River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snake River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snake River Valley” is a term of...

  1. Beaver assisted river valley formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrook, C.J.; Cooper, D.J.; Baker, B.W.

    2011-01-01

    We examined how beaver dams affect key ecosystem processes, including pattern and process of sediment deposition, the composition and spatial pattern of vegetation, and nutrient loading and processing. We provide new evidence for the formation of heterogeneous beaver meadows on riverine system floodplains and terraces where dynamic flows are capable of breaching in-channel beaver dams. Our data show a 1.7-m high beaver dam triggered overbank flooding that drowned vegetation in areas deeply flooded, deposited nutrient-rich sediment in a spatially heterogeneous pattern on the floodplain and terrace, and scoured soils in other areas. The site quickly de-watered following the dam breach by high stream flows, protecting the deposited sediment from future re-mobilization by overbank floods. Bare sediment either exposed by scouring or deposited by the beaver flood was quickly colonized by a spatially heterogeneous plant community, forming a beaver meadow. Many willow and some aspen seedlings established in the more heavily disturbed areas, suggesting the site may succeed to a willow carr plant community suitable for future beaver re-occupation. We expand existing theory beyond the beaver pond to include terraces within valleys. This more fully explains how beavers can help drive the formation of alluvial valleys and their complex vegetation patterns as was first postulated by Ruedemann and Schoonmaker in 1938. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The Red River Valley archeological project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Jack; Smith, Lawson; Laustrup, Mark

    1986-01-01

    The Red River Valley Archeology Project is a long-term effort involving numerous individuals and institutions engaged in archeological investigations in the Texas and Oklahoma portions of the Red River Valley. To date the focus of the project was on site location. The project acquired both Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), TMS, and color infrared photographs over a significant portion of the project area in an effort to define signatures for archeological sites and to assist in the detailed geomorphological mapping of the flood plain. Preliminary analysis of acquired data indicates that both the TIMS and TMS can make a substantial contribution to landform definition, the identification of cultural resources, and to the clarification of site-landform correlations in this riverine environment.

  3. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Pueblo County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Pueblo County, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  4. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Prowers County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Prowers County, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  5. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  6. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  7. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  8. 27 CFR 9.216 - Upper Mississippi River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Upper Mississippi River... Areas § 9.216 Upper Mississippi River Valley. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Upper Mississippi River Valley”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter,...

  9. Skillful seasonal prediction of Yangtze river valley summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaofan; Scaife, Adam A.; Lu, Riyu; Arribas, Alberto; Brookshaw, Anca; Comer, Ruth E.; Li, Jianglong; MacLachlan, Craig; Wu, Peili

    2016-09-01

    China suffers from frequent summer floods and droughts, but seasonal forecast skill of corresponding summer rainfall remains a key challenge. In this study, we demonstrate useful levels of prediction skill over the Yangtze river valley for summer rainfall and river flows using a new high resolution forecast system. Further analysis of the sources of predictability suggests that the predictability of Yangtze river valley summer rainfall corresponds to skillful prediction of rainfall in the deep tropics and around the Maritime Continent. The associated dynamical signals favor increased poleward water vapor transport from South China and hence Yangtze river valley summer rainfall and river flow. The predictability and useful level of skill demonstrated by this study imply huge potential for flooding and drought related disaster mitigation and economic benefits for the region based on early warning of extreme climate events.

  10. Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    The Santa Clara River Valley (SCRV) study unit is located in Los Angeles and Ventura Counties, California, and is bounded by the Santa Monica, San Gabriel, Topatopa, and Santa Ynez Mountains, and the Pacific Ocean. The 460-square-mile study unit includes eight groundwater basins: Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, Ventura River Valley, Santa Clara River Valley, Pleasant Valley, Arroyo Santa Rosa Valley, Las Posas Valley, and Simi Valley (California Department of Water Resources, 2003; Montrella and Belitz, 2009). The SCRV study unit has hot, dry summers and cool, moist winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 12 to 28 inches. The study unit is drained by the Ventura and Santa Clara Rivers, and Calleguas Creek. The primary aquifer system in the Ventura River Valley, Ojai Valley, Upper Ojai Valley, and Simi Valley basins is largely unconfined alluvium. The primary aquifer system in the remaining groundwater basins mainly consists of unconfined sands and gravels in the upper portion and partially confined marine and nonmarine deposits in the lower portion. The primary aquifer system in the SCRV study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifers corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. Public-supply wells typically are completed in the primary aquifer system to depths of 200 to 1,100 feet below land surface (bls). The wells contain solid casing reaching from the land surface to a depth of about 60-700 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing to allow water into the well. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from the water in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer. Land use in the study unit is approximately 40 percent (%) natural (primarily shrubs, grassland, and wetlands), 37% agricultural, and 23% urban. The primary crops are citrus, avocados, alfalfa, pasture, strawberries, and dry beans. The largest urban areas in the study unit are the cities of

  11. Contrasts of atmospheric circulation and associated tropical convection between Huaihe River valley and Yangtze River valley mei-yu flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jieli; Liu, Yimin

    2012-07-01

    The significant differences of atmospheric circulation between flooding in the Huaihe and Yangtze River valleys during early mei-yu (i.e., the East Asian rainy season in June) and the related tropical convection were investigated. During the both flooding cases, although the geopotential height anomalies always exhibit equivalent barotropic structures in middle to high latitudes at middle and upper troposphere, the phase of the Rossby wave train is different over Eurasian continent. During flooding in the Huaihe River valley, only one single blocking anticyclone is located over Baikal Lake. In contrast, during flooding in the Yangtze River valley, there are two blocking anticyclones. One is over the Ural Mountains and the other is over Northeast Asia. In the lower troposphere a positive geopotential height anomaly is located at the western ridge of subtropical anticyclone over Western Pacific (SAWP) in both flooding cases, but the location of the height anomaly is much farther north and west during the Huaihe River mei-yu flooding. Furthermore, abnormal rainfall in the Huaihe River valley and the regions north of it in China is closely linked with the latent heating anomaly over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula. However, the rainfall in the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south in China is strongly related to the convection over the western tropical Pacific. Numerical experiments demonstrated that the enhanced latent heating over the Arabian Sea and Indian peninsula causes water vapor convergence in the region south of Tibetan Plateau and in the Huaihe River valley extending to Japan Sea with enhanced precipitation; and vapor divergence over the Yangtze River valley and the regions to its south with deficient precipitation. While the weakened convection in the tropical West Pacific results in moisture converging over the Yangtze River and the region to its south, along with abundant rainfall.

  12. This Glorious Mud Pile (Rocky River Valley). Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabbage, Mary Ellen

    This student text focuses on the social and geological history of a river basin. In addition to background information, the text includes student worksheets for 12 field trip stops in Ohio's Rocky River Valley. Material is designed to support a full-day field trip during which students work in small groups. Also included are a geological…

  13. This Glorious Mud Pile (Rocky River Valley). Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabbage, Mary Ellen

    This student text focuses on the social and geological history of a river basin. In addition to background information, the text includes student worksheets for 12 field trip stops in Ohio's Rocky River Valley. Material is designed to support a full-day field trip during which students work in small groups. Also included are a geological…

  14. Rivers and valleys of Pennsylvania, revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisawa, Marie

    1989-09-01

    The 1889 paper by William Morris Davis on the "Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania" is a landmark in the history of geomorphology. It was in this manuscript that he set forth what came to be known as the Davisian system of landscape. It is important to understand that Davis' interpretation of landforms was restricted by the geologic paradigms of his day. Uniformitarianism was strongly entrenched and Darwin's theory of evolution had become popularly accepted. The concept of the landmass Appalachia and then current theories on mountain building affected the approach that Davis took in hypothesizing the origin and development of the Folded Appalachian drainage. All of these geologic precepts influenced the formulation and explanation of his theories. In his exposition he adapted, synthesized and embellished on ideas he derived from fellow geologists such as Gilbert, Dutton, Powell, and McGee. A number of the concepts he proposed in the 1889 paper quickly became the bases for geomorphic studies by others: the cycles of river erosion and landscape evolution and the peneplain (here called base level erosion). The cycle of erosion became the model for subsequent geomorphic analyses, and peneplain hunting became a popular sport for geomorphologists. Davis' hypothesis of the origin and development of Pennsylvanian drainage stimulated subsequent discussion and further hypotheses by others. In fact, many of the later theories were refinements and/or elaborations of ideas mentioned in this paper of Davis. He proposed the origin of the drainage as consequent streams, then antecedence, superposition, headward extension of divides by piracy, erosion along lines of weaknesses (faults, easily erodible beds) through resistant ridges and normal fluvial erosion. Thus, the hypotheses of regional superposition (Johnson), extended consequents (Ruedemann), consequents and local superposition (Meyerhoff and Olmstead), the utilization of structural weaknesses in development of transverse

  15. Systematization of river valleys in different morphostructural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opekunova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our research was to identify the features of development of river valleys within the south of Eastern Siberia. One of the objectives to achieve this aim was the typing of river valleys, which was based on the principle of the location of a river valley or its part within different morphostructural areas, determining the morphology and individual (general or specific) development features that make it possible to specify the pattern of development of river valleys at different topological levels. Within the study area the following major morphostructures are distinguished: Altai-Sayan and Baikal mountain-folded regions, the Baikal rift zone, and the Siberian platform, within which morphostructures of the lower order are identified. Thus, a large variability in types of interaction and interpenetration of different areas provides for the development of various types of river valleys, depending on their location in the morphostructural areas. This approach was the basis for the typing of river valleys, i.e. idenifying their typological characteristics, depending on their location within a particular morphostructural area, geological and geomorphological conditions, and the history of development. The basic principles for the typing of river valleys are: 1) their location with respect to morphostructural areas, and 2) a set of characteristics of valleys of different morphostructural areas. Based on the above mentioned approach, and using GIS (MapInfo software), a map of river valleys typing was compiled, which included the database of the hydrographic network with space-time characteristics, tabulated for each streamflow. The procedure for determining the types of river valleys within each morphostructure was as follows. Boundaries of morphostructures of different orders were identified according to cartographic and literature data and allocated in the GIS space (MapInfo software). In the database, each distinguished morphostructure has the following

  16. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  17. Preliminary results of hydrogeologic investigations Humboldt River Valley, Winnemucca, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Philip M.

    1964-01-01

    Most of the ground water of economic importance and nearly all the ground water closely associated with the flow o# the Humboldt River in the. 40-mile reach near Winnemucca, Nev., are in unconsolidated sedimentary deposits. These deposits range in age from Pliocene to Recent and range in character from coarse poorly sorted fanglomerate to lacustrine strata of clay, silt, sand, and gravel. The most permeable deposit consists of sand and gravel of Lake Lahontan age--the so-called medial gravel unit--which is underlain and overlain by fairly impermeable silt and clay also of Lake Lahontan age. The ultimate source of nearly all the water in the study area is precpitation within the drainage basin of the Humboldt River. Much of this water reaches the study, area as flow or underflow of the Humboldt River and as underflow from other valleys tributary to the study area. Little if any flow from the tributary streams in the study area usually reaches the Humboldt River. Most of the tributary streamflow within the study area evaporates or is transpired by vegetation, but a part percolates downward through unconsolidated deposits of the alluvial fans flanking the mountains and move downgradient as ground-water underflow toward the Humboldt River. Areas that contribute significant amounts of ground-water underflow to. the valley of the Humboldt River within the study area are (1) the valley of the Humboldt River upstream from the study area, (2) the Pole Creek-Rock Creek area, (3) Paradise Valley, and (4) Grass Valley and the northwestern slope of the Sonoma Range. The total average underflow from these areas in the period 1949-61 was about 14,000-19,000 acre-feet per year. Much of this underflow discharged into the Humboldt River within the study area and constituted a large part of the base flow of the river. Streamflow in the Humboldt River increases substantially in the early spring, principally because of runoff to the river in the reaches upstream from the study area

  18. Titan Nile-Like River Valley

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-12-12

    This image from NASA Cassini spacecraft shows a vast river system on Saturn moon Titan. It is the first time images from space have revealed a river system so vast and in such high resolution anywhere other than Earth.

  19. 76 FR 70866 - Expansions of the Russian River Valley and Northern Sonoma Viticultural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... northeastern corner, the Chalk Hill viticultural area (27 CFR 9.52), and in the southwest, the Green Valley of... located entirely within the Northern Sonoma viticultural area as follows: Chalk Hill, Alexander Valley..., Russian River Valley, and Knights Valley. The Sonoma County Green Valley and Chalk Hill areas are each...

  20. Birds of the St. Croix River valley: Minnesota and Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faanes, Craig A.

    1981-01-01

    The St. Croix River Valley encompasses nearly 11,550 km2 in east-central Minnesota and northwestern Wisconsin. A wide range of habitats are available for birds including upland oak, lowland deciduous, maple-basswood, lowland and upland coniferous forests, natural basin wetlands, and grasslands. Situated in the north-central region of the United States, the valley is a biological 'crossroads' for many species. Because of the mixed affinities of plant communities, the valley includes the northern and southern range limits for a number of species. Also, because the valley lies near the forest-prairie transition zone, many typical western breeding species (e.g. pintail, western meadowlark, yellow-headed blackbird) breed in proximity to typical eastern species such as tufted titmouse, eastern meadowlark, and cardinal. From 1966 to 1980, I conducted extensive surveys of avian distribution and abundance in the St. Croix River Valley. I have supplemented the results of these surveys with published and unpublished observations contributed by many ornithologists. These additional data include compilations from Christmas Bird Counts sponsored by the National Audubon Society and from the Breeding Bird Survey coordinated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Three hundred fourteen species have been recorded in the study area; data are presented on the migration period, nesting season distribution, winter distribution, relative abundance, and habitat use of each species. Recognizing the uniqueness of the area, and its importance not only to wildlife but also to man, the U.S. Congress designated the St. Croix a National Scenic Riverway. This action provided a considerable degree of protection to lands along and directly adjacent to the river. Unfortunately, no similar legal measure exists to protect lands away from the river. With the exception of the northern quarter of the St. Croix River Valley, agricultural interests have made significant inroads into the habitat base. The

  1. 27 CFR 9.87 - Grand River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grand River Valley. 9.87 Section 9.87 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.87...

  2. West Harlem Walk (Hudson River Valley Greenway) beneath Henry Hudson ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West Harlem Walk (Hudson River Valley Greenway) beneath Henry Hudson Parkway (HHP) Viaduct at West 155th Street vicinity, with Palisades, George Washington Bridge, and Little Red Lighthouse (visible to left of bridge tower) in background, looking northeast. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  3. Shoals and valley plugs in the Hatchie River watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, Timothy H.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural land use and gully erosion have historically contributed more sediment to the streams of the Hatchie River watershed than those streams can carry. In 1970, the main sedimentation problem in the watershed occurred in the tributary flood plains. This problem motivated channelization projects (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1970). By the mid-1980's, concern had shifted to sedimentation in the Hatchie River itself where channelized tributaries were understood to contribute much of the sediment. The Soil Conservation Service [Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) since 1996] estimated that 640,000 tons of bedload (sand) accumulates in the Hatchie River each year and identified roughly the eastern two-thirds of the watershed, where loess is thin or absent, as the main source of sand (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1986a). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the West Tennessee River Basin Authority (WTRBA), conducted a study of sediment accumulation in the Hatchie River and its tributaries. This report identifies the types of tributaries and evaluates sediment, shoal formation, and valley-plug problems. The results presented here may contribute to a better understanding of similar problems in West Tennessee and the rest of the southeastern coastal plain. This information also will help the WTRBA manage sedimentation and erosion problems in the Hatchie River watershed.The source of the Mississippi section of the Hatchie River is in the sand hills southwest of Corinth, Mississippi (fig. 1). This section of the Hatchie River flows northward in an artificial drainage canal, gathering water from tributary streams that also are channelized. The drainage canal ends 2 miles south of the Tennessee State line. The Tennessee section of the Hatchie River winds north and west in a meandering natural channel to the Mississippi River. Although most of the Hatchie River tributaries are also drainage canals, the river's main stem has kept most of

  4. Twin Valley, Wild Rice River, Minnesota. Addendum.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    David Rockwell, TSB, EPA Billy Fairless, CRL. EPA Gary Schenzel, Water Div, EPA Charlie Delos, Planning. EPA Michael Sullivan, Planning, EPA Harlan Hirt...Twin Valley-Norman 868 " WRR Hahnomen-Mahn 1,312 " WRR Felton-Clay 232 " Felton D. WRR Borup-Norman 128 " Ditch SBWRR Begon -Mahnomen 157 None Marsh WRR

  5. Notes on the geology of Green River Valley between Green River, Wyoming, and Green River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeside, J.B.

    1925-01-01

    During July, August, and part of September, 1922, I had the privilege of accompanying a party sent out jointly by the Utah Power & Light Co. and the United States Geological Survey to gather such data as were still needed to complete a study of the power resources of Green River between Green River, Wyo., and Green River, Utah. The chief deficiency to be supplied was a continuous topographic map of the valley in sufficient detail to permit calculation of the storage capacity of any reservoir site that might be used, the stream gradient, and similar features. Maps on a satisfactory scale of a number of isolated stretches of the river had already been made by public or private agencies, and it was necessary to verify them and connect them on a uniform datum. Inasmuch as it was deemed unlikely that a dam higher than 300 feet would be constructed anywhere on the part of the river to be examined, a plane 300 feet above the water surface was made the upper limit of mapping. Over such parts of the valley as had been mapped already the progress of the party was naturally very rapid, and even where no mapping had previously been done, the 300-foot limit set upon the work and the usual narrowness of the valley combined to reduce the extent of the area to be mapped, so that the speed maintained was relatively high. Under this condition of rapid movement it was seldom possible to make more than the most cursory examination of the rocks, though occasionally circumstances permitted more or less detailed observation. The notes here recorded are therefore mostly of a rather generalized character, but as they pertain in part to localities that are difficult of access and not often visited by geologists, and that are at the same time classic in the history of American geology, I venture to to record them for whatever value they may have to other geologists.

  6. Hydrogeologic characteristics of the valley-fill aquifer in the Arkansas River valley, Crowley and Otero Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Hurr, R.T.; Moore, John E.

    1989-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer of the Arkansas River valley in Crowley and Otero Counties, Colorado is presented in a series of three maps. The map shows: (1) the altitude and configuration of the bedrock surface beneath the valley-fill material; (2) the altitude and configuration of the water table in the spring of 1966; and (3) the saturation thickness of the valley-fill aquifer in the spring of 1966. (USGS)

  7. Water in the Humboldt River Valley near Winnemucca, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Philip M.

    1966-01-01

    Most of the work of the interagency Humboldt River Research Project in the Winnemucca reach of the Humboldt River valley has been completed. More than a dozen State and Federal agencies and several private organizations and individuals participated in the study. The major objective of the project, which began in 1959, is to evaluate the water resources of the entire Humboldt River basin. However, because of the large size of the basin, most of the work during the first 5 years of the project was done in the Winnemucca area. The purpose of this report is to summarize briefly and simply the information regarding the water resources of the Winnemucca area-especially the quantitative aspects of the flow system-given in previous reports of the project. The Winnemucca reach of the Humboldt River valley, which is in north-central Nevada, is about 200 miles downstream from the headwaters of the Humboldt River and includes that part of the valley between the Comus and Rose Creek gaging stations. Average annual inflow to the storage area (the valley lowlands) in the Winnemucca reach in water years 1949-62 was about 250,000 acre-feet. Of this amount, about 68 percent was Humboldt River streamflow, as measured at the Comus gaging station, 23 percent was precipitation directly on the storage area, 6 percent was ground-water inflow, and about 3 percent was tributary streamflow. Average annual streamflow at the Rose Creek gaging station during the same period was about 155,000 acre-feet, or about 17,000 acre-feet less than that at the Comus gaging station. Nearly all the streamflow lost was consumed by evapotranspiration in the project area. Total average annual evapotranspiration loss during the period was about 115,000 acre-feet, or about 42 percent of the total average annual outflow. The most abundant ions in the ground and surface water in the area are commonly sodium and bicarbonate. Much of the water has a dissolved-solids content that ranges from 500 to 750 parts per

  8. Stratigraphy of Late Pleistocene formations of the Mezen river valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimov, Anton; Semenova, Ljudmila

    2014-05-01

    Stratigraphy of Late Pleistocene formations of the Mezen river valley A.V. Maksimov, L.R. Semenova A.P. Karpinski All-Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI), St.-Petersburg, Russia In recent years received extensive and contradictory evidence on the genesis, age and area of spreading of quaternary formations in NW Russia. The reason for this - the heterogeneity of investigated objects and methods of research. Within a valley of the river Mezen quaternary sediments are distributed everywhere. In outcrops opened sediments relating to the fifth and sixth stages of Middle Pleistocene, Upper Pleistocene and Holocene. Thickness of the quaternary sediments varies over a wide range, generally increasing from west to east. The authors have studied quaternary formations, opened in outcrops in valley of river Mezen (downstream) and its right tributary Peza, as well as in marine coastal cliffs. The aim of the study was to demonstrate specific features of the lithological composition of quaternary sediments from various (in age and origin) moraine complexes of the Russian NW and to reconstruction of paleogeographic sedimentary environments in the Late Pleistocene. Such attention to glacial sediments was dictated by the fact that they bear the most valuable information pertaining to the type and composition of provenances and to the geodynamic settings of feeding and sedimentation zones. To achieve these goals following tasks were set: 1. Lithostratigraphic subdivision of the section of Quaternary sediments. 2. Correlation of local stratigraphic units with stratigraphic scheme adjacent areas using the geochronological, paleontological and paleoclimatic data. 3. Reconstruction of the main geological events Late Pleistocene NW European part of Russia. First for glacial sediments in valley of the river Mezen applied lithological method, for determining the origin of formations. Was studied lithological composition of the sediments and were correlated geological sections

  9. Habitat and Populations of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle Along the Sacramento River

    Treesearch

    F. Jordan Lang; James D. Jokerst; Gregory E. Sutter

    1989-01-01

    Prior to 1985, the valley elderberry longhorn beetle, a threatened species protected under the federal Endangered Species Act, was known only from northern California riparian areas along the American River and Putah Creek in the Sacramento Valley, and along several rivers in the northern San Joaquin Valley. During 1985-1987, our study extended the known range of the...

  10. Increased incentives help to improve management of small river valleys

    SciTech Connect

    Li He

    1983-10-28

    This article shows how small river valley management in a Chinese province can benefit from a contract responsibility system. An attempt was made to remedy the soil and water erosion of 704 small river valleys. The annual control task was surpassed 3 months ahead of time, as 507 square km of eroded land (or 127% of the annual task of 400 square km) were brought under control. It is concluded that the implementation of various forms of the responsibility system, joining responsibilities, rights, and benefits, has accelerated the pace of management. Of the total area under contract, 22% is under single or multihousehold contract; 12% is under specialized brigade, team, or household contract; 31% is under unified collective management; and 35% is under other forms of contract.

  11. Geomorphology of outflow part Batova river valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vulcheva-Georgieva, Ivalena; Stankova, Svetla

    2017-03-01

    Firths are geomoiphological and hydrological sites typical for flat, neutral coast of no tidal sea basins. There in the greatest extend is preserved the geological column of the correlative Pleistocene- Holocene sediments. They make possible to reveal the Quaternary evolution of the contact zone "land-sea". Firths are one of the most reliable indicators for the Quaternary Earth crust movements. Along the Black Sea coast most widely are developed the firths in the north - west and the west periphery, where they form a classic firth type coast. This report examines the results of complex studies of Batova river firth, located (developed) on the North Bulgarian Black Sea coast.

  12. Hydrologic conditions in the Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge and Planet Valley, Arizona, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Richard P.; Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    2002-01-01

    During a period of sustained base-flow conditions in the Bill Williams River below Alamo Dam in west central Arizona from March to July 2000, the channel of the river through Planet Valley was dry, and the water table sloped almost due west parallel to the main slope of the flood plain. Water from the river infiltrated into the channel bottom at the head of Planet Valley, moved downgradient in the subsurface, and reappeared in the channel about 0.3 mile downstream from the east boundary of the Bill Williams River National Wildlife Refuge. A river aquifer in hydraulic connection with the Bill Williams River was mapped from a point 6.3 miles upstream from Highway 95 to the upstream end of Planet Valley. Formations that make up the river aquifer in Planet Valley are younger alluvium, older alluviums, and fanglomerate. Total thickness of the river aquifer probably is less than 200 feet in the bedrock canyons to as much as 1,035 feet in Planet Valley. The purpose of this study was to investigate the current hydrologic conditions along the Bill Williams River, which included an inventory of wells within the river aquifer of the Colorado River and in Planet Valley, and to determine the configuration of the water table. A map shows the elevation and configuration of the water table from the east end of Planet Valley to the confluence of the Bill Williams River with Lake Havasu.

  13. River Rats: A History of the Red River Valley Association

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    SAWADEE, parties in Southeast Asia, and today is standard dross for Friday informal qnthorimjs at River Rat reunions. i»y^^-TT;»^^^^i«»’^^»^^™,^CT,w...Hubbell, John G. P.O.W. New York, et al. Readers Digest Press, 1976. Official Documents 53. 355th Tactical Fighter Wing History - Oct-Dec, 1967. 54

  14. Synthetic river valleys: Creating prescribed topography for form-process inquiry and river rehabilitation design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Pasternack, G. B.; Wallender, W. W.

    2014-06-01

    The synthesis of artificial landforms is complementary to geomorphic analysis because it affords a reflection on both the characteristics and intrinsic formative processes of real world conditions. Moreover, the applied terminus of geomorphic theory is commonly manifested in the engineering and rehabilitation of riverine landforms where the goal is to create specific processes associated with specific morphology. To date, the synthesis of river topography has been explored outside of geomorphology through artistic renderings, computer science applications, and river rehabilitation design; while within geomorphology it has been explored using morphodynamic modeling, such as one-dimensional simulation of river reach profiles, two-dimensional simulation of river networks, and three-dimensional simulation of subreach scale river morphology. To date, no approach allows geomorphologists, engineers, or river rehabilitation practitioners to create landforms of prescribed conditions. In this paper a method for creating topography of synthetic river valleys is introduced that utilizes a theoretical framework that draws from fluvial geomorphology, computer science, and geometric modeling. Such a method would be valuable to geomorphologists in understanding form-process linkages as well as to engineers and river rehabilitation practitioners in developing design surfaces that can be rapidly iterated. The method introduced herein relies on the discretization of river valley topography into geometric elements associated with overlapping and orthogonal two-dimensional planes such as the planform, profile, and cross section that are represented by mathematical functions, termed geometric element equations. Topographic surfaces can be parameterized independently or dependently using a geomorphic covariance structure between the spatial series of geometric element equations. To illustrate the approach and overall model flexibility examples are provided that are associated with

  15. Water resources of the Humboldt River Valley near Winnemucca, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cohen, Philip M.

    1965-01-01

    This report, resulting from studies made by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the interagency Humboldt River Research Project, describes the qualitative and quantitative relations among the components of the hydrologic system in the Winnemucca Reach of the Humboldt River valley. The area studied includes the segment of the Humboldt River valley between the Comus and Rose Creek gaging stations. It is almost entirely in Humboldt County in north-central Nevada, and is about 200 miles downstream from the headwaters of the Humboldt River. Agriculture is the major economic activity in the area. Inasmuch as the valley lowlands receive an average of about 8 inches of precipitation per year and because the rate of evaporation from free-water surfaces is about six times the average annual precipitation, all crops in the area (largely forage crops) are irrigated. About 85 percent of the cultivated land is irrigated with Humboldt River water; the remainder is irrigated from about 20 irrigation wells. The consolidated rocks of the uplifted fault-block mountains are largely barriers to the movement of ground water and form ground-water and surface-water divides. Unconsolidated deposits of late Tertiary and Quaternary age underlie the valley lowlands to a maximum depth of about 5,000 feet. These deposits are in hydraulic continuity with the Humboldt River and store and transmit most of the economically recoverable ground water. Included in the valley fill is a highly permeable sand and gravel deposit having a maximum thickness of about 90-100 feet; it underlies the flood plain and bordering terraces throughout most of the project area. This deposit is almost completely saturated and contains about 500,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage. The Humboldt River is the source of 90-95 percent of the surface-water inflow to the area. In water years 1949-62 the average annual streamflow at the Comus gaging station at the upstream margin of the area was 172,100 acre-feet; outflow

  16. River conferences under temperate valley glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Stuart; Egli, Pascal; Irving, James

    2017-04-01

    Both geophysical measurements (ground penetrating radar) and hydrological inference has shown that subglacial drainage networks are dendritic and that means that they must have confluences. In general, there are very few studies of rivers under glaciers and almost no consideration at all of confluences, despite the fact that they could be a critical parameter in understanding coupling at the ice-sediment bed interface. Subglacial channels, normally known as conduits, are typically associated with the combined effect of hydraulic pressure driven ice melt (which opens them) and ice overburden pressure (which closes them). Inferences from dye break out curves shows that has the efficiency of ice melt increases progressively during the summer ablation season, melt rates closure rates and a channelized system becomes progressively more effective. Most recently, measurements at the Upper Arolla Glacier show that the effects of this growing efficiency is an evolution in the subglacial hydrological system towards higher peak flows and lower base flows later in the melt season. This increases the probability that late in the melt season, sediment transport becomes discontinuous, with overnight deposition and daytime erosion. This would in turn produce the rapid reductions in sediment transport capacity overnight needed to deposit sediment and to block conduits, increase basal water pressure and explain the hydraulic jacking observed in snout marginal zones at a time when it should not be expected. The question that follows is what effects do confluences have on this process? The geometry of subglacial channels is such that when they join they lead to rapid changes in hydraulic geometry. Crucially, these are likely to have a non-linear impact upon sediment transport capacity, which should reduce disproportionally in the conduits downstream of the junction. Thus, it is possible that confluence zones under glaciers become sites of very rapid sediment accumulation and blockage

  17. Towards Biological Restoration of Tehran Megalopolis River Valleys- Case Study: Farahzad River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi, Nafishe; Oveis Torabi, Seyed; Akhani, Hossein

    2017-04-01

    Towards biological restoration of Tehran megalopolis river-valleys: case study Farahzad river 1Nafiseh Samadi, 2OveisTorabi, 3Hossein Akhani 1Mahsab Shargh Company, Tehran ,Iran, nafiseh19@gmail.com 2 Mahsab Shargh Company, Tehran ,Iran, weg@tna-co.com 3Department of Plant Sciences, Halophytes and C4 Research Laboratory, School of Biology, College of Sciences, University of Tehran, PO Box 14155-6455, Tehran, Iran, akhani@khayam.ut.ac.ir Tehran is located in northcentral parts of Iran on the alluvium of southern Alborz Mountains. Seven rivers originated from the highlands of N Tehran run inside and around the city. Many of these river valleys have been deformed by a variety of urban utilizations such as garden, building, canal, park, autobahn etc. Tehran with more than eight million populations suffered from adverse environmental conditions such as pollution and scarcity of natural habitats for recreational activities. Ecological restoration of altered river valleys of Tehran is one of the priorities of Tehran municipality started as a pilot project in Farahzad river. Intensive disturbance, conversion into various urban utilization, illegal building construction, waste water release into the river, garbage accumulation, artificial park constructions and domination of invasive species have largely altered the river. Parts of the river located in Pardisan Nature Park was studied before its complete deformation into a modern park. The riparian vegetation consisted of Tamarix ramosissima and Salix acmophylla shrubs with large number of aquatic and palustric plants. The norther parts of the river still contain semi-natural vegetation which change into patchy and intensive degraded habitats towards its southern parts. In northern parts of valley there are old gardens of Morus alba and Juglans regia, and planted trees such as Plataneus oreientalis and Acer negundo. Salix acmophylla, Fraxinus excelsior and Celtis caucasica are native species growing on river margin or

  18. Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-08-01

    The Yampa River Valley sub-area contingency plan (Contingency Plan) has been prepared for two counties in northwestern Colorado: Moffat County and Routt County. The Contingency Plan is provided in two parts, the Contingency Plan and the Emergency Response Action Plan (ERAP). The Contingency Plan provides information that should be helpful in planning to minimize the impact of an oil spill or hazardous material incident. It contains discussions of planning and response role, hazards identification, vulnerability analysis, risk analysis, cleanup, cost recovery, training, and health and safety. It includes information on the incident command system, notifications, response capabilities, emergency response organizations, evacuation and shelter-in-place, and immediate actions.

  19. 75 FR 17756 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... on May 20, 2010 at 9 a.m. at Atria Draper Place located at 25 Hopedale Street, Hopedale, MA for the..., Executive Director, John H. Chafee, Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission, One Depot...

  20. 75 FR 48359 - Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Office of the Secretary Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission: Notice of Meeting... the John H. Chafee Blackstone River Valley National Heritage Corridor Commission will be held on... make oral or written presentations to the Commission or file written statements. Such requests...

  1. Monitoring of heavy flooding by orbital remote sensing: The example of the Doce river valley. [Doce River Valley, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Novo, E. M. L. D.; Dossantos, A. P.

    1981-01-01

    The application of temporal LANDSAT data to study floods was verified, and the natural features responsible for this phenomenon were surveyed using the Doce river valley as a test site, because of the catastrophic (1978-1979) flood. Data from LANDSAT images and CCT's were used. Geomorphical mapping evaluated morphostructural features. Seven and nine classes of water surfaces for dry and rainy seasons were analyzed. The magnitude of the changes from preflood to postflood stage are estimated. The single Pixel program was applied to correlate the drainage basin characteristics to the grey level of LANDSAT data.

  2. D GIS for Flood Modelling in River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tymkow, P.; Karpina, M.; Borkowski, A.

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is implementation of system architecture for collecting and analysing data as well as visualizing results for hydrodynamic modelling of flood flows in river valleys using remote sensing methods, tree-dimensional geometry of spatial objects and GPU multithread processing. The proposed solution includes: spatial data acquisition segment, data processing and transformation, mathematical modelling of flow phenomena and results visualization. Data acquisition segment was based on aerial laser scanning supplemented by images in visible range. Vector data creation was based on automatic and semiautomatic algorithms of DTM and 3D spatial features modelling. Algorithms for buildings and vegetation geometry modelling were proposed or adopted from literature. The implementation of the framework was designed as modular software using open specifications and partially reusing open source projects. The database structure for gathering and sharing vector data, including flood modelling results, was created using PostgreSQL. For the internal structure of feature classes of spatial objects in a database, the CityGML standard was used. For the hydrodynamic modelling the solutions of Navier-Stokes equations in two-dimensional version was implemented. Visualization of geospatial data and flow model results was transferred to the client side application. This gave the independence from server hardware platform. A real-world case in Poland, which is a part of Widawa River valley near Wroclaw city, was selected to demonstrate the applicability of proposed system.

  3. A cleaning energy area conception on Fenhe river valley

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, C.

    1997-12-31

    Fenhe river valley has a dense population, abundant resources and coal mining, coke making, metallurgy industry concentration. Therefore, it is a seriously pollute area. The paper puts forward a concept of building up a clean energy area through process improvement and change of energy structure to realize ecological economy. The analysis shows that the indigenous method used for coking produces serious pollution, the resource cannot be used comprehensively, the regular machinery coke has a high investment in capital construction, but not much economic benefit. All are disadvantages for health and sustainable economic development. Also, this paper describes a LJ-95 machinery coke oven which has lower investment, higher product quality, less pollution, and higher economical benefit. LJ-95 coke oven will be the technical basis for construction of a clean energy area. The clean energy area concept for the Fenhe river valley consists of a coal gas pipeline network during the first phase and building electricity generation using steam turbines in the second phase.

  4. Assessment of the alluvial sediments in the Big Thompson River Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnett, Adrienne; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2000-01-01

    To obtain subsurface geologic information about the alluvium in the Big Thompson River valley, S-wave refraction data were collected along three roads that cross the valley. The refraction data were used to estimate velocities and thickness for a layered-earth model; from these models, three cross sections of the river valley were constructed. These cross sections show the thickness and the gross stratigraphy of the alluvium.

  5. Long Valley Caldera Lake and reincision of Owens River Gorge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy

    2016-12-16

    Owens River Gorge, today rimmed exclusively in 767-ka Bishop Tuff, was first cut during the Neogene through a ridge of Triassic granodiorite to a depth as great as its present-day floor and was then filled to its rim by a small basaltic shield at 3.3 Ma. The gorge-filling basalt, 200 m thick, blocked a 5-km-long reach of the upper gorge, diverting the Owens River southward around the shield into Rock Creek where another 200-m-deep gorge was cut through the same basement ridge. Much later, during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 22 (~900–866 ka), a piedmont glacier buried the diversion and deposited a thick sheet of Sherwin Till atop the basalt on both sides of the original gorge, showing that the basalt-filled reach had not, by then, been reexcavated. At 767 ka, eruption of the Bishop Tuff blanketed the landscape with welded ignimbrite, deeply covering the till, basalt, and granodiorite and completely filling all additional reaches of both Rock Creek canyon and Owens River Gorge. The ignimbrite rests directly on the basalt and till along the walls of Owens Gorge, but nowhere was it inset against either, showing that the basalt-blocked reach had still not been reexcavated. Subsidence of Long Valley Caldera at 767 ka produced a steep-walled depression at least 700 m deeper than the precaldera floor of Owens Gorge, which was beheaded at the caldera’s southeast rim. Caldera collapse reoriented proximal drainages that had formerly joined east-flowing Owens River, abruptly reversing flow westward into the caldera. It took 600,000 years of sedimentation in the 26-km-long, usually shallow, caldera lake to fill the deep basin and raise lake level to its threshold for overflow. Not until then did reestablishment of Owens River Gorge begin, by incision of the gorge-filling ignimbrite.

  6. Agricultural water and energy use in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiyandima, M. C.; Sow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of the productivity of irrigation water is important measuring the performance of irrigation schemes especially in water scarce areas. Equally important for performance is the energy cost of providing water for irrigation. Sahel irrigation schemes are dependent on pumping water from rivers into a network of gravity operated channels. In the Senegal River valley in Senegal the cost of pumping water and for irrigation has been estimated to be 20-25% of total rice production costs. Irrigation schemes in the valley are characterized by low water productivity. We analysed rice production, irrigation water use and energy use for supplying irrigation water at Pont Gendarme, Ndiawar and Ngallenka MCA irrigation schemes in the Senegal River valley. For the 2013 rainfall season the mean yield ranged between 6 and 8t ha-1. Dry season yield ranged between 1.7 and 6.8t ha-1. Energy use for irrigation in the Ndiawar irrigation scheme was 8kg MJ-1 and 6.4kg MJ-1 in the 2013 and 2014 rainfall seasons respectively. In 2014 (rainfall season) energy productivity of irrigation water was 8.5, 8.0 and 16.4 kg MJ-1 at Ngallenka MCA, Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme respectively. Dry season (2014) energy productivity at Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme was 3.4 and 11.2kg MJ-1 respectively. Productivity of irrigation water was similar for all schemes (0.37kg m-3 at Pont Gendarme, 0.42kg m-3 at Ngallenka MCA, and 0.41kg m-3 Ndiawar). Energy use for the supply of irrigation water in the rainfall season ranged from 403 to 1,002MJ ha-1. Dry season irrigation energy use was 589MJ ha-1 Pont Gendarme and 331MJ ha-1 at Ndiawar. Reducing water use in these schemes through better water management will result in lower production costs and increased margins for the farmers. The observations from 2013 - 2014 highlight the importance of using both water and energy productivity to assess performance of irrigation schemes.

  7. Histoplasmosis infections worldwide: thinking outside of the Ohio River valley

    PubMed Central

    Bahr, Nathan C; Antinori, Spinello; Wheat, L. Joseph; Sarosi, George A.

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, histoplasmosis is generally thought to occur mainly in the Ohio and Mississippi River Valleys, and the classic map of histoplasmosis distribution reflecting this is second nature to many U.S. physicians. With the advent of the HIV pandemic reports of patients with progressive disseminated histoplasmosis and AIDS came from regions of known endemicity, as well as from regions not thought to be endemic for histoplasmosis throughout the world. In addition, our expanding armamentarium of immunosuppressive medications and biologics has increased the diagnosis of histoplasmosis worldwide. While our knowledge of areas in which histoplasmosis is endemic has improved, it is still incomplete. Our contention is that physicians should consider histoplasmosis with the right constellations of symptoms in any febrile patient with immune suppression, regardless of geographic location or travel history. PMID:26279969

  8. Pleistocene-Holocene transition in the central Mississippi River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Arsdale, Roy B.; Cupples, William B.; Csontos, Ryan M.

    2014-06-01

    Within the northern Mississippi embayment the ancestral Mississippi River flowed south through the Western Lowlands and the ancestral Ohio River flowed through the Eastern Lowlands for most of the Pleistocene. Previous investigators have mapped and dated the terraces of their respective braid belts. This current research investigates the three-dimensional aspect of the Quaternary alluvium north of Memphis, Tennessee, through the interpretation of 3374 geologic well logs that are 91.4 m (300 ft) deep. The braid belts are capped by a thin silt/clay horizon (Pleistocene loess) that overlies gravelly sand, which in turn overlies sandy gravel. The base of the Pleistocene alluvium beneath the Ash Hill (27.3-24.6 ka), Melville Ridge (41.6-34.5 ka), and Dudley (63.5-50.1 ka) terraces of the Western Lowland slope southerly by 0.275 m/km and all have an average basal elevation of 38 m. Near Beedeville, Arkansas, the bases of these terraces descend 20 m across a northeast-striking down-to-the-southeast fault that coincides with the western margin of the Cambrian Reelfoot rift. The maximum depth of flow (lowest elevation of base of alluvium) occurred in the Eastern Lowlands and appears to have been the downstream continuation of the ancestral Ohio River Cache valley course in southern Illinois. In traversing from west to east in the Eastern Lowlands, the Sikeston braid belt (19.7-17.8 ka) has a basal elevation averaging 7 m, the Kennett braid belt (16.1-14.4 ka) averages 13 m, the Morehouse (12 ka) braid belt averages 24 m, and the Holocene (≤ 10 ka) Mississippi River floodplain has the highest average basal elevation at 37 m. Along this easterly traverse the base of the Quaternary alluvium rises and the age of alluvium decreases. The eastward thinning of the floodplain alluvium in the Eastern Lowlands appears to be caused by decreasing Mississippi River discharge as it transitioned from the Wisconsinan glacial maximum to the Holocene. The base of the Holocene Mississippi

  9. Debris flow occurrence and sediment persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimsley, Kyle J; Rathburn, Sara L.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Mangano, Joseph F.

    2016-01-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  10. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO.

    PubMed

    Grimsley, K J; Rathburn, S L; Friedman, J M; Mangano, J F

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  11. Debris Flow Occurrence and Sediment Persistence, Upper Colorado River Valley, CO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimsley, K. J.; Rathburn, S. L.; Friedman, J. M.; Mangano, J. F.

    2016-07-01

    Debris flow magnitudes and frequencies are compared across the Upper Colorado River valley to assess influences on debris flow occurrence and to evaluate valley geometry effects on sediment persistence. Dendrochronology, field mapping, and aerial photographic analysis are used to evaluate whether a 19th century earthen, water-conveyance ditch has altered the regime of debris flow occurrence in the Colorado River headwaters. Identifying any shifts in disturbance processes or changes in magnitudes and frequencies of occurrence is fundamental to establishing the historical range of variability (HRV) at the site. We found no substantial difference in frequency of debris flows cataloged at eleven sites of deposition between the east (8) and west (11) sides of the Colorado River valley over the last century, but four of the five largest debris flows originated on the west side of the valley in association with the earthen ditch, while the fifth is on a steep hillslope of hydrothermally altered rock on the east side. These results suggest that the ditch has altered the regime of debris flow activity in the Colorado River headwaters as compared to HRV by increasing the frequency of debris flows large enough to reach the Colorado River valley. Valley confinement is a dominant control on response to debris flows, influencing volumes of aggradation and persistence of debris flow deposits. Large, frequent debris flows, exceeding HRV, create persistent effects due to valley geometry and geomorphic setting conducive to sediment storage that are easily delineated by valley confinement ratios which are useful to land managers.

  12. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Paula, and Santa Clara River Valley, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-12-14

    Rectangular fields of the agriculturally rich Santa Clara River Valley are visible in this perspective view generated by using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image.

  13. Riparian valley oak (Quercus lobata) forest restoration on the middle Sacramento River, California

    Treesearch

    F. Thomas Griggs; Gregory H. Golet

    2002-01-01

    In 1989 The Nature Conservancy initiated a riparian horticultural restoration program on the floodplain of the middle Sacramento River, California. At nearly all restoration sites Valley oak (Quercus lobata Nee) comprised a major component of the planting design. Valley oaks are a keystone tree species of lowland floodplain habitats in California...

  14. Utilization potential evaluation of plant resources in the dry-hot valley of Jinsha River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Rong; Xu, Naizhong; Liu, Shengxiang; Ren, Tingyan

    2017-08-01

    Plant resources in the dry-hot valley of Jinsha River are endemic to a class of district. The article adopts the analytic hierarchy process method to evaluate the exploitation and utilization potential of plant resources of thirty typical plant resources on the basis of their characteristics in the dry-hot valley of Jinsha River, which provide scientific evidence for quantitative evaluation of regional plant resources, and we also suggest pathways offering protection and development.

  15. Patterns and Controls of Cross-section Morphology for the Glaciated Bow River Valley, Canadian Rockies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapuis, A.; Martin, Y.; Sjogren, D.

    2006-12-01

    Glaciers are powerful agents of erosion that can broaden and deepen valley floors, steepen valley sides and enhance local relief. The objective of this research is to analyze downvalley patterns in valley cross-section profiles in the Canadian Rocky Mountains to infer information about controls on glacial valley genesis. This study focuses on the Bow River valley, located on the east side of the Great Divide in the Canadian Rockies. The valley is mainly situated parallel to overall geologic structure, with some valley locations oriented perpendicular to structure. The last glacial advance to affect the area was late-Pleistocene. Eleven valley cross-sections along the Bow River valley were extracted from a 30m DEM for analysis. Cross- sections were analysed using different mathematical models: (i) power law; (ii) quadratic; and (iii) variable width/depth ratio. As the shape of the valley in the present day is influenced by post-glacial filling, we also defined best-fit equations that estimate the erosional form, rather than the present day valley, by fitting equations for cross-sections to data points restricted to the valley sides. Equations were thus extrapolated below the surface deposits of the valley floor to estimate the depth of valley fill. No strong downvalley trend in steepness for the valley sidewalls is visible in the data, although two groups are evident; one group for cross-sections with steep valley walls and one for those with less steep valley walls. There is a possible decreasing trend in valley width in the downvalley direction, although the signal is weak. When cross-section data were analyzed in relation to geological structure, cross-sections oriented perpendicular to structure are found to be steeper and narrower than those which are not. This finding suggests a strong preconditioning on the cross-section form by geological structure. When the best-fit equations were extrapolated below the surface deposits to estimate the depth of valley fill

  16. [Ethnic dimension to migration in the Senegal river valley].

    PubMed

    Traore, S

    1993-08-01

    Studies of the factors determining migratory patterns in the Senegal River Valley usually stress the importance of economic factors related to colonial domination. But when cultural factors and the social relations governing them are examined in a comparative study of ethnic groups, distinct population subgroups may be revealed to have differential migratory patterns. The Soninka and the Poular, two groups highly affected by migration, were chosen for an analysis of the impact of specific historical experiences on migratory behavior. A historical analysis of colonial archives and anthropological and historical monographs and the 1982-83 "Survey of Migration in the Valley of the Senegal River" provided data. The survey indicated that Soninka and Poular migratory patterns differed from each other, but that both differed from the migratory patterns of all other ethnic groups in the region. Soninka migration is international and oriented primarily toward Europe. It has recently become more intense than that of the poular. The determinants of migration in the two groups appear related more to the structure of households than to lack of educational and health facilities or even of food at the village level. Pastoral life and its associated beliefs and religious ideology appear to have been the principal determinants of precolonial movement among the Poular, while Soninka migration responded more to competition over control of manpower. Itinerant commercial activity was coupled with use of slave labor to ensure food production. But the suppression of slavery and crises of subsistence aggravated by colonial policy provoked ever more distant migration, which found a focus in the French demand for labor after World War II. Migration as an alternative does not appear to have been as significant for the Poular until more recently, when subsistence agriculture and the sale of animals were no longer sufficient to cover monetary needs. Male migration among the Soninka is a

  17. Analysis of the Cache Valley deposits in Illinois and implications regarding the late Pleistocene-Holocene development of the Ohio River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esling, Steven P.; Hughes, W. Brian; Graham, Richard C.

    1989-05-01

    The Cache Valley, a prominent physiographic feature connecting the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys across southern Illinois, at one time probably carried discharge from the ancestral Ohio River. The valley is now occupied by two small streams. Core samples from 27 boreholes in the Cache Valley and 25 on the adjoining uplands were described and analyzed in terms of clay mineralogy and texture. The Holocene surficial deposits of the Cache Valley contain predominantly silt with high percentages of expandable and kaolinite + chlorite clay minerals in the clay fraction, a characteristic of the local upland provenance. The surfcial deposits are underlain by predominantly sandy sediment containing a high percentage of illite (35%-70%) relative to the expandable and kaolinite + chlorite clay minerals, a characteristic of Ohio River outwash. Clay content of sediment at depth at the mouths of valleys tributary to the Cache Valley suggests that these deposits accumulated within quiet water impounded by sediment dams within the Cache Valley as the ancestral Ohio River aggraded during late Wisconsinan time. Physical relations between tributary deposits and main valley deposits, plus radiocarbon dates on organic material recovered from the boreholes, suggest that the Ohio River abondoned the Cache Valley after 25ka, but before 8 ka.

  18. Geology and ground water in Russian River Valley areas and in Round, Laytonville, and Little Lake Valleys, Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cardwell, G.T.

    1965-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence, availability, and quality of ground water in seven valley areas along the course of the Russian River in Sonoma and Mendocino Counties, Calif., and in three valleys in the upper drainage reach of the Eel River in Mendocino County. Except for the westward-trending lower Russian River valley, the remaining valley areas along the Russian River (Healdsburg, Alexander, Cloverdale, Sanel, Ukiah, and Potter Valleys) lie in northwest-trending structurally controlled depressions formed in marine rocks of Jurassic and Cretaceous age. The principal aquifer in all the valleys is the alluvium of Recent age, which includes highly permeable channel deposits of gravel and sand. Water for domestic, irrigation, industrial, and other uses is developed by (1) direct diversion from the Russian River and its tributaries, (2) withdrawal of ground water and river water from shallow wells near the river, and (3) withdrawals of ground water from wells in alluvial deposits at varying distances from the river. Surface water in the Russian River and most tributaries is of good chemical quality. The water is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type and contains 75,200 parts per million of dissolved solids. Ground water is also of good chemical quality throughout most of the drainage basin, but the concentration of dissolved solids (100-300 parts per million) is somewhat higher than that in the surface water. Round, Laytonville, and Little Lake Valleys are in central and northern Mendocino County in the drainage basin of the northwestward flowing Eel River. In Round Valley the alluvium of Recent age yields water of good chemical quality in large quantities. Yields are lower and the chemical quality poorer in Laytonville Valley. Ground water in Little Lake Valley is relatively undeveloped. Selected descriptions of wells, drillers' logs, chemical analyses, and hydrographs showing water-level fluctuations are included in the report. Accompanying maps show the

  19. Geoindicators for river and river-valley monitoring in the humid tropics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    Geoindicators for rivers and river valleys in the humid tropics are suggested to indicate environmental change during periods of up to a century. Geoindicators suggested for upland areas of supply are rainfall-runoff relations, rates of soil movement and slope failure, and analyses of drainage density. Data applicable to sediment storage in lowlands are rates of sediment deposition as shown by monuments, short-lived radioisotopes, and pollen. Discharges of water, sediment, and dissolved solids are basic geoindicators for large streams, especially when analyses include flood frequency, stage-discharge relations, flow duration, sediment-rating curves, and comparisons of dissolved loads to sediment loads. The utility of geoindicators in the humid tropics may be greatest if observation sites are selected with a network design to permit comparisons of sites with similar conditions of climate and drainage-basin characteristics.

  20. Iron and nutrient content of wind-erodible sediment in the ephemeral river valleys of Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dansie, A. P.; Wiggs, G. F. S.; Thomas, D. S. G.

    2017-08-01

    Research concerning the global distribution of aeolian dust sources has principally focussed on salt/clay pan and desiccated lacustrine emission areas. In southern Africa such sources are identified as Etosha Pan in northern Namibia and Makgadikgadi Pans in northern Botswana. Dust emitting from ephemeral river valleys, however, has been largely overlooked. Rivers are known nutrient transport pathways and the flooding regimes of ephemeral river valleys frequently replenish stores of fine sediment which, on drying, can become susceptible to aeolian erosion. Such airborne sediment may be nutrient rich and thus be significant for the fertilisation of marine waters once deposited. This study investigates the dust source sediments from three ephemeral river valleys in Namibia in terms of their particle size distribution and their concentrations of bioavailable N, P and Fe. We compare the nutrient content of these sediments from the ephemeral river valleys to those collected from Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans and consider their relative ocean fertilising potential. Our results show that the ephemeral river valleys contain fine grained sediment similar in physical character to Etosha and Makgadikgadi Pans yet they have up to 43 times greater concentrations of bioavailable iron and enriched N and P macronutrients that are each important for ocean fertilisation. The known dust-emitting river valleys of Namibia may therefore be contributing a greater fertilisation role in the adjacent marine system than previously considered, and not-yet investigated. Given this finding a re-assessment of the potential role of ephemeral river valleys in providing nutrient-rich sediment into the aeolian and marine systems in other dryland areas is necessary.

  1. Lithologic Heterogeneity and Variable Valley Width in the Buffalo River Watershed, AR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, S. L.; Keen-Zebert, A.

    2014-12-01

    Lithologic heterogeneity across catchments is thought to be a key control on the style of incision, whether dominated by vertical or lateral processes, but little field evidence is available to support the claims. Map and field observations from the Buffalo National River (BNR) indicate that valley width is related to variation in lithology along the length of the river. The BNR is a gravel-mantled, ingrown meandering, bedrock river that incises through a sequence of Pennsylvanian, Mississippian, and Ordovician carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks. Using GIS, valley width was measured at 250 m intervals along the entire length of the river through two sequences of limestone and sandstone reaches that represent the dominant lithologies of the catchment. Preliminary results show measurable and statistically significant differences in valley width between limestone and sandstone reaches. Where limestone strata is exposed at river level the mean width is ~ 360 m and is highly variable with a standard deviation of 227 m. The mean width in sandstone strata is ~240 m with a standard deviation of 88 m. At each transition from limestone to sandstone there is a greater than 20% decrease in valley width downstream, with no visible change in channel width at map scales. It is possible the atypical pattern in valley width in the BNR is due to variation in lithologic resistance. These results support the assumption that lithologic heterogeneity exerts control on stream valley evolution.

  2. The evolution of the Shiwanghe River valley in response to the Yellow River incision in the Hukou area, Shaanxi, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Wei-Li; Zhang, Jia-Fu; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Guo, Yu-Jie; Zhuang, Mao-Guo; Fu, Xiao; Zhou, Li-Ping

    2014-06-01

    Tributary response to mainstream incision is an important landscape evolution process. The objective of this study is to examine tributary valley evolution in response to mainstream incision. The Shiwanghe River, a tributary of the Yellow River in the Hukou area, was chosen for a case study. The terraces and knickpoints of the Shiwanghe River were investigated and correlated to those of the mainstream. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) was applied to date fluvial terraces. Longitudinal profiles of river and terraces were used to analyze valley evolution. The terrace sequence of the Shiwanghe River near their confluence is almost identical to the Yellow River terraces at the Hukou area. This suggests that terrace formations of the tributary and the mainstream are synchronous, and influenced by similar factors. But the formation age of the same tributary terrace varies from downstream to the upper reaches of the river valley. For such terraces, their formation should be controlled by knickpoint migration. A sudden drop in base-level caused by the Yellow River incision would trigger the formation of a knickpoint in the tributary. A new terrace would be formed as the knickpoint propagated upstream throughout the tributary valley. Due to the different erodibility of bedrock, a set of interbedded sandstone and shale, the major knickpoint would disassemble into a cluster of small ones during its propagation. The age of terrace formation with various valley segments depends on knickpoint migration rate and distance from the confluence. Vertical incision of the Yellow River results in knickpoint recession of its tributaries. The migration rate of knickpoints was affected by climate, lithologic variation, and, to some extent, structural control.

  3. Geological and Geothermal Investigation of the Lower Wind River Valley, Southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect

    Berri, Dulcy A.; Korosec, Michael A.

    1983-01-01

    The Wind River Valley, on the west slope of the Cascade Range, is a northwest-trending drainage that joins the Columbia River near Carson, Washington. The region has been heavily dissected by fluvial and glacial erosion. Ridges have sharp crests and deep subsidiary valleys typical of a mature topography, with a total relief of as much as 900 m. The region is vegetated by fir and hemlock, as well as dense, brushy ground-cover and undergrowth. The lower 8 km of the valley is privately owned and moderately populated. The upper reaches lies within the Gifford Pinchot National Forest, and include several campgrounds and day parks, the Carson National Fish Hatchery, and the Wind River Ranger Station and Wind River Nursery of the US Forest Service. Logging activity is light due to the rugged terrain, and consequently, most valley slopes are not accessible by vehicle. The realization that a potential for significant geothermal resources exists in the Wind River area was brought about by earlier exploration activities. Geologic mapping and interpretation was needed to facilitate further exploration of the resource by providing a knowledge of possible geologic controls on the geothermal system. This report presents the detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource.

  4. Stratigraphy of the Mississippi-Alabama shelf and the Mobile River incised-valley system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Balson, Peter S.; Flocks, James G.; Dalrymple, Robert W.; Boyd, Ron; Zaitlin, Brian A.

    1994-01-01

    The Holocene incised-valley fill (estuarine facies) underlying Mobile Buy fit well into the conceptual facies model of a microtidal wave-dominated estuary. The model does not fit as well, however, with the rapidly transgressed shelf portion of the incised valley. The down dip section does not contain a clearly identifiable (from seismic profiles) estuarine facies; the valley fill is primarily fluvial and is overlain by marine shoals. In the Mobile River incised valley, the distal portion of the valley was rapidly drowned, allowing the thin estuarine facies to be reworked. The proximal portion was drowned more slowly, leaving the estuarine facies intact. Thus, the single incised valley contains two very different types of fill.

  5. Geological and geothermal investigation of the lower Wind River valley, southwestern Washington Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect

    Berri, D.A.; Korosec, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The detailed geology of the lower Wind River valley is presented with emphasis on those factors that bear significantly on development of a geothermal resource. The lower Wind River drainage consists primarily of the Ohanapecosh Formation, an Oligocene unit that is recognized across the entire southern Washington Cascade Range. The formation is at least 300 m thick in the Wind River valley area. It consists largely of volcaniclastic sediments, with minor massive pyroclastic flows, volcanic breccias and lava flows. Low grade zeolite facies metamorphism during the Miocene led to formation of hydrothermal minerals in Ohanapecosh strata. Metamorphism probably occurred at less than 180{sup 0}C.

  6. Fishes in paleochannels of the Lower Mississippi River alluvial valley: A national treasure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.

    2016-01-01

    Fluvial geomorphology of the alluvial valley of the Lower Mississippi River reveals a fascinating history. A prominent occupant of the valley was the Ohio River, estimated to have flowed 25,000 years ago over western Tennessee and Mississippi to join the Mississippi River north of Baton Rouge, Louisiana, 750–800 km south of the present confluence. Over time, shifts in the Mississippi and Ohio rivers toward their contemporary positions have left a legacy of abandoned paleochannels supportive of unique fish assemblages. Relative to channels abandoned in the last 500 years, paleochannels exhibit harsher environmental conditions characteristic of hypereutrophic lakes and support tolerant fish assemblages. Considering their ecological, geological, and historical importance, coupled with their primordial scenery, the hundreds of paleochannels in the valley represent a national treasure. Altogether, these waterscapes are endangered by human activities and would benefit from the conservation attention afforded to our national parks and wildlife refuges.

  7. Evaluation of reforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, S.L.; Keeland, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    Only about 2.8 million ha of an estimated original 10 million ha of bottomland hardwood forests still exist in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV) of the United States. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the U.S. Forest Service, and state agencies initiated reforestation efforts in the late 1980s to improve wildlife habitat. We surveyed restorationists responsible for reforestation in the LMAV to determine the magnitude of past and future efforts and to identify major limiting factors. Over the past 10 years, 77,698 ha have been reforested by the agencies represented in our survey and an additional 89,009 ha are targeted in the next 5 years. Oaks are the most commonly planted species and bare-root seedlings are the most commonly used planting stock. Problems with seedling availability may increase the diversity of plantings in the future. Reforestation in the LMAV is based upon principles of landscape ecology; however, local problems such as herbivory, drought, and flooding often limit success. Broad-scale hydrologic restoration is needed to fully restore the structural and functional attributes of these systems, but because of drastic and widespread hydrologic alterations and socioeconomic constraints, this goal is generally not realistic. Local hydrologic restoration and creation of specific habitat features needed by some wildlife and fish species warrant attention. More extensive analyses of plantings are needed to evaluate functional success. The Wetland Reserve Program is a positive development, but policies that provide additional financial incentives to landowners for reforestation efforts should be seriously considered.

  8. Y Chromosome analysis of prehistoric human populations in the West Liao River Valley, Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The West Liao River valley in Northeast China is an ecologically diverse region, populated in prehistory by human populations with a wide range of cultures and modes of subsistence. To help understand the human evolutionary history of this region, we performed Y chromosome analyses on ancient human remains from archaeological sites ranging in age from 6500 to 2700 BP. Results 47 of the 70 individuals provided reproducible results. They were assigned into five different Y sub-haplogroups using diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms, namely N1 (xN1a, N1c), N1c, C/C3e, O3a (O3a3) and O3a3c. We also used 17 Y short tandem repeat loci in the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome. There appears to be significant genetic differences between populations of the West Liao River valley and adjacent cultural complexes in the prehistoric period, and these prehistoric populations were shown to carry similar haplotypes as present-day Northeast Asians, but at markedly different frequencies. Conclusion Our results suggest that the prehistoric cultural transitions were associated with immigration from the Yellow River valley and the northern steppe into the West Liao River valley. They reveal the temporal continuity of Y chromosome lineages in populations of the West Liao River valley over 5000 years, with a concurrent increase in lineage diversity caused by an influx of immigrants from other populations. PMID:24079706

  9. 27 CFR 9.66 - Russian River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Creek Road, to its intersection with Franz Valley Road, a light-duty road to the north of Porter Creek... along Franz Vally Road to the northerly most crossing of Franz Creek. (24) Proceed west along Franz...) Proceed west in a straight line from hill top 447′ elv. to the point where Alexander Valley Road...

  10. Using a novel flood prediction model and GIS automation to measure the valley and channel morphology of large river networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional methods for measuring river valley and channel morphology require intensive ground-based surveys which are often expensive, time consuming, and logistically difficult to implement. The number of surveys required to assess the hydrogeomorphic structure of large river n...

  11. Using a novel flood prediction model and GIS automation to measure the valley and channel morphology of large river networks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional methods for measuring river valley and channel morphology require intensive ground-based surveys which are often expensive, time consuming, and logistically difficult to implement. The number of surveys required to assess the hydrogeomorphic structure of large river n...

  12. Aeolian Processes and Landforms in River Valleys of Central Russian Plain in MIS 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlakhova, Ekaterina

    2015-04-01

    Late Pleistocene terraces in river valleys of Central Russian Plain were subject to aeolian reworking after the alluvial sedimentation had finished. Severe natural conditions of LGM (cold and dry climate, scarce vegetation) contributed activation of aeolian processes. Ground water lowering because of deep pre-LGM incision of rivers made deep aeolian reworking possible at low hypsometric levels of valley bottom. We studied lithological structure of terraces in river valleys of Central Russian Plain. The key sites were located in Seim (the middle Dnieper catchment) and Khoper (the middle Don catchment) river valleys. Field data was combined with quartz grains morphoscopy technique (study of texture of sediment particles using scanning electron microscope). Wide participation of aeolian sediments in terrace deposits was detected. During this study a new technique of the distinguishing of short-term aeolian reworking of alluvial deposits using quartz grains morphoscopy technique was developed. The main problem of interpretation the results of quartz grains morphoscopy is that aeolian signals are sometimes not clear due to short duration of wind action over alluvial sands. However, detailed studies of the quartz grains surfaces under scanning electron microscope helped to solve this problem. We used scanning electron microscope JEOL JSM-661 LV and worked with magnification from ×160 to ×400 for whole grains and up to ×1800 for some parts of grains. Deep aeolian reworking of Late Pleistocene terrace alluvium in river valleys of Central Russian Plain during LGM led to the formation of aeolian covers on the terrace surfaces. Also there are many relict dunes on Late Pleistocene river terrace surfaces. Sometimes the development of aeolian processes could led to more significant changes in the shape of the valley and formation of aeolian aprons. The thickness of aeolian covers can reach 3-5 m or more. Due to this reason morphology and topography of river terraces could

  13. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  14. Thickness of the Mississippi River Valley confining unit, eastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonthier, Gerard; Mahon, Gary L.

    1993-01-01

    Concern arose in the late 1980s over the vulnerability of the Mississippi Valley alluvial aquifer to contamination from potential surface sources related to pesticide or fertilizer use, industrial activity, landfills, or livestock operations. In 1990 a study was begun to locate areas in Arkansas where the groundwater flow system is susceptible to contamination by surface contaminants. As a part of that effort, the thickness of the clay confining unit overlying the alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas was mapped. The study area included all or parts of 27 counties in eastern Arkansas that are underlain by the alluvial aquifer and its overlying confining unit. A database of well attributes was compiled based on data from driller's logs and from published data and stored in computer files. A confining-unit thickness map was created from the driller's-log database using geographic information systems technology. A computer program was then used to contour the data. Where the confining unit is present, it ranges in thickness from 0 feet in many locations in the study area to 140 feet in northeastern Greene County and can vary substantially over short distances. Although general trends in the thickness of the confining unit are apparent, the thickness has great spatial variability. An apparent relation exists between thickness of the confining unit and spatial variability in thickness. In areas where the thickness of the confining unit is 40 feet or less, such as in Clay, eastern Craighead, northwestern Mississippi, and Woodruff Counties, thickness of the unit tends robe more uniform than in areas where the thickness of the unit generally exceeds 40 feet, such as in Arkansas, Lonoke, and Prairie Counties. At some sites the confining unit is very thick compared to its thickness in the immediate surrounding area. Locations of abandoned Mississippi River meander channels generally coincide with location of locally thick confining unit. Deposition of the confining unit onto

  15. Long-term measurements of agronomic crop irrigation in the Mississippi Delta portion of the Lower Mississippi River Valley

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With over 4 million ha irrigated cropland, the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMRV) is a highly productive agricultural region where irrigation practices are similar and the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer (MRVA) is a primary source of on-demand irrigation. Owing to agricultural exports, ...

  16. Types of river valleys as a criterion for estimation of the territory geodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opekunova, Marina; Vyrkin, Vladimir

    2015-04-01

    The Oka plateau occupies an intermediate position between large morphostructures of Southern Siberia. It is a unique object, where the features of relief development of the contiguous areas were reflected. The structure of the plateau also includes the Ilchir-Kitoi depression, located in the southeast, and the Oka depression, which lies in the north-west. The river network is characterized by deeply incised valleys, the relief of which bears traces of glacial activity, manifestations of Cenozoic volcanism, and active neotectonic movements. These factors also determine a wide variability in distribution of the types of river valleys: from the valleys with the hilly-moraine topography to the broad-floodplain sections of valleys with an instrativ floodplain-terrace complex and incised type of channel when the river crosses basalt fields. Thus, the antecedent Oka river valley of ancient formation was actively affected by volcanism and glaciation in Late Cenozoic. Lava flows enabled the formation of the incised and adapted types of channels within the south-western part of the Oka depression. Large areas of distribution of basalts on the left-bank part of the Oka river basin, occupying mainly the watershed positions, contributed to the formation of a certain type of longitudinal profiles of channels, characterized by a shallow form in the upper reaches (in the field of basalts development) and by a steep form in the middle and lower sections of the valleys. The distribution of fluvioglacial landforms and moraine ridges descending into the Oka valley along the tributaries (Sentsa, Gargan and others), and the presence of facies transitions from fluvioglacial and glacial to alluvial deposits determine the specific type of river valleys, developed under the conditions of the glacial relief formation. Due to the uplift of the Kropotkin range, the river erosion within the plateau is relatively slowed down in comparison with the surrounding mountains, which is reflected in the

  17. Geomorphological record of transformations of upland river valley bottoms at variable rate of gully erosion (case study: Wieprz River valley in Roztocze)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kociuba, Waldemar

    2014-06-01

    In the upland geosystems of the moderate climate zone, any change in the conditions of functioning of a catchment causes a response of the system involving variable dynamics of fluvial processes (Gregory, Walling 1973; Schumm 1977, 1981; Kostrzewski, Szpikowski 2003; Świeca, Kociuba 2007). In the conditions of low anthropopressure, the direction and intensity of the processes modelling the valley bottom are determined by environmental factors, i.e. the geology and lithology of sediments, and land relief, and climate-driven factors, i.e. precipitation and groundwater supply determining water and sediment discharge rate (Froehlich 1982; Kostrzewski et al. 1994; Krzemień 1999; Dearing, Jones 2003, Meybeck et al. 2003; Kociuba et al. 2003; Świeca, Kociuba 2007; Rodzik et al. 2008). In the conditions of strong anthropopressure, the processes of transformation of the valley bottom can be largely accelerated due to disturbances in the stability of the catchment’s environmental conditions. Their geomorphological ef fects are manifested in changes in the channel shape (in the plan and cross profile), and in the modelling of the zone outside the channel, as a result of both flood and delluvial sediment deposition, particularly in the mouth zones of dry valleys and erosional dissections (Bork 1989; Rodzik et al. 2008; Brown 2009). Transformations of valley landforms resulting from changes in natural conditions and anthropopressure on the valley system can be traced based on the example of the meridional part of the Roztocze section of the Wieprz River valley (Fig. 1) - a typical medium-sized upland river of the moderate climate zone (Rodzik et al. 2008). The modern relief of the alluvial plain of the Roztocze fragment of the Wieprz River valley results from complex morphogenetic processes (Kociuba, Brzezińska-Wójcik 2002; Kociuba, Superson 2004). The primary morphostructural features developed with the contribution of tectonic movements in the Neogene and Early

  18. Asymmetrical Changes in Hydraulic Gradient Along Valley and River Transects During Meander Cutoff Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Endreny, T.

    2009-05-01

    This work is motivated by the uncertainty about the presence and rate of steepening in river and valley hydraulic gradients bounding meander bends during meander cutoff, and how these gradients may affect river restoration designs. Our science question is whether the river and valley hydraulic gradients are equal and unchanging during meander cutoff. Laboratory investigations are underway prior to field experiments and model simulations. The laboratory physical model is a 2.1m x 0.9m EmRiver Process Simulator, running approximately 20 minutes per simulation, using particulate matter with a specific gravity of 1.6, a flow rate of 45ml/s, an initial river cross-section averaging 24cm2, and a range of radius of curvature from 15cm to 18cm. We calculated gradient using river water surface and valley watertable measurements, and their separation along a fixed orientation parallel to the valley slope, not along the thalweg. Measurements were taken with auto level, rod, and tape, and orthoimagery was captured to refine estimates of channel geometry. The ERDAS Leica Photogrammetry Suite processes digital images to generate digital elevation models (DEM) of the system. Initial results have confirmed a steepening of the river hydraulic gradient, from 4% to 5.5% for initial radius of curvature of 15cm, and from 7.7% to 10.9% for curvature of 18cm. The valley watertable gradient has a slight reduction or flattening of about 0.4%. Changes in channel geometry during cutoff include adjustments to cross-sectional area and increasing meander wavelength and sinuosity.

  19. Short-lived vegetational and environmental change during the Preboreal in the Biebrza Upper Basin (NE Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Klerk, Pim; Couwenberg, John; Joosten, Hans

    2007-08-01

    A pollen diagram from the upper Biebrza basin (NE Poland) shows a conspicuous pollen fluctuation around 9650 BP, which is superimposed on a broader pollen fluctuation correlated with a more open vegetation phase during the Preboreal generally found in Europe. High-resolution pollen analyses indicate a duration of only a few years in which Pinus forests became more open. The resulting niches were partly occupied by Betula trees and partly by Betula shrubs, Artemisia, and Chenopodiaceae. Shortly before the increased opening of the upland vegetation, reed vegetation developed in the valley, in which Sparganium and later Typha became prominent. At the end of the short fluctuation, this reed vegetation diminished. The wetland vegetation development might be partly related to hydrological changes caused by a reduced evapotranspiration of the opened upland forest. The data presented here show that the open vegetation phase of the Preboreal was not of uniform character, but that within its short time span of ca 150 years an even shorter fluctuation of a few years to a few decades occurred. It is unknown whether this is a regionally restricted phenomenon or whether it has an extra-regional character.

  20. Quality of the Arkansas River and irrigation-return flows in the lower Arkansas River Valley, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cain, Doug

    1985-01-01

    Irrigation-return flows in the lower Arkansas River valley of Colorado were investigated using one-time data at 59 sites, monthly data at 4 sites, and intensive data in a small irrigated area. Specific conductance of return flows increased downstream, paralleling specific conductance of irrigation water. During July 1977, Arkansas River streamflow below Manzanola was mostly irrigation-return flow. A similar situation existed during periods of little precipitation in the early and late irrigation seasons during 1974 to 1978. Irrigation-return flows had a large effect on Arkansas River water quality during these times. (USGS)

  1. Effects of hydrologic infrastructure on flow regimes of California's Central Valley rivers: Implications for fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; Bauer, Marissa L.

    2010-01-01

    Alteration of natural flow regimes is generally acknowledged to have negative effects on native biota; however, methods for defining ecologically appropriate flow regimes in managed river systems are only beginning to be developed. Understanding how past and present water management has affected rivers is an important part of developing such tools. In this paper, we evaluate how existing hydrologic infrastructure and management affect streamflow characteristics of rivers in the Central Valley, California and discuss those characteristics in the context of habitat requirements of native and alien fishes. We evaluated the effects of water management by comparing observed discharges with estimated discharges assuming no water management ("full natural runoff"). Rivers in the Sacramento River drainage were characterized by reduced winter–spring discharges and augmented discharges in other months. Rivers in the San Joaquin River drainage were characterized by reduced discharges in all months but particularly in winter and spring. Two largely unaltered streams had hydrographs similar to those based on full natural runoff of the regulated rivers. The reduced discharges in the San Joaquin River drainage streams are favourable for spawning of many alien species, which is consistent with observed patterns of fish distribution and abundance in the Central Valley. However, other factors, such as water temperature, are also important to the relative success of native and alien resident fishes. As water management changes in response to climate change and societal demands, interdisciplinary programs of research and monitoring will be essential for anticipating effects on fishes and to avoid unanticipated ecological outcomes.

  2. Stochastic analysis of particle trajectories through river valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malmon, D. V.; Dunne, T.; Reneau, S. L.

    2008-12-01

    The movement of sediment through fluvial systems includes short episodes of transport separated by long periods of particle storage in fluvial sediment storage reservoirs such as floodplains. The trajectory of a particle through a valley floor containing sediment storage reservoirs can be modeled as a random process, consisting of a series of mobilization, transport, and deposition events. The probabilities of these events are determined by the rates of sediment transport and exchange in the valley floor, and by the masses of well- mixed storage reservoirs (i.e., the sediment budget). We developed and formalized a probabilistic theory of particle trajectories through alluvial valley floors by casting the movement of a particle as a finite Markov chain, a stochastic process in which the movement from one state to the next is determined by the transition probabilities among storage states. Transition probabilities for a valley floor in steady state with respect to sediment storage can be directly computed from the sediment budget using a simple set of equations. The transition probability matrix can be used to compute probability distributions of sediment residence times within valley floor storage elements, and to predict the fate of sediment-bound constituents such as pollutants, nutrients, and tracers. The theory was tested by modeling the redistribution and radioactive decay of particle-bound 137Cs in a small alluvial valley downstream of Los Alamos, New Mexico, and comparing the modeled distribution in 1997 with an independent map of 137Cs storage in that year. The study area is a sand-dominated valley with an ephemeral channel and a narrow floodplain, which is approximately in steady-state with respect to sediment storage over several decades. The results show that this approach can be used to route particle-bound tracers through alluvial valleys with temporary sediment storage reservoirs, analyze the impacts of upstream mitigation on downstream sediment and

  3. Quaternary Geochronology, Paleontology, and Archaeology of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, E. P.

    2013-12-01

    This poster presents the results of multi-disciplinary investigations of the preservation and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing strata in the San Pedro River Valley in Sonora, Mexico. Geologic deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in southern Arizona contain one of the best late Cenozoic fossil records known in North America and the best record of early humans and extinct mammals on the continent. The basin in the U.S. is one of the type locations for the Blancan Land Mammal Age. Hemiphilian and Irvingtonian fossils are common. Rancholabrean remains are widespread. Strata in the valley adjacent to the international border with Mexico have yielded the densest concentration of archaeological mammoth-kill sites known in the western hemisphere. Despite more than 60 years of research in the U.S., however, and the fact that over one third of the San Pedro River lies south of the international boundary, little has been known about the late Cenozoic geology of the valley in Mexico. The study reported here utilized extensive field survey, archaeological documentation, paleontological excavations, stratigraphic mapping and alluvial geochronology to determine the nature and extent of Quaternary fossil-bearing deposits in the portions of the San Pedro Valley in Sonora, Mexico. The results demonstrate that the Plio-Pleistocene fossil -bearing formations known from the valley in Arizona extend into the uppermost reaches of the valley in Mexico. Several new fossil sites were discovered that yielded the remains of Camelids, Equus, Mammuthus, and other Proboscidean species. Late Pleistocene archaeological remains were found on the surface of the surrounding uplands. AMS radiocarbon dating demonstrates the widespread preservation of middle- to late- Holocene deposits. However, the late Pleistocene deposits that contain the archaeological mammoth-kill sites in Arizona are absent in the valley in Mexico, and are now known to be restricted to relatively small portions of

  4. Overbank Sedimentation in the Delaware River Valley during the Last 6000 Years.

    PubMed

    Ritter, D F; Kinsey, W F; Kauffman, M E

    1973-01-26

    A thick sequence of floodplain sediments has accumulated in the Delaware River Valley by the process of overbank deposition. Textures in the sediments indicate that the sequence contains no point-bar deposits and is unbroken by periods of erosion. Fourteen radiocarbon dates show that deposition began at least 6000 years ago and has continued to the present. Because the Delaware River shifts its position laterally at a very slow rate, overbank deposition becomes dominant in the construction of its floodplain.

  5. Holocene climatic events recorded in palaeoflood slackwater deposits along the middle Yiluohe River valley, middle Yellow River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xueru; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Guo, Yongqiang; Hu, Guiming

    2016-06-01

    Palaeohydrological investigations were carried out in the middle reaches of the Yiluohe River, a major tributary in the lower-middle Yellow River basin. Typical palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs) were identified in the Holocene pedostratigraphy on the cliffy river banks. Analytical results, including magnetic susceptibility and grain-size distribution data, indicated that these SWDs were deposited from the suspended sediment load in flood water. These SWDs are different from eolian loess, soils and aeolian sands in the riverbank profile. They recorded several episodes of extraordinary palaeoflood events. In the Longmenxia reaches of the Yihe River valley, these flood events were dated at 3100-3000 a, 1800-1700 a, 770-610 a, and 420-340 a using the optically stimulated luminescence method in combination with the pedostratigraphic correlations. In the Longhutan reaches of the Luohe River valley, the palaeoflood events were dated at 1975-1466 a, i.e., from the Han to Wei dynasties (AD 25-534), during which the capital city on the river banks was flooded many times, as recorded in the literature. These extraordinary flood events are well correlated chronologically with the known Holocene climatic events that occurred in the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, the monsoonal climate was highly variable with both floods and droughts occurring frequently during these episodes. These results are important for understanding the response of river systems in eastern Asia to global changes.

  6. The Use of Radar to Improve Rainfall Estimation over the Tennessee and San Joaquin River Valleys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Felix, Mariana; Carey, Lawrence D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation provides an overview of the collaborative radar rainfall project between the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), the Von Braun Center for Science & Innovation (VCSI), NASA MSFC and UAHuntsville. Two systems were used in this project, Advanced Radar for Meteorological & Operational Research (ARMOR) Rainfall Estimation Processing System (AREPS), a demonstration project of real-time radar rainfall using a research radar and NEXRAD Rainfall Estimation Processing System (NREPS). The objectives, methodology, some results and validation, operational experience and lessons learned are reviewed. The presentation. Another project that is using radar to improve rainfall estimations is in California, specifically the San Joaquin River Valley. This is part of a overall project to develop a integrated tool to assist water management within the San Joaquin River Valley. This involves integrating several components: (1) Radar precipitation estimates, (2) Distributed hydro model, (3) Snowfall measurements and Surface temperature / moisture measurements. NREPS was selected to provide precipitation component.

  7. Paper birch: Sentinels of climate change in the Niobrara River valley, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, E.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in the northern Great Plains supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. Localized summer microclimates have likely facilitated the persistence of birch populations in a region otherwise unsuitable for the species. Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. Changes in spring weather patterns may be causing rootlet injury so that trees die in spite of the still-cool summer microclimates. Current weather patterns, combined with little evidence of recruitment of young birch and great geographic distances from potential immigrant sources, make the future persistence of birch in the Niobrara River Valley stands uncertain.

  8. Paper birch: Sentinels of climate change in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, Esther D.

    2011-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in the northern Great Plains supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation. Localized summer microclimates have likely facilitated the persistence of birch populations in a region otherwise unsuitable for the species. Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. Changes in spring weather patterns may be causing rootlet injury so that trees die in spite of the still-cool summer microclimates. Current weather patterns, combined with little evidence of recruitment of young birch and great geographic distances from potential immigrant sources, make the future persistence of birch in the Niobrara River Valley stands uncertain.

  9. Principal facts for gravity stations in the Clearwater and Blackfoot River valleys, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Dolores M.

    1978-01-01

    A gravity survey was made in the Clearwater and Blackfoot River valleys to provide information on structural relationships and subsurface geology as part of the Big Fork-Avon environmental and land-use project undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey and Missoula and Powell Counties, Montana.

  10. Using destination image to predict visitors' intention to revisit three Hudson River Valley, New York, communities

    Treesearch

    Rudy M. Schuster; Laura Sullivan; Duarte Morais; Diane Kuehn

    2009-01-01

    This analysis explores the differences in Affective and Cognitive Destination Image among three Hudson River Valley (New York) tourism communities. Multiple regressions were used with six dimensions of visitors' images to predict future intention to revisit. Two of the three regression models were significant. The only significantly contributing independent...

  11. The diatraea complex (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Colombia’s Cauca River Valley: identity, distribution, and parasitoids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sugarcane stem borers Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius) and D. indigenella Dyar & Heinrich are common pests of sugarcane crops in Colombia’s Cauca river valley (CRV). In 2012, however, D. tabernella Dyar was recorded for the first time in northern CRV and just one year later D. busckella Dyar & H...

  12. Seedling Quality Standards for Bottomland Hardwood Afforestation in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley: Preliminary Results

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Emile S. Gardiner; K. Francis Salifu; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez; M. Elizabeth Corbin; Kevyn E. Wightman; Marcus F. Selig

    2005-01-01

    Afforestation of bottomland hardwood species has increased in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMRAV) in recent years. Rising demand for hardwood nursery stock and poor performance of some planted seedlings has created concern regarding the quality of seedlings currently available for afforestation in the LMRAV. Furthermore, no definitive guidelines for...

  13. First record of Diatraea tabernella in the Cauca River Valley of Colombia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Diatraea tabernella (Dyar) is first recorded in the Cauca River Valley of Colombia. Even though information on its status has been unknown for almost a century in Colombia, its recent register creates concern about its potential economic importance in virtue of its abundance and distribution in the ...

  14. Estimation of carbon storage and carbon density of forest vegetation in Ili River Valley, Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    jing, Guo; renping, Zhang; ranghui, Wang; aimaiti, Yusupujiang; tuerdi, Asiyemu; dongya, Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Study on the forest carbon storage, carbon density and spatial distribution characteristic are helpful for improving the accuracy of carbon estimation and providing the practical basis for better policy making. In this research, the compiled data of 'Xinjiang Forest Resources Survey Results' in 2011 was used as a source data, by using the biomass-volume regression model and average biomass method, the carbon storage, carbon density and spatial distribution of forest resources in Ili River Valley region were analyzed. Results show that, the total biomass, carbon storage and average carbon density in Ili River valley were 69.647Tg, 34.823Tg and 41.45Mg/hm2 C respectively. From the aspect of spatial distribution, the northwest region of Ili River Valley has high carbon storage and the southeast region has low carbon storage. The southwest region has low carbon density and the northeast region has high carbon density. The value of forest Carbon storage from high to low was: Arbor > Shrub > Sparse forest > Odd tree > Economic forest > Scattered trees. Mature arbor forest plays an important role in maintaining the balance of carbon dioxide and oxygen in Ili River Valley region.

  15. Historical trajectories and restoration strategies for the Mississippi River alluvial valley

    Treesearch

    Brice B. Hanberry; John M. Kabrick; Hong S. He; Brian J. Palik

    2012-01-01

    Unlike upland forests in the eastern United States, little research is available about the composition and structure of bottomland forests before Euro-American settlement. To provide a historical reference encompassing spatial variation for the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, we quantified forest types, species distributions, densities, and stocking of...

  16. Accounting System for Water Use by Vegetation in the Lower Colorado River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen-Joyce, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    The Colorado River is the principal source of water in the valley of the Colorado River between Hoover Dam and the international boundary with Mexico (fig. 1). Agricultural, domestic, municipal, industrial, hydroelectric-power genera-tion, and recreation are the primary uses of river water in the valley. Most of the consumptive use of water from the river occurs downstream from Davis Dam, where water is diverted to irrigate crops along the river or is exported to interior regions of California and Arizona. Most of the agricultural areas are on the alluvium of the flood plain; in a few areas, land on the alluvial terraces has been cultivated. River water is consumed mainly by vegetation (crops and phreatophytes) on the flood plain. Crops were grown on 70.3 percent of the vegetated area classified by using 1984 digital image satellite data. Phreatophytes, natural vege-tation that obtain water from the alluvial aquifer, covered the remaining vegetated areas on the uncultivated flood plain. Most of the water used for irrigation is diverted or pumped from the river. In some areas, water is pumped from wells completed in the alluvial aquifer, which is hydraulically connected to the river.

  17. Hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.; Adkins, Candice B.

    2012-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Hailey, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system, which consists primarily of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on groundwater for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the groundwater resource. As part of an ongoing U.S. Geological Survey effort to characterize the groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, this report describes the hydrogeologic framework of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. Although most of the Wood River Valley aquifer system is composed of Quaternary-age sediments and basalts of the Wood River Valley and its tributaries, older igneous, sedimentary, or metamorphic rocks that underlie these Quaternary deposits also are used for water supply. It is unclear to what extent these rocks are hydraulically connected to the main part of Wood River Valley aquifer system and thus whether they constitute separate aquifers. Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in and near the study area that produce water to wells and springs are the Phi Kappa and Trail Creek Formations (Ordovician and Silurian), the Milligen Formation (Devonian), and the Sun Valley Group including the Wood River Formation (Pennsylvanian-Permian) and the Dollarhide Formation (Permian). These sedimentary rocks are intruded by granitic rocks of the Late Cretaceous Idaho batholith. Eocene Challis Volcanic Group rocks overlie all of the older rocks (except where removed by erosion). Miocene Idavada Volcanics are found in the southern part of the study area. Most of these rocks have been folded, faulted, and

  18. MX Siting Investigation. Gravity Survey - Southern White River Valley, Nevada.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-22

    included gravity surveys in ten valleys in Arizona (five), Nevada (two), New Mexico (two), and California (one). The gravity data were obtained for...Verification Sites, Nevada-Utah Siting Region, FN-TR-36. , 1980, Active Faults and Eartquake Hazards in the FY 79 Verification sites, Nevada-Utah Siting

  19. Hydrogeology of the western part of the Salt River Valley area, Maricopa County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, James G.; Pool, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Salt River Valley is a major population and agricultural center of more than 3,000 mi2 in central Arizona (fig. 1). The western part of the Salt River Valley area (area of this report) covers about 1,500 mi2. The Phoenix metropolitan area with a population of more than 1.6 million in 1985 (Valley National Bank, 1987) is located within the valley. The watersheds of the Salt, Verde, and Agua Fria Rivers provide the valley with a reliable but limited surface-water supply that must be augmented with ground water even in years of plentiful rainfall. Large-scale ground-water withdrawals began in the Salt River Valley in the early part of the 20th century; between 1915 and 1983, the total estimated ground-water pumpage was 81 million acre-ft (U.S. Geological Survey, 1984). Because of the low average annual rainfall and high potential evapotranspiration, the principal sources of ground-water recharge are urban runoff, excess irrigation, canal seepage and surface-water flows during years of higher-than-normal rainfall. Withdrawals greatly exceed recharge and, in some area, ground-water levels have declines as much as 350 ft (Laney and other, 1978; Ross, 1978). In the study area, ground-water declines of more than 300 ft have occurred in Deer Valley and from Luke Air Force Base north to Beardsley. As a result, a large depression of the water table has developed west of Luke Air Force Base (fig. 2). Ground-water use has decreased in recent years because precipitation and surface-water supplies have been greater than normal. Increased precipitation also caused large quantities of runoff to be released into the normally dry Salt and Gila River channels. From February 1978 to June 1980, streamflow losses of at least 90,000 acre-ft occurred between Jointhead Dam near the east boundary of the study area and Gillespie Dam several miles southwest of the west edge of the study area (Mann and Rhone, 1983). Consequently, ground-water declines in a large part of the basin have

  20. Infilling and flooding of the Mekong River incised valley during deglacial sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjallingii, Rik; Stattegger, Karl; Wetzel, Andreas; Van Phach, Phung

    2010-06-01

    The abrupt transition from fluvial to marine deposition of incised-valley-fill sediments retrieved from the southeast Vietnamese shelf, accurately records the postglacial transgression after 14 ka before present (BP). Valley-filling sediments consist of fluvial mud, whereas sedimentation after the transgression is characterized by shallow-marine carbonate sands. This change in sediment composition is accurately marked in high-resolution X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning records. Rapid aggradation of fluvial sediments at the river mouth nearly completely filled the Mekong incised valley prior to flooding. However, accumulation rates strongly reduced in the valley after the river-mouth system flooded and stepped back. This also affected the sediment supply to deeper parts of the southeast Vietnamese shelf. Comparison of the Mekong valley-filling with the East Asian sea-level history of sub- and inter-tidal sediment records shows that the transgressive surface preserved in the incised-valley-fill records is a robust sea-level indicator. The valley was nearly completely filled with fluvial sediments between 13.0 and 9.5 ka BP when sea-level rose rather constantly with approximately 10 mm/yr, as indicated by the East Asian sea-level record. At shallower parts of the shelf, significant sediment reworking and the establishment of estuarine conditions at the final stage of infilling complicates accurate dating of the transgressive surface. Nevertheless, incised-valley-fill records and land-based drill sites indicate a vast and rapid flooding of the shelf from the location of the modern Vietnamese coastline to the Cambodian lowlands between 9.5 ka and 8.5 ka BP. Fast flooding of this part of the shelf is related with the low shelf gradient and a strong acceleration of the East Asian sea-level rise from 34 to 9 meter below modern sea level (mbsl) corresponding to the sea-level jump of melt water pulse (MWP) 1C.

  1. Polyfluoroalkyl substance exposure in the Mid-Ohio River Valley, 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Robert L; Buckholz, Jeanette; Biro, Frank M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Xie, Changchun; Pinney, Susan M

    2017-09-01

    Industrial discharges of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Ohio River, contaminating water systems near Parkersburg, WV, were previously associated with nearby residents' serum PFOA concentrations above US general population medians. Ohio River PFOA concentrations downstream are elevated, suggesting Mid-Ohio River Valley residents are exposed through drinking water. Quantify PFOA and 10 other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in Mid-Ohio River Valley resident sera collected between 1991 and 2013 and determine whether the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer are exposure sources. We measured eleven PFAS in 1608 sera from 931 participants. Serum PFOA concentration and water source associations were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. We estimated between-sample serum PFOA using one-compartment pharmacokinetics for participants with multiple samples. In serum samples collected as early as 1991, PFOA (median = 7.6 ng/mL) was detected in 99.9% of sera; 47% had concentrations greater than US population 95th percentiles. Five other PFAS were detected in greater than 82% of samples; median other PFAS concentrations were similar to the US general population. Serum PFOA was significantly associated with water source, sampling year, age at sampling, tap water consumption, pregnancy, gravidity and breastfeeding. Serum PFOA was 40-60% lower with granular activated carbon (GAC) use. Repeated measurements and pharmacokinetics suggest serum PFOA peaked 2000-2006 for participants using water without GAC treatment; where GAC was used, serum PFOA concentrations decreased from 1991 to 2012. Mid-Ohio River Valley residents appear to have PFOA, but not other PFAS, serum concentrations above US population levels. Drinking water from the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer, primarily contaminated by industrial discharges 209-666 km upstream, is likely the primary exposure source. GAC treatment of drinking water mitigates, but does not eliminate, PFOA exposure. Copyright

  2. Land Capability Potential Index (LCPI) and geodatabase for the Lower Missouri River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    The Land Capacity Potential Index (LCPI) is a coarse-scale index intended to delineate broad land-capability classes in the Lower Missouri River valley bottom from the Gavins Point Dam near Yankton, South Dakota to the mouth of the Missouri River near St. Louis, Missouri (river miles 811–0). The LCPI provides a systematic index of wetness potential and soil moisture-retention potential of the valley-bottom lands by combining the interactions among water-surface elevations, land-surface elevations, and the inherent moisture-retention capability of soils. A nine-class wetness index was generated by intersecting a digital elevation model for the valley bottom with sloping water-surface elevation planes derived from eight modeled discharges. The flow-recurrence index was then intersected with eight soil-drainage classes assigned to soils units in the digital Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) Database (Soil Survey Staff, 2010) to create a 72-class index of potential flow-recurrence and moisture-retention capability of Missouri River valley-bottom lands. The LCPI integrates the fundamental abiotic factors that determine long-term suitability of land for various uses, particularly those relating to vegetative communities and their associated values. Therefore, the LCPI provides a mechanism allowing planners, land managers, landowners, and other stakeholders to assess land-use capability based on the physical properties of the land, in order to guide future land-management decisions. This report documents data compilation for the LCPI in a revised and expanded, 72-class version for the Lower Missouri River valley bottom, and inclusion of additional soil attributes to allow users flexibility in exploring land capabilities.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi associations of vascular plants confined to river valleys: towards understanding the river corridor plant distribution.

    PubMed

    Nobis, Agnieszka; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Zubek, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    The group of river corridor plants (RCP) includes vascular plant species which grow mainly or exclusively in the valleys of large rivers. Despite the long recognized fact that some plant species display a corridor-like distribution pattern in Central Europe, there is still no exhaustive explanation of the mechanisms generating this peculiar distribution. The main goal of this study was therefore to investigate whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and fungal root endophytes influence the RCP distribution. Arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM) were observed in 19 out of 33 studied RCP. Dark septate endophytes (DSE) and Olpidium spp. were recorded with low abundance in 15 and 10 plant species, respectively. The spores of AMF were found only in 32% of trap cultures established from the soils collected in the river corridor habitats. In total, six widespread AMF species were identified. Because the percentage of non-mycorrhizal species in the group of RCP is significant and the sites in river corridors are characterized by low AMF species diversity, RCP can be outcompeted outside river valleys by the widespread species that are able to benefit from AM associations in more stable plant-AMF communities in non-river habitats.

  4. Characteristics of a Recent and Prehistoric Landslides in the Pine River Valley, BC: a Mapping Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heijenk, R.; Geertsema, M.; Miller, B.; de Jong, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Spreads and other low gradient landslides are common in glacial lake sediments in north eastern British Columbia. Both pre and post glacial lake sediments, largely derived from shale bedrock are susceptible to low-gradient landslides. Bank erosion by rivers and streams and high pore pressures, have contributed to the landslides. We used LiDAR for mapping the extent of the glaciolacustrine sediments and map and characterise landslides in the Pine River valley, near Chetwynd, British Columbia. We included metrics such as travel angle, length, area, and elevation to distinguish rotational and translational landslides. We mapped 45 landslides in the Pine River valley distinguishing between rotational and translational landslides. The rotational landslides commonly have a smaller area and smaller travel length than translational landslides. Most rotational slides involved overlying alluvial fans, while most translational slides involved terraces.

  5. Estimation of salt loads for the Dolores River in the Paradox Valley, Colorado, 1980–2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa

    2017-07-13

    Regression models that relate total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations to specific conductance were used to estimate salt loads for two sites on the Dolores River in the Paradox Valley in western Colorado. The salt-load estimates will be used by the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate salt loading to the river coming from the Paradox Valley and the effect of the Paradox Valley Unit (PVU), a project designed to reduce the salinity of the Colorado River. A second-order polynomial provided the best fit of the discrete data for both sites on the river. The largest bias occurred in samples with elevated sulfate concentrations (greater than 500 milligrams per liter), which were associated with short-duration runoff events in late summer and fall. Comparison of regression models from a period of time before operation began at the PVU and three periods after operation began suggests the relation between TDS and specific conductance has not changed over time. Net salt gain through the Paradox Valley was estimated as the TDS load at the downstream site minus the load at the upstream site. The mean annual salt gain was 137,900 tons per year prior to operation of the PVU (1980–1993) and 43,300 tons per year after the PVU began operation (1997–2015). The difference in annual salt gain in the river between the pre-PVU and post-PVU periods was 94,600 tons per year, which represents a nearly 70 percent reduction in salt loading to the river.

  6. View of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The valley is an irrigated agricultural area, as indicated by the dark-green and light-gray rectangular patterns in the center of the picture. The city of Salinas is barely visible under the cloud cover at the top (north) end of the valley. The dark mass on the left (west) side of the valley is the Santa Lucia mountain range. The Big Sur area is on the left and partly covered by clouds. The Diablo Range forms the dark mass in the lower right (southeast) corner of the photograph. The town of Hillister is the grey area in the dark-green rectangular farm tracts which occupy the floor of the San Benito Valley in the upper right (northeast) corner of the photograph. The Salinas River flows northwestward toward Monterey Bay. The towns of Soleda

  7. View of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The valley is an irrigated agricultural area, as indicated by the dark-green and light-gray rectangular patterns in the center of the picture. The city of Salinas is barely visible under the cloud cover at the top (north) end of the valley. The dark mass on the left (west) side of the valley is the Santa Lucia mountain range. The Big Sur area is on the left and partly covered by clouds. The Diablo Range forms the dark mass in the lower right (southeast) corner of the photograph. The town of Hillister is the grey area in the dark-green rectangular farm tracts which occupy the floor of the San Benito Valley in the upper right (northeast) corner of the photograph. The Salinas River flows northwestward toward Monterey Bay. The towns of Soleda

  8. The Brahmaputra River: a stratigraphic analysis of Holocene avulsion and fluvial valley reoccupation history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartzog, T. R.; Goodbred, S. L.

    2011-12-01

    The Brahmaputra River, one of the world's largest braided streams, is a major component of commerce, agriculture, and transportation in India and Bangladesh. Hence any significant change in course, morphology, or behavior would be likely to influence the regional culture and economy that relies on this major river system. The history of such changes is recorded in the stratigraphy deposited by the Brahmaputra River during the Holocene. Here we present stratigraphic analysis of sediment samples from the boring of 41 tube wells over a 120 km transect in the upper Bengal Basin of northern Bangladesh. The transect crosses both the modern fluvial valley and an abandoned fluvial valley about 60 km downstream of a major avulsion node. Although the modern Brahmaputra does not transport gravel, gravel strata are common below 20 m with fluvial sand deposits dominating most of the stratigraphy. Furthermore, the stratigraphy preserves very few floodplain mud strata below the modern floodplain mud cap. These preliminary findings will be assessed to determine their importance in defining past channel migration, avulsion frequency, and the reoccupation of abandoned fluvial valleys. Understanding the avulsion and valley reoccupation history of the Brahmaputra River is important to assess the risk involved with developing agriculture, business, and infrastructure on the banks of modern and abandoned channels. Based on the correlation of stratigraphy and digital surface elevation data, we hypothesize that the towns of Jamalpur and Sherpur in northern Bangladesh were once major ports on the Brahmaputra River even though they now lie on the banks of small underfit stream channels. If Jamalpur and Sherpur represent the outer extent of the Brahmaputra River braid-belt before the last major avulsion, these cities and any communities developed in the abandoned braid-belt assume a high risk of devastation if the next major avulsion reoccupies this fluvial valley. It is important to

  9. Underground water in the valleys of Utah Lake and Jordan River, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, George Burr

    1906-01-01

    The valleys of Utah Lake and Jordan River are situated in north-central Utah, in the extreme eastern part of the Great Basin. The lofty Wasatch Range (Pl. I), the westernmost of the Rocky Mountain system, limits the valleys on the east, and relatively low basin ranges - the Oquirrh, Lake, and East Tintic mountains - determine them on the west. The valleys trend north and south, and are almost separated by the low east-west Traverse Range, the slopes of which constitute a dam for Utah Lake, which drains through Jordan River to Great Salt Lake.The area under consideration is the most populous and flourishing part of the State, Salt Lake City and Provo, the first and third cities in the State, and many other thriving settlements are there located. At Bingham Junction and Murray a number of smelters treat the ores from near-by mines, but agriculture is the main industry. Water for irrigation is supplied by mountain streams, and intensive farming is successfully pursued. The practice of irrigation was begun by the Mormon pioneers in 1847, and has been discussed in several publications; little attention, however, has been given to the underground water resources, and, so far as the writer is aware, they have not before been described. The present paper outlines conditions of occurrence of the subterranean waters and describes their development in the valleys of Utah Lake and Jordan River.

  10. Fuel regulation in inland navigation: reduced soil black carbon and PAH deposition in river valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bläsing, M.; Schwark, L.; Amelung, W.; Lehndorff, E.

    2016-12-01

    Inland navigation (IN) is of increasing importance in the transport sector. Most inland waterways and inland ports are located in/near urban regions; hence many people are exposed to emissions from IN. However, its contribution to environmental quality is not yet known. Accordingly, we aimed at identifying IN emissions in the environment, and investigating consequences of the S-reduction in ship diesel (EU regulation 2009/30/EC) on IN emissions. To do so, topsoil samples were taken from vineyards in valley transects (perpendicular to rivers) at two German inland waterways (Rhine, Moselle) and one ship-free reference valley (Ahr) and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and black carbon (BC). To elucidate the effect of fuel regulation (effective since 2011), samplings were performed from 2010 to 2013. Additionally, the potential dispersal of IN emissions was simulated by a Lagrangian stochastic model. Before regulating the S-content of ship diesel by the EU directive soil samples indicated a clear impact of IN emissions on BC and PAH deposits, in at least 200 and 350 m distance to the Moselle and Rhine river, respectively. IN emissions accounted for approximately 30% of total soil BC. However, soils along waterways comprised only slightly more BC than soils in the ship-free Ahr Valley, with BC contents comparable to rural to suburban European soils. Contents of PAHs in river valleys compared to remote to urban pollution load. In the course of the fuel regulation, BC and PAH deposits in soil were reduced within three years by 30-60%, respectively. Also the quality of emissions changed to higher shares of low molecular weight PAHs and smaller proportions of soot-BC, indicating less deposition of IN emissions. The impact of the fuel regulation was more obvious at the Rhine Valley than at the Moselle Valley, likely because of higher ship traffic volume at the former. Overall, fuel regulation was effective in reducing IN emissions along inland waterways.

  11. Salinity in the Colorado River in the Grand Valley, western Colorado, 1994-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, David L.; von Guerard, Paul B.

    1996-01-01

    Salinity, or the dissolved-solids concentration, is the measure of salts such as sodium chloride, calcium bicarbonate, and calcium sulfate that are dissolved in water. About one-half of the salinity in the Colorado River Basin is from natural sources (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1995), such as thermal springs in the Glenwood-Dotsero area, located about 90 miles upstream from Grand Junction (fig. 1). Effects of human activities, such as irrigation, reservoir evaporation, and transbasin diversions, have increased the levels of salinity in the Colorado River. High salinity can affect industrial and municipal water users by causing increased water-treatment costs, increased deterioration of plumbing and appliances, increased soap needs, and undesirable taste of drinking water. High salinity also can cause lower crop yields by reducing water and nutrient uptake by plants and can increase agricultural production costs because of higher leaching and drainage requirements. Agricultural losses might occur when salinity reaches about 700?850 milligrams per liter (U.S Department of the Interior, 1994). Figure 1. Irrigated area in the Grand Valley and locations of sampling sites for the 1994?95 salinity study of the Colorado River. The Colorado River is the major source of irrigation water to the Grand Valley (fig. 1) and also is one source of water for the Clifton Water District, which supplies domestic water to part of the eastern Grand Valley. During spring and early summer in 1994, the Colorado River in the Grand Valley had lower than average streamflow. There was concern by water users about the effect of this low streamflow on salinity in the river. In 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, began a study to evaluate salinity in the Colorado River. This fact sheet describes results of that study. The specific objectives of the fact sheet are to (1) compare salinity in the Colorado River among

  12. The drainage and glacial history of the Still River Valley, southwestern Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Woodrow B.

    1971-01-01

    The Still River is located in southwestern Connecticut. From its origin on the New York border, it passes through Danbury and flows northward to its junction with the Housatonic River in New Milford. Interpretation of the Still River's history is based on its surficial geology and bedrock topography. High bedrock surfaces to the south, east, and west of the river show that its preglacial direction was probably to the north. The Still River has developed along the easily eroded Inwood Marble as a subsequent tributary to the Housatonic. Pleistocene glaciation left a variety of deposits in the Still Valley. The oldest of these is the 'lower' till, of either Illinoian or Altonian age. This till unit is overlain in turn by the Woodfordian 'upper' till. The upper till has basal and ablation facies. Ice-contact deposits formed in the fringing stagnation zone of the last retreating ice sheet. As the glacier withdrew along the Still Valley, preglacial Lake Danbury was impounded against the highlands to the south. Glacial retreat opened progressively lower outlets for this lake. Its final stage was contained by a till (?) barrier at the Housatonic Gorge in New Milford. Filling of the lake by glacial outwash was soon followed by downcutting of the dam and establishment of the modern Housatonic and Still River channels.

  13. Impact of a large flood on mountain river habitats, channel morphology, and valley infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdukiewicz, Hanna; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Zawiejska, Joanna; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur

    2016-11-01

    The Biała River, Polish Carpathians, was considerably modified by channelization and channel incision in the twentieth century. To restore the Biała, establishing an erodible corridor was proposed in two river sections located in its mountain and foothill course. In these sections, longer, unmanaged channel reaches alternate with short, channelized reaches; and channel narrowing and incision increases in the downstream direction. In June 2010 an 80-year flood occurred on the river; and this study aims at determining its effects on physical habitat conditions for river biota, channel morphology, and valley-floor infrastructure. Surveys of 10 pairs of closely located, unmanaged and channelized cross sections, performed in 2009 and in the late summer 2010, allowed us to assess the flood-induced changes to physical habitat conditions. A comparison of channel planforms determined before (2009) and after (2012) the flood provided information on the degree of channel widening as well as changes in the width of particular elements of the river's active zone in eight stretches of the Biała. The impact of the flood on valley-floor infrastructure was confronted with the degree of river widening in unmanaged and channelized river reaches. Before the flood, unmanaged cross sections were typified by finer bed material and greater lateral variability in depth-averaged and near-bed flow velocity than channelized cross sections. The flood tended to equalize habitat conditions in both types of river cross sections, obliterating differences (in particular physical habitat parameters) between channelized and unmanaged channel reaches. River widening mostly reflected an increase in the area of channel bars, whereas the widening of low-flow channels was less pronounced. A comparison of channel planform from 2009 and 2012 indicated that intense channel incision typical of downstream sections limited river widening by the flood. Active channel width increased by half in the unmanaged

  14. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake

  15. 27 CFR 9.78 - Ohio River Valley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Louisville map) to the town of New Marion in Ripley County, Indiana (Cincinnati map). (7) The boundary proceeds in a straight line northerly to the town of Clarksburg in Decatur County, Indiana (Cincinnati map... the Wabash River, the boundary proceeds in a straight line northeasterly to the town of Oatsville in...

  16. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-13

    41G-120-040 (5-13 Oct. 1984) --- Pakistan, featuring the city of Karachi, the Makran mountain range, the mouth of the Indus River and the North Arabian Sea were photographed with a medium format camera aboard the space shuttle Challenger during the 41-G mission. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Geologic evolution of the lower Connecticut River valley: Influence of bedrock geology, glacial deposits, and sea level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, Janet R.; Lewis, Ralph S.

    2016-01-01

    This fieldtrip illustrates the character of the lower Connecticut River bedrock valley, in particular its depth, and the lithology and structure of bedrock units it crosses. It examines the character and distribution of the glaciodeltaic terraces that partially fill the valley and discusses the depth of postglacial incision into them.

  18. Recycling of Pleistocene valley fills dominates 135 ka of sediment flux, upper Indus River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munack, H.; Blöthe, J. H.; Fülöp, R. H.; Codilean, A. T.; Fink, D.; Korup, O.

    2016-10-01

    Rivers draining the semiarid Transhimalayan Ranges at the western Tibetan Plateau margin underwent alternating phases of massive valley infill and incision in Pleistocene times. The effects of these cut-and-fill cycles on millennial sediment fluxes have remained largely elusive. We investigate the timing and geomorphic consequences of headward incision of the Zanskar River, a tributary to the Indus, which taps the >250-m thick More Plains valley fill that currently plugs the endorheic high-altitude basins of Tso Kar and Tso Moriri. In situ 10Be exposure dating and topographic analyses show that a phase of valley infill gave way to net dissection and the NW Himalaya's first directly dated stream capture in late Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6, ∼135 ka ago. Headwaters of the Indus are currently capturing headwaters of the Sutlej, and rivers have eroded >14.7 km3 of sediment from the Zanskar headwaters since, mobilising an equivalent of ∼8% of the Indus' contemporary sediment storage volume from only 0.3% of its catchment area. The resulting specific sediment yields are among the rarely available rates averaged over the 105-yr timescale, and surpass 10Be-derived denudation rates from neighbouring catchments three- to tenfold. We conclude that recycling of Pleistocene valley fills has fed Transhimalayan headwaters with more sediment than liberated by catchment denudation, at least since the last glacial cycle began. This protracted release of sediment from thick Pleistocene valley fills might bias estimates of current sediment loads and long-term catchment denudation.

  19. Reconnaissance of the ground-water resources of the upper Fremont River valley, Wayne County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bjorklund, L.J.

    1969-01-01

    This report presents the results of an investigation of the ground-water resources of the upper Fremont River valley, Utah, which was carried out during the period July 1966-June 1967, by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights. The purpose of the investigation was to determine: the source, occurrence, availability, approximate quantity, movement, and chemical quality of ground water in the valley; the recharge to and discharge from the ground-water reservoir; the extent and effects of use and development on the ground-water resources; the relation of ground water to streamflow; and if and where additional studies are needed. The report is concerned primarily with ground water in the valley fill and adjacent volcanic rocks and secondarily with the general hydrology of the upper Fremont River valley drainage basin.The field investigation was made mostly during the summer and fall of 1966. Data were collected for 63 wells and 16 springs in the valley. Records for wells and springs are given in table 4; drillers' logs of selected wells are given in table 5, and well locations are shown in figure 5. All the wells (except a few small-discharge wells) and all major springs were visited. The specific conductance of water was determined at most wells and springs; chemical analyses were made of water from selected wells and springs. Conductance data are included in table 4 and chemical analyses are given in table 6. The yield of water from wells and the water levels or artesian pressures were measured or estimated. Water-level measurements were made at monthly intervals 6 at 10 selected wells. Altitudes of the land surface at wells and springs were estimated from topographic maps or by hand leveling or determined by altimeter. Aerial photographs were used in the field to locate wells, boundaries of meadows or cultivated areas, edge of valley fill, and other features.

  20. Numerical Model Predictions for Autogenic Fluvial Terrace Formation and Comparison to Natural River Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, A. B. S.; Lamb, M. P.

    2015-12-01

    Terraces cut into bedrock (strath) and sediment (fill-cut) offer key constraints on river evolution over millennial timescales, and are often interpreted to form during phases of increased river vertical incision driven by changes in climate or tectonics. Yet all actively meandering channels evolve their shapes through spatial and temporal changes in lateral erosion rates. Therefore, the sparsest requirement for a meandering river to generate terraces is that the intrinsically unsteady lateral erosion rate be coupled with relief generation by vertical incision, which need not be unsteady. In principle, this basic mechanism for terrace formation by meandering rivers should be possible in all fluvial environments, including for valleys with strath or fill-cut terraces, and may overprint signals from external drivers. We have used a numerical model of a vertically incising, meandering river to identify the age and geometric properties of autogenic terraces. Simulations indicate that autogenic terraces form with a recurrence timescale, set by the rate of relief generation, which may overlap with timescales for climate change. The autogenic terraces also have predictable geometries that can include slope proportional to the ratio of vertical incision rate to lateral erosion rate, pairing, and continuous along-valley extent. We compare these simulation results to data for terrace age and geometry from several well studied natural river valleys that span a wide range in terrace sizes and geometries, rock types, tectonic settings, incision rates, and hypothesized formation mechanisms. In cases, terrace age and geometric properties are consistent with formation by meandering with constant vertical incision rates. These similarities suggest that efforts to distinguish terraces that record signals from climatic and tectonic drivers are best focused on environments where terrace ages and geometries are far different than would be predicted by a constant vertical incision model.

  1. Geochemical processes in the Onyx River, Wright Valley, Antarctica: Major ions, nutrients, trace metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, William J.; Stage, Brian R.; Preston, Adam; Wagers, Shannon; Shacat, Joseph; Newell, Silvia

    2005-02-01

    We present data on major ions, nutrients and trace metals in an Antarctic stream. The Onyx River is located in Wright Valley (77-32 S; 161-34 E), one of a group of ancient river and glacier-carved landforms that comprise the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica. The river is more than 30 km long and is the largest of the glacial meltwater streams that characterize this relatively ice-free region near the Ross Sea. The complete absence of rainfall in the region and the usually small contributions of glacially derived tributaries to the main channel make this a comparatively simple system for geochemical investigation. Moreover, the lack of human impacts, past or present, provides an increasingly rare window onto a pristine aquatic system. For all major ions and silica, we observe increasing concentrations with distance from Lake Brownworth down to the recording weir near Lake Vanda. Chemical weathering rates are unexpectedly high and may be related to the rapid dissolution of ancient carbonate deposits and to the severe physical weathering associated with the harsh Antarctic winter. Of the nutrients, nitrate and dissolved reactive phosphate appear to have quite different sources. Nitrate is enriched in waters near the Lower Wright Glacier and may ultimately be derived from stratospheric sources; while phosphate is likely to be the product of chemical weathering of valley rocks and soils. We confirm the work of earlier investigations regarding the importance of the Boulder Pavement as a nutrient sink. Dissolved Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Cd are present at nanomolar levels and, in all cases, the concentrations of these metals are lower than in average world river water. We hypothesize that metal uptake and exchange with particulate phases along the course of the river may serve as a buffer for the dissolved load. Concurrent study of these three solute classes points out significant differences in the mechanisms and sites of their removal from the Onyx River.

  2. Early Holocene pecan, Carya illinoensis, in the Mississippi River Valley near Muscatine, Iowa*1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettis, E. Arthur; Baker, Richard G.; Nations, Brenda K.; Benn, David W.

    1990-01-01

    A fossil pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, from floodplain sediments of the Mississippi River near Muscatine, Iowa, was accelerator-dated at 7280 ± 120 yr B.P. This discovery indicates that pecan was at or near its present northern limit by that time. Carya pollen profiles from the Mississippi River Trench indicate that hickory pollen percentages were much higher in the valley than at upland locations during the early Holocene. Pecan, the hickory with the most restricted riparian habitat, is the likely candidate for producing these peaks in Carya pollen percentages. Therefore, pecan may have reached its northern limit as early as 10,300 yr B.P. Its abundance in Early Archaic archaeological sites and the co-occurrence of early Holocene Carya pollen peaks with the arrival of the Dalton artifact complex in the Upper Mississippi Valley suggest that humans may have played a role in the early dispersal of pecan.

  3. Early Holocene pecan, Carya illinoensis, in the Mississippi River Valley near Muscatine, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettis, E. Arthur; Baker, R.G.; Nations, B.K.; Benn, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A fossil pecan, Carya illinoensis (Wang.) K. Koch, from floodplain sediments of the Mississippi River near Muscatine, Iowa, was accelerator-dated at 7280 ?? 120 yr B.P. This discovery indicates that pecan was at or near its present northern limit by that time. Carya pollen profiles from the Mississippi River Trench indicate that hickory pollen percentages were much higher in the valley than at upland locations during the early Holocene. Pecan, the hickory with the most restricted riparian habitat, is the likely candidate for producing these peaks in Carya pollen percentages. Therefore, pecan may have reached its northern limit as early as 10,300 yr B.P. Its abundance in Early Archaic archaeological sites and the co-occurrence of early Holocene Carya pollen peaks with the arrival of the Dalton artifact complex in the Upper Mississippi Valley suggest that humans may have played a role in the early dispersal of pecan. ?? 1990.

  4. Climatic and morphological controls on post-glacial lake and river valley evolution in the Weichselian belt - an example from the Wda valley, Northern Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramkowski, M. A.; Błaszkiewicz, M.; Piotrowski, J. A.; Brauer, A.; Gierszewski, P.; Kordowski, J.; Lamparski, P.; Lorenz, S.; Noryśkiewicz, A. M.; Ott, F.; Slowinski, M. M.; Tyszkowski, S.

    2014-12-01

    The River Wda valley is a classical example of a polygenetic valley, consisting of former lake basins joined by erosive gap sections. In its middle section, which was the subject of our research, a fragment of an abandoned Lateglacial river valley is preserved, which is unique for the Weichselian moraine belt in the Central European Lowlands. The analysis of the relationship between the lacustrine and fluvial sediments and landforms enabled the authors to report many evolutionary connections between the initial period of the river system formation and the emergence of lakes during the Weichselian Lateglacial. The surface drainage essentially determined the progress of melting of dead ice blocks buried in the glacial depressions, which finally led to lake formation there. Most of the lake basins in the study area were formed during the Bølling-Allerød period. However, one section of the subglacial channel was not exposed to the thermokarst conditions and was therefore preserved with dead ice blocks throughout the entire Lateglacial. The dead ice decay at the beginning of the Holocene, as well as the emergence of another lake, created a lower base level of erosion in the close vicinity of the abandoned valley and induced a change of the river's course. Both fluvial and lacustrine deposits and landforms distributed in the central section of the River Wda valley indicate two processes, which proceeded simultaneously: (1) emergence of fluvially joined lake basins within a glacial channel, (2) degradation of the river bed in the gap sections interfering between the lakes. The processes described for the central section of the River Wda channel indicate a very dynamic river valley development during the Weichselian Lateglacial and the early Holocene. The valley formation was tightly interwoven with the morphogenesis of the primary basins within the valley, mainly with the melting of the buried blocks of dead ice and the development of lakes. This study is a contribution

  5. [Prediction and prevention of malaria epidemics in the valley of the Senegal River].

    PubMed

    Faye, O; Gaye, O; Konaté, L; Molez, J F; Feller-Dansokho, E; Hervé, J P

    1998-01-01

    The Sahel region has been suffering from severe drought for the last thirty years, with large deficits and a high degree of variability in the amount of annual rainfall. Agricultural production in the Sahelian zone of the Senegal River valley depends on the flooding of the river. The management of this flooding affects malaria transmission. The area is prone to malaria epidemics because the immunity level of the population is low. We studied epidemiological, meteorological and river level data to identify epidemic risk factors. We propose an epidemiological and managerial system for the early detection of risks and early intervention. This system is based mainly on the water level of the Senegal River and the early detection of unusual increases in the number of cases.

  6. Catastrophic flood origin, little Missouri River valley, Montana, South Dakota, and North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, E.N.

    1988-07-01

    Mosaics of photographically reduced topographic maps demonstrate the Little Missouri River valley was developed by gigantic floods. Catastrophic flood landforms, oriented in a northwest-southeast direction, cross the entire Little Missouri drainage basin. Field evidence, consisting of abundant flood-deposited alluvium, supports map evidence. Flood-produced landforms, cut in easily eroded claystone bedrock, appear fresh, suggesting that floods occurred late during the last glacial cycle. Sheets of water, several hundred kilometers wide, flowed in a southeast direction, parallel with a continental ice margin. Erosion lowered the regional surface from a level corresponding to the tops of the highest present-day buttes to the surface now crossed by the headwaters of the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Green Rivers. Spillway trenches served to channel flow and rapidly cut headward into easily eroded claystone. These trenches include the Moreau, Grand, Cannonball, Heart, and Missouri valleys. The Missouri valley in western North Dakota became the dominant spillway as tributary trenches systematically cut off flow feeding competing spillways. Formation of the Little Missouri spillway, first as a north-trending valley, progressively cut off floodwaters flowing into the Heart, Cannonball, Grand, and Moreau spillways. The north end of the Little Missouri spillway also was cut off by a deeper east-trending spillway. Huge sheets of floodwater continued to pour across the divide west of the Little Missouri continuing to lower that surface. These floodwaters were cut off by development of the Yellowstone spillway in eastern Montana.

  7. Numerical modeling of tectonically driven river dynamics and deposition in an upland incised valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Valeria; Salles, Tristan; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Billi, Paolo; Dallanave, Edoardo; Duclaux, Guillaume

    2015-07-01

    Within upstream reaches of incised valleys, fluvial sedimentation occurs where it is controlled by interaction between climate and tectonics. This study focuses on a Plio-Pleistocene fluvial paleovalley, which drained the northeastern margin of Siena basin (northern Apennines, Italy). Valley filling resulted from the interaction between river drainage and active normal faults striking perpendicular and parallel to the main valley. Through numerical modeling, this study aims to refine temporal and spatial mesoscale deposit variations, which highlight the upset of fluvial architectures derived from the interplay between the river system and uplift. Geomorphological and hydrodynamic parameter calibration was performed integrating field studies with paleohydraulic and paleomagnetic data. The numerical model simulates the evolution of valley formation with the development of (i) a pre-tectonic steady state system, followed by (ii) a syntectonic aggradation and avulsion phase, and (iii) a post-tectonic relaxation phase. The syntectonic phase shows fine sediment back-filling upstream of the uplifted area and coarse sediment down-filling downstream of the upwarping. The recorded aggradations are asynchronous with upstream deposition preceding downstream deposition.

  8. Native American prehistory of the middle Savannah River Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Sassaman, K.E.; Brooks, M.J.; Hanson, G.T.; Anderson, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Archaeological investigations on the United States Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina span 17 years and continue today through a cooperative agreement between DOE and the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology (SCIAA), University of South Carolina. The Savannah River Archaeological Research Program (SRARP) of SCIAA has been and continues to be the sole archaeological consultant for DOE-SRS. This report documents technical aspects of all prehistoric archaeological research conducted by the SRARP between 1973 and 1987. Further, this report provides interpretative contexts for archaeological resources as a basis for an archaeological resource plan reported elsewhere (SRARP 1989), and as a comprehensive statement of our current understanding of Native American prehistory. 400 refs., 130 figs., 39 tabs.

  9. Ground-water resources of the Mattapoisett River Valley, Plymouth County, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olimpio, J.C.; De Lima, Virginia

    1984-01-01

    Ground-water withdrawals by municipal wells in the Mettapoisett River valley, Massachusetts, are expected to triple in the next two decades. State and local concern about the long-term impacts of these withdrawals on ground-water levels and streamflow made it necessary to assess the ground-water resources of the valley and to develop a digital ground-water-flow model for management purposes. Ten pumping scenarios, which represent the present and proposed withdrawals from the aquifer, were simulated using reduced recharge conditions. Under conditions simulating 1965 average annual recharge, predicted water levels in the aquifer are as much as 9 feet lower than average annual levels. At the highest withdrawal rates, the predicted drawdown in four wells exceeds the estimated available drawdown. Under conditions representative of the 7-day 10-year low flow of the river, predicted water levels decline as much as 19 feet. Simulated withdrawals in six scenarios use all of the available ground-water discharge. If this drought condition should occur and streamflow is not supplemented by surface water, the model results indicate that the river in the southern half of the valley will stop flowing under most pumping plans. (USGS)

  10. A climatology of airborne dust for the Red River Valley of North Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godon, Nancy A.; Todhunter, Paul E.

    The Red River Valley of North Dakota has been identified as one of the highest potential dust production regions in the United States. This paper provides a climatological summary of the airborne dust environment in the region using historical meteorological data for Fargo, North Dakota. Data for the period 1948-1994 were extracted for all 3-hourly weather observations which recorded an obstruction to vision due to dust, blowing dust or dust storms. Data were compiled on the year, month, day and hour of each observation, as well as the horizontal visibility, wind speed, wind direction, and other present weather occurring at the time of each event. Airborne dust events in the Red River Valley of the North normally involve local entrainment of dust, and show a strong peak in the frequency of occurrence during the afternoon and spring seasons, although a secondary winter peak is also present. Dust events have decreased in frequency over the study period, apparently in response to improved farm management practices. Most events fall into two basic categories: winter events generated by passing cold fronts or strong regional pressure gradients, and often accompanied by blowing snow and light snow showers, and spring events triggered by the passage of cyclones and fronts, and normally not accompanied by other prevailing weather at the time of the observation. Results are discussed in relation to the unique soil, meteorological and surface cover conditions of the Red River Valley of North Dakota.

  11. One hour of catastrophic landscape change in the upper Rhine River valley 9400 years ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clague, John; von Poschinger, Andreas; Calhoun, Nancy

    2017-04-01

    The Flims rockslide, which happened about 9400 years ago in the eastern Swiss Alps, is the largest postglacial terrestrial landslide in Europe. The landslide and the huge secondary mass flow it induced completely changed the floor and lower slopes of the Vorderrhein valley over a distance of several tens of kilometres, probably in one hour or less. The landslide began with the sudden detachment of 10-12 km3 of Jurassic and Cretaceous limestone from the north wall of the Vorderrhein valley. The detached rock mass rapidly fragmented as it accelerated and then struck the Rhein valley floor and the opposing valley wall. Tongues of debris traveled up and down the Vorderrhein. The impact liquefied approximately 1 km3 of valley-fill sediments, mainly fluvial and deltaic gravel and sand. The liquefied sediment moved as a slurry - the Bonaduz gravel - tens of kilometres downvalley from the impact site, carrying huge fragments of rockslide debris that became stranded on the valley floor, forming hills termed 'tumas'. Part of the flow was deflected by a cross-valley barrier and flowed 16 km up the Hinterrhein valley (the main tributary of the Vorderrhein), carrying tumas with it. Bonaduz gravel is >65 m thick and fines upward from massive sandy cobble gravel at its base to silty sand at its top. Sedimentologic and geomorphic evidence indicates that the liquefied sediment was transported as a hyperconcentated flow, possibly above a basal carpet of coarse diamictic sediment that behaved as a debris flow. The large amount of water involved in the Bonaduz flow indicates that at least part of the Flims rockslide entered a former lake in Vorderrhein valley. The rockslide debris impounded the Vorderrhein and formed Lake Ilanz, which persisted for decades or longer before the dam was breached in series of outburst floods. These floods further changed the valley floor below the downstream limit of the landslide. Today, Vorderrhein flows in a spectacular 8-km-long gorge incised up to

  12. Debris Flow Control on Fluvial Hanging Valley Formation in the South Fork Eel River, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, N.; Perkins, J.; Finnegan, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    An understanding of how base level signals are transmitted into landscapes is fundamental to interpreting river long profiles in tectonically active settings. Fluvial hanging valleys, locations where waves of incision have apparently arrested at tributary junctions, suggest that base level propagation is an unsteady process in many settings. A recent hypothesis (Wobus et al., 2006) explains the formation of fluvial hanging valleys via an instability in the saltation abrasion model of Sklar and Dietrich (2004). At locations where small steep tributaries join trunk streams, tributary incision rates can actually decrease with increasing channel slope when subjected to downstream base-level fall. However, we note that in mountainous river networks steep tributaries also commonly convey debris flows into trunk channels. Since these tributary junctions mark the upstream limit of channels whose beds are mobilized on a regular basis during flood events, here we hypothesize that transitions from fluvial to debris flow channels control the location of fluvial hanging valleys. To test our hypothesis, we exploit a natural experiment in base level fall and landscape evolution along the South Fork Eel River, which is argued to be responding to an increase in rock uplift rate associated with the passage of the Mendocino Triple Junction. In order to separate debris flow channels from fluvial channels, we use airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM) to quantify channel slopes and concavities. In our analysis, concavity data are noisy and represent a poor metric for determination of debris flow channels. In lieu of this, we choose a more straightforward metric of channel slope to discriminate where debris flows occur on the landscape. We find that, on average, fluvial hanging valleys are only present in tributaries with average gradients above 0.10, consistent with empirical determinations of the gradient at which debris flow channels transition to fluvial channels (0.03-0.10). Field

  13. Digital Map of Surficial Geology, Wetlands, and Deepwater Habitats, Coeur d'Alene River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Box, Stephen E.; Jackson, Berne L.; Brandt, Theodore R.; Derkey, Pamela D.; Munts, Steven R.

    1999-01-01

    The Coeur d'Alene (CdA) River channel and its floodplain in north Idaho are mostly covered by metal-enriched sediments, partially derived from upstream mining, milling and smelting wastes. Relative to uncontaminated sediments of the region, metal-enriched sediments are highly enriched in silver, lead, zinc, arsenic, antimony and mercury, copper, cadmium, manganese, and iron. Widespread distribution of metal-enriched sediments has resulted from over a century of mining in the CdA mining district (upstream), poor mine-waste containment practices during the first 80 years of mining, and an ongoing series of over-bank floods. Previously deposited metal-enriched sediments continue to be eroded and transported down-valley and onto the floodplain during floods. The centerpiece of this report is a Digital Map Surficial Geology, Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the Coeur d'Alene (CdA) River valley (sheets 1 and 2). The map covers the river, its floodplain, and adjacent hills, from the confluence of the North and South Forks of the CdA River to its mouth and delta front on CdA Lake, 43 linear km (26 mi) to the southwest (river distance 58 km or 36 mi). Also included are the following derivative theme maps: 1. Wetland System Map; 2. Wetland Class Map; 3. Wetland Subclass Map; 4. Floodplain Map; 5. Water Regime Map; 6. Sediment-Type Map; 7. Redox Map; 8. pH Map; and 9. Agricultural Land Map. The CdA River is braided and has a cobble-gravel bottom from the confluence to Cataldo Flats, 8 linear km (5 mi) down-valley. Erosional remnants of up to four alluvial terraces are present locally, and all are within the floodplain, as defined by the area flooded in February of 1996. High-water (overflow) channels and partly filled channel scars braid across some alluvial terraces, toward down-valley marshes and (or) oxbow ponds, which drain back to the river. Near Cataldo Flats, the river gradient flattens, and the river coalesces into a single channel with a large friction

  14. Geological Carbon Sequestration in the Ohio River Valley: An Evaluation of Possible Target Formations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, T. A.; Daniels, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    The development of geological carbon sequestration within the Ohio River Valley is of major interest to the national electricity and coal industries because the Valley is home to a heavy concentration of coal-burning electricity generation plants and the infrastructure is impossible to eliminate in the short-term. It has been determined by Ohio's politicians and citizenry that the continued use of coal in this region until alternative energy supplies are available will be necessary over the next few years. Geologic sequestration is the only possible means of keeping the CO2 out of the atmosphere in the region. The cost of the sequestration effort greatly decreases CO2 emissions by sequestering CO2 directly on site of these plants, or by minimizing the distance between fossil-fueled generation and sequestration (i.e., by eliminating the cost of transportation of supercritical CO2 from plant to sequestration site). Thus, the practicality of CO2 geologic sequestration within the Ohio River Valley is central to the development of such a commercial effort. Though extensive work has been done by the Regional Partnerships of the DOE/NETL in the characterization of general areas for carbon sequestration throughout the nation, few projects have narrowed their focus into a single geologic region in order to evaluate the sites of greatest commercial potential. As an undergraduate of the Earth Sciences at Ohio State, I have engaged in thorough research to obtain a detailed understanding of the geology of the Ohio River Valley and its potential for commercial-scale carbon sequestration. Through this research, I have been able to offer an estimate of the areas of greatest interest for CO2 geologic sequestration. This research has involved petrological, mineralogical, geochemical, and geophysical analyses of four major reservoir formations within Ohio—the Rose Run, the Copper Ridge, the Clinton, and the Oriskany—along with an evaluation of the possible effects of injection

  15. Authentic Research Experience for University of the Fraser Valley Undergraduate Students through the Global Rivers Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, S. J.; Gillies, S. L.; Ehrenbrink, B. P. E.; Voss, B.; Janmaat, A.; Yakemchuk, A.; Smith, S.; Faber, A.; Luymes, R.; Epp, A.; Bennett, M. C.; Fanslau, J.; Downey, B.; Wiebe, B.; VanKoughnett, H.; Macklam-Harron, G.; Herbert, J.

    2014-12-01

    The University of the Fraser Valley has undertaken the time series sampling of water chemistry of the Fraser River at Fort Langley, British Columbia, Canada as a member of the Global Rivers Observatory (GRO, www.globalrivers.org) which is organized by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Woods Hole Research Center. In addition, we have been afforded the opportunity to undertake a time series sampling of Fraser Valley tributaries of the Fraser River. These small salmon bearing streams are being threatened by increased urbanization within their watersheds and runoff from agricultural activity. Students in upper level courses and individual research students have had the opportunity to become involved in GRO research projects. These students have been instructed in the sampling protocol and techniques and have become more aware of the threats to both local streams and the Fraser River watershed. Additionally, individual research students have been able to develop their own research projects within the larger project and present their findings at academic conferences. They have also been involved in peer-reviewed publications as co-authors of research papers.

  16. 77 FR 47493 - DMH Trust fbo Martha M. Head-Acquisition of Control Exemption-Red River Valley & Western Railroad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board DMH Trust fbo Martha M. Head--Acquisition of Control Exemption-- Red River..., has filed a verified notice of exemption to acquire control of Red River Valley & Western Railroad...

  17. Understory vegetation as an indicator for floodplain forest restoration in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, U.S.A

    Treesearch

    Diane De Steven; Stephen P. Faulkner; Bobby D. Keeland; Michael J. Baldwin; John W. McCoy; Steven C. Hughes

    2015-01-01

    In the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV), complete alteration of river-floodplain hydrology allowed for widespread conversion of forested bottomlands to intensive agriculture, resulting in nearly 80% forest loss. Governmental programs have attempted to restore forest habitat and functions within this altered landscape by the methods of tree planting (...

  18. Was There a Pliocene-Pleistocene Fluvial-Lacustrine Connection between Death Valley and the Colorado River?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, William J.; Rosen, Michael R.

    1995-05-01

    Since the turn of the century, a Pliocene-Pleistocene connection between the Death Valley-Owens River pluvial system and the Colorado River drainage basin has been frequently postulated. The two most commonly proposed routes involve (1) a southward overflow from the Death Valley Lake system or (2) southward migration of the Mojave River between its present course and a more southerly route. Under the present topographic regime, a Death Valley Lake capable of overflowing the bedrock saddle at Ludlow, California and discharging southward into the Bristol, Cadiz, and Danby Lake basins (and eventually the Colorado River) would be over 12,000 km 2 in size. Few surface and subsurface indicators exist to support either a fluvial or lacustrine connection. Evidence from deep cores and boreholes drilled in Soda, Bristol, Cadiz, and Danby dry lake basins indicate that a hydrologic connection has not occurred during the past 4 myr. No well-documented paleoshoreline features have been located at elevations corresponding to the above hydrologic systems in Death Valley, Silver-Soda, Bristol, or Danby Lake basins. In the Cadiz, Silurian, and Broadwell basins these features have not been found at all. Therefore, we conclude that a hydrologic connection between the Death Valley-Owens River system and the Colorado River has not occurred along either of these routes since the middle Pliocene.

  19. Don't Fence Me In: Free Meanders in a Confined River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eke, E. C.; Wilcock, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The interaction between meandering river channels and inerodible valley walls provides a useful test of our ability to understand meander dynamics. In some cases, river meanders confined between valley walls display distinctive angular bends in a dynamic equilibrium such that their size and shape persist as the meander migrates. In other cases, meander geometry is more varied and changes as the meander migrates. The ratio of channel to valley width has been identified as a useful parameter for defining confined meanders, but is not sufficient to distinguish cases in which sharp angular bends are able to migrate with little change in geometry. Here, we examine the effect of water and sediment supply on the geometry of confined rivers in order to identify conditions under which meander geometry reaches a persistent dynamic equilibrium. Because channel width and meander geometry are closely related, we use a numerical meander model that allows for independent migration of both banks, thereby allowing channel width to vary in space and time. We hypothesize that confined meanders with persistent angular bends have smaller transport rates of bed material and that their migration is driven by erosion of the cutbank (bank-pull migration). When bed material supply is sufficiently large that point bar deposition drives meander migration (bar-push migration), confined meander bends have a larger radius of curvature and a geometry that varies as the meander migrates. We test this hypothesis using historical patterns of confined meander migration for rivers with different rates of sediment supply and bed material transport. Interpretation of the meander migration pattern is provided by the free-width meander migration model.

  20. Landslide hazard mapping in the Göta river valley to limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, M.; Svahn, V.; Lind, B.; Lundström, K.; Cederbom, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    Landslide scars are frequent along the river bank of the Göta river in southwest Sweden, and several landslides in quick-clay have resulted in casualties and severe damages on buildings and infrastructure during the last century. Moreover, higher average precipitation and increased occurrence of extreme rainfall events are some expected climate changes in Sweden during the coming 70-100 years. The Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI) was therefore commissioned by the Swedish Government to perform an inventory of the landslide potential in the Göta river valley, taking predicted climate changes into consideration. The project was running over three years (2009-2011) and the final report is presented in March 2012. To prevent extensive floodings and damages of cities and infrastructure around Lake Vänern, it is necessary to allow controlled overflow from Lake Vänern through the Göta river. An overflow in the river, in turn, leads to increased risk for erosion and landslides along the river valley. The inventory has included detailed field and laboratory investigations of the geological and hydrological conditions, methodology development, erosion modeling, effects of climate changes on porewater and groundwater conditions as well as an estimation of consequences and probabilities for failure in the present-day and future climate. In the final report risk estimates for the complete study area are presented along with rough cost estimates for first-order preventing measures. This presentation aims to give an overview of the outcome of the inventory, the experience and new knowledge acquired during the project as well as the need of research and development work in different technical areas in order to improve risk mapping of natural slopes.

  1. The environmental conditionings of the location of primeval settlements in the Wieprz River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozieł, Marcin; Kozieł, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    The Wieprz River along the section currently occupied by the Nadwieprzański Landscape Park (NLP) constituted a convenient place of human settlement from the moment of retreat of the last ice sheet. Depending on the types of economy preferred by representatives of individual archaeological cultures, the river valley from Spiczyn to Dorohucza offered continuous access to water. This obviously gained additional importance from the moment of appearance of Neolithic cultures, particularly the Globular Amphora culture and Corded Ware culture with semi-nomadic style of life, dealing with breeding. Neolithic hunters-gatherers exploited the animal resources available in the river and its vicinity. The further role of fishing, i.e. providing a diet element or supplementation already in the conditions of agricultural-breeding economy, seems to be evidenced by findings of fishing hooks at Lusatian and Wielbark sites. Another factor affecting the location of settlements in NLP was also its close vicinity to the crops of the Rejowiec flint. According to archaeologists, this is particularly obvious in the case of the Late Palaeolithic and the turn of the Neolithic and Bronze Age. The communication function of the river could also be of importance: in the case of seasonal animal migrations of animals and hunters (Late Palaeolithic); livestock and shepherds (Globular Amphora culture and Corded Ware culture); or people alone (migration of the population of the Wielbark culture to the Red Sea). The fact that a commercial trail fragment was located along the Wieprz River is probably evidenced by the abundance of import from various parts of Europe at site 53 in Spiczyn. Fertile soils (black soils, silt-peat soils) prevailing in the valley also favoured the settlement of cultures with an agricultural-breeding model of economy, providing good conditions for horticulture. Meadows near the river could be used as pastures.

  2. Water balance of selected floodplain lake basins in the Middle Bug River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidek, J.; Ferencz, B.

    2014-04-01

    This study is the first attempt in the literature on the subject of comparing water balance components for floodplain lake basins, depending on the type of a lake connection to the parent river. Research was carried out in the Bug River valley in 2007-2011 water years. Four types of connections were distinguished in the area under study. Simple water balance equation could only be used with regard to the lakes connected to the main river via the upstream crevasses. Detailed and individual water balance equations were developed with reference to the other types of lakes. Water gains and losses varied significantly in the lakes under study. Values of horizontal water balance components (inflow and outflow) of the floodplain lake in Wola Uhruska considerably prevailed over the vertical ones (precipitation and evaporation). Inflow of the Bug River waters was diverse during the time period under study and amounted from 600 000 to 2 200 000 m3 yr-1. Volumes of precipitation and evaporation were rather stable and amounted to approx. 30 000 m3 yr-1. The lowest disparity between horizontal and vertical water balance components was observed in the inter-levee lake. Both upstream inflow of rivers water and outflow from the lake (ranged from 0 in 2008 to 35 000 m3 yr-1 in 2009) were usually an order of magnitude higher than precipitation and evaporation from the lake surface (700-800 m3 yr-1). Study showed that the values and the proportion between aforementioned vertical and horizontal water balance elements were determined by the type of a lake connection to the Bug River. Storage volume showed no relationship to the type of connection, but resulted from individual features of the lakes (location within the valley, precipitation and evaporation volume, difference between water inflow and outflow).

  3. Centipede (Chilopoda) richness and diversity in the Bug River valley (Eastern Poland).

    PubMed

    Leśniewska, Małgorzata; Jastrzębski, Piotr; Stańska, Marzena; Hajdamowicz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the survey was to describe the diversity and richness of Chilopoda in the selected area of the Bug River valley. The study sites were located in two regions differing in the shape of the valley, the presence of thermophilous habitats and the size of riparian forests. Pitfall traps were used as a sampling method. As a result, 444 specimens belonging to 12 centipede species of two orders - Geophilomorpha (four species) and Lithobiomorpha (eight species) were caught. Lithobius (Monotarsobius) curtipes C.L.Koch, 1847, Pachymeriumferrugineum (C.L.Koch, 1835), Lamyctes (Lamyctes) emarginatus (Newport, 1844) and Lithobius (Monotarsobius) dudichi Loksa, 1947 were the most common and the most numerous species. Of particular note is Lithobiusdudichi found in Poland for the first time and previously known based on a single specimen. Two to 10 Chilopoda species were found in each habitat under investigation. The greatest species richness was found in thermophilous thickets (10 species), sandy grasslands (eight), xerothermic grasslands (eight) and mesic meadows (six). The fewest number of species (two) was found in rushes at oxbows and in wet meadows. We found differences in the species composition and the number of Chilopoda between the lower (102 specimens, six species) and the middle (324 specimens, 11 species) section of the river valley. Our results confirm the need to protect xerothermic habitats, unique almost throughout entire Central Europe, which due to their distribution and their small area covered are fairly easily subject to the process of destruction.

  4. Snake River Sockeye Salmon Sawtooth Valley Project Conservation and Rebuilding Program : Supplemental Fnal Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-03-01

    This document announces Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) proposal to fund three separate but interrelated actions which are integral components of the overall Sawtooth Valley Project to conserve and rebuild the Snake River Sockeye salmon run in the Sawtooth Valley of south-central Idaho. The three actions are as follows: (1) removing a rough fish barrier dam on Pettit Lake Creek and constructing a weir and trapping facilities to monitor future sockeye salmon adult and smolt migration into and out of Pettit Lake; (2) artificially fertilizing Readfish Lake to enhance the food supply for Snake River sockeye salmon juveniles released into the lake; and (3) trapping kokanee fry and adults to monitor the fry population and to reduce the population of kokanee in Redfish Lake. BPA has prepared a supplemental EA (included) which builds on an EA compled in 1994 on the Sawtooth Valley Project. Based on the analysis in this Supplemental EA, BPA has determined that the proposed actions are not major Federal actions significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. Therefore an Environmental Impact Statement is not required.

  5. Centipede (Chilopoda) richness and diversity in the Bug River valley (Eastern Poland)

    PubMed Central

    Leśniewska, Małgorzata; Jastrzębski, Piotr; Stańska, Marzena; Hajdamowicz, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The main aim of the survey was to describe the diversity and richness of Chilopoda in the selected area of the Bug River valley. The study sites were located in two regions differing in the shape of the valley, the presence of thermophilous habitats and the size of riparian forests. Pitfall traps were used as a sampling method. As a result, 444 specimens belonging to 12 centipede species of two orders – Geophilomorpha (four species) and Lithobiomorpha (eight species) were caught. Lithobius (Monotarsobius) curtipes C.L.Koch, 1847, Pachymerium ferrugineum (C.L.Koch, 1835), Lamyctes (Lamyctes) emarginatus (Newport, 1844) and Lithobius (Monotarsobius) dudichi Loksa, 1947 were the most common and the most numerous species. Of particular note is Lithobius dudichi found in Poland for the first time and previously known based on a single specimen. Two to 10 Chilopoda species were found in each habitat under investigation. The greatest species richness was found in thermophilous thickets (10 species), sandy grasslands (eight), xerothermic grasslands (eight) and mesic meadows (six). The fewest number of species (two) was found in rushes at oxbows and in wet meadows. We found differences in the species composition and the number of Chilopoda between the lower (102 specimens, six species) and the middle (324 specimens, 11 species) section of the river valley. Our results confirm the need to protect xerothermic habitats, unique almost throughout entire Central Europe, which due to their distribution and their small area covered are fairly easily subject to the process of destruction. PMID:26257539

  6. Holocene vegetational history of the Kootenai River Valley, Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Richard N.; Rutter, N. W.; Valastro, S.

    1983-09-01

    Pollen records in the Kootenai and Fisher River drainages in western Montana reveal a fivezone sequence of Holocene vegetation change. Deposition of Glacier Peak Ash-Layer G (ca. 10,540 ± 660 yr B.P.) in the lowermost sediments (clay intermixed with pebbles) at Tepee Lake gives a minimum date for the initiation of sedimentation. Initial vegetation on the newly deglaciated terrain was dominated by Pinus (probably white bark pine) with small amounts of Gramineae, Picea and Abies, reflecting a relatively cool, moist macroclimate. Two vegetation units appear to contribute to Pollen Zone II (ca. 11,000-7100 yr B.P.): arboreal communities with pines, along with Pseudotsuga or Larix, or both, and treeless vegetation dominated by Artemisia. Pollen Zone II represents an overall warmer macroclimate than occurred upon ice withdrawal. After ca. 7100 yr B.P. (Pollen Zone III) diploxylon pines became a major pollen contributor near both Tepee Lake and McKillop Creek Pond, indicating an expansion of xerophytic forest ( P. contorta and P. ponderosa) along with an increase in the prominence of Pseudotsuga menziesii or Larix occidentalis, or both. Artemisia briefly expanded coverage near Tepee Lake concomitant with the Mazama ashfall ca. 6700 yr B.P. A short-term climatic trend with more available water began after ca. 4000 yr B.P. as Abies (probably A. grandis) along with Picea engelmannii became a more regular component of the forest surrounding both sites. Emergence of the modern macroclimate is indicated primarily with the first regular appearance of Tsuga heterophylla in the pollen record by ca. 2700 yr B.P., synchronous with the development of western hemlock forest within the same latitudes in northern Idaho and northeastern Washington.

  7. Paleogeomorphology of the early Colorado River inferred from relationships in Mohave and Cottonwood Valleys, Arizona, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearthree, Philip; House, Kyle

    2014-01-01

    Geologic investigations of late Miocene–early Pliocene deposits in Mohave and Cottonwood valleys provide important insights into the early evolution of the lower Colorado River system. In the latest Miocene these valleys were separate depocenters; the floor of Cottonwood Valley was ∼200 m higher than the floor of Mohave Valley. When Colorado River water arrived from the north after 5.6 Ma, a shallow lake in Cottonwood Valley spilled into Mohave Valley, and the river then filled both valleys to ∼560 m above sea level (asl) and overtopped the bedrock divide at the southern end of Mohave Valley. Sediment-starved water spilling to the south gradually eroded the outlet as siliciclastic Bouse deposits filled the lake upstream. When sediment accumulation reached the elevation of the lowering outlet, continued erosion of the outlet resulted in recycling of stored lacustrine sediment into downstream basins; depth of erosion of the outlet and upstream basins was limited by the water levels in downstream basins. The water level in the southern Bouse basin was ∼300 m asl (modern elevation) at 4.8 Ma. It must have drained and been eroded to a level <150 m asl soon after that to allow for deep erosion of bedrock divides and basins upstream, leading to removal of large volumes of Bouse sediment prior to massive early Pliocene Colorado River aggradation. Abrupt lowering of regional base level due to spilling of a southern Bouse lake to the Gulf of California could have driven observed upstream river incision without uplift. Rapid uplift of the entire region immediately after 4.8 Ma would have been required to drive upstream incision if the southern Bouse was an estuary.

  8. Wetlands monitoring - hydrological conditions and water quality in selected transects of Biebrza National Park.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmaszczyk, Mateusz; Okruszko, Tomasz

    2010-05-01

    Water Framework Directive (WFD) obligates Member States to prevent further deterioration as well as to protect and enhance the status of aquatic ecosystems and wetlands. In order to fulfill one of the WFD objectives - to keep wetlands in good surface water and groundwater status (determined by good ecological, chemical and quantitative status) it is necessary to specify most favourable conditions for them. In that case monitoring of factors responsible for wetlands status in natural areas is a key issue. Further, achieved knowledge of existing relations in ecosystems can be implemented in protection and restoration projects. There are a number of factors influencing diversity of habitats responsible for developing different wetland ecosystems and their sustaining in good ecological status. It's believed that among significant factors such as hydrological conditions, water quality, nutrient availability in the soil, pH value and management (e.g. grazing, mowing) the hydrological conditions are the most important. In presented work authors concentrated on hydrological conditions and water quality and theirs influence on wetland vegetation of Biebrza National Park (BNP). BNP located north-east part of Poland is recognized by many scientist as a unique undisturbed wetland reference area. Five transects located in different basins of BNP were chosen. Transects consist of piezometers in which the water table levels and water quality were measured. Analysis of electroconductivity (EC), alkalinity (HCO3-) and pH were done directly in the field. In the laboratory anions (NO3-, PO43-, Cl-, SO42-) and cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Br+, Li+, Na+, K+) concentration was determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). D-divers, electronic devices to permanent measurement of groundwater level changes were located in some of the piezometers. Piezometers were located in the sites characterized by different hydrological conditions, from groundwater fed to river fed areas

  9. Active evaporite tectonics and collapse in the Eagle River valley and the southwestern flank of the White River uplift, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, R.B.; Lidke, D.J.; Hudson, M.R.; Perry, W.J.; Bryant, Bruce; Kunk, M.J.; Budahn, J.R.; Byers, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    This field trip presents field evidence for Neogene evaporite tectonism, dissolution of evaporates, and related collapse in Eagle River valley and along the southwestern flank of the White River uplift. In the Eagle collapse center, Pennsylvanian evaporite flowed to form anticlinal diapirs, dissolved, and disrupted a lower Miocene basaltic plateau originally at elevations as high as 3.35 km by tilting, faulting, and sagging to elevations as low as about 2.1 km. Also in the Eagle collapse center, the 30 x 10-km, homoclinal Hardscrabble Mountain sank into evaporite during Triassic and Permian collapse followed by Neogene(?) tilting and collapse, based on seismic reflection data. Along the southwestern flank of the White River uplift in the northwestern part of the Carbondale collapse center, parts of the Grand Hogback monocline have collapsed northeastward toward a series of strike-elongate extrusive diapirs. The volume of evaporite removed from the Eagle and Carbondale collapse centers during the Neogene (about 2,250 km3 from an area of roughly 4,500 km2) was calculated by measuring the departure of collapsed basalts from an assumed original basalt plateau. Regional Neogene uplift and incision of the Rocky Mountains, which locally began about 8-10 Ma, probably triggered dissolution and collapse. Presently the Colorado River removes a dissolved-solids load of about 1.4 x 109 kg per year from the two collapse centers.

  10. Spawning ecology of finespotted Snake River cutthroat trout in spring streams of the Salt River valley, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyce, M.P.; Hubert, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    We studied spawning ecology of cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki) in streams that originate as springs along the Salt River, a Snake River tributary in western Wyoming. We assessed (1) relative numbers of upstream-migrant and resident adults present during the spawning period in spring streams, (2) influence of habitat modification on use of spring streams for spawning, and (3) habitat features used for spawning in spring streams. Four spring streams were studied, 2 with substantial modification to enhance trout habitat and 2 with little or no modification. Modifications consisted primarily of constructing alternating pools and gravel-cobble riffles. Only a small portion of adult fish in spring streams during the spawning period had migrated upstream from the Salt River between March and the middle of June. Larger numbers of adult fish and more redds were observed in the 2 modified streams compared with the 2 streams with little or no modification. Most spawning occurred on constructed riffles with small gravel and over a narrow range of depths and velocities. Cutthroat trout, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and their hybrids were observed in 1 stream with habitat modifications, indicating that measures to halt invasion by rainbow trout, as well as habitat improvement, are needed to preserve this native trout within the Salt River valley.

  11. Characterization of geomorphic units in the alluvial valleys and channels of Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in Texas, with examples from the Brazos, Sabine, and Trinity Rivers, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coffman, David K.; Malstaff, Greg; Heitmuller, Franklin T.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, described and characterized examples of geomorphic units within the channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers using a geomorphic unit classification scale that differentiates geomorphic units on the basis of their location either outside or inside the river channel. The geomorphic properties of a river system determine the distribution and type of potential habitat both within and adjacent to the channel. This report characterizes the geomorphic units contained in the river channels and alluvial valleys of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers in the context of the River Styles framework. This report is intended to help Texas Instream Flow Program practitioners, river managers, ecologists and biologists, and others interested in the geomorphology and the physical processes of the rivers of the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain (1) gain insights into how geomorphic units develop and adjust spatially and temporally, and (2) be able to recognize common geomorphic units from the examples cataloged in this report. Recent aerial imagery (high-resolution digital orthoimagery) collected in 2008 and 2009 were inspected by using geographic information system software to identify representative examples of the types of geomorphic units that occurred in the study area. Geomorphic units outside the channels of Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers are called \\"valley geomorphic units\\" in this report. Valley geomorphic units for the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain rivers described in this report are terraces, flood plains, crevasses and crevasse splays, flood-plain depressions, tie channels, tributaries, paleochannels, anabranches, distributaries, natural levees, neck cutoffs, oxbow lakes, and constructed channels. Channel geomorphic units occur in the river channel and are subject to frequent stresses associated with flowing water and sediment transport; they adjust (change) relatively quickly in

  12. Timing and origin for sand dunes in the Green River Lowland of Illinois, upper Mississippi River Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miao, X.; Hanson, P.R.; Wang, Hongfang; Young, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    The recent increase in dune studies in North America has been heavily focused in the Great Plains, while less attention has historically been given to the dune fields east of the Mississippi River. Here we report ages and suggest a potential sediment source for sand dunes in the Green River Lowland, Illinois, which may provide a better understanding of the dynamic interactions between eolian, glacial, lacustrine and fluvial processes that shaped the landscapes of the upper Midwest. Seven coherent optically stimulated luminescence ages (OSL, or optical ages) obtained from four sites suggest that major dune construction in the Green River Lowland occurred within a narrow time window around 17,500 ago. This implies either an enhanced aridity or an episodic increase of sediment supply at 17,500 years ago, or combination of the both. Contrary to previous assertions that dune sand was sourced from the deflation of the underlying outwash sand deposited when the Lake Michigan Lobe retreated from the area, we propose that Green River Lowland dunes sand originated from the Green Bay Lobe through the Rock River. Specifically, sediment supply increased in the Rock River valley during drainage of Glacial Lake Scuppernong, which formed between ???18,000 and 17,000 years ago, when the Green Bay Lobe retreated from its terminal moraine. The lake drained catastrophically through the Rock River valley, providing glacial sediment and water to erode the preexisting sandy sediments. Throughout the remainder of the late Pleistocene, the Laurentide Ice Sheet drained into larger more northerly glacial lakes that in turn drained through other river valleys. Therefore, the dunes in the Green River Lowland formed only during the catastrophic drainage of Glacial Lake Scuppernong, but were stabilized through the remainder of the Pleistocene. This scenario explains the abrupt dune construction around 17,500 years ago, and explains the lack of later dune activity up to the Pleistocene

  13. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Paula, and Santa Clara River Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Rectangular fields of the agriculturally rich Santa Clara River Valley are visible in this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image. The Santa Clara River, which lends its name to this valley, flows from headwaters near Acton, California, 160 km (100 miles) to the Pacific Ocean, and is one of only two natural river systems remaining in southern California. In the foreground of this image, the largely dry riverbed can be seen as a bright feature as it winds its way along the base of South Mountain. The bright region at the right end of this portion of the valley is the city of Santa Paula, California. Founded in 1902, this small, picturesque town at the geographic center of Ventura County is referred to as the 'Citrus Capital of the World.' The city is surrounded by orange, lemon, and avocado groves and is a major distribution point for citrus fruits in the United States. The bright, linear feature in the center of the valley is State Highway 126, the valley's 'main drag.' For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  14. SRTM Perspective View with Landsat Overlay: Santa Paula, and Santa Clara River Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Rectangular fields of the agriculturally rich Santa Clara River Valley are visible in this perspective view generated using data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and an enhanced Landsat image. The Santa Clara River, which lends its name to this valley, flows from headwaters near Acton, California, 160 km (100 miles) to the Pacific Ocean, and is one of only two natural river systems remaining in southern California. In the foreground of this image, the largely dry riverbed can be seen as a bright feature as it winds its way along the base of South Mountain. The bright region at the right end of this portion of the valley is the city of Santa Paula, California. Founded in 1902, this small, picturesque town at the geographic center of Ventura County is referred to as the 'Citrus Capital of the World.' The city is surrounded by orange, lemon, and avocado groves and is a major distribution point for citrus fruits in the United States. The bright, linear feature in the center of the valley is State Highway 126, the valley's 'main drag.' For visualization purposes, topographic heights displayed in this image are exaggerated two times. Colors, from Landsat data, approximate natural color.

    The elevation data used in this image was acquired by SRTM aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's land surface. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a mast 60 meters (about 200 feet)long, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  15. View of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-15

    SL3-88-004 (July-September 1973) --- A vertical view of the Salinas River Valley area south of Monterey Bay, California area is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch Earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The valley is an irrigated agricultural area, and is indicated by the dark-green and light-gray rectangular patterns in the centre of the picture. The city of Salinas is barely visible under the cloud cover at the top (north) end of the valley. The dark mass on the left (west) side of the valley is the Santa Lucia mountain range. The Big Sur area is on the left and partly covered by clouds. The Diablo Range forms the dark mass in the lower right (southeast) corner of the photograph. The town of Hollister is the gray area in the dark-green rectangular farm tracts which occupy the floor of the San Benito Valley in the upper right (northeast) corner of the photograph. The Salinas River flows northwestward toward Monterey Bay. The towns of Soledad, Greenfield and King City appear as gray areas along U.S. 101 in the Salinas Valley. The geology of the area is complex, and has been racked by several earthquakes resulting from movement along the San Andreas and subsidiary faults. Here, the surface expression of the San Andreas Fault can be traced from a point just west of Hollister at the contrast of dark brown and tan to a point about one inch left of the lower right (southeast) corner of the picture. Subsidiary faults are indicated by the curving trend of the rocks along the right side. The photograph will provide detailed information on land use patterns (Dr. R. Colwell, University of California, Berkeley) and fault tectonics (Dr. P. Merifield, Earth Science Res., Inc. and Dr. M. Abdel-Gawad, Rockwell International). Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP project are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of

  16. Statistical analysis of nitrate in ground water, West Salt River Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Andy E.; Brown, James G.; Gellenbeck, Dorinda J.

    1997-01-01

    Accurate estimates of the nitrate concentrations in ground water in west Salt River Valley are needed to better manage ground water affected by nitrate. Statistical analyses were done to establish the best statistical method to produce these estimates. Three sets of ground-water data for different time periods --1975-77, 1980-85, and 1986-90--were used to analyze spatial and temporal variations in concentrations of nitrate in ground water. The use of inverse-distance squared weighting, radial-basis function, kriging, and cokriging were evaluated for estimating nitrate concentrations in ground water. From an analysis of the cross-validation results, cokriging maps resulted in the best estimates, and they were accepted as being the most reliable. Cross-validation results also indicated that nitrate cokriged best with magnesium for 1975-77 and 1986-90 and with calcium for 1980-85. Kriging results consistently were almost as reliable as any of the cokriging results. Because of the difficulties inherent in the cokriging process, kriging, although not optimal, was the fastest way to obtain reasonably good results. In 1980-85, cokriged nitrate concentrations exceeded 20 milligrams per liter in a 12-square-kilometer area in Phoenix and Glendale and exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in a 280-square-kilometer area that extended to the Salt River. In 1986-90, nitrate concentrations along the entire reach of the Salt River in west Salt River Valley were less than 10 milligrams per liter and were smaller probably as a result of recharge from the Salt and Gila Rivers in 1982. Farther north in Phoenix and Glendale, the area in which nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter expanded to 490 square kilometers for 1986-90. In Buckeye Valley, nitrate concentrations exceeded 10 milligrams per liter in an area of 300 square milometers for 1980-85 from the Gila River in the early 1980's but possibly could be an artifact of the different data distributions associated with

  17. [Distribution of heavy metals in Xiangsi River Valley of Tongling, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Chun; Wang, Jun; Chen, Fang

    2014-08-01

    The Xiangsi River valley was selected to study the distribution of heavy metals in mining area. Waste rocks, soils, sediments and waters of Xiangsi River valley were sampled. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, As and Hg were analyzed. The possibility of generating acid drainage of the waste rocks was studied. Meanwhile, the speciation of Pb and Cr in waste rocks was analyzed by the five-step sequential chemical extract method developed by Fŏrtsner. And then the distribution of heavy metals in various samples was summarized, and the ecological risk of heavy metals in mining area was discussed. The results indicated that the waste rocks of Fenghuangshan copper mine upriver barely generated acid mine drainage (AMD). But the waste rocks of Xinqiao pyrite mine in the middle area generated AMD. The content of sulfide mineral rich of heavy metals was lower and the content of CaO was higher in the waste rocks of Fenghuangshan copper mine, resulting in the different AMD generation ability. The contents of heavy metals in waste rocks were higher, and the deoxidization of Pb and Cr was positively correlated with their concentrations in waste rocks. The results indicated that heavy metals in waste rocks would be most likely dissolved in AMD and then contaminate the environment. There was obvious regularity in the distributions of heavy metals in soils, sediments and waters of Xiangsi river valley. The concentrations of heavy metals upriver were lower than those of corresponding national standards and elements background values. But there was obvious heavy metal contamination in the middle area. It was shown that the mining activities of Xinqiao pyrite mine in the middle area had ecological harm to the surrounding environment. And mining enterprises should pay attention to the emissions of mining wastes and the treatment of AMD.

  18. Long term effects of climate on human adaptation in the middle Gila River Valley, Arizona, America.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tianduowa; Ertsen, M W; van der Giesen, N C

    The Hohokam, an irrigation-based society in the American South West, used the river valleys of the Salt and Gila Rivers between 500 and 1500 AD to grow their crops. Such irrigated crops are linking human agency, water sources and the general natural environment. In order to grow crops, water available through rain and river flows needs to be diverted to land where the plants are grown. With a focus on the Gila River, this paper uses the potential harvest of maize (a main Hohokam crop) as a proxy for evaluating the influence of natural water availability and climatic changes on irrigation options for maize. Available climate variables derived from tree-ring proxies are downscaled. These downscaled data are used as input for a crop growth model for the entire sequence of Hohokam occupation along the Gila River. The results of the crop model are used to discuss the potential influence of climatic variability on Hohokam irrigation and society. The results will show that climatic change alone cannot be used as an explanation for developments in Hohokam irrigation. Societal development resulting in growing population and extensive irrigation systems increasing pressure on water sources over time would have been a key factor to include to understand Hohokam society between 500 and 1500 AD.

  19. Numerical simulations of inherited sinuosity and valley entrenchment in mixed alluvial- and bedrock-banked meandering rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limaye, A.; Lamb, M. P.

    2013-12-01

    Highly sinuous rivers inset in bedrock canyons have long piqued the interest of geomorphologists because this sinuous morphology evokes comparisons to more actively migrating rivers with relatively weak sediment banks. An extensive literature debates the degree to which meandering rivers in bedrock valleys have inherited their sinuosity from previous alluvial states, or instead actively maintain sinuosity through bank migration at a rate sensitive to environmental characteristics (e.g., climate and lithology). This distinction is essential to evaluating whether bedrock channel sinuosity and valley morphology can be used to infer regional base-level and climate history, or instead reflect initial conditions. Previous work has considered sinuosity inheritance to occur by river vertical incision directly translating the form of a meandering channel from its alluvial state to a bedrock-bound state, yet the rate of vertical incision required to cause this state transition is uncertain. Here we explore the hypothesis that feedbacks between channel lateral migration and vertical incision, communicated through the composition of the channel banks, may influence channel planform geometry during an alluvial-to-bedrock transition. We use a numerical model to evaluate the transient morphologic and kinematic response of an alluvial river to different vertical incision histories and initial valley configurations. The model uses a vector-based framework for bank-material tracking to precisely model feedbacks between channel lateral migration and bank strength. Model results suggest that the tendency for a channel to remain highly laterally mobile depends on the vertical incision rate, but also on the width of the valley formed by lateral channel migration: bedrock valley floors are more easily bevelled by channel sweeping within narrow valleys than for wide valleys. For cases in which the channel cannot bevel across the initial valley width, lateral variations in bank strength

  20. Knickpoint retreat and landscape disequilibrium on the James River from the Piedmont through the Valley and Ridge, central Virginia, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, G.; Harbor, D.; Felis, J.

    2003-12-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate landscape disequilibrium in the James River basin in central Virginia. The river longitudinal profile possesses pronounced convexities and apparently migratory knickzones. Along much of its length, it flows in a narrow inner valley incised into a discontinuous, low-relief upland. In the inner Piedmont, the 150 m wide river channel occupies an incised valley that can be as little as 600 m wide and 75 m deep. Broad fluvial terraces are often found capping the high topography directly adjacent to the valleys, and we use these disconnected terraces to reconstruct paleo-river profiles spanning ~200 km in the Piedmont. These high, extensive terraces disappear in the James River Gap through the Blue Ridge, but reappear with less distinction in the carbonate rocks of the Great Valley. The river remains incised within the Great Valley, with prominent knickzones ~60-100 km above the Blue Ridge gap found on both the mainstem and tributaries. We dated terraces in the Piedmont with in-situ 10Be profiles and a depth integration technique. Dates from the highest terrace level at three locations along ~100 km of the river are ~1 m.yr., suggesting rapid river incision rates of ~55 m/m.yr. We also have documented exceptionally high incision rates along a tributary in the Great Valley. This dating suggests disequilibrium erosion was initiated and has persisted here during the late Quaternary. Assuming the incision is accomplished largely by knickpoint retreat, the dates suggest past retreat rates of up to one m/yr in the Piedmont and 250 m/m.yr. between the outer Piedmont and the Great Valley. We have two hypotheses for how this recent incision was triggered: 1) response to flexural-isostatic uplift generated by drainage basin capture and associated denudation and/or 2) the shift to more rapid climate fluctuations in the early Pleistocene. Additionally, we suggest two interpretations for the generation of the extensive high terrace surfaces. They

  1. The Ohio River Valley CO2 Storage Project AEP Mountaineer Plan, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2009-01-07

    This report includes an evaluation of deep rock formations with the objective of providing practical maps, data, and some of the issues considered for carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage projects in the Ohio River Valley. Injection and storage of CO{sub 2} into deep rock formations represents a feasible option for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from coal-burning power plants concentrated along the Ohio River Valley area. This study is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), American Electric Power (AEP), BP, Ohio Coal Development Office, Schlumberger, and Battelle along with its Pacific Northwest Division. An extensive program of drilling, sampling, and testing of a deep well combined with a seismic survey was used to characterize the local and regional geologic features at AEP's 1300-megawatt (MW) Mountaineer Power Plant. Site characterization information has been used as part of a systematic design feasibility assessment for a first-of-a-kind integrated capture and storage facility at an existing coal-fired power plant in the Ohio River Valley region--an area with a large concentration of power plants and other emission sources. Subsurface characterization data have been used for reservoir simulations and to support the review of the issues relating to injection, monitoring, strategy, risk assessment, and regulatory permitting. The high-sulfur coal samples from the region have been tested in a capture test facility to evaluate and optimize basic design for a small-scale capture system and eventually to prepare a detailed design for a capture, local transport, and injection facility. The Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project was conducted in phases with the ultimate objectives of demonstrating both the technical aspects of CO{sub 2} storage and the testing, logistical, regulatory, and outreach issues related to conducting such a project at a large point source under realistic constraints. The site

  2. Paper birch decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, microclimate, and birch stand conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980’s. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have

  3. Archaeological and Historical Reconnaissance Survey of the Ugum River Valley, Guam, Mariana Islands,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-08-01

    characterized by a low, uneven canopy of Hibiscus tiliaceous, Pandanus sp., Araca catechu, Cocos nucifera , ’i sp. , ,I vkIiJ!,:’,,t in Iioa, and Ar’ Lcm;nlm.n...Oceania; Federico palm (C’ycas circinalis), which has seeds that can be processed into an edible flour; coconut palm ( Cocos nucifera ), the most... Cocos nucij’ea on ranches along the N banks of the Bubulao River. This zone is limited to the inter-valley ridges and the gently rolling land along the N

  4. Paper Birch Decline in the Niobrara River Valley, Nebraska: Weather, Microclimate, and Birch Stand Conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stroh, Esther D.; Miller, Joel P.

    2009-01-01

    The Niobrara River Valley in north-central Nebraska supports scattered stands of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh), a species more typical of boreal forests. These birch stands are considered to be relictual populations that have persisted since the end of the Wisconsin glaciation, when regional flora was more boreal in nature (Wright 1970, Kaul and others, 1988). Dieback of canopy-sized birch has been observed throughout the Niobrara Valley in recent years, although no onset dates are documented. The current dieback event probably started around or after the early 1980's. The study objectives were to understand microclimatic conditions in birch stands relative to nearby weather stations and historic weather conditions, and to assess current health conditions of individual birch trees. Temperature was measured every half-hour from June 2005 through October 2007 in 12 birch stands and individual birch tree health was measured as expressed by percent living canopy in these and 13 additional stands in spring 2006 and 2007. Birch site microclimate was compared to data from a National Weather Service station in Valentine, Nebraska, and to an automated weather station at The Nature Conservancy Niobrara Valley Preserve 24 kilometers north of Johnstown, Nebraska. Historic weather data from the Valentine station and another National Weather Service Station at Ainsworth, Nebraska, were used to reconstruct minimum and maximum temperature at The Nature Conservancy and one microclimate monitoring station using Kalman filtering and smoothing algorithms. Birch stand microclimate differed from local weather stations as well as among stands. Birch health was associated with annual minimum temperature regimes; those stands whose annual daily minimum temperature regimes were most like The Nature Conservancy station contained smaller proportions of living trees. Frequency of freeze/thaw conditions capable of inducing rootlet injury and subsequent crown dieback significantly have

  5. The resilience of river valleys to deformation in experiments: competition between tectonic advection and channel dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerit, Laure; Dominguez, Stéphane; Castelltort, Sébastien; Malavielle, Jacques

    2015-04-01

    In oblique collision settings, parallel and perpendicular components of the relative plate motion can be partitioned into different structures of deformation and may be localized close to the plate boundary, or distributed on a wider region. In the Southern Alps of New Zealand, it has been proposed that two-third of the regional convergence was accommodated by the Alpine Fault, while the remaining motion was distributed in a broad area along the Southern Alps orogenic wedge. To better document and understand the regional dynamics of such systems, reliable markers of the horizontal tectonic motion over geological time scales are needed. In numerical models, it has been shown that river networks are able to record a large amount of distributed strain, and that they can thus be used to reconstruct the mode and rate of distribution away from major active structures (Castelltort et al, NGeo, 2012). In order to explore the controls on river resilience to deformation in a less constrained system, we developed an experimental model to investigate river pattern evolution over a doubly-vergent orogenic wedge growing in a context of oblique convergence. We use a rain-fall system to activate erosion, sediment transport and river development on the model surface. The evolution of the wedge is fully recorded through space and time so we are able to follow the drainage geometry deformation. These experiments confirm that rivers record the distribution of motion along the wedge. Image analysis of channel time-space evolution shows how the fault-parallel and fault-perpendicular components of motion decrease toward the fault and impose rotation to the main trunk valleys. However, the capacity of rivers to act as passive markers of deformation competes with the natural lateral channel dynamics and hillslope-channel couplings which both modify the valleys boundaries. In this sense rivers are dynamic markers, which write both a story of passive rotation imposed by the tectonic velocity

  6. Reconstructing late Pliocene to middle Pleistocene Death Valley lakes and river systems as a test of pupfish (Cyprinodontidae) dispersal hypotheses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knott, J.R.; Machette, M.N.; Klinger, R.E.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Liddicoat, J.C.; Tinsley, J. C.; David, B.T.; Ebbs, V.M.

    2008-01-01

    During glacial (pluvial) climatic periods, Death Valley is hypothesized to have episodically been the terminus for the Amargosa, Owens, and Mojave Rivers. Geological and biological studies have tended to support this hypothesis and a hydrological link that included the Colorado River, allowing dispersal of pupfish throughout southeastern California and western Nevada. Recent mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) studies show a common pupfish (Cyprinodontidae) ancestry in this region with divergence beginning 3-2 Ma. We present tephrochronologic and paleomagnetic data in the context of testing the paleohydrologic connections with respect to the common collection point of the Amargosa, Owens, and Mojave Rivers in Death during successive time periods: (1) the late Pliocene to early Pleistocene (3-2 Ma), (2) early to middle Pleistocene (1.2-0.5 Ma), and (3) middle to late Pleistocene (<0.70.03 Ma; paleolakes Manly and Mojave). Using the 3.35 Ma Zabriskie Wash tuff and 3.28 Ma Nomlaki Tuff Member of the Tuscan and Tehama Formations, which are prominent marker beds in the region, we conclude that at 3-2 Ma, a narrow lake occupied the ancient Furnace Creek Basin and that Death Valley was not hydrologically connected with the Amargosa or Mojave Rivers. A paucity of data for Panamint Valley does not allow us to evaluate an Owens River connection to Death Valley ca. 3-2 Ma. Studies by others have shown that Death Valley was not hydrologically linked to the Amargosa, Owens, or Mojave Rivers from 1.2 to 0.5 Ma. We found no evidence that Lake Manly flooded back up the Mojave River to pluvial Lake Mojave between 0.18 and 0.12 Ma, although surface water flowed from the Amargosa and Owens Rivers to Death Valley at this time. There is also no evidence for a connection of the Owens, Amargosa, or Mojave Rivers to the Colorado River in the last 3-2 m.y. Therefore, the hypothesis that pupfish dispersed or were isolated in basins throughout southeastern California and western

  7. Stream seepage and groundwater levels, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, 2012-13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Stream discharge and water levels in wells were measured at multiple sites in the Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, in August 2012, October 2012, and March 2013, as a component of data collection for a groundwater-flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system. This model is a cooperative and collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Idaho Department of Water Resources. Stream-discharge measurements for determination of seepage were made during several days on three occasions: August 27–28, 2012, October 22–24, 2012, and March 27–28, 2013. Discharge measurements were made at 49 sites in August and October, and 51 sites in March, on the Big Wood River, Silver Creek, their tributaries, and nearby canals. The Big Wood River generally gains flow between the Big Wood River near Ketchum streamgage (13135500) and the Big Wood River at Hailey streamgage (13139510), and loses flow between the Hailey streamgage and the Big Wood River at Stanton Crossing near Bellevue streamgage (13140800). Shorter reaches within these segments may differ in the direction or magnitude of seepage or may be indeterminate because of measurement uncertainty. Additional reaches were measured on Silver Creek, the North Fork Big Wood River, Warm Springs Creek, Trail Creek, and the East Fork Big Wood River. Discharge measurements also were made on the Hiawatha, Cove, District 45, Glendale, and Bypass Canals, and smaller tributaries to the Big Wood River and Silver Creek. Water levels in 93 wells completed in the Wood River Valley aquifer system were measured during October 22–24, 2012; these wells are part of a network established by the U.S. Geological Survey in 2006. Maps of the October 2012 water-table altitude in the unconfined aquifer and the potentiometric-surface altitude of the confined aquifer have similar topology to those on maps of October 2006 conditions. Between October 2006 and October 2012, water-table altitude in the unconfined aquifer rose by

  8. Late Quaternary valley infill and dissection in the Indus River, western Tibetan Plateau margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöthe, Jan H.; Munack, Henry; Korup, Oliver; Fülling, Alexander; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Kubik, Peter W.

    2014-06-01

    The Indus, one of Earth's major rivers, drains large parts of the NW Himalaya and the Transhimalayan ranges that form part of the western Tibetan Plateau margin. In the western Himalayan syntaxis, where local topographic relief exceeds 7 km, the Indus has incised a steep bedrock gorge at rates of several mm yr-1. Upstream, however, the upper Indus and its tributaries alternate between bedrock gorges and broad alluvial flats flanked by the Ladakh and Zanskar ranges. We review the late Quaternary valley history in this region with a focus on the confluence of the Indus and Zanskar Rivers, where vast alluvial terrace staircases and lake sediments record major episodes of aggradation and incision. New absolute dating of high-level fluvial terrace remnants using cosmogenic 10Be, optically and infrared stimulated luminescence (OSL, IRSL) indicates at least two phases of late Quaternary valley infilling. These phases commenced before ˜200 ka and ˜50-20 ka, judging from terrace treads stranded >150 m and ˜30-40 m above modern river levels, respectively. Numerous stacks of lacustrine sediments that straddle the Indus River >200 km between the city of Leh and the confluence with the Shyok River share a distinct horizontal alignment. Constraints from IRSL samples of lacustrine sequences from the Leh-Spituk area reveal a protracted lake phase from >177 ka to 72 ka, locally accumulating >50-m thick deposits. In the absence of tectonic faulting, major lithological differences, and stream capture, we attribute the formation of this and other large lakes in the region to natural damming by large landslides, glaciers, and alluvial fans. The overall patchy landform age constraints from earlier studies can be reconciled by postulating a major deglacial control on sediment flux, valley infilling, and subsequent incision that has been modulated locally by backwater effects of natural damming. While comparison with Pleistocene monsoon proxies reveals no obvious correlation, a late

  9. Water quality in the lower Puyallup River valley and adjacent uplands, Pierce County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ebbert, J.C.; Bortleson, Gilbert C.; Fuste, L.A.; Prych, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of most ground and surface water within and adjacent to the lower Puyallup River valley is suitable for most typical uses; however, some degradation of shallow groundwater quality has occurred. High concentrations of iron and manganese were found in groundwater, sampled at depths of < 40 ft, from wells tapping alluvial aquifers and in a few wells tapping deeper aquifers. Volatile and acid- and base/neutral-extractable organic compounds were not detected in either shallow or deep groundwater samples. The quality of shallow groundwater was generally poorer than that of deep water. Deep ground water (wells set below 100 ft) appears suitable as a supplementary water supply for fish-hatchery needs. Some degradation of water quality, was observed downstream from river mile 1.7 where a municipal wastewater-treatment plant discharges into the river. In the Puyallup River, the highest concentrations of most trace elements were found in bed sediments collected downstream from river mile 1.7. Median concentrations of arsenic, lead, and zinc were higher in bed sediments from small streams compared with those from the Puyallup River, possibly because the small stream drainages, which are almost entirely within developed areas, receive more urban runoff as a percentage of total flow. Total-recoverable trace-element concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria for acute toxicity in the Puyallup River and in some of the small streams. In most cases, high concentrations of total-recoverable trace elements occurred when suspended-sediment concentrations were high. Temperatures in all streams except Wapato Creek and Fife Dutch were within limits (18 C) for Washington State class A water. Minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations were relatively low at 5.6 and 2.0 mg/L, respectively, for Wapato Creek and Fife Dutch. The poorest surface-water quality, which can be characterized as generally unsuitable for fish, was in Fife Dutch, a manmade channel and therefore

  10. The Owens River as a tiltmeter for Long Valley caldera, California

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.B. Jr )

    1992-05-01

    In the lower 11 km of its course around the resurgent dome of Long Valley caldera, the Owens River displays two parallel meander belts, comparable in meander wavelength and amplitude but unequal in age, elevation, and discharge. It appears the two belts take turns carrying the river's flow depending on whether the dome is inflating or subsiding. The inboard belt, some 200-300 m closer to the dome and now 30-60 cm higher in elevation, contains an underfit stream and is now being abandoned. The outboard channel formed in a series of avulsions apparently induced by recent uplift of the dome. In the upper 4 km of the two-channel reach, avulsion occurred between 1856 and 1878 as inferred from the original US Coast and Geodetic Survey mapping the caldera. Avulsion had already occurred by 1856 in the lower 4 km of the river, suggesting a possible migration of the center of uplift through time. More ancient meander scars at the inboard and outboard limits of the floodplain imply additional earlier episodes of inflation and subsidence. Projection of surveyed topographic profiles across the river's floodplain to the center of the dome suggests that cumulative recent uplift is on the order of 15-35 m, or about 30-70 times greater than that measured for the caldera since 1979 (Castle et al. 1984). The duration of the era of subsidence can be estimated by comparing oxbow densities in the old and new meander belts in the upper two-channel reach; the data suggest that the dome may have been in subsidence for a period of at least 500 to 1,000 yr ending about 150 yr ago. No eruptions of the Long Valley volcanic system have accompanied these inflations and subsidings.

  11. Water quality and processes affecting dissolved oxygen concentrations in the Blackwater River, Canaan Valley, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waldron, M.C.; Wiley, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The water quality and environmental processes affecting dissolved oxygen were determined for the Blackwater River in Canaan Valley, West Virginia. Canaan Valley is oval-shaped (14 miles by 5 miles) and is located in the Allegheny Mountains at an average elevation of 3,200 feet above sea level. Tourism, population, and real estate development have increased in the past two decades. Most streams in Canaan Valley are a dilute calcium magnesium bicarbonate-type water. Streamwater typicaly was soft and low in alkalinity and dissolved solids. Maximum values for specific conductance, hardness, alkalinity, and dissolved solids occurred during low-flow periods when streamflow was at or near baseflow. Dissolved oxygen concentrations are most sensitive to processes affecting the rate of reaeration. The reaeration is affected by solubility (atmospheric pressure, water temperature, humidity, and cloud cover) and processes that determine stream turbulence (stream depth, width, velocity, and roughness). In the headwaters, photosynthetic dissolved oxygen production by benthic algae can result in supersaturated dissolved oxygen concentrations. In beaver pools, dissolved oxygen consumption from sediment oxygen demand and carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand can result in dissolved oxygen deficits.

  12. Preliminary appraisal of ground water in and near the ancestral Missouri River Valley, northeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levings, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary appraisal was conducted in and near the ancestral Missouri River valley in northeastern Montana to describe the groundwater resources and to establish a data base for the area. The data base then could be used for future evaluation of possible changes in water levels or water quality. In this area, consolidated aquifers are the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer and the overlying Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Unconsolidated aquifers are Pleistocene terrace gravel and glacial deposits and Holocene alluvial deposits. Aquifers are recharged by precipitation, infiltration of streamflow, and possibly leakage from lakes and potholes. Groundwater moves from topographically higher areas to the ancestral valley, then along the ancestral valley to the southwest. Water is discharged from aquifers by evapotranspiration, springs and seeps, movement directly into streams and lakes, and from pumping wells. Average well yields are greatest for irrigation wells completed in outwash gravel (886 gallons/min). Eighteen wells were completed in various aquifers to monitor potential long-term changes in water levels and water quality. Measured water levels declined about 2 ft. or less during the study (1982-85). Chemical analysis of groundwater samples indicated that concentrations of some dissolved constituents exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water. (USGS)

  13. Late Quaternary tectonic landforms and fluvial aggradation in the Saryu River valley: Central Kumaun Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Luirei, Khayingshing

    2016-09-01

    The present study has been carried out with special emphasis on the aggradational landforms to explain the spatial and temporal variability in phases of aggradation/incision in response to tectonic activity during the late Quaternary in the Saryu River valley in central Kumaun Himalaya. The valley has preserved cut-and-fill terraces with thick alluvial cover, debris flow terraces, and bedrock strath terraces that provide signatures of tectonic activity and climate. Morphostratigraphy of the terraces reveals that the oldest landforms preserved south of the Main Central Thrust, the fluvial modified debris flow terraces, were developed between 30 and 45 ka. The major phase of valley fill is dated between 14 and 22 ka. The youngest phase of aggradation is dated at early and mid-Holocene (9-3 ka). Following this, several phases of accelerated incision/erosion owing to an increase in uplift rate occurred, as evident from the strath terraces. Seven major phases of bedrock incision/uplift have been estimated during 44 ka (3.34 mm/year), 35 ka (1.84 mm/year), 15 ka (0.91 mm/year), 14 ka (0.83 mm/year), 9 ka (1.75 mm/year), 7 ka (5.38 mm/year), and around 3 ka (4.4 mm/year) from the strath terraces near major thrusts. We postulate that between 9 and 3 ka the terrain witnessed relatively enhanced surface uplift (2-5 mm/year).

  14. Fuel regulation in inland navigation: Reduced soil black carbon deposition in river valleys in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bläsing, M.; Shao, Y.; Lehndorff, E.

    2015-11-01

    Inland navigation is of increasing economic and ecological interest, however its contribution to environmental quality is hardly known. We hypothesized that i) inland navigation emits considerable amounts of soot-Black Carbon (BC) as a product of incomplete combustion of diesel fuel, which is then deposited on soils along river valleys, that ii) improvement of fuel quality by sulfur reduction in 2011 decreased BC inputs to soil, and that iii) this provides a tracer for the spatial impact of inland navigation emissions. The spatial and temporal patterns of soil BC deposits from inland navigation were investigated yearly (2010-2013) working within transects perpendicular to the rivers Rhine, Moselle and Ahr, Germany (the Ahr Valley is free of shipping and served as a reference). In rural areas at inland waterways navigation likely represented the dominant BC emitter. Topsoils (0-10 cm depth) were sampled in vineyards. Their BC content and composition was determined via oxidation of bulk soil organic matter to benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs). The highly trafficked Rhine Valley yielded only little more BC (64.7 ± 12 g BC kg-1 soil organic carbon (SOC) compared to 51.7 ± 9 at the Moselle, and 53.6 ± 6 at the reference Ahr Valley). At both inland waterways soil BC increased towards the river, following the simulated dispersal of ship-derived BC using a Lagrangian model. In the course of ship fuel regulation, soil BC deposits at the Rhine and Moselle waterways decreased significantly from 70.2 ± 3.2 to 47.9 ± 1.1 and 57.6 ± 1.3 to 41.7 ± 0.9 g BC kg-1 SOC within 3 years. Even more pronounced was the change in BC composition, i.e., the ratio of pentacarboxylated to mellitic acid increased from 0.75 to 1.3 (Rhine) and 1 to 1.4 (Moselle) during this time span. From this we calculated that ∼30% less BC was deposited by inland navigation likely due to reduced BC emissions after sulfur regulation in ship diesel.

  15. Nitrate in ground water in the Great Valley carbonate subunit of the Potomac River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Ator, Scott W.

    1995-01-01

    Agriculture is the major land use in the carbonate part of the Great Valley of the Potomac River Basin. Applied fertilizer and manure are potential sources of nitrate that can contaminate Groundwater. Nitrate concentrations in Groundwater increased with increasing percentage of cropland but did not decrease with increasing well depth, as has been found in previous studies elsewhere. Samples from 28 wells contained nitrate concentrations ranging from 0.29 to 29 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen, with a median concentration of 4.55 mg/L, compared to a median of 1.8 mg/L for 1,056 Groundwater samples from the entire Potomac River Basin. Median nitrate concentrations in Groundwater samples were higher in the Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia part of the valley, and were lower in the Virginia part (7.45 and 2.95 mg/L, respectively), probably as a result of differences in agricultural land-use patterns; this geographical difference was also noted in surface-water samples (6.65 and 2.3 mg/L, respectively). The area of contribution to each well could not be delineated by surface topography or distance to the well, because Groundwater flow and nitrate transport can be unpredictable in the carbonate region because of fractures and solution channels present.

  16. Use Of limestone resources in flue-gas desulfurization power plants in the Ohio River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; Barsotti, A.F.

    1999-01-01

    In 1994, more than 41 of the approximately 160 coal-fired, electrical- power plants within the six-state Ohio River Valley region used flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) units to desulfurize their emissions, an approximately 100% increase over the number of plants using FGD units in 1989. This increase represents a trend that may continue with greater efforts to meet Federal Clean Air Act standards. Abundant limestone resources exist in the Ohio River Valley and are accessed by approximately 975 quarries. However, only 35 of these are believed to have supplied limestone for FGD electrical generating facilities. The locations of these limestone suppliers do not show a simple spatial correlation with FGD facilities, and the closest quarries are not being used in most cases. Thus, reduction in transportation costs may be possible in some cases. Most waste generated by FGD electrical-generating plants is not recycled. However, many FGD sites are relatively close to gypsum wallboard producers that may be able to process some of their waste.

  17. Treponemal disease in the middle Archaic to early Woodland periods of the western Tennessee River Valley.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maria Ostendorf

    2006-10-01

    The high frequency of late prehistoric New World treponemal disease is attributable to the demographic changes concomitant with the adoption of agriculture. However, these demographic changes in group mobility and site density episodically preceded intensive plant domestication, suggesting possible staggered temporal change in observed treponemal disease case frequency. Thirteen convincing and an additional two probable (N = 581) cases of treponemal disease were identified in an eight-site skeletal sample spanning the Middle (6,000-3,000 BCE) to Late (2,500-ca. 1,000 to 500 BCE) Archaic and Early Woodland (500 BCE-0 CE) periods from the western Tennessee River Valley. Treponemal disease cases are infrequent in both the Middle (3/115, 2.6%) and Late (2 to 4 cases, River Valley remained, as elsewhere, based on intensive hunting and collecting, the demographic corollaries of treponemal disease would apparently not be met. However, the traditional horizon marker of the Woodland period is the adoption of pottery, an activity associated with sedentism.

  18. Potential sources of atmospheric total gaseous mercury in the St. Lawrence River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poissant, Laurier

    The potential source contribution function (PSCF) has been used to study the source-receptor relationships for total gaseous mercury (TGM) found in air collected at two sites along the St. Lawrence River valley, namely at St. Anicet and Mingan. TGM concentrations have been measured with high time-resolution analysers (Tekran instrument). The source-receptor analyses have been applied with regards to the seasonality of TGM. Median TGM concentrations are significantly less ( χ2: α=0.01) during the summertime than other periods at both sites. A total of 12 225 trajectory end-points for St. Anicet and 4480 trajectory end points for Mingan have been used to create potential source area maps. This study identifies preferred potential sources of TGM at St. Anicet during wintertime with strongest probability stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the southern tip of Greenland. This pattern mimics, the North American anthropogenic Hg emission inventory. Furthermore, some Eurasian mercury air mass intrusions are suggested at Mingan during wintertime. The summertime period at Mingan points out some potential sources stretching from the american mid-west to the St. Lawrence River valley as well as areas around the southern tip of the Hudson Bay.

  19. Geology and geophysics of the southern Raft River Valley geothermal area, Idaho, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, Paul L.; Mabey, Don R.; Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Hans, Ackerman; Hoover, Donald B.; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Oriel, Steven S.

    1976-01-01

    The Raft River valley, near the boundary of the Snake River plain with the Basin and Range province, is a north-trending late Cenozoic downwarp bounded by faults on the west, south, and east. Pleistocene alluvium and Miocene-Pliocene tuffaceous sediments, conglomerate, and felsic volcanic rocks aggregate 2 km in thickness. Large gravity, magnetic, and total field resistivity highs probably indicate a buried igneous mass that is too old to serve as a heat source. Differing seismic velocities relate to known or inferred structures and to a suspected shallow zone of warm water. Resistivity anomalies reflect differences of both composition and degree of alteration of Cenozoic rocks. Resistivity soundings show a 2 to 5 ohm·m unit with a thickness of 1 km beneath a large part of the valley, and the unit may indicate partly hot water and partly clayey sediments. Observed self-potential anomalies are believed to indicate zones where warm water rises toward the surface. Boiling wells at Bridge, Idaho are near the intersection of north-northeast normal faults which have moved as recently as the late (?) Pleistocene, and an east-northeast structure, probably a right-lateral fault. Deep circulation of ground water in this region of relatively high heat flow and upwelling along faults is the probable cause of the thermal anomaly.

  20. Influence of hydrologic modifications on Fraxinus pennsylvanica in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    We used tree-ring analysis to examine radial growth response of a common, moderately flood-tolerant species (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) to hydrologic and climatic variability for > 40 years before and after hydrologic modifications affecting two forest stands in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (USA): a stand without levees below dams and a stand within a ring levee. At the stand without levees below dams, spring flood stages decreased and overall growth increased after dam construction, which we attribute to a reduction in flood stress. At the stand within a ring levee, growth responded to the elimination of overbank flooding by shifting from being positively correlated with river stage to not being correlated with river stage. In general, growth in swales was positively correlated with river stage and Palmer Drought Severity Index (an index of soil moisture) for longer periods than flats. Growth decreased after levee construction, but swales were less impacted than flats likely because of differences in elevation and soils provide higher soil moisture. Results of this study indicate that broad-scale hydrologic processes differ in their effects on the flood regime, and the effects on growth of moderately flood-tolerant species such as F. pennsylvanica can be mediated by local-scale factors such as topographic position, which affects soil moisture.

  1. Forced migration, natural resource use and environmental change: the case of the Senegal River Valley.

    PubMed

    Black, R; Sessay, M

    1998-03-01

    This study examined the environmental consequences of forced migration in the Matam and Podor regions of the Middle Senegal River Valley, Senegal. The analysis was based on a framework offered by Black (1994) and Leach (1992). This framework posits that: 1) refugees in a zone increase population/resource ratios and that resource accounting must consider the extent of renewable resources, the use of stocks of fixed capital, the extent to which resource use generates technological or socioeconomic changes which influence the ratios, and geographic area; 2) refugees tend to be "exceptional resource degraders"; and 3) refugees may ignore or be excluded from sustainable resource use regulations. The study area in the Senegal River Valley had Mauritanian refugees in 1989. The number of refugees was an estimated 67,800 in 1995, of which 47,000 were in the study area. The study region had experienced severe drought during the 1970s and early 1980s, had experienced acute pressure on the land and forest resources, and was experiencing conflicts between farmers and pastoralists. The Mauritanian migrants were not exceptional, but were a third wave of movements in the Middle Valley. The negative environmental impacts of forced migration were minimized by the scattered sites of settlement and the long history of contact between the two sides of the border. Refugees did not use resources in a more destructive or wasteful way than local populations and were not exceptional resource degraders. Environmental degradation is attributed to prior drought, actions by governmental and nongovernmental agencies, and actions by strangers from the south.

  2. Depth to water, 1991, in the Rathdrum Prairie, Idaho; Spokane River valley, Washington; Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area, Idaho; and selected intermontane valleys, east-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles E.; Bassick, M.D.; Rogers, T.L.; Garcia, S.P.

    1995-01-01

    This map report illustrates digitally generated depth-to-water zones for the Rathdrum Prairie in Idaho; part of the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington; and the intermontane valleys of the upper Big Wood, Big Lost, Pahsimeroi, Little Lost, and Lemhi Rivers and Birch Creek in Idaho. Depth to water is 400 to 500 feet below land surface in the northern part of Rathdrum Prairie, 100 to 200 feet below land surface at the Idaho-Washington State line, and 0 to 250 feet below land surface in the Spokane area. Depth to water in the intermontane valleys in east-central Idaho is least (usually less than 50 feet) near streams and increases toward valley margins where mountain-front alluvial fans have formed. Depths to water shown in the Moscow-Lewiston-Grangeville area in Idaho are limited to point data at individual wells because most of the water levels measured were not representative of levels in the uppermost aquifer but of levels in deeper aquifers.

  3. River Valley pluton, Ontario: A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The River Valley pluton is a ca. 100 km2 body of anorthositic and gabbroic rocks located about 50 km northeast of Sudbury, Ontario. The pluton is situated entirely within the Grenville Province, but its western margin is a series of imbricate thrust faults associated with the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. It is dominated by coarse leuconorite and leucogabbro, with lesser anorthosite, gabbro, and rare ultramafics. Igneous textured rocks are abundant and consist of plagioclase (An60-70) charged with Fe-Ti oxide inclusions, low Ca pyroxene (orthopyroxene and/or inverted pigeonite) and augite. The most unfractionated rocks are minor olivine gabbros with Fo70-80. A variety of deformed and recrystallized equivalents of the igneous-textured rocks is also present, and these are composed largely of calcic plagioclase and hornblende. Ten samples, including both igneous and deformed lithologies give a Pb-Pb whole-rock isochron of 2560??155Ma, which is our best estimate of the time of primary crystallization. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet reported from the Grenville Province, but is more calcic and augitic than typical massifs, and lacks their characteristic Fe-Ti oxide ore deposits. The River Valley body may be more akin to similar gabbro-anorthosite bodies situated at the boundary between the Archean Superior Province and Huronian supracrustal belt of the Southern Province west of the Grenville Front. An Sm-Nd isochron from 3 igneous-textured leucogabbros and an augite mineral separate gives 2377 ?? 68 Ma, implying slight disturbance of the Sm-Nd whole-rock-mineral system during later metamorphism. The Rb-Sr system has been substantially disturbed, giving an age of 2185 ?? 105 Ma, which is similar to internal Pb-Pb isochron ages of 2165 ?? 130 Ma and 2100 ?? 35 Ma for two igneous-textured rocks. It is uncertain whether these ages correspond to a discrete event at this time or represent a partial resetting of the Rb-Sr and Pb

  4. Distribution and residence times of large woody debris along South River, Shenandoah Valley, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, J.; Pizzuto, J.

    2006-12-01

    Numerous studies on large woody debris (LWD) have focused on forested mountain streams located in the Pacific Northwest. Wood in these streams typically form log jams that have a profound impact on stream morphology, promoting channel stability and forcing pools. However, studies are sparse on larger rivers where LWD occurs primarily as individual pieces. Even less is known about the residence times of LWD in these settings. This study focuses on the use of dendrochronology to determine the rates of LWD recruitment and LWD residence times. Located in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, the South River is a fourth order stream with a drainage area of over 600 km2 at its confluence with the South Fork Shenandoah River. The riparian zone is dominated by agriculture. Agricultural land use creates a distribution of LWD unlike that of forested streams, consisting primarily of isolated pieces and small jams versus larger jams. Four species of trees are dominant at South River: sycamore (Platanus occidentalis), silver maple (Acer saccharinum), boxelder (Acer negundo) and black walnut (Juglans nigra). Average diameters of LWD are 32 cm with lengths averaging 6-7 m. At the South River, LWD has no influence on channel morphology, but wood traps fine-grained sediment (storing 16% of the river's annual load) and associated contaminants making it the most significant mechanism for storing clay and silt within the channel perimeter. Sixty to seventy-five percent of LWD occurs in pools, while 10-20% occurs in riffles. Most of the wood falls from adjacent banks by both natural processes and agricultural practices. Preliminary dating results indicate that LWD reside in the channel a minimum of 15 years.

  5. Water balance of selected floodplain lake basins in the Middle Bug River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawidek, J.; Ferencz, B.

    2013-08-01

    This study is the first attempt in the literature on the subject of comparing water balance equations for floodplain lake basins depending on the type of connection the lake has to its parent river. Where confluent lakes (upstream connections) were concerned, it was only possible to apply a classic water balance equation. When dealing with contrafluent lakes (downstream connections) as well as lakes with a complex recharge type (contrafluent-confluent) modified equations were created. The hydrological type of a lake is decided by high water flow conditions and, consequently, the duration of potamophase (connection with a river) and limnophase (the isolation of the lake), which determine the values of particular components and the proportion of the vertical to horizontal water exchange rate. Confluent lakes are characterised by the highest proportion of horizontal components (the inflow and runoff of river water) to the vertical ones (precipitation and evaporation). The smallest differences occur with respect to a contrafluent lake. In the case of confluent lakes, the relationship between water balance components resulted from the consequent water flow through the basin, consistent with the slope of the river channel and valley. The supplying channels of contrafluent lakes had an obsequent character, which is why the flow rate was lower. Lakes with a complex, contrafluent-confluent recharge type showed intermediate features. After a period of slow contrafluent recharge, the inflow of water through a downstream crevasse from the area of the headwater of the river was activated; this caused a radical change of flow conditions into confluent ones. The conditions of water retention in lake basins were also varied. Apart from hydrological recharge, also the orographic features of the catchment areas of the lakes played an important role here, for example, the distance from the river channel, the altitude at which a given catchment was located within the floodplain and

  6. Late Pleistocene valley fills source sediment flux of Tibetan Plateau margin rivers, Zanskar, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöthe, J. H.; Munack, H.; Korup, O.; Fulop, R. H.; Codilean, A.; Fink, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Indus and its tributaries, one of Asia's largest river systems, drain the NW Himalaya and the Transhimalayan ranges that border the western Tibetan Plateau margin. From the internally drained low-relief areas of the Tibetan Plateau, local relief increases towards the Western Himalayan Syntaxis, where it exceeds 7 km. Simultaneously, average denudation rates rise from as little as 10 mm ka-1 at the Tibetan Plateau margin to rates of >1000 mm ka-1 close to the western Himalayan Syntaxis. In this rugged bedrock landscape, river valleys frequently alternate between deeply incised gorges and broad alluviated reaches. Vast fill terrace staircases of up to 400 m height above current river levels, and intercalated lake sediments point to repeated phases of incision and aggradation within the region. Despite a broad interest in a better understanding of mechanisms that modulate plateau erosion, age constraints on the generation of these impressive features remain sparse, though indicate mainly Pleistocene formation ages. Here we present new data from the More Plains section, a vast sedimentary fill, located in the headwaters of the Zanskar River, the largest tributary to the upper Indus. The vast sedimentary successions of the More Plains originally belonged to a former endorheic basin that has been tapped by the Zanskar River, today revealing a sedimentary exposures of >250 m thickness. We combine morphometric analysis and field based observations with 10Be surface exposure dating and basin-wide denudation rates to constrain the late Quaternary history of this setting. Analysis of a 10Be depth profile on top of the More Plains section indicate a surface exposure age of ~125 +/- 15 ka, which is supported by ages from nearby amalgamated surface samples. Grounding on a morphometric approach, we estimate that ~1.65-1.95 km3 were removed from this section by fluvial erosion since aggradation ceased, requiring a specific sediment yield of 85-100 t km-2 yr-1 averaged over the

  7. Lahar Inundation of the Drift River Valley During the 2009 Eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waythomas, C. F.; Scott, W. E.; Pierson, T. C.; Major, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    Redoubt Volcano in south-central Alaska began its most recent eruption on March 15 and erupted explosively at least 20 times between then and April 4, 2009. The 3110 m high, snow-and-ice-clad stratovolcano includes a circular, ice-filled summit crater that is breached to the north. The volcano supports about 4 km3 of ice and snow and about 1 km3 of this makes up Drift glacier on the north side of the volcano. Explosive eruptions between March 22 and April 4, which included the destruction of at least two lava domes, triggered two large lahars in the Drift River valley on March 23 and April 4, and several smaller lahars between March 24 and March 31. The heights of mud lines, character of deposits examined in the field, areas of deposition, and estimates of flow width, depth, and velocity revealed that the lahars on March 23 and April 4 were the largest mass flows of the eruption. In the ~1.5-km-wide upper Drift River valley, flow depths averaged about 10 m, flow velocities, although not measured directly, were at least 10-14 m/s, and peak discharges were on the order of 105 m3/s. Depositional areas (about 12.5 km2) and volumes (0.063-0.088 km3) were similar. Despite these similarities, the two lahars had very different compositions and origins. The March 23 lahar was a flowing slurry of snow and ice that entrained tablular blocks of river ice, seasonal snow in the valley, and glacier ice eroded from Drift glacier. Its deposit was up to 5 m thick, and contained roughly 30% sediment, rock debris and water, and 70% or more river and glacier ice. It was frozen soon after it was emplaced and later buried by the April 4 lahar. Juvenile material has not yet been found in the deposit. The lahar of April 4, in contrast, was a hyperconcentrated flow, as interpreted from massive to faintly and horizontally stratified sand to fine gravel deposits up to 4 m thick. Gravel clasts were predominantly juvenile andesite. We infer the March 23 lahar to have been initiated by a rapid

  8. Legacy sediment storage in New England river valleys: anthropogenic processes in a postglacial landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, N. P.; Johnson, K. M.; Waltner, M.; Hopkins, A. J.; Dow, S.; Ames, E.; Merritts, D. J.; Walter, R. C.; Rahnis, M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Walter and Merritts (2008, and subsequent papers) show that legacy sediment associated with deposition in millponds is a common feature in river valleys of the Mid-Atlantic Piedmont region, with 1-5 m of fine sand and silt overlying Holocene soil and Pleistocene periglacial deposits. For this project, we seek to test the hypothesis that these field relationships are seen in New England, a formerly glaciated region with similar history and intensity of forest clearing and milldam construction during the 17-19th centuries. We study three watersheds, using field observations of bank stratigraphy, radiocarbon dating, and mapping of terraces and floodplains using lidar digital elevation models and other GIS datasets. The 68 km2 South River watershed in western Massachusetts exhibits the most extensive evidence for legacy sediment storage. We visited 17 historic dam sites in the watershed and found field evidence for fine sand and silt legacy sediment storage at 14, up to 2.2 m thick. In the 558 km2 Sheepscot River watershed in coastal Maine, we visited 12 historic dam sites, and found likely legacy sediment at six, up to 2.3 m thick. In the 171 km2 upper Charles River watershed in eastern Massachusetts, we investigated 14 dam sites, and found legacy sediment at two, up to 1.8 m thick. Stratigraphically, we identified the base of legacy sediment from a change in grain size to gravel at most sites, or to Pleistocene marine clay at some Sheepscot River sites. In the Sheepscot River, we observed cut timbers underlying historic sediment at several locations, likely associated with sawmill activities. Only at the Charles River were we able to radiocarbon date the underlying gravel (1281-1391 calibrated CE). At no site did we find a buried Holocene soil, in contrast to the field relations commonly observed in the Mid-Atlantic region. This may indicate that the New England sites have eroded to the pre-historic river bed, not floodplain surfaces. We attribute the variation in

  9. The role of the Wetland Reserve Program in conservation efforts in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Sammy L.; Twedt, Daniel J.; Wilson, R. Randy

    2006-01-01

    The Mississippi River Alluvial Valley includes the floodplain of the Mississippi River from Cairo, Illinois, USA, to the Gulf of Mexico. Originally this region supported about 10 million ha of bottomland hardwood forests, but only about 2.8 million ha remain today. Furthermore, most of the remaining bottomland forest is highly fragmented with altered hydrologic processes. During the 1990s landscape-scale conservation planning efforts were initiated for migratory birds and the threatened Louisiana black bear (Ursus americanus luteolus). These plans call for large-scale reforestation and restoration efforts in the region, particularly on private lands. In 1990 the Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act authorized the Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP). The WRP is a voluntary program administered by the United States Department of Agriculture that provides eligible landowners with financial incentives to restore wetlands and retire marginal farmlands from agricultural production. As of 30 September 2005, over 275,700 ha have been enrolled in the program in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, with the greatest concentration in Louisiana, Arkansas, and Mississippi, USA. Hydrologic restoration is common on most sites, with open-water wetlands, such as moist-soil units and sloughs, constituting up to 30% of a given tract. Over 33,200 ha of open-water wetlands have been created, potentially providing over 115,000,000 duck-use days. Twenty-three of 87 forest-bird conservation areas have met or exceed core habitat goals for migratory songbirds and another 24 have met minimum area requirements. The WRP played an integral role in the fulfillment of these goals. Although some landscape goals have been attained, the young age of the program and forest stands, and the lack of monitoring, has limited evaluations of the program's impact on wildlife populations.

  10. Lateglacial/early Holocene fluvial reactions of the Jeetzel river (Elbe valley, northern Germany) to abrupt climatic and environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Falko; Tolksdorf, Johann Friedrich; Viehberg, Finn; Schwalb, Antje; Kaiser, Knut; Bittmann, Felix; von Bramann, Ullrich; Pott, Richard; Staesche, Ulrich; Breest, Klaus; Veil, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms of climatic control on river system development are still only partially known. Palaeohydrological investigations from river valleys often lack a precise chronological control of climatic processes and fluvial dynamics, which is why their specific forces remain unclear. In this multidisciplinary case study from the middle Elbe river valley (northern Germany) multiple dating of sites (palynostratigraphy, radiocarbon- and OSL-dating) and high-resolution analyses of environmental and climatological proxies (pollen, plant macro-remains and ostracods) reveal a continuous record of the environmental and fluvial history from the Lateglacial to the early Holocene. Biostratigraphical correlation to northwest European key sites shows that river system development was partially out of phase with the main climatic shifts. The transition from a braided to an incised channel system predated the main phase of Lateglacial warming (˜14.6 ka BP), and the meandering river did not change its drainage pattern during the cooling of the Younger-Dryas period. Environmental reconstructions suggest that river dynamics were largely affected by vegetation cover, as a vegetation cover consisting of herbs, dwarf-shrubs and a few larger shrubs seems to have developed before the onset of the main Lateglacial warming, and pine forests appear to have persisted in the river valley during the Younger Dryas. In addition, two phases of high fluvial activity and new channel incision during the middle part of the Younger Dryas and during the Boreal were correlated with changes from dry towards wet climatic conditions, as indicated by evident lake level rises. Lateglacial human occupation in the river valley, which is shown by numerous Palaeolithic sites, forming one of the largest settlement areas of that period known in the European Plain, is assigned to the specific fluvial and environmental conditions of the early Allerød.

  11. Fertilisation of the Southern Atlantic: Ephemeral River Valleys as a replenishing source of nutrient-enriched mineral aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dansie, Andrew; Wiggs, Giles; Thomas, David

    2016-04-01

    Oceanic dust deposition provides biologically important iron and macronutrients (Phosphorus (P) and Nitrogen-based (N) compounds) that contribute to phytoplankton growth, marine productivity and oceanic atmospheric CO2 uptake. Research on dust emission sources to date has largely focused on the northern hemisphere and on ephemeral lakes and pans. Our work considers the ephemeral river valleys of the west coast of Namibia as an important yet overlooked source of ocean-fertilizing dust. Dust plumes are frequently emitted from the river valleys by strong easterly winds during the Southern Hemisphere winter, when the upwelling of the Benguela Current is at its weakest. We present field data from dust emission source areas along the main river channels near the coastal termini of the Huab, Kuiseb and Tsauchab river valleys. Collected data include erodible surface sediment, wind-blown flux, and associated meteorological data. Extensive surface sediment sampling was also undertaken throughout the combined 34,250 km2 extent of each river valley catchment with samples collected from within the main river channels, the main branches of each river system, selected tributaries, and into the upper watersheds. Geochemical data show valley sediment and wind-blown flux material have high concentrations of bioavailable Fe, P and N, exceeding that measured at the major dry lake basin dust sources in southern Africa. The contribution of fertilising deposition material is enhanced by both the spatial proximity of the source areas to the ocean and enrichment of source material by ephemeral fluvial accumulation and desiccation. Results show that geographical factors within each watershed play a key role in the nutrient composition of the emitting fluvial deposits in the river valleys. Analysis explores potential relationships between land use, geology, climate and precipitation in the upper watersheds and their influence on bioavailability of Fe, P and N compounds in wind

  12. Geohydrology of the valley-fill aquifer in the Ramapo and Mahwah rivers area, Rockland County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Richard Bridge; Cadwell, D.H.; Stelz, W.G.; Belli, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    This report is the eighth in a series of 11 map sets depicting geohydrologic conditions in selected aquifers in upstate New York. Geohydrologic data are compiled on six maps at 1:24,000 scale. Together, the maps provide a comprehensive overview of a major valley-fill aquifer in southeastern Rockland County. The maps include surficial geology, geologic sections, water-infiltration potential of soil zone, aquifer thickness, water-table elevations, well yields, and land use. The valley-fill deposits consists of alluvial silt and sand, glacial outwash (sand and gravel), ice-contact sand and gravel, till, and lacustrine silt and clay. The sand and gravel beds have relatively high permeabilities, whereas the till, silt, and clay deposits have relatively low permeabilities. Water-table conditions prevail in unconfined sand and gravel along the Ramapo River valley and much of the Mahwah River valley. Artesian conditions prevail in confined sand and gravel buried under silt and clay and till in parts of the Mahway valley. The aquifer is recharged throughout, where the land surface is most permeable and is greatest along the margin of the valley, where runoff from the hillsides is concentrated. The use of land overlying the aquifer is predominantly commercial, agricultural and residential, with lesser industrial uses. (USGS)

  13. Snake River Sockeye Salmon, Sawtooth Valley Project : 1992 Juvenile and Adult Trapping Program : Final Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-04-01

    Sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) runs in the Snake River Basin have severely declined. Redfish Lake near Stanley, Idaho is the only lake in the drainage known to still support a run. In 1989, two adults were observed returning to this lake and in 1990, none returned. In the summer of 1991, only four adults returned. If no action is taken, the Snake River sockeye salmon will probably cease to exist. On November 20, 1991, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) declared the Snake River sockeye salmon ``endangered`` (effective December 20, 1991), pursuant to the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973. In 1991, in response to a request from the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded efforts to conserve and begin rebuilding the Snake River sockeye salmon run. The initial efforts were focused on Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Valley of southcentral Idaho. The 1991 measures involved: trapping some of the juvenile outmigrants (O. nerka) from Redfish Lake and rearing them in the Eagle Fish Health Facility (Idaho Department of Fish and Game) near Boise, Idaho; Upgrading of the Eagle Facility where the outmigrants are being reared; and trapping adult Snake River sockeye salmon returning to Redfish Lake and holding and spawning them at the Sawtooth Hatchery near Stanley, Idaho. This Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental effects of the proposed actions for 1992. It has been prepared to meet the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 and section 7 of the ESA of 1973.

  14. Geomorphic process from topographic form: automating the interpretation of repeat survey data in river valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kasprak, Alan; Caster, Joshua J.; Bangen, Sara G.; Sankey, Joel B.

    2017-01-01

    The ability to quantify the processes driving geomorphic change in river valley margins is vital to geomorphologists seeking to understand the relative role of transport mechanisms (e.g. fluvial, aeolian, and hillslope processes) in landscape dynamics. High-resolution, repeat topographic data are becoming readily available to geomorphologists. By contrasting digital elevation models derived from repeat surveys, the transport processes driving topographic changes can be inferred, a method termed ‘mechanistic segregation.’ Unfortunately, mechanistic segregation largely relies on subjective and time consuming manual classification, which has implications both for its reproducibility and the practical scale of its application. Here we present a novel computational workflow for the mechanistic segregation of geomorphic transport processes in geospatial datasets. We apply the workflow to seven sites along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon, where geomorphic transport is driven by a diverse suite of mechanisms. The workflow performs well when compared to field observations, with an overall predictive accuracy of 84% across 113 validation points. The approach most accurately predicts changes due to fluvial processes (100% accuracy) and aeolian processes (96%), with reduced accuracy in predictions of alluvial and colluvial processes (64% and 73%, respectively). Our workflow is designed to be applicable to a diversity of river systems and will likely provide a rapid and objective understanding of the processes driving geomorphic change at the reach and network scales. We anticipate that such an understanding will allow insight into the response of geomorphic transport processes to external forcings, such as shifts in climate, land use, or river regulation, with implications for process-based river management and restoration.

  15. Challenges of flood monitoring in the Senegal river valley using multi-temporal data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckmann, Laurent; Delbart, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, floodplains wetlands play an important role for livelihoods and economy, especially for agriculture and fishing. However, tropical rivers flows are increasingly modified by climate change and dam regulation. In the Senegal river valley, the annual flood, from August to November, is an important water resources creating ecosystems services for people. Senegal river basin face to hydrological changes, due to rainfall diminution during the 1970's and building of large dams during 1980's to secure water resources. Water management and development of irrigation have modified the floodplain functioning. Flood recession agriculture, grazing and fishing are now confronted to a high uncertainty about floods level, duration and extension. Thus, spatiotemporal information of flood extension and duration are important for local communities and stakeholders to ensure food security and ecosystems services. Multi-temporal satellite data demonstrates an important applicability for flood mapping. Aims of this work is to present potentiality of using multi-temporal data from MODIS and new satellite Sentinel-2 for flood monitoring in a Sahelian context. It will also discuss the potential of flood mapping for the analysis of the dynamics of riparian vegetation and flood recession agriculture. This study uses two datasets to explore flood monitoring in Senegal river valley. Firstly, MODIS 8-days data (MOD09A) are first used, because of its temporal resolution of 8 days covering the period from 2000 to 2016. However, MODIS data are limited due to a low spatial resolution, that's why we also use Sentinel-2 data, available since summer 2015. The data were processed by constructing NDWI time-series (NDWI threshold is empirically defined) and extracting NDWI values for each inundated pixel during flood. First results demonstrate that using MODIS on a large scale is enough for analyze interannual variability of the flooded surfaces. We present here maps of flood

  16. Quaternary landscape evolution of tectonically active intermontane basins: the case of the Middle Aterno River Valley (Abruzzo, Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcucci, Emanuela; Gori, Stefano; Della Seta, Marta; Fubelli, Giandomenico; Fredi, Paola

    2014-05-01

    The Middle Aterno River Valley is characterised by different Quaternary tectonic depressions localised along the present course of the Aterno River (Central Apennine) .This valley includes the L'Aquila and Paganica-Castelnuovo-San Demetrio tectonic basins, to the North, the Middle Aterno Valley and the Subequana tectonic basin, to the South. The aim of this contribution is to improve the knowledge about the Quaternary geomorphological and tectonic evolution of this portion of the Apennine chain. A synchronous lacustrine depositional phase is recognized in all these basins and attributed to the Early Pleistocene by Falcucci et al. (2012). At that time, this sector of the chain showed four distinct closed basins, hydrologically separated from each other and from the Sulmona depression. This depression, actually a tectonic basin too, was localized South of the Middle Aterno River Valley and it was drained by an endorheic hydrographic network. The formation of these basins was due to the activity of different fault systems, namely the Upper Aterno River Valley-Paganica system and San Pio delle Camere fault, to the North, and the Middle Aterno River Valley-Subequana Valley fault system to the South. These tectonic structures were responsible for the origin of local depocentres inside the depressions which hosted the lacustrine basins. Ongoing surveys in the uppermost sectors of the Middle Aterno River Valley revealed the presence of sub-horizontal erosional surfaces that are carved onto the carbonate bedrock and suspended several hundreds of metres over the present thalweg. Gently dipping slope breccias referred to the Early Pleistocene rest on these surfaces, thus suggesting the presence of an ancient low-gradient landscape adjusting to the local base level.. Subsequently, this ancient low relief landscape underwent a strong erosional phase during the Middle Pleistocene. This erosional phase is testified by the occurrence of valley entrenchment and of coeval fluvial

  17. Selected well and ground-water chemistry data for the Boise River Valley, southwestern Idaho, 1990-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parliman, D.J.; Boyle, Linda; Nicholls, Sabrina

    1996-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 903 wells in the Boise River Valley, Idaho, from January 1990 through December 1995. Selected well information and analyses of 1,357 water samples are presented. Analyses include physical properties ad concentrations of nutrients, bacteria, major ions, selected trace elements, radon-222, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides.

  18. Holocene intramontane lake development: A new model in the Jáchal River Valley, Andean Precordillera, San Juan, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombo, Ferran; Busquets, Pere; Sole de Porta, Nuria; Limarino, Carlos Oscar; Heredia, Nemesio; Rodriguez-Fernandez, Luis Roberto; Alvarez-Marron, Joaquina

    2009-10-01

    The Jáchal River Valley displays a number of significant Holocene sedimentary accumulations made up of fine-grained materials. These deposits are interpreted as the sedimentary infill of shallow temporary lakes that were generated by slow growing episodes of alluvial fans that obstructed the Jáchal River Valley. The association of fossil remains through the Holocene sedimentary sequence suggests that the accumulation of lacustrine sediments was affected by climate variations. The predominant aridity was punctuated by very few humid episodes characterised by fresh-water gastropoda and the intercalations of muddy sediments. The high proportion of charcoal particles in some samples indicates periodic forest fires. Abundant non-pollen forest remains suggest that an open zone dominated by several types of grasses underwent a dry season during part of the year. The palynomorph associations found in the Jáchal River Valley Holocene lacustrine sediments suggest that the humid conditions were less intense than those in the San Juan River Valley located more than one hundred kilometres southwards. Our study suggests that lake formation could have been controlled by climate oscillation probably related to the ENSO variation at 30° south latitude.

  19. Nursery stock quality as an indicator of bottomland hardwood forest restoration success in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley

    Treesearch

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Rosa C. Goodman; Emile S. Gardiner; K Frances Salifu; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez

    2012-01-01

    Seedling morphological quality standards are lacking for bottomland hardwood restoration plantings in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA, which may contribute toward variable restoration success. We measured initial seedling morphology (shoot height, root collar diameter, number of first order lateral roots, fresh mass, and root volume), second year field...

  20. Spatiotemporal Co-existence of Two Mycobacterium ulcerans Clonal Complexes in the Offin River Valley of Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Aboagye, Samuel; Kerber, Sarah; Danso, Emelia; Asante-Poku, Adwoa; Asare, Prince; Parkhill, Julian; Harris, Simon R.; Pluschke, Gerd; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Röltgen, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, comparative genome sequence analysis of African Mycobacterium ulcerans strains isolated from Buruli ulcer (BU) lesion specimen has revealed a very limited genetic diversity of closely related isolates and a striking association between genotype and geographical origin of the patients. Here, we compared whole genome sequences of five M. ulcerans strains isolated in 2004 or 2013 from BU lesions of four residents of the Offin river valley with 48 strains isolated between 2002 and 2005 from BU lesions of individuals residing in the Densu river valley of Ghana. While all M. ulcerans isolates from the Densu river valley belonged to the same clonal complex, members of two distinct clonal complexes were found in the Offin river valley over space and time. The Offin strains were closely related to genotypes from either the Densu region or from the Asante Akim North district of Ghana. These results point towards an occasional involvement of a mobile reservoir in the transmission of M. ulcerans, enabling the spread of bacteria across different regions. PMID:27434064

  1. Effects of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River near Bedrock, Colorado, water years 1988-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2000-01-01

    During 1999, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation to evaluate the effect of the Paradox Valley Unit on dissolved solids, sodium, and chloride in the Dolores River downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit. This report describes this evaluation and presents the results from this study. Daily mean flow and daily mean specific conductance, measured at gages upstream and downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit, and results from monthly water-quality samples are used to estimate changes in the dissolved-solids load and concentrations of sodium and chloride in the river as it crosses the valley and to correlate these changes with withdrawals of brine by the Paradox Valley Unit. The time period for this evaluation was restricted to October 1987?September 1998 (water years 1988?98) because regular collection of water-quality samples from the Dolores River in the valley gaban in 1987.

  2. Quaternary eolian dunes in the Savannah River valley, Jasper County, South Carolina, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swezey, Christopher S.; Schultz, Arthur P.; González, Wilma Alemán; Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Doar, William R.; Garrity, Christopher P.; Mahan, Shannon A.; McGeehin, John P.

    2013-09-01

    Sand hills in the Savannah River valley in Jasper County (South Carolina, USA) are interpreted as the remnants of parabolic eolian dunes composed of sand derived from the Savannah River and stabilized by vegetation under prevailing climate conditions. Optically stimulated luminescence ages reveal that most of the dunes were active ca. 40 to 19 ka ago, coincident with the last glacial maximum (LGM) through early deglaciation. Modern surface winds are not sufficient for sustained eolian sand transport. When the dunes were active, winds blew at velocities of at least 4 m/s from west to east, and some vegetation was present. The ratio of annual precipitation to potential evapotranspiration (P:PE) was less than the modern ratio of 1.23 and may have been < 0.30, caused by stronger winds (which would have resulted in greater evaporation) and/or reduced precipitation. The Savannah River dunes are part of a larger assemblage of eolian dunes that were active in the eastern United States during and immediately after the LGM, suggesting that eolian sediment behavior in this region has been controlled by regional forcing mechanisms during the Quaternary.

  3. Land Capability Potential Index (LCPI) for the Lower Missouri River Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Reuter, Joanna M.

    2007-01-01

    The Land Capability Potential Index (LCPI) was developed to serve as a relatively coarse-scale index to delineate broad land capability classes in the valley of the Lower Missouri River. The index integrates fundamental factors that determine suitability of land for various uses, and may provide a useful mechanism to guide land-management decisions. The LCPI was constructed from integration of hydrology, hydraulics, land-surface elevations, and soil permeability (or saturated hydraulic conductivity) datasets for an area of the Lower Missouri River, river miles 423–670. The LCPI estimates relative wetness based on intersecting water-surface elevations, interpolated from measurements or calculated from hydraulic models, with a high-resolution land-surface elevation dataset. The potential for wet areas to retain or drain water is assessed using soil-drainage classes that are estimated from saturated hydraulic conductivity of surface soils. Terrain mapping that delineates areas with convex, concave, and flat parts of the landscape provides another means to assess tendency of landscape patches to retain surface water.

  4. Practical aspects of registration the transformation of a river valley by beavers using terrestrial laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brykała, Dariusz; Gierszewski, Piotr; Kaczmarek, Halina; Kordowski, Jarosław; Słowiński, Michał

    2016-04-01

    Activity of beavers (Castor fiber) often significantly affects the environment in which they life. The most commonly observed effect of their being in environment is construction of beaver dams and formation a pond upstream. However, in case of a sudden break of a dam and beaver pond drainage, the valley below the dam may also undergo remodelling. The nature and magnitude of these changes depends on the quantity of water and its energy as well as on the geological structure of the valley. The effects of such events can be riverbank erosion, and the deposition of the displaced of erosion products in the form of sandbars or fans. The material can also be accumulated in local depressions or delivered to water bodies. Such events may occur multiple times in the same area. To assess their impact on the environment it is important to quantify the displaced material. The study of such transformations was performed within a small valley of the river of Struga Czechowska (Tuchola Pinewood Forest, Poland). The valley is mainly cut in sands and gravels. Its steep banks are overgrown with bushes and trees. The assessment of changes in morphology were based on the event of the beaver pond drainage of 2015. The study uses the measurements from the terrestrial laser scanning (scanner Riegl VZ-4000). The measurements were performed before and after the event. Each of the two models obtained for comparison was made up of more than 20 measurement stations. Point clouds were joined by Multi-Station Adjustment without placing in the terrain any objects of reference. During measurements attention was paid to the changes in morphology of both riverbed and valley surrounding. The paper presents the example of the recorded changes as well as the measurement procedure. Moreover, the aspects of fieldwork and issues related to post-processing, such as merging, filtering of point clouds and detection of changes, are also presented. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of

  5. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the high river Ter valley (Pyrenees, Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula).

    PubMed

    Rigat, Montse; Bonet, Maria Angels; Garcia, Sònia; Garnatje, Teresa; Vallès, Joan

    2007-09-05

    An ethnobotanical study has been carried out in the high river Ter valley (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula) a small area located in the eastern Pyrenees, with 294 km(2) and 4526 inhabitants. Through 42 interviews with 60 informants of a mean age of 71.1, 220 species belonging to 71 botanical families were reported, 90.6% of which were used in human medicine and 7.8% in veterinary therapy. The present paper is focused on human medicinal plant uses. One fungal and four vascular plant species have not, or have very rarely been cited as medicinal, and for other taxa some very scarcely reported medicinal uses have been recorded (110 uses concerning 78 species).

  6. The occurrence of loiasis, mansonellosis and wuchereriasis in the Jarawa River Valley, central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ufomadu, G O; Nwoke, B E; Akoh, J I; Sato, Y; Ekejindu, G O; Uchida, A; Shiwaku, K; Tumbau, M; Ugomo, K K

    1990-12-01

    In a study to assess the status of filariasis in the Jarawa River Valley of the savanna area of Nigeria, 940 self-selected residents from 10 villages were examined between March 1984 and April 1987. Overall results showed 105 (11.2%) had microfilaraemia and/or clinical signs of filariasis. Sixty-four (6.8%) and 20 (2.1%) persons, respectively, were infected with Mansonella perstans and Loa loa microfilariae (mff). Four of the 28 villagers examined had Wuchereria bancrofti mff in their night blood samples whereas 17 (1.8%) of all residents surveyed had clinical filariasis mainly due to lympho-obstructive manifestations: hydrocele (n = 11, 64.7%); enlargement of the inguinal nodes (n = 8, 47.1%) and elephantiasis (n = 2, 11.8%).

  7. The valley system of the Jihlava river and Mohelno reservoir with enhanced tritium activities.

    PubMed

    Simek, P; Kořínková, T; Svetlik, I; Povinec, P P; Fejgl, M; Malátová, I; Tomaskova, L; Stepan, V

    2017-01-01

    The Dukovany nuclear power plant (NPP Dukovany) releases liquid effluents, including HTO, to the Mohelno reservoir, located in a deep valley. Significantly enhanced tritium activities were observed in the form of non-exchangeable organically bound tritium in the surrounding biota which lacks direct contact with the water body. This indicates a tritium uptake by plants from air moisture and haze, which is, besides the uptake by roots from soil, one of the most important mechanisms of tritium transfer from environment to plants. Results of a pilot study based on four sampling campaigns in 2011-2015 are presented and discussed, with the aim to provide new information on tritium transport in the Mohelno reservoir - Jihlava River - plants ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Integration of environmental and spectral data for sunflower stress determination. [Red River Valley, Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillesand, T.; Seeley, M.

    1983-01-01

    Stress in sunflowers was assessed in western and northwestern Minnesota. Weekly ground observations (acquired in 1980 and 1981) were analyzed in concert with large scale aerial photography and concurrent LANDSAT data. Using multidate supervised and unsupervised classification procedures, it was found that all crops grown in association with sunflowers in the study area are spectrally separable from one another. Under conditions of extreme drought, severely stressed plants were differentiable from those not severely stressed, but between-crop separation was not possible. Initial regression analyses to estimate sunflower seed yield showed a sensitivity to environmental stress during the flowering and seed development stages. One of the most important biological factors related to sunflower production in the Red River Valley area was found to be the extent and severity of insect infestations.

  9. Groundwater salinity influenced by Holocene seawater trapped in incised valleys in the Red River delta plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Flemming; Tran, Long Vu; van Hoang, Hoan; Tran, Luu Thi; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Pham, Nhan Quy

    2017-04-01

    Salty and brackish groundwater has been observed at least 100 km inland in some aquifers contained within Quaternary delta plains. This phenomenon limits access to fresh groundwater resources, particularly in the densely populated deltas of Southeast Asia. However, the causes of inland salinity are unclear. Here we present borehole and geophysical data that show that in the Red River delta plain of Vietnam, salty and brackish groundwater primarily occurs in incised valleys that were formed during sea-level lowstands during the Pleistocene. During the mid-Holocene, these valleys were filled with fine-grained marine deposits containing trapped seawater. We conduct groundwater flow simulations that show that the age, thickness, and permeability of the marine sediments are the primary controls on the leaching of salty porewater into the freshwater aquifer. We find that salty groundwater originating from this trapped seawater is still present in Holocene-aged sediments with low permeability, and affects groundwater salinity in adjacent aquifers. In contrast, trapped seawater from all Pleistocene-aged sediments has been leached. We identify a number of brackish to saline delta aquifers elsewhere in Asia and throughout the world that have a similar sedimentary history, and thus are likely to be influenced by this leaching process.

  10. Rhone River Valley & Lower Lake Geneva, Switzerland as seen from STS-60

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-02-09

    STS060-90-007 (3-11 Feb 1994) --- Parts of the Swiss Cantons of Vaud and Valois and the French province of Chablais are shown. These mountains were created in the last great mountain-building episode in Europe around 50 million years ago. They have been reshaped by glaciers during the Pleistocene. The glaciers created the wide valley of the Rhone River by scouring a pre-existing stream. The fertile Swiss Plateau runs northwest from the shore of Lake Geneva and is visible in the upper right. The Franco-Swiss border is located in the center of the lake and follows a mountain divide east of the Rhone Valley. According to NASA geologists eutrofication is a problem in Lake Geneva. In 1971 a Swiss Commission was formed to try to slow the problem. Strong discharge laws were enacted, but they are hard to enforce due to the multi-national and multi-organizational parties contributing to the problem.

  11. Evaluation of the water quality in the releases from thirty dams in the Tennessee River Valley

    SciTech Connect

    Butkus, S.R.

    1990-09-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) has routinely monitored dissolved oxygen (DO) and temperature from the tailwater releases of its dams since the 1950s. The original objective of this monitoring was to collect baseline information to support reaeration research and determine the relative impact of impoundments on the assimilative capacity of the river system. This monitoring has continued even though the original objective was satisfied. New purposes for this monitoring data have arisen in support of several programs, without new consideration of the monitoring strategy and sampling design. The primary purpose of this report is to compare the historical release data for 30 dams in the Tennessee Valley based on four different objectives: (1) comparison of seasonal patterns, (2) comparison of baseline conditions using descriptive statistics, (3) evaluation of monotonic trends, and (4) discussion of monitoring strategies that might be required to determine compliance with existing and proposed criteria. A secondary purpose of the report is to compile the existing database into tables and figures that would be useful for other investigators. 51 refs., 210 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Current development of mass movements in lowland river valleys at the site of old landslides - case study form Vistula Valley, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyszkowski, S.

    2014-12-01

    Landslides in Polish lowlands are found mostly in the escarpment zone of river valleys. In this geomorphological position, landslides were investigated in the middle of the Lower Vistula Valley - major polish river valley (53°14'N 18°14E). In the zone between Fordon and Kozielec landslides develop within Quaternary tills, sands and clays with glacitectonic deformation. Determination of contemporary activity of landslides in the escarpment zone is based on field work, such as a detailed inventory and documentation of the landslide forms, geotechnical and geological drillings, geodesic measurements, and analysis of aerial photographs. Shearing slides, often in the multiple rotational form, are the most common type of landslides. Most landslides are developed within the main scarps of old landslides. The size of contemporary landslides ranges from 500m2 to 70000m2. While the old, inactive landslides' area varied between 120000m2 to 300000m2. Contemporary active forms represents 58%, regularly active for 17%, and inactive for 25% of the identified landslides. Depending on geomorphological zones, landslides cover up to 30% of the area of the slopes. Currently, in the study area precipitation and geological settings are the most important factor of landslide activation. This study was supported by the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association and the research project no. N N306 0860 37 Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

  13. Flow pattern in regional aquifers and flow relations between the lower Colorado River valley and regional aquifers in six counties of southeastern Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Dennis G.

    1989-01-01

    The lower Colorado River discussed in this report consists of the 318- river-mile reach from Mansfield Dam near Austin, Texas, to the Gulf of Mexico. The river is underlain directly or indirectly by six regional aquifers the Trinity Group, Edwards, Carrizo-Wilcox, Queen City, Sparta, and Gulf Coast; the Trinity Group aquifer is further subdivided into the lower Trinity, middle Trinity, and upper Trinity aquifers. Generalized potentiometric-surface maps of each regional aquifer show the ground-water-flow pattern near the river valley. Each regional aquifer discharges water to the lower Colorado River valley, particularly in the outcrop area of each aquifer. Only the Gulf Coast aquifer in central Wharton County appears to be recharged by water in the river valley. A summary map shows those subreaches of the lower Colorado River that gain water from the aquifers and those subreaches that lose water to the aquifers.

  14. River Valley pluton, Ontario: A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwal, L.D. ); Wooden, J.L. )

    1989-03-01

    The River Valley pluton is a ca. 100 km{sup 2} body of anorthositic and gabbroic rocks located about 50 km northeast of Sudbury, Ontario. The pluton is situated entirely within the Grenville Province, but its western margin is a series of imbricate thrust faults associated with the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. It is dominated by coarse leuconorite and leucogabbro, with lesser anorthosite, gabbro, and rare ultramafics. Igneous textured rocks are abundant and consist of plagioclase (An{sub 60-70}) charged with Fe-Ti oxide inclusions, low Ca pyroxene (orthopyroxene and/or inverted pigeonite) and augite. The most unfractionated rocks are minor olivine gabbros with Fo{sub 70-80}. A variety of deformed and recrystallized equivalents of the igneous-textured rocks is also present, and these are composed largely of calcic plagioclase and hornblende. An Sm-Nd isochron from 3 igneous-textured leucogabbros and an augite mineral separate gives 2,377 {plus minus} 68 Ma, implying slight disturbance of the Sm-Nd whole-rock-mineral system during later metamorphism. The Rb-Sr system has been substantially disturbed, giving an age of 2,185 {plus minus} 105 Ma, which is similar to internal Pb-Pb isochron ages of 2,165 {plus minus} 130 Ma and 2,100 {plus minus} 35 Ma for two igneous-textured rocks. Initial isotopic ratios for the River Valley pluton correspond to single-stage model parameters of {mu} = 8.06, {epsilon}{sub Nd} = O to {minus}3, and I{sub Sr} = 0.7015 to 0.7021. Collectively, these suggest either an enriched mantle source or crustal contamination of a mantle-derived magma. The crustal component involved must have been older and more radiogenic than the majority of rocks exposed at the surface in the nearby Superior Province.

  15. Reconnaissance of alluvial fans as potential sources of gravel aggregate, Santa Cruz River valley, Southeast Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Melick, Roger

    2002-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to provide information on the aggregate potential of alluvial fan sediments in the Santa Cruz River valley. Pebble lithology, roundness, and particle size were determined in the field, and structures and textures of alluvial fan sediments were photographed and described. Additional measurements of particle size on digital photographs were made on a computer screen. Digital elevation models were acquired and compiled for viewing the areal extent of selected fans. Alluvial fan gravel in the Santa Cruz River valley reflects the lithology of its source. Gravel derived from granitic and gneissic terrane of the Tortolita, Santa Catalina, and Rincon Mountains weathers to grus and is generally inferior for use as aggregate. Gravel derived from the Tucson, Sierrita, and Tumacacori Mountains is composed mostly of angular particles of volcanic rock, much of it felsic in composition. This angular volcanic gravel should be suitable for use in asphalt but may require treatment for alkali-silica reaction prior to use in concrete. Gravel derived from the Santa Rita Mountains is of mixed plutonic (mostly granitic rocks), volcanic (mostly felsic rocks), and sedimentary (sandstone and carbonate rock) composition. The sedimentary component tends to make gravel derived from the Santa Rita Mountains slightly more rounded than other fan gravel. The coarsest (pebble, cobble, and boulder) gravel is found near the heads (proximal part) of alluvial fans. At the foot (distal part) of alluvial fans, most gravel is pebble-sized and interbedded with sand and silt. Some of the coarsest gravel was observed near the head of the Madera Canyon, Montosa Canyon, and Esperanza Wash fans. The large Cienega Creek fan, located immediately south and southeast of Tucson, consists entirely of distal-fan pebble gravel, sand, and silt.

  16. Groundwater Quality and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Richard B

    2015-03-01

    Groundwater nitrate contamination has been an issue in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska since the 1960s, with groundwater nitrate-N concentrations frequently in excess of 10 mg L. This article summarizes education and regulatory efforts to reduce the environmental impact of irrigated crop production in the Platte River Valley. In 1988, a Groundwater Management Area (GWMA) was implemented in the Central Platte Natural Resources District to encourage adoption of improved management practices. Since 1988, there have been steady declines in average groundwater nitrate-N concentrations of about 0.15 mg NO-N L yr in much of the GWMA (from 19 to 15 mg NO-N L). However, N use efficiency (NUE) (partial factor productivity for N [PFP]) has increased very little from 1988 to 2012 (60-65 kg grain kg N), whereas statewide PFP increased from 49 to 67 kg grain kg N in the same period. Although growers are encouraged to credit N from sources besides fertilizer (e.g., soil residual, legumes, irrigation water, and manure), confidence in and use of credits tended to decrease as credits became larger; there was a tendency toward an average N rate regardless of credit-based recommendations. This information, coupled with data from other studies, suggests that much of the decline in groundwater nitrate can be attributed to improved irrigation management-especially conversion from furrow to sprinkler irrigation-and to a lesser extent to improved timing of N application. The development and adoption of improved N management practices, such as fertigation, controlled-release N formulation, and use of crop canopy sensors for in-season N application may be required for further significant NUE gains in these irrigated systems.

  17. Reconnaissance of alluvial fans as potential sources of gravel aggregate, Santa Cruz River valley, Southeast Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Melick, Roger

    2002-01-01

    This investigation was conducted to provide information on the aggregate potential of alluvial fan sediments in the Santa Cruz River valley. Pebble lithology, roundness, and particle size were determined in the field, and structures and textures of alluvial fan sediments were photographed and described. Additional measurements of particle size on digital photographs were made on a computer screen. Digital elevation models were acquired and compiled for viewing the areal extent of selected fans. Alluvial fan gravel in the Santa Cruz River valley reflects the lithology of its source. Gravel derived from granitic and gneissic terrane of the Tortolita, Santa Catalina, and Rincon Mountains weathers to grus and is generally inferior for use as aggregate. Gravel derived from the Tucson, Sierrita, and Tumacacori Mountains is composed mostly of angular particles of volcanic rock, much of it felsic in composition. This angular volcanic gravel should be suitable for use in asphalt but may require treatment for alkali-silica reaction prior to use in concrete. Gravel derived from the Santa Rita Mountains is of mixed plutonic (mostly granitic rocks), volcanic (mostly felsic rocks), and sedimentary (sandstone and carbonate rock) composition. The sedimentary component tends to make gravel derived from the Santa Rita Mountains slightly more rounded than other fan gravel. The coarsest (pebble, cobble, and boulder) gravel is found near the heads (proximal part) of alluvial fans. At the foot (distal part) of alluvial fans, most gravel is pebble-sized and interbedded with sand and silt. Some of the coarsest gravel was observed near the head of the Madera Canyon, Montosa Canyon, and Esperanza Wash fans. The large Cienega Creek fan, located immediately south and southeast of Tucson, consists entirely of distal-fan pebble gravel, sand, and silt.

  18. Reconnaissance of the chemical quality of water in western Utah, Part I: Sink Valley area, drainage basins of Skull, Rush, and Government Creek Valleys, and the Dugway Valley-Old River Bed area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, K.M.

    1967-01-01

    This report presents data collected during the first part of an investigation that was started in 1963 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Geological and Mineralogical Survey. The investigation has the purpose of providing information about the chemical quality of water in western Utah that will help interested parties to evaluate the suitability of the water for various uses in a broad area of Utah where little information of this type previously has been available. The area studied includes the Sink Valley area, the drainage basins of Skull, Rush, and Government Creek Valleys, and the Dugway Valley-Old River Bed area (fig. 1). Osamu Hattori and G. L. Hewitt started the investigation, and the author completed it and prepared the report.

  19. Landscape Genetic Structure of a Streamside Tree Species Euptelea pleiospermum (Eupteleaceae): Contrasting Roles of River Valley and Mountain Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xinzeng; Meng, Hongjie; Jiang, Mingxi

    2013-01-01

    We used landscape genetics and statistical models to test how landscape features influence connectivity or create barriers to dispersal for a mountain riparian tree species, Euptelea pleiospermum. Young leaves from 1078 individuals belonging to 36 populations at elevations of 900–2000 m along upper reaches of four rivers were genotyped using eight nuclear microsatellite markers. We found no evidence for the unidirectional dispersal hypothesis in E. pleiospermum within each river. The linear dispersal pattern along each river valley is mostly consistent with the “classical metapopulaton” model. Mountain ridges separating rivers were genetic barriers for this wind-pollinated tree species with anemochorous seeds, whereas river valleys provided important corridors for dispersal. Gene flow among populations along elevational gradients within each river prevails over gene flow among populations at similar elevations but from different rivers. This pattern of gene flow is likely to promote elevational range shifts of plant populations and to hinder local adaptation along elevational gradients. This study provides a paradigm to determine which of the two strategies (migration or adaptation) will be adopted by mountain riparian plants under climate warming. PMID:23825588

  20. Flood-inundation maps for the Meramec River at Valley Park and at Fenton, Missouri, 2017

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Sappington, Jacob N.

    2017-09-29

    Two sets of digital flood-inundation map libraries that spanned a combined 16.7-mile reach of the Meramec River that extends upstream from Valley Park, Missouri, to downstream from Fenton, Mo., were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis Metropolitan Sewer District, Missouri Department of Transportation, Missouri American Water, and Federal Emergency Management Agency Region 7. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science website at https://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the cooperative USGS streamgages on the Meramec River at Valley Park, Mo., (USGS station number 07019130) and the Meramec River at Fenton, Mo. (USGS station number 07019210). Near-real-time stage data at these streamgages may be obtained from the USGS National Water Information System at https://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service (NWS) Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http:/water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites (listed as NWS sites vllm7 and fnnm7, respectively).Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a calibrated one-dimensional step-backwater hydraulic model. The model was calibrated using a stage-discharge relation at the Meramec River near Eureka streamgage (USGS station number 07019000) and documented high-water marks from the flood of December 2015 through January 2016.The calibrated hydraulic model was used to compute two sets of water-surface profiles: one set for the streamgage at Valley Park, Mo. (USGS station number 07019130), and one set for the USGS streamgage on the Meramec River at Fenton, Mo. (USGS station number 07019210). The water-surface profiles were produced for stages at 1-foot (ft) intervals referenced to the datum from each streamgage and

  1. Salinity Trends in the Upper Colorado River Basin Upstream From the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, Colorado, 1986-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leib, Kenneth J.; Bauch, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    In 1974, the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act was passed into law. This law was enacted to address concerns regarding the salinity content of the Colorado River. The law authorized various construction projects in selected areas or 'units' of the Colorado River Basin intended to reduce the salinity load in the Colorado River. One such area was the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit in western Colorado. The U. S. Geological Survey has done extensive studies and research in the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit that provide information to aid the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and the Natural Resources Conservation Service in determining where salinity-control work may provide the best results, and to what extent salinity-control work was effective in reducing salinity concentrations and loads in the Colorado River. Previous studies have indicated that salinity concentrations and loads have been decreasing downstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit, and that the decreases are likely the result of salinity control work in these areas. Several of these reports; however, also document decreasing salinity loads upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. This finding was important because only a small amount of salinity-control work was being done in areas upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit at the time the findings were reported (late 1990?s). As a result of those previous findings, the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation entered into a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Geological Survey to investigate salinity trends in selected areas bracketing the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit and regions upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit. The results of the study indicate that salinity loads were decreasing upstream from the Grand Valley Salinity Control Unit from 1986 through 2003, but the rates of decrease have slowed during the last 10 years. The average rate of decrease in salinity load upstream from the Grand Valley

  2. Aquifer model of the Susquehanna River valley in southwestern Broome County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Randall, A.D.

    1986-01-01

    A finite-difference model of groundwater flow within stratified drift in the 14 mi reach of the Susquehanna River valley from Binghamton west to Tioga County line (including Johnson City, Endicott, and Vestal) has been developed. Outwash is the most permeable and extensive type of stratified drift in the valley but has only small saturated thickness except where it is downwarped beneath ice-block depressions. The outwash is commonly underlain by extensive beds of silt and clay deposited in proglacial lakes. Older ice-contact deposits are also extensive and provide the largest yields to wells but are highly variable in thickness and commonly siltier than the outwash. The ice-contact deposits seem to occur mainly as ridges that parallel the axis of major valleys and are buried beneath later lacustrine and outwash sediments. The model simulates horizontal flow in two layers-the upper layer generally represents outwash, the lower layer generally represents older ice-contact deposits; and vertical flow between those layers through the beds of silt and clay or, where the two aquifer layers are in direct contact, through sand and gravel. The model has been calibrated to reproduce observed water levels that represent steady-state conditions. The model was calibrated for average steady-state conditions from data for April 1981, when water levels remained fairly stable for nearly 2 months. Recharge from precipitation on the aquifer during this period was determined to be about 1.28 in/mo. Transmissivity of the lower aquifer, as determined by calibration of the model for areas influenced by pumping, was significantly less than transmissivity values calculated from pumping records or geologic logs of individual wells. This difference is attributed to scattered silty layers that reduce average transmissivity of generally permeable materials. Data are available for transient calibration, including: (1) semiannual water level measurements that reflect seasonal changes in river

  3. Invisible geomorphosites. A case study in the Rhone River valley (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clivaz, Mélanie; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2016-04-01

    During the last two decades, numerous inventories of geosites have been carried out at various scales. As all kinds of inventory, they aim at documenting the state of the geological heritage, which is the basis for management strategies (geoconservation, geoeducation, geotourism, etc.). In very humanized regions, where the original geomorphology has been highly modified by human infrastructures, agriculture, urban sprawling, and various modifications of the landforms, it is interesting to inventory not only the landforms visible today but also former landforms that have been destroyed or hidden by human activities. To address the issue of the inventory of invisible geomorphosites, two approaches have been tested in the Rhone River valley, in Switzerland. For centuries the river was flowing quite freely on the floodplain and alternated - both in time and space - braided and meandering sectors. Tributaries fed by glaciers and snow-melting as well as torrential systems were building alluvial fans at their confluence with the Rhone River, and more or less extensive wetlands were isolated by these alluvial fans and the braided sectors of the main river. Floods were frequent and temporary lakes were formed during the snow-melting season and during intensive rainfall events, especially in autumn. Even sand dunes were visible in several places due to the remobilisation of fine fluvial deposits by wind processes. During the second half of the 19th century, the Rhone River and the majority of its tributaries was channelized, the sand dunes were completely destroyed - partly for filling the depressions -, and most wetlands were drained during the first half of the 20th century and replaced by intensive agricultural crops. The first study consisted to inventory the geomorphosites of the research area. Not only the visible landforms but also the landforms that had completely disappeared were evaluated using the assessment method of Reynard et al. (2015). A total of 28

  4. The geomorphology and evolution of aeolian landforms within a river valley in a semi-humid environment: A case study from Mainling Valley, Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Na; Zhang, Chun-Lai; Wu, Xiao-Xu; Wang, Xun-ming; Kang, Li-qiang

    2014-11-01

    This paper systematically analyzes a valley's aeolian landforms in a semi-humid region and presents a model of its contemporary evolution. Mainling Valley of the Yarlung Zangbo River on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau was chosen as the case study for the analysis of morphometric characteristics and the evolution sequence of aeolian landforms via field data and remote sensing images. The aeolian landforms were primarily composed of aeolian sand belts on river terraces and dunes (sheets) on hillside slopes. Three types of aeolian sand belts were identified based on their dune types. In type I belts, an erosive air stream combined with relatively high vegetation cover (10%) produced sparsely distributed parabolic dunes with a high variability of dune heights; in type II belts, the continual reworking by the erosive air stream in combination with low vegetation cover (3%) formed more densely distributed barchans and transitional dunes with a moderate variability of dune heights; and in type III belts, the gradual evolution from an erosive sand-laden air stream to a saturated sand-laden air stream in combination with low vegetation cover (2%) produced the densest crescentic dunefields but with the least variability in dune heights. Dune sizes increase, dune shapes become uniform, and dune distribution becomes close from type I to III belts. Lateral linking and merging of the dunes were also observed within the belts. Together this evidence indicates that an evolution sequence may exist. Aeolian dunefields in the belt appear to evolve from embryonic parabolic dunefields to adolescent barchan dunefields and, subsequently, to mature compound crescentic dunefields. As the aeolian sand belt evolves into the mature stage, sand accumulations at the foot of the mountain valley can be steps for sand accumulation on valley-side slopes.

  5. Conjunctive-use optimization model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of northeastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.; Clark, Brian R.; Reed, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer is a water-bearing assemblage of gravels and sands that underlies about 32,000 square miles of Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas. Because of the heavy demands placed on the aquifer, several large cones of depression over 100 feet deep have formed in the potentiometric surface, resulting in lower well yields and degraded water quality in some areas. A ground-water flow model of the alluvial aquifer was previously developed for an area covering 14,104 square miles, extending northeast from the Arkansas River into the northeast corner of Arkansas and parts of southeastern Missouri. The flow model showed that continued ground-water withdrawals at rates commensurate with those of 1997 could not be sustained indefinitely without causing water levels to decline below half the original saturated thickness of the aquifer. To develop estimates of withdrawal rates that could be sustained in compliance with the constraints of critical ground-water area designation, conjunctive-use optimization modeling was applied to the flow model of the alluvial aquifer in northeastern Arkansas. Ground-water withdrawal rates form the basis for estimates of sustainable yield from the alluvial aquifer and from rivers specified within the alluvial aquifer model. A management problem was formulated as one of maximizing the sustainable yield from all ground-water and surface-water withdrawal cells within limits imposed by plausible withdrawal rates, and within specified constraints involving hydraulic head and streamflow. Steady-state flow conditions were selected because the maximized withdrawals are intended to represent sustainable yield of the system (a rate that can be maintained indefinitely). Within the optimization model, 11 rivers are specified. Surface-water diversion rates that occurred in 2000 were subtracted from specified overland flow at the appropriate river cells. Included in these diversions were the

  6. Simulation of ground-water flow in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahon, G.L.; Ludwig, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey has developed and calibrated a digital model of the flow system in the alluvial aquifer as part of a multiagency Eastern Arkansas Region Comprehensive Study being conducted by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. Other cooperating agencies include the U.S. Soil Conservation Service, the Arkansas Soil and Water Conservation Commission, and the University of Arkansas. The study was prompted by the growing concern about significant water level declines in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer north of the Arkansas River in eastern Arkansas. The declines are a result of large groundwater withdrawals, mainly for irrigation. After calibration, the flow model was used to simulate the effects of projected groundwater pumpage through the year 2050, based on estimates made by the U.S. Soil Conservation Service for pumpage scenarios with and without water conservation measures. Simulations of projected pumpage indicated that by the year 2050 water level declines would reduce the saturated thickness of the aquifer to less than 20 ft in large areas of eastern Arkansas. More than 26% of the active cells in the scenario without conservation had saturated thicknesses of 20 ft or less and mroe than 16% in the scenario with conservation. The principal areas where the saturated thickness is expected to reach these critical levels are in the Grand Prairie region and in two areas on the east and west sides of Crowleys Ridge. (USGS)

  7. Occurrence of Escherichia coli in the Cuyahoga River in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Amie M.G.; Plona, Meg B.

    2010-01-01

    There are several measures of the 'cleanliness' of a natural body of water, including concentrations of indicator bacteria, anthropogenic chemicals (chemicals derived from human activities), and nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorous. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterium that lives in the intestinal tract of warm-blooded animals, such as humans, deer, cows, and dogs. Most strains of E. coli are not harmful and are in fact beneficial to humans by aiding in the digestive process. A few strains, such as the O157 strain, produce toxins that can cause gastrointestinal illness, but occurrence of toxic strains in the environment is not common. E. coli is considered a good indicator bacterium because its occurrence in the environment indicates the presence of fecal contamination and therefore the possible presence of pathogenic organisms associated with feces. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommends using measurements of E. coli to monitor freshwaters and set criteria for the concentration of bacteria that can be present in the water with minimal adverse human-health effects. Typically, a State's waters are assigned a recreational-use designation, such as bathing, primary-contact, or secondary contact waters, which is used to set the State's water-quality standards based on the USEPA criteria. The Cuyahoga River in the Cuyahoga Valley National Park is designated for primary-contact recreation; therefore, when concentrations of E. coli exceed 298 CFU/100mL, the river would be considered potentially unsafe for recreation.

  8. Winter raptor use of the Platte and North Platte River Valleys in south central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lingle, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    Winter distribution and abundance of raptors were monitored within the Platte and North Platte river valleys. Data were collected along 265 km of census routes along the Platte and North Platte rivers during the winters of 1978-1979 and 1979-1980. Observations recorded during the second winter involved less observation time and were at somewhat different periods. There were 1574 sightings of 15 species representing 3 raptor families. Number of raptors observed on 54 days from 15 November to 13 February 1978-1979 was 48.3 per 100 km. In 20 days of observation from 5 December to 6 March 1979-1980, 39.7 raptors were observed per 100 km. Small mammal indices were 21 and 12 captures per 1000 trap nights during November 1978 and 1979, respectively. Raptors were sighted most frequently in riverine habitat and least in pasture and tilled fields. American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (11.1 individuals/100 km), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (9.9), and bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) (9.6) were the most frequently sighted raptors. Northern harrier (Circus cyaneus), rough-legged hawk (B. lagopus), and prairie falcon (P. mexicanus) sightings were 3.4, 3.4, and 1.7, respectively. Nine species were seen at a frequency of less than 1.0 individuals/100 km. Improved foraging conditions throughout the region resulted in fewer raptors sighted in 1979-1980.

  9. Early Pleistocene Glacial Lake Lesley, West Branch Susquehanna River valley, central Pennsylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramage, Joan M.; Gardner, Thomas W.; Sasowsky, Ira D.

    1998-02-01

    Laurentide glaciers extended into north central Pennsylvania repeatedly during at least the last 2 million years. Early Pleistocene glaciation extended farther south into central Pennsylvania than any subsequent glaciation, reaching the West Branch Susquehanna River (WBSR) valley. Early Pleistocene ice dammed the northeast-flowing West Branch Susquehanna River at Williamsport, forming Glacial Lake Lesley, a 100-km-long proglacial lake. In this paper, we present compelling evidence for the lake and its age. Maximum lake volume (˜ 100 km 3) was controlled by the elevation of the lowest drainage divide, ˜ 340 m above sea level at Dix, Pennsylvania. Stratified deposits at McElhattan and Linden are used to reconstruct depositional environments in Glacial Lake Lesley. A sedimentary section 40 m thick at McElhattan fines upward from crossbedded sand to fine, wavy to horizontally laminated clay, consistent with lake deepening and increasing distance from the sediment source with time. At Linden, isolated cobbles, interpreted as dropstones, locally deform glacio-lacustrine sediment. We use paleomagnetism as an age correlation tool in the WBSR valley to correlate contemporaneous glaciofluvial and proglacial lacustrine sediments. Reversed remanent polarity in finely-laminated lacustrine clay and silt at McElhattan ( I = 20.4°, D = 146.7°, α95 = 17.7°) and in interbedded silt and sand at Linden ( I = 55.3°, D = 175.2°, α95 = 74.6°) probably corresponds to the latter part of the Matuyama Reversed Polarity Chron, indicating an age between ˜ 770 and ˜ 970 ka. At McElhattan, a diamicton deformed the finely laminated silt and clay by loading and partial fluidization during or soon after lake drainage. As a result, the deformed clay at McElhattan lacks discrete bedding and records a different characteristic remanent magnetism from underlying, undeformed beds. This difference indicates that the characteristic remanent magnetism is detrital. An electrical resistivity

  10. Unravelling recent environmental change in a lowland river valley, eastern Ireland: geoarchaeological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Gez; Turner, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    This paper reports the preliminary findings of an Irish Heritage Council INSTAR funded research project on the geoarchaeology and fluvial geomorphology of the lower River Boyne valley, eastern Ireland. The nature and evolution of the contemporary Boyne floodplain at Dunmoe, Co. Meath (53° 40' 22.8" N, 6° 37' 54.7" W) has been investigated using a multi-technique approach combining field and terrestrial LiDAR-based geomorphological mapping, radiocarbon dating of channel migration activity, electrical resistivity tomography surveys of sub-surface topography and high-resolution X-ray and XRF geochemical characterisation of fine-grained sediment fill sequences. All of these lines of evidence support a tripartite sub-division of the floodplain. Valley marginal floodplain Zone 1 is characterised by a colluvial sediment fill which has buried an irregular ditch-basin-platform surface containing recent archaeological material. Subtle variations in mapped elevation suggest that the buried surface may represent the site of an abandoned river-side complex, possibly a small docking area or port. Geomorphological field relationships suggest that the possible archaeological site was connected to a former bank line position of the main River Boyne (floodplain Zone 2) via a small canal. Radiocarbon dating of Zone 2 channel gravels suggests that the channel associated with this bank position was abandoned some time before 1490-1610 AD. Subsequent vertical and lateral channel migration, the onset of which has been radiocarbon dated to the 17th or 18th century AD, led to the development of the lowest and most recent floodplain surface (Zone 3). The sedimentology and geochemistry of the Zone 2 and 3 fluvial sediment sequences suggests that recent centuries have involved an increase in fluvial flood risk, evidenced by the burial of alluvial soils by bedded, shell-rich sands. A more complete understanding of the timing and environmental drivers of increasing flood risk is anticipated

  11. Geo-referenced social accounting with application to integrated watershed planning in the Hudson River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowosielski, Audra Ann

    Changing economic activity and patterns of human habitation have long been a cause of concern for the ecological health of the Hudson River and its tributaries. Today, economic development in the Hudson River Valley is often characterized as a battle between proponents of economy-wide growth and citizen groups concerned about the cumulative impact of incremental development on the watershed. Current development trends in the Hudson River Valley are driving the conversion of rural, agricultural and forestland to urban or industrial uses. This thesis is part of a larger study of the economic changes that lead to land use and environmental changes. It focuses specifically on the economic drivers of development in Dutchess County, an area of the lower watershed on the east bank of the Hudson, midway between New York City and the state capital of Albany. The objective was to engage the Dutchess County planning community in developing a planning model, the economic portion of which characterizes the economy with a Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) referenced to a Geographical Information System (GIS). The model was used to assess economic impacts of locally relevant development scenarios including a new IBM semiconductor plant, agro-tourism, and commuting behavior. These scenarios each discuss economic changes that have land use consequences. For example, a new IBM plant will likely instigate new residential development, agro-tourism offers a way to keep land in agricultural use, and the study of commuting behavior leads to insights on how residential growth may depend on commuting patterns, as well as information on the effects of second home communities. The final model will help stakeholders to visualize not only how economic shocks will change their communities, but also how these changes may lead to land use and cumulative environmental impact. Stakeholders will be able to visualize the trade-off between new economic growth and the possible loss of environmental

  12. Geohydrology of the Souris River Valley in the vicinity of Minot, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettyjohn, Wayne A.

    1967-01-01

    The Minor area is in the north-central part of North Dakota and includes part of the Souris River valley. The region is covered by glacial drift of late Wisconsin age except ill small areas where the Fort Union Formation of Tertiary age crops out. Thickness of the drift is controlled .by the topography of the bedrock. In places the drift is more than 450 feet thick, but it averages about 100 feet thick. Water from the Fort Union Formation is soft and is of sodium bicarbonate type that is undesirable for many uses. Wells in the formation produce only a few gallons per minute. Six glacial aquifers were studied in the report area, but detailed work was limited to the Minor aquifer. The Sundre buried-channel and the lower Souris aquifers contain large quantities of hard water of good chemical quality, but little is known of their hydraulic characteristics owing ,to lack of development. The North Hill and South Hill aquifers generally pro-tide small quantities of hard water that may be high in iron and sodium. The northwest buried-channel aquifer has a high content of iron and chloride. Locally as much as 1,000 gallons per minute may be pumped from it. The Minor aquifer is a thick deposit of sand and gravel confined to the Souris River valley. The water level has declined more than 70 feet since the first municipal well began pumping in 1916. In .some places the water level in the aquifer declined more than 20 feet during 1961-1963. The rapid decline in water level indicates that a serious water shortage may arise in the near future unless counter measures are taken to prevent it. The Minor aquifer is under both artesian and water-table conditions. In places the transmissibility exceeds 250,000 gallons per day per foot. In 1963, 13 municipal wells pumiced an average of nearly 4 million gallons per day from the aquifer. Some wells produce as much as 1,000 gallons per minute. The Minor aquifer receives most of its recharge from the buried glaciofluvial deposits and from

  13. Preliminary report on deposit models for sand and gravel in the Cache la Poudre River valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Lindsey, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The stratigraphy, sedimentary features, and physical characteristics of gravel deposits in the Cache la Poudre River valley were studied to establish geologic models for these deposits. Because most of the gravel mined in the valley is beneath the low terraces and floodplain, the quality of these deposits for aggregate was studied in detail at eight sites in a 25.5-mile reach between Fort Collins and Greeley, Colorado. Aggregate quality was determined by field and laboratory measurements on samples collected under a consistent sampling plan. The Broadway terrace is underlain by Pleistocene alluvium and, at some places, by fine-grained wind-blown deposits. The Piney Creek terrace, low terraces, and floodplain are primarily underlain by Holocene alluvium. Pleistocene alluvium may underlie these terraces at isolated locations along the river. Gravels beneath the Piney Creek terrace, low terraces, and floodplain are divisible into two units that are poorly distinguishable at the upstream end of the study area, but are readily distinguishable about 7 miles downstream. Where distinguished, the two gravel units are separated by a sharp, locally erosional, contact. The upper gravel is probably of Holocene age, but the lower gravel is considered to be Holocene and Pleistocene. The primary variation in particle size of the gravels beneath the floodplain and low terraces of the Cache la Poudre River valley is the downstream decrease in the proportion of particles measuring 3/4 inch and larger. Above Fort Collins, about 60 pct of the gravel collects on the 3/4 inch sieve, whereas about 50 pct of gravel collects on the same sieve size at Greeley. For 1.5-inch sieves, the corresponding values are about 50 pct for Fort Collins and only about 30 pct for Greeley. Local differences in particle size and sorting between the upper and lower gravel units were observed in the field, but only the coarsest particle sizes appear to have been concentrated in the lower unit. Field

  14. Fish communities of the Sacramento River Basin: Implications for conservation of native fishes in the Central Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, J.T.; Brown, L.R.

    2002-01-01

    The associations of resident fish communities with environmental variables and stream condition were evaluated at representative sites within the Sacramento River Basin, California between 1996 and 1998 using multivariate ordination techniques and by calculating six fish community metrics. In addition, the results of the current study were compared with recent studies in the San Joaquin River drainage to provide a wider perspective of the condition of resident fish communities in the Central Valley of California as a whole. Within the Sacramento drainage, species distributions were correlated with elevational and substrate size gradients; however, the elevation of a sampling site was correlated with a suite of water-quality and habitat variables that are indicative of land use effects on physiochemical stream parameters. Four fish community metrics - percentage of native fish, percentage of intolerant fish, number of tolerant species, and percentage of fish with external anomalies - were responsive to environmental quality. Comparisons between the current study and recent studies in the San Joaquin River drainage suggested that differences in water-management practices may have significant effects on native species fish community structure. Additionally, the results of the current study suggest that index of biotic integrity-type indices can be developed for the Sacramento River Basin and possibly the entire Central Valley, California. The protection of native fish communities in the Central Valley and other arid environments continues to be a conflict between human needs for water resources and the requirements of aquatic ecosystems; preservation of these ecosystems will require innovative management strategies.

  15. Anomalous midsummer rainfall in Yangtze River-Huaihe River valleys and its association with the East Asia westerly jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Shouli; Zhang, Qingyun; Sun, Shuqing

    2011-03-01

    In this study, the interannual and interdecadal relationship between midsummer Yangtze River-Huaihe River valley (YHRV) rainfall and the position of the East Asia westerly jet (EAWJ) were investigated. The midsummer YHRV rainfall was found to significantly increase after the 1980s. Moreover, the location of the EAWJ was found abnormally south of the climatic mean during 1980-2008 (ID2) compared to 1951-1979 (ID1). During ID2, associated with the southward movement of the EAWJ, an anomalous upper-level convergence occurred over middle-high latitudes (35°-55°N) and divergence occurred over lower latitudes (˜30°N) of East Asia. Correspondingly, anomalous descending and ascending motion was observed in middle-high and lower latitudes along 90°-130°E, respectively, favoring more precipitation over YHRV. On an interannual time scale, the EAWJ and YHRV rainfall exhibited similar relationships during the two periods. When the EAWJ was centered abnormally southward, rainfall over YHRV tended to increase. However, EAWJrelated circulations were significantly different during the two periods. During ID1, the circulation of the southward-moving EAWJ exhibited alternating positive-negative-positive distributions from low to middle-high latitudes along the East Asian coast; the most significant anomaly appeared west of the Okhotsk Sea. However, during ID2 the EAWJ was more closely correlated with the tropical and subtropical circulations. Significant differences between ID1 and ID2 were also recorded sea surface temperatures (SSTs). During ID1, the EAWJ was influenced by the extratropical SST over the northern Pacific; however, the EAWJ was more significantly affected by the SST of the tropical western Pacific during ID2.

  16. Large flood on a mountain river subjected to restoration: effects on aquatic habitats, channel morphology and valley infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdukiewicz, Hanna; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Zawiejska, Joanna; Radecki-Pawlik, Artur

    2016-04-01

    The Biała River, Polish Carpathians, was considerably modified by channelization and channel incision in the twentieth century. To restore the Biała, establishing an erodible corridor was proposed in two river sections located in its mountain and foothill course. In these sections, longer, unmanaged channel reaches alternate with short, channelized reaches; and channel narrowing and incision increases in the downstream direction. In June 2010 an 80-year flood occurred on the river; and this study aims at determining its effects on physical habitat conditions for river biota, channel morphology, and valley-floor infrastructure. Surveys of 10 pairs of closely located, unmanaged and channelized cross sections, performed in 2009 and in the late summer 2010, allowed us to assess the flood-induced changes to physical habitat conditions. A comparison of channel planforms determined before (2009) and after (2012) the flood provided information on the degree of channel widening as well as changes in the width of particular elements of the river's active zone in eight stretches of the Biała. The impact of the flood on valley-floor infrastructure was confronted with the degree of river widening in unmanaged and channelized river reaches. Before the flood, unmanaged cross sections were typified by finer bed material and greater lateral variability in depth-averaged and near-bed flow velocity than channelized cross sections. The flood tended to equalize habitat conditions in both types of river cross sections, obliterating differences (in particular physical habitat parameters) between channelized and unmanaged channel reaches. River widening mostly reflected an increase in the area of channel bars, whereas the widening of low-flow channels was less pronounced. A comparison of channel planform from 2009 and 2012 indicated that intense channel incision typical of downstream sections limited river widening by the flood. Active channel width increased by half in the unmanaged

  17. Characterization and simulation of ground-water flow in the Kansas River Valley at Fort Riley, Kansas, 1990-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Myers, Nathan C.

    2000-01-01

    Hydrologic data and a ground-water flow model were used to characterize ground-water flow in the Kansas River alluvial aquifer at Fort Riley in northeast Kansas. The ground-water flow model was developed as a tool to project ground-water flow and potential contaminant-transport paths in the alluvial aquifer on the basis of past hydrologic conditions. The model also was used to estimate historical and hypothetical ground-water flow paths with respect to a private- and several public-supply wells. The ground-water flow model area extends from the Smoky Hill and Republican Rivers downstream to about 2.5 miles downstream from the city of Ogden. The Kansas River Valley has low relief and, except for the area within the Fort Riley Military Reservation, is used primarily for crop production. Sedimentary deposits in the Kansas River Valley, formed after the ancestral Kansas River eroded into bedrock, primarily are alluvial sediment deposited by the river during Quaternary time. The alluvial sediment consists of as much as about 75 feet of poorly sorted, coarse-to-fine sand, silt, and clay, 55 feet of which can be saturated with ground water. The alluvial aquifer is unconfined and is bounded on the sides and bottom by Permian-age shale and limestone bedrock. Hydrologic data indicate that ground water in the Kansas River Valley generally flows in a downstream direction, but flow direction can be quite variable near the Kansas River due to changes in river stage. Ground-water-level changes caused by infiltration of precipitation are difficult to detect because they are masked by larger changes caused by fluctuation in Kansas River stage. Ratios of strontium isotopes Sr87 and Sr86 in water collected from wells in the Camp Funston Area indicate that the ground water along the northern valley wall originates, in part, from upland areas north of the river valley. Water from Threemile Creek, which flows out of the uplands north of the river valley, had Sr87:Sr86 ratios similar to

  18. Delta growth and river valleys: the influence of climate and sea level changes on the South Adriatic shelf (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, V.; Trincardi, F.; Asioli, A.; Ceregato, A.; Rizzetto, F.; Taviani, M.

    2014-09-01

    Incised valleys across continental margins represent the response of fluvial systems to changes in their equilibrium dynamics, mainly driven by base level fall forced by glacial-eustatic cycles. The Manfredonia Incised Valley formed during the last glacial sea level lowstand, when most of the southern Adriatic shelf was sub-aerially exposed but the outer shelf remained under water. The pronounced upstream deepening of the valley is ascribed to river incision of the MIS5e highstand coastal prism and related subaqueous clinoform under the influence of MIS5-4 sea level fluctuations, while the downstream shallowing and narrowing mainly reflects the impact of increased rates of sea level fall at the MIS3-2 transition on a flatter mid-outer shelf. Until 15 ka BP, the valley fed an asymmetric delta confined to the mid-outer shelf, testifying that continental and deep marine systems remained disconnected during the lowstand. Sea level rise reached the inner shelf during the Early Holocene, drowning the valley and leading to the formation of a sheltered embayment confined toward the land: at this time part of the incision remained underfilled with a marked bathymetric expression. This mini-basin was rapidly filled by sandy bayhead deltas, prograding from both the northern and southern sides of the valley. In this environment, protected by marine reworking and where sediment dispersal was less effective, the accommodation space was reduced and autogenic processes forced the formation of multiple and coalescing delta lobes. Bayhead delta progradations occurred in few centuries, between 8 and 7.2 ka cal BP, confirming the recent hypothesis that in this area the valley was filled during the formation of sapropel S1. This proximal valley fill, representing the very shallow-water equivalent of the cm-thick sapropel layers accumulated offshore in the deeper southern Adriatic basin, is of key importance in following the signature of the sapropel in a facies-tract ideally from the

  19. Demographics and movements of least terns and piping plovers in the Central Platte River Valley, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roche, Erin A.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Ring, Megan M.; Shaffer, Terry L.; Anteau, Michael J.; Stucker, Jennifer H.

    2016-08-09

    The Central Platte River Valley provides breeding habitat for a variety of migratory birds, including federally endangered interior least terns (Sternula antillarum; least tern) and threatened piping plovers (Charadrius melodus). Since 2009, researchers have collected demographic data on both species that span their lifecycle (that is, from egg laying through survival of adults). Demographic data were used to estimate vital rates (for example, nest survival, chick survival, and so on) for both species and assess how these vital rates were related to type and age of nesting habitat. Nest survival of both species was unrelated to the age of the site a nest was initiated on. Piping plover chick survival to fledging age was not related to the age of the site it was hatched at, however, the probability of a least tern chick surviving to fledging was higher at older sites. In general there were fewer piping plover nests than least tern nests found at sites created through either the physical construction of a new site or new vegetation management regimes, during 2009–14.Mean daily least tern nest survival was 0.9742 (95-percent confidence interval [CI]: 0.9692–0.9783) and cumulative nest survival was 0.59 (95-percent CI: 0.53–0.65). Mean daily least tern chick survival was 0.9602 (95-percent CI: 0.9515–0.9673) and cumulative survival to fledging was 0.54 (95-percent CI = 0.48–0.61). Annual apparent survival rates were estimated at 0.42 (95-percent CI = 0.22–0.64) for adult least terns nesting in the Central Platte River Valley and an apparent survival rate of 0.14 (95-pecent CI = 0.04–0.41) for juvenile least terns. The number of least tern nests present at sites created during 2009–14 was associated with the age of the site; more least tern nests were associated with older sites. During 2009–14, there were four (less than 1 percent of all chicks marked) least tern chicks hatched from the Central Platte River Valley that were subsequently captured on

  20. Natural curiosities of the Bug river valley near Janów Podlaski as a chance of the specialized tourism development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznerczuk, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the most precious natural curiosities of the Bug river valley near Janów Podlaski (between Zaczopki and Gnojno). This area is protected as the landscape park - "Podlasie Bug Water Gap". The natural abiotic elements, among others geomorphological ones significantly conditioning unrepeatable charms of the Bug river valley landscape, are regarded as marginal in many papers concerning the unique values of this valley. The presented natural curiosities are arranged in genetic and chronological order. These main relief elements of the Bug river valley are associated with different morphogenetic processes, i.e. the gap formation, the Bug river metamorphosis and gully erosion. These elements can be a chance of the development of specialised tourism, which will influence the economic mobilization of this undeveloped region.

  1. Formation and evolution of valley-bottom and channel features, Lower Deschutes River, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Curran, Janet H.; O'Conner, Jim E.; O'Conner, Jim E.; Grant, Gordon E.

    2003-01-01

    Primary geologic and geomorphic processes that formed valley-bottom and channel features downstream from the Pelton-Round Butte dam complex are inferred from a canyon-long analysis of feature morphology, composition, location, and spatial distribution. Major controls on valley-bottom morphology are regional tectonics, large landslides, and outsized floods (floods with return periods greater than 1000 yrs), which include the late Holocene Outhouse Flood and several Quaternary landslide dam failures. Floods with a return period on the order of 100 yrs, including historical floods in 1996, 1964, and 1861, contribute to fan building and flood plain formation only within the resistant framework established by the major controls. Key processes in the formation of channel features, in particular the 153 islands and 23 large rapids, include long-term bedrock erosion, outsized floods, and century-scale floods. Historical analysis of channel conditions since 1911 indicates that the largest islands, which are cored by outsized-flood deposits, locally control channel location, although their margins are substantially modified during annual- to century-scale floods. Islands cored by bedrock have changed little. Islands formed by annual- to century-scale floods are more susceptible to dynamic interactions between tributary sediment inputs, mainstem flow hydraulics, and perhaps riparian vegetation. Temporal patterns of island change in response to the sequence of 20th century flooding indicate that many islands accreted sediment during annual- to decadal-scale floods, but eroded during larger century-scale floods. There is, however, no clear trend of long-term changes in patterns of island growth, movement, or erosion either spatially or temporally within the lower Deschutes River.

  2. Hydrology of the Little Androscoggin River Valley aquifer, Oxford County, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Little Androscoggin River valley aquifer, a 15-square-mile sand and gravel valley-fill aquifer in southwestern Maine, is the source of water for the towns of Norway, Oxford, and South Paris. Estimated inflows to the aquifer during the 1981 water year were 16.4 cubic feet per second from precipitation directly on the aquifer, 11.2 cubic feet per second from till covered uplands adjacent to the aquifer, and 1.4 cubic feet per second from surface-water leakage. Outflows from the aquifer were 26.7 cubic feet per second to surface water and 2.3 cubic feet per second to wells. A finite-difference ground-water flow model was used to simulate conditions observed in the aquifer during 1981. Model conditions observed in the aquifer during 1981. Model simulations indicate that a 50 percent reduction of average 1981 recharge to the aquifer would cause water level declines of up to 20 feet in some areas. Model simulations of increased pumping at a high yield well in the northern part of the aquifer indicate that resulting changes in the water table will not be sufficient to intercept groundwater contaminated by a sludge disposal site. Water in the aquifer is low in dissolved solids (average for 38 samples was 67 mg/L), slightly acidic and soft. Ground-water contamination has occurred near a sludge-disposal site and in the vicinity of a sanitary landfill. Dissolved solids in ground water near the sludge disposal site were as much as ten times greater than average background values for the aquifer. (USGS)

  3. Impact of climate and parent material on chemical weathering in Loess-derived soils of the Mississippi River valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Bettis, E. Arthur; Been, J.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    Peoria Loess-derived soils on uplands east of the Mississippi River valley were studied from Louisiana to Iowa, along a south-to-north gradient of decreasing precipitation and temperature. Major element analyses of deep loess in Mississippi and Illinois show that the composition of the parent material is similar in the northern and southern parts of the valley. We hypothesized that in the warmer, wetter parts of the transect, mineral weathering should be greater than in the cooler, drier parts of the transect. Profile average values of CaO/TiO2, MgO/ TiO2, K2O/TiO2, and Na2O/TiO2, Sr/Zr, Ba/Zr, and Rb/Zr represent proxies for depletion of loess minerals such as calcite, dolomite, hornblende, mica, and plagioclase. All ratios show increases from south to north, supporting the hypothesis of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the valley. An unexpected result is that profile average values of Al2O3/TiO2 and Fe2O3/TiO2 (proxies for the relative abundance of clay minerals) show increases from south to north. This finding, while contrary to the evidence of greater chemical weathering in the southern part of the transect, is consistent with an earlier study which showed higher clay contents in Bt horizons of loess-derived soils in the northern part of the transect. We hypothesize that soils in the northern part of the valley received fine-grained loess from sources to the west of the Mississippi River valley either late in the last glacial period, during the Holocene or both. In contrast, soils in the southern part of the valley were unaffected by such additions.

  4. Map of the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones, Salinas River Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, Lewis I.; Clark, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    The Rinconada Fault and its related faults constitute a major structural element of the Salinas River valley, which is known regionally, and referred to herein, as the 'Salinas Valley'. The Rinconada Fault extends 230 km from King City in the north to the Big Pine Fault in the south. At the south end of the map area near Santa Margarita, the Rinconada Fault separates granitic and metamorphic crystalline rocks of the Salinian Block to the northeast from the subduction-zone assemblage of the Franciscan Complex to the southwest. Northwestward, the Rinconada Fault lies entirely within the Salinian Block and generally divides this region into two physiographically and structurally distinct areas, the Santa Lucia Range to the west and the Salinas Valley to the east. The Reliz Fault, which continues as a right stepover from the Rinconada Fault, trends northwestward along the northeastern base of the Sierra de Salinas of the Santa Lucia Range and beyond for 60 km to the vicinity of Spreckels, where it is largely concealed. Aeromagnetic data suggest that the Reliz Fault continues northwestward another 25 km into Monterey Bay, where it aligns with a high-definition magnetic boundary. Geomorphic evidence of late Quaternary movement along the Rinconada and Reliz Fault Zones has been documented by Tinsley (1975), Dibblee (1976, 1979), Hart (1976, 1985), and Klaus (1999). Although definitive geologic evidence of Holocene surface rupture has not been found on these faults, they were regarded as an earthquake source for the California Geological Survey [formerly, California Division of Mines and Geology]/U.S. Geological Survey (CGS/USGS) Probabilistic Seismic Hazards Assessment because of their postulated slip rate of 1+-1 mm/yr and their calculated maximum magnitude of 7.3. Except for published reports by Durham (1965, 1974), Dibblee (1976), and Hart (1976), most information on these faults is unpublished or is contained in theses, field trip guides, and other types of reports

  5. A subsynoptic-scale kinetic energy study of the Red River Valley tornado outbreak (AVE-SESAME 1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedlovec, G. J.; Fuelberg, H. E.

    1981-01-01

    The subsynoptis-scale kinetic energy balance during the Red River Valley tornado outbreak is presented in order to diagnose storm environment interactions. Area-time averaged energetics indicate that horizontal flux convergence provides the major energy source to the region, while cross contour flow provides the greatest sink. Maximum energy variability is found in the upper levels in association with jet stream activity. Area averaged energetics at individual observation times show that the energy balance near times of maximum storm activity differs considerably from that of the remaining periods. The local kinetic energy balance over Oklahoma during the formation of a limited jet streak receives special attention. Cross contour production of energy is the dominant local source for jet development. Intense convection producing the Red River Valley tornadoes may have contributed to this local development by modifying the surrounding environment.

  6. Availability of water from the alluvial aquifer in part of the Green River Valley, King County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lum, W. E.; Alvord, R.C.; Drost, B.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Muckleshoot Indian Tribe plans (1982) to build a fish hatchery in part of a 1.56-square-mile area in the Green River valley, Washington, and use groundwater to operate it. Groundwater data were collected in the area and used in a U.S. Geological Survey two-dimensional groundwater-flow model calibrated to simulate the groundwater-flow system in the study area. Measured water levels in the alluvial aquifer were simulated to within 1 foot at 7 of 12 observation wells, and within 2 feet at all 12 wells. When pumping from the aquifer was simulated with the model, it was found that all water pumped from wells was derived from induced leakage from the Green River into the alluvium and reduced leakage through the alluvium to the Green River. Pumping from the alluvium may also reduce the flow of a tributary to the Green River. (USGS)

  7. Hydrogeology of the eastern part of the Salt River Valley area, Maricopa and Pinal Counties, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laney, R.L.; Hahn, Mary Ellen

    1986-01-01

    The Salt River Valley is a major agricultural and metropolitan area in semiarid south-central Arizona. Groundwater in the permeable sedimentary deposits underlying the area is a major water supply for agricultural, municipal, and industrial users. Groundwater levels have declined as much as 400 ft in recent years. Management of the remaining groundwater resources and their protection from contamination will require knowledge of the hydrogeologic framework and the water-bearing characteristics of the sedimentary units in the groundwater system. The rocks in the eastern part of the Salt River Valley are divided into six units--crystalline rocks, extrusive rocks, red units, lower unit, middle unit, and upper unit. The crystalline and extrusive rocks underlie the basin and form virtually impermeable hydrologic boundaries. The red, lower, middle and upper sedimentary units contain most of the groundwater. The red unit contains usable quantities of ground water, principally near Scottsdale, where it yields as much as 1 ,000 gallons/min (gpm) of water to wells. The lower unit, which makes up the largest volume of sedimentary deposits, consists mostly of mudstone, clay, silt, and evaporite deposits that may be as much as 10,000 ft thick in the central part of the basin. Wells tapping the mudstone, clay, silt yield 50 (gpm) or less but the conglomerate and the sand and gravel may yield as much as 3,500 gpm. The middle unit is the principal water-bearing unit in the basin and consists mostly of silt, siltstone, and silty sand and gravel. The unit is as much as 1,000 ft thick in the central part of the basin and as much as 700 ft is saturated. The unit will yield as much as 1,000 gpm where the saturated thickness is at least 500 ft. Locally, north of Mesa, the unit yields as much as 4,000 gpm. The upper unit is gravel, sand, and silt and is saturated only in a small area in the southwestern part of the basin. Where saturated, the unit may yield as much as 4,500 gpm. The upper

  8. A zircon (U-Th)/He exhumation study in the lower Sutlej River valley; Northwestern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyes, T.; Michalak, M.; Hourigan, J. K.

    2009-12-01

    In an actively deforming orogen, such as the Himalaya, erosion, uplift, and consequently, exhumation are variable across time and space. Recent studies suggest a direct link between erosion and exhumation, both spatially and temporally (e.g. Thiede et al. 2004; Clift et al. 2008; Vannay et al. 2004). However, the complexities of this relationship have yet to be characterized in the Himalaya (Thiede et al., 2009; Whipple, 2009). In the Northwest Himalaya, low temperature thermochronology shows that the Southern Himalayan Front (SHF) has been rapidly exhuming since the mid-Miocene (Thiede et al. 2009; and references therin). Fission track studies have been used to quantify exhumation rates in the Sutlej River valley in the Northwest Himalaya along the SHF (Thiede et al. 2009; Vannay et al. 2004; Schlup 2003; Jain et al. 2000). These studies indicate rapid exhumation within the Higher and Lower Himalayan Crystalline series. However, few rock samples in the Lesser Himalayan metasedimentary units have been analyzed with these methods. Because exhumation varies temporally, it is important to use several low-temperature thermochronometers to detect changes in exhumation rates. In this study we use the zircon (U-Th)/He method, which provides a cooling age (Dodson, 1973) since passing through a ~180 degree C closure isotherm. Seven new (U-Th)/He cooling-ages along a 2.2km vertical transect, within the Lesser Himalayan series, are presented. Young (~3 Ma), reproducible cooling-ages for the upper five samples indicate that this section of metasedimentary rocks exhumed rapidly, as a coherent block, in the mid-Pliocene. Two samples from lower elevations unexpectedly yielded older cooling ages, however, these data had larger associated reproducibility errors. The apparent negative age-elevation relationship of this transect could be explained by i) an unmapped fault, ii) recent tilting of a large block, or iii) a rapid decrease in recent relief that occurred faster than the

  9. Conservation Effects Assessment Project-Wetlands assessment in California's Central Valley and Upper Klamath River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Walter G.; Kahara, Sharon N.; Records, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary-Ecosystem Services Derived from Wetlands Reserve Program Conservation Practices in California's Central Valley and Oregon's Upper Klamath River Basin. The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) is one of several programs implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Since the WRP's inception in 1990, it has resulted in the restoration of approximately 29,000 hectares in California's Central Valley (CCV) and roughly 12,300 hectares in Oregon's Upper Klamath River Basin (UKRB). Both the CCV and UKRB are agricultural dominated landscapes that have experienced extensive wetland losses and hydrological alteration. Restored habitats in the CCV and UKRB are thought to provide a variety of ecosystem services, but little is known about the actual benefits afforded. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) California Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Unit in collaboration with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service surveyed 70 WRP sites and 12 National Wildlife Refuge sites in the CCV, and 11 sites in the UKRB to estimate ecosystem services provided. In the CCV, sites were selected along three primary gradients; (1) restoration age, (2) management intensity, and (3) latitude (climate). Sites in the UKRB were assessed along restoration age and management intensity gradients where possible. The management intensity gradient included information about the type and frequency of conservation practices applied at each site, which was then ranked into three categories that differentiated sites primarily along a hydrological gradient. Information collected was used to estimate the following ecosystem services: Soil and vegetation nutrient content, soil loss reduction, floodwater storage as well as avian, amphibian, fish, and pollinator use and habitat availability. Prior to this study, very little was known about WRP habitat morphology in the CCV and UKRB. Therefore in this study, we described these habitats and related them to ecosystem services provided. Our

  10. Conservation Effects Assessment Project-Wetlands assessment in California's Central Valley and Upper Klamath River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, Walter G.; Kahara, Sharon N.; Records, Rosemary M.

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary-Ecosystem Services Derived from Wetlands Reserve Program Conservation Practices in California's Central Valley and Oregon's Upper Klamath River Basin. The Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP) is one of several programs implemented by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Since the WRP's inception in 1990, it has resulted in the restoration of approximately 29,000 hectares in California's Central Valley (CCV) and roughly 12,300 hectares in Oregon's Upper Klamath River Basin (UKRB). Both the CCV and UKRB are agricultural dominated landscapes that have experienced extensive wetland losses and hydrological alteration. Restored habitats in the CCV and UKRB are thought to provide a variety of ecosystem services, but little is known about the actual benefits afforded. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) California Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Unit in collaboration with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service surveyed 70 WRP sites and 12 National Wildlife Refuge sites in the CCV, and 11 sites in the UKRB to estimate ecosystem services provided. In the CCV, sites were selected along three primary gradients; (1) restoration age, (2) management intensity, and (3) latitude (climate). Sites in the UKRB were assessed along restoration age and management intensity gradients where possible. The management intensity gradient included information about the type and frequency of conservation practices applied at each site, which was then ranked into three categories that differentiated sites primarily along a hydrological gradient. Information collected was used to estimate the following ecosystem services: Soil and vegetation nutrient content, soil loss reduction, floodwater storage as well as avian, amphibian, fish, and pollinator use and habitat availability. Prior to this study, very little was known about WRP habitat morphology in the CCV and UKRB. Therefore in this study, we described these habitats and related them to ecosystem services provided. Our

  11. Analysis and computer simulation of stream-aquifer hydrology, Arkansas River Valley, southwestern Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, R.A.; Sauer, C.G.; Dunlap, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    A study was made, in cooperation with the Division of Water Resources, Kansas State Board of Agriculture, to determine geohydrologic conditions underlying nearly 110,000 acres of the Arkansas River Valley between the Colorado-Kansas State line and the Bear Creek Fault zone in southwestern Kansas. The Arkansas River meanders atop and interacts hydraulically with the area's unconfined sand and gravel aquifer. Owing to decreasing recharge and increasing discharge during the 1970's, water levels declined an average of 4 feet during 1970-79. Average annual streamflow at Syracuse, Kansas, also decreased from 232 cubic feet per second during 1951-69 to 85 cubic feet per second during 1970-79. A digital-computer model was calibrated to simulate the trends of historic water levels and streamflow during 1970-79. Simulated 1975-79 conditions depict an annual recharge to the aquifer of 15,000 acre-ft (acre-feet) from river leakage, 9,000 acre-ft from boundary inflow, and 50,000 acre-ft from deep percolation. Simulated annual discharge consists of 12,000 acre-ft to boundary outflow across the Bear Creek Fault zone, 1,000 acre-ft as leakage to the Arkansas River, 11,000 acre-ft to groundwater evaporation, and 57,000 acre-ft to pumpage. Simulated annual recharge was 7,000 acre-ft less than simulated annual discharge of 81,000 acre-ft. Simulation indicates that: (1) The long-term effects of less recharge from smaller than average amounts of annual precipitation during the 1970's were offset by more recharge during brief, timely periods of much greater than the mean monthly amounts of precipitation, and (2) the effects of the increased pumpage were partly offset by increased recharge resulting from increased irrigation. Model results indicate that the water-level decline and streamflow shortage during 1970-79 were affected more directly by departures from historic (1951-69) rates of incoming streamflow than by either the smaller than average amounts of precipitation or the

  12. Basin Evolution in Southeast Idaho Related to Base Level Changes and Snake River Plain Tectonics, Marsh and Portneuf Valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drabick, A. J.

    2006-12-01

    The Late Quaternary history of two major basins in the northwestern Basin and Range Province, proximal to the Eastern Snake River Plain, has been influenced by a variety of base level controls with tectonic, structural, and volcanic origins. To examine the impact of regional climate change, Snake River Plain tectonics, Bonneville Flooding, and Quaternary faulting, Quaternary sediments and geomorphic surfaces have been analyzed. Stratigraphic columns from twelve separate locations were collected from Marsh Valley and combined with previous work to detail the depositional environments present during the Quaternary. An identifiable pattern of coarsening upward sediments capped by fine-grained lake deposits was found in 8 of the 12 sections. Sediments included fluvial, alluvial, lake deposits and in some cases rhyolitic tuff. Results from amino acid racemization of gastropods obtained from exposed Quaternary sediments show deposition occurring at 300 ka and 100 ka and a decrease in age of sediments from the north end of the valley. Preliminary results from optically stimulated luminescence samples from loess deposits intercalated in the bench surfaces indicate the west bench is an older feature, with a luminescence dose greater than 300 Gy indicating deposition in the early Quaternary and that the bench surface in the south with a dose of 2 Gy is more recently active with a preliminary age estimate of 28 ka. Sediments exposed in Marsh Valley indicate periods of higher energy stream flow interspersed with periods of slackwater deposition. This pattern of sedimentation suggests recurrent shallow lake environments, possibly attributable to a combination of subsidence of the valley along a Quaternary fault previously mapped in the area, changes in regional climate, and/ or presence of a basalt sill in the valley. Numeric ages for exposed sediments demonstrate the basin cut and fill history. A preliminary order of cutting and filling in the valley suggest bench formation in

  13. Conjunctive-use optimization model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of Southeastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.; Clark, Brian R.; Stanton, Gregory P.

    2003-01-01

    The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer is a water-bearing assemblage of gravels and sands that underlies about 32,000 square miles of Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas. Because of the heavy demands placed on the aquifer, several large cones of depression have formed in the potentiometric surface, resulting in lower well yields and degraded water quality in some areas. A ground-water flow model of the alluvial aquifer was previously developed for an area covering 3,826 square miles, extending south from the Arkansas River into the southeastern corner of Arkansas, parts of northeastern Louisiana, and western Mississippi. The flow-model results indicated that continued ground-water withdrawals at rates commensurate with those of 1997 could not be sustained indefinitely without causing water levels to decline below half the original saturated thickness of the aquifer. Conjunctive-use optimization modeling was applied to the flow model of the alluvial aquifer to develop withdrawal rates that could be sustained relative to the constraints of critical ground-water area designation. These withdrawal rates form the basis for estimates of sustainable yield from the alluvial aquifer and from rivers specified within the alluvial aquifer model. A management problem was formulated as one of maximizing the sustainable yield from all ground-water and surface-water withdrawal cells within limits imposed by plausible withdrawal rates, and within specified constraints involving hydraulic head and streamflow. Steady-state conditions were selected because the maximized withdrawals are intended to represent sustainable yield of the system (a rate that can be maintained indefinitely).One point along the Arkansas River and one point along Bayou Bartholomew were specified for obtaining surface-water sustainable-yield estimates within the optimization model. Streamflow constraints were specified at two river cells based on average 7-day low flows

  14. Soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley in West Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereverzev, V. N.; Litvinova, T. I.

    2012-05-01

    The genetic characterization of soils developed from alluvial and proluvial deposits in the Gröndalselva River valley (West Spitsbergen) is presented. These soils are compared with analogous soils formed on marine terraces along the coasts of Isfjord and Grönfjord. Gray-humus (soddy) soils with an O-AY-C profile have been described on parent materials of different origins, including alluvial and proluvial sediments. The texture of the soils in the Gröndalselva River valley varies from medium to heavy loam and differs from the texture of the soils on other geomorphic positions in the higher content of fine particles. The soils developed from the alluvial deposits are characterized by their richer mineralogical and chemical composition in comparison with the soils developed from proluvial deposits, marine deposits, and bedrocks. All the deposits are impoverished in CaO. No differentiation of the chemical composition of the soils along the soil profiles has been found in the soils of the coastal areas and the river valley. Some accumulation of oxalate-soluble Al and Fe compounds takes place in the uppermost mineral horizon. The soils of all the geomorphic positions have a high humus content and a high exchange capacity.

  15. Boundary of the Eagle River Watershed Valley-Fill Aquifer, Eagle County, North-Central Colorado, 2006-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, Michael G.; Plummer, L. Niel

    2009-01-01

    This vector data set delineates the approximate boundary of the Eagle River watershed valley-fill aquifer (ERWVFA). This data set was developed by a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey, Eagle County, the Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, the Town of Eagle, the Town of Gypsum, and the Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority. This project was designed to evaluate potential land-development effects on groundwater and surface-water resources so that informed land-use and water management decisions can be made. The boundary of the ERWVFA was developed by combining information from two data sources. The first data source was a 1:250,000-scale geologic map of the Leadville quadrangle developed by Day and others (1999). The location of Quaternary sediments was used as a first approximation of the ERWVFA. The boundary of the ERWVFA was further refined by overlaying the geologic map with Digital Raster Graphic (DRG) scanned images of 1:24,000 topographic maps (U.S. Geological Survey, 2001). Where appropriate, the boundary of the ERWVFA was remapped to correspond with the edge of the valley-fill aquifer marked by an abrupt change in topography at the edge of the valley floor throughout the Eagle River watershed. The boundary of the ERWVFA more closely resembles a hydrogeomorphic region presented by Rupert (2003, p. 8) because it is based upon general geographic extents of geologic materials and not on an actual aquifer location as would be determined through a rigorous hydrogeologic investigation.

  16. 77 FR 41048 - Safety Zone; Hudson Valley Triathlon, Ulster Landing, Hudson River, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... Landing, NY for the 16th Annual Hudson Valley Triathlon swim event. This temporary safety zone is.... Regulatory History and Information The Hudson Valley Triathlon swim is an annual recurring event that has a... Valley Triathlon swim event will occur on July 15, 2012. On May 22, 2012, the sponsor of the event...

  17. Bovid ecomorphology and hominin paleoenvironments of the Shungura Formation, lower Omo River Valley, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Thomas W; Ferraro, Joseph V; Louys, Julien; Hertel, Fritz; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Bobe, René; Bishop, L C

    2015-11-01

    The Shungura Formation in the lower Omo River Valley, southern Ethiopia, has yielded an important paleontological and archeological record from the Pliocene and Pleistocene of eastern Africa. Fossils are common throughout the sequence and provide evidence of paleoenvironments and environmental change through time. This study developed discriminant function ecomorphology models that linked astragalus morphology to broadly defined habitat categories (open, light cover, heavy cover, forest, and wetlands) using modern bovids of known ecology. These models used seven variables suitable for use on fragmentary fossils and had overall classification success rates of >82%. Four hundred and one fossils were analyzed from Shungura Formation members B through G (3.4-1.9 million years ago). Analysis by member documented the full range of ecomorph categories, demonstrating that a wide range of habitats existed along the axis of the paleo-Omo River. Heavy cover ecomorphs, reflecting habitats such as woodland and heavy bushland, were the most common in the fossil sample. The trend of increasing open cover habitats from Members C through F suggested by other paleoenvironmental proxies was documented by the increase in open habitat ecomorphs during this interval. However, finer grained analysis demonstrated considerable variability in ecomorph frequencies over time, suggesting that substantial short-term variability is masked when grouping samples by member. The hominin genera Australopithecus, Homo, and Paranthropus are associated with a range of ecomorphs, indicating that all three genera were living in temporally variable and heterogeneous landscapes. Australopithecus finds were predominantly associated with lower frequencies of open habitat ecomorphs, and high frequencies of heavy cover ecomorphs, perhaps indicating a more woodland focus for this genus.

  18. Estimation of the recharge area contributing water to a pumped well in a glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    The highly permeable, unconfined, glacial drift aquifers that occupy most New England river valleys constitute the principal source of drinking water for many communities that obtain part or all of their public water supply from groundwater. Analytical , two-dimensional numerical and three-dimensional numerical models were used to delineate contributing areas of groundwater pollution. These methods of analysis were compared by applying them to hypothetical aquifer having the dimensions and geometry of a typical glacial drift, river valley aquifer. In the model analyses, factors that control the size and shape of a contributing area were varied over ranges of values common to glacial drift aquifers in New England. These controlling factors include the rate of well discharge, rate of recharge to the aquifer from precipitation and from adjacent till and bedrock uplands, distance of a pumping well from a stream or other potential source of induced recharge, degree of hydraulic connection of the aquifer with a stream, horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, and degree of well penetration. Numerical models of valley aquifers are deemed best suited to determine the approximate contributing area of a well because of their capability to simulate more accurately the variable geohydrologic conditions typical of glacial drift valley aquifers. On the basis of results obtained with the two-dimensional numerical model, for which a wide range of hydrologic conditions were simulated, the contributing area in a typical glacial drift, river valley setting for a well pumped at a rate of 1.0 million gal/day--a common pumping rate--can be expected to range from about 0.9 to 1.8 sq mi. Model analysis also shows that the contributing area of pumped wells may be expected to extend to the opposite side of the river and to include significant areas of till uplands adjacent to the aquifer on both sides of the valley

  19. Isotope composition of a lithalsa in the Sentsa River valley (East Sayan Mountains)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasil'chuk, Yu. K.; Alexeev, S. V.; Arzhannikov, S. G.; Alexeeva, L. P.; Arzhannikova, A. V.; Budantseva, N. A.; Vasil'chuk, A. C.; Chizhova, Ju. N.

    2016-12-01

    The ice-rich core formation within the core of the lithalsa in the Sentsa River valley (West Buryatia) was studied. The concentrations of stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the ice were determined, the plant residues in the enclosing deposits were aged. It was found that the lacustrine loams enclosing the ice body were accumulated about 4700-7000 years ago. The ice core of the lithalsa was characterized by δD values from 141.9 to-159.8‰, δ18O from-19.52 to-21‰, and d exc within 4.1-17.29‰. Small variations in the isotope composition of the ice-soil material within the lithalsa core point to its formation in an open system with water inflow from outside. The values of δ18O and δD were much closer to those for recent middle-winter and late-autumn atmospheric precipitation, as well as for riverine water, which pointed to a Holocene age of the ice.

  20. Habitat associations of chorusing anurans in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichtenberg, J.S.; King, S.L.; Grace, J.B.; Walls, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibian populations have declined worldwide. To pursue conservation efforts adequately, land managers need more information concerning amphibian habitat requirements. To address this need, we examined relationships between anurans and habitat characteristics of wetlands in the Lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (LMAV). We surveyed chorusing anurans in 31 wetlands in 2000 and 28 wetlands in 2001, and measured microhabitat variables along the shoreline within the week following each survey. We recorded 12 species of anurans during our study. Species richness was significantly lower in 2000 than 2001 (t-test, P < 0.001) and correlated with an ongoing drought. We found species richness to be significantly greater at lake sites compared to impoundment, swale, and riverine sites (ANOVA, P = 0.002). We used stepwise regression to investigate the wetland types and microhabitat characteristics associated with species richness of chorusing anurans. Microhabitat characteristics associated with species richness included dense herbaceous vegetation and accumulated litter along the shoreline. Individual species showed species-specific habitat associations. The bronze frog, American bullfrog, and northern cricket frog were positively associated with lake sites (Fisher's Exact Test, P < 0.05), however wetland type did not significantly influence any additional species. Using bivariate correlations, we found that six of the seven most common species had significant associations with microhabitat variables. Overall, our findings support the view that conservation and enhancement of amphibian communities in the LMAV and elsewhere requires a matrix of diverse wetland types and habitat conditions. ?? 2006, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  1. Radon and remedial action in Spokane River Valley residences: an interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Turk, B.H.; Prill, R.J.; Fisk, W.J.; Grimsrud, D.T.; Moed, B.A.; Sextro, R.G.

    1986-03-01

    Fifty-six percent of 46 residences monitored in the Spokane River Valley in eastern Washington/northern Idaho have indoor radon concentrations above the National Council for Radiation Protection (NCRP) guidelines of 8 pCi/1. Indoor levels were over 20 pCi/1 in eight homes, and ranged up to 132 pCi/1 in one house. Radon concentrations declined by factors of 4 to 38 during summer months. Measurements of soil emanation rates, domestic water supply concentrations, and building material flux rates indicate that diffusion of radon does not significantly contribute to the high concentrations observed. Rather, radon entry is dominated by pressure-driven bulk soil gas transport, aggravated by the local subsurface soil composition and structure. A variety of radon control strategies are being evaluated in 14 of these homes. Sub-surface ventilation by depressurization and overpressurization, basement overpressurization, and crawlspace ventilation are capable of successfully reducing radon levels below 5 pCi/1 in these homes. House ventilation is appropriate in buildings with low-moderate concentrations, while sealing of cracks has been relatively ineffective.

  2. Strong radiative heating due to wintertime black carbon aerosols in the Brahmaputra River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Garro, Mark A.; Wilcox, Eric M.; Moosmüller, Hans

    2012-05-01

    The Brahmaputra River Valley (BRV) of Southeast Asia recently has been experiencing extreme regional climate change. A week-long study using a micro-Aethalometer was conducted during January-February 2011 to measure black carbon (BC) aerosol mass concentrations in Guwahati (India), the largest city in the BRV region. Daily median values of BC mass concentration were 9-41 μgm-3, with maxima over 50 μgm-3 during evenings and early mornings. Median BC concentrations were higher than in mega cities of India and China, and significantly higher than in urban locations of Europe and USA. The corresponding mean cloud-free aerosol radiative forcing is -63.4 Wm-2 at the surface and +11.1 Wm-2 at the top of the atmosphere with the difference giving the net atmospheric BC solar absorption, which translates to a lower atmospheric heating rate of ˜2 K/d. Potential regional climatic impacts associated with large surface cooling and high lower-atmospheric heating are discussed.

  3. Epizootiological importance of Glossina morsitans submorsitans (Diptera: Glossinidae) (Newstead) in the Ghibe River Valley, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Merid Negash; Melaku Girma; Emiru Seyoum

    2007-05-01

    The epizootiological importance of Glossina morsitans submorsitans in Ghibe River Valley was undertaken from October 2000 to September 2001. The flies were collected using baited monoconical traps. G. m. submorsitans occurred with a mean apparent density of 4.26+/-0.49 flies/trap/day and the apparent density was characterized by an increase during the wet season and a decrease during the dry season. Among 450 G. m. submorsitans, approximately 5% were found to be infected with trypanosome. Of these infected flies, 76% were female. Nanomonas, Duttonella and Trypanozoon were the three trypanosome subgenera detected and occurred in the proportions of 57.1%, 38.1% and 4.8%, respectively. Among 139 blood meals of G. m. submorsitans collected, 54.68% were identified to group or species levels. Accordingly, 36.84%, 25%, 11.84% and 10.53% accounted for cattle, kudu, suidae (warthog and/or wild pig) and human, respectively and others such as goats (6.58%), bovidae (5.26%), baboon (2.63%) and water buck (1.32%). While 21.05% of the blood meals were found to be out of detection range.

  4. Monitoring agricultural burning in the Mississippi River Valley region from the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS).

    PubMed

    Korontzi, Stefania; McCarty, Jessica; Justice, Christopher

    2008-09-01

    The 2003 active fire observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), on board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, were analyzed to assess burning activity in the cropland areas of the Mississippi River Valley region. Agricultural burning was found to be an important contributor to fire activity in this region, accounting for approximately one-third of all burning. Agricultural fire activity showed two seasonal peaks: the first, smaller peak, occurring in June during the spring harvesting of wheat; and the second, bigger peak, in October during the fall harvesting of rice and soy. The seasonal signal in agricultural burning was predominantly evident in the early afternoon MODIS Aqua fire detections. A strong diurnal agricultural fire signal was prevalent during the fall harvesting months, as suggested by the substantially higher number (approximately 3.5 times) of fires detected by MODIS Aqua in the early afternoon, compared with those detected by MODIS Terra in the morning. No diurnal variations in agricultural fire activity were apparent during the springtime wheat-harvesting season. The seasonal and diurnal patterns in agricultural fire activity detected by MODIS are supported by known crop management practices in this region. MODIS data provide an important means to characterize and monitor agricultural fire dynamics and management practices.

  5. Groundwater uranium origin and fate control in a river valley aquifer.

    PubMed

    Banning, Andre; Demmel, Thomas; Rüde, Thomas R; Wrobel, Michael

    2013-12-17

    Groundwater in a Quaternary gravel aquifer partly exhibits uranium (U) concentrations exceeding the new German drinking water limitation (22% of the samples >10 μg L(-1)). This study assesses relevant U reservoirs and hydrogeochemical processes responsible for U transfer between them. A large data set of solid materials (sediments and soils, 164 samples total) and groundwater (114 samples total) characteristics was created in terms of geo- and hydrochemistry, mineralogy, U microdistribution, and mobilization potential. Results show that U primarily derived from lignitic inclusions in Tertiary sediments is transported to and accumulated (complexation to organic substance and UO2 precipitation) in lowland moor peats of the river valley grown on the aquifer gravels. The alkaline character of the system predefines a hydrogeochemical framework fostering U mobility. Elevated concentrations (up to 96 μg L(-1) U) occur downstream of the moor areas and under Mn/NO3-reducing groundwater conditions. Oxic and stronger reduced settings are rather little affected. Supporting previous laboratory studies, this suggests enhanced U mobility in the presence of nitrate also in the field scale. While no anthropogenic U input was detected in the study area, agricultural usage of the moor areas triggers geogenic U release via nitrate fertilization, surface peat degradation, and erosion.

  6. Groundwater-flow assessment of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of northeastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer is a water-bearing assemblage of gravels and sands that underlies about 32,000 square miles of Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee. Pumping of groundwater from the alluvial aquifer for agriculture started in the early 1900s in the Grand Prairie area for the irrigation of rice and soybeans. From 1965 to 2005, water use in the alluvial aquifer increased 655 percent. In 2005, 6,242 million gallons per day of water were pumped from the aquifer, primarily for irrigation and fish farming. Water-level declines in the alluvial aquifer were documented as early as 1927. Long-term water-level measurements in the alluvial aquifer show an average annual decline of 1 foot per year in some areas. In this report, the utility of the updated 2009 MODFLOW groundwater-flow model of the alluvial aquifer in northeastern Arkansas was extended by performing groundwater-flow assessments of the alluvial aquifer at specific areas of interest using a variety of methods. One such area is along the western side of Crowleys Ridge, which includes western parts of Clay, Greene, Craighead, Poinsett, Cross, St. Francis, and Lee Counties. This area was designated as the Cache Critical Groundwater Area by the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission in 2009 for the alluvial and Sparta/Memphis aquifers, because of the rate of change in groundwater levels and groundwater levels have dropped below half the original saturated thickness of the alluvial aquifer.

  7. Net recharge vs. depth to groundwater relationship in the Platte River Valley of Nebraska, United States.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, Jozsef; Zlotnik, Vitaly A; Jozsa, Janos

    2013-01-01

    One-km resolution MODIS-based mean annual evapotranspiration (ET) estimates in combination with PRISM precipitation rates were correlated with depth to groundwater (d) values in the wide alluvial valley of the Platte River in Nebraska for obtaining a net recharge (Rn) vs. d relationship. MODIS cells with irrigation were excluded, yielding a mixture of predominantly range, pasture, grass, and riparian forest covers on sandy soils with a shallow groundwater table. The transition depth (dt ) between negative and positive values of the net groundwater recharge was found to be at about 2 (±1) m. Within 1 (±1) m of the surface and at a depth larger than about 7 to 8 (±1) m, the mean annual net recharge became independent of d at a level of about -4 (±12)% and 13 (±10)%, respectively, of the mean annual precipitation rate. The obtained Rn(d) relationship is based on a calibration-free ET estimation method and may help in obtaining the net recharge in shallow groundwater areas of negligible surface runoff where sufficient groundwater-depth data exist. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.

  8. Characterization of hydrogeomorphology of the natural and restored wetlands in St. Lawrence River Valley, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, K.; Chandler, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of local hydrology and landscape setting is essential for evaluating systematic functions and services of the wetlands because the ecosystem components are sensitive to hydrodynamics and topography, particularly in vegetation composition and abundance. Wetland hydrogeomorphology provides a general sense of the wetland structure such as plant community and hydroperiod, but it can be easily altered by human activity and disturbance. In order to achieve a successful wetland restoration on the altered landscape and topography, recovery of hydrology for adaptation should be prioritized. In this study, regional hydrogeomorphic classification of 18 natural and 48 restored wetlands in the St. Lawrence River Valley area in the northern New York State was conducted and wetland-upland interactions were investigated using pairs of water level measurements at a groundwater well and standing water in randomly selected 5 natural and 17 restored wetlands. The wetlands over large area were broadly classified in terms of geomorphic setting, water source, and hydrodynamics. Water level was monitored on an hourly basis for an entire Water Year of 2015 to understand a hydroperiod and hydrodynamics at each site. Horizontal hydraulic gradient from upland groundwater to standing water in the wetlands was also calculated from the observation data to estimate groundwater contribution as an input source of the wetlands. The characterized hydrology was categorized into the regional hydrogeomorphic classes and further statistically analyzed. The regional wetland classification and functional assessment will provide useful tools to make a proper restoration plan.

  9. Summer precipitation changes over the Yangtze River Valley and North China: Simulations from CMIP3 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Gang; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Shen, Caiming; Hao, Zhixin

    2014-05-01

    We present a study of summer precipitation changes over the Yangtze River Valley (YRV) and North China (NC) simulated from 20 models of the CMIP3 (phase 3 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project). It is found that the LASG-FGOALS-g1.0 ( fgoals) model has the highest ability in simulating both the interannual variability of individual regions and the seesaw pattern of the two regions observed during the past few decades. Analyses of atmospheric circulations indicate that the variability in precipitation is closely associated with the 850 hPa meridional winds over the two regions. Wetness in the YRV and dryness in NC are corresponding to strong meridional wind gradient and weak meridional wind over these two regions, respectively. The ability of a coupled general circulation model (CGCM) to simulate precipitation changes in the YRV and NC depends on how well the model reproduces both observed associations of precipitation with overlying meridional winds and observed meridional wind features in summer. Analysis of future precipitation changes over the two regions projected by the fgoals model under the IPCC scenarios B1 and A1B suggests a significant increase of 7-15% for NC after 2040s due to the strengthened meridional winds, and a slight increase over the YRV due to less significant intensification of the Mei-yu front.

  10. Evapotranspiration from forage grass replacing native vegetation in the Gila River valley of Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leppanen, O.E.

    1981-01-01

    Estimates of evapotranspiration from an area of forage grass, which had been planted to replace native vegetation of little economic value, were made daily for a 363-day period in 1969 and 1970. The measurement site was located in the Gila River valley in east-central Arizona. The forage, panigrass (Panicum antidotale Retz.), grew from seed during the early summer of 1969 and after winterkill, regrew in 1970. Daily evapotranspiration estimates, which were based on energy budget measurements, ranged from a maximum of 9.2 millimeters to small amounts of condensation. Two daily values of substantial condensation (0.9 and 0.4 millimeter) were of dubious quality, but were retained in the record. The annual evapotranspiration was 989 millimeters, of which about 332 millimeters came from precipitation at the site. The water table fluctuated between 210 and 280 centimeters below land surface. However, the measurement site was near a wash, so that undocumented, shallower subterranean flows may have occurred. (USGS)

  11. Arsenic distribution along different hydrogeomorphic zones in parts of the Brahmaputra River Valley, Assam (India)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhury, Runti; Mahanta, Chandan; Verma, Swati; Mukherjee, Abhijit

    2017-06-01

    The spatial distribution of arsenic (As) concentrations along three classified hydrogeomorphological zones in the Brahmaputra River Valley in Assam (India) have been investigated: zone I, comprising the piedmont and alluvial fans; zone II, comprising the runoff areas; and zone III, comprising the discharge zones. Groundwater (150 samples) from shallow hand-pumped and public water supply wells (2-60 m in depth) was analysed for chemical composition to examine the geochemical processes controlling As mobilization. As concentrations up to 0.134 mg/L were recorded, with concentrations below the World Health Organization and the Bureau of Indian Standards drinking-water limits of 0.01 mg/L being found mainly in the proximal recharge areas. Eh and other redox indicators (i.e., dissolved oxygen, Fe, Mn and As) indicate that, except for samples taken in the recharge zone, groundwater is reducing and exhibits a systematic decrease in redox conditions along the runoff and discharge zones. Hydrogeochemical evaluation indicated that zone I, located along the proximal recharge areas, is characterized by low As concentration, while zones II and III are areas with high and moderate concentrations, respectively. Systematic changes in As concentrations along the three zones support the view that areas of active recharge with high hydraulic gradient are potential areas hosting low-As aquifers.

  12. Systems dynamic model to forecast salinity load to the Colorado River due to urbanization within the Las Vegas Valley.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Ahmad, Sajjad; Johnson, Walter; Batista, Jacimaria R

    2011-06-01

    This study evaluates the impact of urban growth in the Las Vegas Valley (LVV), Nevada, USA on salinity of the Colorado River. In the past thirty eight years the LVV population has grown from 273,288 (1970) to 1,986,146 (2008). The wastewater effluents and runoff from the valley are diverted back to the Colorado River through the Las Vegas Wash (LVW). With the growth of the valley, the salinity released from urban areas has increased the level of TDS in the wastewater effluents, ultimately increasing the TDS in the Colorado River. The increased usage of water softeners in residential and commercial locations is a major contributor of TDS in the wastewater effluents. Controlling TDS release to the Colorado River is important because of the 1944 Treaty signed between the USA and Mexico. In addition, the agriculture salinity damage cost for the Colorado River has been estimated to be more than $306 a million per year using 2004 salinity levels. With the expected growth of LVV in coming years the TDS release into Lake Mead will increase over time. For this purpose, it is important to investigate future TDS release into the Colorado in anticipation of potential TDS reducing measures to be adopted. In this research, a dynamic simulation model was developed using system dynamics modeling to carry out water and TDS mass balances over the entire LVV. The dynamic model output agreed with historic data with an average error of 2%. Forecasts revealed that conservation efforts can reduce TDS load by 16% in the year 2035 when compared to the current trend. If total population using water softeners can be limited to 10% in the year 2035, from the current 30% usage, TDS load in the LVW can be reduced by 7%. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental records from the Chatanika River valley near Fairbanks (Alaska)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Meyer, Hanno; Andreev, Andrei; Wetterich, Sebastian; Kienast, Frank; Bobrov, Anatoly; Fuchs, Margret; Sierralta, Melanie; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2016-09-01

    Perennially-frozen deposits are considered as excellent paleoenvironmental archives similar to lacustrine, deep marine, and glacier records because of the long-term and good preservation of fossil records under stable permafrost conditions. A permafrost tunnel in the Vault Creek Valley (Chatanika River Valley, near Fairbanks) exposes a sequence of frozen deposits and ground ice that provides a comprehensive set of proxies to reconstruct the late Quaternary environmental history of Interior Alaska. The multi-proxy approach includes different dating techniques (radiocarbon-accelerator mass spectrometry [AMS 14C], optically stimulated luminescence [OSL], thorium/uranium radioisotope disequilibria [230Th/U]), as well as methods of sedimentology, paleoecology, hydrochemistry, and stable isotope geochemistry of ground ice. The studied sequence consists of 36-m-thick late Quaternary deposits above schistose bedrock. Main portions of the sequence accumulated during the early and middle Wisconsin periods. The lowermost unit A consists of about 9-m-thick ice-bonded fluvial gravels with sand and peat lenses. A late Sangamon (MIS 5a) age of unit A is assumed. Spruce forest with birch, larch, and some shrubby alder dominated the vegetation. High presence of Sphagnum spores and Cyperaceae pollen points to mires in the Vault Creek Valley. The overlying unit B consists of 10-m-thick alternating fluvial gravels, loess-like silt, and sand layers, penetrated by small ice wedges. OSL dates support a stadial early Wisconsin (MIS 4) age of unit B. Pollen and plant macrofossil data point to spruce forests with some birch interspersed with wetlands around the site. The following unit C is composed of 15-m-thick ice-rich loess-like and organic-rich silt with fossil bones and large ice wedges. Unit C formed during the interstadial mid-Wisconsin (MIS 3) and stadial late Wisconsin (MIS 2) as indicated by radiocarbon ages. Post-depositional slope processes significantly deformed both, ground

  14. Late Pleistocene Terraces in River Valleys of the Central Russian Plain: Morphology, Structure and History of Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlakhova, Ekaterina; Panin, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Morphology and sedimentary composition of low terraces of the Seim (the middle Dnieper catchment) and Khoper (the middle Don catchment) rivers were studied in the field (DGPS topographic profiling, hand and mechanical coring, examination of natural exposures) and in laboratory (grain size analysis, spore-pollen composition, 14C and OSL dating, microscopic study of quartz grains). Archaeological data have also been taken into account. It was found that Late Pleistocene river terraces were subject to complex reworking after the alluvial sedimentation had finished. Terraces may therefore contain sediments of different origin and terrace levels may vary according to the post-alluvial reworking. To establish terrace sedimentation mechanisms we supplemented lithological data collected in the field with quartz grains morphoscopy technique - microscopic study of quartz grains surfaces. The results exhibit wide participation of aeolian and slope wash sediments in terrace deposits, deep aeolian reworking of terrace alluvium during LGM that could be possible due to ground water lowering because of deep pre-LGM incision of rivers. The main difficulty in interpretation of morphoscopic results is that aeolian signals are sometimes not clear due to short duration of wind action over alluvial sands. River incision was detected within the interval since 50-60 to 25-30 ka BP (cal). High runoff increase is proposed as the reason of this incision, which is illustrated by formation of "big meanders" (macromeanders) in river valleys. There were probably several time spans of high runoff divided by low runoff intervals. By the time of LGM rivers had already been incised down to the modern river levels or deeper. The cryoaridic LGM time (20-23 ka BP cal) makes the most pronounced low runoff interval. After LGM, the last high runoff epoch started, which is dated to 13-18(19) ka BP (cal). Numerous now relict macromeanders were formed in river valleys at that time and considerable portions

  15. Lead-rich sediments, Coeur d'Alene River Valley, Idaho: area, volume, tonnage, and lead content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Box, Stephen E.; Campbell, Julie K.; Foster, Kathryn I.; Jackson, Berne L.

    2001-01-01

    In north Idaho, downstream from the Coeur d?Alene (CdA) silver-lead-zinc mining district, lead-rich sediments, containing at least 1,000 ppm of lead, cover approximately 61 km2 (or 73 percent) of the 84-km2 floor of the CdA River valley, from the confluence of its North and South Forks to the top of its delta-front slope, in CdA Lake. Concentrations of lead (Pb) in surface sediments range from 15 to about 38,500 ppm, and average 3,370 ppm, which is 112 times the mean background concentration (30 ppm) of Pb in uncontaminated sediments of the CdA and St. Joe River valleys. Most of the highest concentrations of Pb are in sediments within or near the river channel, or near the base of the stratigraphic section of Pb-rich sediments. Ranges of Pb concentration in Pb-rich sediments gradually decrease with increasing distance from the river and its distributaries. Ranges of thickness of Pb-rich sediments generally decrease abruptly with increasing distance from the river, from about 3 + 3 m in the river channel to about 1 + 1m on upland riverbanks, levees and sand splays, to about 0.3 + 0.3 m in back-levee marshes and lateral lakes. Thickness of Pb-rich dredge spoils (removed from the river and deposited on Cataldo-Mission Flats) is mostly in the range 4 + 4 m, thinning away from an outfall zone north and west of the river, near the formerly dredged channel reach near Cataldo Landing. We attribute lateral variation in ranges of thickness and Pb content of Pb-rich sediments to the dynamic balance between decreasing floodwater flow velocity with increasing distance from the river and the quantity, size, density, and Pb content of particles mobilized, transported, and deposited. We present alternative median- and mean-based estimates of the volume of Pbrich sediments, their wet and dry tonnage, and their tonnage of contained Pb. We calculate separate pairs of estimates for 23 Estimation Units, each of which corresponds to a major depositional environment, divided into down-valley

  16. Hydrogeological modeling of water exchange between a river valley aquifer and the Colorado River at a riparian corridor of the Colorado River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Gonzalez, D.; Ramirez-Hernandez, J.; Zamora, F.

    2008-05-01

    The Colorado River Delta has shown a high capacity of regeneration in spite of the drastic reduction of the freshwater flows. This river has an important ecological value for the remaining ecosystems at the regional and continental level. It is not known when this river will present again surpluses of superficial water in the basin, as it happened in the decades of 1980 and 1990. The ecosystems of the Delta depend on the availability of groundwater to survive. The practices of blanket irrigation in the Valley of Mexicali have favored the vertical refill of the aquifer. Part of this water that infiltrates the ground is captured by the Colorado River (CR). As a consequence, even in years in which the CR has not received surpluses of superficial water low flow can be observed in the river, especially in the area of our study that comprises 12 km of the CR between the interception of the railroad with the river and the entrance to Carranza City. This low flow provides water to maintain the riparian vegetation of the zone. For this reason, it is important to know the hydrologic relationship between the river aquifer and the CR. The purpose of this work is to determine the volumes of water supplied by the aquifer to the riparian system and its relationship with the vegetation. Measurements of the fluctuations of the freatic level (FL) in 27 boreholes located in 8 cross sections during more than 2 years have been used for this study. The system was modelled using the program MODFLOW considering diverse water levels in the CR and flow exchange with the aquifer. The hydrogeological properties of the aquifer were found from slug tests and correlations with the textures of 100 soil samples. The modeling results allow to separate the zone of study in three sections. The first one extends 5km from the railroad to the south. In this section the CR receives water from the aquifer producing the observed water in the river bed all the year. The second section, of approximately 2 km

  17. The inter-ground massive ice sheet in the bottoms of Valyok Valley (Norilskaya River)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenets, V.; Ablyazina, D.

    2009-04-01

    Inter-ground massive ice sheet is a wide spread phenomena in many regions of permafrost zone and in Norilsk area (North of Middle Siberia) as well. Here they are located at the 2nd terrace of the Norilskaya River where in lateral piedmont parts of the valley buried glacier sheet ice occurs. High ice content and occurrence of ice sheets and ice wedges are the reasons of thermokarst, thermoerosion and cryogenic landslides development on coasts of rivers and lakes. The Valyok Valley (lacustrine-alluvial terrace of the Norilskaya River) is located in the intermountain depression limited by the Putorana Plateau offshoots from the north, east, south and south-west. To the north-west it spreads towards the Pyasino Lake. In the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene the valley was occupied by the cold fresh-water lake and ancient permafrost melted. After the water retreat 9000-8000 years B. P., epigenetic freezing began. The lower part of sediments of this epoch (al III34 vl - al-b IV vl) is represented by bandy clay covered by loam and loamy-sand deposits on the plain and by loamy-sand and gravel deposits in the piedmont part. The surface on many sites is composed of peat up to 2-3 m thick containing ice wedges. For epigenetically frozen sediments of the Valyok formation, high ice content (i up to 30-60% by volume) in upper layers is characteristic. In buildings construction, dangerous ground subsidence resulted from ice-rich deposits thawing may occur. At the same time, a contrary tendency was marked. In engineering prospect in 1970, before construction of large building of a suburban ski base, ice-rich clay of lattice cryostructure (i = 25 - 40 %) was found near the surface and at the depth of 8-12 m, a massive ice sheet 3,2 m thick was discovered. Temperature measurements (5 November, 1970) detected that the permafrost here is in the degrading state and lattice cryostructure formed under colder thermal conditions of Holocene age. Besides, thawing and thawed ground below

  18. Effect of the Paradox Valley Unit on the dissolved-solids load of the Dolores River near Bedrock, Colorado, 1988-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chafin, Daniel T.

    2003-01-01

    Discharge of brine with an average dissolved-solids concentration of about 256,000 milligrams per liter from alluvium in Paradox Valley, a collapsed salt anticline, substantially increases the dissolved-solids load of the Dolores River. In 1996, the Bureau of Reclamation began operation of the Paradox Valley Unit, a series of brine-withdrawal wells completed in alluvium along the Dolores River and a deep-injection well for the brine, to decrease flow of brine into the river. This report presents the findings of a study to determine the effectiveness of the Paradox Valley Unit from 1988 through September 2001. Differences in dissolved-solids load of the Dolores River between two gaging stations, one upstream and one downstream from the Paradox Valley Unit, indicate that an average dissolved-solids load of about 313 tons per day (an annual average of about 115,000 tons) was contributed by brine inflow to the Dolores River before operation of the Paradox Valley Unit began in July 1996. By September 30, 2001, the dissolved-solids load contributed by brine had declined to an average of about 29 tons per day? a decrease of about 90 percent. This decrease might have been facilitated by a decrease in precipitation and streamflow into the Paradox Valley during the last few years of the assessed period.

  19. Environmental exposure and risk assessment of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents in wastewater and river water of the Glatt Valley Watershed, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Golet, Eva M; Alder, Alfredo C; Giger, Walter

    2002-09-01

    The mass flows of fluoroquinolone antibacterial agents (FQs) were investigated in the aqueous compartments of the Glatt Valley Watershed, a densely populated region in Switzerland. The major human-use FQs consumed in Switzerland, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and norfloxacin (NOR), were determined in municipal wastewater effluents and in the receiving surface water, the Glatt River. Individual concentrations in raw sewage and in final wastewater effluents ranged from 255 to 568 ng/L and from 36 to 106 ng/L, respectively. In the Glatt River, the FQs were present at concentrations below 19 ng/L. The removal of FQs from the water stream during wastewater treatment was between 79 and 87%. During the studied summer period, FQs in the dissolved fraction were significantly reduced downstream in the Glatt River (15-20 h residence time) (66% for CIP and 48% for NOR). Thus, after wastewater treatment, transport in rivers causes an additional decrease of residual levels of FQs in the aquatic environment. Refined predicted environmental concentrations for the study area compare favorably with the measured environmental concentrations (MEC) obtained in the monitoring study. Total measured FQ concentrations occurring in the examined aquatic compartments of the Glatt Valley Watershed were related to acute ecotoxicity data from the literature. The risk quotients obtained (MEC/PNEC < 1) following the recommendations of the European guidelines or draft documents suggest a low probability for adverse effects of the occurring FQs, either on microbial activity in WWTPs or on algae, daphnia, and fish in surface waters.

  20. Ground-water hydrology of the upper Sevier River Basin, south-central Utah, and simulation of ground-water flow in the valley-fill in Panguitch Valley.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Brothers, William C.

    1993-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of the upper Sevier River basin, primarily of the unconsolidated valley-fill aquifers, was studied from 1988 to 1989. Recharge to the valley-fill aquifers is mostly by seepage from surface-water sources. Changes in soil-moisture content am water levels were measured in Panguitch Valley both at a flood-irrigated and at a sprinkler-irrigated alfalfa field to quantify seepage from unconsumed irrigation water. Lag time between irrigation and water-level response decreased from 6 to 2 days in the flood-irrigated field as the soil-moisture content increased. Water levels measured in the sprinkler-irrigated field did not respond to irrigation. Discharge from the valley-fill aquifer to the Sevier River in Panguitch Valley is about 53,570 acre-feet per year.Water levels measured in wells from 1951 to 1989 tend to fluctuate with the quantity of precipitation falling at higher elevations. Ground-water discharge to the Sevier River in Panguitch Valley causes a general increase in the specific conductance of the river in a downstream direction.A three-layered ground-water-flow model was used to simulate the effects of changes in irrigation practices am increased ground-water withdrawals in Panguitch Valley. The establishment of initial conditions consisted of comparing simulated water levels and simulated gains and losses from the Sevier River and selected canals with values measured during the 1988 irrigation season. The model was calibrated by comparing water-level changes measured from 1961 to 1963 to simulated changes. A simulated change from flood to sprinkler irrigation resulted in a maximum decline in water level of 0.9 feet after the first year of change. Simulating additional discharge from wells resulted in drawdowns of about 20 feet after the first year of pumping.

  1. Isolation of Murray Valley encephalitis virus and other arboviruses in the Ord River Valley 1972-1976.

    PubMed

    Liehne, P F; Anderson, S; Stanley, N F; Liehne, C G; Wright, A E; Chan, K H; Leivers, S; Britten, D K; Hamilton, N P

    1981-06-01

    This paper summarizes the isolation of arboviruses from mosquitoes collected in the Ord Valley between 1972 and 1976. A total of one hundred and ninety five strains of at least fifteen antigenically distinct viruses have been isolated. Seven of these isolates appear to be "new' antigenic types, and several are undergoing further testing. These are three new rhabdoviruses (Kununurra [OR194], a virus provisionally named Kimberley [OR250] and OR189 [provisionally named Parry's Creek]), three ungrouped, non-haemagglutinating viruses (OR379, OR512, OR869) and a virus (OR540) which reacts to Poly Anopheles A world grouping fluid. The remaining viruses have been previously identified in Australia. These include Murray Valley encephalitis (MVE), Kunjin, Kokobera, Sindbis, Koongol, Wongal, Wongorr and a virus in the Corriparta serological group. The most important finding of these studies is that MVE displays as annually recurrent pattern of activity with a peak seasonal transmission rate at the end of the wet monsoon. This is the first definition of a probable endemic focus of MVE activity in Australia. The major vector for the majority of the viruses isolated was, by inference, Culex annulirostris. However, Aedeomyia catasticta was implicated as a major vector of the Corriparta group virus.

  2. Topographic growth around the Orange River valley, southern Africa: A Cenozoic record of crustal deformation and climatic change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dauteuil, Olivier; Bessin, Paul; Guillocheau, François

    2015-03-01

    We reconstruct the history of topographic growth in southern Africa on both sides of the Orange River valley from an integrated analysis of erosion surfaces, crustal deformation and climate change. First, we propose an inventory of erosion surfaces observed in the study area and classify them according to their most likely formative process, i.e. chemical weathering or mechanical erosion. Among the various land units observed we define a new class of landform: the pedivalley, which corresponds to a wide valley with a flat erosional floor. In the Orange River valley, we mapped three low-relief erosion surfaces, each bevelling a variety of lithologies. The oldest and most elevated is (1) a stripped etchplain evolving laterally into (2) a stepped pediplain bearing residual inselbergs; (3) a younger pediplain later formed in response to a more recent event of crustal deformation. These are all Cenozoic landforms: the etchplain is associated with a late Palaeocene to middle Eocene weathering event, and the two pediplains are older than the middle Miocene alluvial terraces of the Orange River. Landscape evolution was first driven by slow uplift (10 m/Ma), followed by a second interval of uplift involving a cumulative magnitude of at least 200 m. This event shaped the transition between the two pediplains and modified the drainage pattern. A final phase of uplift (magnitude: 60 m) occurred after the Middle Miocene and drove the incision of the lower terraces of the Orange River. Climate exerted a major control over the denudation process, and involved very humid conditions responsible for lateritic weathering, followed by more arid conditions, which promoted the formation of pedivalleys. Collectively, these produce pediplains.

  3. Hydrology of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, south- central United States; a preliminary assessment of the regional flow system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Data describing the aquifer framework and steady-state regional flow were assembled for the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer north of Vicksburg, Mississippi. The aquifer is part of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. The 60 to 140 ft thick alluvial aquifer grades from gravel at the bottom to fine sand near the top. It is overlain by the Mississippi River Valley confining unit, which consists of 10 to 50 ft of silts, clays, and fine-grained sands. Underlying units consist of alternating sands and clays corresponding to regional hydrogeologic units of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. The three-layer finite difference model was used to simulate two-dimensional confined or unconfined steady-state flow for predevelopment and 1972. Preliminary analysis of predevelopment flow indicates that recharge to the alluvial aquifer was from underlying aquifers and the confining unit. Rivers accounted for almost all discharge. Pumpage from the alluvial aquifer for irrigation substantially changed regional flow direction toward depressions in the potentiometric surface. Recharge from rivers and the confining unit increased and recharge from underlying aquifers decreased. Discharge to underlying aquifers increased and discharge to rivers decreased. Recharge from the confining unit reached a maximum of 1.3 inch/year for large parts of the aquifer. Nearly all drawdown exceeding 20 ft was at two locations in Arkansas--the Grande Prairie region, and west of Crowleys Ridge. Model results indicate the importance of leakage from rivers and the confining unite to providing recharge to sustain large amounts of pumpage from the alluvial aquifer. (USGS)

  4. Forces driving late Pleistocene (ca. 77-12 ka) landscape evolution in the Cimarron River valley, southwestern Kansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layzell, Anthony L.; Mandel, Rolfe D.; Ludvigson, Greg A.; Rittenour, Tammy M.; Smith, Jon J.

    2015-07-01

    This study presents stratigraphic, geomorphic, and paleoenvironmental (δ13C) data that provide insight into the late Pleistocene landscape evolution of the Cimarron River valley in the High Plains of southwestern Kansas. Two distinct valley fills (T-1 and T-2) were investigated. Three soils occur in the T-2 fill and five in the T-1 fill, all indicating periods of landscape stability or slow sedimentation. Of particular interest are two cumulic soils dating to ca. 48-28 and 13-12.5 ka. δ13C values are consistent with regional paleoenvironmental proxy data that indicate the prevalence of warm, dry conditions at these times. The Cimarron River is interpreted to have responded to these climatic changes and to local base level control. Specifically, aggradation occurred during cool, wet periods and slow sedimentation with cumulic soil formation occurred under warmer, drier climates. Significant valley incision (~ 25 m) by ca. 28 ka likely resulted from a lowering of local base level caused by deep-seated dissolution of Permian evaporite deposits.

  5. Estimation of the recharge area contributing water to a pumped well in a glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrissey, Daniel J.

    1989-01-01

    The highly permeable, unconfined, glacial-drift aquifers that occupy most New England river valleys constitute the principal source of drinking water for many of the communities that obtain part or all of their public water supply from ground water. Recent events have shown that these aquifers are highly susceptible to contamination that results from a number of sources, such as seepage from wastewater lagoons, leaking petroleum-product storage tanks, and road salting. To protect the quality of water pumped from supply wells in these aquifers, it is necessary to ensure that potentially harmful contaminants do not enter the ground in the area that contributes water to the well. A high degree of protection can be achieved through the application of appropriate land-use controls within the contributing area. However, the contributing areas for most supply wells are not known. This report describes the factors that affect the size and shape of contributing areas to public supply wells and evaluates several methods that may be used to delineate contributing areas of wells in glacial-drift, river-valley aquifers. Analytical, two-dimensional numerical, and three-dimensional numerical models were used to delineate contributing areas. These methods of analysis were compared by applying them to a hypothetical aquifer having the dimensions and geometry of a typical glacial-drift, river-valley aquifer. In the model analyses, factors that control the size and shape of a contributing area were varied over ranges of values common to glacial-drift aquifers in New England. The controlling factors include the rate of well discharge, rate of recharge to the aquifer from precipitation and from adjacent till and bedrock uplands, distance of a pumping well from a stream or other potential source of induced recharge, degree of hydraulic connection of the aquifer with a stream, horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer, ratio of horizontal to vertical hydraulic conductivity, and

  6. Influence of Organic Agriculture on the Net Greenhouse Effect in the Red River Valley, Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. L.

    2004-12-01

    Fluxes for the suite of biologically-produced greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O and CO2) are strongly influenced by agriculture, yet the influence of organic agriculture on all three gases, which comprise the net greenhouse effect (GHE), is not clear in the context of large-scale agricultural production. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential will depend upon the net balance for all three gases [GHE balance (CO2 equiv.)= CO2 flux+ 23CH4flux + 296N2Oflux]. On-farm, field-scale experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that the net GHE at the soil-atmosphere interface is reduced under organic wheat production, compared with conventional, and that effects vary inter-seasonally. Trace gas fluxes were measured at the soil-atmosphere interface for organic and conventional wheat farms in the Red River Valley, Minnesota, one of the most productive agricultural regions in the US. We utilized 40-60 ha field pairs planted with hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Treatment pairs were located 6km apart and consisted of fields continuously cropped for wheat/soybean/sugar beet production for over 20 yr. Ten random, permanent points were generated for each 8.1 ha sub-plot nested inside each field. Each field pair was similar with respect to crop, climate, cultivation history, tillage, rotation, soil texture, pH, macronutrients, bulk density, and water holding capacity. Differences between treatments for the last five years were soil amendments (compost or urea) and herbicide/fungicide application versus mechanical weed control. We collected gas fluxes at each of the 41 points from April (wheat emergence) until the end of July (maturity) to determine the hourly and seasonally integrated net GHE for each management practice, given similar soil/plant/climatic conditions. Moreover, we analyzed inter-seasonal variability to determine the relationship between wheat phenology and flux under field conditions for soil temperature and moisture (water-filled pore space). The net GHE

  7. Isotopic Content of Ground Ice in the Lower Kolyma River Valley (Eastern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spektor, V.; Vonk, J.; Kholodov, A. L.; Spawn, S.; Spektor, V. B.; Andreeva, V. V.; Natali, S.

    2014-12-01

    The report deals with the results of isotopic investigations in ground ice of Quaternary sediments in the Lower Kolyma River Lowland. The field works were undertaken in 2012 and 2013. Analyses of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) stable isotopes were obtained using the Picarro Isotopic Liquid Water Analyzer (Biogeosciences group, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland). The ground ice samples were collected both from four boreholes (BH) drilled on the right limit of the Kolyma River valley and from one section (S) in the Duvanny Yar exposure. Late Pleistocene wedge ice (Ice complex) was recovered by the BH13/1 located on a yedoma relics towering over the low thermokarst plain (N68°30.7' E161°29.6') and S12/4 in the Duvanny Yar exposure (N68°37.8' E159°08.6'). Isotopes δ18O and δD range from -31.413 to -34.05 and from -244.934 to -260.57, correspondingly. Modern wedge ice was recovered by the BH13/3 located on the joint Kolyma and Panteleikha Rivers floodplain underlain by river-bed sediments (N68°36.8', E161°21'). Isotopes range from -25.83 to -26.32(δ18O) and from -197.09 to -204.47 (δD). Oblique segregated ice layers adjacent to a modern ice wedge were recovered by the BH12/2 on the annually flooded thermokarst plain (N68˚30.8' E161˚30). Isotopes range from -18.778 to -20.897 (δ18O) and from -149.883 to -168.901 (δD). The δD contents are the lowest here, resulting possibly from mixed (ice wedging and segregation) mechanism of ice lenses formation. Segregated ice was recovered by the BH13/2 on the Schuch'e lake alas (N68°44.77', E161°23.3') and S12/4 in the transition layer of the Duvanny Yar. Isotopes range from -19.63 to -23.43 (δ18O) and from -146.77 to -177.23 (δD). Preliminary results are as follows: 1) all samples are distributed near the line of meteoric water providing evidence for atmospheric origin of ground ice in the region; 2) isotope distribution exhibits a clear distinction between Late Pleistocene wedge ice, modern wedge ice, segregated ice

  8. Water Quality in a Wet Meadow, Platte River Valley, Central Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emmons, Patrick J.

    1996-01-01

    The Platte River Valley in Nebraska, and in particular the reach from Kearney to Grand Island, is an extremely important natural habitat area. Over 300 migratory bird species, including several threatened and endangered species, have been observed along the Platte River. In the spring, nearly 500,000 sandhill cranes, along with millions of ducks and geese, use this reach as a staging and feeding area during their northerly migration. Wet meadows (grasslands which have waterlogged soils much of the year) are a critical part of this migratory-bird habitat. However, the area of wet meadows between Kearney and Grand Island has declined nearly 50 percent due to the activities of man. The condition of the remaining wet meadows is of vital importance. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program is designed to describe the status and trends in the quality of the Nation's surface water and groundwater resources and to provide a sound understanding of the natural and human factors that affect the quality of these resources. A study of the groundwater beneath a selected wet meadow was undertaken as part of the Central Nebraska Basins NAWQA study unit. Observation wells were installed in the wet meadow at various distances along two transects downgradient from the edge of a corn field. One to five wells completed at depths of about 15 to 100 feet were located at each of the 5 sites. The wells were completed in the Platte River alluvium or the underlying Ogallala Formation. The depth to the water table ranges from 0 to 5 feet below land surface. The general direction of groundwater flow is parallel to flow in the Platte River. Selected wells were sampled in February, March, June, and December 1994 for major cations and anions, nutrients, and organonitrogen herbicides. Pesticides and fertilizers are used extensively in Nebraska to enhance the production of row crops. Some of these pesticides and fertilizers have migrated into the groundwater

  9. Molecular epidemiology of Vibrio cholerae associated with flood in Brahamputra River valley, Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, Soubhagya K; Vairale, Mohan G; Arya, Neha; Yadav, Priti; Veer, Vijay; Singh, Lokendra; Yadava, Pramod K; Kumar, Pramod

    2016-06-01

    Cholera is often caused when drinking water is contaminated through environmental sources. In recent years, the drastic cholera epidemics in Odisha (2007) and Haiti (2010) were associated with natural disasters (flood and Earthquake). Almost every year the state of Assam India witnesses flood in Brahamputra River valley during reversal of wind system (monsoon). This is often followed by outbreak of diarrheal diseases including cholera. Beside the incidence of cholera outbreaks, there is lack of experimental evidence for prevalence of the bacterium in aquatic environment and its association with cholera during/after flood in the state. A molecular surveillance during 2012-14 was carried out to study prevalence, strain differentiation, and clonality of Vibrio cholerae in inland aquatic reservoirs flooded by Brahamputra River in Assam. Water samples were collected, filtered, enriched in alkaline peptone water followed by selective culturing on thiosulfate bile salt sucrose agar. Environmental isolates were identified as V. cholerae, based on biochemical assays followed by sero-grouping and detailed molecular characterization. The incidence of the presence of the bacterium in potable water sources was higher after flood. Except one O1 isolate, all of the strains were broadly grouped under non-O1/non-O139 whereas some of them did have cholera toxin (CT). Surprisingly, we have noticed Haitian ctxB in two non-O1/non-O139 strains. MLST analyses based on pyrH, recA and rpoA genes revealed clonality in the environmental strains. The isolates showed varying degree of antimicrobial resistance including tetracycline and ciprofloxacin. The strains harbored the genetic elements SXT constins and integrons responsible for multidrug resistance. Genetic characterization is useful as phenotypic characters alone have proven to be unsatisfactory for strain discrimination. An assurance to safe drinking water, sanitation and monitoring of the aquatic reservoirs is of utmost importance for

  10. Siphateles (Gila) sp. and Catostomus sp. from the Pleistocene OIS-6 Lake Gale, Panamint Valley, Owens River system, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayko, A. S.; Forester, R. M.; Smith, G. R.

    2014-12-01

    Panamint Valley lies within the Owens River system which linked southeastern Sierra Nevada basins between Mono Lake and Death Valley during glacial-pluvial times. Previous work indicates that late Pleistocene glacial-pluvial Lake Gale, Panamint Valley was an open system during OIS-6, a closed ground water supported shallow lake during OIS-4, and the terminal lake basin for the Owens River system during OIS-2. We here report the first occurrence of fossil fish from the Plio-Pleistocene Panamint basin. Fish remains are present in late Pleistocene OIS-6 nearshore deposits associated with a highstand that was spillway limited at Wingate Wash. The deposits contain small minnow-sized remains from both Siphateles or Gila sp. (chubs) and Catostomus sp. (suckers) from at least four locations widely dispersed in the basin. Siphateles or Gila sp. and Catostomus are indigenous to the Pleistocene and modern Owens River system, in particular to the historic Owens Lake area. Cyprinodon (pupfish) and Rhinichthys (dace) are known from the modern Amargosa River and from Plio-Pleistocene deposits in Death Valley to the east. The late Pleistocene OIS-6 to OIS-2 lacustrine and paleohydrologic record in Panamint basin is interpreted from ostracod assemblages, relative abundance of Artemia sp. pellets, shallow water indicators including tufa fragments, ruppia sp. fragments and the relative abundance of charophyte gyrogonites obtained from archived core, as well as faunal assemblages from paleoshoreline and nearshore deposits. The OIS-4 groundwater supported shallow saline lake had sufficiently low ratios of alkalinity to calcium (alk/Ca) to support the occurrence of exotic Elphidium sp. (?) foraminfera which are not observed in either OIS-2 or OIS-6 lacustrine deposits. The arrival of Owens River surface water into Panamint Basin during OIS-2 is recorded by the first appearance of the ostracod Limnocythere sappaensis at ~27 m depth in an ~100 m archived core (Smith and Pratt, 1957) which

  11. Foraging Ecology of Fall-Migrating Shorebirds in the Illinois River Valley

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Randolph V.; Stafford, Joshua D.; Yetter, Aaron P.; Horath, Michelle M.; Hine, Christopher S.; Hoover, Jeffery P.

    2012-01-01

    Populations of many shorebird species appear to be declining in North America, and food resources at stopover habitats may limit migratory bird populations. We investigated body condition of, and foraging habitat and diet selection by 4 species of shorebirds in the central Illinois River valley during fall migrations 2007 and 2008 (Killdeer [Charadrius vociferus], Least Sandpiper [Calidris minutilla], Pectoral Sandpiper [Calidris melanotos], and Lesser Yellowlegs [Tringa flavipes]). All species except Killdeer were in good to excellent condition, based on size-corrected body mass and fat scores. Shorebird diets were dominated by invertebrate taxa from Orders Diptera and Coleoptera. Additionally, Isopoda, Hemiptera, Hirudinea, Nematoda, and Cyprinodontiformes contribution to diets varied by shorebird species and year. We evaluated diet and foraging habitat selection by comparing aggregate percent dry mass of food items in shorebird diets and core samples from foraging substrates. Invertebrate abundances at shorebird collection sites and random sites were generally similar, indicating that birds did not select foraging patches within wetlands based on invertebrate abundance. Conversely, we found considerable evidence for selection of some diet items within particular foraging sites, and consistent avoidance of Oligochaeta. We suspect the diet selectivity we observed was a function of overall invertebrate biomass (51.2±4.4 [SE] kg/ha; dry mass) at our study sites, which was greater than estimates reported in most other food selection studies. Diet selectivity in shorebirds may follow tenants of optimal foraging theory; that is, at low food abundances shorebirds forage opportunistically, with the likelihood of selectivity increasing as food availability increases. Nonetheless, relationships between the abundance, availability, and consumption of Oligochaetes for and by waterbirds should be the focus of future research, because estimates of foraging carrying capacity

  12. Computer modeling of ground-water availability in the Pootatuck River Valley, Newtown, Connecticut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haeni, F.P.; Handman, Elinor H.

    1978-01-01

    A hydrologic analysis of the stratified drift in Newtown, Conn., based on available data, test drilling, seismic refraction profiling, and the stream-aquifer connection was performed using a digital computer model. Simulated pumping indicates that a total of 4.0 million gallons of water per day (Mgal/d) can be withdrawn from the stream-aquifer system. A minimum of 2.5 Mgal/d is available for future development since Fairfield Hills Hospital is capable of withdrawing 1.5 Mgal/d. Induced recharge from the Pootatuck River supplies 65 percent, or 2.6 Mgal/d of the total pumpage, and captured ground-water outflow supplies the remaining 35 percent of 1.4 Mgal/d. The predicted yields are for long-term average hydrologic conditions; usually dry or extended drought periods would significantly reduce the water available from the aquifer. The quality of surface water in the valley as shown by seven samples from five sites, meets the Connecticut standards for public drinking water except for excessive coliform bacteria. Ground-water quality also meets these standards, as indicated by analyses of 20 samples from 14 wells and 1 spring, but high manganese (up to 15 mg/L) and iron (up to 1.7 mg/L) would require treatment prior to use. Trace metals from one surface-water and four ground-water samples are also within these standards, except for the high cadmium concentration of 26 micrograms per liter in water from one well. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Late Pleistocene paleosols in the lower Mississippi River Valley: Documentation of regional base level change

    SciTech Connect

    Autin, W.J. ); Aslan, A. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Late Pleistocene alluvial paleosols of the Mississippi River are developed in constructional fluvial deposits of ancestral meander belt, overbank, and flood basin deposits. At the type section of the Mt. Pleasant Bluff Alloformation of the Prairie Complex, the upper paleosol developed between 27 and 22 ka as part of a sequence of stacked paleosols that reflect cycles of an abandoned channel fill draped by proximal overbank deposits. Peoria Loess and mixed loess accumulated between 22 and 12 ka to bury the alluvial sequence. Base level lowering coincided with Late Wisconsinan glaciation and a minimum sea level at about 20 to 18 ka. Subsequent Holocene alluvial aggradation and valley wall plantation produced the present terrace escarpment. Soil morphology of the Mt. Pleasant Bluff Alloformation reflects two stages of soil development related to the removal of soils from an active flood plain environment to a terraced landscape position. Based on comparison with Holocene analogs, the first stage of pedogenesis in an active flood plain environment produced a hydromorphic soil as evidenced by color mottles, iron and carbonate nodules, and moderately developed B and C horizons. The second stage of development produced a more oxidized and leached soil profile as evidenced by an increase in soil color brightness, kaolinite content, and a decrease in smectite content and soil pH. In addition, pedogenic mixing by biogenic processes probably incorporated the A and E horizons into the overlying loess. A stratigraphic succession of alluvial paleosols may contain a record of regional base level rise and fall. However, an evaluation of eustatic, climatic, and/or tectonic influences on regional base level must first take into account local factors that control flood plain sedimentation and erosion.

  14. Petrology and geochemistry of subbituminous coals from the Red Deer River Valley, Alberta Plains, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gentzis, T.; Goodarzi, F.

    1998-11-01

    Coals and associated carbonaceous strata along the Red Deer River Valley in Alberta have a wide variation in boron concentrations (10--628 ppm). Boron concentrations decrease from bottom to top of the coal-bearing succession, closely reflecting changes in depositional environment conditions. These changes range from subaquatic deposition in the delta plain area and influence of brackish waters due to a marine transgression, to deposition in areas removed from any brackish water influence. There is good agreement between boron variation and depositional environment as interpreted from regional geology. However, the relation between boron and sulfur is not clear; samples with high boron concentrations are high in sulfur while low boron samples also have high sulfur. Compared to mean concentrations in world coals, some of the highest elemental concentrations measured in coals of this study are: As (38.0 ppm), Ba (2800 ppm), Cr (91.0 ppm), Mn (232 ppm), and V (209 ppm). There is a similarity in the vertical variation of the elements Th and Hf, while bentonite layers are enriched in Ba and Sr, pointing to the presence of gorceixite. No enrichment of REEs was observed in the bentonite layers. A comparison of elemental concentration to world mean values for coals shows that the RDRV coals are elevated in As (up to 4{times}), Cr (up to 12 {times}), Mn (up to 4 {times}), Mo (up to 12 {times}), Th (up to 5 {times}), V (up to 12 {times}) and Zn (up to 5 {times}). Compared to coals from the eastern Alberta Plains of similar rank, age, and depositional environment, the RDRV coals have higher or similar concentrations of all elements of environmental significance, with the exception of Be and Pb. When compared to coals of similar rank in the western Alberta plains deposited under freshwater conditions, the RDRV coals have higher concentration of As, B, Ba, Sb, and Sr, similar concentrations of Be, Co, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Th, and U, and lower concentrations of Ni.

  15. Distribution and habitat use of king rails in the Illinois and Upper Mississippi River valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darrah, Abigail J.; Krementz, David G.

    2009-01-01

    The migratory population of the king rail (Rallus elegans) has declined dramatically during the past 40 years, emphasizing the need to identify habitat requirements of this species to help guide conservation efforts. To assess distribution and habitat use of king rails along the Illinois and Upper Mississippi valleys, USA, we conducted repeated call-broadcast surveys at 83 locations in 2006 and 114 locations in 2007 distributed among 21 study sites. We detected king rails at 12 survey locations in 2006 and 14 locations in 2007, illustrating the limited distribution of king rails in this region. We found king rails concentrated at Clarence Cannon National Wildlife Refuge, an adjacent private Wetlands Reserve program site, and B. K. Leach Conservation Area, which were located in the Mississippi River floodplain in northeast Missouri. Using Program PRESENCE, we estimated detection probabilities and built models to identify habitat covariates that were important in king rail site occupancy. Habitat covariates included percentage of cover by tall (> 1 m) and short (<= 1 m) emergent vegetation, percentage of cover of woody vegetation, and interspersion of water and vegetation ( 2007 only) within 50 m of the survey location. Detection probability was 0.43 (SE = 0.12) in 2006 and 0.35 (SE = 0.03) in 2007 and was influenced by observer identity and percentage of cover by tall herbaceous vegetation. Site occupancy was 0.11 (SE = 0.04) in 2006 and 0.14 (SE = 0.04) in 2007 and was negatively influenced most by percentage of cover by woody vegetation. In addition, we found that interspersion of vegetation and water was positively related to occupancy in 2007. Thus, nesting king rails used wetlands that were characterized by high water-vegetation interspersion and little or no cover by woody vegetation. Our results suggest that biologists can improve king rail habitat by implementing management techniques that reduce woody cover and increase vegetation-water interspersion in

  16. A Holocene vegetation record from the Mississippi River Valley, southeastern Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, J.E.; Allen, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Pollen preserved in a peat deposit from a large swamp, the Old Field in the Mississippi River Valley near Advance, Missouri, records radiocarbon-dated vegetation changes between 9000 and about 3000 years ago. The principal feature of both the percentage and influx pollen diagrams is the replacement of arboreal pollen, primarily Quercus, Fraxinus, and Cephalanthus, with Gramineae and NAP between 8700 and 5000 years BP. This vegetation shift is interpreted as reflecting a decrease in the extent of the Old Field swamp and its associated bottomland forest species along with the expansion of a grass-dominated herb community, as a result of a reduction in available ground water. The desiccation of the swamp during this period indicates a reduction in precipitation within the ground-water source area and a shift to a drier climate in the southern Midwest. The pollen suggests that the lowest water levels and driest climate in southeastern Missouri lasted from 8700 to 6500 years BP, at which time there is a partial reappearance of swamp species. Relatively dry conditions, however, continued until at least 5000 years BP. Although pollen influx data are lacking from the upper part of the profile, the relative pollen frequencies suggest an increase in trees after 5000 BP. The replacement of the arboreal vegetation by grasses and herbs between 8700 and 5000 years BP reflects the period of maximum expansion of the Prairie Peninsula in southeastern Missouri. The Old Field swamp provides the first pollen evidence that the vegetational changes along the southern border of the Prairie Peninsula were chronologically similar to those on the northern and northeastern margins. ?? 1977.

  17. wrv: An R Package for Groundwater Flow Model Construction, Wood River Valley Aquifer System, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater models are one of the main tools used in the hydrogeological sciences to assess resources and to simulate possible effects from future water demands and changes in climate. The hydrological inputs to groundwater models can be numerous and can vary in both time and space. Difficulties associated with model construction are often related to extensive datasets and cumbersome data processing tasks. To mitigate these difficulties, a graphical user interface (GUI) is often employed to aid the input of data for creating models. Unfortunately, GUI software presents an obstacle to reproducibility, a cornerstone of research. The considerable effort required to document processing steps in a GUI program, and the rapid obsoleteness of these steps with subsequent versions of the software, has prompted modelers to explicitly write down processing steps as source code to make them 'easily' reproducible. This research describes the R package wrv, a collection of datasets and functions for pre- and post-processing the numerical groundwater flow model of the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho. R largely facilitates reproducible modeling with the package vignette; a document that is a combination of content and source code. The code is run when the vignette is built, and all data analysis output (such as figures and tables) is created on the fly and inserted into the final document. The wrv package includes two vignettes that explain and run steps that (1) create package datasets from raw data files located on a publicly accessible repository, and (2) create and run the groundwater flow model. MODFLOW-USG, the numerical groundwater model used in this study, is executed from the vignette, and model output is returned for exploratory analyses. The ability of R to perform all processing steps in a single workflow is attributed to its comprehensive list of features; that include geographic information system and time series functionality.

  18. Isotopic compositions and sources of nitrate in ground water from western Salt River Valley, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gellenbeck, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Isotopic and chemical compositions of ground water from western Salt River Valley near Phoenix, Arizona, were used to develop identification tech- niques for sources of nitrate in ground water. Four possible sources of nitrate were studied: dairies and feedlots, sewage-treatment plants, agricultural activities, and natural source. End members that represent these sources were analyzed for a variety of chemical and isotopic constituents; contents of the end-member and the ground water were compared to identify nitrate from these sources. Nitrate from dairies and feedlots was identified by delta 15N values higher than +9.0 per mil. Nitrate from sewage treatment plants was identified by some chemical constituents and values of delta 15N, delta 34S, delta 7Li, and delta 11B that were lighter than the values determined for ground water not affected by sewage-treatment plants. Nitrate from agricultural activities was identified by delta 15N, 3H, and delta 34S compositions. Natural nitrate derived from decomposing plants and accumulated by biological fixation was identified by delta 15N values that range between +2 and +8 per mil. In addition to identifying nitrate sources, some chemical and isotopic charabteristics of ground water were determined on the basis of data collected during this study. Concentrations of major ions, lithium, and boron and delta 7Li, delta 11B, 3H, delta D, and delta 18O data identify ground water in different geographic regions in the study area. These differences probably are related to different sources of ground water, geochemical processes, or geologic deposits. The Luke salt body and a geothermal anomaly alter the chemical and isotopic content of some ground water.

  19. [Percentage of uric acid calculus and its metabolic character in Dongjiang River valley].

    PubMed

    Chong, Hong-Heng; An, Geng

    2009-02-15

    To study the percentage of uric acid calculus in uroliths and its metabolic character in Dongjiang River valley. To analyze the chemical composition of 290 urinary stones by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and study the ratio changes of uric acid calculus. Uric acid calculus patients and healthy people were studied. Personal characteristics, dietary habits were collected. Conditional logistic regression was used for data analysis and studied the dietary risk factors of uric acid calculus. Patients with uric acid calculus, calcium oxalate and those without urinary calculus were undergone metabolic evaluation analysis. The results of uric acid calculus patients compared to another two groups to analysis the relations between the formation of uric acid calculus and metabolism factors. Uric acid calculi were found in 53 cases (18.3%). The multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that low daily water intake, eating more salted and animal food, less vegetable were very closely associated with uric acid calculus. Comparing to calcium oxalate patients, the urine volume, the value of pH, urine calcium, urine oxalic acid were lower, but uric acid was higher than it. The value of pH, urine oxalic acid and citric acid were lower than them, but uric acid and urine calcium were higher than none urinary calculus peoples. Blood potassium and magnesium were lower than them. The percentage of uric acid stones had obvious advanced. Less daily water intake, eating salted food, eating more animal food, less vegetables and daily orange juice intake, eating sea food are the mainly dietary risk factors to the formation of uric acid calculus. Urine volume, the value of pH, citric acid, urine calcium, urine uric acid and the blood natrium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, uric acid have significant influence to the information of uric acid stones.

  20. The relationship between the summer precipitation in the Yangtze River valley and the boreal spring Southern Hemisphere annular mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Sulan; Li, Jianping

    2003-12-01

    The relationship between the boreal spring (April-May) Southern Hemisphere annular mode (SAM) and the following summer (June-August) precipitation in China for the period of 1951-2001 is examined statistically in this study. There is a significantly positive correlation between the boreal spring SAM index (SAMI) and the following summer rainfall in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. The summer large-scale atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia are also related to the boreal spring SAMI events. A strong SAM in boreal spring is followed by a weakened East Asian summer monsoon, a strengthened and westward expanded western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH), as well as increased ascending vertical velocity, specific humidity and water vapor flux convergence. These situations provide necessary circulation and water vapor conditions for increasing the summer precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley, and vice versa. The boreal spring SAM variation provides a potential valuable signal for predicting the summertime precipitation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River valley.

  1. [Beta-hexachlorocyclohexane contamination in dairy farms of the Sacco River Valley, Latium, Italy, 2005. A retrospective cohort study].

    PubMed

    Sala, Marcello; Caminiti, Antonino; Rombolà, Pasquale; Volpe, Aldo; Roffi, Cristina; Caperna, Osvaldo; Miceli, Maria; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Battisti, Antonio; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2012-01-01

    in March 2005, the Italian National Monitoring System on Chemical Residuals in Food of Animal Origin detected levels of the pesticide beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (ß-HCH) that were 20 times higher than the legal limit of 0.003 mg/kg in bulk milk from a dairy farm in the Sacco River valley. ß-HCH, a lindane isomer and possible human carcinogen, was subsequently found in milk from several neighboring farms. A study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the extent and risk factors for contamination. all dairy cattle farms in the valley were enrolled in a retrospective cohort study and their bulk milk analyzed for ß-HCH. A questionnaire was administered to farmers to evaluate possible exposure factors. cases: dairy farms with at least one result indicating ß-HCH ≥ 0.002 mg/kg in bulk milk during the period april-june 2005; exposure: feeding animals on fodder cultivated in soils watered with and/or flooded by river water; participants: IZSLT, RMG Local Health Unit, FR Local Health Unit. attack rate, relative risk, attributable proportion among exposed. of 244 farms tested, 34 met the case definition (attack rate 14%). The exposure to fodder cultivated in soils watered with and/or flooded by river water was observed in 33/34 (97%) case-farms and in 23/210 (10.9%) of those with contamination <0.002 mg/kg in bulk milk (RR 110.8; 95%CI 15.5- 792). Attributable proportion among exposed was more than 99%. fodder cultivated near a contaminated river was the main risk factor for ß-HCH contaminated milk. On the basis of the epidemiologic evidence and laboratory testing, watering local fields with river water and production of fodder in farms with contaminated soil was banned, and all the animals from positive farms were culled.

  2. Mercury Loads in the South River and Simulation of Mercury Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for the South River, South Fork Shenandoah River, and Shenandoah River: Shenandoah Valley, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggleston, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Due to elevated levels of methylmercury in fish, three streams in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia have been placed on the State's 303d list of contaminated waters. These streams, the South River, the South Fork Shenandoah River, and parts of the Shenandoah River, are downstream from the city of Waynesboro, where mercury waste was discharged from 1929-1950 at an industrial site. To evaluate mercury contamination in fish, this total maximum daily load (TMDL) study was performed in a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The investigation focused on the South River watershed, a headwater of the South Fork Shenandoah River, and extrapolated findings to the other affected downstream rivers. A numerical model of the watershed, based on Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) software, was developed to simulate flows of water, sediment, and total mercury. Results from the investigation and numerical model indicate that contaminated flood-plain soils along the riverbank are the largest source of mercury to the river. Mercury associated with sediment accounts for 96 percent of the annual downstream mercury load (181 of 189 kilograms per year) at the mouth of the South River. Atmospherically deposited mercury contributes a smaller load (less than 1 percent) as do point sources, including current discharge from the historic industrial source area. In order to determine how reductions of mercury loading to the stream could reduce methylmercury concentrations in fish tissue below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 0.3 milligrams per kilogram, multiple scenarios were simulated. Bioaccumulation of mercury was expressed with a site-specific exponential relation between aqueous total mercury and methylmercury in smallmouth bass, the indicator fish species. Simulations indicate that if mercury loading were to decrease by 98.9 percent from 189

  3. Water resources of the Big Sioux River Valley near Sioux Falls, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Ackroyd, Earl A.

    1973-01-01

    Water from the river is generally less mineralized, softer, and easier to treat than ground water. Water pumped from wells near the river is similar in quality to the river water, but does not have the objectionable odors or tastes often present in water from the river.

  4. Ground-Water Budgets for the Wood River Valley Aquifer System, South-Central Idaho, 1995-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James R.

    2009-01-01

    The Wood River Valley contains most of the population of Blaine County and the cities of Sun Valley, Ketchum, Haley, and Bellevue. This mountain valley is underlain by the alluvial Wood River Valley aquifer system which consists of a single unconfined aquifer that underlies the entire valley, an underlying confined aquifer that is present only in the southernmost valley, and the confining unit that separates them. The entire population of the area depends on ground water for domestic supply, either from domestic or municipal-supply wells, and rapid population growth since the 1970s has caused concern about the long-term sustainability of the ground-water resource. To help address these concerns this report describes a ground-water budget developed for the Wood River Valley aquifer system for three selected time periods: average conditions for the 10-year period 1995-2004, and the single years of 1995 and 2001. The 10-year period 1995-2004 represents a range of conditions in the recent past for which measured data exist. Water years 1995 and 2001 represent the wettest and driest years, respectively, within the 10-year period based on precipitation at the Ketchum Ranger Station. Recharge or inflow to the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through seven main sources (from largest to smallest): infiltration from tributary canyons, streamflow loss from the Big Wood River, areal recharge from precipitation and applied irrigation water, seepage from canals and recharge pits, leakage from municipal pipes, percolation from septic systems, and subsurface inflow beneath the Big Wood River in the northern end of the valley. Total estimated mean annual inflow or recharge to the aquifer system for 1995-2004 is 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s). Total recharge for the wet year 1995 and the dry year 2001 is estimated to be 270,000 acre-ft/yr (370 ft3/s) and 220,000 acre-ft/yr (300 ft3/s), respectively. Discharge or outflow from the Wood River Valley aquifer system occurs through

  5. Lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrologic and geochemical data gathered for this study provide a qualitative assessment of the potential of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer as a source of public water supply in the Van Buren area. Results indicate minimal influx of water from the Arkansas River, and recharge to the aquifer appears to be dominantly by infiltration of precipitation through overlying alluvium. If vertical wells are used as a source of public water supply, then several wells will have to be used in combination at relatively low pumping rates and placed in areas with a greater percent sand. Use of a horizontal well configuration near the river to increase production may depend on infiltration of river water to supplement water removed from storage, especially where areas of lower permeability sediments might be encountered within the surrounding alluvium. If a poor hydraulic connection exists between the river and the alluvium, as indicated by this study, then production will depend on ample precipitation and recharge throughout the year and groundwater storage sufficient to prevent declining water levels where pumping rates exceed recharge.

  6. A mid to late Holocene history of floodplain and terrace reworking along the middle Delaware River valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinchcomb, Gary E.; Driese, Steven G.; Nordt, Lee C.; Allen, Peter M.

    2012-10-01

    This study tests and refines the traditional floodplain development model for the partly confined middle Delaware River valley, which has shown that the main channel was relatively stable and flanked by a 6000-8000 year old, vertically accreting alluvial terrace. The Holocene alluvial processes and history presented here in 6 fluvial phases were reconstructed using morphostratigraphy, 36 profile descriptions, 332 grain size analyses, and 82 14C ages from soil trenches, auger borings, and archaeological excavations. Fluvial phases I-III largely validate previous reconstructions showing a late Pleistocene (I: > 10.7 ka) braided stream transition into an early Holocene wandering stream with prolonged floodplain stability (II: 10.7-8 ka), followed by early-middle Holocene erosion and then deposition (III: 8-5 ka). The early and middle Holocene changes in alluvial stratigraphy and sedimentology broadly correlate with climatically derived Holocene subdivisions, suggesting climate change partly controls alluvial response along the middle Delaware River valley. This study documents for the first time a middle Holocene episode of channel incision occurring sometime between 6.0 and 5.0 ka. Although the results reconfirm that the majority of alluvial landforms are composed of vertical accretion deposits, we present here new evidence of oblique, abandoned channel, and lateral accretion deposits inset to similar landforms with different formation histories (i.e., polycyclic terrace development), depicting a river valley that has experienced floodplain and terrace reworking. The majority of floodplain and terrace reworking occurs during the late-middle and late Holocene phases IV-VI (5.5-0 ka), following the middle Holocene incision event. These phases demonstrate floodplain reworking processes in the form of channel abandonment, stripping, flood channeling, and convex bank erosion. The subsequent space filled rapidly with evidence of multistory soil formation, and eventually

  7. Groundwater resources of the Wood River Valley, Idaho--A groundwater-flow model for resource management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartolino, James; Vincent, Sean

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in collaboration with the Idaho Department of Water Resources (IDWR), will use the current understanding of the Wood River Valley aquifer system to construct a MODFLOW numerical groundwater-flow model to simulate potential anthropogenic and climatic effects on groundwater and surface-water resources. This model will serve as a tool for water rights administration and water-resource management and planning. The study will be conducted over a 3-year period from late 2012 until model and report completion in 2015.

  8. Effects of ground-water withdrawals on flow in the Sauk River Valley Aquifer and on streamflow in the Cold Spring area, Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The simulated contributing areas for selected watersupply wells in the Cold Spring area generally extend to and possibly beyond the model boundaries to the north and to the southeast. The contributing areas for the Gold'n Plump Poultry Processing Plant supply wells extend: (1) to the Sauk River, (2) to the north to and possibly beyond to the northern model boundary, and (3) to the southeast to and possibly beyond the southeastern model boundary. The primary effects of projected increased ground-water withdrawals of 0.23 cubic feet per second (7.5 percent increase) were to: (1) decrease outflow from the Sauk River Valley aquifer through constant-head boundaries and (2) decrease leakage from the valley unit of the Sauk River Valley aquifer to the streams. No appreciable differences were discernible between the simulated steady-state contributing areas to wells with 1998 pumpage and those with the projected pumpage.

  9. Fracture and methane-contamination study, Animas river valley from Bondad, Colorado to Cedar Hill, New Mexico. Topical report, August 1991-June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, S.T.

    1994-06-01

    Methane contamination has been detected in shallow ground-water wells in the Animas River Valley. This may be the result of methane migration from coalbed methane production wells, poorly constructed deep-gas wells, or subsurface fracture systems. The objective of this study was to investigate these potential causes. Fracture flow from gas-producing zones of the Fruitland Formulation to the Aminas River Valley fill is a probable cause for methane in shallow ground-water wells, but indicates that geologic and hydrologic conditions below the Aminas River Valley are favorable for methane to occur naturally in shallow ground water and as seeps at the surface. This evidence might explain the repeated occurrence of methane, observed over the past 100 years, in shallow ground water and at the surface.

  10. Contribution of local knowledge to understand socio-hydrological dynamics. Examples from a study in Senegal river valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckmann, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    In developing countries many watersheds are low monitored. However, rivers and its floodplains provides ecosystem services to societies, especially for agriculture, grazing and fishing. This uses of rivers and floodplains offer to communities an important local knowledge about hydrological dynamics. This knowledge can be useful to researchers studying ecological or hydrological processes. This presentation aims to discuss and present the interest of using qualitative data from surveys and interviews to understand relations between society and hydrology in floodplain from developing countries, but also to understand changes in hydrological dynamics. This communication is based on a PhD thesis held on from 2012 and 2016, that analyzes socio-ecological changes in the floodplain of the Senegal river floodplain following thirty years of transboundary water management. The results of this work along Senegal river valley suggest that the use of social data and qualitative study are beneficial in understanding the hydrological dynamics in two dimensions. First, it established the importance of perception of hydrological dynamics, particularly floods, on local water management and socio-agricultural trajectories. This perception of people is strictly derived from ecosystems services provided by river and its floodplain. Second, surveys have enlightened new questions concerning the hydrology of the river that are often cited by people, like a decrease of flood water fertility. This type of socio-hydrological study, combining hydrological and qualitative data, has great potential for guiding water management policies. Using local knowledge in their analyzes, researchers also legitimize river users, who are for the most part forgotten by water policies.

  11. Organic carbon flux and particulate organic matter composition in Arctic valley glaciers: examples from the Bayelva River and adjacent Kongsfjorden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhuo-Yi; Wu, Ying; Liu, Su-Mei; Wenger, Fred; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Rui-Feng

    2016-02-01

    In the face of ongoing global warming and glacier retreat, the composition and flux of organic matter in glacier-fjord systems are key variables for updating the carbon cycle and budget, whereas the role of Arctic valley glaciers seems unimportant when compared with the huge Greenland Ice Sheet. Our field observations of the glacier-fed Bayelva River, Svalbard, and the adjacent Kongsfjorden allowed us to determine the compositions of particulate organic matter from glacier to fjord and also to estimate the flux of organic carbon, both for the river and for Svalbard in general. Particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Bayelva River averaged 56 and 73 µM, respectively, in August, 2012. Amino acids (AAs) and phytoplankton carbon accounted for ˜ 10 % of the bulk POC in the Bayelva River, while AAs represented > 90 % of particulate nitrogen (PN) in fjord surface water, suggesting the strong in situ assimilation of organic matter. Bacteria accounted for 13 and 19 % of the POC in the Bayelva River and the Kongsfjorden, respectively, while values for PN were much higher (i.e., 36 % in Kongsfjorden). The total discharge from the Bayelva River in 2012 was 29 × 106 m3. Furthermore, we calculated the annual POC, DOC, and PN fluxes for the river as 20 ± 1.6 tons, 25 ± 5.6 tons, and 4.7 ± 0.75 tons, respectively. Using the POC content and DOC concentration data, we then estimated the annual POC and DOC fluxes for Svalbard glaciers. Although the estimated POC (0.056 ± 0.02 × 106 tons year-1) and DOC (0.02 ± 0.01 × 106 tons year-1) fluxes of Svalbard glaciers are small in amount, its discharge-weighted flux of DOC was over twice higher than other pan-Arctic glacier systems, suggesting its important role as a terrestrial DOC source.

  12. Detection of Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in Blacklegged Ticks Collected in the Grand River Valley, Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Scott, John D; Foley, Janet E; Anderson, John F; Clark, Kerry L; Durden, Lance A

    2017-01-01

    We document the presence of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the Grand River valley, Centre Wellington, Ontario. Overall, 15 (36%) of 42 I. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Using real-time PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that Borrelia amplicons extracted from I. scapularis adults belonged to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Based on the distribution of I. scapularis adults within the river basin, it appears likely that migratory birds provide an annual influx of I. scapularis immatures during northward spring migration. Health-care providers need to be aware that local residents can present with Lyme disease symptoms anytime during the year.

  13. Detection of Lyme Disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, in Blacklegged Ticks Collected in the Grand River Valley, Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John D.; Foley, Janet E.; Anderson, John F.; Clark, Kerry L.; Durden, Lance A.

    2017-01-01

    We document the presence of blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, in the Grand River valley, Centre Wellington, Ontario. Overall, 15 (36%) of 42 I. scapularis adults collected from 41 mammalian hosts (dogs, cats, humans) were positive for the Lyme disease bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.). Using real-time PCR testing and DNA sequencing of the flagellin (fla) gene, we determined that Borrelia amplicons extracted from I. scapularis adults belonged to B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.), which is pathogenic to humans and certain domestic animals. Based on the distribution of I. scapularis adults within the river basin, it appears likely that migratory birds provide an annual influx of I. scapularis immatures during northward spring migration. Health-care providers need to be aware that local residents can present with Lyme disease symptoms anytime during the year. PMID:28260991

  14. Early and abrupt retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet margin from the Mackenzie River valley, southern Northwest Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margold, Martin; Froese, Duane G.; Gosse, John C.; Yang, Guang; McKenna, Jillian; Hidy, Alan J.

    2017-04-01

    The detachment of the Laurentide Ice Sheet margin from the Canadian Cordillera opened the present-day drainage route of the Mackenzie River to the Arctic Ocean and an ice-free corridor that allowed for migration of species between Beringia and the mid-latitudes of North America. The existing ice-margin chronology depicts the southern reach of the Mackenzie River between 61 and 63° N as glaciated until about 13 ka, representing the last portion of the Laurentide Ice Sheet margin abutting the eastern foot of the Cordillera. A substantial retreat of the ice sheet margin in this region has been suggested to have occurred during the subsequent Younger Dryas cold period, despite the fact that in many other regions ice masses stabilised or even re-grew at this time. However, until now, deglacial chronometry for this region and the western LIS margin is sparse and consists mostly of minimum-limiting macrofossil and bulk C-14 ages from organics materials overlying glacial sediment. With the aim to bring new data on the deglaciation history of the Mackenzie River valley, we collected samples for Be-10 exposure dating from glacial erratic boulders in the southern Franklin Mountains that bound the Mackenzie River valley from the east. The sampling elevations ranged between 1480 and 800 m a.s.l., however, the measured ages show only a weak correlation with elevation. Instead, 10 out of 12 measured samples cluster tightly around 15 ka, with the remaining two samples likely containing Be-10 inherited from previous periods of exposure. Our results thus indicate a pre-Younger Dryas rapid down-wasting of the ice sheet surface, which we infer was accompanied by an ice margin retreat to the southeast. The southern reach of the Mackenzie River valley at the eastern foot of the Cordillera was, according to our results, ice free shortly after 15 ka, with the prospect that the ice-free corridor might have opened significantly earlier than hitherto anticipated. Further research is

  15. Geographic information science: Contribution to understanding salt and sodium affected soils in the Senegal River Valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ndiaye, Ramatoulaye

    The Senegal River valley and delta (SRVD) are affected by long term climate variability. Indicators of these climatic shifts include a rainfall deficit, warmer temperatures, sea level rise, floods, and drought. These shifts have led to environmental degradation, water deficits, and profound effects on human life and activities in the area. Geographic Information Science (GIScience), including satellite-based remote sensing methods offer several advantages over conventional ground-based methods used to map and monitor salt-affected soil (SAS) features. This study was designed to assess the accuracy of information on soil salinization extracted from Landsat satellite imagery. Would available imagery and GIScience data analysis enable an ability to discriminate natural soil salinization from soil sodication and provide an ability to characterize the SAS trend and pattern over 30 years? A set of Landsat MSS (June 1973 and September 1979), Landsat TM (November 1987, April 1994 and November 1999) and ETM+ (May 2001 and March 2003) images have been used to map and monitor salt impacted soil distribution. Supervised classification, unsupervised classification and post-classification change detection methods were used. Supervised classifications of May 2001 and March 2003 images were made in conjunction field data characterizing soil surface chemical characteristics that included exchange sodium percentage (ESP), cation exchange capacity (CEC) and the electrical conductivity (EC). With this supervised information extraction method, the distribution of three different types of SAS (saline, saline-sodic, and sodic) was mapped with an accuracy of 91.07% for 2001 image and 73.21% for 2003 image. Change detection results confirmed a decreasing trend in non-saline and saline soil and an increase in saline-sodic and sodic soil. All seven Landsat images were subjected to the unsupervised classification method which resulted in maps that separate SAS according to their degree of

  16. Tree growth and recruitment in a leveed floodplain forest in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gee, Hugo K.W.; King, Sammy L.; Keim, Richard F.

    2014-01-01

    Flooding is a defining disturbance in floodplain forests affecting seed germination, seedling establishment, and tree growth. Globally, flood control, including artificial levees, dams, and channelization has altered flood regimes in floodplains. However, a paucity of data are available in regards to the long-term effects of levees on stand establishment and tree growth in floodplain forests. In this study, we used dendrochronological techniques to reconstruct tree recruitment and tree growth over a 90-year period at three stands within a ring levee in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV) and to evaluate whether recruitment patterns and tree growth changed following levee construction. We hypothesized that: (1) sugarberry is increasing in dominance and overcup oak (Quercus lyrata) is becoming less dominant since the levee, and that changes in hydrology are playing a greater role than canopy disturbance in these changes in species dominance; and (2) that overcup oak growth has declined following construction of the levee and cessation of overbank flooding whereas that of sugarberry has increased. Recruitment patterns shifted from flood-tolerant overcup oak to flood-intolerant sugarberry (Celtis laevigata) after levee construction. None of the 122 sugarberry trees cored in this study established prior to the levee, but it was the most common species established after the levee. The mechanisms behind the compositional change are unknown, however, the cosmopolitan distribution of overcup oak during the pre-levee period and sugarberry during the post-levee period, the lack of sugarberry establishment in the pre-levee period, and the confinement of overcup oak regeneration to the lowest areas in each stand after harvest in the post-levee period indicate that species-specific responses to flooding and light availability are forcing recruitment patterns. Overcup oak growth was also affected by levee construction, but in contrast to our hypothesis, growth actually

  17. Source attribution, physicochemical properties and spatial distribution of wet deposited mercury to the Ohio River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Emily Mae

    Mercury (Hg) is a bioaccumulative neurotoxin that is emitted from anthropogenic sources through fossil fuel combustion. The spatial scale of atmospheric transport prior to deposition is dependent on the chemical and physical form of Hg emissions, and has yet to be quantitatively defined. A five-year comprehensive Hg monitoring and source apportionment study was conducted in Steubenville, Ohio to investigate atmospheric Hg deposition to the highly industrialized Ohio River Valley region. Long-term event-precipitation measurements revealed a significant 30% to three-fold enrichment of Hg concentrations and total Hg deposition flux to the Steubenville site over other Great Lakes regional sites. Multivariate receptor models attributed ˜70% of Hg wet deposition to local coal combustion sources. While local stagnant atmospheric conditions led to moderately high volume-weighted mean Hg concentrations and the majority of Hg wet deposition flux, regional transport from the Chicago/Gary and Detroit/Windsor urban areas also led to elevated precipitation Hg concentrations, but did not contribute significantly to the overall Hg deposition. The degree of local source influence was established during a summertime field intensive study in which a local scale network of concurrently collected rain samples revealed that 42% of Hg wet deposition measured less than one km from the base of coal fired utilities could be attributed to the adjacent source, corresponding to 170% Hg concentration enhancement over regionally representative precipitation collected concurrently. In addition, 69+/-37% of the Hg collected in rain was in a soluble form, entering the precipitation as reactive gas phase or fine particle associated Hg. The Hg scavenging coefficient (rate of concentration reduction throughout a single precipitation event) was particularly low when compared to other trace elements. Furthermore, when compared to an upwind but non-locally source impacted site, the scavenging

  18. Geophysical Characterization for a CO2 Sequestration Potential in the Ohio River Valley Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, N.; Jagucki, P.; Meggyesy, D.; Janosy, R.; Sminchak, J.; Ramakrishan, T.; Boyd, A.

    2003-12-01

    A site at the American Electric Power's (AEP) Mountaineer Power Plant, WV in the Ohio River Valley in the Midwestern U.S., a region with the economy heavily dependent on fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and gas, is being evaluated to determine the potential for geologic sequestration. The project is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Battelle, AEP, BP, The Ohio Air Quality Development Office, and Schlumberger. The major objective of the current phase is to characterize the reservoir at the plant site. Future decisions with regard to CO2 injection will be subject to the evaluated reservoir properties. The effort includes acquisition of 2-dimensional seismic data, assessment of regional geology, drilling to PreCambrian rocks and formation analysis and testing in a 2,800 meters deep well, reservoir simulations, risk assessment, and stakeholder outreach. The test well reached total depth in summer 2003. Wireline logging and reservoir testing was performed for each section of the borehole, including extensive tests in the lowermost 885 meters to estimate formation properties and pressure gradients. The logs included gamma-ray, neutron and density, and array resistivity, magnetic resonance relaxation for permeability information, elemental composition via capture spectroscopy, and resistivity based formation image. The seismic survey was conducted over approximately 11 miles along 2 lines: one along strike and one along dip. The results of the geophysical surveys combined with the field observations provide an integrated assessment of the major injection parameters for the two main injection reservoirs of interest, the Rose Run Formation and the Lower Maryville formation. In addition, the properties of the potential caprock formations overlying the candidate injection zones were also determined. The results of this characterization will be presented with emphasis on geophysical testing and seismic survey. These results are also being used to conduct reservoir

  19. Regional economic analysis of current and proposed management alternatives for Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koontz, Lynne; Sexton, Natalie; Donovan, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    The National Wildlife Refuge System Improvement Act of 1997 requires all units of the National Wildlife Refuge System to be managed under a Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan must describe the desired future conditions of a refuge and provide long-range guidance and management direction to achieve refuge purposes. The Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge (refuge) is in the process of developing a range of management goals, objectives, and strategies for the Comprehensive Conservation Plan. The Comprehensive Conservation Plan for the refuge must contain an analysis of expected effects associated with current and proposed refuge management strategies. The purpose of this study was to assess the regional economic implications associated with draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan management strategies. Special interest groups and local residents often criticize a change in refuge management, especially if there is a perceived negative impact to the local economy. Having objective data on economic impacts may show that these fears are overstated. Quite often, the extent of economic benefits a refuge provides to a local community is not fully recognized, yet at the same time the effects of negative changes is overstated. Spending associated with refuge recreational activities, such as wildlife viewing and hunting, can generate considerable tourist activity for surrounding communities. Additionally, refuge personnel typically spend considerable amounts of money purchasing supplies in local stores, repairing equipment and purchasing fuel at the local service stations, and reside and spend their salaries in the local community. For refuge Comprehensive Conservation Plan planning, a regional economic assessment provides a means of estimating how current management (no action alternative) and proposed management activities (alternatives) could affect the local economy. This type of analysis provides two critical pieces of

  20. High-precision U-Pb geochronology in the Minnesota River Valley subprovince and its bearing on the Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic evolution of the southern Superior Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitz, M.D.; Bowring, S.A.; Southwick, D.L.; Boerboom, Terrence; Wirth, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    High-precision U-Pb ages have been obtained for high-grade gneisses, late-kinematic to postkinematic granitic plutons, and a crosscutting mafic dike of the Archean Minnesota River Valley tectonic subprovince, at the southern ramparts of the Superior craton of North America. The antiquity of the Minnesota River Valley terranes is confirmed by a high-precision U-Pb zircon age of 3422 ?? 2 Ma for a tonalitic phase of the Morton Gneiss. Voluminous, late-kinematic monzogranites of the Benson (Ortonville granite) and Morton (Sacred Heart granite) blocks yield identical crystallization ages of 2603 ?? 1 Ma, illustrating the synchrony and rapidity of deep crustal melting and plutonism throughout the Minnesota River Valley terranes. Postkinematic, 2591 ?? 2 Ma syenogranites and aplitic dikes in both blocks effectively constrain the final penetrative deformation of the Minnesota River Valley subprovince. Monazite growth from 2609 to 2595 Ma in granulitic paragneisses of the Benson and Montevideo blocks is interpreted to record prograde to peak granulite facies metamorphic conditions associated with crustal thickening and magmatism. Neoarchean metamorphism and plutonism are interpreted to record the timing of collisional accretion and terminal suturing of the Mesoarchean continental Minnesota River Valley terranes to the southern margin of the Superior Province, along the western Great Lakes tectonic zone. Subsequent Paleoproterozoic rifting of this margin is recorded by voluminous basaltic dike intrusion, expressed in the Minnesota River Valley by major WNW-trending tholeiitic diabase dikes dated at 2067 ?? 1 Ma, only slightly younger than the structurally and geochemically similar 2077 ?? 4 Ma Fort Frances (Kenora-Kabetogama) dike swarm of northern Minnesota and adjoining Canada. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  1. Particulate organic matter composition and organic carbon flux in Arctic valley glaciers: examples from the Bayelva River and adjacent Kongsfjorden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.-Y.; Wu, Y.; Liu, S.-M.; Wenger, F.; Hu, J.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.-F.

    2015-09-01

    In the face of ongoing global warming and glacier retreat, the composition and flux of organic matter in glacier-fjord systems are key variables for updating the carbon cycle and budget, whereas the role of Arctic valley glaciers seems unimportant when compared with the huge Greenland Ice Sheet. Our field observations of the glacier-fed Bayelva River, Svalbard, and the adjacent Kongsfjorden allowed us to determine the compositions of particulate organic matter from glacier to fjord and also to estimate the flux of organic carbon, both for the river and for Svalbard in general. Particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Bayelva River averaged 56 and 73 μM, respectively, in August 2012. Amino acids (AAs) and phytoplankton pigments accounted for ~ 10 % of the particulate organic matter (POM) in the Bayelva River, while AAs represented > 90 % of particulate nitrogen in fjord surface water, suggesting the strong in situ assimilation of organic matter. Bacteria accounts for 13 and 19 % of the POC in the Bayelva River and the Kongsfjorden, respectively, while values for particulate nitrogen (PN) are much higher (i.e., 36 % in Kongsfjorden). The total discharge from the Bayelva River in 2012 was 29 × 106 m3. Furthermore, we calculated the annual POC, DOC, and PN fluxes for the river as 20 ± 1.6, 25 ± 5.6, and 4.7 ± 0.75 t, respectively. Using the POC content and DOC concentration data, we then estimated the annual POC and DOC fluxes for Svalbard glaciers. Although the estimated POC (0.056 ± 0.02 × 106 t yr-1) and DOC (0.02 ± 0.01 × 106 t yr-1) fluxes of Svalbard glaciers are small compared with those of the Greenland Ice Sheet, the area-weighted POC flux of Svalbard glaciers is twice that of the Greenland Ice Sheet, while the flux of DOC can be 4 to 7 times higher. Therefore, we propose that valley glaciers are efficient high-latitude sources of organic carbon.

  2. Hydrogeology of the Susquehanna River valley-fill aquifer system and adjacent areas in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heisig, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The hydrogeology of the valley-fill aquifer system along a 32-mile reach of the Susquehanna River valley and adjacent areas was evaluated in eastern Broome and southeastern Chenango Counties, New York. The surficial geology, inferred ice-marginal positions, and distribution of stratified-drift aquifers were mapped from existing data. Ice-marginal positions, which represent pauses in the retreat of glacial ice from the region, favored the accumulation of coarse-grained deposits whereas more steady or rapid ice retreat between these positions favored deposition of fine-grained lacustrine deposits with limited coarse-grained deposits at depth. Unconfined aquifers with thick saturated coarse-grained deposits are the most favorable settings for water-resource development, and three several-mile-long sections of valley were identified (mostly in Broome County) as potentially favorable: (1) the southernmost valley section, which extends from the New York–Pennsylvania border to about 1 mile north of South Windsor, (2) the valley section that rounds the west side of the umlaufberg (an isolated bedrock hill within a valley) north of Windsor, and (3) the east–west valley section at the Broome County–Chenango County border from Nineveh to East of Bettsburg (including the lower reach of the Cornell Brook valley). Fine-grained lacustrine deposits form extensive confining units between the unconfined areas, and the water-resource potential of confined aquifers is largely untested. Recharge, or replenishment, of these aquifers is dependent not only on infiltration of precipitation directly on unconfined aquifers, but perhaps more so from precipitation that falls in adjacent upland areas. Surface runoff and shallow groundwater from the valley walls flow downslope and recharge valley aquifers. Tributary streams that drain upland areas lose flow as they enter main valleys on permeable alluvial fans. This infiltrating water also recharges valley aquifers. Current (2012) use of

  3. Holocene ethnobotanical and paleoecological record of human impact on vegetation in the Little Tennessee River Valley, Tennessee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcourt, Paul A.; Delcourt, Hazel R.; Cridlebaugh, Patricia A.; Chapman, Jefferson

    1986-05-01

    Human occupation and utilization of plant resources have affected vegetation in the lower Little Tennessee River Valley of East Tennessee for 10,000 yr. Changes in Indian cultures and land use are documented by radiocarbon chronologies, lithic artifacts, ceramics, settlement patterns, and ethnobotanical remains from 25 stratified archaeological sites within the Holocene alluvial terrace. The ethnobotanical record consists of 31,500 fragments (13.7 kg) of wood charcoal identified to species and 7.7 kg of carbonized fruits, seeds, nutshells, and cultigens from 956 features. Pollen and plant macrofossils from small ponds both in the uplands and on lower stream terraces record local vegetational changes through the last 1500 to 3000 yr. Human impact increased after cultigens, including squash and gourd, were introduced ca. 4000 yr B.P. during the Archaic cultural period. Forest clearance and cultivation disturbed vegetation on both the floodplain and lower terraces after 2800 yr B.P., during the Woodland period. Permanent Indian settlements and maize and bean agriculture extended to higher terraces 1.5 km from the floodplain by the Mississippian period (1000 to 300 yr B.P.). After 300 yr B.P., extensive land clearance and cultivation by Historic Overhill Cherokee and Euro-Americans spread into the uplands beyond the river valley.

  4. Evidence for synsedimentary coseismic hydraulic fracturing in the Middle Devonian Cedar Valley Group, Plum River Fault Zone of Iowa

    SciTech Connect

    Ludvigson, G.A.; Gonzalez, L.A.; Faulds, J.E. )

    1993-03-01

    Correspondence between the Plum River Fault Zone and stratigraphic asymmetry the Middle Devonian Wapsipinicon and Cedar Valley groups in eastern Iowa have long been considered to record probable paleotectonism. Mesoscopic evidence for Devonian paleotectonism is exposed in strata of the Rapid Mbr of the Little Cedar Fm (Givetian) at the Silver Creek Graben, a 150 m-wide fault block within the Plum River Fault zone in southern Jackson county, Iowa. Little Cedar limestones are cut by multiple generations of brittle microstructures including compound sediment/spar-filled veins, tectonic stylolites that cut bedding at high angles, and late calcite veins coupled with stylolites. Internal sediments filling compound veins are preserved as unfossiliferous early gray and late olive-colored inclusion-rich microspars, both with mottled luminescence. Inclusions in the microspars consist of detrital illite and diagenetic microdolomite. Spars enclosing the internal sediments have a constructional oscillatory luminescent-nonluminescent zonation. Internal sediments in compound veins at Silver Creek Graben apparently were drawn downward through 15--30 m of overlying Cedar Valley carbonates to fill dilational fractures opened by coseismic hydraulic fracturing during the late Givetian erosional episode that followed deposition of the Coralville Fm. Preliminary sampling of cements and gray microspars from compound veins have [delta][sup 18]O values ranging from [minus]6 to [minus]5 [per thousand] and [delta][sup 13]C values ranging from [minus]6.5 to [minus]3 [per thousand]. These components are interpreted to record diagenesis in a meteoric phreatic environment.

  5. Aquifer-test results, direction of ground-water flow, and 1984-90 annual ground-water pumpage for irrigation, lower Big Lost River Valley, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bassick, M.D.; Jones, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    The study area (see index map of Idaho), part of the Big Lost River drainage basin, is at the northern side of the eastern Snake River Plain. The lower Big Lost River Valley extends from the confluence of Antelope Creek and the Big Lost River to about 4 mi south of Arco and encompasses about 145 mi2 (see map showing water-level contours). The study area is about 18 mi long and, at its narrowest, 4 mi wide. Arco, Butte City, and Moore, with populations of 1,016, 59, and 190, respectively, in 1990, are the only incorporated towns. The entire study area, except the extreme northwestern part, is in Butte City. The study area boundary is where alluvium and colluvium pinch out and abut against the White Knob Mountains (chiefly undifferentiated sedimentary rock with lesser amounts of volcanic rock) on the west and the Lost River Range (chiefly sedimentary rock) on the east. Gravel and sand in the valley fill compose the main aquifer. The southern boundary is approximately where Big Lost River valley fill intercalates with or abuts against basalt of the Snake River Group. Spring ground-water levels and flow in the Big Lost River depend primarily on temperature and the amount and timing of precipitation within the entire drainage basin. Periods of abundant water supply and water shortages are, therefore, related to the amount of annual precipitation. Surface reservoir capacity in the valley (Mackay Reservoir, about 20 mi northwest of Moore) is only 20 percent of the average annual flow of the Big Lost River (Crosthwaite and others, 1970, p. 3). Stored surface water is generally unavailable for carryover from years of abundant water supply to help relieve drought conditions in subsequent years. Many farmers have drilled irrigation wells to supplement surface-water supplies and to increase irrigated acreage. Average annual flow of the Big Lost River below Mackay Reservoir near Mackay (gaging station 13127000, not shown) in water years 1905, 1913-14, and 1920-90 was about 224

  6. Hydrological role of large icings within glacierized Sub-Arctic watershed: case study in Upper Duke River valley, Yukon, Canada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesnokova, Anna; Baraer, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Sub-Arctic glacierized catchments are complex hydrological systems of paramount importance for water resources management as well as for various ecosystem services. Such systems host many climate-sensitive water sources. Among those, icing is an important component as they provide substantial amount of water during the melt season. Moreover, collecting water of different origins during their formation, icings can be seen as an indicator for different water sources and water pathways that remain active during the freezing period. The present study focuses on genesis and dynamics of large icings within both proglacial field and neighboring alpine meadow in Upper Duke River valley, Yukon, in order to i) provide new insights on water sources and pathways within Sub-Arctic glacierized watersheds, and ii) to quantify contribution of icings to the total runoff of those hydrological systems. A multi-approach technique was applied to cope with the high hydrological complexity met in Sub-Arctic mountainous environments. Time series of positions of large river icings within the study area were obtained using Landsat images for the period 1980-2016. Four time-lapse cameras (TLC) were installed in the watershed targeting two proglacial fields and two alpine meadows in order to monitor icing dynamics all year long. Meteorological data was measured by an Automatic Weather Station in the main valley. In addition air temperature and relative humidity were measured at the location of each TLC. Finally, four icings along the Duke River valley, as well as 2 icings in its main tributary were sampled for stable water isotopes, solutes concentrations and total organic carbon. In addition, samples of freezing exclusion precipitates from icing surfaces were taken. Remote sensing data shows the persistence of large icing complexes in the area during last 30 years: icing within proglacial field appear with almost constant position relative to main glacier tongue on the 30 years long period

  7. Morphogenetic evolution of the Têt river valley (eastern Pyrenees) using 10Be/21Ne cosmogenic burial dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartégou, Amandine; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Calvet, Marc; Zimmermann, Laurent; Tibari, Bouchaïb; Hez, Gabriel; Gunnell, Yanni; Aumaitre, Georges; Keddadouche, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The rates and chronologies of valley incision are closely modulated by the tectonic uplift of active mountain ranges and were controlled by repeated climate changes during the Quaternary. The continental collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates induced a double vergence orogen, the Pyrenees, which has been considered as a mature mountain range in spite of significant seismicity (e.g. Chevrot et al., 2011) and evidence of neotectonics (e.g. Goula et al., 1999). Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that the range may have never reached a steady state (Ford et al., in press). One option for resolving this controversy is to quantify the incision rates since the Miocene by reconstructing the vertical movement of geometric markers such as fluvial terraces. However, the few available ages from the Pyrenean terrace systems do not exceed the middle Pleistocene. Thus, to enlarge the time span of this dataset, we studied alluvium-filled horizontal epiphreatic passages in limestone karstic networks. Such landforms are used as substitutes of fluvial terraces because they represent former valley floors (e.g. Palmer, 2007; Audra et al., 2013). They record the transient position of former local base levels during the process of valley deepening. The Têt river valley (southern Pyrenees) was studied near the Villefranche-de-Conflent limestone gorge where 8 cave levels have been recognized over a vertical height of 600 meters. Given that 26Al/10Be cosmogenic burial dating in this setting was limited to the last ~5 Ma (Calvet et al., 2015), here we used the cosmogenic 10Be/21Ne method in order to restore a more complete chronology of valley incision (e.g. Balco & Shuster, 2009; McPhilipps et al., 2016). Burial age results for alluvial deposits from 12 caves document incision rates since the Langhian (~14 Ma). Preliminary results indicate a history of valley deepening in successive stages. The data show a regular incision rate of 70-80 mm/a from the Langhian to the Messinian

  8. Pre-and post-Missoula flood geomorphology of the Pre-Holocene ancestral Columbia River Valley in the Portland forearc basin, Oregon and Washington, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Curt D.; Minor, Rick; Peterson, Gary L.; Gates, Edward B.

    2011-06-01

    Geomorphic landscape development in the pre-Holocene ancestral Columbia River Valley (1-5 km width) in the Portland forearc basin (~ 50 km length) is established from depositional sequences, which pre-date and post-date the glacial Lake Missoula floods. The sequences are observed from selected borehole logs (150 in number) and intact terrace soil profiles (56 in number) in backhoe trenches. Four sequences are widespread, including (1) a vertically aggraded Pleistocene alluvial plain, (2) a steep sided valley that is incised (125-150 m) into the Pleistocene gravel plain, (3) Missoula flood terraces (19-13 ka) abandoned on the sides of the ancestral valley, and (4) Holocene flooding surfaces (11-8 ka) buried at 70-30 m depth in the axial Columbia River Valley. Weathering rims and cementation are used for relative dating of incised Pleistocene gravel units. Soil development on the abandoned Missoula flood terraces is directly related to terrace deposit lithology, including thin Bw horizons in gravel, irregular podzols in sand, and multiple Bw horizons in thicker loess-capping layers. Radiocarbon dating of sand and mud alluvium in the submerged axial valley ties Holocene flooding surfaces to a local sea level curve and establishes Holocene sedimentation rates of 1.5 cm year- 1 during 11-9 ka and 0.3 cm year- 1 during 9-0 ka. The sequences of Pleistocene gravel aggradation, river valley incision, cataclysmic Missoula flooding, and Holocene submergence yield complex geomorphic landscapes in the ancestral lower Columbia River Valley.

  9. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, 2007-California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Montrella, Joseph; Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit contains eight groundwater basins located in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties and is within the Transverse and Selected Peninsular Ranges hydrogeologic province. The Santa Clara River Valley study unit was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of untreated (raw) groundwater in the primary aquifer system. The assessment is based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2007 by the USGS from 42 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and on water-quality data from the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database. The primary aquifer system was defined as that part of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforation intervals of wells listed in the CDPH database for the Santa Clara River Valley study unit. The quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in shallow or deep water-bearing zones; for example, shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. Eleven additional wells were sampled by the USGS to improve understanding of factors affecting water quality.The status assessment of the quality of the groundwater used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents, such as major ions and trace elements. The status assessment is intended to characterize the quality of untreated groundwater resources in the primary aquifers of the Santa Clara River Valley study unit

  10. Geochemistry of the Onyx River (Wright Valley, Antarctica) and its role in the chemical evolution of Lake Vanda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, William J.; Canfield, Donald E.

    1984-12-01

    The Onyx River (Wright Valley, Antarctica) is a dilute meltwater stream originating in the vicinity of the Wright Lower Glacier. It acquires a significant fraction of its salt content when glacial meltwaters contact Wright Valley soils at Lake Brownworth and the concentrations of all ions increase with distance along the 28-km channel down to Lake Vanda. Average millimolar concentrations of major ions at the Vanda weir during the 1980-1981 flow season were: Ca = 0.119; Mg = 0.061; Na = 0.212; K = 0.033; Q = 0.212; SO4 = 0.045; HCO3 = 0.295; and SiO2 = 0.049. Based on the flow measurements of Chinn (1982), this amounts to an annual flux (in moles) to Lake Vanda of: Ca = 0.238 × 10 6; Mg = 0.122 × 10 6; Na = 0.424 × 10 6; K = 0.066 × 10 6; Cl = 0.424 × 10 6; SO4 = 0.09 × 10 6; HCO3 = 0.59 × 10 6; SiO2 = 0.098 × 10 6. In spite of the large salt input from this source, equilibrium evaporation of Onyx River water would have resulted in early calcite deposition and in the formation of a Na-Mg-Cl-HCO 3 brine rather than in the Ca-Na-Mg-Cl waters observed in Lake Vanda. The river alone could not have produced a brine having the qualitative geochemical features of the lower saline waters of Lake Vanda. It is proposed that the Vanda brine is instead the result of past ( > 1200 yrs BP) mixing events between Onyx River inflows and calcium chloride-rich deep groundwaters derived from the Don Juan Basin. The mixing model presented here shows that the Onyx River is the major contributor of K, HCO 3, SO 4, and (possibly) Mg found in the lake and a significant contributor (approximately one half) of the observed Na. Calcium and Cl, on the other hand, came largely from deep groundwater sources in the Don Juan Basin. All concentrations except Mg are well predicted by this model. The chemical composition of the geologically recent upper lake is explained in terms of ionic diffusion from the pre-formed brine, coupled with Onyx River inflow. Ionic ratios calculated from this

  11. Hydrology and model of North Fork Solomon River Valley, Kirwin Dam to Waconda Lake, north-central Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, Donald G.; Stullken, Lloyd E.

    1981-01-01

    The alluvial valley of the North Fork Solomon River is an important agricultural area. Reservoir releases diverted below Kirwin Dam are the principal source of irrigation water. During the 1970'S, severe water shortages occurred in Kirwin Reservoir and other nearby reservoirs as a result of an extended drought. Some evidence indicates that surface-water shortages may have been the result of a change in the rainfall-runoff relationship. Examination of the rainfall-runoff relationship shows no apparent trend from 1951 to 1968, but annual records from 1969 to 1976 indicate that deficient rainfall occurred during 6 of the 8 years. Ground water from the alluvial aquifer underlying the river valley also is used extensively for irrigation. Utilization of ground water for irrigation greatly increased from about 200 acre-feet in 1955 to about 12,300 acre-feet in 1976. Part of the surface water diverted for irrigation has percolated downward into the aquifer raising the ground-water level. Ground-water storage in the aquifer increased from 230,000 acre-feet in 1946 to 275,000 acre-feet in 1976-77. A digital model was used to simulate the steady-state conditions in the aquifer prior to closure of Kirwin Dam. Model results indicated that precipitation was the major source of recharge to the aquifer. The effective recharge, or gain from precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was about 11,700 acre-feet per year. The major element of discharge from the aquifer was leakage to the river. The simulated net leakage (leakage to the river minus leakage from the river) was about 11,500 acre-feet per year. The simulated value is consistent with the estimated gain in base flow of the river within the area modeled. Measurements of seepage used to determine gain and loss to the stream were made twice during 1976. Based on these measurements and on base-flow periods identified from hydrographs, it was estimated that the ground-water discharge to the stream has increased about 4,000 acre

  12. Availability of ground water for large-scale use in the Malad Valley-Bear River areas of southeastern Idaho: an initial assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, W.L.; Harder, A.H.; Dion, N.P.

    1969-01-01

    Five areas within the Bear River drainage of southeastern Idaho offer potential for further development of ground water--the valley north of Bear Lake, north of Soda Springs, Gem Valley, Cache Valley in Idaho, and Malad Valley in Idaho. Saturated deposits north of Bear Lake are too fine-textured to yield large quantities to wells; the areas north of Soda Springs and in Gem Valley would provide large yields, but at the expense of current beneficial discharge. Northern Cache Valley has small areas of high yield in the northwestern part, but total annual yield would be only about 20,000 acre-feet and seasonal water-level fluctuation would be large. Malad Valley contains a large aquifer system within valley fill underlying about 75 square miles. The aquifer system is several hundred feet thick, and contains about 1.8 million acre-feet of water in storage in the top 300 feet of saturated thickness. Average annual recharge to the valley-fill aquifer is about 64,000 acre-feet. Lowering of the water level 100 feet uniformly over the valley area would theoretically yield about 300,000 acre-feet from storage and salvage a present-day large nonbeneficial discharge. Sufficient water to irrigate all lands in a planned project near Samaria could be pumped with a maximum 200-foot pumping lift and then delivered by gravity flow. Such pumping would cause water-level lowering of a few feet to a few tens of feet in present artesian areas, and would cause many present-day artesian wells to cease flowing at land surface. Chemical-quality problems in Malad Valley seem not to be sufficient to prohibit development and use of the ground-water resource.

  13. THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1

  14. Pinedale glacial history of the upper Arkansas River valley: New moraine chronologies, modeling results, and geologic mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinsberg, Avriel D.; Briner, Jason P.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Licciardi, Joseph M.; Leonard, Eric M.; Brugger, Keith A.; Russell, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    This field-trip guide outlines the glacial history of the upper Arkansas River valley, Colorado, and builds on a previous GSA field trip to the area in 2010. The following will be presented: (1) new cosmogenic 10Be exposure ages of moraine boulders from the Pinedale and Bull Lake glaciations (Marine Isotope Stages 2 and 6, respectively) located adjacent to the Twin Lakes Reservoir, (2) numerical modeling of glaciers during the Pinedale glaciation in major tributaries draining into the upper Arkansas River, (3) discharge estimates for glacial-lake outburst floods in the upper Arkansas River valley, and (4) 10Be ages on flood boulders deposited downvalley from the moraine sequences. This research was stimulated by a new geologic map of the Granite 7.5′ quadrangle, in which the mapping of surficial deposits was revised based in part on the interpretation of newly acquired LiDAR data and field investigations. The new 10Be ages of the Pinedale terminal moraine at Twin Lakes average 21.8 ± 0.7 ka (n = 14), which adds to nearby Pinedale terminal moraine ages of 23.6 ± 1.4 ka (n = 5), 20.5 ± 0.2 ka (n = 3), and 16.6 ± 1.0 ka (n = 7), and downvalley outburst flood terraces that date to 20.9 ± 0.9 ka (n = 4) and 19.0 ± 0.6 ka (n = 4). This growing chronology leads to improved understanding of the controls and timing of glaciation in the western United States, the modeling of glacial-lake outburst flooding, and the reconstruction of paleotemperature through glacier modeling.

  15. Crustal anisotropy in the Archean Minnesota River Valley Subprovince and its significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebelin, A.; Ferre, E. C.; Teyssier, C.

    2007-12-01

    The origin and evolution of the American continental lithosphere is a key question addressed by EarthScope. The Superior Province formed as an amalgamation of Archean/ Proterozoic terranes that subsequently acted as a stabilizing nucleus. This province is characterized by a strong seismic anisotropy (SWS = 1.3 s) of unknown origin. As suggested for the Archean Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa), this could be attributed (1) to current asthenospheric flow, or (2) to fossil lithospheric anisotropy, or (3) to the role of lithospheric keels on modern asthenospheric flow. The first hypothesis is not favored because SWS data for the Superior Province do not fit global mantle flow models. The second hypothesis would be compatible with obliquity between lithospheric mantle and crustal seismic anisotropies, possibly due to oblique docking. The third hypothesis would require asthenospheric flow to be controlled by lithospheric block geometry. The origin of seismic anisotropy and its spatial variations need to be determined to test these hypotheses. The deployment of USArray in the Superior Province in FY10, along with the prospect of deployment of a Flexible Array and the GeoFrame Superior focus area should provide a wealth of seismic data. Yet, the contribution of the Archean-early Proterozoic continental crust to seismic anisotropy is unknown. This study focusses on the Minnesota River Valley (MRV) Subprovince, part of the Superior Province. The MRV Subprovince consists of four juxtaposed blocks (Benson, Montevideo, Morton and Jeffers) of amphibolite to granulite grade migmatites, tonalites, granodiorites, diorites and pelitic rocks interlayered into each other. These blocks are separated by EW-dipping shear zones broadly parallel to SWS observations. In other parts of the world, the crustal seismic anisotropy is generally considered to be modest (SWS = 0.1-0.2 s), although experiments specifically designed to constrain it are scarce. The MRV represents a 200 km-wide, tilted

  16. Building sustainable communities using sense of place indicators in three Hudson River Valley, NY, tourism destinations: An application of the limits of acceptable change process

    Treesearch

    Laura E. Sullivan; Rudy M. Schuster; Diane M. Kuehn; Cheryl S. Doble; Duarte. Morais

    2010-01-01

    This study explores whether measures of residents' sense of place can act as indicators in the Limits of Acceptable Change (LAC) process to facilitate tourism planning and management. Data on community attributes valued by residents and the associated values and meanings were collected through focus groups with 27 residents in three Hudson River Valley, New York,...

  17. Transformation of a landscape in the upper mid-west, USA: The history of the St. Croix river valley, 1830 to present

    Treesearch

    Osh (Barbara) Andersen; Thomas R. Crow; Sue M. Lietz; Forest Stearns

    1996-01-01

    Learning the history of a landscape is critical to understanding present land-use patterns. We document the history of landscape change in the lower St. Croix River valley from 1830 to the present. Significant changes in land use and cover have occurred during this time. Because of the convergence of prairie, savanna and forest vegetation in this area, and because of...

  18. The Politics of Place: Official, Intermediate and Community Discourses in Depopulated Rural Areas of Central Spain. The Case of the Riaza River Valley (Segovia, Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Angel

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides theoretical and methodological arguments to study the politics of space in small marginal and depopulated areas of Spain. The case for research is the Riaza river valley in the province of Segovia. Usually the analysis of rural space (and the geographical space in general) provides opposing presentations: vertical, between…

  19. The Politics of Place: Official, Intermediate and Community Discourses in Depopulated Rural Areas of Central Spain. The Case of the Riaza River Valley (Segovia, Spain)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paniagua, Angel

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides theoretical and methodological arguments to study the politics of space in small marginal and depopulated areas of Spain. The case for research is the Riaza river valley in the province of Segovia. Usually the analysis of rural space (and the geographical space in general) provides opposing presentations: vertical, between…

  20. Processes of Terrace Formation on the Piedmont of the Santa Cruz River Valley During Quaternary Time, Green Valley-Tubac Area, Southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2010-01-01

    In this report we describe a series of stepped Quaternary terraces on some piedmont tributaries of the Santa Cruz River valley in southeastern Arizona. These terraces began to form in early Pleistocene time, after major basin-and-range faulting ceased, with lateral planation of basin fill and deposition of thin fans of alluvium. At the end of this cycle of erosion and deposition, tributaries of the Santa Cruz River began the process of dissection and terrace formation that continues to the present. Vertical cutting alternated with periods of equilibrium, during which streams cut laterally and left thin deposits of channel fill. The distribution of terraces was mapped and compiled with adjacent mapping to produce a regional picture of piedmont stream history in the middle part of the Santa Cruz River valley. For selected tributaries, the thickness of terrace fill was measured, particle size and lithology of gravel were determined, and sedimentary features were photographed and described. Mapping of terrace stratigraphy revealed that on two tributaries, Madera Canyon Wash and Montosa Canyon Wash, stream piracy has played an important role in piedmont landscape development. On two other tributaries, Cottonwood Canyon Wash and Josephine Canyon Wash, rapid downcutting preempted piracy. Two types of terraces are recognized: erosional and depositional. Gravel in thin erosional terraces has Trask sorting coefficients and sedimentary structures typical of streamflood deposits, replete with bar-and-swale surface topography on young terraces. Erosional-terrace fill represents the channel fill of the stream that cuts the terrace; the thickness of the fill indicates the depth of channel scour. In contrast to erosional terraces, depositional terraces show evidence of repeated deposition and net aggradation, as indicated by their thickness (as much as 20+ m) and weakly bedded structure. Depositional terraces are common below mountain-front canyon mouths where streams drop their

  1. A luminescence dating study of the sediment stratigraphy of the Lajia Ruins in the upper Yellow River valley, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuzhu; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zhou, Yali; Zha, Xiaochun; Wang, Longsheng; Zhou, Liang; Guo, Yongqiang; Wang, Leibin

    2014-06-01

    Pedo-sedimentological fieldwork were carried out in the Lajia Ruins within the Guanting Basin along the upper Yellow River valley. In the eolian loess-soil sections on the second river terrace in the Lajia Ruins, we find that the land of the Qijia Culture (4.20-3.95 ka BP) are fractured by several sets of earthquake fissures. A conglomerated red clay covers the ground of the Qijia Culture and also fills in the earthquake fissures. The clay was deposited by enormous mudflows in association with catastrophic earthquakes and rainstorms. The aim of this study is to provide a luminescence chronology of the sediment stratigraphy of the Lajia Ruins. Eight samples were taken from an eolian loess-soil section (Xialajia section) in the ruins for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. The OSL ages are in stratigraphic order and range from (31.94 ± 1.99) ka to (0.76 ± 0.02) ka. Combined OSL and 14C ages with additional stratigraphic correlations, a chronological framework is established. We conclude that: (1) the second terrace of the upper part of Yellow River formed 35.00 ka ago, which was followed by the accumulation of the eolian loess-soil section; and (2) the eolian loess-soil section is composed of the Malan Loess of the late last glacial (MIS-2) and Holocene loess-soil sequences.

  2. Hydrogeologic for the Saco River valley glacial aquifer from Bartlett, New Hampshire to Fryeburg, Maine; October 1983 through January 1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.D.; Tepper, D.H.; Morrissey, D.J.

    1987-01-01

    Hydrogeologic data was collected for a study of the Saco River valley glacial aquifer. The study area extends along the Saco River from Bartlett, New Hampshire to Fryeburg, Maine. The study was done in cooperation with the Maine Geological Survey (Department of Conservation), the New Hampshire Water Supply and Pollution Control Commission, the New Hampshire Water Resources Board, and the Town of Conway, New Hampshire. The data include information on 54 well-inventory sites, 69 exploration-hole logs , analyses of grain-size distribution in 130 samples of glacial sediments, monthly water-table measurements in 100 wells, and continuous water-table measurements in 7 wells. Discharge data are presented from 6 stream-gaging stations operated for this study during the 1984 and 1985 water years. Data from 50 sets of seepage runs and 15 miscellaneous discharge measurements conducted on the mainstream of the Saco River and on 7 tributary streams during the 1984 and 1985 water years are also presented. Water quality analyses of groundwater samples from 92 sites and surface water samples from 12 sites are presented. Field determinations include pH, temperature, and specific conductance. Laboratory determinations include nutrients, common inorganic anions and cations, selected volatile organic compounds, and detergents. Maps show the locations of data-collection sites. (USGS)

  3. Tectonic controls upon Kaveri River drainage, cratonic Peninsular India: Inferences from longitudinal profiles, morphotectonic indices, hanging valleys and fluvial records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kale, Vishwas S.; Sengupta, Somasis; Achyuthan, Hema; Jaiswal, Manoj K.

    2014-12-01

    The Indian Peninsula is generally considered as a tectonically stable region, where ancient rocks, rivers and land surfaces predominate. In some parts of this ancient landscape, however, the role of tectonic landsculpting is strongly indicated by the presence of youthful topography and historical seismic activity. The present study is primarily focused on the middle domain of the Kaveri River, which displays such youthful features. The tectonic controls on this cratonic river were evaluated on the basis of the investigations of the longitudinal profiles, morphotectonic indices of active tectonics, and fluvial records. The presence of steep channel gradients, prominent knickpoints, hanging valleys, narrow bedrock gorges, and channel-in-channel morphology imply rapid erosion rates in the middle domain of the basin in response to active deformation, particularly in the reach defined by two major active faults - the Kollegal-Sivasamudram Fault and the Mekedatu Fault. Further, considering the remarkably low modern and long-term denudation rates and OSL ages of the alluvial deposits (30-40 ka), the tectonically-driven rejuvenation does not appear to be geologically recent as postulated by earlier workers.

  4. Quality of groundwater and surface water, Wood River Valley, south-central Idaho, July and August 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, Candice B.; Bartolino, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Residents and resource managers of the Wood River Valley of south-central Idaho are concerned about the effects that population growth might have on the quality of groundwater and surface water. As part of a multi-phase assessment of the groundwater resources in the study area, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated the quality of water at 45 groundwater and 5 surface-water sites throughout the Wood River Valley during July and August 2012. Water samples were analyzed for field parameters (temperature, pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and alkalinity), major ions, boron, iron, manganese, nutrients, and Escherichia coli (E.coli) and total coliform bacteria. This study was conducted to determine baseline water quality throughout the Wood River Valley, with special emphasis on nutrient concentrations. Water quality in most samples collected did not exceed U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water. E. coli bacteria, used as indicators of water quality, were detected in all five surface-water samples and in two groundwater samples collected. Some analytes have aesthetic-based recommended drinking water standards; one groundwater sample exceeded recommended iron concentrations. Nitrate plus nitrite concentrations varied, but tended to be higher near population centers and in agricultural areas than in tributaries and less populated areas. These higher nitrate plus nitrite concentrations were not correlated with boron concentrations or the presence of bacteria, common indicators of sources of nutrients to water. None of the samples collected exceeded drinking-water standards for nitrate or nitrite. The concentration of total dissolved solids varied considerably in the waters sampled; however a calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate water type was dominant (43 out of 50 samples) in both the groundwater and surface water. Three constituents that may be influenced by anthropogenic activity (chloride, boron, and nitrate plus nitrite) deviate from this

  5. Role of palaeolake deposits along the Indus river valley as archives in reconstruction of palaeoclimate variability and neotectonic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NAG, D.; Phartiyal, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Indus river valley in Ladakh, Trans-himalaya flows along the Indus Suture Zone and lies in the transitional zone of Indian Summer Monsoon and Westerlies. Situated in a tectonically and climatically sensitive domain, changes associated with these forms major driving factors in the landscape evolution. The Indus river valley hosts a number of archives attesting these climatic variations and provides one of the best laboratories to study past climate changes. Palaeolacustrine sediments selected for the present study are scattered along the entire river valley (a stretch of 225 km from Leh to Batalik) formed as a consequence of tectono-climatic disturbances. Formation of these deposits at different stratigraphic levels and their chronology established by 14C AMS and OSL dating denote formation of lake during different time phases. The lake sequences are comprised of variations in sand, silt and clay percentage and lack biotic proxies. High resolution multi proxy studies (magnetic parameters, grain size properties, TOC) of these sedimentary sequences are carried out to reveal palaeoclimate changes. Low magnetic susceptibilty, χARM, S- Ratio, finer grain size, negative skewness value, extremely leptokurtic nature of sediments and increasing TOC is coeval with high lake levels, an indication of amelioriation of climate. Detailed mapping, chronology and multi- proxy study suggest three phases of lake formation viz Lamayuru palaeolake ( 35-26 ka), Rizong palaeolake ( 17-13 ka) and Khalsi-Saspol palaeolake (14-5 ka). Tectonics apart from climatic changes also plays an important role in the development as well as breaching of these lakes. Presence of Spituk palaeolake (Area: 235 km2 ; length: 40 km) and Khalsi-Saspol palaeolake (370 km2 and 55 km long) in the vicinity if Choksti thrust and Dumkar fault respectively established on the basis of morphometric analysis and distribution of seismites in palaeolake sequences at Spituk, Gupuk, Khalsi, Bhima and Hanuthang

  6. Afforestation of marginal agricultural land in the lower Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, U.S.A.

    Treesearch

    John A. Stanturf; Callie J. Schweitzer; Emile S. Gardiner

    1998-01-01

    Afforestation of marginal agricultural land in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) relies on native species, planted mostly in single-species plantations. Hard mast species such as oak and pecan are favored for their value to wildlife, especially on public land. Successful afforestation requires an understanding of site variation within floodplains and...

  7. Fluvial terraces of the Little River Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain, North Carolina

    Treesearch

    Bradley Suther; David Leigh; George Brook

    2011-01-01

    An optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) and radiocarbon chronology is presented for fluvial terraces of the Little River, a tributary to the Cape Fear River that drains 880 km2 of the Sandhills Province of the upper Coastal Plain of North Carolina. This study differs from previous work in the southeastern Atlantic Coastal Plain in that numerical age estimates are...

  8. Chemistry, mineralogy and origin of the clay-hill nitrate deposits, Amargosa River valley, Death Valley region, California, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, G.E.; Hosterman, J.W.; St., Amand

    1988-01-01

    The clay-hill nitrate deposits of the Amargosa River valley, California, are caliche-type accumulations of water-soluble saline minerals in clay-rich soils on saline lake beds of Miocene, Pliocene(?) and Pleistocene age. The soils have a maximum thickness of ??? 50 cm, and commonly consist of three layers: (1) an upper 5-10 cm of saline-free soil; (2) an underlying 15-20 cm of rubbly saline soil; and (3) a hard nitrate-rich caliche, 10-20 cm thick, at the bottom of the soil profile. The saline constituents, which make up as much as 50% of the caliche, are chiefly Cl-, NO-3, SO2-4 and Na+. In addition are minor amounts of K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+, varying, though generally minor, amounts of B2O3 and CO2-3, and trace amounts of I (probably as IO-3), NO-2, CrO2-4 and Mo (probably as MoO2-4). The water-soluble saline materials have an I/Br ratio of ??? 1, which is much higher than nearly all other saline depostis. The principal saline minerals of the caliche are halite (NaCl), nitratite (NaNO3), darapskite (Na3(SO4)(NO3)??H2O), glauberite (Na2Ca(SO4)2), gypsum (CaSO4??2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4). Borax (Na2B4O5(OH)4??8H2O), tincalconite (Na2B4O5(OH)4??3H2O) and trona (Na3(CO3)(HCO3)??2H2O) are abundant locally. The clay-hill nitrate deposits are analogous to the well-known Chilean nitrate deposits, and probably are of similar origin. Whereas the Chilean deposits are in permeable soils of the nearly rainless Atacama Desert, the clay-hill deposits are in relatively impervious clay-rich soils that inhibited leaching by rain water. The annual rainfall in the Death Valley region of ??? 5 cm is sufficient to leach water-soluble minerals from the more permeable soils. The clay-hill deposits contain saline materials from the lake beds beneath the nitrate deposits are well as wind-transported materials from nearby clay-hill soils, playas and salt marshes. The nitrate is probably of organic origin, consisting of atmospheric nitrogen fixed as protein by photoautotrophic blue-green algae

  9. Microbiological Water Quality in Relation to Water-Contact Recreation, Cuyahoga River, Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio, 2000 and 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bushon, Rebecca N.; Koltun, G.F.

    2004-01-01

    The microbiological water quality of a 23-mile segment of the Cuyahoga River within the Cuyahoga Valley National Park was examined in this study. This segment of the river receives discharges of contaminated water from stormwater, combined-sewer overflows, and incompletely disinfected wastewater. Frequent exceedances of Ohio microbiological water-quality standards result in a health risk to the public who use the river for water-contact recreation. Water samples were collected during the recreational season of May through October at four sites on the Cuyahoga River in 2000, at three sites on the river in 2002, and from the effluent of the Akron Water Pollution Control Station (WPCS) both years. The samples were collected over a similar range in streamflow in 2000 and 2002. Samples were analyzed for physical and chemical constituents, as well as the following microbiological indicators and pathogenic organisms: Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella, F-specific and somatic coliphage, enterovirus, infectious enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), Cryptosporidium, and Giardia. The relations of the microorganisms to each other and to selected water-quality measures were examined. All microorganisms analyzed for, except Cryptosporidium, were detected at least once at each sampling site. Concentrations of E. coli exceeded the Ohio primary-contact recreational standard (298 colonies per 100 milliliters) in approximately 87 percent of the river samples and generally were higher in the river samples than in the effluent samples. C. perfringens concentrations were positively and significantly correlated with E. coli concentrations in the river samples and generally were higher in the effluent samples than in the river samples. Several of the river samples that met the Ohio E. coli secondary-contact recreational standard (576 colonies per 100 milliliters) had detections of enterovirus, infectious enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, and

  10. The Aggradational Successions of the Aniene River Valley in Rome: Age Constraints to Early Neanderthal Presence in Europe.

    PubMed

    Marra, Fabrizio; Ceruleo, Piero; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Rolfo, Mario F; Salari, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    We revise the chronostratigraphy of several sedimentary successions cropping out along a 5 km-long tract of the Aniene River Valley in Rome (Italy), which yielded six hominin remains previously attributed to proto- or archaic Neanderthal individuals, as well as a large number of lithic artefacts showing intermediate characteristics somewhere between the local Acheulean and Mousterian cultures. Through a method of correlation of aggradational successions with post-glacial sea-level rises, relying on a large set of published 40Ar/39Ar ages of interbedded volcanic deposits, we demonstrate that deposition of the sediments hosting the human remains spans the interval 295-220 ka. This is consistent with other well constrained ages for lithic industries recovered in England, displaying transitional features from Lower to Middle Paleolithic, suggesting the appearance of Mode 3 during the MIS 9-MIS 8 transition. Moreover, the six human bone fragments recovered in the Aniene Valley should be regarded as the most precisely dated and oldest hominin remains ascribable to Neanderthal-type individuals in Europe, discovered to date. The chronostratigraphic study presented here constitutes the groundwork for addressing re-analysis of these remains and of their associated lithic industries, in the light of their well-constrained chronological picture.

  11. Landscape trajectories during the Lateglacial and the Holocene in the Loir River Valley (France) : the contribution of Geoarchaeology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piana, Juliene

    2015-04-01

    A multidisciplinary research has been initiated in the Loir River valley where investigations revealed high-potential fluvial records and landforms for environmental and socio-environmental reconstructions. Investigations provide the opportunity to reconstruct landscape trajectories between climate, environmental and societal changes during the last 16000 years, using geoarchaeological and archaeogeographical approaches: sedimentology, soil micromorphology, geochemistry, archaeology, geomatics, geochronology (AGES Program: Ancient Geomorphological EvolutionS of Loire Basin hydrosystem). In the sector of Vaas (Sarthe, France) the research on the Lateglacial and the Holocene sedimentary sequences from the alluvial plain leads to a general overview of the valley evolution from the end of the Weichselian Upper Pleniglacial to the Present. Joined to archaeological (Protohistoric and Antic sites) and historical data (engineering archives, 18th century cadastral registers) this research highlights the importance of anthropogenic and geomorphological heritages in the current fluvial landscape (microtopography, wetlands, archaeological remains, land use). This knowledge constitutes a basis for skills transfer to planners and managers, in sustainable management of hydrological resources (reducing the vulnerability to flooding and low flows), preservation of biodiversity (wetlands protection) and valorization of landscapes (cultural tourism development).

  12. Starch grain and phytolith evidence for early ninth millennium B.P. maize from the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Piperno, Dolores R; Ranere, Anthony J; Holst, Irene; Iriarte, Jose; Dickau, Ruth

    2009-03-31

    Questions that still surround the origin and early dispersals of maize (Zea mays L.) result in large part from the absence of information on its early history from the Balsas River Valley of tropical southwestern Mexico, where its wild ancestor is native. We report starch grain and phytolith data from the Xihuatoxtla shelter, located in the Central Balsas Valley, that indicate that maize was present by 8,700 calendrical years ago (cal. B.P.). Phytolith data also indicate an early preceramic presence of a domesticated species of squash, possibly Cucurbita argyrosperma. The starch and phytolith data also allow an evaluation of current hypotheses about how early maize was used, and provide evidence as to the tempo and timing of human selection pressure on 2 major domestication genes in Zea and Cucurbita. Our data confirm an early Holocene chronology for maize domestication that has been previously indicated by archaeological and paleoecological phytolith, starch grain, and pollen data from south of Mexico, and reshift the focus back to an origin in the seasonal tropical forest rather than in the semiarid highlands.

  13. The Aggradational Successions of the Aniene River Valley in Rome: Age Constraints to Early Neanderthal Presence in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Ceruleo, Piero; Pandolfi, Luca; Petronio, Carmelo; Rolfo, Mario F.; Salari, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    We revise the chronostratigraphy of several sedimentary successions cropping out along a 5 km-long tract of the Aniene River Valley in Rome (Italy), which yielded six hominin remains previously attributed to proto- or archaic Neanderthal individuals, as well as a large number of lithic artefacts showing intermediate characteristics somewhere between the local Acheulean and Mousterian cultures. Through a method of correlation of aggradational successions with post-glacial sea-level rises, relying on a large set of published 40Ar/39Ar ages of interbedded volcanic deposits, we demonstrate that deposition of the sediments hosting the human remains spans the interval 295–220 ka. This is consistent with other well constrained ages for lithic industries recovered in England, displaying transitional features from Lower to Middle Paleolithic, suggesting the appearance of Mode 3 during the MIS 9-MIS 8 transition. Moreover, the six human bone fragments recovered in the Aniene Valley should be regarded as the most precisely dated and oldest hominin remains ascribable to Neanderthal-type individuals in Europe, discovered to date. The chronostratigraphic study presented here constitutes the groundwork for addressing re-analysis of these remains and of their associated lithic industries, in the light of their well-constrained chronological picture. PMID:28125602

  14. Starch grain and phytolith evidence for early ninth millennium B.P. maize from the Central Balsas River Valley, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Piperno, Dolores R.; Ranere, Anthony J.; Holst, Irene; Iriarte, Jose; Dickau, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Questions that still surround the origin and early dispersals of maize (Zea mays L.) result in large part from the absence of information on its early history from the Balsas River Valley of tropical southwestern Mexico, where its wild ancestor is native. We report starch grain and phytolith data from the Xihuatoxtla shelter, located in the Central Balsas Valley, that indicate that maize was present by 8,700 calendrical years ago (cal. B.P.). Phytolith data also indicate an early preceramic presence of a domesticated species of squash, possibly Cucurbita argyrosperma. The starch and phytolith data also allow an evaluation of current hypotheses about how early maize was used, and provide evidence as to the tempo and timing of human selection pressure on 2 major domestication genes in Zea and Cucurbita. Our data confirm an early Holocene chronology for maize domestication that has been previously indicated by archaeological and paleoecological phytolith, starch grain, and pollen data from south of Mexico, and reshift the focus back to an origin in the seasonal tropical forest rather than in the semiarid highlands. PMID:19307570

  15. Fluvial terrace formation in the lower Awhea and Pahaoa River valleys, New Zealand: implications for tectonic and sea-level controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litchfield, Nicola J.; Clark, Kate J.

    2015-02-01

    Altitudes and ages of fluvial terraces along the lower Awhea and Pahaoa River valleys are compared with the altitudes and ages of Holocene marine deposits and terraces in the actively uplifting southern Hikurangi Margin, New Zealand. From these, we infer fluvial terrace formation processes and examine implications for controls on river behaviour and the likely mechanism of uplift. Both river valleys contain a prominent fill terrace (PgT) radiocarbon dated at 10,000-8000 cal. y BP, which formed in response to the rapid estuary infilling during the late stage of post-glacial sea-level rise. Older and younger terraces are primarily degradation terraces, with the exception of the oldest terraces mapped, which are fill terraces inferred to date from the Last Glacial Coldest Period. These results show the Awhea and Pahaoa Rivers respond to a number of competing controls including climate, tectonics, sea-level and anthropogenic (land use) changes, gradient and valley width. The influence of tectonic uplift can be isolated and Holocene marine terraces, estuarine deposits and the PgT tread altitudes are used to constrain the single-event displacement and slip rate of the submarine Palliser-Kaiwhata Fault, of 2-5 m and 2.5 ± 1 mm/y, respectively. The results also provide insight into likely future response of rivers such as the Awhea and Pahaoa to sea-level rise and tectonic uplift.

  16. NOVEL CONCEPTS RESEARCH IN GEOLOGIC STORAGE OF CO2 PHASE III THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Neeraj Gupta

    2005-05-26

    As part of the Department of Energy's (DOE) initiation on developing new technologies for storage of carbon dioxide in geologic reservoir, Battelle has been awarded a project to investigate the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration in the deep saline reservoirs in the Ohio River Valley region. This project is the Phase III of Battelle's work under the Novel Concepts in Greenhouse Gas Management grant. The main objective of the project is to demonstrate that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep formations is feasible from engineering and economic perspectives, as well as being an inherently safe practice and one that will be acceptable to the public. In addition, the project is designed to evaluate the geology of deep formations in the Ohio River Valley region in general and in the vicinity of AEP's Mountaineer Power Plant in particular, in order to determine their potential use for conducting a long-term test of CO{sub 2} disposal in deep saline formations and potentially in nearby deep coal seams. The current technical progress report summarizes activities completed for the January through March 2005 period of the project. As discussed in the report, the technical activities focused on development of injection well design, preparing a Class V Underground Injection Control permit, assessment of monitoring technologies, analysis of coal samples for testing the capture system by Mitsubishi Heavy Industry, and presentation of project progress at several venues. In addition, related work has progressed on a collaborative risk assessment project with Japan research institute CREIPI and technical application for the Midwest Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership.

  17. Block and shear-zone architecture of the Minnesota River Valley subprovince: Implications for late Archean accretionary tectonics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Southwick, D.L.; Chandler, V.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Minnesota River Valley subprovince of the Superior Province is an Archean gneiss terrane composed internally of four crustal blocks bounded by three zones of east-northeast-trending linear geophysical anomalies. Two of the block-bounding zones are verified regional-scale shears. The geological nature of the third boundary has not been established. Potential-field geophysical models portray the boundary zones as moderately north-dipping surfaces or thin slabs similar in strike and dip to the Morris fault segment of the Great Lakes tectonic zone at the north margin of the subprovince. The central two blocks of the subprovince (Morton and Montevideo) are predominantly high-grade quartzofeldspathic gneiss, some as old as 3.6 Ga, and late-tectonic granite. The northern and southern blocks (Benson and Jeffers, respectively) are judged to contain less gneiss than the central blocks and a larger diversity of syntectonic and late-tectonic plutons. A belt of moderately metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks having some attributes of a dismembered ophiolite is partly within the boundary zone between the Morton and Montevideo blocks. This and the other block boundaries are interpreted as late Archean structures that were reactivated in the Early Proterozoic. The Minnesota River Valley subprovince is interpreted as a late accretionary addition to the Superior Province. Because it was continental crust, it was not subductible when it impinged on the convergent southern margin of the Superior Craton in late Archean time, and it may have accommodated to convergent-margin stresses by dividing into blocks and shear zones capable of independent movement.

  18. Impacts of the 2016 outburst flood on the Bhote Koshi River valley, central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kristen; Andermann, Christoff; Gimbert, Florent; Hovius, Niels; Adhikari, Basanta

    2017-04-01

    The central Nepal Himalaya is a region of rapid erosion where fluvial processes are largely driven by the annual Indian Summer Monsoon, which delivers up to several meters of precipitation each year. However, the rivers in this region are also subject to rare catastrophic floods caused by the sudden failure of landslide or moraine dams. Because these floods happen rarely, it has been difficult to isolate their impact on the rivers and adjacent hillslopes, and their importance for the long-term evolution of Himalayan rivers is poorly constrained. On the 5th of July, 2016, the Bhote Koshi River in central Nepal was hit by a glacial lake outburst flood (GLOF). The flood passed through a seismic and hydrological observatory installed along the river in June 2015, and we have used the resulting data to constrain the timing, duration, and bedload transport properties of the outburst flood. The impact of the flood on the river can be further observed with hourly time-lapse photographs, daily measurements of suspended sediment load, repeat lidar surveys, and satellite imagery. Overall, our observatory data span two monsoon seasons, allowing us to evaluate the impacts of the outburst flood relative to the annual monsoon flood. The outburst flood affected the river on several timescales. In the short term, it transported large amounts of coarse sediment and restructured the river bed during the hours of the flood pulse itself. Over intermediate timescales it resulted in elevated bedload and suspended load transport for several weeks following the flood. Over longer timescales the flood undercut and destabilized the river banks and hillslopes in a number of locations, leading to bank collapses, slumps, and landslides. We map changes in the channel and associated mass wasting using rapidEye imagery from Oct. 2015 and Oct. 2016. We also use repeat terrestrial lidar scans to quantify the magnitude of change in multiple locations along the river channel and to measure bank

  19. Reconstruction palaeoflood hydrology using slackwater flow depth method in the Yanhe River valley, middle Yellow River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yongqiang; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zhou, Yali; Zha, Xiaochun; Mao, Peini

    2017-01-01

    Water depth above the flood deposits should be taken into account in calculations of the palaeoflood peak stages, which can provide more accurately estimate of palaeoflood stage. Here we present a new method, slackwater flow depth, to assess palaeoflood peak stage and to reduce the underestimation of palaeoflood stage. Palaeoflood slackwater deposits (SWDs) were identified by palaeohydrological criteria in cliff riverbank on the Yanhe River, middle Yellow River basin. Palaeoflood events recorded in four layers of SWD were dated by optical stimulated luminescence to 9.5-8.5 ka. The estimation of palaeoflood maximum stage was 778.3 m using the slackwater flow depth method and the palaeoflood peak discharge is 15,000 m3/s using the step-backwater method. Palaeoflood results greatly extend the current flood data series in the Yanhe River basin. The regional flood history including gauged flood, historical and palaeoflood data was compiled and evaluated for the major tributaries of the middle Yellow River. The relationship between palaeoflood peak discharges and drainage areas in this region fit well with the global maximum curves. The results of site-specific and regional palaeoflood evaluations demonstrate that the approach estimates the true palaeoflood peak stage and discharges and improves the flood frequency analysis of extreme and rare floods for a particular basin. Meanwhile, the advantages and uncertainties of this method need ongoing discussion in palaeoflood investigations.

  20. Trends in discharge and flow season timing of the Onyx River, Wright Valley, Antarctica since 1969

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gooseff, Michael N.; McKnight, Diane M.; Doran, Peter T.; Lyons, W. Berry

    2007-01-01

    /decade at Vanda), and increasing flow season lengths (by 7 d/decade at LWRT, and 2.7 d/decade at Vanda), influenced by earlier start and later end dates (5.2 and 0.8 d/decade, respectively at LWRT; 4.8, 1.4 d/decade, respectively at Vanda). This suggests that flow season climate patterns in the Dry Valleys are decreasing glacier melt intensity overall, but extending the period of meltwater generation

  1. Groundwater-flow model for the Wood River Valley aquifer system, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Jason C.; Bartolino, James R.; Wylie, Allan H.; Sukow, Jennifer; McVay, Michael

    2016-06-27

    Subsurface outflow beneath the Big Wood River near Stanton Crossing. Temporal changes in aquifer storage are most affected by areal recharge and groundwater pumping, and also contribute to changes in streamflow gains.

  2. Ground-water flow directions and estimation of aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley aquifer system, Hamilton Area, Ohio

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheets, Rodney A.; Bossenbroek, Karen E.

    2005-01-01

    The Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System is one of the most productive sources of potable water in the Midwest, yielding as much as 3,000 gallons per minute to wells. Many water-supply wells tapping this aquifer system are purposely placed near rivers to take advantage of induced infiltration from the rivers. The City of Hamilton's North Well Field consists of 10 wells near the Great Miami River, all completed in the lower Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. A well-drilling program and a multiple-well aquifer test were done to investigate ground-water flow directions and to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties in the lower part of the Great Miami River Buried Valley Aquifer System. Descriptions of lithology from 10 well borings indicate varying amounts and thickness of clay or till, and therefore, varying levels of potential aquifer confinement. Borings also indicate that the aquifer properties can change dramatically over relatively short distances. Grain-size analyses indicate an average bulk hydraulic conductivity value of aquifer materials of 240 feet per day; the geometric mean of hydraulic conductivity values of aquifer material was 89 feet per day. Median grain sizes of aquifer material and clay units were 1.3 millimeters and 0.1 millimeters, respectively. Water levels in the Hamilton North Well Field are affected by stream stage in the Great Miami River and barometric pressure. Bank storage in response to stream stage is evident. Results from a multiple-well aquifer test at the well field indicate, as do the lithologic descriptions, that the aquifer is semiconfined in some areas and unconfined in others. Transmissivity and storage coefficient of the semiconfined part of the aquifer were 50,000 feet squared per day and 5x10-4, respectively. The average hydraulic conductivity (450 feet per day) based on the aquifer test is reasonable for glacial outwash but is higher than calculated from grain-size analyses, implying a scale effect

  3. South Fork of the Santa Clara River, Santa Clarita Valley, California. Supplement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    before selecting it. PROJECT HISTORY In Deoember of 1971, an "Interim Review Report for Flood Control, Newhall, Saugus, and Vicinity, Santa Clar River... reviewed the attached environmental assessment that has been prepared for the proposed Flood Control Project on the South Fork, Santa Clara River...coordinated with the Los Angeles County Flood Control District. Coordination and local agency concurrence with the plan will be completed during review of

  4. Preconstruction and postconstruction ground-water levels, Lock and Dam 2, Red River Valley, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, A.H.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed construction of a series of locks and dams in the Red River in Louisiana will cause a permanent increase in average river stage. The potentiometric surface of the shallow alluvial aquifer and the water table in the fine-grained material confining the aquifer will be affected. The purpose of this study, using digital-modeling techniques, was to predict the average postconstruction potentiometric surface (steady state) and the water table (nonsteady state) so that potential effects of the water-level changes could be evaluated. Plans for lock and dam 1 at mile 44 (kilometer 71) above the mouth of the Red River call for a pool elevation of 40 feet (12.2 meters) and will cause an average increase in river stage of 9 feet (2.7 meters). As a result, ground-water levels will be raised 1 foot (0.3 meter) or more within 4 miles (6.4 kilometers) of the river. The potentiometric surface may be near land surface in low-lying areas, and above land surface along the course of drainage features near the dam. The magnitude of ground-water-level fluctuations near the river will be reduced. (Woodard-USGS)

  5. River-spring connectivity and hydrogeochemical interactions in a shallow fractured rock formation. The case study of Fuensanta river valley (Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberá, J. A.; Andreo, B.

    2017-04-01

    In upland catchments, the hydrology and hydrochemistry of streams are largely influenced by groundwater inflows, at both regional and local scale. However, reverse conditions (groundwater dynamics conditioned by surface water interferences), although less described, may also occur. In this research, the local river-spring connectivity and induced hydrogeochemical interactions in intensely folded, fractured and layered Cretaceous marls and marly-limestones (Fuensanta river valley, S Spain) are discussed based on field observations, tracer tests and hydrodynamic and hydrochemical data. The differential flow measurements and tracing experiments performed in the Fuensanta river permitted us to quantify the surface water losses and to verify its direct hydraulic connection with the Fuensanta spring. The numerical simulations of tracer breakthrough curves suggest the existence of a groundwater flow system through well-connected master and tributary fractures, with fast and multi-source flow components. Furthermore, the multivariate statistical analysis conducted using chemical data from the sampled waters, the geochemical study of water-rock interactions and the proposed water mixing approach allowed the spatial characterization of the chemistry of the springs and river/stream waters draining low permeable Cretaceous formations. Results corroborated that the mixing of surface waters, as well as calcite dissolution and CO2 dissolution/exsolution, are the main geochemical processes constraining Fuensanta spring hydrochemistry. The estimated contribution of the tributary surface waters to the spring flow during the research period was approximately 26-53% (Fuensanta river) and 47-74% (Convento stream), being predominant the first component during high flow and the second one during the dry season. The identification of secondary geochemical processes (dolomite and gypsum dissolution and dedolomitization) in Fuensanta spring waters evidences the induced hydrogeochemical

  6. Chronology and provenance of alluvial fills in the dry valley environment of the lower Molopo River, southern Kalahari

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramisch, Arne; Bens, Oliver; Eden, Marie; Hürkamp, Kerstin; Schwindt, Daniel; Völkel, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    The dry valleys of the Molopo-Kuruman and the Nossob-Auob system form the largest drainage basin of the southern Kalahari, with a total drainage area of over 100.000 km². The South-Kalahari drainage system is connected to the perennial Orange River by the lower Molopo valley which is therefore the only potential fluvial outlet for sediments originating from the southern Kalahari. Despite its key geomorphological position, little is known about Late Quaternary landscape dynamic in the lower Molopo section. To estimate the timing of fluvial sedimentation phases near the Molopo-Orange confluence, we sampled alluvial fills within the narrow trench of the Molopo canyon. The chronology was established using a total of 15 Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) samples from key profiles within the canyon. The results suggest that landscape development was dominated by two phases of valley infill during a) the Mid Holocene and b) the Late Holocene. To gain insight into sediment dynamics during these intervals, we carried out a provenance analysis on the fine fraction (< 2 mm) of fluvial sediments. Sediment source areas were estimated by analyzing the elemental and mineralogical composition of 93 tributaries and 32 dune deposits throughout the reaches of the lower Molopo via X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The appliance of a fuzzy cluster algorithm on the elemental and mineralogical composition of reference samples revealed three major sediment source areas: i) The Molopo canyon, ii) fluvial source areas north of the canyon and iii) eolian sands covering the recent lower Molopo valley in its upper reaches. A similarity analysis between fluvial sediments of the Molopo canyon to the previously identified source areas suggests that alluvial fills mainly originate from the canyon itself, suggesting short-distance sediment mobilization as the driving mechanism behind aggradation. Thereby, both Holocene intervals differ in the mean distance of

  7. Multi-scale cyclone activity in the Changjiang River-Huaihe River valleys during spring and its relationship with rainfall anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yujing; Lu, Chuhan; Li, Liping

    2017-02-01

    Based on the recognition framework of the outermost closed contours of cyclones, an automated identification algorithm capable of identifying the multi-scale cyclones that occur during spring in the Changjiang River-Huaihe River valleys (CHV) were developed. We studied the characteristics of the multi-scale cyclone activity that affects CHV and its relationship with rainfall during spring since 1979. The results indicated that the automated identification algorithm for cyclones proposed in this paper could intuitively identify multi-scale cyclones that affect CHV. The algorithm allows for effectively describing the shape and coverage area of the closed contours around the periphery of cyclones. We found that, compared to the meso- and sub-synoptic scale cyclone activities, the synoptic-scale cyclone activity showed more intimate correlation with the overall activity intensity of multi-scale CHV cyclones during spring. However, the frequency of occurrence of sub-synoptic scale cyclones was the highest, and their effect on changes in CHV cyclone activity could not be ignored. Based on the area of impact and the depth of the cyclones, the sub-synoptic scale, synoptic scale and comprehensive cyclone intensity indices were further defined, which showed a positive correlation with rainfall in CHV during spring. Additionally, the comprehensive cyclone intensity index was a good indicator of strong rainfall events.

  8. Decrease of soil fertility and release of mercury following deforestation in the Andean Amazon, Napo River Valley, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Mainville, N; Webb, J; Lucotte, M; Davidson, R; Betancourt, O; Cueva, E; Mergler, D

    2006-09-01

    Soil erosion and degradation provoked by deforestation in the Amazon is a global concern, and recent studies propose a link between deforestation, soil erosion and the leaching of naturally occurring mercury (Hg). In the Ecuadorian Amazon, elevated deforestation rates and the proximity of volcanoes could play an important role in soil fertility and soil Hg levels. The goal of this study is to evaluate the impacts of deforestation on Andisol and Inceptisol fertility and Hg levels in the Napo River Valley, Ecuador. Results show a significant decrease in surface soil organic matter (-15% to -70% of C and N) and exchangeable cations (-25% to -60%) in deforested plots. Hg concentrations at the surface (0-5 cm), higher in Andisols (225 ng/g average) than in Inceptisols (95 ng/g average), show a decrease of up to 60% following deforestation. Soil erosion exposes the mineral horizon, a layer with a higher Hg burden, to the elements thus provoking and accelerating Hg leaching. These results suggest that deforestation and the associated Hg leaching could contribute to the fish Hg contamination measured in the Napo River watershed.

  9. Understory vegetation as an indicator for floodplain forest restoration in the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Steven, Diane; Faulkner, Stephen; Keeland, Bobby D.; Baldwin, Michael; McCoy, John W.; Hughes, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    In the Mississippi River Alluvial Valley (MAV), complete alteration of river-floodplain hydrology allowed for widespreadconversion of forested bottomlands to intensive agriculture, resulting in nearly 80% forest loss. Governmental programs haveattempted to restore forest habitat and functions within this altered landscape by the methods of tree planting (afforestation)and local hydrologic enhancement on reclaimed croplands. Early assessments identified factors that influenced whetherplanting plus tree colonization could establish an overstory community similar to natural bottomland forests. The extentto which afforested sites develop typical understory vegetation has not been evaluated, yet understory composition may beindicative of restored site conditions. As part of a broad study quantifying the ecosystem services gained from restorationefforts, understory vegetation was compared between 37 afforested sites and 26 mature forest sites. Differences in vegetationattributes for species growth forms, wetland indicator classes, and native status were tested with univariate analyses;floristic composition data were analyzed by multivariate techniques. Understory vegetation of restoration sites was generallyhydrophytic, but species composition differed from that of mature bottomland forest because of young successional age anddiffering responses of plant growth forms. Attribute and floristic variation among restoration sites was related to variationin canopy development and local wetness conditions, which in turn reflected both intrinsic site features and outcomes ofrestoration practices. Thus, understory vegetation is a useful indicator of functional progress in floodplain forest restoration.

  10. Magnetic Susceptibility and Mineral Zonations Controlled by Provenance in Loess along the Illinois and Central Mississippi River Valleys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimley, D.A.; Follmer, L.R.; McKay, E.D.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) patterns have proven useful for regional stratigraphic correlations of zones within thick, oxidized Peoria and Roxana Silts along the Illinois and Central Mississippi River valleys for more than 350 km. Variations in MS of C horizon loess are controlled by silt-sized magnetite content and are interpreted to reflect changes in sediment provenance due to fluctuations of the Superior and Lake Michigan glacier lobes and the diversion of the Mississippi River to its present course. Grain size distributions and scanning electron microscopic observations indicate that stratigraphic changes in MS are not significantly influenced by eolian sorting or diagenetic dissolution, respectively. Three compositional zones (lower, middle, and upper) are delineated within Peoria Silt which usually can be traced in the field by MS, the occurrence of clay beds, interstadial soils, and/or subtle color changes. These zones can be correlated with, but are generally of more practical use than, previously studied dolomite zones (McKay, 1977) or clay mineral zones (Frye et al., 1968). However, mineralogical analyses can help to substantiate zone boundaries when in question. MS and compositional zones may indirectly record a climatic signal, primarily through the effect that global cooling has had on ice lobe fluctuations in the Upper Mississippi drainage basin. ?? 1998 University of Washington.

  11. Paleofloods recorded by slackwater deposits in the upper reaches of the Hanjiang River valley, middle Yangtze River basin, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Longsheng; Huang, Chun Chang; Pang, Jiangli; Zha, Xiaochun; Zhou, Yali

    2014-11-01

    A paleo-hydrological study was carried out along the upper-reach gorges of the Hanjiang River that drains from the Qinling and Dabashan Mountains. Two bedsets of paleoflood slackwater deposits were found embedded in Holocene loess soil sequences within riverbank cliffs. All of these were studied by field observations and laboratory analyses, including magnetic susceptibility, particle size distribution and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. These analyses provided a complete catalog of Holocene flood events on a watershed scale that is important for understanding the regional hydrological responses to monsoonal climatic change. The results show that these hydro-climatic events were dated to 9000-8500 and 3200-2800 a B.P. The paleoflood peak discharges were estimated to be 44,350-49,860 m3/s by using the HEC-RAS model and were verified by different approaches. These results have extended the flood data sequence of the Hanjiang River to a 10,000-year time-scale. The additional data allowed us to refine the flood frequency-peak discharge curve and potentially increase its accuracy. These results will play an important role in mitigating flood hazards and will be useful for hydraulic engineering and the development of water resources in the Hanjiang River basin.

  12. Hydrogeology of, and simulated ground-water flow in, the valley-fill aquifers of the upper Rockaway River basin, Morris County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, Alison D.

    1993-01-01

    Public water supply in the Rockaway River valley depends almost entirely on ground water from wells in the valley-fill deposits. Ground-water withdrawals from these deposits in 1986 were about 9.1 million gallons per day. A steady-state ground-water flow model was developed to quantify the effects of ground-water withdrawals on water levels in the valley-fill aquifers and on ground-water discharge to the Rockaway River. The ground-water-flow model, which represents an aquifer system consisting of an unconfined and a confined aquifer separated by a discontinuous confining unit, was implemented to examine aquifer resonse to current and predicted ground-water withdrawals in areas of proposed well sites and the effect of increased ground-water withdrawals on ground-water discharge to the river. Ground-water flow to wells in the valley-fill aquifers is sustained by increased vertical flow between the two aquifers, the diversion of ground water that had discharged to the Rockaway River, and induced seepage resulting from pumping near the Rickaway River. If the rate of ground-water recharge decreases or if the rate of ground-water withdrawals from the valley-fill aquifers increases, ground-water discharge to the Rockaway River above the Boonton Reservoir will decrease by an equivalent amount. The average annual base flow of the Rockaway River above the Boonton Reservoir will meet the minimum passing flow requirement of 7 million gallons per day under conditions of average annual ground-water recharge, and increased ground-water withdrawals anticipated by the years 2000 and 2040. For anticipated increases in withdrawals to 11.5 million gallons per day by the the year 2000, and 14.6 million gallons per day by the year 2040, base flow to the Rockaway River above the Boonton Reservoir may not be sufficient to meet the minimum required reservoir outflow during extended periods of decreased recharge, such as drought, as much as 5 and 11 percent of the time, respectively.

  13. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California.

    PubMed

    Boland, John M

    2016-01-01

    The Tijuana River Valley is the first natural habitat in California to be substantially invaded by the Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer (KSHB, Euwallacea sp.), an ambrosia beetle native to Southeast Asia. This paper documents the distribution of the KSHB in the riparian vegetation in the valley and assesses the damage done to the vegetation as of early 2016, approximately six months after the beetle was first observed in the valley. I divided the riparian habitats into 29 survey units so that the vegetation within each unit was relatively homogenous in terms of plant species composition, age and density. From a random point within each unit, I examined approximately 60 individuals of the dominant plant species for evidence of KSHB infestation and evidence of major damage such as limb breakage. In the 22 forested units,I examined the dominant arroyo and black willows (Salix lasiolepis Benth. and S. gooddingii C.R. Ball), and in the seven scrub units, I examined mule fat (Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.). Evidence of KSHB infestation was found in 25 of the 29 units. In the forest units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 100% and were high (>60%) in 16 of the units. In the scrub units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 33%. Infestation rates were significantly correlated with the wetness of a unit; wetter units had higher infestation rates. Evidence of major physical damage was found in 24 units, and dense stands of willows were reduced to broken trunks in several areas. Overall, I estimated that more than 280,000 (70%) of the willows in the valley were infested, and more than 140,000 had suffered major limb damage. In addition, I recorded evidence of KSHB infestation in the other common plant species in the valley; of the 23 species examined, 14 showed evidence of beetle attack. The four species with the highest rates of infestation were native trees in the Salicaceae family. The three species considered to be the worst invasive plants in the valley, Ricinus

  14. The impact of an invasive ambrosia beetle on the riparian habitats of the Tijuana River Valley, California

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Tijuana River Valley is the first natural habitat in California to be substantially invaded by the Kuroshio Shot Hole Borer (KSHB, Euwallacea sp.), an ambrosia beetle native to Southeast Asia. This paper documents the distribution of the KSHB in the riparian vegetation in the valley and assesses the damage done to the vegetation as of early 2016, approximately six months after the beetle was first observed in the valley. I divided the riparian habitats into 29 survey units so that the vegetation within each unit was relatively homogenous in terms of plant species composition, age and density. From a random point within each unit, I examined approximately 60 individuals of the dominant plant species for evidence of KSHB infestation and evidence of major damage such as limb breakage. In the 22 forested units,I examined the dominant arroyo and black willows (Salix lasiolepis Benth. and S. gooddingii C.R. Ball), and in the seven scrub units, I examined mule fat (Baccharis salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers.). Evidence of KSHB infestation was found in 25 of the 29 units. In the forest units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 100% and were high (>60%) in 16 of the units. In the scrub units, infestation rates ranged from 0 to 33%. Infestation rates were significantly correlated with the wetness of a unit; wetter units had higher infestation rates. Evidence of major physical damage was found in 24 units, and dense stands of willows were reduced to broken trunks in several areas. Overall, I estimated that more than 280,000 (70%) of the willows in the valley were infested, and more than 140,000 had suffered major limb damage. In addition, I recorded evidence of KSHB infestation in the other common plant species in the valley; of the 23 species examined, 14 showed evidence of beetle attack. The four species with the highest rates of infestation were native trees in the Salicaceae family. The three species considered to be the worst invasive plants in the valley, Ricinus

  15. Comparing meteorological records between mountainous and valley bottom sites in the upper reaches of the Heihe River, northwestern China: implications for dendroclimatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qiao; Yang, Bao

    2017-04-01

    Tree-ring records from remote upland areas are widely used in climate reconstructions, but they are typically calibrated by meteorological data from low-lying areas. With the aim of assessing relationships between climatic records from mountainous and valley bottoms, this study compared meteorological records between mountainous sites (lower to upper elevations) and valley bottoms (Qilian (QL) and Yeniugou (YNG)) in the upper reaches of the Heihe River, northwestern China. We found that daily, 5-day, 10-day, and monthly mean air temperatures observed during a 4-year observational period in valley bottoms were strongly correlated ( R = 0.90-0.99) to their mountainous site counterparts. Additionally, temperature records from the QL meteorological station shared a higher percentage of variance with each mountainous site compared to YNG. Correlations of precipitation totals between valley bottoms and mountainous sites showed a similar pattern to temperatures. Furthermore, different time series of total rainfall in YNG can explain more variance than those from QL and were also more suitable representations of mountainous sites. Our results confirmed the reliability of utilizing monthly climatic records from valley bottoms to calibrate tree-ring records in mountainous sites. We also caution that when conducting fine-scale microcoring and dendrometer monitoring studies, lower correlations of short-term scale precipitation records between valley bottoms and mountainous sites may introduce unavoidable errors.

  16. Quaternary extensional and compressional tectonics revealed from Quaternary landforms along Kosi River valley, outer Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, Uttarakhand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luirei, Khayingshing; Bhakuni, S. S.; Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Tripathi, Kavita; Pant, P. D.

    2016-04-01

    A portion of the Kosi River in the outer Kumaun Lesser Himalaya is characterized by wide river course situated south of the Ramgarh Thrust, where huge thickness (~200 m) of the landslide deposits and two to three levels of unpaired fan terraces are present. Brittle normal faults, suggesting extensional tectonics, are recognized in the Quaternary deposits and bedrocks as further supported by surface morphology. Trending E-W, these faults measure from 3 to 5 km in length and are traced as discontinuous linear mini-horst and fault scarps (sackungen) exposed due to cutting across by streams. Active normal faults have displaced the coarsely laminated debris fan deposits at two sites located 550 m apart. At one of the sites, the faults look like bookshelf faulting with the maximum displacement of ~2 m and rotation of the Quaternary boulders along the fault plane is observed. At another site, the maximum displacement measures about 0.60 cm. Thick mud units deposited due to blocking of the streams by landslides are observed within and above the fan deposit. Landslide debris fans and terrace landforms are widely developed; the highest level of fan is observed ~1240 m above mean sea level. At some places, the reworking of the debris fans by streams is characterized by thick laminated sand body. Along the South Almora Thrust and Ramgarh Thrust zones, the valleys are narrow and V-shaped where Quaternary deposits are sparse due to relatively rapid uplift across these thrusts. Along the South Almora Thrust zone, three to four levels of fluvial terraces are observed and have been incised by river exposing the bedrocks due to recent movement along the RT and SAT. Abandoned channel, tilted mud deposits, incised meandering, deep-cut V-shaped valleys and strath terraces indicate rapid uplift of the area. Thick mud sequences in the Quaternary columns indicate damming of streams. A ~10-km-long north-south trending transverse Garampani Fault has offset the Ramgarh Thrust producing

  17. Floodplain morphodynamics and distribution of trace elements in overbank deposits, Vistula River Valley Gorge near Solec nad Wisłą, Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkowska, Ewa; Falkowski, Tomasz; Tatur, Andrzej; Kałmykow-Piwińska, Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Geological and geochemical investigations were carried out in the floodplain of the Vistula River Valley gorge near Solec nad Wisłą (Małopolska Gorge of the Vistula River). Geological mapping was supported by DEM and remote sensing analysis. Sediment samples were taken from depths of 0.5 m and 1.5 m from all geomorphological features identified. The geochemical analysis included determination of Cr, V, Sr, Ba, Ni, Cu, Co, As, Pb and Zn concentrations. Results indicate that the main factors affecting the pattern of features in the floodplain of this area are (1) the highly dynamic flood flow in the narrow section of the gorge and (2) the relief of the top surface of the sub-alluvial basement. The variable concentrations of trace elements are closely related to the floodplain features. Their concentrations can be considered as valuable geochemical proxies that enable a more thorough reconstruction of the sedimentary evolution of the Vistula River Valley and other similar river valleys, especially in gorge sections.

  18. Predicting Recreational Water Quality Using Turbidity in the Cuyahoga River, Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Ohio, 2004-7

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, Amie M.G.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Plona, Meg B.

    2009-01-01

    The Cuyahoga River within Cuyahoga Valley National Park (CVNP) in Ohio is often impaired for recreational use because of elevated concentrations of bacteria, which are indicators of fecal contamination. During the recreational seasons (May through August) of 2004 through 2007, samples were collected at two river sites, one upstream of and one centrally-located within CVNP. Bacterial concentrations and turbidity were determined, and streamflow at time of sampling and rainfall amounts over the previous 24 hours prior to sampling were ascertained. Statistical models to predict Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations were developed for each site (with data from 2004 through 2006) and tested during an independent year (2007). At Jaite, a sampling site near the center of CVNP, the predictive model performed better than the traditional method of determining the current day's water quality using the previous day's E. coli concentration. During 2007, the Jaite model, based on turbidity, produced more correct responses (81 percent) and fewer false negatives (3.2 percent) than the traditional method (68 and 26 percent, respectively). At Old Portage, a sampling site just upstream from CVNP, a predictive model with turbidity and rainfall as explanatory variables did not perform as well as the traditional method. The Jaite model was used to estimate water quality at three other sites in the park; although it did not perform as well as the traditional method, it performed well - yielding between 68 and 91 percent correct responses. Further research would be necessary to determine whether using the Jaite model to predict recreational water quality elsewhere on the river would provide accurate results.

  19. Groundwater and surface water flow to the Merced River, Yosemite Valley, California: 36Cl and Cl- evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Glenn D.; Conklin, Martha H.; Nimz, Gregory J.; Liu, Fengjing

    2014-03-01

    Our current understanding of water fluxes and flow paths within the mountain block is limited, and improved understanding is necessary to assess hydrology more accurately above the mountain front. Source waters and the processes controlling their mixing were characterized in the Merced River basin within Yosemite National Park, California, using 36Cl and Cl-, supported by 222Rn, δ18O, δD, and streamflow data. Streams, snow, groundwater, and springs were sampled seasonally from July 2004 to October 2007. Three source water end-members were identified: (i) near surface runoff of recent meltwater containing bomb-pulse 36Cl (36ClBP), (ii) shallow, evapotranspired groundwater, and (iii) groundwater containing Cl- derived through extended rock interaction. Both groundwater end-members mix in Yosemite Valley and then later discharge to the Merced River. Near surface runoff dominates all stream hydrographs during snowmelt, whereas the two groundwater end-members become significantly more important during base flow. Tributaries consist of mixtures of the shallow evapotranspired groundwater and near surface runoff, whereas the Merced River is composed of the mixture of all source water end-members. Snow is not an obvious end-member, and elevated 36ClBP in the near surface runoff suggests that 36ClBP was retained efficiently, and is being slowly released as meltwater interacts with the soil. The use of 36Cl as a natural tracer is important in revealing the processes controlling streamflow generation in large montane catchments and the results will be helpful in configuring and calibrating hydrologic models.

  20. Revegetation of Reconstructed Reaches of the Provo River, Heber Valley, Utah

    Treesearch

    John A. Rice

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, the Utah Reclamation Mitigation and Conservation Commission began the Provo River Restoration Project to create a more naturally functioning riverine ecosystem between Jordanelle Dam and Deer Creek Reservoir. The purpose of the project was to mitigate for past impacts to riverine, wetland, and riparian habitats caused by the Central Utah Project and other...

  1. Implications of anthropogenic river stage fluctuations on mass transport in a valley fill aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boutt, D.F.; Fleming, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    In humid regions a strong coupling between surface water features and groundwater systems may exist. In these environments the exchange of water and solute depends primarily on the hydraulic gradient between the reservoirs. We hypothesize that daily changes in river stage associated with anthropogenic water releases (such as those from a hydroelectric dam) cause anomalous mixing in the near-stream environment by creating large hydraulic head gradients between the stream and adjacent aquifer. We present field observations of hydraulic gradient reversals in a shallow aquifer. Important physical processes observed in the field are explicitly reproduced in a physically based two-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow coupled to a simplistic surface water boundary condition. Mass transport simulations of a conservative solute introduced into the surface water are performed and examined relative to a stream condition without stage fluctuations. Simulations of 20 d for both fluctuating river stage and fixed high river stage show that more mass is introduced into the aquifer from the stream in the oscillating case even though the net water flux is zero. Enhanced transport by mechanical dispersion leads to mass being driven away from the hydraulic zone of influence of the river. The modification of local hydraulic gradients is likely to be important for understanding dissolved mass transport in near-stream aquifer environments and can influence exchange zone processes under conditions of high-frequency stream stage changes. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. Anthropic signatures in alluvium of the Upper Little Tennessee River valley, Southern Blue Ridge Mountains, USA

    Treesearch

    Lixin Wang; David S. Leigh

    2015-01-01

    Human activities have become important influences on the fluvial systems of eastern North America since post-colonial settlement. This research identifies post-settlement anthropic signatures in alluvial sediments in the Upper Little Tennessee River, USA. Agricultural and mining activities were scattered and discontinuous in this relatively remote region of...

  3. Archaeological Reconnaissance Survey in the Inarajan River Valley Territory of Guam,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    of A. macrorrhiza and Mwa sp., and the occurrence of Carica papaya L., Capsicwu frutescens L., and Colocasia escuZenta (L.) Schott, all feral cultigens...Fig. S. FERAL CULTIGENS NEAR PASAMANO RIVER. Note A. macrorrhiza, C. papaya , and M.isa sp. ~u -Ms. 031379 -20- r-A, a (NO ~ &CC A. (2’ - - A 0 * C lt

  4. 75 FR 7286 - Rappahannock River Valley National Wildlife Refuge, Caroline, Essex, King George, Lancaster...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... include freshwater tidal marsh, forested swamp, upland deciduous forest, mixed pine forest, and managed... partners and volunteers, we are restoring native grasslands and riparian forests along the river and its... existing 700 acres of grasslands and old fields to revert to shrub and forest. Tree plantings,...

  5. Early findings from artificial recharge efforts of the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The long-term success and sustainability of agriculture in the Lower Mississippi River Basin will depend largely on water resources. Aquifer decline in the region has been documented since the 1980s and continues today. Artificial recharge is one possible tool that could help alleviate this declin...

  6. White River Falls Fish Passage Project, Tygh Valley, Oregon : Final Technical Report, Volume I..

    SciTech Connect

    Oregon. Dept. of Fish and Wildlife; Mount Hood National Forest

    1985-06-01

    Studies were conducted to describe current habitat conditions in the White River basin above White River Falls and to evaluate the potential to produce anadromous fish. An inventory of spawning and rearing habitats, irrigation diversions, and enhancement opportunities for anadromous fish in the White River drainage was conducted. Survival of juvenile fish at White River Falls was estimated by releasing juvenile chinook and steelhead above the falls during high and low flow periods and recapturing them below the falls in 1983 and 1984. Four alternatives to provide upstream passage for adult salmon and steelhead were developed to a predesign level. The cost of adult passage and the estimated run size of anadromous fish were used to determine the benefit/cost ratio of the preferred alternative. Possible effects of the introduction of anadromous fish on resident fish and on nearby Oak Springs Hatchery were evaluated. This included an inventory of resident species, a genetic study of native rainbow, and the identification of fish diseases in the basin. 28 figs., 23 tabs.

  7. Investigation of Neotectonic Activity within the Lower Mississippi Valley Division. Potamology River (P-1), Report 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    EOS) v. 61, p. 489-491. Lyell , Charles , 1857, Principles of Geology, Appleton & Co. N. Y., p. 834. Machida, Tadajhi, 1960. Geomorphological analysis of...flow was reestablished during a flood in 1828. If the river had been flowing it is possible that the channel would have maintained itself. Lyell

  8. Fire history in the Ohio River Valley and its relation to climate

    Treesearch

    Daniel A. Yaussy; Elaine Kennedy. Sutherland

    1994-01-01

    Annual wildfire records (1926-77) from the national forests in states bordering the Ohio River (lllinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Ohio, and West Virginia) were compared to climate records to assess relationships. Summaries of spring and fall fire seasons obtained for the Daniel Boone National Forest in Kentucky (1970-92) and for the State of Ohio (1969-84,...

  9. Rates and environmental controls of aeolian dust accumulation, Athabasca River Valley, Canadian Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugenholtz, Chris H.; Wolfe, Stephen A.

    2010-09-01

    Despite an abundance of sedimentary archives of mineral dust (i.e. loess) accumulations from cold, humid environments, the absence of contemporary process investigations limits paleoenvironmental interpretations in these settings. Dust accumulations measured at Jasper Lake, a seasonally-filled reach of the glacially-fed Athabasca River in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, are some of the highest contemporary rates recorded to date. High deposition rates, including a maximum of 27,632 kg ha -1 month -1, occur during river low-flow periods, but even the lowest deposition rates, occurring during bankfull periods, exceed other contemporary rates of deposition. High rates of dust deposition may be attributed to geomorphic and climatic controls affecting sediment supply, availability and transport, and biologic factors affecting accumulation. Localized confinement of the Jasper River by tributary river alluvial fans has caused channel expansion upstream, and formation of the shallow depositional basin known as Jasper Lake. This localized sedimentary basin, coupled with large seasonal water level fluctuations and suitably high wind speeds, favors seasonal dust production. In addition, a dense source-proximal coniferous forest stand encourages high dust accumulation, via increased aerodynamic roughness and airflow deceleration. The forest stand also appears to act as an efficient dust filter, with the interception and storage of dust by the forest canopy playing a significant role with regards to secondary fallout and sediment accumulation. Overall, these results provide new insights on the environmental controls of dust entrainment and accumulation in cold, humid settings, and help clarify controls on the formation of Holocene river-sourced loess deposits.

  10. Chronostratigraphic and paleoclimatic data for Quaternary loessial and fluvial deposits in the Mississippi River Valley of Arkansas and Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Markewich, H.W. ); Millard, H.T. Jr. ); Pavich, M.J. ); Rodbell, D.T. ); Rich, F.J. ); Rutledge, E.M. ); Ward, L. . Soil Conservation Service); Van Valkenberg, S. ); Wysocki, D. . Soil Conservation Service)

    1992-01-01

    Ongoing investigations into Quaternary paleoclimates of the Mississippi River Valley in eastern Arkansas and western Tennessee include age estimations using [sup 14]C, [sup 10]Be, thermoluminescent (TL), and optically stimulated luminescent (OSL) analyses; compositional studies using petrographic and diffractometer analyses; pedological analyses with complete characterization studies; and magnetic susceptibility measurements with laboratory analyses to investigate the source of the magnetism. Preliminary data on composition of the < 63-micron fraction, thickness, and age of the loesses and associated paleosols are available from selected stratigraphic sections that are being described and sampled in detail. These data suggest the following: (1) overall thickness of loess, as well as thickness of each loess sheet, decreases by one-half to two-thirds within the 96-km distance from the south end of Crowleys Ridge near Helena, AR northward to Forest City, AR and Memphis, TN; (2) near Helena, loess thicknesses are 25 to 30 m, 7 m, 6 m, and 6 m for the Peoria, Roxana, Loveland, and Crowleys Ridge respectively; (3) the depth of weathering in the Peoria ranges from 4.5 to 8.5 m near Helena, depending on slope position; (4) at the south end of Crowleys Ridge, near Helena, the Roxana has two associated paleosols and an intervening layer of weathered parent material; (5) isotopic data suggest that (a) loess deposition took place between 4,500 ka and 10 ka and that (b) each younger disconformity represents less time than the one before; (6) the predominantly illite and illite/smectite mineralogy of the paleosols, even that of the Sangamon soil, suggests minimal weathering of labile loessial minerals prior to pedogenic development; (7) pollen data indicate that by 10 ka this part of the valley had vegetation indicative of a cool temperate climate, with minimal cypress and no boreal components.

  11. Millennial Slip Rate of the Longitudinal Valley Fault From River Terraces: Implications for Convergence Across the Active Suture of Eastern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, J. H.; Sieh, K.; Avouac, J.; Chen, W.; Chen, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Interpreting a geomorphic analysis of fluvial terraces in the hanging-wall block of a major active fault in Taiwan by means of a structural model, we have created a model for the creation of a lithospheric suture that may have broader application. The Longitudinal Valley fault is a key element in the active tectonics of Taiwan. It is the principal structure accommodating convergence across the eastern of the two active sutures of the Taiwan orogeny. To understand more precisely its role in the suturing process, we analyzed fluvial terraces along the Hsiukuluan River, which is the only river that cuts across the Coastal Range of eastern Taiwan, in the hanging-wall block of the Longitudinal Valley fault. This allowed us to determine both the subsurface geometry and the millennial slip rate of the fault. The uplift pattern of the Hsiukuluan River terraces is consistent with a fault-bend fold model. Our analysis yields a listric geometry for the Longitudinal Valley fault in its uppermost 2.5 km, with dips decreasing downdip from about 50° to about 30°. The maximum dip-slip component of the Holocene slip rate of the fault is about 23 mm/yr, which yields a maximum horizontal shortening rate of about 25.6 mm/yr in the direction of plate convergence. This rate is far less than the 40 mm/yr rate of shortening across the Longitudinal Valley derived from GPS measurements. The discrepancy may reflect an actual difference in millennial and decadal rates of convergence. An alternative explanation, however, is that the discrepancy is accommodated by a combination of subsidence of the Longitudinal Valley and slip on the Central Range fault, the other active fault of the suture. The shallow listric geometry of the Longitudinal Valley fault at the Hsiukuluan River valley differs markedly from the deep listric geometry illuminated by earthquake hypocenters near Chihshang, about 45 km to the south. We propose a model whereby this fundamental along-strike difference in geometry of

  12. Metal Transport, Heavy Metal Speciation and Microbial Fixation Through Fluvial Subenvironments, Lower Coeur D'Alene River Valley, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooper, R. L.; Mahoney, J. B.

    2001-12-01

    The lower Coeur d'Alene River Valley of northern Idaho is the site of extensive lead and zinc contamination resulting from both direct riverine tailings disposal and flood remobilization of contaminated sediments derived from the Coeur d'Alene mining district upstream. Variations in the hydrologic regime, redox conditions, porosity/permeability, organic content and microbial activity results in complicated metal transport pathways. Documentation of these pathways is a prerequisite to effective remediation, and requires accurate analysis of lateral and vertical variations. An analytical approach combining sequential extraction, electron microscopy, and microanalysis provides a comprehensive assessment of particulate speciation in this complex hydrologic system. Rigorously controlled sample preparation and a new sequential extraction protocol provide unprecedented insight into the role of metal sequestration in fluvial subenvironments. Four subenvironments were investigated: bedload, overbank (levee), marsh, and lacustrine. Periodic floods remobilize primary ore minerals and secondary minerals from upstream tailings (primarily oxyhydroxides, sulfides and carbonates). The bedload in the lower valley is a reducing environment and acts as a sink for detrital carbonates and sulfides moving downstream. In addition, authigenic/biogenic Fe, Pb and Zn sulfides and phosphates are common in bedload sediments near the sediment/water interface. Flood redistribution of oxide, sulfide and carbonate phases results in periodic contaminant recharge generating a complex system of metal dissolution, mobilization, migration and precipitation. In levee environments, authigenic sulfides from flood scouring are quickly oxidized resulting in development of oxide coated grain surfaces. Stability of detrital minerals on the levee is variable depending on sediment permeability, grain size and mineralogy resulting in a complex stratigraphy of oxide zones mottled with zones dominated by detrital

  13. Do post-glacial river valleys in northern New England store mill-dam legacy sediments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strouse, S.; Snyder, N. P.

    2010-12-01

    Dam-influenced floodplain morphology has not been studied extensively in post-glacial rivers with high densities of colonial-era milldams. Fluvial restoration in the eastern U.S. often focuses on understanding the natural, or pre-Colonial, floodplain processes. Recent work by Walter and Merritts (2008) in the piedmont of the U.S. Mid-Atlantic region suggests milldams significantly impact sedimentation by creating surfaces composed of post-dam legacy sediment that are often abandoned by the river and function as fill terraces. This work has not yet been tested in a post-glacial environment. I analyze channel morphology and sedimentation patterns upstream of two breached dams on the Sheepscot River in Mid-Coastal Maine using lidar digital elevation models, historical aerial photographs, radiocarbon dating, and hydraulic modeling. In the past several decades, observable channel morphologic changes occurred at the two study sites: Maxcy’s Mills dam (built in 1809, it was 4-m high and breached in the late 1950s), and at Head Tide dam (built in the 1760s, it is 6-m high and was partially breached in 1952). The Sheepscot River is one of Maine’s eight rivers with native anadromous Atlantic salmon populations. Because Atlantic salmon are a federally listed endangered species, understanding the existence and transport of legacy sediment has become an important component of habitat restoration efforts in the region. The goal of this investigation is to determine the extent of legacy sediment in order to better understand how historical dam sites affect morphology and sediment transport in a post-glacial, low-gradient river system. Field and remote sensing analyses indicate that surfaces (up to 2-m high) composed of mud and sand function as floodplains 1.5-2.5 km upstream of both former dam sites. Preliminary analysis of seven radiocarbon dates from pieces of tree bark sampled from the stratigraphy (58-187 cm below the surface) of the two study sites suggest at least 1.8 m

  14. Late Vistulian and Holocene changes in the Ner river valley in light of geological and palaeoecological data from the Ner-Zawada peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forysiak, Jacek; Obremska, Milena; Pawłowski, Dominik; Kittel, Piotr

    2010-12-01

    The Ner-Zawada peatland is located in the valley of the Ner River in Central Poland. It is a small fen peatland that was formed in the Alleröd Period. In the Younger Dryas, it was transformed into a lake and became a peatland again in the Holocene. Within the peatland and around it, geological and archaeological research was carried out. A sediment core collected in the central part of the peatland was subjected to the analysis of pollen, fossil Cladocera, and absolute dating. This study allows a reconstruction of palaeoecological changes in the peatland and drawing conclusions about the palaeogeography of the middle section of the Ner River valley during the past 13 000 years.

  15. Effects of the 1997 flood on the transport and storage of sediment and mercury within the Carson River Valley, west-central Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.; Barr, R.; Grow, D.; Richardson, D.; Waltman, K.; Lechler, P.; Warwick, J.

    1999-05-01

    Intense, warm rains falling on a heavy snowpack in the Sierra Nevada at the end of December 1996 produced some of the largest floods on record in west-central Nevada. Within the Carson River basin, a peak discharge of 632 cm was recorded at the Fort Churchill gaging station on January 3, 1997, a flow exceeding the 100-yr event. Geomorphic impacts of the event, and the redistribution of mercury (Hg) released to the Carson River valley by Comstock mining operations during the mid- to late-1800s, were assessed by combining field data with the interpretation of aerial photographs. Geomorphic impacts included significant increases in channel width, measuring up to 280% of preflood conditions, and large-scale shifts in channel position, ranging from < 10 to 110 m. Both changes in channel width and position vary as a function of valley morphometry (width and slope) and differ from the long-term trends measured from 1965 to 1991. The 1997 flood also produced widespread overbank deposits that vary morphologically and sedimentologically according to distance from the channel and the nature of the vegetation on the valley floor. Within the overbank deposits, Hg is primarily associated with the fine-grained (< 63 {micro}m) sediment fraction, which makes up a larger percentage of the deposits immediately adjacent to the channel and at the extremities of overbank deposition. Mass balance calculations demonstrate that, along reaches with narrow valleys (< 450 m), approximately 10%--65% of the sediment eroded from the channel banks was stored in overbank deposits, whereas more than 90% of the sediment eroded along reaches with wider valleys was stored on the valley floor. Locally, however, storage exceeded 650% where meander cutoff was extensive. The above data indicate that the erosion, redeposition, and storage of sediment and sediment-bound Hg were greater along reaches characterized by low gradients and wide valley floors. Downstream trends in Hg concentration within the

  16. Paleoenvironmental aspects of middle ordovician (Black River and Trenton) carbonates; Germany Valley, Pendleton County, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, B. D., III

    The McGraw/McGlone and Nealmont Limestones and the Dolly Ridge Formation in Germany Valley were deposited on a gentle carbonate slope. Five suites of microfacies were recognized: micrites, biomicrites, echinoderm bryozoan biosparites, biosparites (with biopelsparites and intrabiopelsparites), and pelsparites. The micrites were deposited in quiet water environments at all depths. Normal salinity and open circulation prevailed, and the substrate consistency varied from soupy to firm. Terrigenous influxes were partly responsible for low abundances of organisms. The biomicrites were patches of organisms inhabiting these mud substrata, and graded laterally into the micrites. Water movement occurred, but energy was low. The echinoderm bryozoan biosparites were deposited as localized, high energy, wave base sands. Water was shallow and salinity and circulation were open marine. The shifting sand produced an unstable substratum.

  17. Initial-phase investigation of multi-dimensional streamflow simulations in the Colorado River, Moab Valley, Grand County, Utah, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kenney, Terry A.

    2005-01-01

    A multi-dimensional hydrodynamic model was applied to aid in the assessment of the potential hazard posed to the uranium mill tailings near Moab, Utah, by flooding in the Colorado River as it flows through Moab Valley. Discharge estimates for the 100- and 500-year recurrence interval and for the Probable Maximum Flood (PMF) were evaluated with the model for the existing channel geometry. These discharges also were modeled for three other channel-deepening configurations representing hypothetical scour of the channel at the downstream portal of Moab Valley. Water-surface elevation, velocity distribution, and shear-stress distribution were predicted for each simulation.The hydrodynamic model was developed from measured channel topography and over-bank topographic data acquired from several sources. A limited calibration of the hydrodynamic model was conducted. The extensive presence of tamarisk or salt cedar in the over-bank regions of the study reach presented challenges for determining roughness coefficients.Predicted water-surface elevations for the current channel geometry indicated that the toe of the tailings pile would be inundated by about 4 feet by the 100-year discharge and 25 feet by the PMF discharge. A small area at the toe of the tailings pile was characterized by velocities of about 1 to 2 feet per second for the 100-year discharge. Predicted velocities near the toe for the PMF discharge increased to between 2 and 4 feet per second over a somewhat larger area. The manner to which velocities progress from the 100-year discharge to the PMF discharge in the area of the tailings pile indicates that the tailings pile obstructs the over-bank flow of flood discharges. The predicted path of flow for all simulations along the existing Colorado River channel indicates that the current distribution of tamarisk in the over-bank region affects how flood-flow velocities are spatially distributed. Shear-stress distributions were predicted throughout the study reach

  18. CO2 emissions from a temperate drowned river valley estuary adjacent to an emerging megacity (Sydney Harbour)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, E. L.; Mulhearn, P. J.; Eyre, B. D.

    2017-06-01

    The Sydney Harbour Estuary is a large drowned river valley adjacent to Sydney, a large urban metropolis on track to become a megacity; estimated to reach a population of 10 million by 2100. Monthly underway surveys of surface water pCO2 were undertaken along the main channel and tributaries, from January to December 2013. pCO2 showed substantial spatio-temporal variability in the narrow high residence time upper and mid sections of the estuary, with values reaching a maximum of 5650 μatm in the upper reaches and as low as 173 μatm in the mid estuary section, dominated by respiration and photosynthesis respectively. The large lower estuary displayed less variability in pCO2 with values ranging from 343 to 544 μatm controlled mainly by tidal pumping and temperature. Air-water CO2 emissions reached a maximum of 181 mmol C m-2 d-1 during spring in the eutrophic upper estuary. After a summer high rainfall event nutrient-stimulated biological pumping promoted a large uptake of CO2 transitioning the Sydney Harbour Estuary into a CO2 sink with a maximum uptake of rate of -10.6 mmol C m-2 d-1 in the mid-section of the estuary. Annually the Sydney Harbour Estuary was heterotrophic and a weak source of CO2 with an air-water emission rate of 1.2-5 mmol C m-2 d-1 (0.4-1.8 mol C m-2 y-1) resulting in a total carbon emission of around 930 tonnes per annum. CO2 emissions (weighted m3 s-1 of discharge per km2 of estuary surface area) from Sydney Harbour were an order of magnitude lower than other temperate large tectonic deltas, lagoons and engineered systems of China, India, Taiwan and Europe but were similar to other natural drowned river valley systems in the USA. Discharge per unit area appears to be a good predictor of CO2 emissions from estuaries of a similar climate and geomorphic class.

  19. Appraisal of the surficial aquifers in the Pomme de Terre and Chippewa River Valleys, western Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soukup, W.G.; Gillies, D.C.; Myette, C.F.

    1984-01-01

    In the Cyrus-Benson area/ model results indicate that tinder 1980 development and average area! recharge/ dynamic equilibrium would be reached in less than 4 years and additional drawdown would be less than 2 feet. A 3-year drought coupled with increased pumping from irrigation wells operated during 1980 would lower water levels as much as 6 feet and reduce flow in the Chippewa River by about 26 cubic feet per second. At maximum hypothetical development in terms of the number of wells and normal area! recharge/ water levels would be lowered as much as 9 feet and streamflow would be reduced about 12 cubic feet per second. At maximum hypothetical development/ drought conditions and increased pumping would lower water levels as much as 12 feet and reduce flow in the Chippewa River by about 30 cubic feet per second/ which equals about 75 percent of available streamflow at the 70-percent flow duration.

  20. Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley, and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald Edward; Gates, J.S.; Smith, Joe T.; Fry, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    From October 1971 through October 1974, the U.S. Geological Survey collected groundwater data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. The data collection program consisted of an inventory of all major irrigation, municipal-supply, and industrial wells; selected stock and domestic wells; and selected springs. Water samples were collected from representative wells and springs for chemical analyses. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Ground-water data for the Salt Basin, Eagle Flat, Red Light Draw, Green River Valley and Presidio Bolson in westernmost Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Donald E.; Gates, Joseph S.; Smith, James T.; Fry, Bonnie J.

    1980-01-01

    From October 1971 through October 1974. the U.S. Geological Survey collected ground-water data in the basins in Texas west of the Pecos River drainage area and northwest of the Big Bend country. The basins included are, from east to west: The Presidio Bolson; the Salt Basin; Green River Valley, Eagle Flat, and Red Light Draw. These data, which were collected in cooperation with the Texas Department of Water Resources (formerly Texas Water Development Board), will provide information for a continuing assessment of water availability within the State.

  2. Development of communication networks and water quality early warning detection systems at drinking water utilities in the Ohio River Valley Basin.

    PubMed

    Schulte, J G; Vicory, A H

    2005-01-01

    Source water quality is of major concern to all drinking water utilities. The accidental introduction of contaminants to their source water is a constant threat to utilities withdrawing water from navigable or industrialized rivers. The events of 11 September, 2001 in the United States have heightened concern for drinking water utility security as their source water and finished water may be targets for terrorist acts. Efforts are underway in several parts of the United States to strengthen early warning capabilities. This paper will focus on those efforts in the Ohio River Valley Basin.

  3. Wetlands Drainage, River Modification, and Sectoral Conflict in the Lower Illinois Valley 1890-1930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Holly C.

    In the United States, many households buy flood insurance to hedge losses due to rivers overtopping their banks and inundating property mortgage institutions require homebuyers to purchase insurance when property lies within the "100-year floodplain," where floods have a 1% chance of occurrence each year. Yet haven't we all read about communities experiencing several extreme floods within a few years? Haven't we read about disputes between property developers and community planners over flood risks and flood insurance rates?

  4. Development of Hydrological Model of Klang River Valley for flood forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, M.; Andras, B.

    2012-12-01

    This study is to review the impact of climate change and land used on flooding through the Klang River and to compare the changes in the existing river system in Klang River Basin with the Storm water Management and Road Tunnel (SMART) which is now already operating in the city centre of Kuala Lumpur. Klang River Basin is the most urbanized region in Malaysia. More than half of the basin has been urbanized on the land that is prone to flooding. Numerous flood mitigation projects and studies have been carried out to enhance the existing flood forecasting and mitigation project. The objective of this study is to develop a hydrological model for flood forecasting in Klang Basin Malaysia. Hydrological modelling generally requires large set of input data and this is more often a challenge for a developing country. Due to this limitation, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) rainfall measurement, initiated by the US space agency NASA and Japanese space agency JAXA was used in this study. TRMM data was transformed and corrected by quantile to quantile transformation. However, transforming the data based on ground measurement doesn't make any significant improvement and the statistical comparison shows only 10% difference. The conceptual HYMOD model was used in this study and calibrated using ROPE algorithm. But, using the whole time series of the observation period in this area resulted in insufficient performance. The depth function which used in ROPE algorithm are then used to identified and calibrated using only unusual event to observed the improvement and efficiency of the model.

  5. Sacramento River Flood Control Project, California Mid-Valley Area, Phase 3. Design Memorandum Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-06-01

    hydraulic excavator, crane, concrete pumps , loader, transit mixer, water trucks, and miscellaneous equipment. g. For other construction items, drainage...Flood Control Acts of December 1944 and May 1950 and incorporated under Sacramento River and Major and Minor Tributaries. Although construction of the...project was initiated in 1918, many of the levees were originally constructed by local interests prior to that time and subsequently modified and

  6. Accumulations of block material in the Chuya And Katun river valleys and distribution of late pleistocene glaciation in the Altai Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykin, V. S.; Zykina, V. S.; Sennikov, N. V.; Mistryukov, A. A.

    2016-09-01

    The data presented introduce substantial changes into Quaternary stratigraphy, paleogeography, and the geological history of the Altai Mountains. The purpose of this investigation was thorough study of block accumulations in the Chuya and Katun river valleys. The new data shed light on the structure of these deposits, their composition, the geomorphological and stratigraphic position, and the morphology of blocks. The revealed morphological features of individual blocks imply their glacial origin.

  7. Two-dimensional hydrodynamic flood modelling for populated valley areas of Russian rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belikov, V. V.; Krylenko, I. N.; Alabyan, A. M.; Sazonov, A. A.; Glotko, A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Results of flood modelling for three cities located in different parts of Russia: (1) Veliky Ustyug at the Northern Dvina river (Europe); (2) Mezhdurechensk at the Tom river (Siberia); and (3) Blagoveschensk at the Amur river (Far East) are presented. The two-dimensional hydrodynamic model of flow in channels and on floodplain STREAM_2D on the basis of the numerical solution of two-dimensional Saint-Venant equations on a hybrid curvilinear quadrangular and rectangular mesh was used for the simulations. Verification of the model through a comparison of simulated inundated areas with outlines of flooded zones from satellite images for known hydrologic situations demonstrate close correspondence (relative errors of 7-12% in terms of the area for peaks of the analysed floods). Analyses of embankment influence of large-scale levees on the water flow demonstrate that, in some cases, water levels could rise by more than 1 m and the patterns of the flooding zones could significantly differ.

  8. Public support for ecosystem restoration in the Hudson River Valley, USA.

    PubMed

    Connelly, Nancy A; Knuth, Barbara A; Kay, David L

    2002-04-01

    We applied the Theory of Planned Behavior to help understand the relationships between environmental beliefs, support for ecosystem restoration actions, and willingness to pay (WTP) for restoration and protection goals in the Hudson River estuary, New York State, USA. We conducted a mail survey with 3,000 randomly-chosen local residents of the Hudson River estuary in the fall of 1999. As hypothesized, the broad ecosystem restoration goals of the Hudson River Estuary Action Plan were more strongly supported than the corresponding specific implementation actions. We found that beliefs and past behavior were better explanatory variables than sociodemographic characteristics for explaining people's support for ecosystem restoration actions and WTP for restoration and protection goals. Because ecosystem restoration goals appear to be more generally acceptable than specific restoration actions, proponents of restoration programs should not become complacent about the need for active public outreach and involvement even if initial restoration program discussions have been low in controversy. Efforts to assess and foster support for ecosystem restoration should be targeted toward audiences identified on the basis of beliefs and past behaviors rather than on sociodemographic characteristics.

  9. The chemistry of river-lake systems in the context of permafrost occurrence (Mongolia, Valley of the Lakes) Part II. Spatial trends and possible sources of organic composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szopińska, Małgorzata; Dymerski, Tomasz; Polkowska, Żaneta; Szumińska, Danuta; Wolska, Lidia

    2016-07-01

    The chemistry of river-lake systems located in Central Mongolia near the southern border of permafrost occurrence has not been well studied. The main aim of this paper is to summarize patterns in water chemistry in supply springs, rivers and lakes in relation to permafrost occurrence, as well as other natural and anthropogenic impacts. The analyses involved water samples taken from two river-lake systems: the Baydrag River-Böön Tsagaan Lake system and the Shargalyuut/Tuyn Rivers-Orog Lake system. Total organic carbon (TOC) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were detected and quantified. Other organic compounds, such as organic halogen compounds, phthalates, and higher alkanes were also noted. The main factors which influence differences in TOC concentrations in the water bodies involve permafrost occurrence, mainly because compounds are released during active layer degradation (in the upper reach of the Tuyn river), and by intensive livestock farming in river valleys and in the vicinity of lakes. In relation to the concentrations of PAHs, high variability between samples (> 300 ng L- 1), indicates the influence of thermal water and local geology structures (e.g., volcanic and sedimentary deposits), as well as accumulation of suspended matter in lakes transported during rapid surface runoff events. The monitoring of TOC as well as individual PAHs is particularly important to future environmental studies, as they may potentially reflect the degradation of the environment. Therefore, monitoring in the Valley of the Lakes should be continued, particularly in the light of the anticipated permafrost degradation in the 21st century, in order to collect more data and be able to anticipate the response of river-lake water chemistry to changes in permafrost occurrence.

  10. Evaluation of water quality and protection strategies of water resources in arid-semiarid climates: a case study in the Yuxi River Valley of Northern Shaanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunfeng, Li; Guohui, Song; Yaoguo, Wu; Weifeng, Wan; Maosheng, Zhang; Yanjuan, Xu

    2009-06-01

    Water resource structure is one of the most important factors that constrain the economic development in arid-semiarid areas. Sustainable use of water requires a thorough understanding of the local geology and hydrology and developing of effective protection strategies. Discussed in this paper is a study on the phreatic water quality of the Yuxi River Valley of Shaanxi Province, China. The Yuxi River Valley passes through the Shaanbei energy base, which demands large quantities of high-quality water. A total of 129 water samples were collected in 4,938 km2 in a recent study to delineate the areas with water suitable for drinking, industrial, and agricultural usage and areas with poor quality. The study indicates that the poor quality of water contains high concentrations of NH4+ and NO{2/-1}, indicating possible contamination by waste disposal in the nearby cities and towns. A series of strategies are proposed to protect the water in the Yuxi River Valley, including proper treatment and recycling of the waste water in the cities and towns, strict control of the waste-water discharge from any new factories and mines, and prevention of groundwater contamination by wastes containing heavy metals.

  11. INFLUENCE OF SNOWFALL ON BLOOD LEAD LEVELS OF FREE-FLYING BALD EAGLES (HALIAEETUS LEUCOCEPHALUS) IN THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI RIVER VALLEY.

    PubMed

    Lindblom, Ronald A; Reichart, Letitia M; Mandernack, Brett A; Solensky, Matthew; Schoenebeck, Casey W; Redig, Patrick T

    2017-10-01

    Lead poisoning of scavenging raptors occurs primarily via consumption of game animal carcasses containing lead, which peaks during fall firearm hunting seasons. We hypothesized that snowfall would mitigate exposure by concealing carcasses. We categorized blood lead level (BLL) for a subsample of Bald Eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) from the Upper Mississippi River Valley and described BLL with respect to age, sex, and snowfall. We captured Bald Eagles overwintering in the Upper Mississippi River Valley (n=55) between December 1999 and January 2002. Individual BLL ranged from nondetectable to 335 μg/dL, with 73% of the samples testing positive for acute exposure to lead. Eagle BLL did not significantly differ between age or sex, but levels were higher immediately following the hunting season, and they were lower when the previous month's snowfall was greater than 11 cm. This study suggests a window of time between the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) hunting season and the onset of snow when the population experienced peak exposure to lead. Combining these findings with existing research, we offer a narrative of the annual lead exposure cycle of Upper Mississippi River Valley Bald Eagles. These temporal associations are necessary considerations for accurate collection and interpretation of BLL.

  12. Valley-fill alluviation during the Little Ice Age (ca. A.D. 1400-1880), Paria River basin and southern Colorado Plateau, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, R.

    2002-01-01

    Valley-fill alluvium deposited from ca. A.D. 1400 to 1880 is widespread in tributaries of the Paria River and is largely coincident with the Little Ice Age epoch of global climate variability. Previous work showed that alluvium of this age is a mappable stratigraphic unit in many of the larger alluvial valleys of the southern Colorado Plateau. The alluvium is bounded by two disconformities resulting from prehistoric and historic arroyo cutting at ca. A.D. 1200-1400 and 1860-1910, respectively. The fill forms a terrace in the axial valleys of major through-flowing streams. This terrace and underlying deposits are continuous and interfinger with sediment in numerous small tributary valleys that head at the base of hillslopes of sparsely vegetated, weakly consolidated bedrock, suggesting that eroded bedrock was an important source of alluvium along with in-channel and other sources. Paleoclimatic and high-resolution paleoflood studies indicate that valley-fill alluviation occured during a long-term decrease in the frequency of large, destructive floods. Aggradation of the valleys ended about A.D. 1880, if not two decades earlier, with the beginning of historic arroyo cutting. This shift from deposition to valley entrenchment near the close of the Little Ice Age generally coincided with the beginning of an episode of the largest floods in the preceding 400-500 yr, which was probably caused by an increased recurrence and intensity of flood-producing El Nin??o events beginning at ca. A.D. 1870.

  13. Constructing an Alpine Fault Paleoseismicity Record from Slumped Lacustrine Deposits in the Cascade River Valley, South Westland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffey, G.; Moy, C. M.; Toy, V. G.; Ohneiser, C.; Howarth, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    The Alpine Fault is a major structure in New Zealand capable of producing earthquakes of magnitude 7 or greater, which delineates the boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates. Paleoseismic records of these earthquakes indicate recurrence intervals of 300 - 400 years over the last 1,300 years. However, there are no pre-Holocene records. Documenting the late Pleistocene record of magnitude, timing, and frequency of earthquakes would significantly reduce uncertainty in hazard analyses. The tectonically complex Cascade River Valley follows the Southern Alpine Fault, where the fault dominantly accommodates strike-slip motion. Two ~7m outcrops of proglacial lacustrine silt are exposed along the river in which, deformed rhythmites bounded by planar laminated rhythmites have been identified. These exhibit a variety of fold geometries in outcrop and x-ray computed tomography (CT) scans, all of which show some degree of asymmetry. Initial radiocarbon ages of 14,400 and 13,300 14C yr BP have been obtained from terrestrial plant material isolated from samples near the base of one outcrop. Given the age range and laminae density, these dates suggest that the rhythmites are varves, but additional radiocarbon dates and CT-scans will be used to confirm this. The deformed horizons are interpreted to be seismites formed by slumping. Earthquake shaking triggers an increase in pore fluid pressure, which destabilises the sublacustrine slope causing failure and the release of silt into the sedimentary system. As silt is transported by downslope shear it is deformed in distinct layers. Displacement of volumes of silt also causes the formation of seiche waves that apply shear stress to lake floor sediments causing further deformation. Deviations in magnetic susceptibility and the declination of magnetic remanence observed underneath and within deformed horizons are interpreted to be a response of earthquake shaking. Data from these different proxies will be presented and

  14. Eocene extension in Idaho generated massive sediment floods into Franciscan trench and into Tyee, Great Valley, and Green River basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumitru, Trevor A.; Ernst, W.G.; Wright, James E.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Wells, Ray E.; Farmer, Lucia P.; Kent, Adam J.R.; Graham, Stephan A.

    2013-01-01

    The Franciscan Complex accretionary prism was assembled during an ∼165-m.y.-long period of subduction of Pacific Ocean plates beneath the western margin of the North American plate. In such fossil subduction complexes, it is generally difficult to reconstruct details of the accretion of continent-derived sediments and to evaluate the factors that controlled accretion. New detrital zircon U-Pb ages indicate that much of the major Coastal belt subunit of the Franciscan Complex represents a massive, relatively brief, surge of near-trench deposition and accretion during Eocene time (ca. 53–49 Ma). Sediments were sourced mainly from the distant Idaho Batholith region rather than the nearby Sierra Nevada. Idaho detritus also fed the Great Valley forearc basin of California (ca. 53–37 Ma), the Tyee forearc basin of coastal Oregon (49 to ca. 36 Ma), and the greater Green River lake basin of Wyoming (50–47 Ma). Plutonism in the Idaho Batholith spanned 98–53 Ma in a contractional setting; it was abruptly superseded by major extension in the Bitterroot, Anaconda, Clearwater, and Priest River metamorphic core complexes (53–40 Ma) and by major volcanism in the Challis volcanic field (51–43 Ma). This extensional tectonism apparently deformed and uplifted a broad region, shedding voluminous sediments toward depocenters to the west and southeast. In the Franciscan Coastal belt, the major increase in sediment input apparently triggered a pulse of massive accretion, a pulse ultimately controlled by continental tectonism far within the interior of the North American plate, rather than by some tectonic event along the plate boundary itself.

  15. Soil chemical changes under irrigated mango production in the Central São Francisco River Valley, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Heck, R J; Tiessen, H; Salcedo, I H; Santos, M C

    2003-01-01

    Irrigated areas in Brazil's Central São Francisco River Valley have experienced declines in productivity, which may be a reflection of changes in soil chemical properties due to management. This study was conducted to compare the chemical composition of soil solutions and cation exchange complexes in a five-year-old grove of irrigated mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. Tommy Atkins) with that of an adjacent clearing in the native caatinga vegetation. A detailed physiographic characterization of the area revealed a subsurface rock layer, which was more undulating than the current land surface, and identified the presence of a very saline and sodic (1045 microS cm(-1), sodium adsorption ratio [SAR] = 5.19) ground water table. While changes in concentrations of Ca, Mg, and K could be attributed to direct management inputs (fertilization and liming with dolomite), increases in Na suggested average annual capillary rise from the ground water table of 28 L m(-2). Accordingly, soil salinity levels appeared to be more dependent on surface elevation than the elevation of the rock layer or sediment thickness. The apparent influence of land surface curvature on water redistribution and the solution chemistry was more pronounced under irrigated mango production. In general, salinity levels had doubled in the mango grove and nearly tripled under the canopies, after only five years of irrigation. Though critical saline or sodic conditions were not encountered, the changes observed indicate a need for more adequate monitoring and management of water and salt inputs despite the excellent water quality of the São Francisco River.

  16. Large-scale landslide-induced liquefaction and transport of valley-fill deposits in the Vorderrhein River Valley, Graubunden, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calhoun, Nancy; Clague, John; von Poschinger, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    The Flims landslide, located in the canton of Graubunden in the eastern Swiss Alps, is one of the largest Holocene mass movements in the world. About 10-12 km3 of Helvetic carbonate rocks slid away from the north side of the Vorderrhein valley 8900 years ago and crashed onto the valley floor, blocking the Vorderrhein. An important secondary effect of the landslide was the liquefaction and mobilization of about 1 km3 of valley-fill sediments, which resulted in the emplacement of the Bonaduz gravels. The Bonaduz gravels were deposited by a mass flow in front of the Flims rockslide debris, to the east down the Vorderrhein valley, and to the south up the Hinterrhein valley, up to 16 km away. The unit, which is more than 60 m thick and stands in near-vertical faces, consists of upward-fining, well-rounded, poorly sorted gravels that grade into pebbly silt and, locally, silt. Characteristic sedimentological features include "Pavoni pipes" - sub-vertical, tube-shaped dewatering pipes - and large (up to multi-meter) rip-up clasts of lacustrine clayey silt. The mass flow that deposited the Bonaduz gravels rafted masses of rockslide material ("Toma hills") up to 260 m long and 70 m high for distances of several kilometers. Generations of scientists have explored diverse aspects of the Flims landslide, but questions remain about the emplacement of the Bonaduz gravels and how liquefied valley-fill sediments can travel so far with so much power. We are attempting to better understand the Bonaduz gravels and the sequence of events that produced them through stratigraphic and sedimentological observations, particle-size analysis, and analysis of Lidar imagery. We are incorporating these observations into GIS-based maps of the Vorderrhein and Hinterrhein valleys. Of particular interest are several key field sites within and near the base of the Flims rockslide debris, where atypical facies of the Bonaduz unit interfingering with Flims rockslide debris have been found.

  17. Post-earthquake modification of 2015 Gorkha Earthquake landslides in the Bhote Koshi River valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Kristen; Andermann, Christoff; Adhikari, Basanta; Schmitt, Clemens; Marc, Odin

    2016-04-01

    Large earthquakes trigger widespread mass failures, and the estimated volumes of landslide material are often used to estimate seismically triggered erosion, assuming that all landslide material is transported out of the affected area. The expectation that earthquakes can generate a pulse of sediment output from the affected area can also potentially be used to recognize large seismic events in the sedimentary record. However, in order to properly understand the relationship between earthquake triggered landslides, sediment flux, and erosion, we need to consider how and when the landslide debris is mobilized in the fluvial system and exported from the catchment. We present observations from three field excursions to the upper Bhote Koshi River following the April 25 2015 Gorkha earthquake, which triggered extensive landsliding in this region. Our observations, from early June, late July, and Oct 2015, cover the pre-monsoon, mid-monsoon, and post-monsoon periods, allowing us to constrain monsoon-driven changes to seismically triggered landslides.In order to quantify post-earthquake modification of individual landslides and of the transport of landslide materials to the main trunk rivers, we conducted surveys using both terrestrial lidar and SfM. Immediately following the earthquake, a large number of landslides were disconnected from the channels, with significant amounts of material stored on the hillslopes. This was facilitated by the widespread presence of a two-step topography, with steep slopes adjacent to the main river channels and a section of lower gradient hillslope above. The landslides above this step typically did not reach the channel, or only delivered material via preexisting narrow debris flow chutes. As expected, the monsoon caused new landslides, the expansion of existing landslides, and the modification of coseisimic landslide deposits. In late July we observed ongoing mobilization of this stored material, with repeated downslope delivery of

  18. Ground water in the alluvial deposits of the Canadian River valley near Norman, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacy, Bill L.

    1961-01-01

    Unconsolidated water-bearing alluvial deposits border the Canadian River in the vicinity of Norman, Oklahoma. These Quaternary materials are divided on the basis of topgraphic position into 'high terrace deposits' and 'alluvium.' The high terrace lies at an elevation of 50 to 60 feet above the alluvium, which in turn lies 7 to 15 feet above the channel of the Canadian River. Southwest of Norman a relatively thick section of these deposits occur as a hydrologic unit and overlie impermeable Permian shale. The high terrace deposits contain thick beds of clay, silt, and fine sand, whereas the alluvium contains a higher percentage of coarse sand and gravel. Ground-water recharge is estimated to be 23 percent of the normal annual precipitation of 33.22 inches; the specific yield is about 15 percent, and the coefficient of permeability is about 1,000 gpd/ft2. Using these figures 17,000 acre-feet of water is computed to be in storage within the area acting as a hydrologic unit. About 3.6 million gallons of water is discharged daily from the high terrace deposits through a 16,000-foot section of alluvium having a saturated thickness of 40 feet along the river. The quality of water in the high terrace deposits meets the standards of the U.S. Public Health Service for domestic water used by Interstate carriers but nitrate content of one well is higher than recommended by the Oklahoma Department of Public Health. Water in the alluvium is of poorer quality because the water is concentrated by evapotranspiration. (available as photostat copy only)

  19. People's perception on impacts of hydro-power projects in Bhagirathi river valley, India.

    PubMed

    Negi, G C S; Punetha, Disha

    2017-04-01

    The people's perception on environmental and socio-economic impacts due to three hydro-electric projects (HEPs; commissioned and under construction) were studied in the north-west Indian Himalaya. Surveys among 140 project-affected people (PAPs) using a checklist of impacts indicate that among the negative impacts, decrease in flora/fauna, agriculture, flow of river, aesthetic beauty; and increase in water pollution, river bed quarrying for sand/stone, human settlement on river banks and social evils; and among the positive impacts, increase in standard of living, road connectivity, means of transport, public amenities, tourism and environmental awareness were related with HEPs. The PAPs tend to forget the negative impacts with the age of the HEPs after it becomes functional, and the positive impacts seem to outweigh the negative impacts. Study concludes that it is difficult to separate the compounding impacts due to HEP construction and other anthropogenic and natural factors, and in the absence of cause-and-effect analyses, it is hard to dispel the prevailing notion that HEPs are undesirable in the study area that led to agitations by the environmentalists and stopped construction of one of these HEPs. To overcome the situation, multi-disciplinary scientific studies involving the PAPs need to be carried out in planning and decision-making to make HEPs environment friendly and sustainable in this region. There is also a need to adopt low carbon electric power technologies and promote a decentralized energy strategy through joint ventures between public and private companies utilizing locally available renewable energy resources.

  20. Climatic and geologic controls on suspended sediment flux in the Sutlej River Valley, western Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, H.; Bookhagen, B.; Scherler, D.

    2012-07-01

    The sediment flux through Himalayan rivers directly impacts water quality and is important for sustaining agriculture as well as maintaining drinking-water and hydropower generation. Despite the recent increase in demand for these resources, little is known about the triggers and sources of extreme sediment flux events, which lower water quality and account for extensive hydropower reservoir filling and turbine abrasion. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of the spatiotemporal trends in suspended sediment flux based on daily data during the past decade (2001-2009) from four sites along the Sutlej River and from four of its main tributaries. In conjunction with satellite data depicting rainfall and snow cover, air temperature and earthquake records, and field observations, we infer climatic and geologic controls of peak suspended sediment concentration (SSC) events. Our study identifies three key findings: First, peak SSC events (≥ 99th SSC percentile) coincide frequently (57-80%) with heavy rainstorms and account for about 30% of the suspended sediment flux in the semi-arid to arid interior of the orogen. Second, we observe an increase of suspended sediment flux from the Tibetan Plateau to the Himalayan Front at mean annual timescales. This sediment-flux gradient suggests that averaged, modern erosion in the western Himalaya is most pronounced at frontal regions, which are characterized by high monsoonal rainfall and thick soil cover. Third, in seven of eight catchments, we find an anticlockwise hysteresis loop of annual sediment flux variations with respect to river discharge, which appears to be related to enhanced glacial sediment evacuation during late summer. Our analysis emphasizes the importance of unconsolidated sediments in the high-elevation sector that can easily be mobilized by hydrometeorological events and higher glacial-meltwater contributions. In future climate change scenarios, including continuous glacial retreat and more frequent

  1. Evaluation of Selected Model Constraints and Variables on Simulated Sustainable Yield from the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer System in Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czarnecki, John B.

    2008-01-01

    An existing conjunctive use optimization model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer was used to evaluate the effect of selected constraints and model variables on ground-water sustainable yield. Modifications to the optimization model were made to evaluate the effects of varying (1) the upper limit of ground-water withdrawal rates, (2) the streamflow constraint associated with the White River, and (3) the specified stage of the White River. Upper limits of ground-water withdrawal rates were reduced to 75, 50, and 25 percent of the 1997 ground-water withdrawal rates. As the upper limit is reduced, the spatial distribution of sustainable pumping increases, although the total sustainable pumping from the entire model area decreases. In addition, the number of binding constraint points decreases. In a separate analysis, the streamflow constraint associated with the White River was optimized, resulting in an estimate of the maximum sustainable streamflow at DeValls Bluff, Arkansas, the site of potential surface-water withdrawals from the White River for the Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project. The maximum sustainable streamflow, however, is less than the amount of streamflow allocated in the spring during the paddlefish spawning period. Finally, decreasing the specified stage of the White River was done to evaluate a hypothetical river stage that might result if the White River were to breach the Melinda Head Cut Structure, one of several manmade diversions that prevents the White River from permanently joining the Arkansas River. A reduction in the stage of the White River causes reductions in the sustainable yield of ground water.

  2. Limited Genetic Diversity of Hepatitis B Virus in the General Population of the Offin River Valley in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Ampah, Kobina Assan; Pinho-Nascimento, Carlos Augusto; Kerber, Sarah; Asare, Prince; De-Graft, Daniel; Adu-Nti, Frank; Paixão, Izabel C. N. P.; Niel, Christian; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Pluschke, Gerd; Röltgen, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections account for approximately 780,000 deaths per year, most of which occur in the developing world. Co-infection with HBV and hepatitis delta virus (HDV) may lead to the most severe form of viral hepatitis. In Ghana, knowledge on the prevalence of HBV and HDV in the general population is scanty and the few genetic analyses of the prevailing HBV genotypes are dating back more than a decade. In the present study, 1,323 serum samples from individuals living in a rural area (Offin river valley) of Ghana were analyzed for the presence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Positive sera were subsequently tested for the presence of anti-HDV antibodies. A total of 107 (8%) sera were HBsAg positive with an 8.4% prevalence of anti-HDV antibodies among the HBsAg positives. Phylogenetic analysis based on HBV pre-S/S sequences, attributed all 52 typable samples to genotype E. All belonged to serotype ayw4. While 19 sequences clustered with those from a number of African countries, the other 33 formed a separate cluster distinguished by an intergroup mean distance of 1.5% from the pan-African HBV/E cluster. Successful implementation of HBV vaccination in the region was reflected by the low HBsAg carrier rate of 1.8% among children ≤11 years. PMID:27271290

  3. Transmission of Schistosoma japonicum by humans and domestic animals in the Yangtze River valley, Anhui province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tian-Ping; Vang Johansen, Maria; Zhang, Shi-Qing; Wang, Feng-Feng; Wu, Wei-Duo; Zhang, Gong-Hua; Pan, Xin-Ping; Ju, Yang; Ørnbjerg, Niels

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the relative contribution to transmission of Schistosoma japonicum by humans and domestic animals in two villages in the Yangtze River valley in Anhui province, China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum in humans, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, pigs, goats, dogs and cats. Additionally, for each host species the number of individuals and the mean faecal excretion per day was determined. Results showed that both prevalence and intensity of infection varied significantly between species and between the two villages and neither of the variables gave an adequate picture of the potential transmission. Total daily egg excretion was significantly higher in Chenqiao village compared with Guanghui village. Whereas humans were the main contributors to transmission of schistosomiasis in Guanghui village (80.4%), water buffaloes accounted for nearly 90% and goats for more than 5% of the transmission in Chenqiao village. Hence, the present study suggests that schistosomiasis transmission might vary significantly within Chinese farm districts and successful control should rely on prior transmission index determinations on major potential contributors rather than routine data of prevalence and intensity of infection. Further studies should determine the value of adding other transmission variables like egg hatchability and faecal deposition habits.

  4. Influence of grazing and available moisture on breeding densities of grassland birds in the central platte river valley, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kim, D.H.; Newton, W.E.; Lingle, G.R.; Chavez-Ramirez, F.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between grassland breeding bird densities and both grazing and available moisture in the central Platte River Valley. Nebraska between 1980 and 1996. We also compared species richness and community similarity of breeding birds in sedge (Carex spp.) meadows and mesic grasslands. Densities of two species had a significant relationship with grazing and six of seven focal species had a significant relationship with available moisture. Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) and Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) densities were lower in grazed plots compared to ungrazed plots, whereas Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) densities were greater in sedge-meadow plots compared to mesic grassland plots. Bobolink, Dickcissel (Spiza americana). and Brown-headed Cowbird were negatively associated with available moisture with breeding densities peaking during the driest conditions. Our results suggest that wet conditions increase species richness for the community through addition of wetland-dependant and wetland-associated birds, but decrease densities of ground-nesting grassland birds in wet-meadow habitats, whereas dry conditions reduce species richness but increase the density of the avian assemblage. We propose that wet-meadow habitats serve as local refugia for grassland-nesting birds during local or regional droughts.

  5. Multilocus patterns of nucleotide polymorphism and demographic change in Taxodium distichum (Cupressaceae) in the lower Mississippi River alluvial valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kusumi, J.; Zidong, L.; Kado, T.; Tsumura, Y.; Middleton, B.A.; Tachida, H.

    2010-01-01

    Premise of the Study: Studies of the geographic patterns of genetic variation can give important insights into the past population structure of species. Our study species, Taxodium distichum L. (bald-cypress), prefers riparian and wetland habitats and is widely distributed in southeastern North America and Mexico. We compared the genetic variation of T. distichum with that of its close relative, Cryptomeria japonica, which is endemic to Japan. Methods: Nucleotide polymorphisms of T. distichum in the lower Mississippi River alluvial valley, USA, were examined at 10 nuclear loci. Key Results: The average nucleotide diversity at silent sites, 7sil, across the 10 loci in T. distichum was higher than that of C. japonica (7sil = 0.00732 and 0.00322, respectively). In T. distichum, Tajima's D values were each negative at 9 out of 10 loci, which suggests a recent population expansion. Maximum-likelihood and Bayesian estimations of the exponential population growth rate (g) of T. distichum populations indicated that this species had expanded approximately at the rate of 1.7 - 1.0 10 -6 per year in the past. Conclusions: Taxodium distichum had signifi cantly higher nucleotide variation than C. japonica, and its patterns of polymorphism contrasted strikingly with those of the latter, which previously has been inferred to have experienced a reduction in population size.

  6. Preliminary assessment of the ground-water resources of the alluvial aquifer, White River valley, Rio Blanco County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Liew, W. P.; Gesink, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary study of the alluvial aquifer in the White River Valley was conducted to assess aquifer extent and the occurrence , availability, and chemical quality of water in the aquifer. The aquifer in the study area underlies 35 square miles. Aquifer width ranges from 0.1 to 1.5 miles and averages 0.5 miles. Saturated thickness ranges from zero to more than 140 feet and averages 22 feet. The aquifer is unconfined except west of the Grand Hogback, where artesian conditions were observed at several locations. Well yields usually are less than 25 gallons per minute. At the Meeker municipal well field in Agency Park, wells reportedly could yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute each. Based on nine aquifer tests,