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  1. PCBs in various Schools

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characterize primary and secondary sources of PCBs in school buildings Characterize levels of PCBs in air, dust, soil and on surfaces; investigate relationships between sources and environmental levels Apply an exposure model for estimating children’s exposures to PCBs in schools...

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs ) ; CASRN 1336 - 36 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments f

  3. Pyrolysis products of PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Paasivirta, J; Herzschuh, R; Humppi, T; Kantolahti, E; Knuutinen, J; Lahtiperä, M; Laitinen, R; Salovaara, J; Tarhanen, J; Virkki, L

    1985-01-01

    Model compound studies which were previously done for impurities and environmental residues of chlorophenols and for wastes of chlorination processes were extended to the impurities and pyrolysis products of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Model compounds were commercial products or synthesized and their structures proven by spectroscopic methods. These models were used as analytical reference substances in GC/ECD and GC/MS studies of the pyrolyzed PCB samples. In addition to previously known neutral components like polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), chlorophenolic substances, especially polychlorophenols (PCPs) and polychlorinated biphenylols (PCB-OHs) were observed as major pyrolysis products of PCBs. Capacitor fires are suggested to produce in many cases chlorophenols which are major toxic hazards to people. PMID:3928353

  4. PCBs and the Family Physician

    PubMed Central

    Cappon, I.D.

    1986-01-01

    Pcbs are widespread environmental contaminants present in virtually every mammal on earth. Great controversy and debate has been evoked over the past two decades concerning their potential toxicity. They, along with other organochlorine compounds such as DDT, have been reasonably well studied in field and experimental situations. In general, PCBs are not very toxic, especially in concentrations to which most people are exposed, even those who work in the industrial setting or who eat contaminated fish. In terms of environmental hazards to health, PCBs should be considered as relatively low on the list. The public cannot depend on media information as a source of objective knowledge on controversial compounds like PCBs. The family physician should be able to provide to concerned individuals objective information on the definition, sources and relative toxicity of PCBs. PMID:21267326

  5. PCBs and the environment: Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Waid, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    This book discusses: Differences Between Yusho and Other Kinds of Poisoning Involving Only PCBs. PCB Poisoning from Toxic Rice-Bran Oil. PCBs in Human Populations. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Workplace. Disposal and Destruction of Waste PCBs. Great Lakes Ecosystem Modeling of the Fate of PCBs. PCB in the Baltic Environment. Mediterranean Marine Ecosystem Case Study: The Australian Ecosystem.

  6. PCBs in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2012-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent, toxic and bioaccumulated contaminants of great environmental concern. PCB is a tracer of wastewater, stormwater and CSOs inputs; PCBs contamination of fish is a main environmental concern for the Harlem River. PCBs in the Harlem River are from combined sewer overflows (CSOs), stormwater runoff, wastewater, as well as upper Hudson GE (General Electric at Fort Edward)'s release. PCBs affect human health mostly from contaminated fish consumption. Many research focused on PCBs in the Hudson River and New York/New Jersey Harbor. However, PCBs source, transport and environmental impact in the Harlem River-a natural straight that connects the Hudson River and the East River, had not been well studied. In this research, water sample were collected from the Harlem River and analyzed PCBs by HR GC/MS (High resolution gas chromatography mass spectrophotometer). Preliminary results showed that certain PCBs congeners in the water column. Results also indicated that nutrients (phosphorus and ammonia) as well as bacteria levels exceeded EPA standards: Total phosphorus-10μg/L, total nitrogen-0.38mg/L; E.Coli-126 MPN/100ml, Enterococcus- 104MPN/100ml, Fecal Coliform-200 MPN/100ml. This research is under process, and more results could give further detail in near future. This research will help improve water quality of the Harlem River, improve environmental health and raise environmental awareness.SO tank Nutrient and bacterial levels of selected sites in the Harlem RiverCSO: Combined Sewer OverflowWWTP: Waste Water Treatment Plant

  7. PCBs: Recent environmental and analytical advances

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 discrete chemical compounds, called congeners, in which one to ten chlorine atoms are attached to biphenyl. This article reviews the properties, environmental occurrence, and analysis of PCBs. This review is intended to provide the environmental professional with a general background on PCBs.

  8. PCBs in Caulk and Paint

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-16

    were used in paints ►To enhance structural integrity ►Reduce flammability ►Increase antifungal properties  PCBs imparted heat resistance to the...closed Army ammunition plants has compromised and delayed the decontamination processes. BUILDING STRONG® Field Detection Technologies  Enzyme-linked...hours ► 100% within 48 hours The technology has been field demonstrated at Cape Canaveral Air Station, Fl and Badger Army Ammunition Plant , WI. BUILDING

  9. Plant uptake of sludge-borne PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, G.A.; Kiehl, D.; Eiceman, G.A.; Ryan, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Plant uptake of sludge-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (similar to Aroclor 1248) was evaluated in a greenhouse study with two food-chain crops and a grass species. Polychlorinated biphenyl loading to two soils was varied in one experiment by adding different rates of a municipal sewage sludge heavily contaminated (52 mg/kg) with PCBs. In a second experiment, Aroclor 1248 was spiked into unamended soils or soils amended with another sludge containing <1mg/kg PCBs. Analysis of PCBs was by GC/MS with a reliable detection limit in plants of 20 microg/kg for individual chlorinated classes (tri, tetra-, and pentachlorobiphenyls) and total PCBs. Only carrots (Daucus carota) were contaminated with PCBs, and contamination was restricted to carrot peels. Current USEPA guidelines for land application of sludges based on sludge PCB content are shown to be extremely conservative.

  10. Laboratory evaluation of PCBs encapsulation method

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effectiveness and limitations of the encapsulation method for reducing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in indoor air and contaminated surface have been evaluated in the laboratory study. Ten coating materials such as epoxy and polyurethane coatings, latex paint, a...

  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and Polychlorinated Dioxins (PCDDs)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    ty with acids, bases, and other chemical agents, and excellent dielectric (insulating) properties. PCBs are highly soluble in oils and organic...greatest use of PCBs was in the utilities industry, where they were used as dielectric fluids in transform- ers and capacitors (IARC, 1978). Today, PCBs...because PCBs were found, in several isolated instances, in eggs, poultry , and milk, the FDA decided to limit the amount of PCBs which could enter the

  12. PCBs and DDE in commercial fish feeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mac, Michael J.; Nicholson, L.W.; McCauley, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Three commercial fish feeds were analyzed for PCBs and p,p' DDE and were reported in dry weight concentrations. In various sizes of Oregon Moist Pellets, concentrations of PCBs ranged from less than 0.10 to 0.30 I?g/g and those of p,p' DDE from less than 0.01 to 0.47 I?g/g. In Silver Cup, concentrations of PCBs were 0.06 to 0.07 I?g/g, and p,p' DDE, 0.01 to 0.06 I?g/g. Nauplii of brine shrimp (Artemia salina) contained 0.14 I?g/g PCB and 0.03 I?g/g p,p' DDE.

  13. Assessing the cancer risk from environmental PCBs.

    PubMed Central

    Cogliano, V J

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to assessing the cancer risk from environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) considers both toxicity and environmental processes to make distinctions among environmental mixtures. New toxicity information from a 1996 cancer study of four commercial mixtures strengthens the case that all PCB mixtures can cause cancer, although different mixtures have different potencies. Environmental processes alter PCB mixtures through partitioning, chemical transformation, and preferential bioaccumulation; these processes can increase or decrease toxicity considerably. Bioaccumulated PCBs are of greatest concern because they appear to be more toxic than commercial PCBs and more persistent in the body. The new approach uses toxicity studies of commercial mixtures to develop a range of cancer potency estimates and then considers the effect of environmental processes to choose appropriate values for representative classes of environmental mixtures. Guidance is given for assessing risks from different exposure pathways, less-than-lifetime and early-life exposures, and mixtures containing dioxinlike compounds. PMID:9618347

  14. Metabolism and metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, FA; Hu, D; Kania-Korwel, I; Lehmler, HJ; Ludewig, G; Hornbuckle, KC; Duffel, MW; Bergman, A; Robertson, LW

    2015-01-01

    The metabolism of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is complex and has an impact on toxicity and thereby assessment of PCB risks. A large number of reactive and stable metabolites are formed in the processes of biotransformation in biota in general and in humans in particular. The aim of this document is to provide an overview of PCB metabolism and to identify metabolites of concern and their occurrence. Emphasis is given to mammalian metabolism of PCBs and their hydroxyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfated metabolites, especially those that persist in human blood. Potential intracellular targets and health risks are also discussed. PMID:25629923

  15. A CASE STUDY OF CANCER DATA SET COMBINATIONS FOR PCBs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Results of several animal bioassays have demonstrated the carcinogenic potential of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures. Although PCBs are no longer manufactured, cancer risk assessment for PCBs remains an important issue because of continued potential human exposure from man...

  16. PCBs and OH-PCBs in Serum from Children and Mothers in Urban and Rural U.S. Communities

    PubMed Central

    Marek, Rachel F.; Thorne, Peter S.; Wang, Kai; DeWall, Jeanne; Hornbuckle, Keri C.

    2013-01-01

    East Chicago, Indiana is a heavily-industrialized community bisected by the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal, which volatilizes ~7.5 kg/yr polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In contrast, the rural Columbus Junction, Iowa area has no known current or past PCB industrial sources. Blood from children and their mothers from these communities were collected April 2008-January 2009 (n=177). Sera were analyzed for all 209 PCBs and 4 hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs). Sum PCBs ranged from non-detect to 658 ng/g lw (median = 33.5 ng/g lw). Sum OH-PCBs ranged from non-detect to 1.2 ng/g fw (median = 0.07 ng/g fw). These concentrations are similar to those reported in other populations without high dietary PCB intake. Differences between the two communities were subtle. PCBs were detected in more East Chicago mothers and children than Columbus Junction mothers and children, and children from East Chicago were enriched in lower-molecular weight PCBs. East Chicago and Columbus Junction residents had similar levels of total and individual PCBs and OH-PCBs in their blood. Concentrations of parent PCBs correlated with concentrations of OH-PCBs. This is the first temporally- and methodologically-consistent study to evaluate all 209 PCBs and major metabolites in two generations of people living in urban and rural areas of the United States. PMID:23452180

  17. 75 FR 17645 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ...., Federal, State, and local agencies. Waste Management and Remediation Services (NAICS code 562), e.g., PCB..., commercial manufacture of PCBs in the United States ceased. A substantial portion of the PCBs that had....4 billion pounds (lbs.) of PCBs produced in the United States, 750 million lbs. remained in...

  18. COMPARING ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT PCBS TO TCDD

    EPA Science Inventory

    COMPARING ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT PCBS TO TCDD. D E Burgin1, J J Diliberto2 and L S Birnbaum3.1UNC, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 2USEPA/ORD/NHEERL, ETD, RTP, NC, USA

    Environmental exposures to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) always occur as part of a complex mixture. ...

  19. Bioremediation of PCBs. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Abramowicz, D.A.

    1996-06-01

    The Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was signed between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and General Electric Company (GE) on August 12, 1991. The objective was a collaborative venture between researchers at GE and ORNL to develop bioremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The work was conducted over three years, and this report summarizes ORNL`s effort. It was found that the total concentration of PCBs decreased by 70% for sequential anaerobic-aerobic treatment compared with a 67% decrease for aerobic treatment alone. The sequential treatment resulted in PCB products with fewer chlorines and shorter halflives in humans compared with either anaerobic or aerobic treatment alone. The study was expected to lead to a technology applicable to a field experiment that would be performed on a DOE contaminated site.

  20. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in San Francisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Davis, J A; Hetzel, F; Oram, J J; McKee, L J

    2007-09-01

    San Francisco Bay is facing a legacy of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) spread widely across the land surface of the watershed, mixed deep into the sediment of the Bay, and contaminating the Bay food web to a degree that poses health risks to humans and wildlife. In response to this persistent problem, water quality managers are establishing a PCB total maximum daily load (TMDL) and implementation plan to accelerate the recovery of the Bay from decades of PCB contamination. This article provides a review of progress made over the past 15 years in managing PCBs and understanding their sources, pathways, fate, and effects in the Bay, and highlights remaining information needs that should be addressed in the next 10 years. The phaseout of PCBs during the 1970s and the 1979 federal ban on sale and production led to gradual declines from the 1970s to the present. However, 25 years after the ban, PCB concentrations in some Bay sport fish today are still more than ten times higher than the threshold of concern for human health. Without further management action it appears that the general recovery of the Bay from PCB contamination will take many more decades. PCB concentrations in sport fish were, along with mercury, a primary cause of a consumption advisory for the Bay and the consequent classification of the Bay as an impaired water body. Several sources of information indicate that PCB concentrations in the Bay may also be high enough to adversely affect wildlife, including rare and endangered species. The greater than 90% reduction in food web contamination needed to meet the targets for protection of human health would likely also generally eliminate risks to wildlife. PCB contamination in the Bay is primarily associated with industrial areas along the shoreline and in local watersheds. Strong spatial gradients in PCB concentrations persist decades after the release of these chemicals to Bay Area waterways. Through the TMDL process, attention is being more sharply

  1. Mechanisms of PCBS-Induced Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    breast (milk) enzymes to oxygenated species that are electrophilic and bind to DNA. Of particular interest were the quinone metabolites. Our data showed...NBT ASSAY The spontaneous or enzymatic oxidation of hydroquinone and catechol metabolites of PCBs is expected to result in the production of superoxide...the PCB- metabolite to a final concentration of 100 pM. The increase of absorption at 540 nm was followed for 10 minutes. To test superoxide production

  2. Chemical Detoxification of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The present invention relates to the chemical detoxification of polychlorinated biphenyls by converting them to non-hazardous substances. In...particular, the invention relates to chemically destroying polychlorinated biphenyls on site for decontamination purposes without creating pollution or...hazardous situations. The invention provides a two-step process where polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), i.e. biphenyl having 2 to 10 chlorine atoms, are

  3. Earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Diercxsens, P.; de Weck, D.; Borsinger, N.; Rosset, B.; Tarradellas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is made of soil and earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals between a nature reserve and two sites conditioned by the addition of sewage sludge and compost. The tissues and gut content of the earthworms shows a higher PCB concentration than that of the surrounding soil and also a difference in the fingerprint of some single PCB compounds. Earthworms display a selective accumulation of cadmium and zinc in their tissues and gut content.

  4. Some technical issues in managing PCBs.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhifu; Buekens, Alfons; Liu, Jie; Chen, Tong; Lu, Shengyong; Li, Xiaodong; Cen, Kefa

    2014-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were important industrial chemicals featuring high thermal and chemical stability and low flammability. They were widely used as dielectric and thermal fluid in closed electro-technical applications (transformers, capacitors…) and also in numerous dispersive uses, ranking from auto-copying paper to sealant or coatings. During the 1960s, severe environmental consequences started becoming apparent. The stability of PCBs contributed to their persistence in the environment, their lipophilic character to bio-magnification. Fish-eating species seemed threatened in their existence. In Japan and in Taiwan, thousands of people consumed PCB-contaminated oil. The production of PCBs stopped completely during the 1980s. Usage could continue in closed applications only. In this paper, particular attention is given to two issues: the cleaning of PCB electric transformers and the potential impact of PCB-containing building materials. Other contributions will cover the management and treatment of PCB-contaminated soil, sludge or fly ash. The complete survey is being prepared by request of the Knowledge Center for Engineers and Professionals.

  5. Dietary uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carline, Robert F.; Barry, Patrick M.; Ketola, H. George

    2004-01-01

    The presence of detectable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in commercially produced fish feed has raised a concern about the degree of biomagnification of these contaminants in hatchery-reared trout. Our objectives were to (1) define the relationship between concentrations of PCBs in fish feed and in fish tissue and (2) estimate the relative contributions of feed and hatchery supply water to PCB concentrations in fish. We conducted a 6-month feeding trial with fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fed commercial diets with four concentrations of PCBs: a low-PCB diet (69 ng/g); a typical commercial diet (126 ng/g); and the typical diet spiked with PCBs at two levels (220 and 280 ng/g). The concentrations of PCBs in fillets after 1 month were commensurate with those in the feeds and remained relatively stable for the next 5 months; mean PCB concentrations in fillets ranged from 54 to 94 ng/g. Low levels of PCBs were detected in the hatchery supply water. We used the concentrations of PCBs in the feeds, absorption rates of PCBs, and two different rates of PCB depuration to estimate the potential uptake of PCBs from supply water. When we used a low depuration rate (half-life = 219 d), the computed body burdens of PCBs could be entirely attributed to the feeds. When a high depuration rate (half-life = 66 d) was used, some uptake of PCBs from the supply water was likely, but most of the total body burden originated from the feeds. We concluded that rainbow trout fed a diet with 126 ng/g PCBs would have a PCB concentration of about 60 ng/g in their fillets, which is high enough to warrant issuance of a consumption advisory (no more than one meal of fish per week) under a protocol adopted by some Great Lakes states.

  6. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.187 Section 761.187 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs... Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. In addition...

  7. Diagrams Showing Actions for Reducing Exposures to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Indoor Building Environments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This diagram compliments the document, PCBs in Building Materials: Q's & A's, on how exposure to PCBs can be assessed and reduced in school buildings. It describes actions for reducing exposures to PCBs in indoor school building environments.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of PCBs encapsulation method ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Effectiveness and limitations of the encapsulation method for reducing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) concentrations in indoor air and contaminated surface have been evaluated in the laboratory study. Ten coating materials such as epoxy and polyurethane coatings, latex paint, and petroleum-based paint were tested in small environmental chambers to rank the encapsulants by their resistance to PCB sorption and estimate the key parameters required by a barrier model. Wipe samples were collected from PCB contaminated surface encapsulated with the coating materials to rank the encapsulants by their resistance to PCB migration from the source. A barrier model was used to calculate the PCB concentrations in the sources and the encapsulant layers, and at the exposed surfaces of the encapsulant and in the room air at different times. The performance of the encapsulants was ranked by those concentrations and PCB percent reductions. Overall, the three epoxy coatings performed better than the other coatings. Both the experimental results and the mathematical modeling showed that selecting proper encapsulants can effectively reduce the PCB concentrations at the exposed surfaces. The encapsulation method is most effective for contaminated surfaces that contain low levels of PCBs. This study answers some of these questions by using a combination of laboratory testing and mathematical modeling. The results should be useful to mitigation engineers, building owners and managers

  9. Uptake and bioaccumulation of three PCBs by Chlorella fusca

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.; Rott, B.; Korte, F.

    1982-01-01

    This paper reports the bioaccumulation of three PCBs (2,4'-dichlorobiphenyl, 2,4,6,2'-tetrachlorobiphenyl and 2,4,6,2',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl) by the green alga Chlorella fusca under various conditions. A probable pattern of the bioconcentration mechanism is suggested. No metabolites were extracted from algae or water 6 days after incubation with PCBs.

  10. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stormwater runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air... by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten-year 24... other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or...

  11. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stormwater runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air... by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten-year 24... other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or...

  12. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... stormwater runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air... by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten-year 24... other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or...

  13. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stormwater runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air... by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten-year 24... other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or...

  14. 40 CFR 129.105 - Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... stormwater runoff or other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air... by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or to stormwater runoff that exceeds that from the ten-year 24... other discharges from areas subject to contamination solely by fallout from air emissions of PCBs; or...

  15. PCBs in fish and their cestode parasites in Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Oluoch-Otiego, John; Oyoo-Okoth, Elijah; Kiptoo, Kipkorir Koross Godfrey; Chemoiwa, Emily J; Ngugi, Charles C; Simiyu, Gelas; Omutange, Elijah S; Ngure, Veronica; Opiyo, Mary A

    2016-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) regulated by the Stockholm Convention (2001). Although their production and use was stopped almost three decades ago, PCBs are environmental persistent, toxic, and bioaccumulate in biota. We assessed the levels of 7 PCB congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, and 180) in sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus, Lates niloticus, and Rastrineobola argentea) and evaluated the potential of cestode fish endoparasite (Monobothrioides sp., Proteocephalaus sp., and Ligula intestinalis) as biomonitors of PCBs in Lake Victoria, Kenya. The median concentration of Σ7PCBs in sediments and fish were 2.2-96.3 μg/kg dw and 300-3,000 μg/kg lw, respectively. At all the sampling sites, CB138, CB153, and CB180 were the dominant PCB congeners in sediment and fish samples. Compared to the muscle of the piscine host, Proteocephalaus sp. (infecting L. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×6-14 while Monobothrioides sp. (infecting O. niloticus) biomagnified PCBs ×4-8. Meanwhile, L. intestinalis (infecting R. argentea) biomagnified PCBs ×8-16 compared to the muscle of unparasitized fish. We demonstrate the occurrence of moderate to high levels of PCB in sediments and fish in Lake Victoria. We also provide evidence that fish parasites bioaccumulate higher levels of PCBs than their piscine hosts and therefore provide a promising biomonitor of PCBs. We urge further a long-term study to validate the use of the above cestode fish parasites as biomonitoring tools for PCBs.

  16. Biological data on PCBs in animals other than man

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stickel, L.F.

    1972-01-01

    SUMMARY: Polychlorinated biphenyls have become ubiquitous in the world ecosystem in quantities similar to those of DDE. Experimental studies have shown that PCBs have a toxicity to mallards, pheasants, bobwhite quail, coturnix quail, red-winged blackbirds, starlings, cowbirds, and grackles that is of the same order as the toxicity of DDE to these species. Overt signs of poisoning also are similar to those caused by compounds of the DDT group. Toxic effects of DDE and Aroclor 1254 to coturnix chicks were additive, but not synergistic. PCBs containing higher percentages of chlorine are more toxic to birds than those containing lower percentages. PCBs of foreign manufacture contained contaminants to an extent that greatly increased their toxicity. Residues of PCBs in the brains of birds killed by these compounds measure in the hundreds of parts per million. PCBs may have contributed to mortality of some birds in the field. Toxicity to insects of PCBs of different degrees of chlorination is the reverse of the pattern in birds: the lower chlorinations are more toxic to insects. PCBs enhanced the toxicity of dieldrin and DDT to insects. Shrimp are very sensitive to PCBs and most will die as a result of 20-day exposure to a concentration of 5 ppb. PCBs also inhibit shell growth of oysters. Crabs are less sensitive; all accumulate residues to many times the concentrations in the water, and a test with crabs showed that they lost the residues very slowly. Growth of certain species of marine diatoms was experimentally inhibited by PCBs, but algae were not affected. The small marine crustacean, Gammarus, is sensitive to PCBs in concentrations of thousandths to tenths of a part per billion. Exposure to 5 ppb of Aroclor 1254 caused mortality of two species of fish in 14-45 days. Onset of death was delayed and was accompanied by fungus-like lesions. Rainbow trout were quickly killed by terphenyls at 10 ppb under normal oxygen conditions and at 2 ppb with reduced oxygen

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) carcinogenicity with special emphasis on airborne PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial chemicals used in various applications requiring chemical stabilityand have now become widely dispersed. Their characteristics of persistence, low water/higher lipid solubility, contribute to their ability to bioconcentrate and bioaccumulate. Traditionally PCBs have been regulated as food contaminants and the general population is primarily exposed by that route. PCBs in foodstuffs are generally higher chlorinated, resistant to metabolic breakdown, and elicit toxic changes that are thought to be predominantly receptor/parent PCB-driven. But for certain occupational exposures, and for those persons residing or working in contaminated buildings, and in large cities, an inhalation route of exposure may predominate. Airborne PCBs are, in contrast to foodborne PCBs, lower chlorinated, more volatile, and subject to metabolic attack. In this review, we have explored (geno-) toxic manifestations of PCBs typical of those found in air. Here metabolic conversion of the parent PCB to hydroxylated and other metabolic progeny appear to play a dominant role, especially in genotoxicity. We should be cognizant of the impact of exposures to airborne PCBs for those individuals who are occupationally exposed, for persons living near contaminated sites, for those who work or go to school in contaminated buildings, and especially cognizant of the young, the socio-economically disadvantaged and medically-underserved or nutritionally-deficient populations. PMID:21686028

  18. Remediation plan for fluorescent light fixtures containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the remedial action to achieve compliance with 29 CFR 1910 Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements of fluorescent light fixtures containing PCBs at K-25 site. This remedial action is called the Remediation Plan for Fluorescent Light Fixtures Containing PCBs at the K-25 Site (The Plan). The Plan specifically discusses (1) conditions of non-compliance, (2) alternative solutions, (3) recommended solution, (4) remediation plan costs, (5) corrective action, (6) disposal of PCB waste, (7) training, and (8) plan conclusions. The results from inspections by Energy Systems personnel in 2 buildings at K-25 site and statistical extension of this data to 91 selected buildings at the K-25 site indicates that there are approximately 28,000 fluorescent light fixtures containing 47,036 ballasts. Approximately 38,531 contain PCBs and 2,799 of the 38,531 ballasts are leaking PCBs. Review of reportable occurrences at K-25 for the 12 month period of September 1990 through August 1991 shows that Energy Systems personnel reported 69 ballasts leaking PCBs. Each leaking ballast is in non-compliance with 29 CFR 1910 - Table Z-1-A. The age of the K-25 facilities indicate a continued and potential increase in ballasts leaking PCBs. This report considers 4 alternative solutions for dealing with the ballasts leaking PCBs. The advantages and disadvantages of each alternative solution are discussed and ranked using cost of remediation, reduction of health risks, and compliance with OSHA as criteria.

  19. Guidance on the management of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of synthetic organic chemicals including 209 known isomers, each with from 1 to 10 chlorine atoms on a biphenyl ring. PCBs have a number of desirable properties for industrial applications including thermal stability, flame retardance, and low vapor pressure. Because of these properties, PCBs were widely used as dielectric fluid in electrical equipment such as utility transformers and capacitors. PCBs were also extensively used in hydraulic fluid and heat transfer fluid, in gaskets, as additives in cutting oils and lubricant, and in a variety of other uses. The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 in response to emerging information about the adverse health effects of PCBs and their persistence in the environment. In addition, TSCA directed the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to prescribe methods for disposal of PCBS, require marking of PCBs with warning labels, and control their use. The TSCA regulations allow continued use of PCBs provided that the use is totally enclosed and does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. However, at the end of their useful life, all PCB materials must be disposed of according to the TSCA regulations. This guidance document uses graphics and flow charts where possible to present the TSCA regulations according to management activities such as use, storage, disposal, and spill cleanup. The document is designed to be read on an as-needed basis; that is, each chapter can stand alone or may be read in combination with others to help the reader determine the regulations relevant to his or her individual situation and needs. Every attempt has been made to include the requirements of other statutes and regulations that apply to PCB materials and provide references for the reader to consult for additional information.

  20. Transport of PCBs with leachate water from the contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kobasić, Vedranka Hodak; Picer, Mladen; Picer, Nena; Calić, Violeta

    2008-08-01

    Contaminated soil was taken from the area around the damaged capacitor of an electrical transformer station in Zadar (Croatia) and a phytoremediation experimental field was constructed with lysimeters. The levels of PCBs in the leachate water samples were measured nearly 3 years. The experiment was conducted under natural climatic conditions, through hot summers and mild winters. Although the amounts of leachated PCBs from the polluted soil were relatively small, their concentrations in leachate water samples from 1,500 to 29,000 ng L(-1) substantially exceeded the maximum allowed concentration of the total PCBs in the fishponds of Croatia (1 ng L(-1)).

  1. Detection and measurement of the agonistic activities of PCBs and mono-hydroxylated PCBs to the constitutive androstane receptor using a recombinant yeast assay.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Ryo; Shiraishi, Fujio; Kageyama, Shiho; Nakajima, Daisuke

    2015-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are thought to exert their toxicities mainly by binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and by stimulating transcription of various genes, notably metabolizing enzymes including the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 family. However, PCBs and their metabolites could have potential to activate other nuclear receptors and subsequent events. We focused on the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) inducing CYP2B and measured the agonistic activity of PCBs and mono-hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) to the CAR using yeast cells transduced with the human CAR and its response pathway. Twenty-nine of 34 tested PCBs and 72 of 91 OH-PCBs exhibited CAR agonistic effects. Of 41 OH-PCBs that had the same chlorination patterns as the tested PCBs, 9 had activities more than twice those of their non-hydroxylated analogs. In particular, 2',4',6'-trichlorobiphenyl-4-ol and 2,2',4',6'-tetrachlorobiphenyl-4-ol were 332- and 22-fold more potent than their analogs and were 15 times and 2.8 times, respectively, as active as a reference substance, 4-tert-octylphenol. The activities of 17 of the OH-PCBs were reduced to less than half those of their non-hydroxylated analogs. Four OH-PCBs derived from 3 active PCBs were inactive. However, a consistent relationship between hydroxyl substituent position and activity could not be discerned. Comprehensive evaluation of the toxic potential of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites and their concentrations in the environment are required.

  2. LITERATURE REVIEW OF REMEDIATION METHODS FOR PCBS IN BUILDINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This literature review contains a description and analysis of existing methods for management of PCBs in construction materials. Information on the strengths and limitations, efficacy, cost, and byproducts of each remediation method is presented, where available. The report is ba...

  3. Predictors of Serum Dioxins and PCBs among Peripubertal Russian Boys

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jane S.; Williams, Paige L.; Sergeyev, Oleg; Korrick, Susan; Lee, Mary M.; Revich, Boris; Altshul, Larisa; Patterson, Donald G.; Turner, Wayman E.; Needham, Larry L.; Saharov, Igor; Hauser, Russ

    2009-01-01

    Background Although sources and routes of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied, information regarding exposure among children is limited. Breast-feeding and diet are two important contributors to early life exposure. To further understand other significant contributors to childhood exposure, we studied a cohort of children from a city with high environmental dioxin levels. Objectives We investigated predictors of serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)/co-planar PCBs (C-PCBs), toxic equivalents (TEQs), and PCBs among 8- to 9-year-old boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Methods We used general linear regression models to explore associations of log10-transformed serum concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/C-PCBs, TEQs, and PCBs at study entry with anthropometric, demographic, geographic, and dietary factors in 482 boys in Chapaevsk, Russia. Results The median (25th, 75th percentile) concentration for total 2005 TEQs was 21.1 pg/g lipid (14.4, 33.2). Boys who were older, consumed local foods, were breast-fed longer, and whose mothers were employed at the Khimprom chemical plant (where chlorinated chemicals were produced) or gardened locally had significantly higher serum dioxins and PCBs, whereas boys with higher body mass index or more educated parents had significantly lower serum dioxins and PCBs. Boys who lived < 2 km from Khimprom had higher total TEQs (picograms per gram lipid) [adjusted mean = 30.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 26.8–35.0] than boys who lived > 5 km away (adjusted mean = 18.8; 95% CI, 17.2–20.6). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are specific local sources of dioxin and PCB exposure among children in Chapaevsk including maternal gardening, consumption of locally grown food, and residential proximity to the Khimprom plant. PMID:20019911

  4. Effects of DDT, DDE, and PCBs on mitochondrial respiration. [Cockroaches

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, H.M.; Cutkomp, L.K.

    1982-11-01

    Data dealing with the action of DDT, its metabolite DDE and other related chlorinated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are presented in this study. Results show that both DDT and DDE effectively reduce oxidative phosphorylation as determined from cockroach muscle mitochondria. DDT is more effective as was also determined for inhibition of oligomycin-sensitive Mg/sup 2 +/ATPase. The PCBs tested were uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. (JMT)

  5. A Novel Method for Remediation of PCBs in Weathered Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Kathleen B.; Quinn, Jacqueline W.; Clausen, Christian A.; Geiger, Cherie L.; Aitken, Brian S.; Captain, James; Devor, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of synthetic aromatic compounds with the general formula C 12H1oCl that were historically used in industrial paints, caulking material and adhesives, as their properties enhanced structural integrity, reduced flammability and boosted antifungal properties. Although the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has banned the manufacture of PCBs since 1979, they have been found in at least 500 of the 1,598 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites identified by the USEPA. Prior to the USEPA's ban on PCB production, PCBs were commonly used as additives in paints and asphalt-based adhesives that were subsequently applied to a variety of structures. Government facilities constructed as early as 1930 utilized PCB-containing binders or PCB-containing paints, which are now leaching into the environment and posing ecological and worker health concerns. To date, no definitive in situ, non-destructive method is available for the removal of PCBs found in weathered coatings or on painted structures/equipment. The research described in this paper involves the laboratory development and field-scale deployment of a new and innovative solution for the removal and destruction of PCBs found in painted structures or within the binding or caulking material on structures. The technology incorporates a Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) that extracts and degrades only the PCBs found on the facilities, leaving the structure virtually unaltered.

  6. Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oils from Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Tae Seung

    2006-10-11

    Using Korean waste official method, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed from 33 transformer oils collected under National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) in Republic of Korea (ROK) and their emission rate in Korea was estimated. Practical quantification limits analyzed by this method were in the ranges of 0.02 and 0.05 mg L(-1), and recovery of samples was in the ranges of 77-97%. The analytical results showed that PCBs in the transformer oils were identified as Aroclor 1242, 1254 or 1260. Twenty-nine samples were determined to contain PCBs of >0.05 mg L(-1) and among these samples, nine samples contained to have >2 mg kg(-1) which is limit of Waste Control Act (WCA) with regard to PCBs in transformer oil from Korea. The concentrations of PCBs in transformer oils were between N.D. (not detected) and 48.33 mg kg(-1). PCBs concentrations did not exceed 50 mg kg(-1) which is generally accepted limit for the definition of waste in POPs Guideline of Basel Convention.

  7. Environmental transport and fate of PCBs in stream systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robison, W.; Birge, W.; Price, D.

    1995-12-31

    Transport and distribution of PCBs were studied in three Kentucky stream systems varying in size from second to fifth order. Point source releases of PCBs in each system have resulted in issuance of fish consumption advisories by state agencies. Water, sediment, floodplain soil and fish-tissues were analyzed for PCBs. Several species were analyzed, including longear sunfish, green sunfish, stonerollers and banded sculpins, which represent different trophic levels and feeding habits. Relatively rapid disappearance of PCBs was noted in green sunfish and may provide a better indication of the current PCB bioavailability in each system. In one stream system, PCBs were detected in water, sediments and floodplain soils sixty-five miles from the known source. Although contaminated groundwater may contribute substantial PCB loading to streams near sources, sequential resuspension of PCB-contaminated sediment is considered to be the main long-range transport mechanism. Contaminant data were incorporated into a GIS system to evaluate potential distribution in the floodplains. Relationships between various tissue concentrations are being examined. These results indicate the potential for persistence, continued sublethal effects and ecological risk of PCBs in lotic systems.

  8. The trophodynamics of PCBs in the Lake Ontario food web

    SciTech Connect

    Metcalfe, T.L.; Metcalfe, C.D.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of water, sediment, invertebrates, fish, and herring gull eggs were collected in north-central Lake Ontario and were analyzed to determine the concentrations of PCBs, including non-ortho substituted PCB congeners, in the benthic and pelagic components of the Lake Ontario food web. There was biomagnification of PCBs in the food web from benthic and planktonic invertebrates through to lake trout and gulls. However, all of the fish species had about the same lipid-normalized concentrations of PCBs. The relative proportions of the PCB congeners changed as they passed through the food web. An index of metabolism for each PCB congener was calculated by comparing the concentrations of PCB congeners in various predator/prey groupings within the food web. These data indicate that invertebrates, fish and gulls have different capabilities in metabolizing and eliminating specific PCB congeners. While tri and tetrachlorinated congeners with no chlorine substitution at meta-para carbons on the biphenyl ring were readily metabolized by all taxa, only gulls appeared to be capable of metabolizing the PCBs with no chlorine substitution at ortho-meta positions. The trophodynamics of nonortho substituted (coplanar) PCBs did not differ from other PCB congeners of similar chlorine number, which indicates that non-ortho congeners are not any more persistent in biota than other PCBs.

  9. Association of PCBs and allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Mayumi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Koriyama, Chihaya; Yamamoto, Megumi; Tsuchiya, Takuto; Matsumura, Fumio

    2015-05-01

    Recently, the incidence rates of childhood allergies have been rising around the world. The presence of persistent chemical pollutants in the environment and exposure to air pollutants are often cited as potential causes of childhood allergies. Accordingly, epidemiological studies of the associations between exposure to low levels of pollutants and adverse health effects are essential. However, at present no useful biomarkers for evaluating such associations have been developed. Thus, using a molecular epidemiological approach we planned to identify candidate biomarkers of pollutant-induced adverse health effects that can be used in children. In asthmatic children, we found that the serum levels of several polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener sub-types were significantly positively correlated with interleukin (IL)-8 mRNA expression, whereas in a sub-group of children who displayed positive immunoglobulin E (IgE) responses to milk or egg proteins IL-22 mRNA expression was demonstrated to be useful for detecting the adverse health effects of environmental pollutants, particularly PCB congeners. In conclusion, the mRNA expression levels of IL-8 and IL-22 can be used to detect children who are at particular risk of adverse health events caused by environmental pollutants, especially PCBs.

  10. Accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica).

    PubMed

    Imaeda, Daisuke; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Ochi, Yoko; Iwata, Hisato; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Takahashi, Shin; Amano, Masao; Petrov, Evgeny A; Batoev, Valeriy B; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the accumulation features and temporal trends of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) and non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in the blubber of Baikal seals collected in 1992 and 2005. DL-PCBs (480-3600ng/g) and NDL-PCBs (980-35,000ng/g) were dominant contaminants. Concentrations of PCDDs and PCBs in males were significantly higher than in females. In males, age-dependent accumulation was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs. PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs showed no such trends, implying that exposure of seals to these contaminants has been decreasing in recent years. No decreasing temporal trend was observed for PCDDs, mono-ortho PCBs and NDL-PCBs, suggesting that Baikal seals are still exposed to PCDDs and PCBs. TEQs of PCDDs and mono-ortho PCBs in seals collected in 2005 accounted for 62-77% of total TEQs. The TEQ levels in 40% of the specimens exceeded the threshold level for immunosuppression observed in harbor seals (209pg/g).

  11. Biodegradation of PAHs and PCBs in Soils and Sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Tindall, J. A.; Zhang, W.

    2002-12-01

    Results from a multi-year, pilot-scale land treatment project for PAHs and PCBs biodegradation are evaluated. A mathematical model, capable of describing sorption, sequestration, and biodegradation in a soil/water system, is applied to interpret the efficacy of a sequential active-passive biotreatment process of organic chemicals at remediation sites. To account for the recalcitrance of PAHs and PCBs in soils and sludges during long-term biotreatment, this model comprises a kinetic equation for organic chemical intraparticle sequestration. Model responses were validated by a favorable match to measurements of biodegradation of PAHs and PCBs in a land treatment unit operated by Aluminum Corporation of America Model simulations were performed to predict on-going biodegradation behavior of PAHs and PCBs in land treatment units. Simulation results indicate that complete biostabilization will be achieved when the concentration of reversibly sorbed chemical (SRA) reduces to zero (i.e., undetectable), with a certain amount of irreversibly sequestrated residual chemical (SIA) remaining within the soil particle solid phase. The residual fraction (SIA) tends to lose its original chemical and biological activity, and hence, is much less available, toxic, and mobile than the "free" compounds. Therefore, PAHs and PCBs will leach only slightly, if at all from the treatment site and thus, they constitute no threat to human health or the environment. Biotreatment of PAHs and PCBs can be terminated accordingly. Results from the pilot-scale testing data and model calculations also suggest that a significant fraction (10-30%) of high-molecular-weight PAHs and PCBs could be sequestrated and become unavailable for biodegradation. Bioavailability (large Kd, i.e., slow desorption rate) is the key factor limiting the PAHs degradation. However, both bioavailability and bioactivity, K (as described by Monod kinetics parameters), regulate PCBs biodegradation. The sequential active

  12. Effects of Food Natural Products on the Biotransformation of PCBs

    PubMed Central

    James, Margaret O.; Sacco, James C.; Faux, Laura R

    2008-01-01

    Many food products, particularly fruits and vegetables, contain natural products that affect biotransformation enzymes. These may be expected to affect the rate of biotransformation of PCBs that are metabolized by the affected enzymes. The first step in PCB metabolism is cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenation. Natural products present in cruciferous vegetables have been shown to selectively up-regulate CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 isozymes on chronic ingestion, and may lead to increased metabolism of those PCB congeners that are substrates for the induced P450s. On the other hand, several natural products selectively inhibit monooxygenation, especially in the intestine, and may lead to increased bioavailability and reduced metabolism of dietary PCBs. Food natural products are known to affect phase II pathways important in the detoxication of hydroxylated PCBs, namely UDP-glucuronosyltransferase and PAPS-sulfotransferase. Continual dietary exposure to chrysin and quercetin, found in fruits and vegetables, induces UGT1A1 and may reduce exposure to hydroxylated PCBs through increased glucuronidation. These and other natural products are also inhibitors of glucuronidation and sulfonation, potentially leading to transient decreases in the elimination of hydroxylated PCBs. In summary, the expected effects of food natural products on PCB biotransformation are complex and may be biphasic, with initial inhibition followed by enhanced biotransformation through monooxygenation and conjugation pathways. PMID:19255595

  13. Simple immunoassay for detection of PCBs in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Glass, Thomas R; Ohmura, Naoya; Taemi, Yukihiro; Joh, Takashi

    2005-07-01

    A rapid and inexpensive procedure to detect polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil is needed to facilitate identification and removal of PCB contaminated transformers. Here we describe a simple two-step liquid-liquid extraction using acidic dimethyl sulfoxide in conjunction with an immunoassay for detecting PCBs in transformer oil. The process described is faster and simpler than any previous immunoassay while maintaining comparable detection limit and false negative rate. Cross reactivity data, characterizing the immunoassay response to the four Kanechlor technical mixtures of PCBs in oil, are presented. Forty-five used transformer oil samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry and were also evaluated using the immunoassay protocol developed. Results presented show zero false negatives at a 1.4 ppm nominal cutoff for the transformer oils analyzed.

  14. Are PCBs the major neurotoxicant in Great Lakes salmon?

    PubMed

    Seegal, R F

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between consumption, by women, of contaminated Great Lakes salmon and deficits in cognitive performance in the children of these women. Although significant statistical associations between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens and these negative outcomes suggest that PCBs may be responsible, the fetus and neonate are also exposed to other fish-borne neurotoxicants. In this manuscript we present data from two developmental studies that support the hypothesis that PCBs may serve either as a marker for other contaminants that are responsible for the observed effects, or that other contaminants present in the fish interact synergistically with the PCBs to produce the observed neurotoxicity. In the first study we demonstrated that exposure of rats to diets containing lyophilized Great Lakes salmon, resulting in exposure to as little as 13.9 micrograms/(kg small middle dotday) of total PCBs, induced significant reductions in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations. In the second study, we demonstrated that exposure of rats to the ortho-substituted PCB congener (2,4,2', 4'-tetrachloro- biphenyl) at 1, 10 or 20 mg/(kg small middle dotday) also induced significant reductions in DA concentrations in the same brain regions although only at the two highest doses-levels at least 100-fold higher than seen in the first study. On the basis of these developmental neurochemical studies we suggest that the reported cognitive deficits in children exposed in utero and during lactation to fish-borne contaminants may be due either to contaminants other than PCBs or to complex interactions between PCBs and other neurotoxicants present in the fish.

  15. Transport, fate and bioremediation of PCBs in freshwater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Birge, W.J.; Price, D.; Robison, A. |

    1995-12-31

    PCB monitoring studies were conducted on four riverine systems that varied in order, gradient, and substrate composition. Accumulation of PCBs was greater in fine-grained sediments with organic carbon content of 1 percent or more. Due to the short residence time of PCBs in water, downstream transport occurred mostly via erosion, suspension and resuspension of sediments and floodplain soils. Residues of PCBs in fish were lowest in the green sunfish and other species, higher in black bass, and highest in bottom feeders, (e.g., channel catfish, carp). Carp and catfish were the poorest indicators of real-time contamination but more useful in assessing historical conditions. Differences in PCB half-life in fish correlated with lipid content. Sunfish were the best indicators of current levels of contamination. PCB body burden in these species decreased markedly after curtailment of PCB outfall. Residues at or above 2 mg/Kg in sunfish decreased to 0.5 mg/Kg or less within 12 to 18 months. Percent tissue lipid was a major factor affecting the rate of metabolic degradation of PCBs in fish. High lipid content may prolong the biological half-life of PCBS, whereas low content may correlate with more rapid degradation, depending on the species. Sunfish, due to their localized range, lower lipid content, and ability to metabolize PCBs may be useful tools in the bioremediation of freshwater systems. They feed largely on primary consumers (e.g. detritivores, herbivores); are adaptable to a wide variety of warm water habitats; and management practices have been well established.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) depress allogeneic natural cytotoxicity by earthworm coelomocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, M.M.; Cooper, E.L.; Eyambe, G.S.; Goven, A.J.; Fitzpatrick, L.C.; Venables, B.J. |

    1995-10-01

    Coelomocytes of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris caused significant spontaneous allogeneic cytotoxicity in a 24-h trypan blue assay, but not in an assay using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Allogeneic cytotoxicity assays using cells from worms exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) suggest that PCBs can suppress a natural killing (NK-like) reaction. The implications of this work are twofold: understanding the evolution of natural killing (NK-like) activity and providing preliminary information on how spontaneous killing, a component of cellular immunity, may be compromised by pollutants.

  17. Biodegradation of PAHs and PCBs in soils and sludges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, L.; Tindall, J.A.; Friedel, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Results from a multi-year, pilot-scale land treatment project for PAHs and PCBs biodegradation were evaluated. A mathematical model, capable of describing sorption, sequestration, and biodegradation in soil/water systems, is applied to interpret the efficacy of a sequential active-passive biotreatment process of organic chemicals on remediation sites. To account for the recalcitrance of PAHs and PCBs in soils and sludges during long-term biotreatment, this model comprises a kinetic equation for organic chemical intraparticle sequestration process. Model responses were verified by comparison to measurements of biodegradation of PAHs and PCBs in land treatment units; a favorable match was found between them. Model simulations were performed to predict on-going biodegradation behavior of PAHs and PCBs in land treatment units. Simulation results indicate that complete biostabilization will be achieved when the concentration of reversibly sorbed chemical (S RA) reduces to undetectable levels, with a certain amount of irreversibly sequestrated residual chemical (S IA) remaining within the soil particle solid phase. The residual fraction (S IA) tends to lose its original chemical and biological activity, and hence, is much less available, toxic, and mobile than the "free" compounds. Therefore, little or no PAHs and PCBs will leach from the treatment site and constitutes no threat to human health or the environment. Biotreatment of PAHs and PCBs can be terminated accordingly. Results from the pilot-scale testing data and model calculations also suggest that a significant fraction (10-30%) of high-molecular-weight PAHs and PCBs could be sequestrated and become unavailable for biodegradation. Bioavailability (large K d , i.e., slow desorption rate) is the key factor limiting the PAHs degradation. However, both bioavailability and bioactivity (K in Monod kinetics, i.e., number of microbes, nutrients, and electron acceptor, etc.) regulate PCBs biodegradation. The sequential

  18. The uptake and bioaccumulation of PCBs by phytoplankton

    SciTech Connect

    Swackhamer, D.L.; Skoglund, R.S.; Stange, K. )

    1990-01-01

    Phytoplankton play a major role in the fate and transport of hydrophobic organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to their large biomass, their high lipid content, and their place as the primary step in the aquatic food web. Phytoplankton accumulate PCBs in the water column most likely as a result of water-lipid partitioning, and can pass the contaminants up through the food web by consumers or transport them to bottom waters by sedimentation. The process of PCB uptake and bioaccumulation by phytoplankton has been the focus of our study.

  19. Degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using palladized iron

    SciTech Connect

    West, O.R.; Liang, L.; Holden, W.L.

    1996-06-01

    Contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a persistent problem within the Department of Energy complex, as well as in numerous industrial sites around the US. To date, commercially available technologies for destroying these highly stable compounds involve degradation at elevated temperatures either through incineration or base-catalyzed dehalogenation at 300{degrees}C. Since the heating required with these processes substantially increases the costs for treatment of PCB-contaminated wastes, there is a need for finding an alternative approach where PCB can be degraded at ambient temperatures. This report describes the degradation of PCB`s utilizing the bimetallic substrate of iron/palladium.

  20. DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL PCBS IN SELECTED TISSUES IN THE LABORATORY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were manufactured for a large number of technical applications including for use in transformers and capacitors. The widespread commercial utilization of PCBs and their persistence in the environment have resulted in their worldwide distribution. ...

  1. 75 FR 34076 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations; Extension of Comment Period...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 761 RIN 2070-AJ38 Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Reassessment of Use Authorizations..., 2010, concerning the reassessment of the use authorizations for PCBs. This document extends the comment... about the use authorizations for PCBs. EPA is hereby extending the comment period, which was set to...

  2. USING STABLE ISOTOPES TO TRACK BIOMAGNIFICATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) THROUGH STREAM FOOD WEBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomagnification studies of PCBs in streams are rare, even though PCBs are known to biomagnify and persist in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated PCB contamination in Twelve Mile Creek (Clemson, South Carolina, U.S.A.), a stream that received >400,000 lbs. of PCBs from 1955-1978...

  3. 77 FR 12293 - PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PCBs Bulk Product v. Remediation Waste AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION..., Attention Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-RCRA-2011-0847. Mail: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; EPA Docket...

  4. Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil.

    PubMed

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Choi, Hye-Min; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kang, Jeong Won; Kim, Jae-Duck; Kim, Jaehoon

    2009-12-01

    Continuous catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oils was carried out in a fixed bed reactor using a 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) catalyst. Reaction temperatures ranging 150-300 degrees C, PCBs concentrations ranging 50-200 ppm, and reaction times ranging 1-8 h were tested. At a higher reaction temperature or at a lower PCBs concentration, catalytic activity was higher and complete dechlorination of PCBs resulted even at long reaction time. Catalyst regeneration using hexane and 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was effective to restore the catalytic activity. Fresh, spent and regenerated catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. XRD analysis revealed growth of Ni crystallite size of the spent and the regenerated catalysts. XPS analysis showed that a considerable amount of chlorine and carbon species were deposited on the surface of the spent catalyst, which may play a role in the catalysts deactivation.

  5. Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs): Implications for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    Pediatric exposure to polychlorinated biphynels (PCBs) is a national health concern with significant implications for school psychologists. According to the healthcare collaboration model, the school psychologist plays a key role in the provision of services to children affected by environmental teratogens. To effectively function as healthcare…

  6. NANO-SCALE PALLADIUM DOPED MAGNESIUM BIMETALLICS FOR DECHLORINATING PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and recalcitrant pollutants found in rivers; coastal waters and in 500 of the nation's 1598 Superfund waste sites. According to an EPA estimate, the existing 525 million tons of PCB wastes will cost $394 billion to be incinerated, curren...

  7. Modeling Tribal Exposures to PCBs from Fish Consumption

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown that U.S. population continues to be exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), despite the ban ~40 years ago. Fish intake is a major pathway, especially, for high fish-consumption groups. Exposure assessment and risk management considerations for tribal fish...

  8. Are PCBs the major neurotoxicant in Great Lakes salmon?

    SciTech Connect

    Seegal, R.F. |

    1999-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between consumption, by women, of contaminated Great Lakes salmon and deficits in cognitive performance in the children of these women. Although significant statistical associations between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burdens and these negative outcomes suggest that PCBs may be responsible, the fetus and neonate are also exposed to other fish-borne neurotoxicants. In this manuscript the authors present data from two developmental studies that support the hypothesis that PCBs may serve either as a marker for other contaminants that are responsible for the observed effects, or that other contaminants present in the fish interact synergistically with the PCBs to produce the observed neurotoxicity. In the first study the authors demonstrated that exposure of rates to diets containing lyophilized Great Lakes salmon, resulting in exposure to as little as 13.9 {micro}g/(kg {center_dot} day) of total PCBs, induced significant reductions in regional brain dopamine (DA) concentrations. In the second study, they demonstrated that exposure of rats to the ortho-substituted PCB congener (2,4,2{prime},4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl) at 1, 10 or 20 mg/(kg {center_dot} day) also induced significant reductions in DA concentrations in the same brain regions although only at the two highest doses--levels at least 100-fold higher than seen in the first study.

  9. PCBs and OH-PCBs in polar bear mother-cub pairs: a comparative study based on plasma levels in 1998 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Øystein; Jenssen, Bjørn M

    2012-02-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the plasma concentrations and prevalence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hydroxylated PCB-metabolites (OH-PCBs) in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) mothers (n=26) and their 4 months old cubs-of-the-year (n=38) from Svalbard to gain insight into the mother-cub transfer, biotransformation and to evaluate the health risk associated with the exposure to these contaminants. As samplings were performed in 1997/1998 and 2008, we further investigated the differences in levels and pattern of PCBs between the two sampling years. The plasma concentrations of Σ(21)PCBs (1997/1998: 5710 ± 3090 ng/g lipid weight [lw], 2008: 2560 ± 1500 ng/g lw) and Σ(6)OH-PCBs (1997/1998: 228 ± 60 ng/g wet weight [ww], 2008: 80 ± 38 ng/g ww) in mothers were significantly lower in 2008 compared to in 1997/1998. In cubs, the plasma concentrations of Σ(21)PCBs (1997/1998: 14680 ± 5350 ng/g lw, 2008: 6070 ± 2590 ng/g lw) and Σ(6)OH-PCBs (1997/1998: 98 ± 23 ng/g ww, 2008: 49 ± 21 ng/g ww) were also significantly lower in 2008 than in 1997/1998. Σ(21)PCBs in cubs was 2.7 ± 0.7 times higher than in their mothers. This is due to a significant maternal transfer of these contaminants. In contrast, Σ(6)OH-PCBs in cubs were approximately 0.53 ± 0.16 times the concentration in their mothers. This indicates a lower maternal transfer of OH-PCBs compared to PCBs. The majority of the metabolite/precursor-ratios were lower in cubs compared to mothers. This may indicate that cubs have a lower endogenous capacity to biotransform PCBs to OH-PCBs than polar bear mothers. Exposure to PCBs and OH-PCBs is a potential health risk for polar bears, and the levels of PCBs and OH-PCBs in cubs from 2008 were still above levels associated with health effects in humans and wildlife.

  10. Total PCBs and PCB congeners in Spanish Imperial Eagle eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, L.M.; Fernandez, M.A.; Gonzalez, M.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The Spanish Imperial Eagle Aquila (heliaca) adalberti is the only directly endangered bird of prey in Europe. Lowered reproductive success in numerous bird species has been associated with eggshell thinning and reduced production caused by DDE, the most common organochlorine residue found in wild birds. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are usually the second most common organochlorine pollutant found in wild birds. Research to evaluate the incidence of organochlorine pollutants in the Spanish Imperial Eagle has been previously conducted. The authors have now determined the levels of total PCBs and selected PCB congeners in 34 eggs of Spanish Imperial Eagle collected at Donana National Park, Castile Plateau and Nature Park of Monfrague, since this has considerable significance when attempts are made to correlate the embryonic mortality of avian wildlife with PCB residue levels.

  11. Bioremediation of PCBs. (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts) Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the microbes and microbial processes capable of reducing the toxicity of, or destroying, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). Techniques include treatments used in above-ground reactors or in situ detoxification of contaminated soil or water. The citations examine conditions which facilitate decomposition, such as use of the most effective microorganisms, and factors which can accelerate or inhibit the degradation.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  12. Transport of PCBs with leachate water from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Kobasić, Vedranka Hodak; Picer, Mladen; Picer, Nena; Calić, Violeta

    2008-08-01

    Natural soil contaminated with PCBs was used in this study. The soil was excavated from the area around the damaged capacitor of an electrical transformer station in Zadar (ETS 110/35 kV). A lysimeter experiment was conducted for 17 months under natural climatic conditions and designed to measure the concentration of PCB in the soil and leachates. Our research field was composed of four plots and there were three lysimeters on each plot. After 12 months, a negligible quantity of Aroclor 1248 (an average of 0.24%) and the Sigma 7 key PCB congeners (SigmaPCB(7); IUPAC No.: PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 138, PCB 153 and PCB 180) were leached from the soils into the water collected under the lysimeters (an average of 0.32%). During two soil samplings, the soil was taken at three depths from each lysimeter. The distribution of Aroclor 1248 and 7 individual PCB congeners in the soil layers was determined before and after planting. Plot No. 1 had the highest percentage of contaminant removal after 12 months. The data indicate that the Sigma 7 key PCBs in the surface soil layers of all the plots decreased and the removal percentages ranged between 19.0% (Plot No. 2) and 47.6% (Plot No. 1). Volatilization from the soil surface may be the most important mechanism for the loss of these "more volatile" PCB congeners. The results showed an accumulation of PCBs in the deepest level of the soil plots, probably due to the vertical transfer of the PCBs and the lack of volatilization.

  13. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    performance and the number of dopamine (DA) terminals in the basal ganglia determined by ß-CIT SPECT imaging . Data collection is complete (a...comprehensive questionnaire, examinations and SPECT imaging ). PCBs and thyroid hormones have been measured in serum and bone lead has been determined. Results...obtained using ß-CIT SPECT imaging demonstrate a significant negative relationship between current serum PCB concentrations and decreases in the

  14. PCBs Alter Dopamine Mediated Function in Aging Workers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    performance and the number of dopamine (DA) terminals in the basal ganglia determined by β-CIT SPECT imaging . At the conclusion of data collection 241...control for exposure to lead--a potential confounder. 89 subjects have undergone brain imaging at the Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders in New...SPECT imaging to determine whether prior occupational exposure to PCBs reduces the number of basal ganglia DA terminals. Imaging took place at the

  15. PCBs in the fish assemblage of a southern European estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, Joana; Pato, Pedro; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando C.; Pardal, Miguel A.

    2013-02-01

    The Mondego estuary fish assemblage was studied for the accumulation of PCBs. Three sampling stations were visited along an estuarine salinity gradient, and, in total, 15 species were collected. Analysis of PCBs revealed no significant differences among the sampling stations, although differences were observed among the fish assemblages. Fish assemblages could be divided into three groups. The first group comprised those with higher concentration (more than 10 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Gobius niger, Sardina pilchardus, Anguilla anguilla, Pomatoschistus microps, Chelidonichthys lucerna and Liza ramada; the second group with medium concentration (5-10 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Pomatoschistus minutus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Atherina presbyter, Chelon labrosus, Diplodus vulgaris, Platichthys flesus and Cilata mustela; and a third group with low concentration (less than 5 ng g- 1, dw), included the species Solea solea and Callionymus lyra. A positive correlation was found between lipid content and PCB concentrations. To evaluate the influence of the residence time of species on the accumulation of PCBs, species were divided into two groups: species that spend more than 3 years in the estuary, and species that spend less than 3 years in the estuary. Species that spend more than 3 years in the estuary presented higher concentrations than species that spend less than 3 years in the estuary. CBs 138 and 153 had higher concentration, and tended to increase with time spent in the estuary.

  16. Impact of heavy metals and PCBs on marine picoplankton.

    PubMed

    Caroppo, Carmela; Stabili, Loredana; Aresta, Michele; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Danovaro, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    Synergistic/antagonistic effects of multiple contaminants in marine environments are almost completely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of heavy metals (Zn and Pb) and PCBs on picoplankton abundance, biomass, cell size distribution, and bacterial C production. Natural picoplankton assemblages were exposed to heavy metals (Zn or Pb), organic contaminants (PCBs, Aroclor 1260), and to a mixture of different contaminants. The results of the present study indicate that Zn addition stimulated heterotrophic growth, whereas Pb has a negative impact on heterotrophic picoplankton, particularly significant in the first 24 h. Heavy metals had no effects on the autotrophic component. The addition of Aroclor 1260 had a significant impact on abundance, biomass, and cell size of autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton, and reduced significantly bacterial secondary production. Three weeks after PCB treatment, heterotrophic bacteria displayed a clear resilience, both in terms of abundance and biomass, reaching values comparable to those of the controls, but not in terms of bacterial C production. Our results indicate that picoplankton can be sensitive indicators of impact determined by heavy metals and PCBs in coastal marine systems.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottom sediments: identification of sources.

    PubMed

    Wolska, Lidia; Mechlińska, Agata; Rogowska, Justyna; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2014-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can enter the environment from various sources. They are synthetic chemicals and as such are present in the environment mainly as mixtures containing various amounts of PCB congeners. It is therefore difficult to pinpoint the source of PCB emissions into the environment and the pathways along which they migrate there. The situation is different where locating the emission sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is concerned. There is much information in the literature on the molecular markers that can be used to identify the sources of PAH emissions into the environment. Environmental samples like soil or bottom sediments are usually analysed for their contents of both groups of compounds. Therefore, with data on the origins of PAHs to hand, and seeking and comparing mutual correlations, one can attempt to define the probable sources of emission of PCBs. The purpose of this work was to identify the probable PCBs emission sources in bottom sediments using available data, that is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon diagnostic ratios. The numerical ratios of pairs of compounds such as fluoranthene/pyrene, phenanthrene/anthracene, fluoranthene/(fluoranthene+pyrene) and chrysene/benzo[a]anthracene are generally used as a tool for identifying and assessing pollution emission sources.

  18. [Status and influencing factors of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) pollution in the coastal areas in China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Min-Xia; Yang, Yu-Yi; Li, Qing-Xiao; Wang, Jun

    2013-08-01

    This review focused on the distribution, pollution status, sources and influencing factors of PCBs in the coastal areas (seawater, surface sediments and biota) in China. A few main points are listed as follows: (1) For coastal seawater, concentrations of PCBs were increasing from the north to the south and the highest concentrations of PCBs were observed in the developed east coastal areas. The concentrations of PCBs in most coastal areas were higher than the seawater standard of U. S. EPA (30 ng x L(-1)), indicating that there was a high potential risk. (2) Only a small part of surface sediments had PCBs concentrations higher than the ISQG (interim sediment quality guideline) and ERL (effects range-low) values, suggesting little probability of causing biological adverse effects and potential risk in surface sediments. (3) High-molecular-weight PCBs (4, 5 and 6 chlorinated biphenyl) were bio-accumulated in marine biota. The concentrations of PCBs in organisms were generally lower than 2000 ng x g(-1), which may have negligible effects on human health. (4) The main sources of PCBs were wastewater discharged from factories and the leakage of dismantling PCBs from electronic wastes. Factors influencing the concentrations and distribution of PCBs in the coastal areas included distance from land, flow exchange situation, water-carrying capacity, season, sediment particle size and total organic carbon content.

  19. Disposal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and PCB-contaminated materials. Volume 4. Test incineration of electrical capacitors containing PCBs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, N.W.; Wolbach, C.D.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents the results of a trial burn conducted at the Energy Systems Company (ENSCO) located in El Dorado, Arkansas in order to determine whether liquid PCBs and shredded electronic capacitors could be incinerated in accordance with the recent EPA rules and regulations published in the Federal Register (40 CFR Part 761, Vol. 44, No. 106, pp. 31513-31568, May 31, 1979). Based on the results of this trial burn, PCBs were not detected in the stack effluent, the scrubber liquor effluent, or the recycled scrubber liquor from the sludge lagoon. PCBs were detected in the ash effluent from the rotary kiln and were less than 550 ppM, the lower limit at which PCBs are regulated by the EPA. A discussion is given of problems associated with the EPA perchlorination procedure for analyzing PCBs.

  20. Levels of PCBs in Oysters Coming from Galicia Coast: Comparison to Mussels from the Same Region.

    PubMed

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2016-05-01

    PCBs were analyzed in two species of oyster (Crassostrea gigas and Ostrea edulis) cultured in intertidal beds and rafts coming from the Galician Rías during the period 2011-2014. PCBs were also analyzed in mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected in the same Rías during 2011. The main objective of this work is to investigate the distribution of PCBs in Galician oysters and to study their suitability as bioindicator in comparison to mussels. The levels of ΣPCBs (ten congeners) ranged from 5.58 to 179.49 ng g(-1) d.w. The effect of biological parameters (shell length, lipid content and condition index) on bioaccumulation of PCBs was also evaluated. ANOVA showed a statistically significant difference between species for higher chlorinated biphenyls (CBs 153 and 138). The spatial patterns were investigated. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed differences between geographical areas (Rías Altas, Centrales and Baixas) in the distribution of PCBs.

  1. PCBs contamination in seafood species at the Eastern Coast of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Jaikanlaya, Chate; Settachan, Daam; Denison, Michael S.; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; van den Berg, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a large group of persistent organic substances spread throughout the world. The most toxic PCBs are those that are dioxin-like (dl-PCBs). Environmental studies on PCBs in Thailand are limited, especially with regards to dl-PCBs. This study is one of the first in this country that demonstrates contamination of seafood with PCBs and determines the levels of PCBs and total dioxin like activity in mussels, oysters and shrimp, from the Eastern Coast of Thailand. Sixty pooled samples of mussels and twenty-seven pooled samples of oysters were collected from cultivation farms and twenty-one pooled samples of shrimp were collected from fisherman piers. Qualitative and quantitative measurements of 49 PCB congeners was obtained by HRGC-ECD analysis and total dioxin-like activity using the CAFLUX bioassay. Total PCB concentrations varied between three species, ranging between 19 and 1100 ng g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and the levels of PCBs in shrimp was three time higher than that in mussels and oysters. With respected to the pattern of PCB congeners, it implied that the source of PCBs exposure in this area could be from the regional contamination. The calculated CAFLUX bioanalytical equivalents (BEQs) values ranged between 0.8 and 18 pg BEQ g−1 lipid adjusted weight, and showed a good relationship with the chemical-derived TEQs. Therefore, the CAFLUX bioassay can be used for effective screening of dioxin-like activity in marine species effectively. PMID:19375780

  2. Adsorption characteristics of PCBs to resins, whole cells, cell and tissue components, and biomolecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, R.L.; Conrad, J.; Akin, C.

    1990-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been designated hazardous chemicals by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although PCBs and PCB-containing oils have not been in use since 1977, they persist in the environment. They are known to be absorbed by various aquatic organisms, birds, and mammals. The nature of these affinities is not known. In this study, the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) compared the adsorption phenomenon of PCBs on commercial resins, whole bacterial cells, cell and tissue component, and various biomolecules. Adsorption and desorption of PCBs to biomolecules and resins in both aqueous and nonaqueous conditions were examined. 9 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Using stable isotopes to track biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through stream food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, D. M.; Fritz, K. M.; Johnson, B. R.; Lazorchak, J. M.

    2005-05-01

    Biomagnification studies of PCBs in streams are rare, even though PCBs are known to biomagnify and persist in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated PCB contamination in Twelvemile Creek (Clemson, SC, USA), a stream that received >400,000 lbs of PCBs from 1955-1978. Our goals were to determine if PCBs biomagnify in streams and to measure the relative importance of heterotrophic and autotrophic pathways for biomagnification. Sites were sampled during spring (n=6) and fall (n=4) 2003-04. Major components of the foodweb were analyzed for total PCBs, δ13C and δ15N. Biomagnification was apparent as mean δ15N strongly predicted PCBs (r2 = 0.58), and PCBs consistently increased with trophic level. We found no consistent patterns related to carbon pathways. δ13C and PCBs were uncorrelated, suggesting that carbon source was unrelated to biomagnification. However, mean PCB tissue concentration in grazers were double those in shredders (Stenonema modestum, 970 ppb versus Tipula and Pteronarcys spp, 370 ppb) even though concentrations were similar for periphyton and conditioned leaves. Our results show that PCBs biomagnify and persist in streams but the importance of autotrophic and heterotrophic pathways are unclear. Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

  4. Gamma radiation process for destruction of toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (Pcbs) in transformer oils.

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Nayak, Poonam; Niyogi, U K; Khandal, R K; Singh, Gurdeep

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic organic chemicals commercially used worldwide in many applications. PCBs were used in oils because of their excellent properties such as good thermal stability, flame resistance, dielectric constant, high break down voltage, high boiling point and low volatility. However, because of their adverse affects on environment and human health, the use of PCBs has been banned now. PCBs are today considered among the widespread pollutants in the global system. PCBs sources still exist in various industrial products and in waste streams such as capacitor oils, lubricating oils, transformer oils, hydraulic oils, paints, rubbers, cables, etc. Several such materials containing PCBs emanating from various sources need to be detoxified before their reuse or before going to landfill for final disposal. Various remedial technologies have been developed in the world to destroy toxic PCBs. The radiolysis has been investigated as an environment-friendly process for waste oil treatment contaminated with PCBs, which may be a better alternative to the globally most widely accepted incineration method. A study was undertaken to detoxify PCBs in transformer oil by gamma radiation using Cobalt 60 source. Analysis of PCBs in transformer oils before and after radiation was carried out by GC-MS instrument. The effect of radiation dose and destruction of PCBs in transformer oils are discussed in details in the present paper. The method used was found to be highly effective and destruction was as high as 79 %. Further, the transformer oil samples were also evaluated before and after radiation to check their quality. The properties of oils were not significantly altered by gamma radiation treatment as evident from the results given in the paper.

  5. Bioaccumulation of metals and PCBs in Raja clavata.

    PubMed

    Torres, Paulo; Tristão da Cunha, Regina; Micaelo, Cristina; Rodrigues, Armindo Dos Santos

    2016-12-15

    The goal of this study was to assess stable isotopes profiles, metals concentration and PCBs in Raja clavata muscle and liver, according to sex and size, and to elucidate its suitability as a Mid-Atlantic biomonitor. The results reflected bioaccumulation and suggested biomagnification processes for As and Hg in muscle tissue. Cd, Cu and Zn were detected in high amounts in liver, Cr, Mn and Rb were relatively stable and low, Pb was not detected and Sr was present in muscle at high levels, decreasing with length. Hg and Se were strongly correlated, suggesting a mitigation role. Both tissues presented low concentrations of PCBs, especially the dioxin-like congeners, although always higher in liver and not correlated with size. None of these contaminants exceed EU legislated limits. However, they need to be monitored given study area's location, volcanic nature and the expected increase of anthropogenic activity related to future prospective mining activities and the establishment of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) between Europe and the USA.

  6. Comparisons of PCBs dechlorination occurrences in various contaminated sediments.

    PubMed

    Chen, I M; Chang, F C; Hsu, M F; Wang, Y S

    2001-01-01

    A comparison was made of reductive dechlorination occurrences of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by microorganisms collected from contaminated sediments including Er-Jen River (Tainan, Taiwan), Hudson River (Ft. Edward, NY), Silver Lake (Pittsfield, MA) and Puget Sound (Washington State). Comparisons was made in terms of chromatographic data (referring to the biological activity, including microbial availability) and thermodynamic data (demonstrating the selectivity of anaerobic microorganisms in the dechlorination of chlorinated compounds). Chromatographic data was established in terms of difference in relative retention time (delta ln RRT) and thermodynamic data was estimated as heat of reaction (delta H(r)0). Both were calculated and correlated to occurrences of dechlorination reactions. Observed dechlorination reactions for individually introducing PCB congener had delta ln RRT levels measured as >0.47 (Er-Jen River), >0.29 (Hudson River), >0.36 (Silver Lake) and >0.45 (Puget Sound, for Aroclor 1254 dechlorination). Critical of delta H(r)0 and delta ln RRT values showed that Hudson River and Silver Lake microorganisms were capable of dechlorinating PCBs through reactions with larger H(r)0 value (lower levels of released energy) and smaller delta ln RRT value compared with those found in Er-Jen River and Puget Sound sediments. Differences in the critical delta ln RRT values of these sediments may be due to differences in their levels of PCB contamination.

  7. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among welders in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Lankatilake, Kantha; Samaranayake, Dulani; Piyathunga, Kasun

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants with the ability to cause adverse impacts on human health and the environment. This study describes the indiscriminate use of PCB-contaminated transformer oil as a coolant in informal welding shops in Kalutara, Sri Lanka. Sixty-three welders, one each from a convenience sample of 63 welding workshops participated in the study. We administered a questionnaire and observed work practices. Sixty-two (98%) workplaces used transformer oil as the coolant in the welding equipment, 60 (95%) claiming that it was the only one available. Sixty-two (98%) did not use any protective measures when refilling coolant oil, while none of them safely disposed of the empty coolant oil containers. Only four (6%) were aware of the possible health effects of PCB-contaminated coolant oil. Health and safety measures in the work places studied were very poor. Coolant oil samples from a sub-sample of 30 welding workshops were tested for PCBs; 19 (63%) were positive. PCB-contaminated coolant oil is widely used by the welders in Kalutara without adequate precautions or safety measures.

  8. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in human adipose tissues in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K. )

    1994-03-01

    Most of the persistent organochlorine (OC) pesticides, excluding lindane, were banned in Poland in 1975/76. The first restrictions concerning the use and marketing of lindane (gamma-HCH) became effective in 1980 and were gradually extended until it's agricultural use was ultimately banned in 1989. Unfortunately, there are no detailed data on the use and release of PCBs to the environment in Poland. The former studies showed that in the late seventies the concentrations of OC pesticides and their metabolites in men reached considerable high levels. Despite of the restrictions or bans of these pesticides in most of the countries of the temperate climate, they still circulate in various food chains and eventually concentrate in man. Many authors claim an uneven distribution of the OC compounds in the population and report different levels in men and women and also some relations between OC compounds levels in fat tissues and age. Environmental contamination also plays an important role in the magnitude of OC compounds levels in man. The aim of this paper is to present the actual concentrations of HCB, p,p[prime]-DDT, p,p[prime]-DDE, isomers of HCH (alpha, beta, gamma), and PCBs in human adipose tissues particularly regarding age and sex as possible factors influencing the levels of these compounds and to contribute to the general discussion on the distribution patterns of the organochlorine compounds in the population. 12 refs., 3 tabs.

  9. Commentary on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), Toxins, and Neuropsychological Deficits: Good Science is the Antidote

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebben, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The seven cohort studies of the relation between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to cognitive, neuropsychological and behavioral development have suggested that exposure to PCBs can cause persistent changes in cognitive functioning. D.V. Cicchetti, A.S. Kaufman, and S.S. Sparrow (this issue) apply six scientific…

  10. DESTRUCTION OF PCBS USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of 209 congeners that were extensively used in industrial applications during 1929 to early 1970s, The presence of PCBs in the environment poses long-term risk to public health and wildlife due to their persistent and toxic nature. Adv...

  11. PCBs in Fish: A Problem? Student Guide and Teacher Guide. OEAGLS Investigation 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J.; And Others

    In this secondary school unit, students investigate the health effects and methods for controlling polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The teacher's manual contains a materials list, objectives, teaching strategies, supplementary information on PCBs, and answers to questions included in the accompanying student workbook. Activities presented include…

  12. MONITORING POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) BIODEGRADATION USING CONTINUOUS-FLOW ISOTOPE RATIO MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research has shown that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in some cases can be removed from the environment by biodegradation. Aerobic and anaerobic biological processes have been determined in previous research to be capable of degrading PCBs. During the aerobic and anaerobic d...

  13. Dietary Accumulation of PCBs from a Contaminated Sediment Source by a Demersal Fish Species (Leiostomus xanthurus)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    PCBs prior to dietary exposure and to provide a PCB- contaminated food source . Whole bcdy concentrations of PCBs in spot and sandworms exposed to...potential food ., source for infaunal and epibenthic food webs. 23. Current regulations dealing with conditions for the release of 4 contaminoted

  14. PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs in European catfish from a northern Italian lake: the contribution of an alien species to human exposure.

    PubMed

    Squadrone, S; Prearo, M; Nespoli, R; Scanzio, T; Abete, M C

    2016-03-01

    PCDDs/Fs, DL-PCBs and NDL-PCBs are environmentally persistent substances that have been associated with adverse effects on human health. Humans are mainly exposed to these pollutants through ingestion of contaminated fish and fishery products; the consumption of fatty fish such as European catfish can contribute considerably to the intake of dioxins and PCBs. Samples of fish muscle of the top-of-the-food-chain predator Silurus glanis from the northern Italian Lake Varese were analyzed to detect the levels of 17 PCDD/F and 18 PCB congeners. All samples presented detectable levels of PCDD/Fs and PCBs, with concentrations ranging from 0.001 to 1.310pgg(-1) wet weight (w.w.) for Σ PCDD/Fs, 0.031 to 21.000pgg(-1) w. w. for Σ DL-PCBs, and 0.397 to 117.910ngg(-1) w. w. for Σ NDL-PCBs. One sample exceeded the maximum levels of 6.5pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs set by European regulations for fish (1259/2011 EU), while other samples exceeded the action levels of 0.75pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of PCDD/Fs, and 2pgg(-1) w. w. for the sum of DL-PCBs (277/2012 EU). Consuming contaminated catfish may pose a risk for human health, especially for the subpopulation traditionally accustomed to eating this fish, as well as sensitive individuals, such as children and pregnant women.

  15. Partial removal of PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBS, and PCBS from municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by a column flotation process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Takaoka, Masaki; Takeda, Nobuo; Oshita, Kazuyuki

    2007-01-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash has recently attracted much attention because of its large quantity and enrichment of high toxic combustion generating organohalogen contaminants such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since the organohalogen contaminants in MSWI fly ash are known to be enriched in the unburnt carbon (UC) fraction, the organohalogen contaminants can therefore be removed by the removal of UC. In this research, we used a modified column flotation technique to remove the organic contaminants from MSWI fly ash. UC was removed for 27.7% under the flotation condition without chemical flotation aids. The removal efficiencies of UC, PCDD/Fs, coplanar PCBs, and PCBs are further improved by adding flotation aids during the flotation process. UC was removed for 49.0% by adding a collector assistant with a HLB value of 13.5 and a concentration in the kerosene of 3% during the flotation process. In addition,the UC removal efficiencies are increased with the decrease of the diameter of the micropores in the gas spargers. By optimizing the flotation condition, 41.9% total PCDD/Fs, 40.8% coplanar PCBs, and 44.1% PCBs with 64.0% UC have been successfully removed from MSWI fly ash. The total toxic equivalent (TEQ) of the fly ash was decreased from 6.2 ng/g to 4.2 ng/g in the residue.

  16. Enhanced PCBs sorption on biochars as affected by environmental factors: Humic acid and metal cations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Lei; Fang, Guodong; Herath, H M S K; Wang, Yujun; Cang, Long; Xie, Zubin; Zhou, Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    Biochar plays an important role in the behaviors of organic pollutants in the soil environment. The role of humic acid (HA) and metal cations on the adsorption affinity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the biochars in an aqueous medium and an extracted solution from a PCBs-contaminated soil was studied using batch experiments. Biochars were produced with pine needles and wheat straw at 350 °C and 550 °C under anaerobic condition. The results showed that the biochars had high adsorption affinity for PCBs. Pine needle chars adsorbed less nonplanar PCBs than planar ones due to dispersive interactions and separation. Coexistence of HA and metal cations increased PCBs sorption on the biochars accounted for HA adsorption and cation complexation. The results will aid in a better understanding of biochar sorption mechanism of contaminants in the environment.

  17. [Assessment on PCBs wastes treatment technologies including incineration, cement kiln and secure landfill].

    PubMed

    Xing, Ying; Lü, Yong-Long; Shi, Ya-Juan; Wang, Tie-Yu; Luo, Wei; Wang, Guang; Ma, Hu; Sun, Ya-Mei

    2007-03-01

    Analytic hierarchy process and a specialist investigation were applied to value the three PCBs treatment technologies qualitatively and quantitatively, in which the environmental, technological, social and economic factors were considered. The most important factor is thought to be environmental impact. Incineration is proved to be the most suitable technology in this period according to the research. For the high concentration of PCBs pollutants, or the low concentration of PCBs pollutants with good economic performance and large quantity of waste, incineration is considered the best. For the low concentration of PCBs pollutants in the area with bad economic performance and with little quantity of waste, cement kiln and landfill are thought to be suitable. It is also suggested that pollutants be treated at the nearest place. What's more, the measures to improve the three technologies are discussed and the policy comments on PCBs treatment are presented.

  18. Highly chlorinated PCBs inhibit the human xenobiotic response mediated by the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR).

    PubMed

    Tabb, Michelle M; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Grün, Felix; Zhou, Changcheng; Welsh, William J; Blumberg, Bruce

    2004-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of persistent organic contaminants suspected to cause adverse effects in wildlife and humans. In rodents, PCBs bind to the aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) and pregnane X receptors (PXR) inducing the expression of catabolic cytochrome p450 enzymes of the CYP1A and 3A families. We found that certain highly chlorinated PCBs are potent activators of rodent PXR but antagonize its human ortholog, the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), inhibiting target gene induction. Thus, exposure to PCBs may blunt the human xenobiotic response, inhibiting the detoxification of steroids, bioactive dietary compounds, and xenobiotics normally mediated by SXR. The antagonistic PCBs are among the most stable and abundant in human tissues. These findings have important implications for understanding the biologic effects of PCB exposure and the use of animal models to predict the attendant risk.

  19. Zero-valent iron-promoted dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Fei-Wen; Larson, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    Zero-valent iron promoted the dechlorination of PCBs (Aroclors 1221 and 1254) at elevated temperatures in an oxygen-limited environment. At temperatures higher than 300{degrees}C, dechlorination of Aroclor 1221 began to occur; at 400{degrees}C, the major reaction product, biphenyl, was observed in highest yield. (At this temperature most of the PCBs were dechlorinated to biphenyl within 10 min.) At temperatures of 500{degrees}C or higher, dechlorination and other reactions of PCBs took place. At 600{degrees}C, almost all PCBs were destroyed by reactions other than hydrogenolytic dechlorination. Similar reactions were observed with the more highly chlorinated Aroclor 1254. Water or other impurities associated with the iron surface may donate protons or hydrogen atoms to the PCBs and take part in other reactions.

  20. Highly chlorinated PCBs inhibit the human xenobiotic response mediated by the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR).

    PubMed Central

    Tabb, Michelle M; Kholodovych, Vladyslav; Grün, Felix; Zhou, Changcheng; Welsh, William J; Blumberg, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of persistent organic contaminants suspected to cause adverse effects in wildlife and humans. In rodents, PCBs bind to the aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) and pregnane X receptors (PXR) inducing the expression of catabolic cytochrome p450 enzymes of the CYP1A and 3A families. We found that certain highly chlorinated PCBs are potent activators of rodent PXR but antagonize its human ortholog, the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR), inhibiting target gene induction. Thus, exposure to PCBs may blunt the human xenobiotic response, inhibiting the detoxification of steroids, bioactive dietary compounds, and xenobiotics normally mediated by SXR. The antagonistic PCBs are among the most stable and abundant in human tissues. These findings have important implications for understanding the biologic effects of PCB exposure and the use of animal models to predict the attendant risk. PMID:14754570

  1. 40 CFR 761.185 - Certification program and retention of records by importers and persons generating PCBs in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... records by importers and persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. 761.185 Section 761... POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS General... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. (a) In addition to meeting the basic requirements...

  2. Organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs in human milk in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Czaja, K.; Ludwicki, J.K.; Goralczyk, K.; Strucinski, P.

    1997-05-01

    Persistent organochlorine compounds were used in agriculture and industry for years. Their ability to accumulate in organisms constituting links of the food chain and a unique chemical stability made them a hazardous environmental contaminants. The metabolism and excretion of chlorinated hydrocarbons is a very slow process. One of the most important means of elimination such compounds from the woman`s body is lactation. Consequently, human milk has occasionally a significant concentration of organochlorine compounds. Such compounds are identified in women`s milk all over the world. The objective of this study was to identify organochlorine pesticides, HCB, and PCBs concentrations in human milk in Poland by comparing more and less industrialized regions. 15 refs., 3 tabs.

  3. Bioaccumulation of PCBs by algae: Kinetics versus equilibrium

    SciTech Connect

    Swackhamer, D.L.; Skoglund, R.S. )

    1993-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that bioaccumulation of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) by phytoplankton is correlated to the compound's octanol/water partition coefficient (K[sub ow]) in a predictive relationship in laboratory experiments, and to confirm these findings with field observations. In laboratory experiments the authors measured the uptake of 40 representative polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners over time under conditions that inhibited and allowed phytoplankton growth. Results indicated that the bioaccumulation process is consistent with partitioning from water into cell lipids but is slower than previously thought. The uptake of PCBs was slow relative to growth of phytoplankton, preventing the chemical from reaching thermodynamic equilibrium in algal cells under conditions promoting growth (nonwinter). Thus under non-winter field conditions, many PCB congeners never reach equilibrium concentrations. Food-chain models that assume equilibrium between HOCs and the primary trophic level could be inaccurate and may need to use a kinetic framework.

  4. Overview of developmental heart defects by dioxins, PCBs, and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Kopf, Phillip G; Walker, Mary K

    2009-10-01

    The developing cardiovascular system is a sensitive target of many environmental pollutants, including dioxins, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and some pesticides such as methyl parathion. Laboratory research has utilized a variety of vertebrate models to elucidate potential mechanisms that mediate this cardioteratogenicity and to establish the sensitivity of different species for predicting potential risk to environmental and human health. Studies of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs have illustrated that piscine, avian, and mammalian embryos exhibit cardiovascular structural changes and functional deficits, although the specific characteristics vary among the individual models. Piscine models typically exhibit reduced blood flow, altered heart looping, and reduced heart size and contraction rate. The chick embryo exhibits extensive cardiac dilation, thinner ventricle walls, and reduced responsiveness to chronotropic stimuli, while the murine embryo exhibits reduced heart size. It is notable that in all models the dioxin-associated cardioteratogenicity is associated with increases in cardiovascular apoptosis and decreases in cardiocyte proliferation. While the cardiotertogenicity in piscine and avian species is associated with overt morbidity and mortality, that is not the case for the murine embryo. However, murine offspring exposed during development to dioxin exhibit cardiac hypertrophy and an increased sensitivity to a second cardiovascular insult in adulthood. Thus, although the mammalian embryo is less sensitive to cardiovascular defects by dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, developmental exposure increases the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. The impact of developmental exposure to dioxin-like chemicals on human cardiovascular disease susceptibility is not known. However, recent animal research has confirmed human epidemiology studies that dioxin exposure in adulthood is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs (including dl-PCBs) in human milk samples collected from multiparae from Croatia and comparison with primiparae.

    PubMed

    Klinčić, D; Herceg Romanić, S; Brčić Karačonji, I; Matek Sarić, M; Grzunov Letinić, J; Brajenović, N

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the levels of 20 congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including toxic dioxin-like PCBs and 7 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in 33 human milk samples collected in 2011 from multiparae living in Zadar, Croatia. Concentrations of ∑PCBs, ∑DDTs, ∑HCHs and HCB in samples ranged from 11.7 to 146.3, 8.7 to 89.2, 0.9 to 28.4, and PCBs, the congeners -118, -105 and -156 equally contributed to the mono-ortho PCB fraction. TEQs for dl-PCBs ranged between 0 and 13.3pgg(-1) milk fat. The calculated estimated daily intakes for all compound groups were below the tolerable daily intake indicating no risk for breastfed infants. A comparison of our results with our previous study on primiparae revealed that the concentrations of the main contaminant groups are lower in the milk of multiparae, with the exception of toxic mono-ortho PCBs whose concentrations and TEQ remained similar among the groups, and HCB whose concentrations were found to be higher in multiparae. Concentrations of PCBs and OCPs found in the samples from this study did not exceed those from other parts of the world. This study revealed that there are differences in contaminant concentrations depending on the mothers' parity and that this fact should be taken into account when risk assessment studies are conducted.

  6. Effects of PCBs, DDT, and mercury compounds in chickens and Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Scott, M L

    1977-05-01

    In well-controlled experiments using white leghorn chickens and Japanese quail, dietary polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and related compounds produced no detrimental effects on eggshell quality. A drastic reduction in hatchability of chicks occurred with 10-20 ppm PCBs, but no detrimental effects on eggshell quality, egg production or hatchability were found with 0.5 and 1.0 ppm PCBs, or DDT up to 100 ppm. Dietary PCBs potentiated a vitamin E-selenium deficiency in the chick, increased exudative diathesis, and decreased plasma glutathione peroxidase levels. Dietary PCBs induced hepatic microsomal benzopyrine hydroxylase. Dietary levles of 100 or 200 ppm inorganic mercury as HgSO4 or HgCl2 had little effect on egg production, hatchability, shell quality, morbidity and mortality. Methylmercury chloride, however, at levels providing 10 or 20 mg Hg/kg of diet, severely affected all of these parameters. Even though the present experiments demonstrate that neither DDT nor PCBs has any effect on eggshell quality in chickens and Japanese quail, they may cause thinning of eggshells in other species. Controlled experiments are lacking. Eagles, ospreys and pelicans all consume fish which in many areas of the world are known to contain methyl mercury. The thinning of eggshells in the species in the wild may have been due, at least in part, to environmental contamination with methylmercury rather than DDT, DDE or PCBs, as has been claimed.

  7. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in surface sediments from Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ssebugere, Patrick; Kiremire, Bernard T; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Bernhöft, Silke; Wasswa, John; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2013-06-01

    Surface sediments (<60 cm) from the Napoleon Gulf and Thurston Bay on the northern shore of Lake Victoria were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs). Fifteen PCDD/Fs and eleven dl-PCBs were found in 75.5% of the samples. The maximum concentrations of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were 44.1 and 136 pg g(-1) dry weight (dw), respectively. Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was the predominant PCDD/F congener at the Napoleon Gulf and Thurston Bay area. Regarding the dl-PCBs, a variation in levels was observed between the mono-ortho PCBs and non-ortho PCBs, with the former having higher levels than the latter. The PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels, in the sediments of Napoleon Gulf, which is near urban centers and industrial areas were markedly higher (α ≤ 0.05) than those from the Thurston Bay, which is offshore, suggesting that human activities could be sources of the pollutants to the surrounding water resources. World Health Organization-toxic equivalency quotients (WHO-TEQs) lay in the range of 0.07-5.53 pg g(-1) dw for PCDD/Fs and 0.01-0.23 pg g(-1) dw for dl-PCBs. 23.1% of samples from the Napoleon Gulf had their results above the set WHOPCDD/Fs-TEQ value.

  8. Levels of coplanar PCBs in human breast milk at different times of lactation

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, M.J.; Ramos, L.; Hernandez, L.M.

    1995-03-01

    PCBs are a highly lipophilic group of global pollutants, consisting of 209 congeners which exhibit wide differences in their toxic and biological effects. The coplanar PCB (non-, mono- and di-ortho Chlorine substituted) congeners, the most toxic ones, induce similar toxic effects as 2,3,7,8 TCDD. Thus for risk assessment of exposure to PCBs, the analysis of these coplanar congeners is required. The PCB levels in human breast milk are of specific concern because of the potential health damage which may be caused to the nursing baby. The PCB levels in this sample come from previously accumulated quantities in body fat whose principal source is food, and pass directly to the nursing baby who accumulates the PCBs in adipose tissue. The amount of total PCBs and other organochlorine compounds (OCC) in human milk at different time intervals after birth was reported earlier, but data concerning individual and coplanar PCBs are sparse in the literature. The results from some studies showed a gradual decrease of residual levels in milk and milk fat. However, other research has shown differences in this respect. We present our first result concerning the concentration of 14 individual PCBs (13 coplanars) in breast milk from the same mother, during weeks 8 to 12 of lactation. We related the different concentration variations observed among the individual PCBs to their molecular structure and % fat in human breast milk. 17 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. Intervention to reduce PCBs: learnings from a controlled study of Anniston residents.

    PubMed

    Jandacek, Ronald J

    2016-02-01

    Nonabsorbable dietary lipid reduces the absorption of dietary PCBs and increases the excretion of previously absorbed stored PCBs. Absorption of all PCB congeners will presumably be interrupted by nonabsorbable lipid; however excretion will be enhanced only for PCBs that have not been metabolized and also for their lipophilic metabolites. Our study with the nonabsorbable lipid, olestra, in a controlled trial in Anniston residents with elevated PCB levels demonstrated that it is possible to enhance removal of PCBs from the body in the clinically meaningful time frame of 1 year. The rate of disappearance of PCBs in participants who ate 15 g/day of olestra was significantly faster than the rate determined during the 5 years prior to intervention. The rate of disappearance was not changed from the pretrial rate in participants who ingested vegetable oil. Consideration of the role of body weight and fat is an important factor in the design of intervention trials of this kind, and the results of this trial suggest that the level of body fat in individuals will influence the rate of removal from the body. Previously reported data from animals and from a case report indicate that weight loss combined with nonabsorbable dietary lipid will maximize removal of PCBs and presumably other stored organochlorine compounds. The design of future intervention trials should include a focus on body fat levels and changes. Future trials should also include the testing of dietary compounds other than olestra that have affinity for PCBs, such as plant-derived polyphenols.

  10. Cancer Dose-Response Assessment for Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Application to Environmental Mixtures

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report updates the cancer dose-response assessment for PCBs and shows how information on toxicity, disposition, and environmental processes can be considered together to evaluate health risks from PCB mixtures in the environment.

  11. Non-Dioxin-Like PCBs: Effects and Consideration In Ecological Risk Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An estimated one million metric tons of commercial mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), such as Aroclors (USA), Kanechlors (Japan) and Clophens (Germany), were manufactured (WHO, 1993) and used worldwide as dielectric fluids

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF SULFATE RADICAL-BASED CHEMICAL OXIDATION PROCESSES FOR TREATMENT OF PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates transition metal based activation of peroxymonosulfate for generation of highly reactive sulfate radicals to degrade Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in contaminated aqueous and sediment systems. Environmental friendly transition metal iron (Fe (II), Fe (I...

  13. TREATMENT OF PAHS AND PCBS USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic systems pose serious threat to public health due to their toxicity and potential carcinogenicity [1]. Sulfate radical-based oxidation processes can be effectively used for degradation of these...

  14. Development and Application of Immunoaffinity Chromatography for Coplanar PCBs in Soil and Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column was developed as a simple cleanup procedure for preparing environmental samples for analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Soil and sediment samples were prepared using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), followed by the IAC c...

  15. AN ISOMER PREDICTION MODEL FOR PCNS, PCDD/FS, AND PCBS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Isomer patterns of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from municipal waste incinerators (MWIs) were predicted by a model based on dechlorination kinetics from the most-chlorinated species. Successfu...

  16. USING STABLE ISOTOPES TO TRACK BIOMAGNIFICATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) THROUGH STREAM FOOD WEBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most studies of biomagnification are from lentic systems, which are characterized by organic matter and sediment retention. However, biomagnification studies in streams are rare. This is surprising because PCBs and other persistent organic pollutants are known to biomagnify in ...

  17. IRON-PEROXYMONOSULFATE: A NOVEL SULFATE RADICAL BASED ADVANCED OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY FOR DEGRADATION OF PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigates the degradation of recalcitrant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation technologies. Sulfate radicals are generated through coupling of peroxymonosulfate (PMS) with iron (Fe(II), Fe(III)). Sulfate radicals have very ...

  18. THE EFFECT OF PCBS ON GLYCOGEN RESERVES IN THE EASTERN OYSTER CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA. (R825349)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent declines in Chesapeake Bay oyster populations have been attributed to disease, and reduced water quality from pollution. The stress associated with pollutant exposure may reduce energy available for growth and reproduction. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic c...

  19. Developmental Exposure to PCBs Differentially Alters Sensitivity to Audiogenic and Kindling-Induced Seizures in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previously we reported an increased incidence of audiogenic seizures in offspring of pregnant rats exposed to an environmental mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study compares the proconvulsant properties of PCB exposure in audiogenic and electrical kindling seizu...

  20. 77 FR 74006 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics From Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... interpretation of its regulations currently under consideration that would generally allow for the recycling of... Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally on the regulatory provisions for excluded...

  1. 78 FR 20640 - Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... AGENCY Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs); Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue AGENCY: Environmental... will generally allow for the recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue, relying principally...

  2. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: PRELIMINARY REPORT ON TREATMENT/DETOXIFICATION ALTERNATIVES FOR PCBS AND CHLORINATED ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Hazardous Vaste Engineering Research Laboratory (HWERL) report summarizes the development of systems to dechlorinate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and chlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) using a series of reagents prepared from ...

  3. MOBILIZATION OF PAHS AND PCBS FROM IN-PLACE CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS DURING SIMULATED RESUSPENSION EVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A particle entrainment simulator was used to experimentally produce representative estuarine resuspension conditions to investigate the resulting transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the overlying water column. Contaminants ...

  4. A model for simulating the grinding and classification cyclic system of waste PCBs recycling production line.

    PubMed

    Yang, Deming; Xu, Zhenming

    2011-09-15

    Crushing and separating technology is widely used in waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) recycling process. A set of automatic line without negative impact to environment for recycling waste PCBs was applied in industry scale. Crushed waste PCBs particles grinding and classification cyclic system is the most important part of the automatic production line, and it decides the efficiency of the whole production line. In this paper, a model for computing the process of the system was established, and matrix analysis method was adopted. The result showed that good agreement can be achieved between the simulation model and the actual production line, and the system is anti-jamming. This model possibly provides a basis for the automatic process control of waste PCBs production line. With this model, many engineering problems can be reduced, such as metals and nonmetals insufficient dissociation, particles over-pulverizing, incomplete comminuting, material plugging and equipment fever.

  5. Effects of Feeding Rate and Loading Density on Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment tests with aquatic organisms can provide valuable information about potential toxicity and the bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the organisms. The USEPA 28-day Lumbriculus variegatus bioaccumulation test for sediments when successfully perfor...

  6. Recycling of transformer oil contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using catalytic hydrodechlorination.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye-Min; Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jaehoon; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2009-04-01

    Catalytic hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the presence of transformer oil was carried out in a batch mode to detoxify PCBs and to recycle the treated oil. Various metal supported catalysts, including 0.98 wt% Pt, 0.79 wt% Pd and 12.8 wt% Ni on gamma -alumina (gamma -Al(2)O(3)) support, and 57.6 wt% Ni on silicon oxide-aluminum oxide (SiO(2)-Al(2)O(3)) support were used for the hydrodechlorination. Metal particle size of the Pt catalyst was 2.0 nm and metal particle sizes of the Pd and Ni catalysts were in the range of 6.4-6.9 nm. Various supercritical fluids, supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)), supercritical propane (scPropane), supercritical dimethyl ether (scDME) and supercritical isobutane (scIsobutane) were used as reaction media. PCBs conversion, dechlorination degree of PCBs, was measured using gas chromatograph (GC) with an electron capture detector (ECD). The hydrodechorination degree increased in the order Ni > Pd > Pt, possibly due to higher metal loading and larger metal size of the Ni catalysts. At temperatures below 175 degrees C, scCO(2) was effective as the reaction media for the catalytic hydrodechlorination of PCBs in the presence of the transformer oil. However, PCBs conversion decreased significantly when the hydrodechlorination was carried out in a homogeneous phase with using scPropane, scDME or scIsobutane as a reaction medium. This was attributed to dilution effect of the supercritical fluids. Molecular weights of the transformer oils before and after the catalytic hydrodechlorination were analyzed using high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC). The molecular weight of the treated oil with 100 % PCBs conversion did not change after the catalytic hydrodechlorination at 200 degrees C. This process has proven to be effective to detoxify PCBs containing transformer oil and to recycle the treated oil.

  7. Reduction of the body burden of PCBs and DDE by dietary intervention in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Jandacek, Ronald J; Heubi, James E; Buckley, Donna D; Khoury, Jane C; Turner, Wayman E; Sjödin, Andreas; Olson, James R; Shelton, Christie; Helms, Kim; Bailey, Tina D; Carter, Shirley; Tso, Patrick; Pavuk, Marian

    2014-04-01

    Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Anniston, AL, residents have been associated with hypertension and diabetes. There have been no systematic interventions to reduce PCB body burdens in Anniston or other populations. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of 15 g/day of dietary olestra to reduce PCBs in Anniston residents. Blood PCBs and 1,1-bis-(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene were measured at baseline and 4-month intervals in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year trial. Participants with elevated serum PCBs were randomized into two groups of 14 and received potato crisps made with olestra or vegetable oil (VO). Elimination rates during the study period were compared with 5-year prestudy rates. Eleven participants in the olestra group and 12 in the VO group completed the study. Except for one participant in the VO group, reasons for dropout were unrelated to treatments. The elimination rate of 37 non-coplanar PCB congeners during the 1-year trial was faster during olestra consumption compared to the pretrial period (-0.0829 ± 0.0357 and -0.00864 ± 0.0116 year(-1), respectively; P=.04), but not during VO consumption (-0.0413 ± 0.0408 and -0.0283 ± 0.0096 year(-1), respectively; P=.27). The concentration of PCBs in two olestra group participants decreased by 27% and 25% during the trial. There was no significant time by group interaction in change from baseline. However, group main effects for total PCBs and PCB 153 were of borderline significance. This pilot study has demonstrated that olestra can safely reduce body burdens of PCBs and supports a larger intervention trial that may also determine whether reduction in PCBs will reduce the risk of hypertension and diabetes.

  8. Estrogenic followed by anti-estrogenic effects of PCBs exposure in juvenil fish (Spaurus aurata).

    PubMed

    Calò, M; Alberghina, D; Bitto, A; Lauriano, E R; Lo Cascio, P

    2010-01-01

    Vitellogenin (Vtg) is a phospho-lipo-glycoprotein produced by oviparous animals in response to estrogen receptor (ER) binding. The presence of Vtg in juvenile and male fish liver and plasma has been used as biomarker to evaluate levels of environmental contaminants as dioxin and PCBs. Interaction of dioxins and PCBs with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) may affect reproduction by recruitment of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PCB-126, a co-planar PCB prototypical AhR agonist, and of PCB-153, a non-coplanar PCB lacking dioxine-like activity, on Vtg expression in young fish (Spaurus aurata) after a 12 or 24h exposure to PCBs as well as 48h following PCBs removal. Vtg expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and by Western-blot analysis. Our results showed an increased Vtg expression following PCBs administration, with a maximum level after 12h of exposure to either PCB-126, PCB-153 or a mixture of both PCBs. Following this estrogenic activity, an anti-estrogenic activity was detected after 24h of incubation with PCB-126 (alone or mixed with PCB-153), suggested by a decrease in Vtg expression likely through AhR, as a consequence of a hypothetic defence mechanism to endogenous or exogenous ligands.

  9. Toxicological effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on freshwater turtles in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ming-Ch'eng Adams, Clare Isabel; Baker, Joel E; Kjellerup, Birthe V

    2016-07-01

    Prediction of vertebrate health effects originating from persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) has remained a challenge for decades thus making the identification of bioindicators difficult. POPs are predominantly present in soil and sediment, where they adhere to particles due to their hydrophobic characteristics. Animals inhabiting soil and sediment can be exposed to PCBs via dermal exposure while others may obtain PCBs through contaminated trophic interaction. Freshwater turtles can serve as bioindicators due to their strong site fidelity, longevity and varied diet. Previous research observed the health effects of PCBs on turtles such as decreased bone mass, changed sexual development and decreased immune responses through studying both contaminated sites along with laboratory experimentation. Higher deformity rates in juveniles, increased mortality and slower growth have also been observed. Toxicological effects of PCBs vary between species of freshwater turtles and depend on the concertation and configuration of PCB congeners. Evaluation of ecotoxicological effects of PCBs in non-endangered turtles could provide important knowledge about the health effects of endangered turtle species thus inform the design of remediation strategies. In this review, the PCB presence in freshwater turtle habitats and the ecotoxicological effects were investigated with the aim of utilizing the health status to identify areas of focus for freshwater turtle conservation.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the marine environment, particularly in the Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, H.; Freitag, D.; Korte, F.

    1984-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) possess a low water solubility, a high n-octanol/water partition coefficient, and a high persistence, particularly those which are highly chlorinated. Because of these properties they are bioaccumulated in many organisms in the environment. PCBs are still manufactured industrially and used in the Mediterranean countries (e.g., Italy, Spain, and France). Production figures for these countries and for the FRG, the United Kingdom, and the United States between 1973 and 1979 are given. The concentrations of PCBs in marine air, water, sediments, microplankton , algae, mussels, fish, and other marine organisms including seabirds from the Mediterranean area are reviewed and compared with PCB concentrations in marine samples from non-Mediterranean regions. Levels of PCBs in seawater are highest in the western and central Mediterranean. The data for mussels and fish give a clear indication that the PCB levels are higher in the Northwest and the Tyrrhenian Sea than in the eastern Mediterranean. The FDA in June 1979 set 2 mg/kg as the temporary maximum concentration for PCBs in fish and shellfish. The PCB residues in some fish from the northwestern Mediterranean and Tyrrhenian Sea and in some mussels from the Adriatic Sea are higher than this limit. The amount of PCBs ingested via food by the Mediterranean population is unknown.

  11. Health Effects of PCBs in Residences and Schools (HESPERUS): PCB – health Cohort Profile

    PubMed Central

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Frederiksen, Marie; Specht, Ina Olmer; Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Ebbehøj, Niels; Bailey, Janice; Giwercman, Aleksander; Steenland, Kyle; Longnecker, Matthew Paul; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated-biphenyls (PCBs) were introduced in the late 1920s and used until the 1970s when they were banned in most countries due to evidence of environmental build-up and possible adverse health effects. However they still persist in the environment, indoors and in humans. Indoor air in contaminated buildings may confer airborne exposure markedly above background regional PCB levels. To date, no epidemiological studies have assessed the health effects from exposure to semi-volatile PCBs in the indoor environment. Indoor air PCBs are generally less chlorinated than PCBs that are absorbed via the diet, or via past occupational exposure; therefore their health effects require separate risk assessment. Two separate cohorts of individuals who have either attended schools (n = 66,769; 26% exposed) or lived in apartment buildings (n = 37,185; 19% exposed), where indoor air PCB concentrations have been measured were created. An individual estimate of long-term airborne PCB exposure was assigned based on measurements. The cohorts will be linked to eight different national data sources on mortality, school records, residential history, socioeconomic status, and chronic disease and reproductive outcomes. The linking of indoor air exposures with health outcomes provides a dataset unprecedented worldwide. We describe a project, called HESPERUS (Health Effects of PCBs in Residences and Schools), which will be the first study of the long term health effects of the lower-chlorinated, semi-volatile PCBs in the indoor environment. PMID:27090775

  12. Pollution of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in tidal flat of Hangzhou Bay 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng; Gong, Wenjie; Mao, Guohua; Li, Jige; Xu, Fenfen; Shi, Jiawei

    2016-05-01

    The concentration and distribution of three persistent organic pollutants (hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) was assessed in tidal flat sediments collected from the south bank of Hangzhou Bay, China from 2009 to 2013. Gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used for analysis, based on United States Environmental Protection Agency methods EPA8080A, EPA8081B, and EPA3550B. The results showed that the levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased in the order of DDTs < HCHs < PCBs, and their mass fractions ranged from 0.29-32.91, 0.09-13.19 and 0.16-4.10 μg/kg (dry mass), respectively. The levels of HCHs, DDTs and PCBs decreased slowly from 2009 to 2013, with considerably greater concentrations in winter than in spring and summer. In this study area, the concentrations of DDTs and HCHs decreased gradually towards the mouth of Hangzhou Bay, while the concentrations of PCBs were related to changes in the local economy. In addition, the sources of HCHs and DDTs were identified as atmospheric precipitation and historical residues. Finally, we predicted that PCBs pollution primarily originated from Aroclor 1254(Lot A4), which might root in the illegal demolition and stacking of abandoned paint, transformer or electronic equipment in the south bank of Hangzhou Bay.

  13. Influence of PCBs in water on uptake and elimination of DDT and DDE by lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hesselberg, Robert J.; Nicholson, Lawrence W.

    1981-01-01

    Researchers predicted that several hundred years would be required before DDT (1,1,1 trichloro-2,2-bis [P-chlorophyl] ethane) and its metabolites were likely to decrease to nondetectable levels in Lake Michigan. But following the ban on DDT in 1970, residues of total DDT in Lake Michigan lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) declined rapidly from 10.5µg/g in 1970 to 5.7 µg/g in 1976. During this period, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were being detected in lake trout tissues at about 20 µg/g. It was hypothesized that the high level of PCBs being accumulated by fish may have influenced uptake and elimination of DDT and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis [p-chlorophenyl] ethylene) by fish. To test this hyphophesis, fingeriing lake trout were exposed to various combinations of DDT, DDE (100 ng/liter), and PCBs (100 and 500 ng/liter) in water for 12 weeks. After DDT and DDe exposures were completed, exposure to PCBs was continued for an additional 16 weeks to measure any effect PCBs may have on the elimination of DDT and DDE by fish. Accumulation and elimination rates of DDT and DDE were compared. It was found that PCBs did not influence the accumulation or elimination rates of DDT or DDE in lake trout and therefore should not have had a major influence on the decline of DDT in lake trout.

  14. PCBs in schools—where communities and science come together

    PubMed Central

    Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2016-01-01

    A novel aspect of the 8th International PCB Workshop at Woods Hole, MA, was the interaction between scientists and activists. While earlier workshops in this series had mentioned policy making, this Workshop focused on the problem of PCBs in schools. Focus on a problem brought an activist to give a plenary talk and facilitated a 1-day registration for other non-scientists to attend. The workshop was cohosted by the Superfund Research Programs at University of Iowa and Boston University and included active participation of each Program’s Research Translation and Community Engagement Cores. A mandate of each National Institute of Environmental Health Science (NIEHS)-funded Superfund Research Program is bidirectional communication between scientists and community groups. The authors describe the events leading up to community involvement in the Workshop and the substance of the community engagement aspects of the workshop, in particular the participation by a parent-teacher group, Malibu Unites. The authors also discuss the value of such communication in terms of making important research accessible to those who are most affected by the results and poised to use it and the value of making scientists aware of the important role they play in society in addressing difficult questions that originate in community settings. PMID:26194237

  15. PCBs in schools--where communities and science come together.

    PubMed

    Osterberg, David; Scammell, Madeleine Kangsen

    2016-02-01

    A novel aspect of the 8th International PCB Workshop at Woods Hole, MA, was the interaction between scientists and activists. While earlier workshops in this series had mentioned policy making, this Workshop focused on the problem of PCBs in schools. Focus on a problem brought an activist to give a plenary talk and facilitated a 1-day registration for other non-scientists to attend. The workshop was cohosted by the Superfund Research Programs at University of Iowa and Boston University and included active participation of each Program's Research Translation and Community Engagement Cores. A mandate of each National Institute of Environmental Health Science (NIEHS)-funded Superfund Research Program is bidirectional communication between scientists and community groups. The authors describe the events leading up to community involvement in the Workshop and the substance of the community engagement aspects of the workshop, in particular the participation by a parent-teacher group, Malibu Unites. The authors also discuss the value of such communication in terms of making important research accessible to those who are most affected by the results and poised to use it and the value of making scientists aware of the important role they play in society in addressing difficult questions that originate in community settings.

  16. Development of a portable field monitor for PCBs. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bostick, W.D.; Denton, M.S.; Dinsmore, S.R.

    1983-01-01

    With the advent of recent regulations and those yet pending concerning allowable concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), personnel in all aspects of the electric power industry, analytical support personnel, and those in the regulatory functions themselves have realized that the PCB problem, as well as these associated regulations, has far surpassed available monitoring capability. In short, detailed, stringent regulations are being set for contamination levels where no accepted ASTM procedure or instrumentation exists. The largest PCB problems occur in the form of PCB-contaminated oil in field transformers and storage containers, and pure askarel in transformers and capacitors. The most immediate need for a portable field instrument would be for use under PCB spill conditions. Portable monitors based on the principles of photoionization detection (PID) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) have been adapted and evaluated for this purpose. The latter includes both flow cell and horizontal multiple internal reflectance (HMIR) sampling configurations. Extensive work has also been performed on solvent-solvent and solvent-soil extractions, as well as PCB adsorption on packings, for use under spill conditions.

  17. Mechanism of biosynthesis of methylsulfones from PCBs and related compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mio, T.; Sumino, K.

    1985-02-01

    Mercapto-, methylthio-, methylsulfinyl- and methylsulfonyl metabolites of PCBs 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and some other chlorobenzenes were identified in adipose tissues of mice, rats and guinea pigs by using GC/MS/COM systems. By means of administration of CD/sub 3/-methionine, it was confirmed that the methyl group in methylthio metabolites was derived from the methionine. Moreover, after pretreatment with either esterification of urinary metabolites in guinea pigs with 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene and 1,3-dichlorobenzene or N-acetylation after esterification, it was confirmed that cysteinylglycine, cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, cysteamine, mercaptopyruvate, mercaptolactate, mercaptacetate, thiol and disulfide conjugates were detected as a serial modified derivatives of glutathione moiety. These results are summarized as a metabolic proposed pathway of halogenated aromatic compounds. Three routes in pathway correspond to oxygenation (initial route), glutathione thioether disposition (intermediate route) and sulfoxydation (final route) in connection with both reactive intermediates of epoxide and thiol. Methylation of the thiol by S-adenosylmethionine may be important in inhibiting covalent binding of reactive intermediates with biocomponents, similar to the glutathione conjugation for the detoxification of epoxide.

  18. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in participants of the Anniston Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Pavuk, M; Olson, J R; Sjödin, A; Wolff, P; Turner, W E; Shelton, C; Dutton, N D; Bartell, S

    2014-03-01

    Serum concentrations of 35 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were measured in 765 adults from Anniston, Alabama, where PCBs were manufactured between 1929 and 1971. As part of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS), demographic data, questionnaire information, and blood samples were collected from participants in 2005-2007. Forty-six percent of study participants were African-American, 70% were female, and the median age was 56 years. The median concentration of the sum of 35 PCB congeners (ΣPCBs) was 528 ng/g lipid, with a 90th percentile of 2,600 ng/g lipid, minimum of 17.0 ng/g lipid, and maximum of 27,337 ng/g lipid. The least square geometric mean ΣPCBs was more than 2.5 times higher for African-American participants than for White participants (866 ng/g lipid vs. 331 ng/g lipid); this difference did not change materially after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and current smoking. In spite of large differences in absolute PCB levels, relative contributions of individual congeners to ΣPCBs were quite similar between race groups. Nevertheless, while percent contributions to ΣPCBs for most of the most abundant penta- to heptachlorobiphenyls were higher among African-Americans, the percentages were higher in Whites for the lower-chlorinated PCBs 28 and 74 and for octa- to decachlorinated PCBs. No major differences were observed in geometric mean ΣPCBs between women and men when adjusted for age, race, BMI and current smoking (516 ng/g lipid vs. 526 ng/g lipid). Principal component analysis revealed groups of co-varying congeners that appear to be determined by chlorine substitution patterns. These congener groupings were similar between ACHS participants and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-04 sample of the general United States population, despite ACHS participants having serum concentrations of ΣPCBs two to three times higher than those in comparable age and race groups from

  19. PCBs and OCPs on a east-to-west transect: the importance of major currents and net volatilization for PCBs in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Lohmann, Rainer; Klanova, Jana; Kukucka, Petr; Yonis, Shifra; Bollinger, Kevyn

    2012-10-02

    Air-water exchange gradients of selected polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners across a large section of the tropical Atlantic suggested net volatilization of PCBs to the atmosphere. Only for the higher chlorinated PCB 153 and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were gradients near equilibrium detected. The use of passive samplers also enabled the detection of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its transformation products across the tropical Atlantic, indicating net deposition. There were clear differences between the southern and northern hemisphere apparent in terms of atmospheric concentrations: Once the ship moved from the southern into the northern hemisphere air, concentrations of HCB and other organochlorine pesticides increased several-fold. For large swaths of the tropical Atlantic Ocean, neither PCB nor organochlorine pesticide dissolved concentrations varied much longitudinally, probably due to efficient mixing by ocean currents. In selected samples, dissolved concentrations reflected the influence of river plumes and major ocean currents far away from the continents. Dissolved concentrations of PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, and HCB increased in the Amazon plume and the Gulf Stream. While the Amazon plume flushed only a few kg of PCBs and HCB, the Gulf Stream is potentially delivering tons of PCBs into the North Atlantic annually.

  20. Historical sediment record and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from tidal flats of Haizhou Bay, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Tiancheng; Yan, Hongqiang; Shao, Wei; Zhou, Li; Tong, Hebing

    2014-12-15

    The spatial and temporal variations and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment of tidal flat from Haizhou Bay, China were investigated. PCBs concentrations in surface sediments ranged from 1.33 to 6.27ngg(-1) dry weight. Low-chlorinated PCBs, dominated by the tri-PCB homologs, were identified as the prevalent contaminate of surface sediments. These results were in agreement with the fact that tri-PCB homologs are the dominant contaminants in China. In surface sediment, the highest level appeared in the estuary, and it decreased with distance from the Linhong River estuary. PCBs concentrations started to rise from the mid-1950s, and reached a maximum in 2005. PCBs in sediment might originate from surface runoff and discharges of local source as well as slight atmospheric deposition, based on PCA. Additionally, the PCBs levels in the sediments were considered to rarely pose hazard to the aquatic and human health, based on Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs).

  1. Predictors of plasma concentrations of DDE and PCBs in a group of U.S. women.

    PubMed Central

    Laden, F; Neas, L M; Spiegelman, D; Hankinson, S E; Willett, W C; Ireland, K; Wolff, M S; Hunter, D J

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated predictors of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), a metabolite of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a group of 240 women, controls from a breast cancer case-control study nested in the Nurses' Health Study. We considered personal attributes such as age, serum cholesterol, region of residence, adiposity, lactation, and dietary intake. DDE levels increased 0.17 ppb/year of age (p = 0.0003), and PCBs increased 0.08 ppb (p = 0.0001). DDE and PCBs increased 0.20 (p = 0.02) and 0.13 ppb (p = 0.001), respectively, per 10 mg/dl serum cholesterol. Women living in the western United States had higher levels of DDE (mean = 11.0 ppb; p = 0.003), and women in the Northeast and Midwest had higher levels of PCBs (mean = 5.6 ppb; p = 0.0002) as compared to women from other parts of the country (mean DDE = 6.3; mean PCBs = 4. 5 ppb). Levels of DDE could not be predicted from consumption of meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, vegetables, fruits, and grains. There was a positive association between fish consumption and PCB concentrations among women in the Northeast and Midwest. Using data from the cases in the nested case-control study to assess the predictive ability of the models, we confirmed that the most reliable predictors of DDE were age and serum cholesterol, and the most important predictors of PCBs were age, serum cholesterol, and residence in the Midwest or Northeast. The null results for the majority of the food variables suggest that specific dietary factors, other than fish, are not currently a substantial contributor to human exposure to DDE and PCBs. PMID:9872720

  2. Position paper of the American Council on Science and Health: public health concerns about environmental polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    1997-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls, or PCBs, were widely used in various industrial applications for their insulating and fire retardant properties. In the 1960s, PCBs were found in soil and water, and research confirmed that some PCB congeners degrade very slowly in the environment and can build up in the food chain. Two widespread poisoning episodes in Japan and Taiwan were initially attributed to the consumption of rice bran oil contaminated with PCBs. Although subsequent analysis suggested that toxic thermal degradation products of PCBs in the oil, rather than the PCBs, were responsible for the observed health effects, commercial production of PCBs in the United States was discontinued in 1979. Several regulatory and advisory agencies have categorized PCBs as animal carcinogens; however, studies of workers exposed to high doses of PCBs over long periods of time have not demonstrated an increased cancer risk. In fact, the only health effects that could be attributed to PCBs were skin and eye irritation. Recent studies of the possible effects of prenatal exposure to PCBs on neurodevelopment in infants and children have been criticized for methodological deficiencies. There is no conclusive evidence that PCB levels in the general population are causing intellectual deterioration in children exposed in utero. Some investigators have also suggested that PCBs and other chemicals in the environment can interfere with the body's endocrine system, leading to infertility, certain types of cancer, and other hormone-related disorders. Evidence for estrogenic effects of environmental PCBs remains weak and circumstantial. The following actions are recommended: development of innovative, cost-effective remediation techniques, particularly for sites that are difficult to remediate (e.g., river sediments); and scientifically based improvements to risk assessment, to reduce the considerable uncertainty associated with PCB exposure to health effects in humans.

  3. Human exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs through consumption of fish and seafood in Catalonia (Spain): Temporal trend.

    PubMed

    Perelló, Gemma; Díaz-Ferrero, Jordi; Llobet, Juan M; Castell, Victòria; Vicente, Emilio; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2015-07-01

    The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and 18 PCBs (DL- and NDL-) were analyzed in 16 fish and seafood species widely consumed in Catalonia (Spain). The exposure of these pollutants was subsequently estimated according to various groups of population. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs showed an important decrease in relation to the baseline study (2000) and our last survey (2008). Sardine and red mullet were the species showing the highest pollutant concentrations, while canned tuna and cuttlefish presented the lowest levels. Sardine was the main contributor to the exposure of PCDD/Fs and PCBs. In contrast, swordfish was the species with the lowest contribution to the exposure of PCDD/Fs, DL-PCBs, and PCDD/Fs+DL-PCBs, while clam was the minor contributor for NDL-PCBs and total PCBs. For all groups of population, the current intakes of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were lower than the TDI (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/day), being children the group with the highest exposure. However, this exposure should not mean a health risk for this group of population. The current intake of PCDD/Fs and PCBs through fish and seafood consumption was similar or even lower than most values reported in recent studies all over the world.

  4. Diabetes in Native Americans: elevated risk as a result of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Carpenter, David O

    2016-03-01

    We have studied rates of diabetes in 601 members of the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne, ages 18-84 years, in relation to serum concentrations of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and three chlorinated pesticides [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex]. Diabetes was determined from either a diagnosis by a physician or by having a fasting glucose concentration of >125 mg/dL. Rates of diabetes are high in this community. Three models were used. In the first model rate ratios (RR) were determined for quartiles of total PCBs after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and total serum lipids. For total PCBs RR=2.21 (1.2-4.2), while for total pesticides RR=3.75 (1.3-10.7). When the total PCB results were also adjusted for total pesticides and the total pesticide results were also adjusted for total PCBs (Model 2) the RRs were somewhat reduced. In Model 3 we considered subgroups of PCBs based on numbers of chlorines on the molecule (tri-/tetra, penta-/hexa, hepta plus) and numbers of ortho chlorines (non-/mono; di-, tri-/tetra-), and considered each of the pesticides individually after adjustment for all other contaminants as well as age, sex, BMI and serum lipids. We found a highly significant association between diabetes and PCBs with only three or four chlorines (RR=5.02), but no significant association with those with greater chlorination. When evaluating PCBs based on numbers of ortho chlorines only, those with no or one ortho chlorine showed significant associations. As mono-ortho PCBs include some with dioxin-like activity, we compared those with and without a TEF, and found that the association with diabetes was exclusively with the non-dioxin-like congeners. Of the pesticides only hexachlorobenzene showed a small but significant association with diabetes. Because lower chlorinated PCBs are more volatile and do not greatly accumulate in fish, these results suggest that inhalation is the major route of exposure to

  5. Total PCBs, TCDD-EQs in eggs: Reproductive hazards to north Pacific albatrosses

    SciTech Connect

    Ludwig, J.P.; Auman, H.J.; Summer, C.L.; Giesy, J.P.; Sanderson, J.T.; DeDoes, J.M.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Jones, P.

    1995-12-31

    Freshly laid eggs of Laysan and black-footed Albatrosses (Diomedea immutabilis and D. nigripes) were collected at Midway Atoll 1992 through 1994 and subsequently analyzed for chlorinated contaminants including OC pesticides, PCBs, dioxins and furans. TCDD-EQs in eggs were calculated from congener-specific data. Total PCBs ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 mglkg ww. Calculated TCDD-EQs ranged from 52--124 pg/g. A substantial portion (30--35%) of the TCDD-EQs in eggs were owing to dioxins and furans, and the balance to PCBs. PCBs in albatross eggs were much less potent than PCBs from waterbirds` eggs of the Great Lakes and other continental inland waters. Hazard indices based on calculated TCDD-EQs suggested that Laysan eggs were at the LOAEL for embryonic effects, but black-footed eggs were well above avian LOAELS. Egg death during natural incubation was 2--3% greater in black-footed than Laysan nests, and 5% fewer black-footed albatross chicks were fledged in 1994. A low incidence of deformities in hatchlings was noted in 1994 and 1995. Crossed-bill hatchlings were not reported in these populations until the late 1970s in spite of intensive studies 1957--1972, but occurred at rates of 1 in 14,000 hatchlings, and 1 in 300 dead eggs 1993--1995. Reproductive effects owing to contaminant exposures in these most pelagic seabirds are confirmed.

  6. Photocatalytic removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using carbon-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaban, Yasser A.; El Sayed, Mohamed A.; El Maradny, Amr A.; Al Farawati, Radwan Kh.; Al Zobidi, Mosa I.; Khan, Shahed U. M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the sonicated sol-gel method was used for synthesizing carbon-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. Carbon incorporation was achieved by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a titanium and carbon-containing precursor. The photocatalytic efficiency of the synthesized photocatalyst was assessed by examining the photocatalytic removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from aqueous solution. For comparison, unmodified (regular) titanium dioxide (n-TiO2) was used as a reference catalyst. To confirm the carbon incorporation in CM-n-TiO2 nanoparticles, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis was used. Significantly, the bandgap energy was found to be reduced from 2.99 eV for n-TiO2 to 1.8 eV for CM-n-TiO2, which in turn improved the performance of CM-n-TiO2 toward the photocatalytic removal of PCBs. The effects of CM-n-TiO2 loading, PCBs concentration, and pH of the solution on the photodegradation rate of PCBs were investigated. The highest removal rate was found to be at pH 5 and CM-n-TiO2 loading of 0.5 g L-1. According to Langmuir-Hinshelwood model, the photodegradation of PCBs using CM-n-TiO2 followed a pseudo-first order reaction kinetics.

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the western Adriatic Sea: Sources, historical trends and inventories.

    PubMed

    Combi, Tatiane; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-08-15

    Sources, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in sediments collected in five transects along the north-south axis of the western Adriatic Sea. The concentration of total PCBs (∑28 PCBs) ranged from PCBs in the western Adriatic Sea. This is further corroborated by the estimated inventories of PCBs, which were ~4-7 times higher in the Po River prodelta (256ngcm(-2)) in comparison to the middle and southern Adriatic, respectively, and about 100 times higher than the in the deep Adriatic Sea.

  8. Extraction of PCBs and water from river sediment using liquefied dimethyl ether as an extractant.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Takaoka, Masaki; Kitade, Sin-ichiro; Takeda, Nobuo; Kanda, Hideki; Makino, Hisao; Matsumoto, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2010-02-01

    We investigated whether polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and water could be simultaneously removed from river sediment by solvent extraction using liquefied dimethyl ether (DME) as the extractant. DME exists in a gaseous state at normal temperature and pressure and can dissolve organic substances and some amount of water; therefore, liquefied DME under moderate pressure (0.6-0.8 MPa) at room temperature can be effectively used to extract PCBs and water from contaminated sediment, and it can be recovered from the extract and reused easily. First, we evaluated the PCB and water extraction characteristics of DME from contaminated sediment. We found that 99% of PCBs and 97% of water were simultaneously extracted from the sediment using liquefied DME at an extraction time of 4320 s and a liquefied DME/sediment ratio of 60 mL g(-1). The extraction rate of PCBs and water was expressed in terms of a pseudo-first-order reaction rate. Second, we estimated the amount of DME that was recovered after extraction. We found that 91-92% of DME could be recovered. In other words, approximately 5-10% of DME was lost during extraction and recovery. It is necessary to optimize this process in order to recover DME efficiently. The extraction efficiency of the recovered DME is similar to that of the pure DME. From the results, we conclude that solvent extraction using liquefied DME is suitable for extracting PCBs and water from contaminated sediment.

  9. Combined steam distillation and electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) treatment of river sediment contaminated by PCBs.

    PubMed

    Chiarenzelli, J R; Scrudato, R J; Wunderlich, M L; Pagano, J J

    2001-12-01

    A combined treatment process utilizing steam distillation followed by electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) has been utilized to remove >90% of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in St. Lawrence River sediment and destroy 95% of the PCBs recovered in the condensate. 2 l of condensate were collected by boiling 500 grams of sediment containing approximately 4.3 mg PCBs. Most of the PCBs (82.3%) were recovered as a small volume (<1 ml) of yellow oil floating on the condensate and coating glassware surfaces. The aqueous phase PCBs (182 microg/l) were destroyed (95%) by three sequential ECP treatments at 16.8 degrees C and pH 5, utilizing 1 ml of H2O2 (3%) and periodically reversed current (0.75-1.0 A @ 10 volts). Oxidation is primarily mediated by hydroxyl radicals produced by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with electrochemically generated ferrous iron (Fenton's reagent). This work suggests steam extraction, in combination with advanced oxidation technologies, provides an effective treatment strategy for contaminated solids.

  10. Destruction and formation of dioxin-like PCBs in dedicated full scale waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Block, Chantal; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    Destruction and formation of dioxin-like PCBs in full scale waste incinerators is studied by analysing input waste streams and boiler and fly ash of a grate furnace incinerator (GFI) incinerating MSW, of a Fluidised Bed Combustor (FBC) incinerating a mix of 50% sludge, 25% refuse derived fuel (RDF) and 25% automotive shredder residue (ASR) and of a rotary kiln incinerator (RKI) incinerating hazardous waste. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprints of the waste inputs show that PCB oils Aroclor 1242 and Aroclor 1254 late are the major dioxin-like PCB contamination source of sludge, RDF and ASR. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprints of the waste inputs are clearly different from the fingerprints of the outputs, i.e. boiler and fly ash, indicating that in full scale waste incinerators dioxin-like PCBs in the input waste are destroyed and other dioxin-like PCBs are newly formed in the post combustion zone. The dioxin-like PCB fingerprint of boiler and fly ash of all three incinerators corresponds well to the fly ash fingerprint obtained in lab scale de novo synthesis experiments, indicating that dioxin-like PCBs are mainly formed through this mechanism. The high PCB concentration in the input waste mix of the RKI does not promote the formation of dioxin-like PCBs through precursor condensation.

  11. Prenatal PCBs disrupt early neuroendocrine development of the rat hypothalamus

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, Sarah M.; Cunningham, Stephanie L.; Gore, Andrea C.

    2011-04-01

    Neonatal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can interfere with hormone-sensitive developmental processes, including brain sexual differentiation. We hypothesized that disruption of these processes by gestational PCB exposure would be detectable as early as the day after birth (postnatal day (P) 1) through alterations in hypothalamic gene and protein expression. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected twice, once each on gestational days 16 and 18, with one of the following: DMSO vehicle; the industrial PCB mixture Aroclor 1221 (A1221); a reconstituted mixture of the three most prevalent congeners found in humans, PCB138, PCB153, and PCB180; or estradiol benzoate (EB). On P1, litter composition, anogenital distance (AGD), and body weight were assessed. Pups were euthanized for immunohistochemistry of estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) or TUNEL labeling of apoptotic cells or quantitative PCR of 48 selected genes in the preoptic area (POA). We found that treatment with EB or A1221 had a sex-specific effect on developmental apoptosis in the neonatal anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), a sexually dimorphic hypothalamic region involved in the regulation of reproductive neuroendocrine function. In this region, exposed females had increased numbers of apoptotic nuclei, whereas there was no effect of treatment in males. For ER{alpha}, EB treatment increased immunoreactive cell numbers and density in the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) of both males and females, while A1221 and the PCB mixture had no effect. PCR analysis of gene expression in the POA identified nine genes that were significantly altered by prenatal EDC exposure, in a manner that varied by sex and treatment. These genes included brain-derived neurotrophic factor, GABA{sub B} receptors-1 and -2, IGF-1, kisspeptin receptor, NMDA receptor subunits NR2b and NR2c, prodynorphin, and TGF{alpha}. Collectively, these results suggest that the

  12. Management and disposal of radioactively contaminated PCBs and PCB items at a Superfund site

    SciTech Connect

    Kaster, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    In order to manage and dispose of radioactively contaminated polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) properly, a federal facility placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) must establish and implement a sitewide management concept to address radioactively contaminated PCBs in soil and debris area and PCBs encountered as a result of remedial activities. Suspect PCB contamination may include areas under and former uranium processing plants and facilities, roads, buildings, and structures known to have contained or utilized different types of electric, high temperature, and/or hydraulic equipment containing PCB contaminated fluids. It is the responsibility of the Superfund site to consult with EPA regional offices for the purpose of selecting response action strategies, cleanup levels, and disposal options CERCLA by evaluating the form and concentration of the PCB contamination as well as the presence of other contaminants such as low level radionuclides. Cleanup levels, limited treatment and disposal options, and associated technologies must be determined while ensuring adequate protection to human health and the environment.

  13. QSAR studies of bioconcentration factors of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) using DFT, PCS and CoMFA.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Liu, Hongxia; Sun, Ping; Wang, Zunyao

    2014-11-01

    The bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of 58 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were modeled by quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) using density functional theory (DFT), the position of Cl substitution (PCS) and comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) methods. All the models were robust and predictive, and especially, the best CoMFA model was significant with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.926, a cross-validation correlation coefficient (Q(2)) of 0.821 and a root mean square error estimated (RMSE) of 0.235. The results indicate that the electrostatic descriptors play a more significant role in BCFs of PCBs. Additionally, a test set was used to compare the predictive ability of our models to others, and results show that our CoMFA model present the lowest RMSE. Thus, the models obtain in this work can be used to predict the BCFs of remaining 152 PCBs without available experimental values.

  14. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs co-occurrence in TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ctistis, Georgios; Schön, Peter; Bakker, Wouter; Luthe, Gregor

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we report on the co-occurrence of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) adsorbed on nanoparticular titanium dioxide (TiO2). We report on the finding of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the surface of commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles, being formed during the fabrication process of the TiO2. Thereby, the samples comprise PCBs with higher congener numbers or, in the absence of PCBs, a high concentration of PCDDs and PCDFs. This new class of POPs on an active catalytic surface and the great range of applications of nanoparticular TiO2, such as in color pigments, cosmetics, and inks, give rise to great concern due to their potential toxicity.

  15. DPOAEs in infants developmentally exposed to PCBs show two differently time spaced exposure sensitive windows.

    PubMed

    Koštiaková, Vladimíra; Moleti, Arturo; Wimmerová, Soňa; Jusko, Todd A; Palkovičová Murínová, Ľubica; Sisto, Renata; Richterová, Denisa; Kováč, Ján; Čonka, Kamil; Patayová, Henrieta; Tihányi, Juraj; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2016-10-01

    The study aim was to identify the timing of sensitive windows for ototoxicity related to perinatal exposure to PCBs. A total of 351 and 214 children from a birth cohort in eastern Slovakia underwent otoacoustic testing at 45 and 72 months, respectively, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) at 11 frequencies were recorded. Cord and child 6-, 16-, 45-, and 72- month blood samples were analyzed for PCB 153 concentration. The PCB 153 concentration-time profiles were approximated with a system model to calculate area under the PCB*time curves (AUCs) for specific time intervals (3 and 6 months for 45 and 72 months data, respectively). DPOAE amplitudes were correlated (Spearman) with cord serum PCB and AUCs, markers of prenatal and postnatal exposure, respectively. Two exposure critical windows were identified in infants, the first related to prenatal and early postnatal and the second to postnatal exposure to PCBs. Our data have shown tonotopicity, sexual dimorphism, and asymmetry in ototoxicity of PCBs.

  16. Reproduction of European eel jeopardised by high levels of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs?

    PubMed

    Geeraerts, C; Focant, J-F; Eppe, G; De Pauw, E; Belpaire, C

    2011-09-01

    Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were analysed in muscle tissue from yellow phased European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from 38 sites in Belgium. Dioxin concentrations in eel vary considerably between sampling locations, indicating that yellow eel is a good indicator of local pollution levels. Measured levels of dioxin-like PCBs are much higher than those of the dioxins and furans. In the majority of the sites, eel has levels considered to be detrimental for their reproduction. Field levels of dioxin and dioxin-like PCBs are therefore suggested as an additional causal factor contributing to the decline of the European eel. 42% of the sampling sites show especially dioxin-like PCB levels exceeding the European consumption level (with a factor 3 on average). Human consumption of eel, especially in these highly contaminated sites, seems unjustified.

  17. Potential sources of pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs to the atmosphere of the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Hafner, William D; Hites, Ronald A

    2003-09-01

    A probabilistic model called the potential source contribution function (PSCF) has been used to estimate atmospheric source regions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorinated pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the Great Lakes. This model allows us to map each compound's source region on a 0.5 degrees x 0.5 degrees latitude/longitude grid centered over the Great Lakes basin. PCBs primarily have urban sources, the strengths of which vary. Like PCBs, PAHs show a strong urban signature, but these compounds also seem to come from rural sites. The source regions of PAH become less distinct as the molecular weight of the compound increases. Since reactivity increases with PAH size, this diminishing trend may be an indication that atmospheric degradation plays a large role in PAH transport. The pesticides have the strongest source regions and are typically transported the farthest, often from areas distant from the Great Lakes basin.

  18. Sequential anaerobic-aerobic degradation of indigenous PCBs in a contaminated soil matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.; Reeves, M.E.; Evans, B.S.; Dudley, C.A.

    1994-12-31

    Many industrial locations, including the US Department of Energy`s, have identified needs for treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes and remediation of PCB-contaminated sites. Biodegradation of PCBs is a potentially effective technology for the treatment of PCB-contaminated soils and sludges; however, a practicable remediation technology has not yet been demonstrated. A biological treatment technology is likely to consist of an anaerobic fermentation step in which PCB dechlorination takes place producing PCBs with fewer chlorines. These products are then more susceptible to aerobic mineralization. In laboratory experiments, soil slurry bioreactors inoculated with microorganisms extracted from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Hudson River and Woods Pond have been used to obtain anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs in soil slurry reactors. The anaerobic dechlorination was followed by qualitative estimation of the effect of aerobic fermentation of the dechlorination products based on literature data. The sequential anaerobic-(simulated) aerobic treatment constituted an improvement compared anaerobic treatment alone.

  19. In Situ Treatment of PCBs by Anaerobic Microbial Dechlorination in Aquatic Sediment: Are We There Yet?

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, Kevin R.; May, Harold D.

    2012-01-01

    The remediation of PCBs in soils and sediments remains a particularly difficult problem to solve. The possibility of in situ degradation by microorganisms has been pursued for many years since this approach has the potential to provide a cost-effective and environmentally sustainable alternative to dredging for treatment of PCB impacted sites. Because PCBs are hydrophobic and partition into organic material they accumulate in anoxic environments well poised to support anaerobic dechlorination of highly chlorinated commercial PCBs to congeners that are susceptible to complete aerobic degradation. Laboratory research over the past 25 years is now leading to new microbial technologies that could soon be tested for treatment of PCB impacted soils and sediments in the field. PMID:23102490

  20. Release of PCBs from Silvretta glacier (Switzerland) investigated in lake sediments and meltwater.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, P A; Zennegg, M; Anselmetti, F S; Schmid, P; Bogdal, C; Steinlin, C; Jäggi, M; Schwikowski, M

    2016-06-01

    This study is part of our investigations about the release of persistent organic pollutants from melting Alpine glaciers and the relevance of the glaciers as secondary sources of legacy pollutants. Here, we studied the melt-related release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in proglacial lakes and glacier streams of the catchment of the Silvretta glacier, located in the Swiss Alps. To explore a spatial and temporal distribution of chemicals in glacier melt, we combined two approaches: (1) analysing a sediment record as an archive of past remobilization and (2) passive water sampling to capture the current release of PCBs during melt period. In addition, we determined PCBs in a non-glacier-fed stream as a reference for the background pollutant level in the area. The PCBs in the sediment core from the Silvretta lake generally complied with trends of PCB emissions into the environment. Elevated concentrations during the most recent ten years, comparable in level with times of the highest atmospheric input, were attributed to accelerated melting of the glacier. This interpretation is supported by the detected PCB fractionation pattern towards heavier, less volatile congeners, and by increased activity concentrations of the radioactive tracer (137)Cs in this part of the sediment core. In contrast, PCB concentrations were not elevated in the stream water, since no significant difference between pollutant concentrations in the glacier-fed and the non-glacier-fed streams was detected. In stream water, no current decrease of the PCBs with distance from the glacier was observed. Thus, according to our data, an influence of PCBs release due to accelerated glacier melt was only detected in the proglacial lake, but not in the other compartments of the Silvretta catchment.

  1. Composition of dioxin-like PCBs in fish: an application for risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Fletcher, Rachael; Hayton, Alan; Reiner, Eric J; Jackson, Donald A

    2007-05-01

    It is widely accepted that a congener-specific analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), rather than traditional Aroclor equivalent total PCB analysis, is required for risk assessment. This is based on the fact that environmental processes alter the original distribution of PCB congeners in Aroclors and that toxicity varies considerably among the congeners with dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) generally being among the most toxic. Using the largest known dl-PCB fish dataset, here we present a likely composition of dl-PCBs in fish. In contrast to common perception, we found that the dl-PCB composition is relatively constant (within approximately a factor of 2) regardless of fish species and total PCB level. The abundance of dl-PCBs expressed as a percentage of total PCB (25-75 quartile range) in fish is generally in the order of PCB-118 (3.0-6.2%) > PCB-105 (1.1-2.4%) > PCB-156 (0.39-0.75%) > PCB-167 (0.20-0.43%) > PCB-123 (0.11-0.26%) > PCB-157 (0.09-0.19%) = PCB-114 (0.08-0.18%) > PCB-189 (0.045-0.094%) > PCB-77 (0.018-0.093%) > PCB-126 (0.015-0.036%) > PCB-81 (0.002-0.007%) = PCB-169 (0.001-0.006%). The most toxic dl-PCB congeners PCB-126 and -169 contribute on average only 0.027 and 0.004% of total PCB, respectively. The statistically significant relationships presented between individual di-PCB and total-PCB concentrations can be used as a practical tool to estimate dl-PCBs for risk assessment purposes. A comparison of the dl-PCB pattern presented here with other studies suggests that this dl-PCB composition is applicable to fish from North America and perhaps from other geographical regions throughout the world.

  2. Electrokinetic delivery of persulfate to remediate PCBs polluted soils: effect of injection spot.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangping; Cang, Long; Fang, Guodong; Qin, Wenxiu; Ge, Liqiang; Zhou, Dongmei

    2014-12-01

    Persulfate-based in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) is a promising technique for the remediation of organic compounds contaminated soils. Electrokinetics (EK) provides an alternative method to deliver oxidants into the target zones especially in low permeable-soil. In this study, the flexibility of delivering persulfate by EK to remediate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) polluted soil was investigated. 20% (w/w) of persulfate was injected at the anode, cathode and both electrodes to examine its transport behaviors under electrical field, and the effect of field inversion process was also evaluated. The results showed that high dosage of persulfate could be delivered into S4 section (near cathode) by electroosmosis when persulfate was injected from anode, 30.8% of PCBs was removed from the soil, and the formed hydroxyl precipitation near the cathode during EK process impeded the transportation of persulfate. In contrast, only 18.9% of PCBs was removed with the injection of persulfate from cathode, although the breakthrough of persulfate into the anode reservoir was observed. These results indicated that the electroosmotic flow is more effective for the transportation of persulfate into soil. The addition of persulfate from both electrodes did not significantly facilitate the PCBs oxidation as well as the treatment of electrical field reversion, the reinforced negative depolarization function occurring in the cathode at high current consumed most of the oxidant. Furthermore, it was found that strong acid condition near the anode favored the oxidation of PCBs by persulfate and the degradation of PCBs was in consistent with the oxidation of Soil TOC in EK/persulfate system.

  3. PCBs as environmental estrogens: Turtle sex determination as a biomarker of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, J.M.; Crews, D. ); McLachlan, J.A. )

    1994-09-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are widespread, low-level environmental pollutants associated with adverse health effects such as immune suppression and teratogenicity. There is increasing evidence that some PCB compounds are capable of disrupting reproductive and endocrine function in fish, birds, and mammals, including humans, particularly during development. Research on the mechanism through which these compounds act to alter reproductive function indicates estrogenic activity, whereby the compounds may be altering sexual differentiation. Here we demonstrate the estrogenic effect of some PCBs by reversing gonadal sex in a reptile species that exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. SULFATE RADICAL-BASED FERROUS-PEROXYMONOSULFATE OXIDATIVE SYSTEM FOR PCBs DEGRADATION IN AQUEOUS AND SEDIMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment pose long-term risk to public health because of their persistent and toxic nature. This study investigates the degradation of PCBs using sulfate radical-based advanced oxidation processes (SR-AOPs). These processes are based o...

  5. A Research Study to Investigate PCBs in School Buildings: Final Research Plan. EPA 600/R-10/074

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are synthetic chemicals that were manufactured in the United States between about 1930 and 1977 for use in various industrial and commercial applications because of their nonflammability, chemical stability, high boiling point, and electrical insulation properties (ATSDR, 2000). PCBs were used in numerous products…

  6. 40 CFR 761.185 - Certification program and retention of records by importers and persons generating PCBs in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. (a) In addition to meeting the basic requirements of... information: (i) Theoretical analysis. Manufacturers records must include: the reaction or reactions believed... records must include: the reaction or reactions believed to be generating PCBs and the levels of...

  7. 40 CFR 761.185 - Certification program and retention of records by importers and persons generating PCBs in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. (a) In addition to meeting the basic requirements of... information: (i) Theoretical analysis. Manufacturers records must include: the reaction or reactions believed... records must include: the reaction or reactions believed to be generating PCBs and the levels of...

  8. 40 CFR 761.185 - Certification program and retention of records by importers and persons generating PCBs in...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes. (a) In addition to meeting the basic requirements of... information: (i) Theoretical analysis. Manufacturers records must include: the reaction or reactions believed... records must include: the reaction or reactions believed to be generating PCBs and the levels of...

  9. Assessment of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels in soil samples near an electric capacitor manufacturing industry in Morelos, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perez-Maldonado, Ivan N; Salazar, Rogelio Costilla; Ilizaliturri-Hernandez, Cesar A; Espinosa-Reyes, Guillermo; Perez-Vazquez, Francisco J; Fernandez-Macias, Juan C

    2014-09-19

    In Mexico, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were principally used as heat transfer chemicals in electric transformers and capacitors as well as hydraulic fluids and lubricants in heavy electrical equipment since the early 1940s. However, although PCBs have been banned in Mexico, their past and present improper disposal has resulted in environmental contamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the PCBs levels in soil samples in the immediate area of an electric capacitor manufacturing industry, which was established several years ago in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico. To confirm the presence of PCBs, surface soil samples (1-5 cm in depth) were collected from the vicinity of the industry. We determined the concentrations of 40 PCB congeners in soil samples using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The total PCBs levels in the soil samples ranged from 6.2 to 108460.6 μg kg(-1). Moreover, when we analyzed the results of the congeners (non-dioxin-like PCBs and dioxin-like PCBs), the levels of non-dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 5.7 to 103469 μg kg(-1) and the levels of dioxin-like PCB congeners ranged from 0.5 to 4992 μg kg(-1). Considering that soil is an important pathway of exposure in humans, analysis of PCBs levels in blood (as a biomarker of exposure) is necessary in individuals living in Alpuyeca, Morelos.

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Melatonin Against PCBs Induced Behavioural, Molecular and Histological Changes in Cerebral Cortex of Adult Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Bavithra, S; Selvakumar, K; Sundareswaran, L; Arunakaran, J

    2017-02-01

    There is ample evidence stating Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxins. In the current study, we have analyzed the behavioural impact of PCBs exposure in adult rats and assessed the simultaneous effect of antioxidant melatonin against the PCBs action. The rats were grouped into four and treated intraperitoneally with vehicle, PCBs, PCBs + melatonin and melatonin alone for 30 days, respectively. After the treatment period the rats were tested for locomotor activity and anxiety behaviour analysis. We confirmed the neuronal damage in the cerebral cortex by molecular and histological analysis. Our data indicates that there is impairment in locomotor activity and behaviour of PCBs treated rats compared to control. The simultaneous melatonin treated rat shows increased motor coordination and less anxiety like behaviour compared to PCBs treated rats. Molecular and histological analysis supports that, the impaired motor coordination in PCBs treated rats is due to neurodegeneration in motor cortex region. The results proved that melatonin treatment improved the motor co-ordination and reduced anxiety behaviour, prevented neurodegeneration in the cerebral cortex of PCBs-exposed adult male rats.

  11. A temporal comparison of PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, PCBs, and OH-PCBs in the serum of second trimester pregnant women recruited from San Francisco General Hospital, California

    PubMed Central

    Zota, Ami R.; Linderholm, Linda; Park, June-Soo; Petreas, Myrto; Guo, Tan; Privalsky, Martin L.; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2013-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) can harm neurodevelopment in humans and animals. In 2003–2004, PentaBDE and OctaBDE were banned in California and phased-out of US production; resulting impacts on human exposures are unknown. We previously reported that median serum concentrations of PBDEs and their metabolites (OH-PBDEs) among second trimester pregnant women recruited from San Francisco General Hospital (2008–2009; n=25) were the highest among pregnant women worldwide. We recruited another cohort from the same clinic in 2011–2012 (n=36) and now compare serum concentrations of PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, polychlorinated biphenyl ethers (PCBs) (structurally similar compounds banned in 1979), and OH-PCBs between two demographically similar cohorts. Between 2008–2009 and 2011–2012, adjusted least square geometric mean (LSGM) concentrations of ΣPBDEs decreased 65% (95% CI: 18, 130) from 90.0 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 64.7,125.2) to 54.6 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 39.2, 76.2) (p=0.004); Σ OH-PBDEs decreased six-fold (p<0.0001); and BDE-47, -99, and -100 declined more than BDE-153. There was a modest, non-significant (p=0.13) decline in LSGM concentrations of ΣPCBs and minimal differences in ΣOH-PCBs between 2008–2009 and 2011–2012. PBDE exposures are likely declining due to regulatory action, but the relative stability in PCB exposures suggests PBDE exposures may eventually plateau and persist for decades. PMID:24066858

  12. EPA Finalizes Cleanup Plan for Removal of PCBs From Bound Brook in South Plainfield, NJ, $422 million dollar cleanup underway at site of defunct electronics facility

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PCBs are chemicals that persist in the environment and can affect the immune, reproductive, nervous and endocrine systems and are potentially cancer-causing. PCBs had been widely used in hundreds of industrial and commercial applications until they were ba

  13. Implications of Fe/Pd Bimetallic Nanoparticles Immobilized on Adsorptive Activated Carbon for the Remediation of Groundwater and Sediment Contaminated with PCBs

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to respond to the current limitations and challenges in remediating groundwater and sediment contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we have recently developed a new strategy, integration of the physical adsorption of PCBs with their electrochemical dechlori...

  14. Analysis of PCBs degradation abilities of biphenyl dioxygenase derived from Enterobacter sp. LY402 by molecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya-Ming; Xu, Li; Jia, Ling-Yun

    2011-12-15

    Enterobacter sp. LY402 is a bacterium isolated from polluted soil. It can efficiently degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) under aerobic conditions. However, the degradation was limited when it comes to high chlorine or double para-substituted PCBs. Biphenyl dioxygenase (BDO) is the key enzyme in the PCBs biodegradation process. It has been confirmed that the α-subunit of the iron-sulfur protein of biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BphA1) directly influenced catalytic activities and substrate specificity. To know the degradation characteristics of BDO to PCBs, we analyzed PCBs degradation abilities of BphA1 from Enterobacter sp. LY402 by experiment and molecular simulation. Firstly, the degradation experiment of PCBs was performed, and the degradation rate constants (k) were calculated. Then the three-dimensional model of LY402-BphA1 was constructed. Through further docking studies with 209 PCB congeners, the PCBs binding abilities of LY402-BphA1 were measured and some crucial active site residues were identified. Moreover, the molecular descriptors of PCBs were calculated and analyzed to determine the correlation of molecular properties and degradation. The results showed that the affinity energy of PCBs was well matched with the k values of the different number of chlorine substituents. The binding ability of BphA1 greatly affected the PCBs degradation abilities of BDO. Hydrophobic contact was the main interaction between the residues of active site and PCB substrates. The number and subposition of chlorine substituents would influence the PCBs binding ability of BphA1 significantly. Ser283, Val287, Gly321 and Tyr384 residues in the active site of LY402-BphA1 showed high variability, and the space limitation of the active site of BphA1 had negative influence on the PCBs binding affinity of BDO. The changes of physical, electronic and geometrical properties could influence degradation and binding affinity of PCBs. Analysis of structural information, binding affinity

  15. Inventory of PCBs in Chicago and Opportunities for Reduction in Airborne Emissions and Human Exposure.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, Caitlin E; Spak, Scott N; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2015-12-01

    Urban areas are important regional sources of airborne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and population-scale airborne exposure, yet a comprehensive bottom-up source inventory of PCB emissions has never been quantified at urban scales in the United States. Here we report a comprehensive parcel level inventory of PCB stocks and emissions for Chicago, Illinois, developed with a transferable method from publicly available data. Chicago's legacy stocks hold 276 ± 147 tonnes ∑PCBs, with 0.2 tonnes added annually. Transformers and building sealants represent the largest legacy categories at 250 and 20 tonnes, respectively. From these stocks, annual emissions rates of 203 kg for ∑PCBs and 3 kg for PCB 11 explain observed concentrations in Chicago air. Sewage sludge drying contributes 25% to emissions, soils 31%, and transformers 21%. Known contaminated sites account for <1% of stocks and 17% of emissions to air. Paint is responsible for 0.00001% of stocks but up to 7% of ∑PCBs emissions. Stocks and emissions are highly concentrated and not correlated with population density or demographics at the neighborhood scale. Results suggest that strategies to further reduce exposure and ecosystem deposition must focus on the largest emissions sources rather than the most contaminated sites or the largest closed source legacy stocks.

  16. LAND TREATMENT OF MILWAUKEE HARBOR SEDIMENTS CONTAMINATED WITH PAHS AND PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments dredged in the maintenance of navigation channels often contain concentrations of PCBs and PAHs that necessitate placement in confined disposal facilities (CDFs). For the Great Lakes especially, the majority of CDFs were constructed in the 1970s or early 1980s and have ...

  17. Trophic Magnification of PCBs and Its Relationship to the Octanol−Water Partition Coefficient

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation relative to octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and organism trophic position (TP) at the Lake Hartwell Superfund (South Carolina, USA). We measured PCBs (127 congeners) and stable isotopes (δ15...

  18. BASE-CATALYZED DESTRUCTION OF PCBS-NEW DONORS, NEW TRANSFER AGENTS/CATALYSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of hydrogen transfer agents and catalysts to improve the base-catalyzed decomposition of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated. The reaction proceeded only in the presence of base, but the rate of PCB disappearance increased with increasing amount of hydrogen ...

  19. Effects of Feeding and Organism Loading Rate on the Bioaccumulation of PCBs in Oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the aquatic world, most environmental contaminants like PCBs eventually accumulate in the sediments.Thus sediment-associated contamination can introduce significant level of contaminants into the food chain. The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, was approved as one o...

  20. 40 CFR 761.187 - Reporting importers and by persons generating PCBs in excluded manufacturing processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the total quantity of inadvertently generated PCBs released to the air from excluded manufacturing... Office (DCO) (7407M), Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460-0001, ATTN: PCB Notification. (Sec. 6, Pub. L....

  1. The Use of Enhanced Bioremediation at the Savannah River Site to Remediate Pesticides and PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Beul, R.

    2003-09-30

    Enhanced bioremediation is quickly developing into an economical and viable technology for the remediation of contaminated soils. Until recently, chlorinated organic compounds have proven difficult to bioremediate. This article reviews the ongoing remediation occurring at the Chemicals, Metals, and Pesticides (CMP) Pits using windrow turners to facilitate microbial degradation of certain pesticides and PCBs.

  2. High levels of PCBs in breast milk of Inuit women from arctic Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E. ); Nantel, A.; Weber, J.P. ); Meyer, F. )

    1989-11-01

    In the last twenty years polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been identified as major contaminants of the natural environment. More recently, the presence of such toxic compounds was described in arctic regions. In this regions, PCBs have been found in water, snow, ice and air. The level of PCB contamination was significantly lower than that found at midlatitudes. PCB levels are often monitored because they could also reflect exposure to several other chemical contaminants such as other organochlorines. Other highly toxic compounds such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were found in the blubber from arctic ringed seals caught near the west coast of Spitzbergen. Since the closest known sources of PCDD and PCDF were several thousands of kilometers away, these results were surprising. The consumption of fish and marine mammals by the Inuit people is markedly higher than in the rest of the Canadian population and in some communities, sea mammals represent a significant part of the diet. It is possible that Inuit are exposed to an undesirably high of PCBs and other organochlorinated compounds. Levels of PCBs in the Inuit diet were assessed in Broughton Island, North West Territories, Canada. The present study was designed to assess the PCB levels in the breast milk of lactating Inuit women from the Hudson Bay region of Northern Quebec and of women from Southern Quebec.

  3. DESTRUCTION OF PAHS AND PCBS IN WATER USING SULFATE RADICAL-BASED CATALYTIC ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new class of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) based on sulfate radicals is being tested for the degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aqueous solution. These AOPs are based on the generation of sulfate radicals through...

  4. COMPARING ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT PCBS TO TCDD IN CYP1A2 NULL AND WILDTYPE MICE

    EPA Science Inventory


    The role of CYP1A2 on the interactions of TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, dioxin), dioxin-like (DL) and non-dioxin-like (NDL) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was compared in multiple responses of different laboratory-defined mixtures, based on mass ratios found in...

  5. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of soil PCBs in crickets: Comparison of laboratory and field studies

    SciTech Connect

    Paine, J.M.; McKee, M.J.; Ryan, M.E. . Cooperative Wildlife Research Lab. and Dept. of Zoology)

    1993-11-01

    Laboratory and field studies were used to investigate toxicity and bioaccumulation of PCBs in crickets exposed to contaminated soil. A 14-d laboratory soil bioassay with the house cricket (Acheta domesticus) yielded an LC50 of 1,200 ppm Aroclor 1254. Mean whole-body concentrations of Aroclor 1254 in exposed crickets were 11, 48, 92, 149, and 144 ppm for soil test concentrations of 100, 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ppm, respectively. A whole-body concentration of about 150 ppm appears to be a threshold concentration above which acute mortality will be observed. House crickets placed in cages on a PCB-contaminated landfill accumulated 1.6 and 0.9 ppm of PCBs after 3 and 7 d of exposure, respectively. Although this represents a rapid uptake of PCBs, whole-body concentrations remained considerably below levels expected to cause acute mortality. Abundance of another species, the field cricket (Gryllus pennsylvanicus), was investigated using pitfall traps placed at the PCB-contaminated landfill and a reference site. No adverse effect on abundance was observed at the contaminated site, nor was pitfall trap success correlated to soil PCB concentration. These data indicate that PCBs in soil can rapidly move into epigeic fauna but that the likelihood of acquiring sufficient body burdens to cause acute mortality is low.

  6. Risk assessment of PCDD/PCDFs and indicator PCBs contamination in Spanish commercial baby food.

    PubMed

    Lorán, S; Bayarri, S; Conchello, P; Herrera, A

    2010-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) as well as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous highly toxic environmental pollutants which exhibit a potential risk for human health. PCDD/Fs and PCBs contamination has been measured in samples of commercial baby food products: processed cereal and meat-and-fish-based baby food, which were made of individual samples collected from Spanish markets and pharmacies. They all presented a low dioxin content with a mean concentration ranging between 0.014 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) product for fish-based baby food and 0.089 pg WHO PCDD/Fs-TEQ g(-1) product for processed cereal containing gluten. The mean concentration of the sum of the seven indicator PCBs was between 0.03 ng g(-1) product for fish-based baby food and 0.29 ng g(-1) product for gluten-free cereals. The estimated PCDD/Fs and indicator PCBs mean daily intake through the consumption of this kind of food has been calculated taking into account body weight and food consumption data for children aged 6-12 months. In order to assess the health risk derived from the exposure to these pollutants in children during the first year of life, data concerning infant formulae contamination has been also considered.

  7. CATALYTIC STEAM REFORMING OF CHLOROCARBONS: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS). (R826694C633)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments with commercial askarals (Aroclors 1221, 1248 and 1254) have confirmed the feasibility of catalytic steam reforming as a method for destroying polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Rhodium, platinum and nickel supported on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Fish Tissue in U.S. Fresh Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    As of 2015 the U.S. EPA has conducted probabilistic, nationally-representative assessments of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in fish tissue in U.S. lakes (2000-2003), twice in rivers 5th order and greater (2008-2009 and 2013-2014) as part of National Rivers and Streams Assessme...

  8. DISTRIBUTION OF DIOXINS, FURANS, AND COPLANAR PCBS IN DIFFERENT FAT MATRICES IN CATTLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recently collaborated on a statistically-based, national survey of dioxin-like compounds, including dioxins, furans, and coplanar PCBs, in the back fat from slaughtered ...

  9. The biomagnification of PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs in a simplified laboratory food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, B.; Pruell, R.; McGovern, D.; McKinney, R.

    1995-12-31

    The trophic transfer and biomagnification potential of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), were investigated in a simplified marine benthic food chain. Polychaetes, Nereis virens were exposed to contaminated sediment and fed to juvenile lobsters, Homarus americanus exposed to the same sediment for 112 days. Time series uptake and depuration measurements were made for lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. A nonlinear model (BIOFAC) was used to calculate uptake and depuration rate constants, bioaccumulation factors, and steady state concentrations for PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. Biomagnification factors (BMFs), on a lipid weight basis, were calculated for both tissues. Lobsters accumulated PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs from contaminated sediment and food (polychaetes). Of the two tissues, lobster hepatopancreas, showed the highest concentrations for all compounds analyzed. Of the PCDDs and PCDFs studied, only 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran were detected in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas tissues. Of the PCB congeners studied, 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime} hexachlorobiphenyl reached the highest concentration in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. Lobsters also accumulated non-ortho substituted PCBs in both tissues.

  10. Presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Rutilio Ortiz; Bermudez, Beatriz Schettino; Tolentino, Rey Gutiérrez; Gonzalez, Gilberto Díaz; Vega y León, Salvador

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the concentrations of seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bottled drinking water samples that were collected over 1 year from Mexico City in two sizes (1.5 and 19 L), using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. PCBs 28 (0.018-0.042 μg/L), 52 (0.006-0.015 μg/L) and 101 (0.001-0.039 μg/L) were the most commonly found and were present in the majority of the samples. However, total concentrations of PCBs in bottled drinking water (0.035-0.039 μg/L) were below the maximum permissible level of 0.50 μg/L stated in Mexican regulations and probably do not represent a hazard to human health. PCBs were detectable in all samples and we recommend a monitoring program be established to better understand the quality of drinking bottled water over time; this may help in producing solutions for reducing the presence of organic contaminants.

  11. PCBs in the Last Frontier: A Case Study on the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tessmer, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are compounds that were once used as insulators in electrical transmission lines and in the production of polymers. Each PCB differs by the quantity and location of the chlorine atoms. PCB production was halted in 1977 due to their potential toxicity, but the chemicals are still found in the environment due to…

  12. Comparison of supercritical fluid extraction and Soxhlet extraction for the determination of PCBs in seaweed samples.

    PubMed

    Punín Crespo, M O; Lage Yusty, M A

    2005-06-01

    The efficiency of supercritical fluid extraction for the determination of 12 polychlorinated biphenyls from algae samples is compared to Soxhlet extraction. Analytical detection limits for the individual congeners ranged from 0.62 microgl(-1) to 19 microgl(-1). Recovery was tested for both methods using standard addition procedure. At maximum spike level of concentration, the mean recoveries were not significantly different (P>0.05) of all PCBs studied, with the exception of PCBs 28, 52, 77 and 169. Method precision for Soxhlet extraction (< or =3.9%) was slightly better than for SFE (< or =9.2%). Although both methods yield comparable results, SFE offers the advantage of detecting all PCBs studied at lower concentrations, reducing extraction time, and reducing the amount of solvents needed. The optimized methods were applied to the analysis of three real seaweed samples, except for PCB101 the concentrations of all PCBs were low or below the detection limits. The levels of PCB101 found in sample 1 were 6.6+/-0.54 ng g(-1) d.w., in sample 2 the levels were 8.2+/-0.86 ng g(-1) d.w. and in sample 3 they were 7.7+/-0.08 ng g(-1) d.w.

  13. Horizontal and vertical distribution of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in sediments from Masan Bay, Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang Hee; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Oh, Jae Ryoung; Lee, In Sook

    2003-02-01

    Horizontal and vertical distributions of organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in sediments from Masan Bay. The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), HCB, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and chlordane related compounds (CHLs) in sediments were in the range of 1.24-41.4, 0.28-89.2, 0.02-0.59, nd-1.03, and nd-2.56 ng/g, respectively. The spatial distribution of OCs showed a negative gradient from the inner of the bay to outer part of the bay, indicating that the source of OCs was probably located inside the bay. Compositional pattern of PCB congeners showed a relatively high concentration of high-chlorinated congeners in the inner part of the bay and a relatively low concentration of low-chlorinated congeners in the outer part. In sediment core from Masan Bay maximum concentrations of PCBs and DDTs are observed in the subsurface samples and correspond to an age of early 1980s and late 1960s. The concentration profiles of PCBs and DDTs in sediments of Masan Bay appear to correspond to use of PCBs and DDTs in Korea.

  14. Comparative effects of PBDEs and PCBs on intracellular signaling in rat cerebellar granule neurons

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are synthetic chemicals that do not occur in nature and are structurally similar to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; Figure I) and several chlorinated pesticides. They are comprised of two phenyl rings linked by oxygen and are resistant to p...

  15. Transformation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a stream food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dang, V.D.; Walters, D.M.; Lee, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    The enantiomeric composition of chiral PCB congeners was determined in Twelvemile Creek (Clemson, SC) to examine potential mechanisms of biotransformation in a stream food web. We measured enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of six PCB atropisomers (PCBs 84, 91, 95, 136, 149, and 174) in surface sediment, fine benthic organic matter (FBOM), coarse particulate organic matter (CPOM), periphyton, Asian clam, mayflies, yellowfin shiner, and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) using gas chromatography (GC-ECD). Nonracemic EFs of PCBs 91, 95, 136, and 149 were measured in almost all samples. Enantiomeric compositions of PCBs 84 and 174 were infrequently detected with racemic EFs measured in samples except for a nonracemic EF of PCB 84 in clams. Nonracemic EFs of PCBs 91, 136, and 149 in SPMDs may be due to desorption of nonracemic residues from FBOM. EFs for some atropisomers were significantly different among FBOM, CPOM, and periphyton, suggesting that their microbial communities have different biotransformation processes. Nonracemic EFs in clams and fish suggest both in vivo biotransformation and uptake of nonracemic residues from their food sources. Longitudinal variability in EFs was generally low among congeners observed in matrices. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Brood patches of American kestrels altered by experimental exposure to PCBs.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Sheri A; Bortolotti, Gary R; Fernie, Kim J; Bird, David M; Smits, Judit E

    2006-09-01

    Captive breeding (n = 25 pairs) and nonbreeding (n = 25) American kestrels were exposed to a mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (Aroclor 1248:1254:1260) through their diet of day-old cockerels. Kestrels ingested approximately 7 mg/kg body weight each day of PCBs, and this dosage resulted in environmentally relevant total PCB residues in eggs (geometric mean of 34.1 microg/g). An equal number of unexposed birds served as controls. Bare areas of skin known as brood patches function during incubation to warm eggs; therefore, brood patch size could potentially influence hatching success, or patches may be a confounding factor in the relationship between poor incubation behavior and hatching failure observed in birds in toxicological studies. Exposure to PCBs altered the size of brood patches in American kestrels. PCB-exposed male and female nonbreeders had two of three brood patches that were larger than those of control nonbreeders. Breeding males exposed to PCBs had smaller patches than controls, whereas PCB-exposed female kestrels had one larger and one smaller patch than controls. Patch sizes were not related to total PCB residue levels in eggs of exposed birds. Brood patches were not related to various incubation behaviors or hatching success in either control or PCB-exposed kestrels.

  17. The cumulative MeHg and PCBs exposure and risk of tribal ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Studies have shown that the U.S. population continues to be exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to the long half-life of those environmental contaminants. Fish intake of Tribal populations is much higher than the U.S. general population due to dietary habits and unique cultural practices. Large fish tissue concentration data sets from the Environmental Protections Agency’s (EPA’s) Office of Water, USGS’s EMMMA program, and other data sources, were integrated, analyzed, and combined with recent tribal fish intake data for exposure analyses using the dietary module within EPA’s SHEDS-Multimedia model. SHEDS-Multimedia is a physically-based, probabilistic model, which can simulate cumulative (multiple chemicals) or aggregate (single chemical) exposures over time for a population via various pathways of exposure for a variety of multimedia, multipathway environmental chemicals. Our results show that MeHg and total PCBs exposure of tribal populations from fish are about 3 to 10 and 5 to 15 times higher than the US general population, respectively, and that the estimated exposures pose potential health risks. The cumulative exposures of MeHg and total PCBs will be assessed to generate the joint exposure profiles for Tribal and US general populations. Model sensitivity analyses will identify the important contributions of the cumulative exposures of MeHg and total PCBs such as fish types, locations, and size, and key expos

  18. Change of PCBs and forms of heavy metals in sewage sludge during thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Dąbrowska, Lidia; Rosińska, Agata

    2012-06-01

    Determination of seven congeners of PCBs was carried out for sewage sludge before, during and after thermophilic digestion. The overall content of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cr) in sludge before and after digestion was determined. Moreover the concentration of heavy metals in particular chemical fractions of the sludge was analyzed. After the thermophilic digestion total concentration of seven PCBs was reduced by 47%, which suggests that thermophilic digestion affects PCB reduction positively. On the 10th d of the process, concentration of lower chlorinated PCBs increased, whereas those of higher chlorinated PCBs decreased. The thermophilic digestion process showed no accumulation of the studied heavy metals in the mobile fractions (exchangeable and carbonate) of the stabilized sewage sludge, except for nickel. The highest increase in zinc, copper, cadmium, and chromium concentration was observed in the organic-sulfide fraction, whereas the highest increase in lead was found in the residual fraction of the sludge. In case of nickel both fractions of organic-sulfide and exchangeable-carbonate fractions were enriched.

  19. PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere: determining important driving forces using a global atmospheric transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, C. L.; Selin, N. E.

    2015-11-01

    We present a spatially and temporally resolved global atmospheric PCB model, driven by meteorological data, that is skilled at simulating mean atmospheric PCB concentrations and seasonal cycles in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and mean Arctic concentrations. However, the model does not capture the observed Arctic summer maximum in atmospheric PCBs. We use the model to estimate global budgets for the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 7 PCBs, and demonstrate that congeners that deposit more readily show lower potential for long-range transport, consistent with a recently-described "differential removal hypothesis" regarding the hemispheric transport of PCBs. Using sensitivity simulations to assess processes within, outside, or transport to the Arctic, we examine the influence of climate- and emissions-driven processes on Arctic concentrations and their effect on improving the simulated Arctic seasonal cycle. We find evidence that processes occurring outside the Arctic have a greater influence on Arctic atmospheric PCB levels than processes that occur within the Arctic. Our simulations suggest that re-emissions from sea ice melting or from the Arctic Ocean during summer would have to be unrealistically high in order to capture observed temporal trends of PCBs in the Arctic atmosphere. We conclude that mid-latitude processes are likely to have a greater effect on the Arctic under global change scenarios than re-emissions within the Arctic.

  1. Decontamination of PCBs-containing soil using subcritical water extraction process.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Park, Jeong-Hun; Shin, Moon-Su; Park, Ha-Seung

    2014-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are one of the excision compounds listed at the Stockholm convention in 2001. Although their use has been heavily restricted, PCBs can be found in some specific site-contaminated soils. Either removal or destruction is required prior to disposal. The subcritical water extraction (SCWE) of organic hazardous compounds from contaminated soils is a promising technique for hazardous waste contaminated-site cleanup. In this study, the removal of PCBs by the SCWE process was investigated. The effects of temperature and treatment time on removal efficiency have been determined. In the SCWE experiments, a removal percentage of 99.7% was obtained after 1h of treatment at 250°C. The mass removal efficiency of low-chlorinated species was higher than high-chlorinated congeners at lower temperatures, but it was oppositely observed at higher temperatures because the lower chlorinated congeners are formed by dechlorination of higher chlorinated congeners. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis confirmed that the PCBs underwent partial degradation. Several degradation products including mono- and di-chlorinated biphenyls, oxygen-containing aromatic compounds, and small-size hydrocarbons were identified in the effluent water, which were not initially present in the contaminated soil.

  2. FOODWEB MODELING FOR PCBS IN THE TWELVEMILE CREEK ARM OF LAKE HARTWELL, GA/SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA is conducting a series of studies on the Sangamo-Weston Superfund Site near Clemson, SC, to examine the pollution of the Twelvemile Creek arm of Lake Hartwell by PCBs that were released from the site until the early 1990s. Monitoring data have shown that while PCB c...

  3. PCBS IN LAKE HARTWELL, SC, HEADWATERS OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER BASIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination due to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) was discovered in the mid-1970s in the fish and sediments of Lake Hartwell, a U.S. Army Corps of Engineers reservoir on the border of South Carolina and Georgia that was formed from the Seneca and Tugaloo Rivers. Research by...

  4. Environmental PCBs in Guánica Bay, Puerto Rico: Implications for Community Health

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Naresh; Ramirez-Ortiz, Daisy; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Treaster, Joseph B.; Carrasquillo, Olveen; Toborek, Michal; Deo, Sapna; Klaus, Jim; Bachas, Leonidas G.; Whitall, David; Daunert, Sylvia; Szapocznik, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Guánica Bay, located in southwestern Puerto Rico, has suffered oil spills and other pollution discharges since the 1960s. Previous research showed elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in coral reef and sediment. This research examined PCB concentrations in sediment and fish. Sediment and fish sampling in the bay was facilitated by community members. This study identified the second highest reported PCB level (129,300 ng/g) in sediment in the United States. Fish samples also showed elevated concentrations (1,623ng/g to 3,768 ng/g), which were higher than the thresholds of safe levels of PCBs in fish for human consumption. The alarmingly high concentration of PCBs calls for proactive community engagement to bring awareness about contamination of the bay and more extensive sampling to test for the concentration PCBs in seafood and the people of Guánica. This study also underscores the value of the involvement of local communities during sampling design aimed at identifying hot spots of contaminants. PMID:26122576

  5. Persistence and distribution of PCBs in the sediments of a reservoir (Lake Hartwell, South Carolina)

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnivant, F.M. ); Polansky, A.L. ); Elzerman, A.W. )

    1989-12-01

    PCBs are one of the most persistent and ubiquitous pollutants occurring in the environment today. Since their release to the environment, PCBs have been found in water, air, soil, sediment, and human samples. Low levels are now identifiable even in remote sites. Once in aquatic systems, PCBs tend to associate with particulate matter which may subsequently settle to the bottom. Thus, lake and river sediments have been found to be a major PCB sink in aquatic systems, as observed for the reservoir system studied here. Lake Hartwell is a PCB-contaminated reservoir located in the upper Savannah River basin in South Carolina and Georgia. It has received the majority of the PCB contamination from Twelve-Mile River, a major tributary at the top of the reservoir located in the northwestern portion of South Carolina in Pickens County. The purpose of this investigation was to provide information on the lake-wide fate and distribution of PCBs and effects of natural and anthropogenic redistribution processes. Although congener-specific data were generated, space for only total PCB concentrations is available here.

  6. Distribution of OCPs and PCBs in Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from the Marmara Sea Coastal Sites.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Şafak; Özden, Özkan; Päpke, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    Mussel samples were collected monthly between October-2010 and October-2011 from four stations (Bosphorus, Bandırma, Gelibolu, Tekirdağ) in the Marmara Sea. Two consecutive months' samples were homogenized and combined as a single group for analysis. Mussel samples were analyzed for Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs); (total-DDT, total-HCH, Endrin, α-Endosulfan, β-Endosulfan, Heptachlor) and Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs); (PCB 28, PCB 52, PCB 138, PCB 153, and PCB 180). All analyses were done according to Eurofins house method in ERGO Laboratory in Germany. Concentrations of α-endosulfan and heptachlor in mussel tissues were below method detection limits. The annual average OCPs concentrations among the stations ranged between 0.02 and 1.45 ng/g (wet weight), 1.9-99.75 ng/g (lipid weight) whereas the annual average PCBs concentrations among the stations ranged between 0.03 and 0.40 ng/g (wet weight), 1.71-26.48 ng/g (lipid weight), respectively. There was no relation between fat content of mussels and residues of the contaminants. PCB 138 and PCB 153 were the most predominant PCBs, while total-DDT and total-HCH were the most predominant OCPs in the mussels. Total-DDT concentrations were higher compared to total-HCH and PCBs isomers. Measured levels were below the national and international committees' and institutions' limits for human consumption and protection of aquatic biota.

  7. ENHANCED CORRISION-BASED PD/MG BIMETALLIC SYSTEMS FOR DECHLORINATION OF PCBS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic pollutants notorious for their aquatic and sedimentary prevalence and recalcitrant nature. Bimetallic systems like Pd/Fe have been widely studied for degrading them. Mg, with oxidation potential higher than Fe, has been reported to dechl...

  8. Productivity of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) exposed to PCBs at the Kalamazoo River superfund site.

    PubMed

    Neigh, Arianne M; Zwiernik, Matthew J; MacCarroll, Monica A; Newsted, John L; Blankenship, Alan L; Jones, Paul D; Kay, Denise P; Giesy, John P

    2006-03-01

    A 123-km stretch of the Kalamazoo River in Michigan, was designated a Superfund site in 1990 due to historical releases of effluent containing polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated paper waste. Risk to bird species in the river ecosystem was evaluated using the tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) as a monitor for possible effects due to PCB exposure at two nesting locations, one in the Superfund site and one in an upstream reference location that is less contaminated with PCBs. In 2 of the 3 years of the study, clutch size at the contaminated location was 3.7 +/- 1.4 and 4.8 +/- 0.73 eggs per nest (mean +/- SD), which was significantly less than the clutch size at the reference location (5.0 +/- 1.1 and 5.3 +/- 1.1 eggs per nest). However, there were no statistically significant differences in fledging success, predicted brood size, predicted number of fledglings, or growth of nestlings between the Kalamazoo River Superfund site and an upstream reference location with lesser concentrations of PCBs in the sediments and riparian soils. Productivity and hatching success comparisons between these same sites were also not significantly different; however, the power of these conclusions was less (p < .10). The reduction in clutch size at the co-contaminated location could not be attributed to PCBs due to a number of confounding factors, including Co-cocontaminants, habitat structure, and food availability. Other reproductive parameters were not significantly impaired, and the size of the newly established colony at the Kalamazoo River Superfund site continued to grow over the period of the study. These site-specific observations, combined with multiple lines of evidence approach that considered results reported for the effects of both total PCBs and 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ) on tree swallows at other locations, suggest that there were no significant population-level effects of PCBs on tree swallows at the Kalamazoo River Superfund site.

  9. Effects of standard humic materials on relative bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in juvenile swine.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Matthieu; Schwarz, Jessica; Fournier, Agnès; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. However few studies assessing exposure of organic compounds sequestrated in soil were realized. The present study explores the impact of different organic matters on retention of NDL-PCBs during digestive processes using commercial humic substances in a close digestive model of children: the piglet. Six artificial soils were used. One standard soil, devoid of organic matter, and five amended versions of this standard soil with either fulvic acid, humic acid, Sphagnum peat, activated carbon or a mix of Sphagnum peat and activated carbon (95∶5) (SPAC) were prepared. In order to compare the different treatments, we use spiked oil and negative control animals. Forty male piglets were randomly distributed in 7 contaminated and one control groups (n = 5 for each group). During 10 days, the piglets were fed artificial soil or a corn oil spiked with 19,200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6,000 ng.g⁻¹ of NDL-PCBs) to achieve an exposure dose of 1,200 ng NDL-PCBs.Kg⁻¹ of body weight per day. NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue were analyzed by GC-MS. Fulvic acid reduced slightly the bioavailability of NDL-PCBs compared to oil. Humic acid and Sphagnum peat reduced it significantly higher whereas activated carbon reduced the most. Piglets exposed to soil containing both activated carbon and Shagnum peat exhibited a lower reduction than soil with only activated carbon. Therefore, treatment groups are ordered by decreasing value of relative bioavailability as following: oil ≥ fulvic acid>Sphagnum peat ≥ Sphagnum peat and activated carbon ≥ Humic acid>activated carbon. This suggests competition between Sphagnum peat and activated carbon. The present study highlights that quality of organic matter does have a significant effect on bioavailability of sequestrated organic compounds.

  10. Seasonality and indoor/outdoor relationships of flame retardants and PCBs in residential air.

    PubMed

    Melymuk, Lisa; Bohlin-Nizzetto, Pernilla; Kukučka, Petr; Vojta, Šimon; Kalina, Jiří; Čupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2016-11-01

    This study is a systematic assessment of different houses and apartments, their ages and renovation status, indoors and outdoors, and in summer vs. winter, with a goal of bringing some insight into the major sources of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and their variability. Indoor and outdoor air concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and novel flame retardants (NFRs) were determined at 17-20 homes in Czech Republic in winter and summer. Indoor concentrations were consistently higher than outdoor concentrations for all compounds; indoor/outdoor ratios ranged from 2-20, with larger differences for the current use NFRs than for legacy PCBs. Seasonal trends differed according to the use status of the compounds: the PCBs had higher summer concentrations both indoors and outdoors, suggesting volatilization as a source of PCBs to air. PBDEs had no seasonal trends indoors, but higher summer concentrations outdoors. Several NFRs (TBX, PBT, PBEB) had higher indoor concentrations in winter relative to summer. The seasonal trends in the flame retardants suggest differences in air exchange rates due to lower building ventilation in winter could be driving the concentration differences. Weak relationships were found with building age for PCBs, with higher concentrations indoors in buildings built before 1984, and with the number of electronics for PBDEs, with higher concentrations in rooms with three or more electronic items. Indoor environments are the primary contributor to human inhalation exposure to these SVOCs, due to the high percentage of time spent indoors (>90%) combined with the higher indoors levels for all the studied compounds. Exposure via the indoor environment contributed ∼96% of the total chronic daily intake via inhalation in summer and ∼98% in winter.

  11. Predicting dioxin-like PCBs soil contamination levels using milk of grazing animal as indicator.

    PubMed

    Perugini, Monia; Nuñez, Esteban Gabriel Herrera; Baldi, Loredana; Esposito, Mauro; Serpe, Francesco Paolo; Amorena, Michele

    2012-11-01

    Dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) are ubiquitous persistent organic pollutants of recognized negative effects on human health. Assessing highly polluted areas should be an important public health issue. This study proposes to use the milk of grazing animals as a bioindicator of dl-PCB contamination in the environment. The hypothesis is that milk concentration of dl-PCBs are related to soil concentrations of these compounds, and that soils are generally reflective of a larger environmental issue of dl-PCB contamination. In this study, we evaluate the possibility of predicting soil concentrations using milk of sheep, cows and buffalos in a spatial model. For this purpose, samples of soil and milk collected in Campania (Italy) were introduced in a GIS platform to perform geostatistical analysis for building a simple predictive model. The ordinary least squares regressions (OLS) showed a statistically significant correlation (p<0.05) between soil and milk contamination. However, this relationship was spatially variable. Thus, a geographically weighted regression (GWR) was performed, obtaining R(2) values of 0.91, 0.77 and 0.66 for sheep's, buffalo's and cow's milk respectively. Assessed the mathematical relationships between the variables, new data was introduced to evaluate the performance of the model. Predictions of soil contamination with dl-PCBs using sheep's, cow's and buffalo's milk showed a mean error of 23%, 25% and 36% respectively. According to these results the sheep's milk can be considered the best bioindicator of dl-PCBs contamination among the three species. The results of this project evidence the potentialities of the proposed approach to assess bioindicator performance in a spatial predictive model.

  12. Decontamination solutions for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raw fish oils from environmentally contaminated sea fishes.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, R; Yebra-Pimentel, I; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-01-15

    Fish oil has been identified as one of the most important contributors to the levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food and feed products. In this study, PCB adsorption from fish oil onto activated carbon (AC), other sustainable adsorbents (mussel shell and wood waste ashes) and organic solvent such as ethanol were compared and optimized. Regarding to adsorbents, PCBs were extracted from fish oil by a 2.0% adsorbent material dose, during 6.0 h at 25 °C. Solvent extraction was carried out using 2 × 5.0 mL ethanol by manually stirring for 3.0 min, and then by Ultrasound-Assisted Solvent Extraction (UASE) for 5.0 min. The results showed that removal rates obtained by using adsorbent materials ranged from 0.0 to 10% for marker PCBs, from 0.0 to 37% for mono-ortho-PCBs, from 0.0 to 74% for PCB11 and from 0.0 to 95% for non-ortho-PCBs. Regarding to solvent extraction, ethanol was used by manually stirring and then by Ultrasound-Assisted Solvent Extraction (UASE). The samples were then centrifuged (2000 rpm/10 min) and the alcoholic phase was removed. With this method, removal efficiencies were much better (85-116%); nevertheless, high eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) removal rates (70-78 and 71-79%, respectively) were detected. We can conclude that adsorption with adsorbents depends on the geometry of PCB congeners, as well as both type of adsorption material and their origin, and that several sorption cycles are needed. Adsorption with ethanol could be the most effective methodology but nutritional quality was impaired, what makes necessary to look for other not so polar removal solvents.

  13. The Ability of AMSTAR Dechlorination Solution to Remove and Degrade PCBs from Contaminated Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline E.

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of synthetic aromatic compounds with the general formula C12H(10-x)Cl(-x) that were historically used in industrial paints, caulking material and adhesives, as their properties enhanced structural integrity, reduced flammability and boosted antifungal properties. Although the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has banned the manufacture of PCBs since 1979, they have been found in at least 500 of the 1,598 National Priorities List (Superfund) sites identified by the USEPA. Prior to the US EPA's ban on PCB production, PCBs were commonly used as additives in paints and asphalt-based adhesives that were subsequently applied to a variety of structures. Government facilities constructed as early as 1930 utilized PCB-containing binders or PCB-containing paints, which are now leaching into the environment and posing ecological and worker health concerns. In 2006, a commercially available product known as AMSTAR Dechlorination Solution was tested at NASA's Kennedy Space Center for its ability to remove and degrade PCBs from structural materials. This evaluation was requested by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) evaluating the ability of NASA's Bimetallic Treatment System (BTS) to remove and degrade PCBs from structural materials. The results of the laboratory testing are to be used to determine if a side-by-side field-scale test comparing BTS to AMSTAR was warranted. A recommended sampling and analysis testing program was submitted to ESTCP that included triplicate screening of AMSTAR's PCB dechlorination capabilities on a variety of surfaces including glass, bare metal, and painted metal coupons. The test procedures, analytical techniques and results obtained are presented in this interim report to ESTCP.

  14. Effects of Standard Humic Materials on Relative Bioavailability of NDL-PCBs in Juvenile Swine

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Matthieu; Schwarz, Jessica; Fournier, Agnès; Rychen, Guido; Feidt, Cyril

    2014-01-01

    Young children with their hand-to-mouth activity may be exposed to contaminated soils. However few studies assessing exposure of organic compounds sequestrated in soil were realized. The present study explores the impact of different organic matters on retention of NDL-PCBs during digestive processes using commercial humic substances in a close digestive model of children: the piglet. Six artificial soils were used. One standard soil, devoid of organic matter, and five amended versions of this standard soil with either fulvic acid, humic acid, Sphagnum peat, activated carbon or a mix of Sphagnum peat and activated carbon (95∶5) (SPAC) were prepared. In order to compare the different treatments, we use spiked oil and negative control animals. Forty male piglets were randomly distributed in 7 contaminated and one control groups (n  = 5 for each group). During 10 days, the piglets were fed artificial soil or a corn oil spiked with 19 200 ng of Aroclor 1254 per g of dry matter (6 000 ng.g−1 of NDL-PCBs) to achieve an exposure dose of 1 200 ng NDL-PCBs.Kg−1 of body weight per day. NDL-PCBs in adipose tissue were analyzed by GC-MS. Fulvic acid reduced slightly the bioavailability of NDL-PCBs compared to oil. Humic acid and Sphagnum peat reduced it significantly higher whereas activated carbon reduced the most. Piglets exposed to soil containing both activated carbon and Shagnum peat exhibited a lower reduction than soil with only activated carbon. Therefore, treatment groups are ordered by decreasing value of relative bioavailability as following: oil ≥ fulvic acid>Sphagnum peat ≥ Sphagnum peat and activated carbon ≥ Humic acid>>activated carbon. This suggests competition between Sphagnum peat and activated carbon. The present study highlights that quality of organic matter does have a significant effect on bioavailability of sequestrated organic compounds. PMID:25549096

  15. Spatial and seasonal distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the vicinity of an iron and steel making plant.

    PubMed

    Baek, Song-Yee; Choi, Sung-Deuk; Park, Hyokeun; Kang, Jung-Ho; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2010-04-15

    Four consecutive passive air samplings (September 2006-July 2007) were conducted at 15 sites around an iron and steel making plant in Pohang, Korea to investigate the spatial and seasonal distributions of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and ultimately the source-receptor relationships. Annual mean values of Sigma(8)PCBs (IUPAC number 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) were in the range of 15.1-166 pg/m(3) with an average of 53.0 pg/m(3). The spatial distribution of PCBs for each sampling period clearly suggests that the steel complex is a major source of PCBs in this area, and the prevailing winds facilitated the atmospheric transport and dispersion of PCBs from the steel complex to the surrounding areas. Seasonal patterns of PCBs were observed clearly, which were influenced by meteorological conditions; the highest levels of PCBs were observed with the highest average air temperature, and the influence of rainfall (i.e., wet scavenging) was also observed. In addition, PCB 11, a non-Aroclor congener, was detected in high concentrations at all sites, implying that the sources of PCB 11 are both unique and ubiquitous. This study confirms that passive air sampling is a useful tool to obtain seasonal and spatial distributions of time-averaged POPs data at a local scale.

  16. Association of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with live algae and total lipids in rivers - A field-based approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzgerald, S.A.; Steuer, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    The association of PCBs and live algal cells in rivers was studied at four locations during four seasons in two Wisconsin rivers. Positive relations between particle-associated PCBs and both chlorophyll-a and algal carbon concentrations indicated that live algal cells were a significant sorption phase for dissolved PCBs. Large Pennate diatoms (Navicula, Synedra, Pinnularia, Diatoma, and Cocconeis), or more rarely, Euglenoids (Trachelomonas sp.), dominated most sample assemblages on an algal carbon basis. These assemblages made up the highest percentage of total SOC during spring (average=50%) and lowest during summer (average=15%). At the three impounded sites, most individual PCB congeners were relatively enriched in samples characterized by: (1) high concentrations of algal carbon (as a percent of SOC), (2) algal assemblages dominated (or co-dominated) by Euglenoids, and (3) high concentrations of total lipids. Despite relatively higher masses of sorbed PCBs in the most lipid-rich samples, there was no robust correlation between total lipid content and particle-associated PCBs when aggregating all samples from the study. A possible explanation is that PCBs are associated with other structural components in live algae and (or) departure from chemical equilibrium in the river due to algal growth kinetics. A kinetic uptake model was used to calculate the mass of PCBs associated with the total organic carbon content of live algae. Based on this model, PCBs were enriched in algal cells during bloom seasons (spring and fall) compared to non-bloom seasons (summer and winter). Further, although individual PCB congener partition coefficients (log) to live algal cells (range=5.3-6.4) overlapped to those for detritus (range=3.6-7.4), PCBs tended to be enriched in detrital carbon pools during non-bloom conditions. The larger range of estimated PCB partition coefficients for detritus likely reflects the more heterogeneous nature of this material compared to live algal cells.

  17. Use of a polar ionic liquid as second column for the comprehensive two-dimensional GC separation of PCBs.

    PubMed

    Zapadlo, Michal; Krupcík, Ján; Májek, Pavel; Armstrong, Daniel W; Sandra, Pat

    2010-09-10

    The orthogonality of three columns coupled in two series was studied for the congener specific comprehensive two-dimensional GC separation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). A non-polar capillary column coated with poly(5%-phenyl-95%-methyl)siloxane was used as the first ((1)D) column in both series. A polar capillary column coated with 70% cyanopropyl-polysilphenylene-siloxane or a capillary column coated with the ionic liquid 1,12-di(tripropylphosphonium)dodecane bis(trifluoromethane-sulfonyl)imide were used as the second ((2)D) columns. Nine multi-congener standard PCB solutions containing subsets of all native 209 PCBs, a mixture of 209 PCBs as well as Aroclor 1242 and 1260 formulations were used to study the orthogonality of both column series. Retention times of the corresponding PCB congeners on (1)D and (2)D columns were used to construct retention time dependences (apex plots) for assessing orthogonality of both columns coupled in series. For a visual assessment of the peak density of PCBs congeners on a retention plane, 2D images were compared. The degree of orthogonality of both column series was, along the visual assessment of distribution of PCBs on the retention plane, evaluated also by Pearson's correlation coefficient, which was found by correlation of retention times t(R,i,2D) and t(R,i,1D) of corresponding PCB congeners on both column series. It was demonstrated that the apolar+ionic liquid column series is almost orthogonal both for the 2D separation of PCBs present in Aroclor 1242 and 1260 formulations as well as for the separation of all of 209 PCBs. All toxic, dioxin-like PCBs, with the exception of PCB 118 that overlaps with PCB 106, were resolved by the apolar/ionic liquid series while on the apolar/polar column series three toxic PCBs overlapped (105+127, 81+148 and 118+106).

  18. Fertilization of eggs of Lake Michigan lake trout Salvelinus namaycush in lake water: Effect of PCBs (Aroclor 1254)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, N.R.; Berlin, W.H.

    1997-01-01

    Various studies indicate that PCBs appear to have an adverse effect on the viability of fertilized eggs and subsequent early life stages of lake trout and related species. Our tests detected no impairment of fertilization of lake trout eggs in PCB-dosed lake water. The concentration of PCBs in the fertilization medium that we used was more than 20 times as high as estimated ambient levels in southeastern Lake Michigan and it appears unlikley that ambient levels of PCBs in the water at fertilization would contribute significantly to the apparent widespread reproductive failure of lake trout there.

  19. Subtask 1.20 - Development of Methods to Determine the Environmental Availability of PAHs, PCBs, and Petroleum Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Hawthorne

    2007-06-30

    Three methods to determine the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were modified and developed for application to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Water/XAD desorption and selective supercritical fluid extraction methods were developed to determine the rapidly-released fraction of PCBs from contaminated soils and sediments. A method to determine PCBs in sediment pore water based on solid-phase microextraction was also developed that is capable of determining low pg/mL concentrations with water samples as small as 1.5 mL.

  20. Relationships between PCBs and thyroid hormones and retinol in female and male polar bears.

    PubMed Central

    Braathen, Marte; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Øystein; Sørmo, Eugen G; Lie, Elisabeth; Skaare, Janneche U; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2004-01-01

    We studied the relationships between polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and thyroid hormones (THs) and retinol within two groups of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus), females with cubs of the year (FWCOY) and females without cubs of the year (FWOCOY), and within a group of males. Concentrations of five of the six quantified PCB congeners, i.e., PCB-99, PCB-153, PCB-156, PCB-180, PCB-194 (sigma PCB5), correlated with each other, whereas the concentrations of PCB-118 did not correlate with the other congeners. sigma PCB5 and PCB-118 did not differ between the three different groups of polar bears, and the plasma levels ranged from 16.7 to 203.2 ng/g wet weight (ww) for sigma PCB5 and from 0.09 to 0.93 ng/g ww for PCB-118. PCBs did not affect the retinol status in any of the three groups. In FWCOY, we found negative correlations between sigma PCB5 and the three TH variables free thyroxin (FT4) (r2 = 0.35), free triiodothyronine (FT3) (r2 = 0.30), and the total T4:total T3 ratio (TT4:TT3) (r2 = 0.92). In FWOCOY, sigma PCB5 was negatively correlated to TT4 (r2 = 0.14) and positively correlated to TT3:FT3 (r2 = 0.31), whereas PCB-118 was positively correlated to FT3 (r2 = 0.21) and negatively correlated to TT3:FT3 (r2 = 0.26). In males, sigma PCB5 was negatively correlated to FT3 (r2 = 0.56) and positively correlated to FT4:FT3 (r2 = 0.78), whereas PCB-118 was negatively correlated to FT4:FT3 (r2 = 0.53). Thus, PCBs affected five TH variables in the female polar bears (TT4, FT4, FT3, TT3:FT3, TT4:TT3), but PCBs affected only two TH variables in males (FT3, FT4:FT3). Female polar bears could be more susceptible to TH-related effects of PCBs than are males. PCBs also affected T3 to a larger degree than T4. PMID:15175168

  1. Associations between congenital cryptorchidism in newborn boys and levels of dioxins and PCBs in placenta

    PubMed Central

    Virtanen, H E; Koskenniemi, J J; Sundqvist, E; Main, K M; Kiviranta, H; Tuomisto, J T; Tuomisto, J; Viluksela, M; Vartiainen, T; Skakkebaek, N E; Toppari, J

    2012-01-01

    In animal studies, exposure to dioxins has been associated with disrupted development of the male reproductive system, including testicular maldescent. Some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also dioxin-like effects. In addition, one previous case–control study has reported an association between congenital cryptorchidism and colostrum PCB levels. We performed a case–control study to evaluate whether congenital cryptorchidism in boys was associated with increased levels of dioxins or PCBs in placenta reflecting foetal exposure. In addition, associations between placenta levels of these chemicals and reproductive hormone levels in boys at 3 months were studied. Placentas were collected in a Danish–Finnish joint prospective cohort study on cryptorchidism (1997–2001). The boys were examined for cryptorchidism at birth and at 3 months. Altogether, 280 placentas [112 Finnish (56 cases, 56 controls) and 168 Danish (39 cases, 129 controls)] were analysed for 17 toxic polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and 37 PCBs (including 12 dioxin-like PCBs). Infant serum samples taken at 3 months were analysed for reproductive hormones. No significant differences between cases and controls were observed in either country in dioxin WHO-TEq levels (median 9.78 vs. 8.47 pg/g fat, respectively, in Finland, and 11.75 vs. 10.88 pg/g fat in Denmark) or PCB WHO-TEq levels (median 2.12 vs. 2.15 pg/g fat in Finland, 2.34 vs. 2.10 pg/g fat in Denmark) or total-TEq levels (median 11.66 vs. 10.58 pg/g fat in Finland, 13.94 vs. 13.00 pg/g fat in Denmark). Placenta WHO-TEq levels of dioxins were not associated with infant reproductive hormone levels at 3 months. In Finland, PCB WHO-TEq levels in placenta associated positively with infant LH levels. WHO-TEq levels of dioxins and PCBs and total-TEq levels were higher in Danish than Finnish samples. In conclusion, no association between placenta levels of dioxins or PCBs and congenital cryptorchidism was found

  2. Analytical methods for PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in environmental monitoring and surveillance: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Sverko, Ed

    2006-01-01

    Analytical methods for the analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are widely available and are the result of a vast amount of environmental analytical method development and research on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) over the past 30–40 years. This review summarizes procedures and examines new approaches for extraction, isolation, identification and quantification of individual congeners/isomers of the PCBs and OCPs. Critical to the successful application of this methodology is the collection, preparation, and storage of samples, as well as specific quality control and reporting criteria, and therefore these are also discussed. With the signing of the Stockholm convention on POPs and the development of global monitoring programs, there is an increased need for laboratories in developing countries to determine PCBs and OCPs. Thus, while this review attempts to summarize the current best practices for analysis of PCBs and OCPs, a major focus is the need for low-cost methods that can be easily implemented in developing countries. A “performance based” process is described whereby individual laboratories can adapt methods best suited to their situations. Access to modern capillary gas chromatography (GC) equipment with either electron capture or low-resolution mass spectrometry (MS) detection to separate and quantify OCP/PCBs is essential. However, screening of samples, especially in areas of known use of OCPs or PCBs, could be accomplished with bioanalytical methods such as specific commercially available enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assays and thus this topic is also reviewed. New analytical techniques such two-dimensional GC (2D-GC) and “fast GC” using GC–ECD may be well-suited for broader use in routine PCB/OCP analysis in the near future given their relatively low costs and ability to provide high-resolution separations of PCB/OCPs. Procedures with low environmental impact (SPME, microscale, low

  3. Lipophilicity of PCBs and fatty acids determines their mobilisation from blubber of weaned northern elephant seal pups.

    PubMed

    Louis, Caroline; Covaci, Adrian; Crocker, Daniel E; Debier, Cathy

    2016-01-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit lipophilic properties that lead to their bioaccumulation in adipose tissue. Following PCB exposition, northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) concentrate high amounts of these pollutants in their large adipose tissue stores. During lipolytic periods such as the post-weaning fast, fatty acids (FAs), which form triglycerides, and PCBs are both mobilised from adipose tissue. Our results showed that the degree of lipophilicity of FAs and PCBs impacted their release: the more lipophilic FAs and PCBs tended to be more conserved in blubber over the fast than the less lipophilic ones. This led to an enrichment of more lipophilic compounds within adipocytes with the progression of the fast. Life history patterns that include fasting may thus influence the profile of blubber lipids and contaminants.

  4. COMPARING PCDDS, PCDFS, AND DIOXIN-LIKE PCBS IN FARM-RAISED AND WILD-CAUGHT CATFISH FROM SOUTHERN MISSISSIPPI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) [hereafter referred to as ¿dioxin-like compounds¿] are persistent environmental contaminants that have been found to be ubiquitous in environmental media and bio...

  5. Adsorption And Simultaneous Dechlorination Of PCBs On GAC/Fe/Pd: Mechanistic Aspects And Reactive Capping Barrier Concept

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many concerns and challenges in current remediation strategies for sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Our efforts have been geared toward the development of granular activated carbon (GAC) impregnated with reactive iron/palladium (Fe/Pd) bime...

  6. Organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in air of southern Mexico (2002-2004)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alegria, Henry A.; Wong, Fiona; Jantunen, Liisa M.; Bidleman, Terry F.; Figueroa, Miguel Salvador; Bouchot, Gerardo Gold; Moreno, Victor Ceja; Waliszewski, Stefan M.; Infanzon, Raul

    Air samples were collected in southern Mexico in 2002-2004 to determine the extent of contamination with organochlorine (OC) pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ΣDDTs ranged from 239 to 2360 pg m -3. Other prominent OC pesticides were endosulfans, toxaphene and lindane. Pesticides detected in lower concentrations include chlordanes, dieldrin, and heptachlor. Proportions of DDT compounds suggested fresh use of DDT in some locations and a mix of fresh and aged residues at others. Ratios of trans-chlordane/ cis-chlordane were consistent with fresh chlordane usage or emission of residues from former termiticide applications. The ΣPCBs was relatively low at all sites. Concentrations of OC pesticides measured with passive samplers agreed well with those measured using high-volume samplers. Air back trajectory analysis suggests a complex pattern of regional atmospheric transport.

  7. Net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan coho salmon from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Elliott, Robert F.; Schmidt, Larry J.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Bouchard, Patrick M.; Holey, Mark E.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden accumulated by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Laurentian Great Lakes is from their food. We used diet information, PCB determinations in both coho salmon and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiency with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain PCBs from their food. Our estimate was the most reliable estimate to date because (a) the coho salmon and prey fish sampled during our study were sampled in spring, summer, and fall from various locations throughout the lake, (b) detailed measurements were made on the PCB concentrations of both coho salmon and prey fish over wide ranges in fish size, and (c) coho salmon diet was analyzed in detail from April through November over a wide range of salmon size from numerous locations throughout the lake. We estimated that coho salmon from Lake Michigan retain 50% of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  8. Atmospheric deposition, retention, and stream export of dioxins and PCBs in a pristine boreal catchment.

    PubMed

    Bergknut, Magnus; Laudon, Hjalmar; Jansson, Stina; Larsson, Anna; Gocht, Tilman; Wiberg, Karin

    2011-06-01

    The mass-balance between diffuse atmospheric deposition of organic pollutants, amount of pollutants retained by the terrestrial environment, and levels of pollutants released to surface stream waters was studied in a pristine northern boreal catchment. This was done by comparing the input of atmospheric deposition of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs with the amounts exported to surface waters. Two types of deposition samplers were used, equipped with a glass fibre thimble and an Amberlite sampler respectively. The measured fluxes showed clear seasonality, with most of the input and export occurring during winter and spring flood, respectively. The mass balance calculations indicates that the boreal landscape is an effective sink for PCDD/Fs and PCBs, as 96.0-99.9 % of received bulk deposition was retained, suggesting that organic pollutants will continue to impact stream water in the region for an extended period of time.

  9. Certification of SRM 1589a PCBs, pesticides, PBDEs, and dioxins/furans in human serum.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan; Patterson, Donald G; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Stapleton, Heather M; Swarthout, Robert; Turner, Wayman E; Wise, Stephen A

    2007-10-01

    The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 1589a PCBs, Pesticides, PBDEs, and Dioxins/Furans in Human Serum has been updated to include certified concentration values for 27 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, three chlorinated pesticides, and four polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners as well as reference concentration values for 27 additional PCB congeners, six additional chlorinated pesticides, three additional PBDE congeners, and selected polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). This represents an addition of concentration values for 29 PCB congeners and for PBDE congeners that were not quantified in the previous issue of SRM 1589a. With the increased number of certified and reference concentration values for PCBs and the inclusion of certified and reference concentration values for PBDEs, this serum material will be more useful as a reference material for contaminant monitoring in human tissues and fluids.

  10. Accumulation of PCBs by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): an individual-based model approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Eck, Gary W.; Miller, Michael A.

    1993-01-01

    To explain the variation in growth and in concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among individual fish, an individual-based model (IBM) was applied to the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) population in Lake Michigan. The IBM accurately represented the variation in growth exhibited by the different age classes of lake trout. Uncertainty analysis of the IBM revealed that mean PCB concentration for the lake trout population was most sensitive to PCB concentration in their prey. The variability in PCB concentration among lake trout individuals was not adequately explained by the IBM, unless variation in prey fish PCBs was included in the model. To accomplish this, the simulated lake trout population was divided into subsets subjected to different levels of PCB concentration in the prey fish. Thus, model results indicated that variability in prey fish PCB concentration was an important component of the variation in PCB concnetration observed among individual lake trout comprising the Lake Michigan population.

  11. Net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan coho salmon from their prey

    SciTech Connect

    Madenjian, C.P.; Schmidt, L.J.; Desorcie, T.J.; Hesselberg, R.J.; Quintal, R.T.; Begnoche, L.J.; Elliott, R.F.; Bouchard, P.M.; Holey, M.E.

    1998-10-15

    Most of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden accumulated by coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from the Laurentian Great Lakes is from their food. The authors used diet information, PCB determinations in both coho salmon and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiency with which Lake Michigan coho salmon retain PCBs from their food. The estimate was the most reliable estimate to date because (a) the coho salmon and prey fish sampled during the study were sampled in spring, summer, and fall from various locations throughout the lake, (b) detailed measurements were made on the PCB concentrations of both coho salmon and prey fish over wide ranges in fish size, and (c) coho salmon diet was analyzed in detail from April through November over a wide range of salmon size from numerous locations throughout the lake. The authors estimated that coho salmon from Lake Michigan retain 50%$ of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  12. Historical records, sources, and spatial trends of PCBs along the Rhône River (France).

    PubMed

    Mourier, Brice; Desmet, Marc; Van Metre, Peter C; Mahler, Barbara J; Perrodin, Yves; Roux, Gwenaëlle; Bedell, Jean-Philippe; Lefèvre, Irène; Babut, Marc

    2014-04-01

    Despite bans on PCB use since 1975 (open systems) and 1987 (closed systems), concentrations of PCBs in riverine fish in France continue to exceed regulatory levels. We present historical records of PCB concentrations in sediment cores from eight sites on the Rhône River, from Lake Geneva to the Mediterranean Sea. Maximum PCB concentrations (sum of seven indicator PCBs) increase downstream, from 11.50 μg/kg at the most upstream site to 417.1 μg/kg at the most downstream site. At some sites peak concentrations occur in sediment deposited as recently as the 2000s. Hierarchical clustering (five clusters) identified differences in PCB congener profiles within and between sites. Exponential models fit to decadal time windows indicate that rapid reductions in concentrations during about 1990-2000 have slowed, and that it might be decades before target concentrations in sediment that correspond to regulatory thresholds in fish will be reached at some sites.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity of Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplements: implications for daily intake of dioxins and PCBs.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, J A; Bazinet, T M; Arnason, T T; Kimpe, L E; Blais, J M; White, P A

    2010-11-01

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) rich oils derived primarily from fish are frequently consumed as supplements. Due to the tendency of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) to accumulate in exposed organisms, n-3 PUFA supplements can contain sufficient POPs to present a risk to consumers. Here we investigated PCB concentrations and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist activity in 17 n-3 PUFA supplements available in Canada. PCBs ranged from <0.8 to 793 ng g(-1) oil, with salmon- and seal-derived products yielding the highest values. AhR agonist activity from a reporter gene assay ranged from 1.3 to 72.2 pg TEQ g(-1) oil, with salmon and tuna yielding the highest values. When consumed at the recommended doses and as a supplement to the average Canadian diet, seal-derived oil can contribute to exceedance of the tolerable daily intake of 20 ng PCBs kg-BW(-1)day(-1), and salmon-, tuna-, and sea herring-derived oils can contribute to exceedance of the tolerable daily intake limit of 2.3 pg TEQ kg-BW(-1)day(-1). The beneficial properties of fish and n-3 PUFA supplements, and the results of this study suggest that it is prudent to consume supplements derived from small, cold-water fatty fish. Further research will be necessary to draw firm conclusions.

  14. Reduction of the Body Burden of PCBs and DDE by Dietary Intervention in a Randomized Trial✰,✰✰,★

    PubMed Central

    Jandacek, Ronald J.; Heubi, James E.; Buckley, Donna D.; Khoury, Jane C.; Turner, Wayman E.; Sjödin, Andreas; Olson, James R.; Shelton, Christie; Helms, Kim; Bailey, Tina D.; Carter, Shirley; Tso, Patrick; Pavuk, Marian

    2014-01-01

    Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Anniston, Alabama residents have been associated with hypertension and diabetes. There have been no systematic interventions to reduce PCB body burdens in Anniston or other populations. Our objective was to determine the efficacy of 15 g/day of dietary olestra to reduce PCBs in Anniston residents. Blood PCBs and DDE were measured at baseline and 4-month intervals in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, one-year trial. Participants with elevated serum PCBs were randomized into two groups of 14, and received potato crisps made with olestra or vegetable oil (VO). Elimination rates during the study period were compared with 5-year pre-study rates. Eleven participants in the Olestra group and 12 in the VO group completed the study. Except for one participant in the VO group, reasons for dropout were unrelated to treatments. The elimination rate of 37 non-co-planar PCB congeners during the one-year trial was faster during olestra consumption compared to the pre-trial period (−0.0829 ±0.0357 and −0.00864±0.0116 years−1, respectively; p =0.04), but not during VO consumption (−0.0413±0.0408 and −0.0283±0.0096 years−1, respectively, p=0.27). Concentration of PCBs in two Olestra group participants decreased by 27 and 25% during the trial. There was no significant time by group interaction in change from baseline. However group main effects for total PCBs, PCB 153 were of borderline significance. This pilot study has demonstrated that olestra can safely reduce body burdens of PCBs and supports a larger intervention trial that may also determine whether reduction in PCBs will reduce the risk of hypertension and diabetes. PMID:24629911

  15. Biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by the novel identified cyanobacterium Anabaena PD-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hangjun; Jiang, Xiaojun; Lu, Liping; Xiao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a class of hazardous pollutants, are difficult to dissipate in the natural environment. In this study, a cyanobacterial strain Anabaena PD-1 showed good resistance against PCB congeners. Compared to a control group, chlorophyll a content decreased 3.7% and 11.7% when Anabaena PD-1 was exposed to 2 and 5 mg/L PCBs for 7 d. This cyanobacterial strain was capable of decomposing PCB congeners which was conclusively proved by determination of chloride ion concentrations in chlorine-free medium. After 7 d, the chloride ion concentrations in PCB-treated groups (1, 2, 5 mg/L) were 3.55, 3.05, and 2.25 mg/L, respectively. The genetic information of strain PD-1 was obtained through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis. The GenBank accession number of 16S rRNA of Anabaena PD-1 was KF201693.1. Phylogenetic tree analysis clearly indicated that Anabaena PD-1 belonged to the genus Anabaena. The degradation half-life of Aroclor 1254 by Anabaena PD-1 was 11.36 d; the total degradation rate for Aroclor 1254 was 84.4% after 25 d. Less chlorinated PCB congeners were more likely to be degraded by Anabaena PD-1 in comparison with highly chlorinated congeners. Meta- and para-chlorines in trichlorodiphenyls and tetrachlorobiphenyls were more susceptible to dechlorination than ortho-chlorines during the PCB-degradation process by Anabaena PD-1. Furthermore, Anabaena PD-1 can decompose dioxin-like PCBs. The percent biodegradation of 12 dioxin-like PCBs by strain PD-1 ranged from 37.4% to 68.4% after 25 days. Results above demonstrate that Anabaena PD-1 is a PCB-degrader with great potential for the in situ bioremediation of PCB-contaminated paddy soils. PMID:26177203

  16. Dietary exposure to non-dioxin-like PCBs of different population groups in Austria.

    PubMed

    Mihats, Daniela; Moche, Wolfgang; Prean, Michael; Rauscher-Gabernig, Elke

    2015-05-01

    The dietary exposure to the sum of the six indicator PCBs (Σ6 PCBs; PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, and 180) across different Austrian population groups was assessed in this study by combining data on occurrence from food of the Austrian market (n=157) analysed during 2006-2011 with national food consumption data. The most contaminated food group was meat, poultry, game and offal with average levels of ndl-PCBs of 5.20 ng g(-1) fat. In fish and fish products and eggs, mean concentrations of 3.89 ng g(-1) fresh weight (fw) and 4.00 ng g(-1) fat, respectively, were found. In milk and dairy products average concentrations ranged from 3.07 to 4.44 ng g(-1) fat. The mean dietary intake of Σ6 PCBs was estimated to be 3.37 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for children (6-15 years old), 3.19 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for women (19-65 years) and 2.64 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) for men (19-65 years). In all three population groups, milk and dairy products was the major contributing food group to the total dietary intake (50-55%) followed by fish and fish products (23-27%). The exposure of all Austrian population groups is well below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 10 ng kg(-1) bw d(-1) proposed by WHO, accounting for 34% in children, 32% in women and 26% in men.

  17. The biomagnification of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs in a simplified laboratory food chain

    SciTech Connect

    Taplin, B.; Pruell, R.; McGovern, D.; McKinney, R.

    1995-12-31

    Polychaetes Nereis virens were exposed to contaminated sediment and fed to juvenile lobsters, Homarus americanus exposed to the same sediment for 112 days. Time series uptake and deputation measurements were made for lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. A nonlinear model (BIOFAC) was used to calculate uptake and deputation rate constants, bioaccumulation factors, and steady state concentrations for PCBS, PCDDS, and PCDFS. Biomagnification factors (BMFs), on a lipid weight basis, were calculated for both tissues. Lobsters accumulated PCDDS, PCDFS, and PCBs from contaminated sediment and food (polychaetes). Of the two tissues, lobster hepatopancreas showed the highest concentrations for all compounds analyzed. Of the PCDDs and PCDFs studied, only 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,7,8-TCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, and 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexachlorodibenzofuran were detected in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas tissues. Of the PCB congeners studied, 2,2{prime},4,4{prime},5,5{prime} hexachlorobiphenyl (UPAC No. 153) reached the highest concentration in lobster muscle and hepatopancreas. Lobsters also accumulated non-ortho substituted PCBs in both tissues. Biomagnification factors (BMFS) were calculated for lobster muscle and hepatopancreas on a lipid weight basis using steady-state concentrations. BMFs for lobster hepatopancreas were generally higher than those for muscle. Of the PCDDs and PCDFs studied, only 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF were biomagnified in lobster hepatopancreas and muscle compared with levels in the polychaetes. Selected PCB congeners were also biomagnified in both tissues. PCB congeners with log{sub 10} K{sub ow} values > 6.5 had higher BMFs for hepatopancreas tissue than compounds with lower K{sub ow`s}. No trend was evident regarding log{sub 10} K{sub ow} of PCBs and BMFs for lobster muscle.

  18. Pesticides and PCBs in Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and O. kisutch) from Puget Sound, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    O`Neill, S.M.; West, J.E.

    1995-12-31

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife initiated a long-term study to monitor levels of contaminants in two species of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha and O. kisutch) and other marine fishes of Puget Sound. The study is one component of the Puget Sound Ambient Monitoring Program (PSAMP), a multi-agency effort to assess the environmental health of Puget Sound. Here the authors summarize results from their ongoing study of O. tshawytscha and O. kisutch. Samples of muscle tissue were collected for chemical analyses from adult salmon that were purchased from licensed fish buyers or treaty tribal fisherman. From 1992 through 1994, both salmon species were sampled at seven fishing areas in marine waters and river mouths of Puget Sound. 4,4-DDE and 4,4-DDD, metabolites of the pesticide DDT, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) were consistently detected in both species and were consistently higher in O. tshawytscha. Low to moderate concentrations of DDT metabolites (3 to 59 ug/kg wet weight) were detected in the salmon samples but were seldom detected in other fish species sampled by PSAMP. Total PCBs concentrations (Arochlor 1254 + 1260) ranged from 10 to 211 ug/kg wet weight in 0. tshawytscha, with many samples containing PCBs concentrations similar to those detected in benthic flatfish, (Pleuronectes vetulus), sampled from urbanized embayments. A stepwise linear regression model was used to identify parameters correlated with accumulation of PCBs and DDT metabolites in salmon. In addition to species differences, factors such as fish age, percent lipids and sampling location may affect the accumulation of these contaminants. Results of this study are contrasted with contaminant levels previously reported for Canadian and Alaskan Pacific salmon. Possible sources of contaminants are outlined.

  19. Comparative distribution, sourcing, and chemical behavior of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in an estuary environment.

    PubMed

    Howell, Nathan L; Rifai, Hanadi S; Koenig, Larry

    2011-04-01

    PCDD/F and PCB field data (1041 samples) in five media (dissolved, suspended sediment, bed sediment, catfish, and blue crab) were studied to explore dual contaminant patterns in the Houston Ship Channel, Texas, USA. PCDD/Fs showed greater concentration than PCBs in suspended sediments while PCBs were higher in apparent dissolved (truly dissolved+DOC-associated), fish, and crab. PCDD/Fs at nearly all locations contributed more strongly to dioxin-like toxicity. The fraction of PCB TEQ was, however, enriched in biotic over abiotic media due in large part to the presence of PCB 126, which was mostly undetected in water and sediment and yet exhibited a BAF three times greater than 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Dissolved-suspended sediment and suspended-bed sediment relationships showed that (1) observed apparent dissolved concentration differences (as fraction of total water were mean 10% PCDD/Fs and 63% PCBs) can reasonably be explained by a four-phase partition model (truly dissolved, DOC-associated, suspended OC, and suspended BC) for PCBs but not for PCDD/Fs and (2) the contaminants behaved similarly in bed to suspended sediment concentration ratios (C(bed)/C(susp)) upstream of a major confluence but not downstream. PCA-cluster analysis pointed to the possibility that suspended sediment PCB contamination originates from resuspended bed sediment while PCDD/Fs in suspended sediment originates more probably from other sediment sources such as upstream wash load or air deposition. Finally, examinations of a congener marker ratio (PCB 209/206) seemed to indicate that a source of pure PCB 209 may exist in bed sediment near Patrick Bayou though the source was not completely localized.

  20. PBDEs, PCBs and organochlorine pesticides distribution in edible fish from Negro River basin, Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Ondarza, P M; Gonzalez, M; Fillmann, G; Miglioranza, K S B

    2014-01-01

    DDTs, endosulfans, HCHs, chlordanes, PCBs and PBDEs levels were determined in different tissues of patagonian silverside (Odontesthes hatcheri) from the Upper (UV), Middle (MV) and Lower (LV) valleys of the Negro River, Argentina. Results showed a direct relation between pollutant levels in fish and land uses along the basin. All tissues showed decreasing levels from headwaters (UV) to downstream (LV). A significant predominance of organochlorine pesticides (306-3,449 ng g(-1) lipid) followed by ΣPCBs (65-3,102 ng g(-1) lipid) and ΣPBDEs (22-870 ng g(-1) lipid) was observed in all tissues and valleys, suggesting agriculture as the main source of pollutants in this basin. Pesticides were dominated by DDTs (90% pp'-DDE) followed by endosulfan (α->β->sulfate), γ-HCH and γ-chlordane showing the prevalence of legacy compounds. Endosulfan levels point out the current use of technical endosulfan in the surrounding areas. The highest PCBs and PBDEs concentrations observed in fish from UV were associated to hydroelectric power plants and industries established upstream. PCB fingerprint presented a prevailing contribution of hexa-CBs (66 ± 7%) and penta-CBs (27 ± 9%), with a similar composition to Aroclor 1254-1260. The predominance of BDE-47 (69 ± 17%) among PBDEs, followed by BDE-100 and BDE-99, suggests possible debromination processes. These results were similar to worldwide trends found in fishes and environmental compartments. PCBs levels in silverside muscles along the Negro River exceeded the maximum limits for safe consumption, suggesting a possible human health risk related to silverside ingest. Therefore, a continued long-term monitoring of organic contaminants in fishes is needed in order to assess the potential risk for human health.

  1. Estimate of net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan lake trout from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Quintal, Richard T.; Begnoche, Linda J.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1998-01-01

    Most of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) body burden accumulated by lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the Laurentian Great Lakes is from their food. We used diet information, PCB determinations in both lake trout and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to estimate the efficiency with which Lake Michigan lake trout retain PCBs from their food. Our estimates were the most reliable estimates to date because (a) the lake trout and prey fish sampled during our study were all from the same vicinity of the lake, (b) detailed measurements were made on the PCB concentrations of both lake trout and prey fish over wide ranges in fish size, and (c) lake trout diet was analyzed in detail over a wide range of lake trout size. Our estimates of net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to lake trout from their prey averaged from 0.73 to 0.89 for lake trout between the ages of 5 and 10 years old. There was no evidence of an upward or downward trend in our estimates of net trophic transfer efficiency for lake trout between the ages of 5 and 10 years old, and therefore this efficiency appeared to be constant over the duration of the lake trout's adult life in the lake. On the basis of our estimtes, lake trout retained 80% of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  2. Killer whales (Orcinus orca) face protracted health risks associated with lifetime exposure to PCBs.

    PubMed

    Hickie, Brendan E; Ross, Peter S; Macdonald, Robie W; Ford, John K B

    2007-09-15

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations declined rapidly in environmental compartments and most biota following implementation of regulations in the 1970s. However, the metabolic recalcitrance of PCBs may delay responses to such declines in large, long-lived species, such as the endangered and highly PCB-contaminated resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. To investigate the influence of life history on PCB-related health risks, we developed models to estimate PCB concentrations in killer whales during the period from 1930 forward to 2030, both within a lifetime (approximately 50 years) and across generations, and then evaluated these in the context of health effects thresholds established for marine mammals. Modeled PCB concentrations in killer whales responded slowly to changes in loadings to the environment as evidenced by slower accumulation and lower magnitude increases in PCB concentrations relative to prey, and a delayed decline that was particularly evident in adult males. Since PCBs attained peak levels well above the effects threshold (17 mg/kg lipid) in approximately 1969, estimated concentrations in both the northern and the more contaminated southern resident populations have declined gradually. Projections suggest that the northern resident population could largely fall below the threshold concentration by 2030 while the endangered southern residents may not do so until at least 2063. Long-lived aquatic mammals are therefore not protected from PCBs by current dietary residue guidelines.

  3. Long-term trends in DDT, PCBs, and chlordane in mussels from California

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.D.; Tjeerdema, R.S.

    1994-12-31

    Many contaminant programs have been established to study the geographical distributions and long-term trends of potential pollutants, but unfortunately, many have been short-lived because of economic cutbacks, providing limited information on long-term trends. The California State Mussel Watch program, however, has been continuously funded for the past 15 years. Several sites have been evaluated and were sampled often enough to obtain statistical resolution. Chlordane was evaluated at 29 stations, with 48% showing significant decreases over time; DDT was evaluated at 35 sites, with 43% showing significant declines; and PCBs were evaluated at 47 sites, with 21% showing significant drops over time. Both DDT and PCBs showed declines, corresponding to decreases in their concentrations in the effluent, at sites located in the vicinity of the Los Angeles County municipal sewage outfall. This long-term investigation indicates that, contrary to public opinion, the banning of DDT, chlordane, and PCBs by the USEPA has led to overall improvement in water quality.

  4. Seasonal fluctuations of DDTs and PCBs in zooplankton and fish of Lake Maggiore (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, Roberta; Quadroni, Silvia; Manca, Marina; Piscia, Roberta; Volta, Pietro; Guzzella, Licia; Roscioli, Claudio; Galassi, Silvana

    2012-07-01

    Concentrations of DDTs and PCBs were determined in the zooplankton and in three different fish species (shad, whitefish and roach) collected seasonally during 2009 and 2010 in three sites in Lake Maggiore, a south-alpine lake that has been contaminated by DDT since 1996. As previously observed in 2008, even during 2009 DDTs concentrations were higher in zooplankton than in fish, probably due to the very unstable situation of the lake still influenced by local inputs. The situation changed in 2010, when all DDT compounds increased in fish to levels much higher than those measured in zooplankton. Biomagnification was statistically demonstrated for pp'DDE in all the three fish species, indicating a probable signal of recovery of the lake. Although with respect to total PCBs we observed that the contamination levels varied across time periods and across fish species, biomagnification was evident from zooplankton to fish both in 2009 and in 2010. As concern individual PCBs, biomagnification from zooplankton to all three fish species was significant for PCB 153 and PCB 138.

  5. Associations between dioxins/furans and dioxin-like PCBs in estuarine sediment and blue crab

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liebens, J.; Mohrherr, C.J.; Karouna-Renier, N. K.; Snyder, R.A.; Rao, K.R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationships between the quantity, toxicity, and compositional profile of dioxin/furan compounds (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in estuarine sediment and in the blue crab (Callinectes sapidus). Sediment and blue crab samples were collected in three small urban estuaries that are in relatively close proximity to each other. Results show that differences between PCDD/F and DL-PCB mass concentrations and total toxic equivalents (TEQ) toxicity in sediments of the three estuaries are reflected in those of the blue crab. TEQs are higher in the hepatopancreas of the crabs than in the sediment, but the concentration factor is inversely proportional to the TEQ in the sediments. Congener profiles in the crabs are systematically different from those in the sediments, and the difference is more pronounced for PCDD/Fs than for DL-PCBs, possibly due to differences in metabolization rates. Compared with sediment profiles, more lesser-chlorinated PCDD/Fs that have higher TEFs accumulate in crab hepatopancreas. This selective bioaccumulation of PCDD/Fs results in a TEQ augmentation in crab hepatopancreas compared with sediments. The bioaccumulation in the blue crab is also selective for PCDD/Fs over DL-PCBs. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  6. Dioxins and dl-PCBs in gull eggs from Spanish Natural Parks (2010-2013).

    PubMed

    Morales, Laura; Gene'rosa Martrat, Ma; Parera, Jordi; Bertolero, Albert; Ábalos, Manuela; Santos, Francisco Javier; Lacorte, Silvia; Abad, Esteban

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and biphenyls (PCBs), concretely those so-called as dioxin-like PCBs, in yellow-legged gull eggs (Larus michahellis) collected from five Natural Parks (some of them National Parks) in Spain during the period 2010-2013. PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were detected in all the samples. Due to the proximity to important urban and industrial areas higher concentrations were determined in colonies located in the Northern Mediterranean coast than those found in the Southern Mediterranean or Atlantic colonies where a softer anthropogenic impact occurs. Mean ∑PCDD/F concentrations ranged from 49 to 223pg/g lipid weight (lw) and ∑dl-PCB concentrations varied from 146 to 911ng/g lw. In the Natural Park of the Ebro Delta (Northern Mediterranean coast) two gull species share habitat: yellow-legged and Audouin gull (Larus audouinii). Eggs from both species were collected and PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels compared. The species that feeds exclusively on pelagic fish (L. audouinii) had significantly higher PCDD/F and dl-PCB levels than the scavenger L. michahellis, pointing out the diet-dependent differences in the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants between similar cohabitant breeding species. Finally, mean TEQ values were in general below those considered as critical for toxicological effects in birds.

  7. PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in fish species from Lake Victoria, East Africa.

    PubMed

    Ssebugere, Patrick; Kiremire, Bernard T; Henkelmann, Bernhard; Bernhöft, Silke; Kasozi, Gabriel N; Wasswa, John; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2013-07-01

    Two commercially important fish species, Nile perch (Lates niloticus) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) belonging to different trophic levels were collected from the Napoleon Gulf and Thurston Bay in Lake Victoria. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were extracted from the fish muscles and livers using the (13)C isotope dilution method, followed by multiple column chromatography clean-up. Analysis was achieved by a high resolution gas chromatography coupled with a high resolution mass spectrometer. The concentrations of analytes ranged from 0.07 to 0.59pgg(-1) fresh weight (fw) and 0.3-19.0pgg(-1) in L. niloticus and 0.06-0.18 and 0.2-15.7pgg(-1) in O. niloticus, for ∑PCDD/Fs and ∑dl-PCBs, respectively. Differences in congener concentrations were observed between the two fish species and study sites, and this was attributed to differences in feeding habits and trophic levels. World Health Organization-toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQs) were in the range 0.01-0.16pgTEQg(-1) for the PCDD/Fs and 0.001-0.74pgTEQg(-1) for the dl-PCBs. The TEQ values in the present study were lower compared to those of most fish samples reported in literature and were within permissible levels recommended by the European Union, implying that the fish was fit for human consumption.

  8. Biomarkers, PCBs, DDT, DDE, and plastic pollution in albatross of the north Pacific Ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Auman, H.J.; Giesy, J.P.; Ludwig, J.P.; Summer, C.L.; Verbrugge, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    The impacts of pollution in a remote area of the Pacific Ocean on seabirds were assessed. The amount and effects of accidentally ingested plastic on survival of Laysan albatross chicks were determined. Concentrations of synthetic organochlorine compounds and biomarkers of exposure to several classes of those compounds were measured in plasma of adults and chicks of both Laysan and Black-footed albatross of Sand Island, Midway Atoll. Concentrations of PCBs, DDT, DDE, and other chlorinated insecticides were measured in plasma and egg. Average, total PCB concentrations in the plasma of ten adult Laysan and five Black-footed albatross were 39 and 115 ng/g, respectively; DDE concentrations were 10.8 and 37.2 ng/mg respectively. Total pooled concentrations of PCBs in egg yolk of Laysan or Black-footed albatross were 1.06 or 3.84 {micro}g/g, respectively; DDE concentrations were 321.5 or 1,836.6 ng/g, respectively. Data will be presented on differences between chicks and adults, between species, and among sampling times throughout the nesting season. Serum retinol, T3 and T4 concentrations were quantified and correlated to concentrations of total PCBs, DDT, DDE, and other insecticides in the blood.

  9. Effect of temperature and particle size on the thermal desorption of PCBs from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhifu; Chen, Tong; Bai, Sihong; Yan, Mi; Lu, Shengyong; Buekens, Alfons; Yan, Jianhua; Bulmău, Cora; Li, Xiaodong

    2014-03-01

    Thermal desorption is widely used for remediation of soil contaminated with volatiles, such as solvents and distillates. In this study, a soil contaminated with semivolatile polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was sampled at an interim storage point for waste PCB transformers and heated to temperatures from 300 to 600 °C in a flow of nitrogen to investigate the effect of temperature and particle size on thermal desorption. Two size fractions were tested: coarse soil of 420-841 μm and fine soil with particles <250 μm. A PCB removal efficiency of 98.0 % was attained after 1 h of thermal treatment at 600 °C. The residual amount of PCBs in this soil decreased with rising thermal treatment temperature while the amount transferred to the gas phase increased up to 550 °C; at 600 °C, destruction of PCBs became more obvious. At low temperature, the thermally treated soil still had a similar PCB homologue distribution as raw soil, indicating thermal desorption as a main mechanism in removal. Dechlorination and decomposition increasingly occurred at high temperature, since shifts in average chlorination level were observed, from 3.34 in the raw soil to 2.75 in soil treated at 600 °C. Fine soil particles showed higher removal efficiency and destruction efficiency than coarse particles, suggesting that desorption from coarse particles is influenced by mass transfer.

  10. Assessing atmospheric concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by evergreen Rhododendron maximum next to a contaminated stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dang, Viet D.; Walters, David; Lee, Cindy M.

    2016-01-01

    Conifers are often used as an “air passive sampler”, but few studies have focused on the implication of broadleaf evergreens to monitor atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). In this study, we used Rhododendron maximum (rhododendron) growing next to a contaminated stream to assess atmospheric PCB concentrations. The study area was located in a rural setting and approximately 2 km downstream of a former Sangamo-Weston (S-W) plant. Leaves from the same mature shrubs were collected in late fall 2010, and winter and spring 2011. PCBs were detected in the collected leaves suggesting that rhododendron can be used as air passive samplers in rural areas where active sampling is impractical. Estimated ΣPCB (47 congeners) concentrations in the atmosphere decreased from fall 2010 to spring 2011 with concentration means at 3990, 2850, and 931 pg m-3 in fall 2010, winter 2011, and spring 2011, respectively. These results indicate that the atmospheric concentrations at this location continue to be high despite termination of active discharge from the former S-W plant. Leaves had a consistent pattern of high concentrations of tetra- and penta-CBs similar to the congener distribution in polyethylene (PE) passive samplers deployed in the water column suggesting that volatilized PCBs from the stream were the primary source of contaminants in rhododendron leaves.

  11. In ovo uptake, metabolism, and tissue-specific distribution of chiral PCBs and PBDEs in developing chicken embryos

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zong-Rui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Li-Qian; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with environmental doses of 4 chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 8 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to investigate their uptake, metabolism in the embryo, and distribution in the neonate chicken. PCB95 uptake was the most efficient (80%) whereas BDE209 was the least (56%). Embryos metabolized approximately 52% of the PCBs absorbed. Though some degree of metabolism in the first 18 days, most of the PCBs and PBDEs was metabolized in the last three days, when BDE85, 99, 153, and 209 decrease by 11–37%. Enantioselective metabolism of the (+) enantiomers of PCB95, 149, and 132 and the (−) enantiomer of PCB91 was observed. The enantioselective reactivity was higher with the two penta-PCBs than the two tetra-PCBs. Liver, exhibited high affinity for high lipophilic chemicals, enrich all chemicals that was deflected in other tissues except for some special chemicals in a given tissues. Lipid composition, time of organ formation, and metabolism contribute to the distribution of chemicals in the neonate chicken. The result of this study will improve our understanding on the fate and potential adverse effects of PCBs and PBDEs in the neonate chicken. PMID:27819361

  12. Chlorinated and brominated contaminants including PCBs and PBDEs in minke whales and common dolphins from Korean coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Choi, Minkyu; Yu, Jun; Choi, Hee-Gu; An, Yong-Rock; Choi, Seok-Gwan; Park, Jung-Youn; Kim, Zang-Geun

    2010-07-15

    Information on the occurrence and distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine mammals from Korean coastal waters is not available to date. This is the first study to investigate concentrations and accumulation of PCBs, OCPs, and PBDEs in liver and blubber of minke whales and common dolphins from Korean coastal waters. The concentrations of organochlorines and PBDEs in blubber were several times higher than in liver. The concentrations of PCBs and OCPs were generally low, but the concentrations of PBDEs were similar to those reported for cetaceans elsewhere. The accumulation profiles of OCPs differed between liver and blubber, while the profiles of PCBs and PBDEs were relatively similar in both tissues. The concentrations of PCBs, DDTs, CHLs and PBDEs in common dolphins were significantly higher than those in minke whales, while there were no inter-species differences for HCHs and HCB. The predominant OCP, PCB and PBDE congeners in cetaceans were p,p'-DDE, PCB 153 and BDE 47, respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and DDTs in Korean cetaceans were close to the threshold for adverse health effects.

  13. Potential release of PCBs from plastic scientific gear to fringing coral reef sediments in the Gulf of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Kim, Chang Joon; Yeemin, Thamasak; Siringan, Fernando P.; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Hyun Mi; Choi, Ki Young; Yang, Dong Beom; Ahn, Yu Whan; Ryu, Joo Hyung

    2013-11-01

    A status on environmental contamination of the coral reefs on the islands of Samui and Katen of the western part of the Gulf of Thailand was investigated with a preliminarily analysis of bottom sediment samples. Coral reef bed sediments were characterized as relatively uncontaminated by human activities in terms of selected metals and PCBs. Potential release of PCBs to the ambient seawater from scientific equipment made of plastic materials placed into the coral reef waters for an extended period was investigated because the sedimentary PCBs concentrations were very low in the region. Eight plastics - acrylic, mono cast nylon, polycarbonate, polyethylene, polypropylene, ivory and grey-colored polyvinyl chloride, and Teflon® - were subjected to leaching in seawater after being thoroughly washed with laboratory detergent and distilled water. All plastics were found to release PCBs at highly variable rates to seawater in the initial 60 days. Grey-colored PVC, Teflon, and polycarbonate after rinsing with n-hexane were found to release less than 50ng PCBs/kg of plastics and they could therefore be used to make scientific equipment to be deployed on the relatively PCBs-free coral reef beds.

  14. In ovo uptake, metabolism, and tissue-specific distribution of chiral PCBs and PBDEs in developing chicken embryos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zong-Rui; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Huang, Li-Qian; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2016-11-01

    Fertilized chicken eggs were injected with environmental doses of 4 chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 8 polybrominated biphenyl ethers (PBDEs) to investigate their uptake, metabolism in the embryo, and distribution in the neonate chicken. PCB95 uptake was the most efficient (80%) whereas BDE209 was the least (56%). Embryos metabolized approximately 52% of the PCBs absorbed. Though some degree of metabolism in the first 18 days, most of the PCBs and PBDEs was metabolized in the last three days, when BDE85, 99, 153, and 209 decrease by 11–37%. Enantioselective metabolism of the (+) enantiomers of PCB95, 149, and 132 and the (‑) enantiomer of PCB91 was observed. The enantioselective reactivity was higher with the two penta-PCBs than the two tetra-PCBs. Liver, exhibited high affinity for high lipophilic chemicals, enrich all chemicals that was deflected in other tissues except for some special chemicals in a given tissues. Lipid composition, time of organ formation, and metabolism contribute to the distribution of chemicals in the neonate chicken. The result of this study will improve our understanding on the fate and potential adverse effects of PCBs and PBDEs in the neonate chicken.

  15. PCBs and related compounds in Lake Hartwell. Technical completion report 1 May 86-30 May 88

    SciTech Connect

    Elzerman, A.W.; Dunnivant, F.M.; Germann, G.G.

    1991-03-01

    To obtain necessary data for modeling and assessments of PCBs in the Lake Hartwell (SC, GA) system, the research concerned (1) analyses for individual congeners, (2) information on PCBs and lake characteristics that affect PCB distributions, (3) PCB sediment concentrations, (4) factors affecting horizontal and vertical distributions, including physical, chemical and biological 'weathering', (5) values for physical/chemical parameters required for fate models, (6) laboratory studies of PCB sorption on sediments, and (7) radionuclides as tracers and markers to calibrate models. Segmented sediment cores (95) were collected from Lake Hartwell over the period 1984 to 1987. Total PCB sediment concentrations (dry basis) ranged from < 0.01 microgram/g to > 100 micrograms/g, generally decreasing with distance from the known source. Horizontal and vertical variations were related to inputs and weathering. The total inventory of PCBs in sediments was estimated to be approximately 41,000 (+ or - 15,000) kg. Congener specific data indicated weathering of PCBs resulted in significant fractionation between congeners. Values for solubility, Henry's Law constants and vapor pressures were measured for selected congeners and predicted for all 209 congeners by quantitative structure-property relationships (QSPRs). Extensive investigations of sorption of PCBs on sediments indicated slow desorption rates influence the fate and effects of PCBs.

  16. Non-dioxin-like PCBs inhibit [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding to the dopamine transporter: a structure-activity relationship study.

    PubMed

    Wigestrand, M B; Stenberg, M; Walaas, S I; Fonnum, F; Andersson, P L

    2013-12-01

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) are neurotoxic compounds with known effects at the dopaminergic system in the brain. In a previous study we demonstrated that NDL-PCBs inhibit uptake of dopamine into rat brain synaptosomes, an effect most likely mediated by inhibition of the dopamine transporter (DAT). Here, using the cocaine analogue [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding assay and synaptosomes, we directly investigate whether NDL-PCBs act via DAT and explore the structure-activity relationship of this effect. In total, thirty PCBs were investigated, including a previously selected training set of twenty PCBs covering the structural variation within tri- to hepta-chlorinated NDL-PCBs, and an additional set of ten NDL-PCB congeners selected to validate the structure-activity pattern of neurotoxic PCBs. Since previous work has demonstrated that NDL-PCBs can also inhibit the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2), we additionally examined whether some PCB congeners favour an effect on VMAT2 and others on DAT. Our results show that NDL-PCBs are potent inhibitors of [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding to DAT. In fact, we identify a PCB congener (PCB 110) with similar potency for [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding inhibition as cocaine. All active congeners were ortho-chlorinated PCBs, and in particular, tetra- and penta-chlorinated with 2-3 chlorine atoms in the ortho position were potent inhibitors of [(3)H]WIN-35,428 binding. Notably, the most active PCBs are highly prevalent in commercial mixtures of PCBs (Aroclor 1242, 1254 and 1260), which indicates that DAT inhibition could be one of the factors contributing to behavioural effects after Aroclor exposure. Derived data correlated well with the recently derived neurotoxic equivalency factors (NEQs), indicating the generality and applicability of the NEQ scheme in risk assessments of PCBs.

  17. Serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in participants of the Anniston Community Health Survey☆,☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Pavuk, M.; Olson, J.R.; Sjödin, A.; Wolff, P.; Turner, W.E.; Shelton, C.; Dutton, N.D.; Bartell, S.

    2015-01-01

    Serum concentrations of 35 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs) were measured in 765 adults from Anniston, Alabama, where PCBs were manufactured between 1929 and 1971. As part of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS), demographic data, questionnaire information, and blood samples were collected from participants in 2005–2007. Forty-six percent of study participants were African-American, 70% were female, and the median age was 56 years. The median concentration of the sum of 35 PCB congeners (ΣPCBs) was 528 ng/g lipid, with a 90th percentile of 2600 ng/g lipid, minimum of 17.0 ng/g lipid, and maximum of 27,337 ng/g lipid. The least square geometric mean ΣPCBs was more than 2.5 times higher for African-American participants than for White participants (866 ng/g lipid vs. 331 ng/g lipid); this difference did not change materially after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and current smoking. In spite of large differences in absolute PCB levels, relative contributions of individual congeners to ΣPCBs were quite similar between race groups. Nevertheless, while percent contributions to ΣPCBs for most of the most abundant penta- to heptachlorobiphenyls were higher among African-Americans, the percentages were higher in Whites for the lower-chlorinated PCBs 28 and 74 and for octa- to decachlorinated PCBs. No major differences were observed in geometric mean ΣPCBs between women and men when adjusted for age, race, BMI and current smoking (516 ng/g lipid vs. 526 ng/g lipid). Principal component analysis revealed groups of co-varying congeners that appear to be determined by chlorine substitution patterns. These congener groupings were similar between ACHS participants and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–04 sample of the general United States population, despite ACHS participants having serum concentrations of ΣPCBs two to three times higher than those in comparable age and race groups from

  18. Co-detoxification of transformer oil-contained PCBs and heavy metals in medical waste incinerator fly ash under sub- and supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chunfeng; Zhu, Nengmin; Wang, Yanmin; Zhang, Fushen

    2012-01-17

    The simultaneous detoxification processes of transformer oil-contained PCBs and heavy metals in medical waste incinerator (MWI) fly ash were developed under sub- and supercritical water. The addition of MWI fly ash to transformer oil-contained PCBs was found to increase the destruction efficiency of PCBs, at the same time, it facilitated reducing the leaching concentration of toxic metals from residues (obtained after reaction) for harmless disposal. In this study, we elucidated primarily the catalysis possibility of heavy metals in raw MWI fly ash for PCBs degradation by adopting the sequential extraction procedure. For both MWI fly ashes, more than 90% destruction efficiency of PCBs was achieved at ≥375 °C for 30 min, and trichlorobenzene (TCB) existing in the transformer oil was also completely decomposed. The correlation of catalytic performance to PCBs degradation was discussed based on structural characteristics and dechlorinated products. Likewise, such process rendered residues innocuous through supercritical water treatment for reuse or disposal in landfill.

  19. Investigation into the importance of the stomatal pathway in the exchange of PCBs between air and plants.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jonathan L; Kurt, Perihan B; Thomas, Gareth O; Kerstiens, Gerhard; Jones, Kevin C

    2002-10-15

    The transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from air to vegetation is an important air-surface exchange process that affects global cycling and can result in human and wildlife exposure via the terrestrial food chain. To improve understanding of this process, the role of stomata in uptake of gas-phase polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was investigated using Hemerocallis x hybrida "Black Eyed Stella", a plant with a high stomatal density. Uptake of PCBs was monitored over a 72-h period in the presence and absence of light. Uptake rates were significantly greater in illuminated (stomata open) plants than unilluminated (stomata closed) plants for 18 of the 28 measured PCB congeners (p < 0.05). Depuration of PCBs was monitored in a subsequent experiment over a period of 3 weeks. Levels after 3 weeks of depuration time were still much higher than the concentration prior to contamination. Tri- and tetrachlorinated PCBs showed the greatest depuration, with less than 20% and 50% of accumulated PCBs respectively remaining, while approximately 70% of higher chlorinated PCB congeners remained in the plants at the end of the experiment. Treatments with/without light (to control stomatal opening during uptake) and with/without abscisic acid (ABA) application (to control stomatal opening during depuration) were compared. After contamination indoors for 3 days, there was a significantly higher concentration of PCBs (p < 0.05) in the light contaminated plants than the dark-contaminated plants for 13 of the 28 measured PCB congeners. The ABA treatment affected depuration of PCB-18 only. "Light/ABA-treated" plants had a significantly slower depuration rate for PCB-18 than "light/untreated", "dark/ABA-treated", and "dark/untreated" plants (p < 0.05). The results of the study indicate that there is a stomatal effect on the rate of exchange of PCBs between Hemerocallis leaves and air.

  20. In vitro approaches to assess bioavailability and human gastrointestinal mobilization of food-borne polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Adenugba, Adeola A; McMartin, Dena W; Beck, Angus J

    2008-06-01

    This study reports on the potential for gastrointestinal (GI) mobilization and bioavailability of food-borne PCBs in humans. The development and validation of a GI simulator and operational protocols, developed in compliance with the requirements of German DIN 19738 risk assessment test procedure, are presented. Food, naturally contaminated with PCBs, was homogenized with simulated saliva fluid and shaken in the GI simulator with simulated gastric fluids (containing pepsin, mucine) for 2 h at 37 degrees C. Afterwards, the simulated intestinal fluids (containing pepsin, mucine, trypsin, pancreatin, bile) were added and the mixture shaken for a further 6 h prior to centrifugation and filtration using Buchner funnels to separate the undigested GI residues from GI fluids. PCBs were recovered from GI residues and fluids by Soxhlet and liquid-liquid extraction respectively, cleaned up using silica-SFE, and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry detection (GC-MSD). Detailed studies with fish indicate variations in mobilization and bioavailability of Sigma PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 153, 138 and 180). For example, the bioavailable fractions (fractions mobilized) in mackerel, salmon, crab and prawn were 0.77, 0.60, 0.54, and 0.72 respectively of the Sigma PCBs initially present in these food samples. The bioavailable fraction was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the PCBs. In mackerel bioavailable fractions for individual PCB congeners ranged from 0.47-0.82, from 0.30-0.70 in salmon, 0.44-0.64 in crab and in prawn from 0.47-0.77. Future studies will focus on understanding better, the variability in bioavailable fractions to be expected for different foodstuffs, in addition to tissue culture techniques using human gut cell lines to investigate a simultaneous mobilization and absorption of food-borne PCBs.

  1. PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: levels, patterns, and toxicological implications.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Ono, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) were determined in five albatross species collected from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans to assess the north-south differences in residue levels, accumulation patterns, and toxic potential. Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs than albatrosses from the Southern Ocean, indicating that emission sources of these contaminants were predominant in the northern hemisphere. Residue levels in albatrosses from the remote North Pacific Ocean far from the point source of pollution were comparable to or higher than those in terrestrial and coastal birds from contaminated areas in developed nations, suggesting the specific exposure and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in albatross. The long life span and ingestion of plastic resin pellets by albatrosses could be the plausible explanations for the elevated accumulation of persistent and lipophilic contaminants including PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these birds. Relative proportions of PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in albatross were higher than those observed in birds inhabiting terrestrial and coastal areas, suggesting that these toxic chemicals may have higher transportability by air and water than PCDDs. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in albatross showed less variability as compared to those in terrestrial species, indicating that contamination patterns of PCDD/Fs were similar within the open ocean environment. Contributions of PCDD/Fs to total TEQs in albatrosses from the open ocean were generally lower than those in terrestrial birds, suggesting different toxic potency of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs on animals inhabiting open ocean and terrestrial environment. Whereas albatrosses from southern oceans retained lower TEQ concentrations, possible adverse effects of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs

  2. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in the blood of toothed and baleen whales stranded along Japanese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Kei; Murata, Satoko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Yamada, Tadasu K; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-05-15

    In this study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs) in the blood from eight species of toothed whales and three species of baleen whales stranded along the Japanese coast during 1999-2007. Penta- through hepta-chlorinated PCB congeners were the dominant homologue groups in all cetaceans. In contrast, specific differences in the distribution of dominant OH-PCB isomers and homologues were found among the cetacean species. In five species of toothed whales (melon-headed whale, Stejneger's beaked whale, Pacific white-sided dolphin, Blainville's beaked whale, and killer whale), the predominant homologues were OH-penta-PCBs followed by OH-tetra-PCBs and OH-tri-PCBs. The predominant homologues of finless porpoise and beluga whale were OH-penta-PCBs followed by OH-hexa-PCBs and OH-tri-PCBs. The predominant OH-PCB isomers were para-OH-PCBs such as 4OH-CB26, 4'OH-CB25/4'OH-CB26/4OH-CB31, 4OH-CB70, 4'OH-CB72, 4'OH-CB97, 4'OH-CB101/4'OH-CB120, and 4OH-CB107/4'OH-CB108 in toothed whales. In three baleen whales (common minke whale, Bryde's whale, and humpback whale) and in sperm whale (which is a toothed whale), OH-octa-PCB (4OH-CB202) was the predominant homologue group accounting for 40-80% of the total OH-PCB concentrations. The differences in concentrations and profiles of OH-PCBs may suggest species-specific diets, metabolic capability, and the transthyretin (TTR) binding specificity. These results reveal that the accumulation profiles of OH-PCBs in cetacean blood are entirely different from the profiles found in pinnipeds, polar bear, and humans.

  3. Isotope dilution analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in transformer oil and global commercial PCB formulations by high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Matsumura, Tohru; Shiozaki, Ken; Sakai, Shin-ichi

    2006-01-01

    Special polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) standards (native and isotope labeled) were analyzed by isotope dilution method using HRGC-HRMS. Multiple analysis of special PCBs standards by three different laboratories produced the relative response factors (RRFs) and relative standard deviations (RSDs %) was in the average of 0.979 and 3.86, respectively. Additionally, inter-laboratory analysis of various forms of transformer oil revealed the PCBs concentrations were in the following order; PCBs fortified transformer oil (940-1300 ng/g)>PCB polluted transformer oil (490-680 ng/g)>chemically degraded-transformer oil (480-490 ng/g) and PCBs free oil (ND-17 ng/g). Chemical degradation resulted in an order of magnitude decrease in the PCB concentrations. Specifically, higher chlorinated PCBs degraded into lower chlorinated PCBs. Also, composition of PCBs have been determined in PCB formulations from Japan (Kanechlor), Germany (Clophen), USA (Aroclor), Russia (Sovol) and Poland (Chlorofen). Major PCBs (24-PCB congeners) contributed 54-67%, 55-68%, 16-69%, 71% and 72% in Kanechlor, Clophen, Aroclor, Sovol and Chlorofen, respectively to total PCBs. The homologue pattern of Kanechlor, Aroclor and Clophen in technical fromulation was similar (e.g., Kanechlor-300 resembled to those of Clophen A-30 and Aroclor-1242). Furthermore, congener-specific distributions of major PCBs/dioxin-like PCBs and toxic equivalency quantities (TEQ) were calculated. Based on our tentative assumption calculations, cumulative production of five different technical PCB formulations, WHO-TEQ emission was estimated to be approximately 16.05 tons.

  4. [Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in food and cancer risk: recent advances].

    PubMed

    Roveda, Anna Maria; Veronesi, Licia; Zoni, Roberta; Colucci, Maria Eugenia; Sansebastiano, Giuliano

    2006-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls are synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds whose commercial production started in the thirties and that have been widely used in the electro-technical industry. Although their production was stopped over 25 years ago, the Stockholm Convention included these compounds among the list of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). In fact, humans continue to be exposed to the toxic effects of PCBs because of their resistance to chemical and biological decomposition, their capacity of bio-accumulation and their long half-life. Studies performed so far have pointed out a possible association between exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls and increased risk of developing some types of cancer (breast, prostate, testicular, ovarian and uterine cancers); it has also been suggested that these compounds may act as disruptive endocrine and cause infertility as well as other hormone-regulated disorders. PCBs accumulate in organisms through the food chain, and food is therefore the main exposure source for humans: it accounts for over 90% of exposure, the highest concentrations being found in fish (such as salmon and shellfish), dairy products (especially milk and butter) and animal fat. Moreover, waste-heaps, illegal disposal of oil waste and combustion of certain waste products in incineration plants represent sources of environmental pollution. The highest levels of PCBs in the environment were found in the early 1970s; since then concentrations of Polychlorinated Biphenyls have gradually decreased in all environmental components (water, air, earth and sediments), in fish, in other food products and lastly also in humans, thus suggesting that the associated risks have also likewise diminished.

  5. A case study of a chemical spill: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs): 2. Hydrogeological conditions and contaminant migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Franklin W.; Cherry, John A.; Roberts, J. Russell

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of the second paper in this pair is to describe the hydrogeology and to account for the observed patterns of PCB contamination at the Federal Pioneer site in Regina, Canada. Six major hydrostratigraphic units were identified from detailed test drilling and sampling. From the surface downward these are a thin surface fill, the Regina clay, the Condie silt, the till zone, the interglacial silt, and the Regina aquifer system. This latter unit is an important source of potable groundwater. At present the nearest wells are hundreds of meters from the site. The permanent water table is situated below the Condie silt in sandy glacial till. An active perched groundwater system has developed within the thin fill layer beneath the floor of the plant. The extensive lateral flow of groundwater in this zone has contributed significantly to the spreading of PCBs at the site. The PCBs have also moved downward through fractures in the Regina clay and in the upper part of the Condie silt. It can be expected that capillary forces will halt the downward movement of Inerteen 70-30® as fractures narrow or stop. However, the possible existence of fractures connecting the contaminated zone to the Regina aquifer system or the potential for transport as a dissolved phase in the groundwaters may permit PCBs migrate downward to the aquifer or to flow laterally off-site. The most significant hazard represented by the spill is the potential for contamination of future water supply wells that may be placed near the site or aquifer contamination that could result if future drilling provides pathways for contaminants through poorly sealed wells or test holes.

  6. Modelling the impact of room temperature on concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Lyng, Nadja Lynge; Clausen, Per Axel; Lundsgaard, Claus; Andersen, Helle Vibeke

    2016-02-01

    Buildings contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a health concern for the building occupants. Inhalation exposure is linked to indoor air concentrations of PCBs, which are known to be affected by indoor temperatures. In this study, a highly PCB contaminated room was heated to six temperature levels between 20 and 30 C, i.e. within the normal fluctuation of indoor temperatures, while the air exchange rate was constant. The steady-state air concentrations of seven PCBs were determined at each temperature level. A model based on Clausius-Clapeyron equation, ln(P) = -ΔH/RT + a(0), where changes in steady-state air concentrations in relation to temperature, was tested. The model was valid for PCB-28, PCB-52 and PCB-101; the four other congeners were sporadic or non-detected. For each congener, the model described a large proportion (R(2)>94%) of the variation in indoor air PCB levels. The results showed that one measured concentration of PCB at a known steady-state temperature can be used to predict the steady-state concentrations at other temperatures under circumstances where e.g. direct sunlight does not influence temperatures and the air exchange rate is constant. The model was also tested on field data from a PCB remediation case in an apartment in another contaminated building complex where PCB concentrations and temperature were measured simultaneously and regularly throughout one year. The model fitted relatively well with the regression of measured PCB air concentrations, ln(P) vs. 1/T, at varying temperature between 16.3 and 28.2 °C, even though the measurements were carried out under uncontrolled environmental condition.

  7. Energetic cost of dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) for white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voltura, M.B.; French, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    Contaminant exposure is an environmental factor often overlooked in ecological studies. Yet exposure to toxicants is likely to be metabolically expensive, and result in a trade-off between energy spent to detoxify an excrete contaminants, and energy allocated to growth or reproduction. To quantify the energetic cost of PCB exposure, we fed mice diets containing 0, 0.1, 10 and 25 ppm PCBs (mg PCBs/kg food). After 6 wks, there were no differences in food intake or body mass related to the level of dietary PCBs. We continued to feed mice the PCB diets for one year, and then measured food intake and resting metabolic rate. After one year, all mice had gained mass, but mice on the 25 ppm diet were significantly heavier than mice in the other groups. Mice on the 25 ppm diet also showed an increase in both food intake (p=0.06) and metabolic rate (p=0.01), after correction for differences in body mass. Food intake averaged 4.1 g/d for mice on the 25 ppm diet, compared to 3.7 gld for control mice. Oxygen consumption at 30°C averaged 40.1 ml O2/h for mice on the 25 ppm diet, compared to 36.6 ml O2/h for control mice. These results show that for white-footed mice, there is an energetic cost to contaminant exposure that when combined with other environmental stresses, will influence patterns of energy acquisition and allocation.

  8. Immunologic biomarkers in relation to exposure markers of PCBs and dioxins in Flemish adolescents (Belgium).

    PubMed

    Van Den Heuvel, Rosette L; Koppen, Gudrun; Staessen, Jan A; Hond, Elly Den; Verheyen, Geert; Nawrot, Tim S; Roels, Harry A; Vlietinck, Robert; Schoeters, Greet E R

    2002-06-01

    In this study, we investigated 17- to 18-year-old boys and girls to determine whether changes in humoral or cellular immunity or respiratory complaints were related to blood serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds after lifetime exposure in Flanders (Belgium). We obtained blood samples from and administered questionnaires to 200 adolescents recruited from a rural area and two urban suburbs. Physicians recorded medical history and respiratory diseases. We measured immunologic biomarkers such as differential blood cell counts, lymphocyte phenotypes, and serum immunoglobulins. As biomarkers of exposure, we determined the serum concentrations of PCBs (PCB 138, PCB 153, and PCB 180) and dioxin-like compounds [chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) bioassay]. The percentages of eosinophils and natural killer cells in blood were negatively correlated with CALUX toxic equivalents (TEQs) in serum (p = 0.009 and p = 0.05, respectively). Increased serum CALUX TEQs resulted in an increase in serum IgA levels (p = 0.05). Furthermore, levels of specific IgEs (measured by radioallergosorbent tests) of cat dander, house dust mite, and grass pollen were also significantly and negatively associated with the CALUX TEQ, with odds ratios (ORs) equal to 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42-0.96], 0.68 (0.5-0.93), and 0.70 (0.52-0.95), respectively. In addition, reported allergies of the upper airways and past use of antiallergic drugs were negatively associated with CALUX TEQs, with ORs equal to 0.66 (0.47-0.93) and 0.58 (0.39-0.85), respectively. We found a negative association between IgGs and marker PCBs in serum (p = 0.009). This study shows that immunologic measurements and respiratory complaints in adolescents were associated with environmental exposure to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The negative correlation between PHAHs and allergic responses in adolescents suggested that exposure may entail alterations in the

  9. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife.

    PubMed Central

    Van den Berg, M; Birnbaum, L; Bosveld, A T; Brunström, B; Cook, P; Feeley, M; Giesy, J P; Hanberg, A; Hasegawa, R; Kennedy, S W; Kubiak, T; Larsen, J C; van Leeuwen, F X; Liem, A K; Nolt, C; Peterson, R E; Poellinger, L; Safe, S; Schrenk, D; Tillitt, D; Tysklind, M; Younes, M; Waern, F; Zacharewski, T

    1998-01-01

    An expert meeting was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and held in Stockholm on 15-18 June 1997. The objective of this meeting was to derive consensus toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for both human, fish, and wildlife risk assessment. Based on existing literature data, TEFs were (re)evaluated and either revised (mammals) or established (fish and birds). A few mammalian WHO-TEFs were revised, including 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated DD, octachlorinated DD, octachlorinated DF, and PCB 77. These mammalian TEFs are also considered applicable for humans and wild mammalian species. Furthermore, it was concluded that there was insufficient in vivo evidence to continue the use of TEFs for some di-ortho PCBs, as suggested earlier by Ahlborg et al. [Chemosphere 28:1049-1067 (1994)]. In addition, TEFs for fish and birds were determined. The WHO working group attempted to harmonize TEFs across different taxa to the extent possible. However, total synchronization of TEFs was not feasible, as there were orders of a magnitude difference in TEFs between taxa for some compounds. In this respect, the absent or very low response of fish to mono-ortho PCBs is most noticeable compared to mammals and birds. Uncertainties that could compromise the TEF concept were also reviewed, including nonadditive interactions, differences in shape of the dose-response curve, and species responsiveness. In spite of these uncertainties, it was concluded that the TEF concept is still the most plausible and feasible approach for risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons with dioxinlike properties. PMID:9831538

  10. Decomposition of PCBs in Oils Using Gamma Radiolysis A Treatability Study - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    B. J. Mincher; R. E. Arbon

    1996-08-01

    Several legacy hydraulic oil waste streams contaminated with Aroclor 1260 and small amounts of Cesium-137 have been in storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) due to the lack of appropriate treatment facilities. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be selectively decomposed in the oils. Removal of the PCB component to less than the 2 mg/L treatment standard should result in a waste oil that is not regulated by the Toxic Substances Control Act. Irradiation of the oils with high gamma-ray doses produces free electrons in the solution that react with PCBs. The reaction results in dechlorination of the PCBs to produce biphenyl. The gamma-ray source was spent reactor fuel stored in the Advanced Test Reactor canal at the INEL. A dry tube extends into the canal which allowed for positioning of samples in the proximity of the fuel. The gamma-ray dose rates at the samples varied from 10 to 30 kGy/h. This was measured using commercially available FWT-60 dosimeters. Irradiation of samples in a series of progressively increasing absorbed doses allowed the generation of rate constants used to predict absorbed doses necessary to meet the 2 mg/kg treatment standard. Three separate irradiation experiments were performed. The first irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 183 kGy. This experiment demonstrated that the PCB concentration decreased and allowed calculation of preliminary rate constants. The second irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 760 kGy. From this experiment, accurate rate constants were calculated, and the necessary absorbed dose to achieve the treatment standard was calculated. In the third irradiation of 2,242 kGy, all three waste streams were adequately decontaminated.

  11. Toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for PCBs, PCDDs, PCDFs for humans and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Den, Berg; Birnbaum, L.; Bosveld, A.T.C.; Brunstrom, B.; Cook, P.; Feeley, M.; Giesy, J.P.; Hanberg, A.; Hasegawa, R.; Kennedy, S.W.; Kubiak, T.; Larsen, J.C.; Van Leeuwen, F. X. R.; Liem, A.K.D.; Nolt, C.; Peterson, R.E.; Poellinger, L.; Safe, S.; Schrenk, D.; Tillitt, D.; Tysklind, M.; Younes, M.; Waern, F.; Zacharewski, T.

    1998-01-01

    An expert meeting was organized by the World Health Organization (WHO) and held in Stockholm on 15-18 June 1997. The objective of this meeting was to derive consensus toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxinlike polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) for both human, fish, and wildlife risk assessment. Based on existing literature data, TEFs were (re)evaluated and either revised (mammals) or established (fish and birds). A few mammalian WHO-TEFs were revised, including 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated DD, octachlorinated DD, occachlorinated DF, and PCB 77. These mammalian TEFs are also considered applicable for humans and wild mammalian species. Furthermore, it was concluded that there was insufficient in vivo evidence to continue the use of TEFs for some di-ortho PCBs, as suggested earlier by Ahlborg et al. In addition, TEFs for fish and birds were determined. The WHO working group attempted to harmonize TEFs across different taxa to the extent possible. However, total synchronization of TEFs was not feasible, as there were orders of a magnitude difference in TEFs between taxa for some compounds. In this respect, the absent or very low response of fish to mono-ortho PCBs is most noticeable compared to mammals and birds. Uncertainties that could compromise the TEF concept were also reviewed, including nonadditive interactions, differences in shape of the dose-response curve, and species responsiveness. In spite of these uncertainties, it was concluded that the TEF concept is still the most plausible and feasible approach for risk assessment of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons with dioxinlike properties.

  12. Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of OCPs, PCBs, and DLCs in the Haihe River, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Yu, Gang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Tai; Hu, Hongying

    2010-07-06

    The Haihe River is the most seriously polluted river among the seven largest rivers in China. Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and PCBs (noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls) in the Haihe River, Tianjin were determined using a gas chromatograph--electron capture detector (GC-ECD). Dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) were determined using Chemically Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (CALUX) bioassay. HCH and DDT levels were, respectively, 0.06-6.07 microg/L and ND (not detected) to 1.21 microg/L; PCB levels ranged from 0.12 to 5.29 microg/L; and the total DLCs in sediment were 4.78-343 pg TEQ (toxic equivalency)/g. Aquatic ecological risk assessment was performed using the joint probability curve method and the Monte Carlo-based HQ (hazard quotient) distribution method. The combined risks of similar chemicals and the total risk of dissimilar categories of chemicals were assessed based on the principles of joint toxicity. Due to the adjacent industrial activities, the risk levels of PCBs, DDTs, and HCHs were relatively high. The risk order was as follows: PCBs > DDTs approximately HCHs > DLCs. The risk of HCHs approximated that of DDTs, which is different from the fact that risk of HCHs is usually much lower in the other Chinese rivers. The total risk caused by these pollutants was very high. Due to their high persistence and potential source from land, the high risks of such pollutants are likely to last for a long period of time.

  13. Declining trends of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and non-ortho PCBs in Canadian Arctic seabirds.

    PubMed

    Braune, Birgit M; Mallory, Mark L

    2017-01-01

    Polychorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) such as the non-ortho PCBs (nPCBs) persist in the environment despite international measures to ban their emissions. We determined congener patterns and temporal trends for PCDDs, PCDFs, nPCBs as well as their toxic equivalents (TEQs) in eggs of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) and northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) sampled from Prince Leopold Island in the Canadian Arctic between 1975 and 2014. The dominant PCDD congeners were 1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, and the dominant PCDF congener was 2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF. The nPCB profile was dominated by PCB-126. The TEQ profile in the murre eggs was dominated by nPCB-TEQ whereas in the fulmar eggs, the PCDF-TEQ contribution to ΣTEQ was slightly greater than that of nPCB-TEQ. Concentrations of ΣPCDD, ΣPCDF, ΣnPCB and ΣTEQ declined between 1975 and 2014 in both murre and fulmar eggs. Based on TEQ thresholds in the literature for other species, and taking into account the trend towards declining TEQ levels, it is unlikely that current levels of PCDDs, PCDFs or nPCBs are affecting the reproductive success of thick-billed murres or northern fulmars in the Canadian Arctic.

  14. Preliminary survey of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic habitats and Great Blue Herons on the Hanford Site. [Ardea herodias

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, R.G.; Bean, R.M.; Fitzner, R.E.; Neitzel, D.A.; Rickard, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), constituents of insulating fluids used in electrical transformers and capacitors, were identified during a preliminary survey of waters, sediments, and fish from five locations on the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State: Gable Mountain Pond, B Pond, West Pond, White Bluffs Slough on the Columbia River, and a pond on the Wahluke Slope. These aquatic areas are all within the foraging range of great blue herons (Ardea herodias) that nest on the Hanford Site. Of those waters that contained PCBs, concentrations were found to be somewhat over 1 ng/L, but less than 20 ng/L, and equal to or less than concentrations reported for other freshwater regions of the United States. The PCBs in sediments and fish closely resembled the chromatographic profile of Aroclor 1260, a commercial PCB mixture produced in the United States by the Monsanto Company. Concentrations of PCBs detected in the sediments were 10 to 100 times lower than those found in soils and sediments from other areas of the nation. Concentrations of PCBs in fat from Hanford great blue herons ranged from 3.6 to 10.6 ppM, while PCB concentrations in herons from other areas of the Pacific Northwest ranged from 0.6 to 15.6 ppM. Great blue herons at Hanford contained PCB isomer distributions closely matching that of Aroclor 1260; great blue herons from other locations contained isomer distributions indicating the presence of a mixture of aroclors. 21 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the equatorial Indian Ocean: temporal trend, continental outflow and air-water exchange.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yumei; Li, Jun; Xu, Yue; Xu, Weihai; Cheng, Zhineng; Liu, Junwen; Wang, Yan; Tian, Chongguo; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2014-03-15

    Nineteen pairs of air and seawater samples collected from the equatorial Indian Ocean onboard the Shiyan I from 4/2011 to 5/2011 were analyzed for PCBs and HCB. Gaseous concentrations of ∑(ICES)PCBs (ICES: International Council for the Exploration of the Seas) and HCB were lower than previous data over the study area. Air samples collected near the coast had higher levels of PCBs relative to those collected in the open ocean, which may be influenced by proximity to source regions and air mass origins. Dissolved concentrations of ∑(ICES)PCBs and HCB were 1.4-14 pg L⁻¹ and 0.94-13 pg L⁻¹, with the highest concentrations in the sample collected from Strait of Malacca. Fugacity fractions suggest volatilization of PCBs and HCB from the seawater to air during the cruise, with fluxes of 0.45-34 ng m⁻² d⁻¹ and 0.36-18 ng m⁻² d⁻¹, respectively.

  16. Concentrations of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in fish and seafood from the Catalan (Spain) market: estimated human intake.

    PubMed

    Bocio, Ana; Domingo, José L; Falcó, Gemma; Llobet, Juan M

    2007-02-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) in samples from 14 fish and seafood species widely consumed by the population of Catalonia, Spain, were measured. These samples were randomly purchased independently of their geographical origin. The intake of PCDD/Fs and PCBs through consumption of these species was also estimated for various age and sex groups of this population. The highest and lowest levels of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) were found in red mullet and shrimp, respectively. For a standard adult man (70 kg body weight), the intake of PCDD/Fs plus DL-PCBs through consumption of fish and other seafood was estimated to be 38.0 pg WHO-TEQ/day. Tuna, hake, and sardine were the species with the highest contribution to this intake. The results of this study indicate that, in general terms, the dietary habits of the population of Catalonia (Spain) regarding fish and seafood consumption do not contribute remarkably to increase PCDD/F and DL-PCB intake.

  17. Degradation of Di- Through Hepta-Chlorobiphenyls in Clophen Oil Using Microorganisms Isolated from Long Term PCBs Contaminated Soil.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jitendra K; Gautam, Ravindra K; Misra, Rashmi R; Kashyap, Sanjay M; Singh, Sanjeev K; Juwarkar, Asha A

    2014-09-01

    Present work describes microbial degradation of selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners in Clophen oil which is used as transformer oil and contains high concentration of PCBs. Indigenous PCBs degrading bacteria were isolated from Clophen oil contaminated soil using enrichment culture technique. A 15 days study was carried out to assess the biodegradation potential of two bacterial cultures and their consortium for Clophen oil with a final PCBs concentration of 100 mg kg(-1). The degradation capability of the individual bacterium and the consortium towards the varying range of PCBs congeners (di- through hepta-chlorobiphenyls) was determined using GCMS. Also, dehydrogenase enzyme was estimated to assess the microbial activity. Maximum degradation was observed in treatment containing consortium that resulted in up to 97 % degradation of PCB-44 which is a tetra chlorinated biphenyl whereas, hexa chlorinated biphenyl congener (PCB-153) was degraded up to 90 % by the consortium. This indicates that the degradation capability of microbial consortium was significantly higher than that of individual cultures. Furthermore, the results suggest that for degradation of lower as well as higher chlorinated PCB congeners; a microbial consortium is required rather than individual cultures.

  18. Discovery of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in sediment from a lake Michigan waterway and original commercial aroclors.

    PubMed

    Marek, Rachel F; Martinez, Andres; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2013-08-06

    Hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) were measured in surficial sediment from Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), East Chicago, IN and five original Monsanto Aroclors. These compounds were measured using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and certified standards that allowed us to identify 65 individual or coeluting congeners. Concentrations in the sediment ranged from 0.20 to 26 ng/g dry weight. Profiles of most samples were similar and were dominated by mono- to penta-chlorinated OH-PCBs. Interestingly, most of the samples strongly resembled the OH-PCB profiles of Aroclors 1221, 1242, 1248, and 1254, yet 25% of OH-PCBs measured in the sediment were not detected in Aroclors. A strong positive correlation was found between ΣOH-PCB and ΣPCB (p < 0.0001) and also between many individual OH-PCB:PCB pairs (p < 0.05). Analysis of OH-PCB:PCB pairs suggest PCB degradation is unlikely as a source of OH-PCBs in IHSC sediment. We are the first to report levels of OH-PCBs in sediment and Aroclors, and our discovery is significant because it is likely that OH-PCB contamination exists in sediment anywhere that PCB contamination from Aroclors is present.

  19. Patterns of PCBs and PCDD/PCDFs in chicken and pork fat following a Belgian food contamination incident.

    PubMed

    Covaci, Adrian; Ryan, John Jake; Schepens, Paul

    2002-04-01

    A food contamination incident involving polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) and PCDD/Fs occurred in 1999 in Belgium. On heavily affected farms, concentrations of PCBs in chicken or pork fat exceeded the Belgium tolerance limit of 200 ng/g lipid weight for the sum of seven marker PCBs. Analysis of contaminated samples showed that the patterns for PCB and PCDD/F congeners differed among feed, chicken fat and pork fat. Lower chlorinated PCBs and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs) including those with high TEFs (PCBs 105, 118, 126 and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF) were shown to either bioaccumulate more in chicken fat or to be eliminated more readily in pork. This leads to the possibility that consumption of chicken would result in a higher TEQ human body burden than that from the same consumption of pork. In addition, PCDF congeners with non-2,3,7,8-substitution (e.g., 1,2,4,7,8-PeCDF) were present in chicken fat but absent in pork fat. Since the residue pattern in this commercial episode changes less in the avian species, these results reinforce the value of birds rather than mammals as markers of the source of contamination with persistent organochlorine pollutants.

  20. Calculation of passive sampling rates from both native PCBs and depuration compounds in indoor and outdoor environments.

    PubMed

    Persoon, Carolyn; Hornbuckle, Keri C

    2009-02-01

    Passive sampling has become a practical way of sampling persistent organic pollutants over large spatial and remote areas; however, its ease in use is also coupled with some uncertainty in calculating air concentrations from accumulated mass. Here we report a comparison study of polyurethane-foam-based passive samplers (PUF-PAS) for quantitatively determining the sampling rates of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from air. We measured both uptake of native PCBs and loss of depuration compounds and determined the sampling rates (R-values) for multiple samplers harvested at three different time periods. The uptake of native PCBs in the linear phase was similar to the loss of depuration compounds for indoor air and behaved as predicted. A single R-value of 2.6m(3)d(-1) was calculated from the mean of 12 samplers deployed indoors from three harvest dates with a range of 2.0-3.4m(3)d(-1) for both uptake of native PCBs and loss of depuration compounds. Loss of depuration compounds in outdoor air also followed the predicted linear behavior with a range of calculated R-value of 4.4-8.4m(3)d(-1). Uptake of native PCBs behavior was extremely variable, probably due to changes in ambient air concentrations and resulted in R-values of 1.6-11.5m(3)d(-1) with greater variation seen in higher chlorinated homolog groups.

  1. Assessment of PCBs and PCDD/Fs along the Chinese Bohai Sea coastline using mollusks as bioindicators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, X; Zheng, M; Liang, L; Zhang, Q; Wang, Y; Jiang, G

    2005-08-01

    Mollusk samples such as bivalves and gastropods were collected from eight sampling sites along Bohai Sea coastline from northeastern China. The samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC-HRMS) to elucidate bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants in benthon. Residue levels of sigmaPCBs and sigmaPCDD/Fs were in the ranges of 66.1 to 583.6 ng/g and 0.9 to 15317 pg/g on a lipid-weight basis, respectively, The pollution source was identified using principal component analysis (PCA) in some coastal areas. It indicated that the typical pollution sources were characterized by PCB3, which was one Chinese technical product of PCBs. PCA also revealed the similarity patterns of PCBs between identical species collected from the different sites. The higher gastropod PCB concentrations were related to a former capacitor factory and the paint factories in some coastal areas, but this was not the case with the bivalves. The results of this study suggest that some gastropod species may be a potential bioindicator or "sentinel" organism for marine PCBs monitoring.

  2. Preliminary study of PCBs in raccoons living on or near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Halbrook, Richard S.

    2016-01-15

    The “Ecological Monitoring at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant: Historical Evaluation and Guidelines for Future Monitoring” report (Halbrook, et al. 2007) recommended the raccoon as a species for study at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP). This species was selected to fill data gaps in ecological resources and provide resource managers with knowledge that will be valuable in making decisions and implementing specific actions to safeguard ecological resources and reduce human exposure. The current paper reports results of a preliminary evaluation to establish protocols for collection of tissues and initial screening of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in raccoons collected near the PGDP. These data are useful in developing future more comprehensive studies.

  3. Levels of seven PCBs used as markers of dioxin in commercial pork meat in Spain.

    PubMed

    Lopez y López-Leitón, T J; Alvarez Piñeiro, M E; Lage Yusty, M A; Cortizo Daviña, J L

    2001-01-01

    The levels of 7 PCBs used as markers of dioxin in 62 pork meat samples (head, loin, and dewlap) were determined by supercritical fluid extraction and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Analytical limits of detection for the individual congeners ranged from 0.048 to 0.2 ng/g dry wt. PCB congeners 153 and 180 were detected in all samples. Among congeners in general, PCB 52, 101, and 153 were the most abundant. There was a linear relationship with a good correlation between PCB 101 and PCB 52.

  4. Maternal contamination with PCBs and reproductive outcomes in an Australian population.

    PubMed

    Khanjani, Narges; Sim, Malcolm Ross

    2007-03-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls used previously in industry are widespread environmental contaminants under scrutiny for their possible reproductive effects in humans. In this study, 200 breast milk samples from eligible Victorian mothers were used for measuring maternal contamination and their possible effect on the offspring was investigated. No significant association was found between maternal PCB contamination and low birth weight, small for gestational age and previous miscarriage or stillbirth. The elevated odd ratios of prematurity, increased with increase in contamination level but were nonsignificant. Higher PCB contamination was not in favor of any gender in the offspring. Our results suggest that chronic, low contamination with PCBs does not pose a reproduction threat in humans.

  5. Suppression of aromatase activity in vitro by PCBs 28 and 105 and Aroclor 1221.

    PubMed

    Woodhouse, Amanda J; Cooke, Gerard M

    2004-08-30

    The effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on human cytochrome P450 aromatase activity in vitro were investigated using a commercially available microsomal fraction obtained from baculovirus infected insects that had been transfected with the human CYP19 gene and cytochrome P450 reductase. The assay measured the conversion of tritiated testosterone to estradiol in Tris buffer at pH 7.4. When aroclors, commercial preparations of PCBs, were added to aromatase assays at a 10 microM concentration, Aroclor 1221 caused a reduction in the aromatase activity, whereas other aroclors (1016, 1232, 1242, 1248, 1254, 1260, 5432, 5442 and 5460) were without effect. Further investigation of the effect of Aroclor 1221 on aromatase activity showed that the inhibition was dose dependent. When a reconstituted mixture (RM) of PCBs that represented the congeneric content of human milk was investigated, no inhibition of aromatase activity at the maximum treatment of 15.0 microM was observed. None of the congeners present in the reconstituted mixture, except PCB 28 and 105, affected P450 arom activity. PCB 28 showed a statistically significant inhibition of aromatase activity (P<0.05) at 1.5 and 15 microM and a significant inhibition of aromatase activity by PCB 105 was also observed, but only at 15 microM. In three separate kinetic analyses the Km(app) for aromatase was 64, 89 and 69 nM (mean 74 nM). In addition, PCB 28 resulted in an increase in the Km(app) without a significant effect on Vmax(app), suggesting competitive inhibition by this congener. This conclusion was supported by slope (Km(app)/Vmax(app) versus [inhibitor]) and intercept (1/Vmax(app) versus [inhibitor]) replots. The slope replots gave Ki(app) values for PCB 28 of 0.9, 1.3 and 2.0 microM (mean 1.4 microM), whereas intercept replots were almost horizontal. Thus, PCB 28 is a competitive inhibitor of aromatase with a Ki(app) value approximately 20-fold the Km(app) value. Based on these studies, we conclude that

  6. The trophic transfer of persistent pollutants (HCB, DDTs, PCBs) within polar marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Sarà, Gianluca

    2017-02-23

    Biomagnification (increase in contaminant concentrations at successively higher levels of trophic web), is a process that can transversally impair biodiversity and human health. Most research shows that biomagnification should be higher at poles with northern sites having a major tendency to biomagnify Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) through their marine food webs. We investigated the biomagnification degree into two marine trophic webs combining carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and POP analyses. We showed that the Antarctic trophic web was more depleted than the sub-Arctic one and the differences highlighted for the basal part could explain the difference in length between them. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and p,p'-DDE were of the same order of magnitude in the two polar trophic webs, with some values surprisingly higher in the Antarctic than sub-arctic organisms: PCBs ranged (average ± standard deviation) 1.10 ± 0.39-12.93 ± 7.62, HCB <0.10-7.28 ± 5.32, and p,p'-DDE 0.52 ± 0.18-11.36 ± 5.3 ng/g wet weight (wt) in the Antarctic organisms, and 0.53-5.08, <0.10-1.48, and 0.27 ± 0.35-5.46 ± 1.73 ng/g wet wt, respectively, in the sub-Arctic ones. The contribution of tetra- and penta-CBs to the ∑PCBs was 10-65% in the Antarctic species and 15-45% in the Arctic species. The relationships between POPs and trophic levels, and the information obtained by the Trophic Magnification Factor revealed that the Antarctic trophic web had a greater tendency to biomagnify PCBs and p,p'-DDE than its sub-Arctic counterpart. POP availability in the environment and specific ecological features may play an important role in the bioaccumulation, and biomagnification is apparently less important than bioconcentration.

  7. Distribution pattern and the risks of OPCs, PHAs and PCBs in aged refuses from landfill.

    PubMed

    Lou, Ziyang; Li, Anding; Tai, Jun; Yuan, Wenxiang; Zhu, Nanwen; Zhao, Youcai

    2016-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are the urgent risk for landfill, and should be considered before the landfill reclamation and resource. In this work, the distribution pattern of selected POPs in landfill and their ecological risks were investigated and assessed. The Σ20OCPs, Σ16PAHs and Σ19PCBs were around 157.4-329.2, 4103-19,190, and 79.1-340.3μgkg(-1) in aged refuses, with the mean value of 206.6, 8645.4, and 155.1μgkg(-1). While those in soil covers were only 6.3-75.4, 125.5-515.3 and 2.6-43.4μgkg(-1), with the mean value of 33.7, 257.7, and 24.0μgkg(-1), respectively. The maximum OPCs, PHAs and PCBs were in aged refuse with 13, 7, 10 disposal years. Whereas, the corresponding top content in soil covers were in 10, 13 and 16years, meaning that aged refuses were not the direct source for soil covers. Among 20 OCPs measured, α-HCH, δ-HCH, Dieldrin, and Endrin were presented in all aged refuses, with the mean concentration of 93.6, 52.1, 3.9 and 4.7μgkg(-1), respectively. For PAHs, PHE, FLU and PYR were the main composition, and reached to 1535, 1224, 1187μgkg(-1). The Σ7CarPAHs occupied around 33.3-49.9% of total Σ16PAHs tested, and could be used as the indictor for PAHs pollutant in landfill. PCB-5 content was around 40.7-263.3μgkg(-1) in aged refuses, and occupied around 51.5-81.8% of Σ19PCBs measured. The HCHs and DDTs in aged refuses were below the national standard GB15618-1995, and the corresponding Σ19PCBs concentrations met the standard of GB 13015-91, suggesting that aged refuse are accepted for the further utilization process.

  8. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on in vitro biosynthesis of testosterone and cell viability in mouse Leydig cells

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, B.

    1989-01-01

    Some PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) show a tendency to accumulate in steroid-producing organs such as the adrenals, testes and ovaries. Moreover, some hexachlorobiphenyls are accumulated in the interstitial part of the testis, where the steroid-producing cells are located (Brandt 1977). In an earlier study (Johansson 1987) the authors investigated the in vivo effects of PCBs on mice. They could not find any evidence for effects of Clophen A50 and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl on plasma testosterone levels or on the ability of the Leydig cells to respond to luteinizing hormone (LH). Despite these results they wanted to determine whether PCBs have any effect on testosterone synthesis when administered to Leydig cells in vitro, since it has been shown earlier that a substance having no effects on testosterone synthesis when given in vivo can have drastic effects when administered in vitro.

  9. Removal of PCBs and HCB from contaminated solids using a novel successive self-propagated sintering process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Zhu, Tengfei; Hou, Hong; Qin, Xiaopeng; Li, Fasheng; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-11-01

    Thermal treatments are the primary technologies used to remove persistent organic pollutants from contaminated solids. The high energy consumption during continuous heating, required cost for treating the exhaust gas, and potential formation of secondary pollutants during combustion have prevented their implementation. A novel successive self-propagated sintering process was proposed for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from contaminated solids in a low-cost and environmentally friendly way. Nine laboratory-scale experiments involving different initial concentrations of pollutants and solid compositions were performed. Almost all PCBs (>99%) and HCB (>97%) were removed from solids under constant experimental conditions. Varying initial concentrations of PCBs and HCB in the contaminated solids did not influence the removal efficiency of the pollutants; however, the degradation efficiency of pollutants increased as their initial concentrations increased. Although varying levels of PCDD/Fs were detected in the effluent gas, they were all within the emission standard limit.

  10. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Partitioning of PCBs in Dissolver Solution After Neutralization/Precipitation (Caustic Adjustment)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, A.J.; Thornton, B.M.; Hoppe, E.W.; Mong, G.M.; Silvers, K.L.; Slate, S.O.

    1999-01-04

    The purpose of the work described in this report was to gain a better understanding of how PCB congeners present in a simulated K Basin sludge dissolver solution will partition upon neutralization and precipitation (i.e., caustic adjustment). In a previous study (Mong et al. 1998),the entire series of sludge conditioning steps (acid dissolution, filtration, and caustic adjustment) were examined during integrated testing. In the work described here, the caustic adjustment step was isolated to examine the fate of PCBs in more detail within this processing step. For this testing, solutions of dissolver simulant (containing no solids) with a known initial concentration of PCB congeners were neutralized with caustic to generate a clarified supernatant and a settled sludge phase. PCBs were quantified in each phase (including the PCBs associated with the test vessel rinsates), and material balance information was collected.

  11. A Review on Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in South Asia with a Focus on Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kaw, Han Yeong; Kannan, Narayanan

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is a developing country in Southeast Asia, with rapid industrial and economic growth. Speedy population growth and aggressive consumerism in the past five decades have resulted in environmental pollution issues, including products containing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). PCBs and PBDEs are classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the Stockholm Convention due to their persistence, bioaccumulation in the environment and toxicity to humans and wildlife. These compounds are known to cause liver dysfunction, thyroid toxicity, developmental neuro-toxicity and possibly cancer. PCBs in air, mussels, pellets, seawater, fresh water, and human breast milk samples were analyzed in Malaysia, while studies on the pollution level of PBDEs in Malaysia were conducted on mussels, soils, leachate and sediment samples. PCBs in breast milk collected from Malaysia was the highest among Asian developing countries, with mean concentration of 80 ng/g lipid weight. On the other hand, the mean concentration of PCBs in mussels collected from Malaysia recorded the second lowest, with 56 ng/g and 89 ng/g lipid weight in two studies respectively. The concentrations of PBDEs in mussels taken from Malaysia fall in the range of 0.84-16 ng/g lipid weight, which is considerably low compared to 104.5 ng/g lipid weight in Philippines and 90.59 ng/g in Korea. Nevertheless, there are limited studies on these compounds in Malaysia, particularly there is no research on PBDEs in breast milk and sediment samples. This review will summarize the contamination levels of PCBs and PBDEs in different samples collected from Asian countries since 1988 until 2010 with a focus on Malaysia and will provide needed information for further research in this field.

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in adult and juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from the Hudson River, New York, USA.

    PubMed

    Madden, Sean S; Skinner, Lawrence C

    2016-09-01

    The Hudson River, NY, USA is contaminated for over 300 km with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) released from two General Electric (GE) capacitor plants. We collected adult and juvenile mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from four different areas of the river; an area upstream of the GE plants (n = 38), two areas directly downstream of the GE plants (n = 41, n = 38), and an area more than 100 km downstream in the freshwater tidal river (n = 20). Collections occurred during July and August (2008) when ducks were flightless to ensure ducks were "resident" and exposures were local. Fat and muscle tissue were analyzed for PCBs. PCBs were detected in all samples, and mallards below the GE plant sites on the Hudson River had orders of magnitude higher concentrations of PCBs than those above the plants. Juvenile mallards from areas directly downstream of the GE plant sites tended to have higher PCB concentrations in fat than adults. The patterns of PCB congeners and homolog groups varied across the study areas, with areas directly downstream of the GE plants dominated by tetra-chloro biphenyls whereas samples from upstream and the freshwater tidal river tended towards higher chlorinated congeners. Congener patterns between male and female and juvenile and adult mallards were generally similar within study areas, with the exception of one area downstream of the GE plants where adult birds exhibited different patterns than juveniles. Evidence of PCBs from the GE plant sites was detected in the tidal Hudson River, more than 100 km downstream of the plant sites. More than 90% of the ducks collected in areas downstream of the GE plants but above the tidally influenced river exceed the USFDA tolerance level for PCBs in poultry, which should be a concern for consumers of waterfowl taken in proximity to the upper Hudson River.

  13. Non-dioxin-like PCBs interact with benzo[a]pyrene-induced p53-responses and inhibit apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Anati, Lauy Hoegberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2010-12-01

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants often co-existing in contaminated environments. However, there are few studies on the effects of co-exposure, in particular on effects of pure NDL-PCB congeners and PAHs. We have evaluated the effects of some highly purified NDL-PCBs and benzo[a]pyrene (BP) on BP-induced Raf, Erk, Mdm2, p53 signaling and on BP-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. PCBs (1 {mu}M) were added to HepG2 cells 1 h prior to BP and the incubation was stopped at 24 h. Employing Western blotting we found that NDL-PCBs (28, 101 and 153) amplified the BP-induced inactivating phosphorylation of Raf (pRaf Ser 259) and decreased levels of pErk Tyr 204. This treatment also resulted in the attenuation of BP-induced Mdm2 phosphorylation at Ser166 and amplification of the p53 Ser15 response. These effects were associated with an unexpected inhibition of BP-induced apoptosis. A dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB 126) was used as reference and gave results that were predictable from previous studies, i.e. it attenuated BP-induced p53 response and apoptosis. In an effort to explain why the NDL-PCB-induced amplification of the p53 response was associated with a decreased apoptotic response we analyzed FoxO3a, which may translocate p53 to the cytoplasm. We found that NDL-PCBs reduced the level of phosphorylated FoxO3a at Thr32. This phosphorylation promotes a cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO3a and p53 and our data suggest that NDL-PCBs may inhibit BP-induced apoptosis by preventing a FoxO3a-dependent translocation of p53 to the cytoplasm.

  14. Neurotoxicity of lead, methylmercury, and PCBs in relation to the Great Lakes.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D C

    1995-01-01

    There is ample evidence identifying lead, methylmercury, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as neurotoxic agents. A large body of data on the neurotoxicity of lead, based on both epidemiologic studies in children and animal models of developmental exposure, reveals that body burdens of lead typical of people in industrialized environments produce behavioral impairment. Methylmercury was identified as a neurotoxicant in both adults and the developing organism based on episodes of human poisoning: these effects have been replicated and extended in animals. High-dose PCB exposure was recognized as a developmental toxicant as a result of several episodes of contamination of cooking oil. The threshold for PCB neurotoxicity in humans is less clear, although research in animals suggests that relatively low-level exposure produces behavioral impairment and other toxic effects. Tissue levels in fish below which human health would not be adversely affected were estimated for methylmercury and PCBs based on calculated reference doses (RfDs) and estimated fish intake. Present levels in fish tissue in the Great Lakes exceed these levels for both neurotoxicants. Great Lakes fish and water do not pose a particular hazard for increased lead intake. However, the fact that the present human body burden is in a range at which functional deficits are probable suggests that efforts should be made to eliminate point sources of lead contamination in the Great Lakes basin. PMID:8635443

  15. Current and historical deposition of PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs to Rocky Mountain National Park.

    PubMed

    Usenko, Sascha; Landers, Dixon H; Appleby, Peter G; Simonich, Staci L

    2007-11-01

    An analytical method was developed for the trace analysis of 98 semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) in remote, high-elevation lake sediment. Sediment cores from Lone Pine Lake (west of the Continental Divide) and Mills Lake (east of the Continental Divide) in Rocky Mountain National Park, CO, were dated using 210Pb and 137Cs and analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides, phosphorothioate pesticides, thiocarbamate pesticides, amide herbicides, triazine herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using this method. SOC deposition profiles were reconstructed, and deposition half-lives and doubling times were calculated, for U.S. historic-use pesticides (HUPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) as well as PBDEs, PCBs, and PAHs. Sediment records indicate that the deposition of CUPs has increased in recent years, while the deposition of HUPs has decreased since U.S. restriction, but has not been eliminated. This is likely due to the revolatilization of HUPs from regional soils, atmospheric transport, and deposition. Differences in the magnitude of SOC sediment fluxes, flux profiles, time trends within those profiles, and isomeric ratios suggest that SOC deposition in high-elevation ecosystems is dependent on regional upslope wind directions and site location with respect to regional sources and topographic barriers.

  16. Toxicokinetics and effects of PCBs in Arctic fish: a review of studies on Arctic charr

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgensen, EH; Vijayan, M.N.; Killie, J.-E.A.; Aluru, N.; Aas-Hansen, O.; Maule, A.

    2006-01-01

    In a series of environmentally realistic laboratory experiments, toxicokinetics and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in the Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Winter fasting and emaciation, which are common among Arctic charr living in high latitudes, resulted in a redistribution of the lipophilic PCBs from lipid-storing tissue such as the muscle, to vital organs that must be considered sensitive toward PCB (liver and brain). This redistribution was accompanied by a significant potentiation of the hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A biomarker response, from low activities in October (within those measured in uncontaminated charr) to a high, probably maximum, induction in May. Performance studies demonstrated a clear effect of environmentally realistic PCB levels on endocrine mechanisms, immune function, and seawater preadaptation (smoltification) in charr that had been feed deprived for several months after contamination with Aroclor 1254, whereas a high PCB dose exerted only minor, if any, effects in charr that had been fed after contamination. These results demonstrate that emaciation results in decreased dose-response relationships in fish, and indicate that arctic animals undergoing seasonal cycles of "fattening" and emaciation may be extra sensitive toward persistent, lipophilic organochlorines. Pilot studies on Arctic charr from Bjørnøya Island revealed marked CYP1A biomarker responses and an upregulation of genes involved in cellular homeostatic mechanisms in charr from Lake Ellasjøen (high PCB levels).

  17. Hydrocarbons, PCBs and DDT in the NW Mediterranean deep-sea fish Mora moro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solé, Montserrat; Porte, Cinta; Albaigés, Joan

    2001-02-01

    Data on aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and DDTs in the deep-sea fish Mora moro are reported in relation to the animal's weight/size and tissues (muscle, liver, digestive tube and gills). Fish samples were collected in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean) at an approximate depth of 1000 m. The concentrations of these organic pollutants followed the trend musclePCBs, and 4-6-ringed PAHs, was found in the deep-sea fish.

  18. PCBs are associated with altered gene transcript profiles in arctic Beluga Whales (Delphinapterus leucas).

    PubMed

    Noël, Marie; Loseto, Lisa L; Helbing, Caren C; Veldhoen, Nik; Dangerfield, Neil J; Ross, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    High trophic level arctic beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) are exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POP) originating primarily from southern latitudes. We collected samples from 43 male beluga harvested by Inuvialuit hunters (2008-2010) in the Beaufort Sea to evaluate the effects of POPs on the levels of 13 health-related gene transcripts using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Consistent with their role in detoxification, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (Ahr) (r(2) = 0.18, p = 0.045 for 2008 and 2009) and cytochrome P450 1A1 (Cyp1a1) (r(2) = 0.20, p < 0.001 for 2008 and 2009; r(2) = 0.43, p = 0.049 for 2010) transcripts were positively correlated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the dominant POP in beluga. Principal Components Analysis distinguished between these two toxicology genes and 11 other genes primarily involved in growth, metabolism, and development. Factor 1 explained 56% of gene profiles, with these latter 11 gene transcripts displaying greater abundance in years coinciding with periods of low sea ice extent (2008 and 2010). δ(13)C results suggested a shift in feeding ecology and/or change in condition of these ice edge-associated beluga whales during these two years. While this provides insight into the legacy of PCBs in a remote environment, the possible impacts of a changing ice climate on the health of beluga underscores the need for long-term studies.

  19. Dry deposition and soil-air gas exchange of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an industrial area.

    PubMed

    Bozlaker, Ayse; Odabasi, Mustafa; Muezzinoglu, Aysen

    2008-12-01

    Ambient air and dry deposition, and soil samples were collected at the Aliaga industrial site in Izmir, Turkey. Atmospheric total (particle+gas) Sigma(41)-PCB concentrations were higher in summer (3370+/-1617 pg m(-3), average+SD) than in winter (1164+/-618 pg m(-3)), probably due to increased volatilization with temperature. Average particulate Sigma(41)-PCBs dry deposition fluxes were 349+/-183 and 469+/-328 ng m(-2) day(-1) in summer and winter, respectively. Overall average particulate deposition velocity was 5.5+/-3.5 cm s(-1). The spatial distribution of Sigma(41)-PCB soil concentrations (n=48) showed that the iron-steel plants, ship dismantling facilities, refinery and petrochemicals complex are the major sources in the area. Calculated air-soil exchange fluxes indicated that the contaminated soil is a secondary source to the atmosphere for lighter PCBs and as a sink for heavier ones. Comparable magnitude of gas exchange and dry particle deposition fluxes indicated that both mechanisms are equally important for PCB movement between air and soil in Aliaga.

  20. Disposition of low and high environmental concentrations of PCBs in snapping turtle tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, A.M.; Olafsson, P.G.; Stone, W.B.

    1987-06-01

    Snapping turtles, as a result of their ability to store high concentrations of PCBs in their fat, provide an excellent screen for the detection of trace toxic substances in water. Snapping turtles may also be of value in the monitoring of the disposition of environmental pollutants in the tissues of organisms living in a particular ecosystem. Many organochlorine compounds are only slowly metabolized by animals and consequently the parent compounds tend to persist in the tissues. Differences in the degree of dissolution of various polychlorinated hydrocarbons in blood may be attributed to differences in the relative solubility of these compounds in one or more of the blood components. It has been shown that binding of individual organochlorine compounds by lipoproteins and albumin involves slowly reversible hydrophobic interactions with a quasi steady state between adipose tissue, blood and remaining tissues. If such a dynamic equilibrium is involved, it might be anticipated that, under the impact of a multi-component pollutant such as an Aroclor, the biological system would respond in the same manner over a wide range of concentrations provided that the binding of each the congeners involved reversible interactions with the quasi steady state. The net result would be that the order of quantitative disposition of PCBs in the various tissues would be maintained as the concentration in each site increased. It is the objective of this study to determine if such a pharmacodynamic equilibrium is operative in snapping turtles subjected to widely differing degrees of PCB environment contamination.

  1. Levels of PCBs and trace metals in Crab Orchard Lake sediment, benthos, zooplankton, and fish

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, C.C.; Heidinger, R.C.; Call, T.

    1990-02-01

    Concentrations of trace metals and PCBs in six species of fish, zooplankton, macrobenthos, sediment, and water were studied in Crab Orchard Lake, Williamson County, Illinois. Eleven sites were chosen throughout the lake, including one site (site 10) near an abandoned dumpsite of a former electrical transformer manufacturing facility. PCB levels in the selected components from site 10 were considerably higher than the other sites. Thirty-eight percent (17/45) of fish fillets from various species at this site exceeded the 2.00 mg/kg FDA guideline for PCBs. PCB concentrations in fish were variable, and little relationship existed between age or size and PCB concentrations in most species. Common carp and channel catfish had higher PCB levels than the other species examined. Trace metals were low in fish and other components analyzed and were comparable to literature values for the midwestern United States. Mercury was the only trace metal to exhibit a significant positive relationship with age or size of fish. Mercury was also the only trace metal to exhibit biomagnification.

  2. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in fish in relation to PCB congener distributions in weathered sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, R.; Orr, J.; Knorr, D. ||; Wagner, R.

    1995-12-31

    PCBs in the sediments and fish of Lake Hartwell (SC) have been associated with the former operations of a manufacturing facility in Pickens, SC, and have been detected downstream in Twelvemile Creek, and the Twelvemile Creek Arm of Lake Hartwell. Recent efforts have focused on identifying appropriate methods to reduce the long-term health risks due to eating these fish. The present analysis examines the relationship between PCB congener distributions in largemouth bass and hybrid striped bass, and congener distributions in both deep and surficial sediments in the lake. Initial analyses established that penta-, hexa-, and heptachlorine congeners had undergone dechlorination in deep sediments to mono-, di-, tri-, and tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners, probably by anaerobic pathways identified by others. Further, surficial sediments showed the further dechlorination and degradation of these less-chlorinated congeners, and the presence of chlorobenzoate breakdown products of aerobic pathways. The resulting differences in congener distributions in the two sediment strata indicated the sources of PCBs that bioaccumulated in the two fish species. After correcting for lipid partitioning using the octanol-water partition coefficients for 24 major PCB congener peaks, ratios were formed between fish fillet concentrations and concentrations in each of the two sediment strata.

  3. Attempts at inducing anaerobic dechlorination of PCBs in a municipal sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.D.

    1994-12-31

    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District maintained sludge storage lagoons in which PCBs have been detected. PCB concentrations in the sludge ranged from 0 to 150 {mu}g/g dry weight. The site is currently on the National Priorities List and the potential for bioremediation is being investigated. Preliminary experiments were conducted to determine if sludge borne PCBs could be dechlorinated by stimulating the indigenous bacteria or by adding an inoculum of Hudson River (HR) sediment, Silver Lake sediment or primary digester sludge. Each inoculum was also evaluated for its dechlorinating ability of Aroclor 1242 in the absence of sludge. Although HR sediment significantly dechlorinated Aroclor 1242, none of the treatments containing sludge demonstrated dechlorination. Follow-up experiments were conducted to determine whether bioavailability or competition from the bacteria in the sludge were factors affecting dechlorination. The treatments included adding surfactants, adding Aroclor 1242 in acetone and sterilizing the sludge prior to adding the inoculum. As in the preliminary experiments, dechlorination was observed in the spiked HR sediment but not in the treatments containing sludge. The results will be discussed as well as characteristics of the sludge which may be inhibiting the dechlorination.

  4. Bioaccumulation and related effects of PCBs and organochlorinated pesticides in freshwater fish Hypostomus commersoni.

    PubMed

    Bussolaro, D; Filipak Neto, F; Glinski, A; Roche, H; Guiloski, I C; Mela, M; Silva de Assis, H C; Oliveira Ribeiro, C A

    2012-08-01

    Few studies have investigated the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Brazilian native freshwater fish. In order to evaluate the bioavailability, potential risk to human exposure and the effects of POPs in the fish Hypostomus commersoni, muscle and liver samples of thirteen specimens were collected in a lake located in the city of Ponta Grossa (Parana State, Southern Brazil). Also, the liver and gills were considered for histopathological studies, and oxidative stress was investigated in the liver. Expressive concentrations of POPs were observed in the liver and muscle, with a total of 427 ± 78.7 and 69.2 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) dry weights of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), respectively. Negative correlations between the concentration of several POPs and glutathione S-transferase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were found. Otherwise, the cholinesterase activity in the muscle and brain presented positive correlations with the concentration of POPs. The hepatic bioaccumulation of some banned pesticides like aldrin, dieldrin and DDT was associated with various histopathological findings in the liver and gills. Necrotic areas, fibrosis, leukocyte infiltration, and the absence of macrophage centers were observed in the liver, indicating both chronic exposure and immunological suppression. Neoplasic changes were observed in the gills, confirming the carcinogenic potential reported for some of the investigated pollutants. The current work was the first to study the bioaccumulation of POPs in H. commersoni, an important species in ecological aspects and as a vehicle to human exposure to PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs).

  5. Emission of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs from metallurgy industries in S. Korea.

    PubMed

    Yu, Byeong-Woon; Jin, Guang-Zhu; Moon, Young-Hoon; Kim, Min-Kwan; Kyoung, Jong-Dai; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2006-01-01

    The metallurgy industry and municipal waste incinerators are considered the main sources of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in many countries. This study investigated the emission factors and total emissions of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) emitted from metallurgy industries (including ferrous and nonferrous foundries) in Korea. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) emission factor of PCDD/Fs was the highest for secondary copper production, at 24451 ng I-TEQ/ton. The total estimated emissions of PCDD/Fs from these sources were 35.259 g I-TEQ/yr, comprising 0.088 g I-TEQ/yr from ferrous foundries, 31.713 g I-TEQ/yr from copper production, 1.716 g I-TEQ/yr from lead production, 0.111 g I-TEQ/yr from zinc production, and 1.631 g I-TEQ/yr from aluminum production. The total estimated annual amounts of dioxin-like PCBs emitted from these sources were 13.260 g WHO-TEQ/yr, comprising 0.014 g WHO-TEQ/yr from ferrous foundries, 12.675 g WHO-TEQ/yr from copper production, 0.170 g WHO-TEQ/yr from lead production, 0.017 g WHO-TEQ/yr from zinc production, and 0.384 g WHO-TEQ/yr from aluminum production. The highest emission factor was found for secondary copper smelting, at 9770 ng WHO-TEQ/ton.

  6. Electrochemical peroxidation of PCBs and VOCs in superfund site water and sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Scrudato, R.J.; Chiarenzelli, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    An electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) process has been developed and used to degrade polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and volatile organic compounds (VOC)-contaminated water, sludge, and sediments at a New York State Federal and State Superfund Site. The process involves passing an oscillating low-amperage (<10 amps) current through steel electrodes immersed in an acidified water or sediment slurry into which hydrogen peroxide (<1,000 ppm) is added. The generated free radicals attack organic compounds, including organo-metallic complexes and refractory compounds including PCBs. PCB degradation ranged from about 30% to 80% in experiments involving Federal Superfund Site sediments; total PCBs were reduced by {approximately}97% to 68%, respectively, in water and slurry collected from a State Superfund subsurface storage tank. VOC bench-scale experiments involved chloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, dichloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and acetone and after a 3-min ECP treatment, degradation ranged from >94% to about 99.9%. Results indicate the ECP is a viable process to degrade organic contaminants in water and sediment suspensions. Because the treated water suspensions are acidified, select trace metal sorbed to the particulates is solubilized and therefore can be segregated from the particulates, offering a process that simultaneously degrades organic contaminants and separates trace metals. 19 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  7. Body burden levels of dioxin, furans, and PCBs among frequent consumers of Great Lakes sport fish

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, C.; Hanrahan, L.; Anderson, H.A.; Draheim, L.; Kanarek, M.S.; Needham, L.; Patterson, D. Jr.

    1999-02-01

    Dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic, persist in the environment, and bioaccumulate to concentrations that can be harmful to humans. The Health Departments of five GL states, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana, formed a consortium to study body burden levels of chemical residues in fish consumers of Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie. In Fall 1993, a telephone survey was administered to sport angler households to obtain fish consumption habits and demographics. A blood sample was obtained from a portion of the study subjects. One hundred serum samples were analyzed for 8 dioxin, 10 furan, and 4 coplanar PCB congeners. Multiple linear regression was conducted to assess the predictability of the following covariates: GL sport fish species, age, BMI, gender, years sport fish consumed, and lake. Median total dioxin toxic equivalents (TEq), total furan TEq, and total coplanar PCB TEq were higher among all men than all women (P = 0.0001). Lake trout, salmon, age, BMI, and gender were significant regression predictors of log (total coplanar PCBs). Lake trout, age, gender, and lake were significant regression predictors of log (total furans). Age was the only significant predictor of total dioxin levels.

  8. CFD modeling of incinerator to increase PCBs removal from outlet gas.

    PubMed

    Yaghmaeian, Kamyar; Jaafarzadeh, Nematallah; Nabizadeh, Ramin; Dastforoushan, Golbarg; Jaafari, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    Incineration of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is an important alternative way for disposal of this type of hazardous waste. PCBs are very stable compounds and do not decompose readily. Individuals can be exposed to PCBs through several ways and damaged by their effects. A well design of a waste incinerator will convert these components to unharmfull materials. In this paper we have studied the design parameters of an incinerator with numerical approaches. The CFD software Fluent 6.3 is used for modelling of an incinerator. The effects of several baffles inside the incinerator on flow distribution and heat is investigated. The results show that baffles can reduce eddy flows, increase retaining times, and efficiencies. The baffles reduced cool areas and increased efficiencies of heat as maximum temperature in two and three baffle embedded incinerator were 100 and 200 °C higher than the non-baffle case, respectively. Also the gas emission leaves the incinerator with a lower speed across a longer path and the turbulent flow in the incinerator is stronger.

  9. Profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cement kilns co-processing solid waste.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rong; Zhan, Jiayu; Liu, Guorui; Zhao, Yuyang; Zheng, Minghui; Yang, Lili; Wang, Mei

    2017-05-01

    Co-incineration of sewage sludge in cement kilns can be used for its disposal. In the present study, samples were collected from three cement production runs where sewage sludge and other wastes (e.g. municipal solid waste, waste acid and wet sewage sludge) were co-processed. The samples were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The dioxin-like (dl)-PCB concentrations in the stack gases from run 1, 2, and 3 were 344.6, 548.7, and 104.3 pg m(-3), respectively. The toxic equivalency (TEQs) values for runs 1, 2, and 3 were 5.6, 8.9, and 0.7 pg TEQ Nm(-3), respectively. Calculation of net emissions for the three runs indicated that the co-incineration of other waste in addition to sewage sludge in cement kilns would not increase emission of the dl-PCBs. PCB concentrations in samples from the suspension boiler and humidifier tower, kiln-end bag filter, and cyclone preheater were much higher than those in samples from the kiln head area, indicating that these stages will be important for controlling PCB formation. Chlorinated biphenyl (CB)-77, CB-105 and CB-118 were the major dl-PCB congeners, CB-52, CB-101 were the major indicator PCB congeners, and tetra-CB to hexa-CB were the major homologues for the total input or output materials.

  10. Historical data review and source analysis of PCBs/Arochlors in the Lower Leon Creek Watershed.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Heather J; Sokoly, Diana; Johnson, Drew W

    2017-02-01

    PCBs have been banned since the late 1970s, but concentrations still exist in sediments and riverine fish and continue to exceed regulatory limits which can result in negative health effects. This study looks at historical records of PCB and Arochlor concentrations in surface water, sediments, and fish tissue for the Lower Leon Creek, Bexar County in Texas. Temporal analysis on the concentrations of PCBs and Arochlors was conducted for detection and exceedance of selected screening criteria. In addition, the half-lives of select PCB congeners were calculated for 2007-2012 data to ascertain differences in PCB concentrations with their hydrophobicity. Source analysis was conducted to determine the potential contributing sources of PCB contamination using source data (landfills, outfalls, etc.) and the PCB exceedance data. For sediment and fish tissue sampling results, historic data shows high concentrations of PCB/Arochlors over the course of several decades. The historical data is characterized as being widely variable for detections in Arochlors and concentrations between years, with a dramatic drop in concentrations detected starting in 2009. Overall, the sampling locations adjacent to and downstream from the former Kelly Air Force Base have the highest concentrations of PCB/Arochlors over the longest period of time. The results of this work will aid regulatory agencies in addressing impairment.

  11. Tracing the sources of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in Lake Baikal

    SciTech Connect

    Mamontov, A.A.; Mamontova, E.A.; Tarasova, E.N.; McLachlan, M.S.

    2000-03-01

    Lake Baikal is a unique freshwater ecosystem that has been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It contains high levels of PCBs, and Baikal seal were recently found to have PCDD/F concentrations comparable to those in the Baltic Sea. In this work fish and soil were analyzed to trace the sources of these compounds to the lake. The fish samples indicated that the PCDD/F and PCB contamination of Lake Baikal does not originate from background inputs and that the contamination increases from north to south. The soil inventory was determined at 34 sites around Lake Baikal and in the Angara River valley. For the PCDD/Fs and most PCBs, the soil inventory is a good approximation of the cumulative atmospheric deposition. It varied over a factor of 1,000, with the highest levels in Usol'ye Sibirskoe, a city 110 km north of the southwestern tip of the lake in the highly industrialized Angara River valley, and the lowest values in the pristine areas to the northeast of the lake. A continuous decrease in the soil inventory was observed moving from Usol'ye S. up the Angara River valley to Lake Baikal and from there northeastward along the lake.

  12. Zero-Valent Metallic Treatment System and Its Application for Removal and Remediation of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (Pcbs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Geiger, Cherie L. (Inventor); Brooks, Kathleen B. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    PCBs are removed from contaminated media using a treatment system including zero-valent metal particles and an organic hydrogen donating solvent. The treatment system may include a weak acid in order to eliminate the need for a coating of catalytic noble metal on the zero-valent metal particles. If catalyzed zero-valent metal particles are used, the treatment system may include an organic hydrogen donating solvent that is a non-water solvent. The treatment system may be provided as a "paste-like" system that is preferably applied to natural media and ex-situ structures to eliminate PCBs.

  13. Task 3 Report - PCBs in the Environment Near the Oak Ridge Reservation - A Reconstruction of Historical Doses and Health Risks

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Paul S; Widner, Thomas; Bonnevie, Nancy; Schmidt, Charlie; McCrodden-Hamblen, Jane; Vantaggio, Joanne; Gwinn, Patrick

    1999-07-01

    This report presents the results of an in-depth assessment of historical releases of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) and risks of adverse health effects in local populations. The study was conducted by ChemRisk, a service of McLaren/Hart, Inc., for the Tennessee Department of Health. The project team (1) investigated releases of PCBs from the government sites, (2) evaluated PCB levels in environmental media in the area, (3) described releases of PCBs from other sources in the area, and (4) evaluated potential human exposures and health impacts associated with the historical presence of these contaminants in the environment. Beginning in the 1940s, PCBs were used extensively on the ORR and throughout the U.S. as a fire retardant in electrical components. PCBs were also used as cutting fluids for lubrication and cooling during metal working operations. Using information specific to the ORR, the project team estimated health risks for five off-site populations: (1) farm families that raised beef, dairy cattle, and vegetables on the flood plain of East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC); (2) individuals who may have purchased beef and milk from cattle raised in the EFPC flood plain; (3) commercial and recreational fish consumers; (4) individuals that may have consumed turtles; and (5) users of surface water for recreation. Noteworthy features of the study include a two-dimensional analysis of uncertainty and variability in the non-cancer risk estimates and an assessment of the uncertainty in PCB toxicology thresholds. Conservative estimates of cancer risks from the ORR releases of PCBs to consumers of fish from Watts Bar Reservoir and the Clinch River range from less than 1 in a 1,000,000 to 2 in 10,000. Three or less excess cases of cancer would be expected to occur among individuals who consumed fish from these local waters since the 1940's. Persons who consumed large amounts of fish from the Clinch R. and Watts Bar were also at risk from

  14. Analysis of NHANES Measured Blood PCBs in the General U.S. Population andApplication of SHEDS Model to Identify Key Exposure Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown that the U.S. population continues to be exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), despite their ban more than three decades ago, but the reasons are not fully understood. The objectives of this paper are to characterize patterns of PCBs in blood by age, gen...

  15. Levels and trends of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in camel milk (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius) from Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Konuspayeva, Gaukhar; Faye, Bernard; De Pauw, Edwin; Focant, Jean-François

    2011-10-01

    To date, despite the fact it represents a very important part of the national dairy production, no data are available concerning the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in camel milk from the Republic of Kazakhstan. Selected PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs were measured in pools of milk from camels (n=15) located in various places of Kazakhstan (Almaty, Atyrau, Aralsk, Shymkent) and sampled at two different seasons for two different species (Camelus bactrianus and Camelus dromedarius). Non-dioxin-like (NDL-)PCB concentrations (6.3±2.7 ng g(-1) fat, median 5.1 ng g(-1) fat, range 0.6-17.4 ng g(-1) fat) were far below the maximum value of 40 ng g(-1) fat proposed by the EU. Dioxin-like (DL-)PCB concentrations (1.7±0.7 ng g(-1) fat, median 1.5 ng g(-1) fat, range 0.3-4.2 ng g(-1) fat) and the NDL-PCB to DL-PCB ratio (4.3) were similar to what is reported in EU for cow-based dairy products. PCB 52 and PCB 101 appeared to be proportionally more present in Kazakh camel milk samples (>60% of the sum of the 6 indicator NDL-PCBs) than in European cow milk samples (<10% of the sum of the 6 indicator NDL-PCBs), indicating possible differences in the route of exposure to PCBs in Kazakhstan. PCB 105 and PCB 118 appeared to be present at higher concentrations in camel milk (>80% of the sum of the 12 DL-PCBs). PCB 105, PCB 118 and PCB 156 were the major congeners for DL-PCBs, accounting for 92% of the sum of concentrations of DL-PCBs (88% for Belgian cows). In terms of TEQ, PCB 126 and PCB 118 are the major contributors and represent, respectively, 80% and 14% of the DL-PCB TEQWHO05 concentrations. No significant interracial or geographical trends were observed for NDL- and DL-PCB profiles. However, concentrations of all DL-PCBs appeared to be significantly higher for samples collected in Atyrau region. 2,3,7,8-TCDD level (mean 0.08±0.07 pg g(-1) fat, median 0.08 pg g(-1) fat, range 0

  16. PCBs in Rain Water, Streams and a Reservoir in a Small Catchment of NW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado-Martín, Jordi; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; García-Morrondo, David; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo; Cillero-Castro, Carmen; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitute a significant environmental concern due to its persistence, tendency to bio-accumulate, acknowledged toxicity and ubiquity. In the present study, a small water catchment (~100 km2) inclusive of a two-tailed water supply reservoir (Abegondo-Cecebre) has been monitored between 2009 and 2014. Sampling stations include: a) one precipitation gauge used to collect monthly-integrated bulk precipitation (25 samples); b) seven streams (95 samples); c) five surface and one bottom points within the reservoir (104 samples); d) five points for sediment sampling in two surveys (spring and summer; 10 samples). All the water samples as well as the leachates of sediment washing have been analyzed for their concentration in 6 marker PCB (congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) and 12 dioxin-like PCB (congeners 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169 and 189) compounds. The average concentration of PCBtot in the bulk precipitation during the sampling period is ~406 pg/L although a very significant decrease has occurred since the end of 2011 (~800 pg/L) to the end of 2014 (~60 pg/L). Likewise, the mean concentration of PCBtot in the stream water samples is 174 pg/L and a similar reduction in the concentration of PCBtot is also acknowledged for the same period of time (~250 pg/L before the end of 2011 and ~30 pg/L after then). Reservoir surface water has a PCBtot concentration of ~234 pg/L which, according to its sampling time (2010-2011) is consistent with the measured stream waters. However, deep reservoir water reveals an average concentration which is higher than the corresponding top water (~330 pg/L) but significantly smaller than the water-leached sediments (~860 pg/L). The available data suggest that up to a 30% of PCBs associated with precipitation becomes sequestered by the soil/sediment system while no significant change takes place during the transfer of water from the stream to the reservoir system, at least in

  17. Removal of PCBs in contaminated soils by means of chemical reduction and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Rybnikova, V; Usman, M; Hanna, K

    2016-09-01

    Although the chemical reduction and advanced oxidation processes have been widely used individually, very few studies have assessed the combined reduction/oxidation approach for soil remediation. In the present study, experiments were performed in spiked sand and historically contaminated soil by using four synthetic nanoparticles (Fe(0), Fe/Ni, Fe3O4, Fe3 - x Ni x O4). These nanoparticles were tested firstly for reductive transformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and then employed as catalysts to promote chemical oxidation reactions (H2O2 or persulfate). Obtained results indicated that bimetallic nanoparticles Fe/Ni showed the highest efficiency in reduction of PCB28 and PCB118 in spiked sand (97 and 79 %, respectively), whereas magnetite (Fe3O4) exhibited a high catalytic stability during the combined reduction/oxidation approach. In chemical oxidation, persulfate showed higher PCB degradation extent than hydrogen peroxide. As expected, the degradation efficiency was found to be limited in historically contaminated soil, where only Fe(0) and Fe/Ni particles exhibited reductive capability towards PCBs (13 and 18 %). In oxidation step, the highest degradation extents were obtained in presence of Fe(0) and Fe/Ni (18-19 %). The increase in particle and oxidant doses improved the efficiency of treatment, but overall degradation extents did not exceed 30 %, suggesting that only a small part of PCBs in soil was available for reaction with catalyst and/or oxidant. The use of organic solvent or cyclodextrin to improve the PCB availability in soil did not enhance degradation efficiency, underscoring the strong impact of soil matrix. Moreover, a better PCB degradation was observed in sand spiked with extractable organic matter separated from contaminated soil. In contrast to fractions with higher particle size (250-500 and <500 μm), no PCB degradation was observed in the finest fraction (≤250 μm) having higher organic matter content. These findings

  18. Dioxins and PCBs in game animals: Interspecies comparison and related consumer exposure.

    PubMed

    Warenik-Bany, Malgorzata; Strucinski, Pawel; Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCB) and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCB) are ubiquitous, persistent toxic compounds that are highly bioaccumulative in nature. Wild-living animals are vulnerable to the negative impacts of human activity. Dioxins and PCBs enter the animal organisms through foraging. Due to the toxicological threat, much attention is paid to these compounds worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the dioxin contamination status of three game animal species (red deer, roe deer, and wild boar) and compare the PCDD/F and PCB congener bioaccumulation in the muscles, abdominal fat and liver. The chemical analysis was performed by the isotope dilution technique (IDMS) with high-resolution gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). Dioxins and PCBs were found in specimens collected from all studied species, suggesting the presence of the test compounds in the environment of the animals. The highest concentrations were found in the livers of all animals. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) levels in the muscles, adipose tissue and liver were in the order red deer > roe deer > wild boar. PCDD/Fs were the dominant congeners in TEQ value. For all tested species, the dominant contributors to the total WHO-TEQ were PCB-126, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD. Among the PCDD/F congeners in the deer tissues, OCDD, OCDF and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF were dominant, while in wild boar, OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCF occurred in the highest amounts. Among PCBs, PCB-105, 118, 156, 138, 153 and 180 were dominant in all species, but with different levels. The regular consumption of muscle meat from game animals should not cause unacceptable dioxin intake above the Tolerable Weekly Intake (TWI) value for children and adults. However, liver consumption should be avoided, especially by children and pregnant or lactating

  19. Immunologic biomarkers in relation to exposure markers of PCBs and dioxins in Flemish adolescents (Belgium).

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Heuvel, Rosette L; Koppen, Gudrun; Staessen, Jan A; Hond, Elly Den; Verheyen, Geert; Nawrot, Tim S; Roels, Harry A; Vlietinck, Robert; Schoeters, Greet E R

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we investigated 17- to 18-year-old boys and girls to determine whether changes in humoral or cellular immunity or respiratory complaints were related to blood serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxin-like compounds after lifetime exposure in Flanders (Belgium). We obtained blood samples from and administered questionnaires to 200 adolescents recruited from a rural area and two urban suburbs. Physicians recorded medical history and respiratory diseases. We measured immunologic biomarkers such as differential blood cell counts, lymphocyte phenotypes, and serum immunoglobulins. As biomarkers of exposure, we determined the serum concentrations of PCBs (PCB 138, PCB 153, and PCB 180) and dioxin-like compounds [chemical-activated luciferase expression (CALUX) bioassay]. The percentages of eosinophils and natural killer cells in blood were negatively correlated with CALUX toxic equivalents (TEQs) in serum (p = 0.009 and p = 0.05, respectively). Increased serum CALUX TEQs resulted in an increase in serum IgA levels (p = 0.05). Furthermore, levels of specific IgEs (measured by radioallergosorbent tests) of cat dander, house dust mite, and grass pollen were also significantly and negatively associated with the CALUX TEQ, with odds ratios (ORs) equal to 0.63 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.42-0.96], 0.68 (0.5-0.93), and 0.70 (0.52-0.95), respectively. In addition, reported allergies of the upper airways and past use of antiallergic drugs were negatively associated with CALUX TEQs, with ORs equal to 0.66 (0.47-0.93) and 0.58 (0.39-0.85), respectively. We found a negative association between IgGs and marker PCBs in serum (p = 0.009). This study shows that immunologic measurements and respiratory complaints in adolescents were associated with environmental exposure to polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs). The negative correlation between PHAHs and allergic responses in adolescents suggested that exposure may entail alterations in the

  20. Disruption of thyroid hormone (TH) levels and TH-regulated gene expression by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and hydroxylated PCBs in e-waste recycling workers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; He, Chun-Tao; Chen, She-Jun; Yan, Xiao; Guo, Mi-Na; Wang, Mei-Huan; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Yang, Zhong-Yi; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-02-25

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are the primary toxicants released by electronic waste (e-waste) recycling, but their adverse effects on people working in e-waste recycling or living near e-waste sites have not been studied well. In the present study, the serum concentrations of PBDEs, PCBs, and hydroxylated PCBs, the circulating levels of thyroid hormones (THs), and the mRNA levels of seven TH-regulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes of e-waste recycling workers were analyzed. The associations of the hormone levels and gene expression with the exposure to these contaminants were examined using multiple linear regression models. There were nearly no associations of the TH levels with PCBs and hydroxylated PCBs, whereas elevated hormone (T4 and T3) levels were associated with certain lower-brominated BDEs. While not statistically significant, we did observe a negative association between highly brominated PBDE congeners and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in the e-waste workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was more significantly associated with the organohalogen compounds (OHCs) than the TH levels in these workers. The TH-regulated gene expression was significantly associated with certain PCB and hydroxylated PCB congeners. However, the expression of most target genes was suppressed by PBDEs (mostly highly brominated congeners). This is the first evidence of alterations in TH-regulated gene expression in humans exposed to OHCs. Our findings indicated that OHCs may interfere with TH signaling and/or exert TH-like effects, leading to alterations in related gene expression in humans. Further research is needed to investigate the mechanisms of action and associated biological consequences of the gene expression disruption by OHCs.

  1. Leachability and desorption of PCBs from soil and their dependency on pH and dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Badea, Silviu-Laurentiu; Mustafa, Majid; Lundstedt, Staffan; Tysklind, Mats

    2014-11-15

    pH affects both soil-water partitioning coefficient (Kd) of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), thereby influencing PCBs' leachability from contaminated soils. To explore these incompletely understood interactions, the leachability of 11 selected PCBs in a naturally aged soil was investigated in pH static leaching tests spanning a wide pH range (2 to 9). The K(d) was calculated for each of the PCBs, based on their observed concentrations in the soil and leachates obtained from each test. The concentration and composition of DOM in each leachate were also determined, the latter using FTIR spectroscopy. Correlations between the DOM's FTIR spectra and K(d) values were investigated by orthogonal projections to latent structures. The log K(d)-values varied among the PCB congeners and were most variable at low pH, but the values for all studied congeners decreased with increasing pH, by up to 3 log units (for PCB 187). In the pH 5-7 interval, an abrupt decrease in log K(d) values with increases in pH was observed, although the total organic carbon content remained relatively stable. The FTIR data indicate that fulvic and humic acids in DOM partially deprotonate as the pH rises from 5 to 7.

  2. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Arias, Jorge Enrique; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba; Alarcón, Alejandro; Mendoza-López, Ma Remedios; García-Barradas, Oscar; Cruz-Sánchez, Jesús Samuel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs) and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs). These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed.

  3. The cumulative MeHg and PCBs exposure and risk of tribal and US general population with SHEDS-multimedia

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies have shown that the U.S. population continues to be exposed to methyl mercury (MeHg) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to the long half-life of those environmental contaminants. Fish intake of Tribal populations is much higher than the U.S. general population due t...

  4. Bioleaching of gold, copper and nickel from waste cellular phone PCBs and computer goldfinger motherboards by two Aspergillus nigerstrains

    PubMed Central

    Madrigal-Arias, Jorge Enrique; Argumedo-Delira, Rosalba; Alarcón, Alejandro; Mendoza-López, Ma. Remedios; García-Barradas, Oscar; Cruz-Sánchez, Jesús Samuel; Ferrera-Cerrato, Ronald; Jiménez-Fernández, Maribel

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to develop alternate techniques to recover metals from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), this research evaluated the bioleaching efficiency of gold (Au), copper (Cu) and nickel (Ni) by two strains of Aspergillus niger in the presence of gold-plated finger integrated circuits found in computer motherboards (GFICMs) and cellular phone printed circuit boards (PCBs). These three metals were analyzed for their commercial value and their diverse applications in the industry. Au-bioleaching ranged from 42 to 1% for Aspergillus niger strain MXPE6; with the combination of Aspergillus niger MXPE6 + Aspergillus niger MX7, the Au-bioleaching was 87 and 28% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. In contrast, the bioleaching of Cu by Aspergillus niger MXPE6 was 24 and 5%; using the combination of both strains, the values were 0.2 and 29% for PCBs and GFICMs, respectively. Fungal Ni-leaching was only found for PCBs, but with no significant differences among treatments. Improvement of the metal recovery efficiency by means of fungal metabolism is also discussed. PMID:26413051

  5. Evidence of an Age Related Threshold Effect of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) on Neuropsychological Functioning in a Native American Population

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Richard F.; McCaffrey, Robert J.; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L.; Morse, Gayle S.; Tarbell, Alice

    2009-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been suspected for some time of having adverse effects on neuropsychological functioning in humans. While there is evidence of slowing of cognitive function in children associated with exposure to PCBs, the evidence of comparable effects on adults is far less well understood. We report here on the neuropsychological evaluation of 277 Native American adults, ranging in age from 18 -79, who were exposed to PCBs by way of environmental contamination in the St. Lawrence region of upstate New York. PCB body burden was estimated by 101 PCB congeners and neuropsychological functioning was assessed by a battery of 18 tests. Spline regression models were fitted to the latent variables of memory, motor function, and higher-order executive functioning. After adjusting for age, gender, and education the analyses revealed a threshold effect of PCBs at approximately 2 ppb. An age-by-PCB interaction effect was also observed for several variables which suggests that the threshold effect was largely confined to the age range of 40-79 and was not observable in the 18-40 year old group. Implications of these results are discussed in comparison to previously published similar work with adults and in terms of its potential clinical meaningfulness. PMID:19041090

  6. Distribution and source apportionments of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in mariculture sediments from the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-sheng; Du, Jun; Leung, Ho-man; Leung, Anna Oi Wah; Liang, Peng; Giesy, John P; Wong, Chris K C; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2011-01-01

    Surface and core sediments collected from six mariculture farms in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed to evaluate contamination levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The ∑PCBs (37 congeners) concentrations ranged from 5.10 to 11.0 ng g(-1) (mean 7.96 ng g(-1)) in surface and 3.19 to 22.1 ng g(-1) (mean 7.75 ng g(-1)) in core sediments, respectively. The concentrations were significantly higher than that measured in the sediments of their corresponding reference sites, whereby the average enrichment percentages were 62.0% and 42.7% in surface and core sediments, respectively. Significant correlations (R2=0.77, p<0.05) of PCB homologue group proportions between fish feeds and surface mariculture sediments suggested that fish feed input was probably the main source for the enrichment of PCBs. Due to the fact that PCBs could be transferred along food chains, PCB contamination in fish feeds and mariculture sediments should not be overlooked.

  7. Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and trace metals in River Nile up- and downstream of a densely populated area.

    PubMed

    Omar, Wael A; Mahmoud, Hamada M

    2017-02-01

    Cairo city is the largest populated area along the whole course of River Nile with a wide range of anthropogenic activities. Efforts to restore fish habitat and recreational use of the river have raised concerns about its water, sediment and biota quality. This study provides a baseline data on the levels of PCBs and trace metals in River Nile along Cairo sector and implements the formulation of monitoring activities of the river's pollution status. Water, sediment and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) samples were collected during summer season, 2013 from two sites, up- and downstream, for detection and determination of 11 PCB congeners (PCBs 28, 44, 52, 70, 101, 105, 118, 138, 152, 180 and 192) as well as six trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Pb and Fe). Evidences of long- or short-term exposures to these contaminants as well as its accumulation tendency were assessed by integrating the obtained analytical results of biotic and abiotic components of this aquatic ecosystem. All calculated lifetime cancer risk values for PCBs showed unacceptable risk of cancer for human consumers at both normal and subsistence fish consumption rates. The calculated hazard index for total PCBs indicates that fish are not safe for human consumption except in site 1 at normal consumption rate. Meanwhile, trace metals do not pose unacceptable risks at both consumption rates except for Pb in site 1 at subsistence consumption rate.

  8. Levels of PCDD/PCDFs and PCBs in edible marine species and human intake: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Bocio, Ana

    2007-04-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and biphenyls (PCBs) are lipophilic organic compounds whose origin comes from many different sources. PCDD/Fs and PCBs are ubiquitous and persistent environmental pollutants with a well known potential toxicity, which were included at the 1998 UN-EC POP protocol. Although human exposure to PCDD/Fs and PCBs can occur by various routes, food is the primary source. A number of studies have shown that the major food sources of these organic pollutants are fat-containing animal products, including fish and other seafood. Because of the frequent health recommendations concerning fish consumption, to determine the contribution to the dietary intake of chemical contaminants such as PCDD/Fs and PCBs through fish and other seafood consumption is an issue of special interest. This paper reviews the state of the science regarding recent literature on PCDD/F and PCB levels in marine species and human intake through fish and seafood consumption. The concentrations of these pollutants depend basically on the environment in which the respective species are caught. It is concluded that some groups of population frequently consuming high quantities of certain species could be significantly increasing health risks due to PCDD/F and PCB exposure.

  9. Atmospherically deposited PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in Western US National Park fish: Concentrations and consumption guidelines

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western U.S. National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and w...

  10. TISSUE DISTRIBUTION OF PCBS AND ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES IN ALASKAN NORTHERN FUR SEALS: COMPARISON OF VARIOUS CONGENER CLASSIFICATION SCHEMES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are believed to adversely affect reproduction and cause health problems in Pinnipeds 1-4. In this study, 145 PCB congeners and OCPs were analyzed in 10 juvenile male northern fur seals, Callorhinus ursinus, collected from Alaskan...

  11. Grouping chemicals for health risk assessment: A text mining-based case study of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Högberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2016-01-22

    As many chemicals act as carcinogens, chemical health risk assessment is critically important. A notoriously time consuming process, risk assessment could be greatly supported by classifying chemicals with similar toxicological profiles so that they can be assessed in groups rather than individually. We have previously developed a text mining (TM)-based tool that can automatically identify the mode of action (MOA) of a carcinogen based on the scientific evidence in literature, and it can measure the MOA similarity between chemicals on the basis of their literature profiles (Korhonen et al., 2009, 2012). A new version of the tool (2.0) was recently released and here we apply this tool for the first time to investigate and identify meaningful groups of chemicals for risk assessment. We used published literature on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)-persistent, widely spread toxic organic compounds comprising of 209 different congeners. Although chemically similar, these compounds are heterogeneous in terms of MOA. We show that our TM tool, when applied to 1648 PubMed abstracts, produces a MOA profile for a subgroup of dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) which differs clearly from that for the rest of PCBs. This suggests that the tool could be used to effectively identify homogenous groups of chemicals and, when integrated in real-life risk assessment, could help and significantly improve the efficiency of the process.

  12. TISSUE CONCENTRATION OF PCBS IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS AS COMPARED WITH THOSE IN HUMANS WITH BACKGROUND-LEVEL EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    TISSUE CONCENTRATION OF PCBS IN ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS AS COMPARED WITH THOSE IN HUMANS WITH BACKGROUND-LEVEL EXPOSURE. M J DeVito1 and M P Longnecker2. 1NHEERL, ORD, USEPA; Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Epidemiology
    Branch, NIEHS, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA.

    To ...

  13. The Relationship between Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Cognitive, Neuropsychological, and Behavioral Deficits: A Critical Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Kaufman, Alan S.; Sparrow, Sara S.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose in this report is to evaluate scientifically that body of literature relating the effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) upon neurobehavioral, health-related, and cognitive deficits in neonates, developing infants, children, and adults. The data derive from seven cohorts: six cohorts of mothers…

  14. PBDEs, PCBs, and DDE in eggs and their impacts on aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis) from Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mora, M A; Baxter, C; Sericano, J L; Montoya, A B; Gallardo, J C; Rodríguez-Salazar, J R

    2011-12-01

    Eggs from aplomado falcons (Falco femoralis septentrionalis) nesting in Chihuahua and Veracruz, Mexico, were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs. p,p'-DDE was the only organochlorine found in all eggs at concentrations ranging from 0.13 to 7.85 μg/g wet weight. PCBs ranged from 0.04 to 2.80 μg/g wet weight and PBDEs from 62 to 798 ng/g lipid weight. DDE concentrations in eggs were not significantly different among regions; however, PCBs were significantly greater (P = 0.015) in Tinaja Verde, Chihuahua than in the other three regions. Also, PBDEs were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in eggs from Veracruz than in those from Chihuahua. DDE concentrations in eggs were much lower than those associated with eggshell thinning. PBDEs and PCBs were lower than those reported in raptors from industrialized countries. Overall, contaminant concentrations observed suggest no likely impact on hatching success. The PBDE concentrations are among the first to be reported in raptor species in Mexico.

  15. Catalytic Role Of Palladium And Relative Reactivity Of Substituted Chlorines During Adsorption And Treatment Of PCBs On Reactive Activated Carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The adsorption-mediated dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is a unique feature of reactive activated cabon (RAC). Here, we address the RAC system, containing a tunable amount of Fe as a primary electron donor coupled with Pd as an electrochemical catalyst to pote...

  16. Determination of levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in caulk and window glazing material samples from older buildings were determined, using a method developed for this purpose. This method was evaluated by analyzing a combination of 47 samples of caulk, glazing materials, including quali...

  17. Concentration of PCBs,HCB,DDT, and HCH isomers in the ovaries, mammary gland, and liver of cows

    SciTech Connect

    Sitarska, E.; Klucinski, W.; Faundez, R. |

    1995-12-01

    Persistent organic chlorine compounds such as DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) play an important role in chronic poisoning and take part in a number of pathological processes. This study estimates the degree of accumulation of organic Chlorine compounds and polychlorinated biphynyls in the liver, ovaries, and mammary gland tissues of cows.12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  18. ORGANONICKEL CHEMISTRY IN THE CATALYTIC HYDRODECHLORINATION OF POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS (PCBS): LIGAND STERIC EFFECTS AND MOLECULAR STRUCTURE OF REACTION INTERMEDIATES. (R823526)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Soluble homogeneous organophosphorus¯¯nickel complexes have been used to detoxify polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by catalyzed hydrodechlorination using NaBH2(OCH2CH2OCH3)2 as the hyd...

  19. LONG-LASTING NEUROSTRUCTURAL CONSEQUENCES IN THE RAT HIPPOCAMPUS BY DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO A MIXTURE OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS).

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of the study was to assess the effects of developmental exposure to a commercial mixture of PCBs (Aroclor 1254) on neuronal dendritic morphology of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in postnatal day (PND) 22 and PND 60 male Long-Evans rats. Rat pups were born to mot...

  20. KINETIC DISTRIBUTION MODEL OF EVAPORATION, BIOSORPTION AND BIODEGRADATION OF POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBS) IN THE SUSPENSION OF PSEUDOMONAS STUTZERI. (R826652)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Kinetics of distribution of PCBs in an active bacterial suspension of Pseudomonas stutzeri was studied by monitoring the evaporated amounts and the concentration remaining in the liquid medium with the biomass. To determine the biodegradation rate const...

  1. Observations on PCBs and mercury in common loons (Gavia immer) collected from southwestern Lake Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Coppock, R.W.; Ross, S.; Reynolds, J.D.; Somers, J.D. )

    1990-06-01

    The death of common loons (Gavia immer) was associated with a small spill of bunker-C oil off the Chicago shoreline of Lake Michigan. Petroleum oil was not found on the feathers or in the lungs of the birds. Botulinus toxins C and E were found in heart blood. Because the carcasses were autolysed, botulism toxins could have been produced postmortem. An average of 97 micrograms PCBs (Aroclor 1254 standard) and 2.2 micrograms dieldrin/g of body fat also were found. Concentrations of heavy metals in one bird were 0.25 microgram of total mercury and 0.5 microgram of lead/g of liver, respectively. The loons had abundant body fat suggesting they were not debilitated at the time of death.

  2. Degradation of PCBs in dry fermented sausages during drying/ripening.

    PubMed

    Lušnic Polak, M; Zlatić, E; Demšar, L; Žlender, B; Polak, T

    2016-12-15

    The effects of several commercial meat starter cultures on degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dry fermented sausages over 28days of drying/ripening were investigated. The sausage batter was prepared according to a classic recipe and spiked with a standard solution of a PCB congener mixture. With addition of different commercial meat starter cultures, five experimental groups were prepared: no further addition; and separate addition of each of four starter cultures: Texel DCM-1, Texel LM-30, Biostar Sprint, and SM-181. Samples were taken at the beginning of fermentation (zero time), and after 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28days. PCB residues were extracted with hexane. The PCB contents were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PCB levels were reduced in all of the experimental groups tested, where addition of starter culture Biostar Sprint (Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus xylosus) showed the highest PCB degradation rates.

  3. [Food contamination by PCBs/dioxins in Belgium: analysis of an accident with improbable health consequences].

    PubMed

    Bernard, A

    2000-01-01

    In 1999, a food crisis broke out in Belgium as a result of the accidental contamination of animal feed by PCBs (polychlorobiphenyls) and dioxins (mainly furans). The analysis of the database from the PCB food monitoring program implemented after the discovery of incident confirms that the contamination has been very limited, both in time (peak at the end of January) and in the food chain (affecting less than 0.5% of the farms in the whole country). The extreme scenario of a doubling of the PCB and dioxin body burden as envisaged in "Nature" (401: 231-232, 1999) could have been conceivable only in the case of farmers who would have consumed their own products. But even in such an extreme case, this would mean going back to the levels of PCB and dioxin body burden of subjects living in the 1980s or of those regularly eating contaminated seafood.

  4. Effect of PCBs on the lactational transfer of methyl mercury in mice: PBPK modeling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Ku; Hamer, Dwayne; Bedwell, Cathy L.; Lohitnavy, Manupat; Yang, Raymond S. H.

    2009-01-01

    MeHg and PCB exposure to lactating mice were analyzed and a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to describe the lactational transfer of MeHg in mice. The influence of albumin on the lactational transfer of MeHg was incorporated into the PBPK model. Experimental results with lactating mice and their pups showed that co-exposure with PCB congeners increased the lactational transfer of MeHg to the pups, which was associated with the rise of albumin levels in maternal blood. Observed results were matched with PBPK model simulations conducted under the assumptions that (1) MeHg bound to plasma albumin is transferred to maternal milk, and (2) PCB congeners may increase the lactational transfer of MeHg by escalating albumin levels in maternal blood. Further refinement of PBPK model quantitatively described the pharmacokinetic changes of MeHg by co-exposure with PCBs in pup’s tissues. PMID:20046988

  5. Toxic congener-specific analysis of PCBs: assessment of toxicity in equivalents of TCDD

    SciTech Connect

    Olafsson, P.G.; Bryan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution capillary gas chromatographic analysis of the polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) present in snapping turtle eggs, provided quantitative data on selected toxic congeners. The concentrations of these congeners have been converted into equivalent toxic concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD). The toxic equivalent factors (TEFs), necessary to effect this transformation were derived from EC/sub 50/ values (half the concentration of the toxic congener required to produce the maximum effect) for aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) induction associated with the corresponding toxic PCB congener or isomer. Summation of the resulting toxic equivalents provided a composite assessment of the toxicity of the PCB mixture in terms of an equivalent concentration of TCDD.

  6. Solubility enhancement of dioxins and PCBs by surfactant monomers and micelles quantified with polymer depletion techniques.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Veronika J; Grant, Sharon C; Escher, Beate I; Hawker, Darryl W; Gaus, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Partitioning of super-hydrophobic organic contaminants (SHOCs) to dissolved or colloidal materials such as surfactants can alter their behaviour by enhancing apparent aqueous solubility. Relevant partition constants are, however, challenging to quantify with reasonable accuracy. Partition constants to colloidal surfactants can be measured by introducing a polymer (PDMS) as third phase with known PDMS-water partition constant in combination with the mass balance approach. We quantified partition constants of PCBs and PCDDs (log KOW 5.8-8.3) between water and sodium dodecyl sulphate monomers (KMO) and micelles (KMI). A refined, recently introduced swelling-based polymer loading technique allowed highly precise (4.5-10% RSD) and fast (<24 h) loading of SHOCs into PDMS, and due to the miniaturisation of batch systems equilibrium was reached in <5 days for KMI and <3 weeks for KMO. SHOC losses to experimental surfaces were substantial (8-26%) in monomer solutions, but had a low impact on KMO (0.10-0.16 log units). Log KMO for PCDDs (4.0-5.2) were approximately 2.6 log units lower than respective log KMI, which ranged from 5.2 to 7.0 for PCDDs and 6.6-7.5 for PCBs. The linear relationship between log KMI and log KOW was consistent with more polar and moderately hydrophobic compounds. Apparent solubility increased with increasing hydrophobicity and was highest in micelle solutions. However, this solubility enhancement was also considerable in monomer solutions, up to 200 times for OCDD. Given the pervasive presence of surfactant monomers in typical field scenarios, these data suggest that low surfactant concentrations may be effective long-term facilitators for subsurface transport of SHOCs.

  7. Environmental exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among older residents of upper Hudson River communities.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Edward F; Belanger, Erin E; Gomez, Marta I; Hwang, Syni-an; Jansing, Robert L; Hicks, Heraline E

    2007-07-01

    The upper Hudson River has been heavily contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) due to discharges from former electrical capacitor plants in Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, NY. An epidemiologic study was conducted to assess the impact of dietary and residential exposure on PCB body burden among older, long-term, non-occupationally exposed adults living in the vicinity of these former capacitor plants. The study population consisted of 133 persons 55-74 years of age who had lived in Hudson Falls or Fort Edward for 25 years or more. The comparison group consisted of 120 persons from Glens Falls, which is upriver. Both groups were interviewed, and blood samples were obtained for congener-specific PCB analysis. Persons from the study area reported greater past consumption of Hudson River fish than did the comparison area, but current rates were very low in both areas. The geometric mean serum PCB concentrations for the study and comparison populations did not differ significantly (3.07 ppb wet weight and 3.23 ppb, respectively, for total PCB). Serum PCB concentrations increased with cumulative lifetime exposure to PCBs from Hudson River fish consumption (p<0.10). Persons who lived within 800 m of the river did not have significantly greater serum PCB concentrations than the control population, nor did persons who lived downwind and within 800 m of a PCB-contaminated site. The results indicate no detectable differences in serum PCB levels according to proximity or wind direction relative to local point sources, but lifetime consumption of Hudson River fish was positively associated with serum PCB concentrations.

  8. The role of estrogen in turtle sex determination and the effect of PCBs

    SciTech Connect

    Crews, D.; Bergeron, J.M.; McLachlan, J.A.

    1995-10-01

    Gonadal sex is fixed at fertilization by specific chromosomes, a process known as genotypic sex determination (GSD). Only after the gonad is formed do hormones begin to exert an influence that modifies specific structures that eventually will differ between the sexes. Many egg-laying reptiles do not exhibit GSD but rather depend on the temperature of the incubating egg to determine the gonadal sex of the offspring, a process termed temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Research on TSD indicates that gonadal sex is not irrevocably set by the genetic composition inherited at fertilization but depends ultimately on which genes encoding for steroidogenic enzymes and hormone receptors are activated during the midtrimester of embryonic development by temperature. Incubation temperature modifies the activity as well as the temporal and spatial sequence of enzymes and hormone receptors to determine gonad type. Estrogen is the physiologic equivalent of incubation temperature and the proximate cue that initiates female sex determination. increasing evidence indicates some polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds are capable of disrupting reproductive and endocrine function in fish, birds, and mammals, including humans. Reproductive disorders resulting from exposure to these xenobiotic compounds may include reductions in fertility, hatch rate in fish and birds, and viability of offspring, as well as alterations in hormone levels or adult sexual behaviors. Research on the mechanism through which these compounds may be acting to alter reproductive function indicates estrogenic activity, by which the compounds may be altering sexual differentiation. In TSD turtles, the estrogenic effect of some PCBs reverses gonadal sex in individuals incubating at an otherwise male-producing temperature. Furthermore, certain PCBs are synergistic in their effect at very low concentrations. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Health of flatfish from localities in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, contaminated with petroleum and PCBs.

    PubMed

    Khan, R A

    2003-05-01

    This study compared the health of flatfish inhabiting two areas in Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, contaminated either with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with samples from reference sites. Initially, four species of flatfish, including American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides), yellowtail flounder (Limanda ferruginea), gray sole (Glyptocephalus cynoglossus), and winter flounder (Pleuronectes americanus), were sampled only for external lesions from commercial catches at three offshore sites. Others, captured by scuba divers at inshore sites, were autopsied to compare external lesions, condition (K) factor, hepatosomatic index (HSI), hemoglobin and lymphocyte levels, histological changes in the liver and spleen, and two parasites, metacercariae of Cryptocotyle lingua in the skin and a digenetic trematode, Steringophorus furciger, in the digestive tract. A higher prevalence of lesions occurred in the four species of flatfish caught offshore by commercial fisherman near the oil terminal and the PCB-contaminated dockyard than at a reference site. Lesions were also more prevalent in three species of flatfish captured by scuba divers inshore near the oil terminal and were associated with significantly lower K factor and lymphocyte levels but elevated HSI values and histopathological changes in the liver and spleen than in reference samples. Winter flounder sampled at two locations near the PCB-contaminated dockyard and a PAH-polluted small boat wharf also exhibited more external lesions, liver discoloration, and lower K factor, hemoglobin, and lymphocyte but higher HSI values and hepatic and splenic hemosiderosis than in reference fish. Prevalence of C. lingua in the skin was significantly greater but S. furciger in the digestive tract lower in samples taken from the aforementioned contaminated sites than from the reference locations. These results, based on several bioindicators, suggest that the health of bottom

  10. Trace metals, PCBs, and PAHs in benthic (epipelic) diatoms from intertidal sediments; a pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Stronkhorst, J.; Misdorp, R. ); Vos, P.C. )

    1994-06-01

    Intertidal sediments in many estuaries around the world have a history of contamination resulting from long term discharges of industrial, agricultural and domestic waste effluents. These contaminated sediments are now regarded as a major source of toxicants for bottom-related organisms which, in turn, may pass on certain contaminants (e.g. methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)) to organisms higher in the foodchain. Many studies have been conducted on the contamination of benthic macrofauna, estuarine fish and birds, but to our knowledge no research has yet been carried out on benthic diatoms which form the lowest trophic level of an intertidal ecosystem. Research on the effects of micro-contaminants on primary producers in marine ecosystems is mainly performed with phytoplankton. In the estuaries of temperate regions, benthic diatoms make a significant contribution to primary production in the ecosystem and are predated especially by deposit feeding Polychaete and Mollusca. Knowledge of the level of contamination in benthic diatoms is of major importance to recognize possible effects on growth rate and species composition of the benthic diatom populations and to understand the accumulation of toxicants into the foodchain. For chemical analysis it is difficult to obtain [open quote]pure[close quote] samples of benthic diatoms because they form part of the sediment. A similar problem occurs with the sampling of phytoplankton in turbid estuarine waters. The aim of this pilot study was (a) to improve a trap technique to collect pure samples of benthic diatoms of at least 2 gram dry weight for analysis of trace metals, PCBs and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and (b) to compare the concentrations in benthic diatoms with levels in sediment and some bottom-related organisms. 16 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Inhalation and Dietary Exposure to PCBs in Urban and Rural Cohorts via Congener-Specific Measurements

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of 209 persistent organic pollutants, whose documented carcinogenic, neurological, and respiratory toxicities are expansive and growing. However, PCB inhalation exposure assessments have been lacking for North American ambient conditions and lower-chlorinated congeners. We assessed congener-specific inhalation and dietary exposure for 78 adolescent children and their mothers (n = 68) in the Airborne Exposure to Semi-volatile Organic Pollutants (AESOP) Study. Congener-specific PCB inhalation exposure was modeled using 293 measurements of indoor and outdoor airborne PCB concentrations at homes and schools, analyzed via tandem quadrupole GS-MS/MS, combined with questionnaire data from the AESOP Study. Dietary exposure was modeled using Canadian Total Diet Survey PCB concentrations and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food ingestion rates. For ∑PCB, dietary exposure dominates. For individual lower-chlorinated congeners (e.g., PCBs 40+41+71, 52), inhalation exposure was as high as one-third of the total (dietary+inhalation) exposure. ∑PCB inhalation (geometric mean (SE)) was greater for urban mothers (7.1 (1.2) μg yr–1) and children (12.0 (1.2) μg yr–1) than for rural mothers (2.4 (0.4) μg yr–1) and children (8.9 (0.3) μg yr–1). Schools attended by AESOP Study children had higher indoor PCB concentrations than did homes, and account for the majority of children’s inhalation exposure. PMID:25510359

  12. Concentration of selected trace elements and PCBs in sediments from the Adriatic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, S W; Hamilton, T F; Coquery, M; Villeneuve, J-P; Horvat, M

    2000-07-26

    A broad baseline study of the levels and distributions of trace metals and PCB compounds in sediments has been undertaken. PCB concentrations in surface sediments reflect the source of these contaminates in the region. The highest PCB concentrations as Aroclor 1260 (approximately 10 ng g{sup -1}) were found in sediments near the outflow of the Po river. The lowest concentrations (1.5 ng g{sup -1} dry) were associated with the sediments from the Jabuka Pit in the Middle Adriatic. These values are quite similar to total PCBs (<1.0-17) measured in surface sediments sampled off the coast of Croatia in 1977-78. Thus, based on the limited amount of new data available, it appears that there has been little, if any, decrease in PCB loading in Adriatic sediments over the past 15 years. Downcore profiles of PCBs in sediment cores are also discussed from a pollution history standpoint. Likewise, total mercury in surface sediments was also highest at stations off the Po (403-499 ng g{sup -1} dry) and lowest (67-224 ng g{sup -1}) in the Jabuka Pit. In one core located just south of the Po outflow, total Hg concentrations at all depths were relatively high decreasing gradually from approximately 400 ng g{sup -1} in the top 4 cm to roughly 200 ng g{sup -1} at a depth of 32 cm. Using a {sup 210}Pb-derived sedimentation rate of 0.26 em Y{sup -1} for this station, it appears that anthropogenic inputs of mercury may have been responsible for the gradual increase in total mercury noted over the last 125 years.

  13. Organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, trace elements and metals in western pond turtle eggs from Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Beal, K.F.; Bury, R. Bruce; Goggans, R.

    2003-01-01

    With increased concern over the status of reptile populations globally, contaminant studies should be part of species evaluations. We analyzed eggs of western pond turtles from Fern Ridge Reservoir in western Oregon for 20 organochlorine (OC) pesticides or metabolites, 42 congener-specific polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 trace elements or metals. These eggs represent the first of this species analyzed. The OC pesticides and PCB residue concentrations in the western pond turtle eggs were generally low and similar to those found in eggs of snapping turtles from a remote site in Ontario, Canada. Western pond turtle eggs also contained mercury and chromium, which are metals of special concern. Although few reptilian eggs have been analyzed for metals, the 44.9 mug/g dry weight chromium in a western pond turtle egg in this study may be the highest reported in a reptilian egg. We found no significant difference in contaminant concentrations in eggs from nests in Oregon, where all turtle eggs failed to hatch compared to those where some eggs hatched. During this initial project, however, we were unable to assess fully the role of OCs, PCBs and other contaminants in the western pond turtle decline. Factors other than contaminants may be involved. In another study, snapping turtle eggs near the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River basin were much more contaminated with evidence reported of effects on sex differentiation and reproductive endocrine function. Egg hatchability, the only reproductive parameter monitored, may not be the most sensitive endpoint. Other endpoints, including endocrine function, deformity rates, growth rates, and sex determination need study.

  14. Partitioning and bioaccumulation of PCBs and PBDEs in marine plankton from the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Heloise; Dangerfield, Neil; Macdonald, Robie W.; Galbraith, M.; Crewe, Norman; Shaw, Patrick; Mackas, David; Ross, Peter S.

    2013-08-01

    The Strait of Georgia is a large, deep, fjord-like estuary on the southern coast of British Columbia which is subject to local and atmospheric inputs of persistent environmental contaminants. We measured 204 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 61 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) seasonally in water (two depths; dissolved and particle-bound) and plankton (vertical tow) samples collected at two stations. Principal components analysis clearly distinguished the dissolved and particulate water fractions and plankton samples, with the latter two compartments associated more with heavier congeners. Bioaccumulation factors (log BAFs) for PCBs and PBDEs in plankton were best described by parabolic relationships against octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log Kow), peaking at a log Kow of 5-7, underscoring the important role of physico-chemical properties in driving the uptake of these persistent contaminants by plankton from water. The estimated total quantity of PCBs (annual average of 0.61 ± SEM 0.12 kg) and PBDEs (annual average of 0.64 ± 0.19 kg) in Strait of Georgia plankton biomass were remarkably similar, highlighting the emergence of currently-used PBDEs as a priority concern. The estimated total of 52.1 ± 8.41 kg of PCBs in water (dissolved + particle-bound) was higher than the estimated 26.8 ± 5.20 kg of PBDEs (dissolved + particle-bound), reflecting the dichotomous use histories for these two contaminant classes. Results provide insight into the biological availability of PCBs and PBDEs to the Strait of Georgia food web, and describe an important initial partitioning process by which the region's endangered killer whales have become highly contaminated.

  15. Determinants of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sera of mothers and children from Michigan farms with PCB-contaminated silos

    SciTech Connect

    Schantz, S.L.; Jacobson, J.L.; Jacobson, S.W.; Humphrey, H.E.B.; Welch, R.; Gasior, D.

    1994-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 28 mothers and from 38 school-aged children from Michigan farms on which there were polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated silos. The samples were analyzed for PCBs and other contaminants, including polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) and dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (p,p{prime}-DDT + p,p{prime}-DDE) via packed column gas chromatography. The PCBs were quantified, using the Webb-McCall method, with Aroclors 1016 and 1260 used as reference standards. Approximately 42% of the children had serum PCB levels above the detection limit of 3.0 ng/ml. The values ranged from 3.1 to 23.3 ng/ml, with a mean of 6.8 ng/ml. In contrast, PCBs were detected in 86% of the mothers. The mean serum concentration was somewhat higher for the mothers (9.6 ng/ml), but the range was similar to that found for the children. PBBs were not detected in any of the children, but were present in trace amounts in 25% of the mothers. Conversely, DDT was present in 66% of the children and 93% of the mothers. As with PCBs, DDT concentrations were somewhat higher in the mothers. DDE accounted for 89% of the total DDT in serum. Various potential sources of exposure were evaluated as possible determinants of serum PCB levels, using hierarchical multiple regression. Years of residence on a silo farm and consumption of PCB-contaminated Great Lakes fish both accounted for significant portions of the variance in maternal serum PCB levels. Exposure via breast-feeding explained a large and highly significant proportion of the variance in the children`s serum PCB concentrations, suggesting that breast milk was the primary source of PCB exposure for these children. Years of residence on a silo farm also explained a significant proportion of the variance in children`s serum PCBs. 29 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  16. Mobilization of trace metals and PCBs from contaminated marine sediments of the Mar Piccolo in Taranto during simulated resuspension experiment.

    PubMed

    Di Leo, Antonella; Annicchiarico, Cristina; Cardellicchio, Nicola; Cibic, Tamara; Comici, Cinzia; Giandomenico, Santina; Spada, Lucia

    2016-07-01

    The effects of sediment resuspension on the fate of metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied by using a short-term small reactor. Sediments and water were collected nearby the most contaminated site of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto. Contaminant partitioning was calculated between the solid and water phases and, in the latter, between the dissolved and particulate phases and related to physical-chemical variables. Before and after resuspension, metal concentrations in sediments did not vary remarkably. Except for Cd, all the analyzed metals exceeded by many folds both threshold effect level (TEL) and probable effect level (PEL) SQGs. Igeo index values for Hg designated the sediment quality as extremely polluted for Pb, Cu and moderately polluted for Zn. In the dissolved phase, Mn increased of about 70 times, Fe of about 7 times and Hg and Zn of 4 and 3 times, respectively. PCBs in sediments before and after resuspension did not vary for more than 15 %. PCB concentrations exceeded for more than ten times PEL values. After resuspension, PCBs increased from 0.82 to 4.82 ng L(-1) in the dissolved phase and from 0.22 to 202.21 ng L(-1) in the particulate one. The dissolved phase was initially enriched in light- to mid-weight compounds. After resuspension, the particulate phase was enriched in heavier congeners. In particular, hexachlorobiphenyl-153, 149 and 138 together with heptachlorobiphenyl-180 and 187 accounted for 57 % of total PCBs. The dissolved organic carbon (DOC) that increased from 1.31 to 8.55 mg L(-1) likely influenced the fate of metals and PCBs in the dissolved and particulate phases. Despite that the residence time of the contaminated resuspended sediments in the water column is limited, they are still highly toxic for the pelagic trophic web.

  17. Levels of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Three Organochlorine Pesticides in Fish from the Aleutian Islands of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Hardell, Sara; Tilander, Hanna; Welfinger-Smith, Gretchen; Burger, Joanna; Carpenter, David O.

    2010-01-01

    Background Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides, have been shown to have many adverse human health effects. These contaminants therefore may pose a risk to Alaska Natives that follow a traditional diet high in marine mammals and fish, in which POPs bioaccumulate. Methods and Findings This study examined the levels of PCBs and three pesticides [p, p′-DDE, mirex, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)] in muscle tissue from nine fish species from several locations around the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. The highest median PCB level was found in rock sole (Lepidopsetta bilineata, 285 ppb, wet weight), while the lowest level was found in rock greenling (Hexagrammos lagocephalus, 104 ppb, wet weight). Lipid adjusted PCB values were also calculated and significant interspecies differences were found. Again, rock sole had the highest level (68,536 ppb, lipid weight). Concerning the PCB congener patterns, the more highly chlorinated congeners were most common as would be expected due to their greater persistence. Among the pesticides, p, p′-DDE generally dominated, and the highest level was found in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, 6.9 ppb, wet weight). The methodology developed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) was used to calculate risk-based consumption limits for the analyzed fish species. For cancer health endpoints for PCBs, all species would trigger strict advisories of between two and six meals per year, depending upon species. For noncancer effects by PCBs, advisories of between seven and twenty-two meals per year were triggered. None of the pesticides triggered consumption limits. Conclusion The fish analyzed, mainly from Adak, contain significant concentrations of POPs, in particular PCBs, which raises the question whether these fish are safe to eat, particularly for sensitive populations. However when assessing any risk of the traditional diet, one must also consider the many health

  18. Exposure to coplanar PCBs induces endothelial cell inflammation through epigenetic regulation of NF-κB subunit p65

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dandan; Perkins, Jordan T.; Petriello, Michael C.; Hennig, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications of DNA and histones alter cellular phenotypes without changing genetic codes. Alterations of epigenetic marks can be induced by exposure to environmental pollutants and may contribute to associated disease risks. Here we test the hypothesis that endothelial cell dysfunction induced by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is mediated in part though histone modifications. In this study, human vascular endothelial cells were exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of several PCBs congeners (e.g., PCBs 77, 118, 126 and 153) followed by quantification of inflammatory gene expression and changes of histone methylation. Only exposure to coplanar PCBs 77 and 126 induced the expression of histone H3K9 trimethyl demethylase jumonji domain-containing protein 2B (JMJD2B) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) subunit p65, activated NF-κB signaling as evidenced by nuclear translocation of p65, and up-regulated p65 target inflammatory genes, such as interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and IL-1α/β. The increased accumulation of JMJD2B in the p65 promoter led to a depletion of H3K9me3 repression mark, which accounts for the observed up-regulation of p65 and associated inflammatory genes. JMJD2B gene knockdown confirmed a critical role for this histone demethylase in mediating PCB-induced inflammation of the vascular endothelium. Finally, it was determined, via chemical inhibition, that PCB-induced up-regulation of JMJD2B was estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) dependent. These data suggest that coplanar PCBs may exert endothelial cell toxicity through changes in histone modifications. PMID:26519613

  19. A question of origin: dioxin-like PCBs and their relevance in stock management of European eels.

    PubMed

    Freese, Marko; Sühring, Roxana; Pohlmann, Jan-Dag; Wolschke, Hendrik; Magath, Victoria; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Hanel, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    The stock of European Eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) has reached an all-time low in 2011. Spawner quality of mature eels in terms of health status and fitness is considered one of the key elements for successful migration and reproduction. Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls (dl-PCBs) are known persistent organic pollutants potentially affecting the reproductive capability and health status of eels throughout their entire lifetime. In this study, muscle tissue samples of 192 European eels of all continental life stages from 6 different water bodies and 13 sampling sites were analyzed for contamination with lipophilic dl-PCBs to investigate the potential relevance of the respective habitat in light of eel stock management. Results of this study reveal habitat-dependent and life history stage-related accumulation of targeted PCBs. Sum concentrations of targeted PCBs differed significantly between life stages and inter-habitat variability in dl-PCB levels and -profiles was observed. Among all investigated life stages, migrant silver eels were found to be the most suitable life history stage to represent their particular water system due to habitat dwell-time and their terminal contamination status. With reference to a possible negative impact of dl-PCBs on health and the reproductive capability of eels, it was hypothesized that those growing up in less polluted habitats have a better chance to produce healthy offspring than those growing up in highly polluted habitats. We suggest that the contamination status of water systems is fundamental for the life cycle of eels and needs to be considered in stock management and restocking programs.

  20. Shape-selective extraction of PCBs and dioxins from fish and fish oil using in-cell carbon fractionation pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Haglund, P; Sporring, S; Wiberg, K; Björklund, E

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes a new shape-selective, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) procedure for extracting polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs from food and feed samples with an integrated carbon fractionation step. Initially this was done using specially designed inserts for 34-mL cells, but subsequently, large solid cells (66 mL) were machined to increase the capacity and robustness of the system. Depending on the carbon load and extraction solvent strength, the non-ortho PCBs were recovered either with the bulk of the PCBs or with the PCDD/Fs. The former is preferable if PCDD/Fs are the targets. In most cases, however, data are required for all indicator PCBs, WHO-PCBs, and PCDD/Fs. Therefore, further efforts focused on developing, optimizing, and validating a cost- and time-efficient PLE procedure that can extract these targets, separate non-ortho PCBs and PCDD/Fs from the bulk of the PCBs, allow gravimetric fat determinations, and requires a minimum of postextraction cleanup. The performance of the resulting procedure was assessed in experiments with a fish tissue reference material. The trueness of the WHO-PCB-TEQ, PCDD/F-TEQ, and total-TEQ data were -8, -5, and -7%, respectively, and the corresponding CVs were 1.5, 0.5, and 1.3%; within the limits set by the European community for gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry methods for food and feed control.

  1. Spatial and temporal variation of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in the Antarctic minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis, in the period 1987-2005.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Genta; Fujise, Yoshihiro; Zenitani, Ryoko; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kato, Hidehiro

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were determined in the blubber of males (20-25 years old) of Antarctic minke whales, Balaenoptera bonaerensis, from the International Whaling Commission (IWC) management Areas IV (70°-130°E) and V (130°E-170°W), south 60°S. The ranges of concentrations (ng g(-1) lipid wt.) for each compound were, PCBs: 7.7-89; DDTs: 29-340; HCHs: 0.20-4.3; HCB: 75-430; CHLs: 10-120, which were much lower than those in common minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata, from the northern hemisphere. The levels of PCBs, HCHs, HCB and CHLs in Area IV were significantly higher than those in Area V, while the levels of DDTs in both areas were similar. For comparing the fate among four pesticides in the Antarctic Ocean avoiding the effect of variance due to food intake, the ratios of the pesticides to PCBs, which has an extremely high chemical stability and environmental persistence, were examined. The HCHs/PCBs ratio decreased by a factor of about 20 in a span of 16 years in both Areas IV and V, while temporal trends of DDTs/PCBs, HCB/PCBs and CHLs/PCBs ratios were not observed. These results indicate that PCBs, DDTs, HCB and CHLs levels did not vary or slightly decreased in Areas IV and V during the study period. However HCHs levels clearly decreased. Spatial differences seems to be related to differences in food intake among whales, and temporal differences seems to be related to the length stay of OCs in the Antarctic Ocean.

  2. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Fate of PCBs During K Basin Sludge Dissolution in Nitric Acid and with Hydrogen Peroxide Addition

    SciTech Connect

    GM Mong; AJ Schmidt; EW Hoppe; KH Pool; KL Silvers; BM Thornton

    1999-01-04

    The work described in this report is part of the studies being performed to address the fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in K Basin sludge before the sludge can be transferred to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) double shell tanks. One set of tests examined the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the disposition of PCBs in a simulated K Basin dissolver solution containing 0.5 M nitric acid/1 M Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. A second series of tests examined the disposition of PCBs in a much stronger ({approx}10 M) nitric acid solution, similar to that likely to be encountered in the dissolution of the sludge.

  3. Levels and congener distributions of PCDDs, PCDFs and non-ortho PCBs in Belgian foodstuffs--assessment of dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Focant, J F; Eppe, G; Pirard, C; Massart, A C; André, J E; De Pauw, E

    2002-07-01

    Congener-specific analyses of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 4 non-ortho (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyls (cPCBs) were performed on 197 foodstuffs samples of animal origin from Belgium during years 2000 and 2001. All investigated matrices (except horse) present background levels lower than the Belgian non-commercialization value of 5 pg TEQ/g fat. Pork was the meat containing the lowest concentration of both PCDD/Fs and cPCBs. The mean background concentration of 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxicity equivalent in milk was 1.1 pg/g of fat, with a congener distribution typical of non-contaminated milk. The relative contribution of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF to the PCDD/Fs TEQ was 85+/-7.9% for all investigated matrices. The cPCBs contribution to the total TEQ was 47+/-19.0% for products of terrestrial species and 69+/-20.0% for aquatic species. Once the contribution of cPCBs was added to the TEQ, few foodstuffs such as horse, sheep, beef, eggs and cheese presented levels above the future European guidelines that currently only include PCDD/Fs but will be re-evaluated later in order to include 'dioxin-like' PCBs. Based on levels measured in the samples, the estimation of the dietary intake was 65.3 pg WHO-TEQ/day for PCDD/Fs only (1.00 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, for a 65 kg person) and 132.9 pg WHO-TEQ/day if cPCBs were included (2.04 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day, for a 65 kg person). Meat (mainly beef), dairy products, and fish each account for roughly one third of the intake.

  4. Dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs in human blood: causes or consequences of diabetic nephropathy?

    PubMed

    Everett, Charles J; Thompson, Olivia M

    2014-07-01

    Nephropathy, or kidney disease, is a major, potential complication of diabetes. We assessed the association of 6 chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, 9 chlorinated dibenzofurans and 8 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood with diabetic nephropathy in the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (unweighted N=2588, population estimate=117,658,357). Diabetes was defined as diagnosed or undiagnosed (glycohemoglobin ≥ 6.5%) and nephropathy defined as urinary albumin to creatinine ratio >30 mg/g, representing microalbuminuria or macroalbuminuria. For the 8 chemicals analyzed separately, values above the 75th percentile were considered elevated, whereas for the other 15 compounds values above the maximum limit of detection were considered elevated. Seven of 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, analyzed separately, were found to be associated with diabetic nephropathy. The chemicals associated with diabetic nephropathy were: 1,2,3,6,7,8-Hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran; PCB 126; PCB 169; PCB 118; and PCB 156. Three of the 8 dioxins and dioxin-like compounds; 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-Octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; 2,3,4,7,8-Pentachlorodibenzofuran and PCB 118; expressed as log-transformed continuous variables; were associated with diabetes without nephropathy. When 4 or more of the 23 chemicals were elevated the odds ratios were 7.00 (95% CI=1.80-27.20) for diabetic nephropathy and 2.13 (95% CI=0.95-4.78) for diabetes without nephropathy. Log-transformed toxic equivalency (TEQ) was associated with both diabetic nephropathy, and diabetes without nephropathy, the odds ratios were 2.35 (95% CI=1.57-3.52) for diabetic nephropathy, and 1.44 (95% CI=1.11-1.87) for diabetes without nephropathy. As the kidneys function to remove waste products from the blood, diabetic nephropathy could be either the cause or the consequence (or both) of exposure to dioxins, furans and dioxin-like PCBs.

  5. Determination of PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in California peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) and their eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, W.M.; Burns, S.A. ); Chang, R.R.; Stephens, R.D. ); Norstrom, R.J.; Simon, M. ); Linthicum, J. )

    1993-01-01

    Levels of organochlorine compounds; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including nonortho congeners; polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs); and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were determined in seven California peregrine falcon eggs (Falco peregrinus) collected form five sites between the years 1983 to 1988; one immature falcon was analyzed for PCDDs and PCDGs only. All of the identified PCDDs and PCDFs were 2,3,7,8-substituted. The major PCDD and PCDF congeners identified in the eggs were 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,7,8-PnCDD) at a geometric mean value of 11 ng/kg, 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD) at a mean value of 11 ng/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) at a mean value of 6.2 ng/kg, and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (2,3,4,7,8-PnCDF) at a level of 6.5 ng/kg. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was present at a mean value of 5.7 ng/kg. Values of p,p[prime]-DDE in the eggs ranged from 7,100 to 26,000 [mu]g/kg, with a mean value of 12,000 [mu]g/kg. [Sigma]PCB levels ranged from 1,400 to 13,000 [mu]g/kg, with a mean value of 4,800 [mu]g/kg. The mean values of the non-ortho congeners 3,4,4[prime]-trichlorobiphenyl (PCB 37); 3,3[prime]4, 4[prime]-tetrachlorobiphenyl (PCB 77); 3,3[prime]4, 4[prime]5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126); and 3,3[prime]4, 4[prime],5,5[prime]-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB 169) were 0.18, 0.93, 1.0, and 0.14 [mu]g/kg, respectively. TCDD equivalents (TEQs) were calculated for the mean values of PCDDs, PCDFs, and non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs. Total TEQs in the eggs was 120 ng/kg; PCB 126 accounted for 83% of the TEQs.

  6. Time-Trends and Congener Profiles of PBDEs and PCBs in California Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus)

    PubMed Central

    Park, June-Soo; Holden, Arthur; Chu, Vivian; Kim, Michele; Rhee, Alexandra; Patel, Puja; Shi, Yating; Linthicum, Janet; Walton, Brian J.; Mckeown, Karen; Jewell, Nicholas P.; Hooper, Kim

    2010-01-01

    High levels (µg/g lw) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in peregrine falcon eggs from California (n = 90 eggs from 52 birds, 38 nest sites, collected 1986–2007, ΣPBDEs median = 4.53, range = 0.08–53.1). Over the past 22 years, PBDE levels more than tripled each decade in the eggs, whereas PCB levels had no significant changes. PBDE levels were highest in eggs from major California cities (“Big Cities”), whereas PCBs showed no difference across the regions. For PBDEs, Big City eggs had markedly different patterns from Coastal eggs:BDE-209 and the higher brominated PBDEs (hexa–nona) were dominant congeners in Big City eggs, while BDE-47 and -99 were dominant in Coastal eggs. In many of the birds that gave multiple eggs over time (“time series”), PBDE patterns changed over time: the high proportions of BDE-209 and higher brominated PBDEs (short half-lives) in young birds contrasted with increasingly higher proportions of BDE-153 (long half-life) and other lower brominated PBDEs as the birds aged. These data are consistent with metabolic debromination of BDE-209 (t1/2 = 1–2 weeks) to the lower brominated PBDEs, with accumulation over time of BDE-153 (t1/2 = 3–4 years). In contrast, PCB patterns showed no differences by locations, and did not change over time. Diet (prey birds) may explain the urban PBDE pattern, as the patterns in urban pigeons and peregrines were similar, with high proportions of BDE-209 and the higher-brominated PBDEs. Also, our prey data (feathers from peregrine nests) showed urban peregrines having a higher proportion (>2 fold) of granivorous/opportunistic birds (e.g., “introduced feral” pigeons, mourning doves, starlings) in their diet than coastal peregrines. In summary, these data indicate that BDE-209 exits consumer products as an environmental contaminant to be taken up by wildlife (particularly in urban locations), and undergoes metabolic debromination to the

  7. Methodological refinements in the determination of 146 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho, and mono-ortho-substituted PCBs and 26 organochlorine pesticides in eggs as demonstrated in heron eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chu, S.; Hong, C.-S.; Rattner, B.A.; McGowan, P.C.

    2003-01-01

    A method for the determination of 146 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 4 non-ortho and 8 mono-ortho substituted congeners and 26 chlorinated pesticides is described. The method consists of ultrasonic extraction, Florisilcleanup, HPLC fractionation over porous graphitic carbon (PGC), and final determination with GC/ECD and/or GC/MS. Two PCB congeners (PCB 30 and PCB 161) and two polybromo-biphenyls (2,4?,5-tribromobiphenyl and 3,3?,4,4?-tetrabromobiphenyl) were used as surrogate standards to evaluate the analytical efficiency. Four PCB congeners, PCB 14 and PCB 159 for the first fraction, PCB 61 for the second fraction, and PCB 204 for the third fraction, were used as internal standards to monitor the GC performance. The retention behavior of PCBs and pesticides on porous-graphitic-carbon column were discussed. The method was found to be effective and reliable under the operational conditions proposed and was applied successfully to the analysis of individual PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in heron egg samples.

  8. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenol Ethers (PBDEs) in Current and Historical Samples of Avian Eggs from Nesting Sites in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in eggs from breeding colonies in Buzzards Bay, MA, USA. Eggs from two piscivorous bird species, common (Sterna hirundo) and roseate (Sterna dougallii) terns, were collected...

  9. PCBs in air, soil and milk in industrialized and urban areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Batterman, S.; Chernyak, S.; Gouden, Y.; Hayes, J.; Robins, T.; Chetty, S.

    2015-01-01

    Information regarding polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in environmental media in Africa is limited. This paper presents results of a monitoring program conducted in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa designed to characterize levels, trends and sources of airborne PCBs. Particulate and vapor samples were sampled over the 2004–2005 period at three sites. The total PCB concentration averaged 128 ± 47 pg m−3, and levels were highest in winter. Tri- through hexa-congeners predominated, and the vapor fraction was predominant. Several tetra- through hexa-chlorinated congeners had levels comparable to those at urban sites in the northern hemisphere, but hepta- through deca-congeners resembled levels at background sites. PCB source areas, deduced using spatial and temporal patterns, compositional information and trajectory analyses, likely included local, regional and global sources. Soils at three rural sites showed high PCB concentrations, and milk from a local dairy showed PCB concentrations comparable to USA levels in year 2000. PMID:18838199

  10. A survey of dioxins (PCDDs and PCDFs) and dioxin-like PCBs in sheep and goat milk from Campania, Italy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M; Serpe, F P; Cavallo, S; Pellicanò, R; Gallo, P; Colarusso, G; D'ambrosio, R; Baldi, L; Iovane, G; Serpe, L

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, after the crisis of buffalo dairy fields in Campania, Italy, an assessment of the contamination of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) was also necessary for other animal species bred in the region. The contents of PCDDs, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dl-PCBs were determined by high-resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HR-GC/MS) (according to USEPA method 1613) in 69 sheep and goat milk samples from 63 farms. In eleven samples from six sheep farms, the PCDD/Fs levels exceeded the maximum limit of 3.0 pg g(-1) fat established by the European Commission, in particular the concentrations ranged between 3.89 and 12.90 pg g(-1) fat. Statistical treatment of the results for the congener profiles of the non-compliant and compliant samples has been used to identify the sources of contamination.

  11. Baseline survey of marine sediments collected from the State of Kuwait: PAHs, PCBs, brominated flame retardants and metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Lyons, B P; Barber, J L; Rumney, H S; Bolam, T P C; Bersuder, P; Law, R J; Mason, C; Smith, A J; Morris, S; Devlin, M J; Al-Enezi, M; Massoud, M S; Al-Zaidan, A S; Al-Sarawi, H A

    2015-11-30

    A geographically extensive baseline survey of sediment contamination was undertaken at twenty nine locations around Kuwait. Samples were assessed in relation to a wide range of industrial pollutants, including metals, PAHs, PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs. The data generated indicated that levels of pollutants were generally low and below commonly applied sediment quality guidelines (SQGs). However, naturally high background concentrations of certain metals present in sediment from the region may prohibit the direct assessment against some of the routinely applied SQGs. Hot spots of contamination were identified for PAHs, PCBs and PBDEs, that were mainly associated with the Shuaiba Industrial Area, located south of the city, and known to contain a diverse mix of both light and heavy industry.

  12. Contamination by chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and PBDEs in Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) in western South Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Leonel, Juliana; Taniguchi, Satie; Sasaki, Dalton K; Cascaes, Mauro J; Dias, Patrick S; Botta, Silvina; Santos, Marcos C de O; Montone, Rosalinda C

    2012-02-01

    Chlorinated pesticides, PCBs and PBDEs were analysed in nine blubber samples of Atlantic spotted dolphins, Stenella frontalis, incidentally captured during fishing operations in southern and southeastern Brazil between 2005 and 2007. The majority of compounds analysed were detected, suggesting widespread contamination over the region. Although the samples came from a location far from main coastal industrial areas, the results revealed an influence from such sources. Therefore, levels of PCBs (774-23659 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) and PBDEs (23-1326 ng g(-1) lipid wt.) detected seem to be related to the movement of individuals throughout near-shore and offshore waters. The sample from a lactating female exhibited a lower level of contamination and a distinct pattern, indicating selective transfer favouring less lipophilic compounds.

  13. Distribution of persistent organic pollutants (PAHs, Me-PAHs, PCBs) in dissolved, particulate and sedimentary phases in freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Rabodonirina, Suzanah; Net, Sopheak; Ouddane, Baghdad; Merhaby, Dima; Dumoulin, David; Popescu, Tudor; Ravelonandro, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of three groups of hazardous organic contaminants (PCBs, PAHs, Me-PAHs) in fifteen watercourses and rivers located in highly urbanized and industrialized zones was studied. The distribution of 62 organic contaminants was determined in three matrices: in the dissolved phase, associated with suspended solid matter (SSM) and in sediment. Their distributions in the aquatic environment depend strongly on their physicochemical properties. Low molecular weight PAHs were predominant in the dissolved phase while those with high molecular weight accumulated preferentially in SSM and sediments. Among the 28 PCBs congeners, only PCB153 was detected. The results showed that the contamination of these areas originated mainly from combustion processes. The three the most polluted sites identified are surrounded by big cities. Ecotoxicological assessment based on the international Sediment Quality Guidelines (SQGs) showed that the toxic effects of the sediment in these watercourses and rivers occurred due to high levels of hydrocarbons.

  14. Estimation of effects of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs on wildlife population--a case study on common cormorant.

    PubMed

    Murata, Mariko; Iseki, Naomasa; Masunaga, Shigeki; Nakanishi, Junko

    2003-10-01

    We presented a method for quantitatively evaluating the effects of chemical pollutants in the environment on a wildlife population. We expressed the effects of exposure to dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in Tokyo Bay sediment on a common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) population in two ways. One was the changes in the intrinsic growth rate, and the other was the changes in the gross population size. The effects of exposure to the compounds were estimated by using the method of population ecology and available field data. Common cormorant population at Shinobazu Pond in Tokyo, Japan during 1974-1986 was selected as the target population. Intrinsic growth rate or gross size of the population based on the calculated residual level of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in the period was estimated to decrease to 89% or 85% of that without exposure to the compounds, respectively.

  15. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Predator and Bottom-Feeding Fish from Abiquiu and Cochiti Reservoirs in North-Central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Gonzales, P.R. Fresquez

    2006-03-01

    Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, we began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2005, six species of fish from Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs were collected and the edible portion (fillets) was analyzed for 209 possible PCB congeners. Fish from the reservoirs were last sampled in 2001. Mean total PCB concentrations in fish from Abiquiu Reservoir ({mu} = 2.4 ng/g) were statistically similar ({alpha} = 0.01; P (T{le}t) [range = 0.23-0.71]) to mean total PCB concentrations in fish from Cochiti Reservoir ({mu} = 2.7 ng/g), implying that LANL is not the source of PCBs in fish in Cochiti Reservoir. The levels of PCBs in fish from Cochiti Reservoir generally appear to be declining, at least since 2001, which is when PCB levels might have peaked resulting from storm water runoff after the Cerro Grande Fire. Although a PCB ''fingerprinting'' method can be used to relate PCB ''signatures'' in one area to signatures in another area, this method of implicating the source of PCBs cannot be effectively used for biota because they alter the PCB signature through metabolic processes. Regardless of the source of the PCBs, certain species of fish (catfish and carpsuckers) at both Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs continue to harbor levels of PCBs that could be harmful to human health if they are consistently eaten over a long period of time. Bottom-feeding fish (carpsucker and catfish) from Cochiti Reservoir contained statistically higher levels of total PCBs ({mu} = 4.25 ng/g-fillet-wet) than predator

  16. Occurrence of organochlorine contaminants (PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs) and pathologic findings in loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, from the Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Storelli, Maria M; Zizzo, Nicola

    2014-02-15

    Livers of 12 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea) were analyzed for the presence of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Pathological and microbiological studies were also carried out in order to provide a contribution to the knowledge of causes of Mediterranean turtle death. Boat-strike injuries, entanglement in derelict fishing nets and ingestion of hooks and monofilament lines are the causes of death most frequently observed. PCBs (average: 1,399 ng g(-1) fat basis) were the dominant chemicals, followed by PCDFs (average: 61 pg g(-1) fat basic) and PCDDs (average: 16 pg g(-1) fat basis). Hexachlorobiphenyl 153 accounted for the greatest proportion of the total PCBs, followed in order by PCB 138 and PCB 180 (14.1%). Mid-chlorinated, penta-through hepta-PCBs were among the top contributors to the sum of total PCBs, while the homolog pattern of PCCD/Fs was dominated by the tetra- to hexa-substituted congeners. In general the contamination level observed here was comparable with that reported in literature for specimens from different marine areas. Average TEQPCDD/Fs+Dl-PCBs concentration was 27.02 pg g(-1) wet weight (305.1 pg g(-1) lipid weight), with dioxin like-PCBs (93.4%) contributing much more to the total than PCDFs (3.9%) and PCDDs (2.7%). The appreciable concentration of TEQ would at first suggest that there are signs of potential threats to the health of these marine reptiles. Apart from PCBs, this is the first study documenting concentrations of PCDD/Fs in marine turtles from the Mediterranean Sea. Further investigations are urgently needed to characterize their contamination level for a better future protection and conservation of this endangered animal.

  17. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments/soils of different wetlands along 100-year coastal reclamation chronosequence in the Pearl River Estuary, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingqing; Bai, Junhong; Lu, Qiongqiong; Gao, Zhaoqin; Jia, Jia; Cui, Baoshan; Liu, Xinhui

    2016-06-01

    PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in sediment/soil profiles to a depth of 30 cm from three different wetlands (i.e., ditch wetlands, riparian wetlands and reclaimed wetlands) of the Pearl River Estuary to elucidate their levels, distribution and toxic risks along a 100-year chronosequence of reclamation. All detected PCB congeners and the total 15 PCBs (∑15 PCBs) decreased with depth along sediment/soil profiles in these three wetlands. The ∑15 PCBs concentrations ranged from 17.68 to 169.26 ng/g in surface sediments/soils. Generally, old wetlands tended to have higher PCB concentrations than younger ones. The dominant PCB congeners at all sampling sites were light PCB homologues (i.e., tetra-CBs and tri-CBs). According to the sediment quality guideline, the average PCB concentrations exceeded the threshold effects level (TEL, 21.6 ng/g) at most of the sampling sites, exhibiting possible adverse biological effects, which were dominantly caused by light PCB congeners. The total toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations of 10 dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) detected at all sampling sites ranged from 0.04 to 852.7 (10(-3) ng/g), mainly affected by PCB126. Only DL-PCB concentrations in ditch and riparian wetland sediments with 40-year reclamation histories (i.e., D40 and Ri40) exhibited moderate adverse biological effects according to SQGQ values. Principal component analysis indicated that PCBs in three wetland sediments/soils mainly originated from Aroclor 1016, 1242, and 1248. Correlation analysis showed that sediment/soil organic carbon content had a significant correlation with the concentrations of several PCB congeners (P < 0.05), whereas no significant correlations were observed between any PCBs congeners and grain size or aggregate content (P > 0.05).

  18. Dechlorination of PCBs in the simulative transformer oil by microwave-hydrothermal reaction with zero-valent iron involved.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xitao; Zhao, Wei; Sun, Ke; Zhang, Guixiang; Zhao, Ye

    2011-01-01

    The conventional hydrothermal reaction with iron powder, NaOH and H(2)O as reactants was reported to occur at temperature above 423K, and iron oxides (Fe(3)O(4) and NaFeO(2)) and hydrogen were produced. In this study, microwave heating was adopted to take the place of conventional heating to induce the hydrothermal reaction. Under microwave irradiation, NaOH and H(2)O absorbed microwave energy by space charge polarization and dipolar polarization and instantly converted it into thermal energy, which initiated the hydrothermal reaction that involved with zero-valent iron. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis found Fe(3)O(4)/NaFeO(2) and confirmed the occurrence of microwave-induced hydrothermal reaction. The developed microwave-hydrothermal reaction was employed for the dechlorination of PCBs. Hexadecane containing 100mgL(-1) of Aroclor1254 was used as simulative transformer oil, and the dechlorination of PCBs was evaluated by GC/ECD, GC/MS and ion chromatography. For PCBs in 10mL simulative transformer oil, almost complete dechlorination was achieved by 750W microwave irradiation for 10min, with 0.3g iron powder, 0.3g NaOH and 0.6mL H(2)O added. The effects of important factors including microwave power and the amounts of reactants added, on the dechlorination degree were investigated, moreover, the dechlorination mechanism was suggested. Microwave irradiation combined with the common and cheap materials, iron powder, NaOH and H(2)O, might provide a fast and cost-effective method for the treatment of PCBs-containing wastes.

  19. Geographic variation of chlorinated pesticides, toxaphenes and PCBs in human milk from sub-arctic and arctic locations in Russia.

    PubMed

    Polder, A; Odland, J O; Tkachev, A; Føreid, S; Savinova, T N; Skaare, J U

    2003-05-01

    The concentrations of HCB, alpha-, beta- and gamma-HCH, 3 chlordanes (CHLs), p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDT, and 30 PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) were determined in 140 human milk samples from Kargopol (n=19), Severodvinsk (n=50), Arkhangelsk (n=51) and Naryan-Mar (n=20). Pooled samples were used for determination of three toxaphenes (chlorobornanes, CHBs). The concentrations of HCB, beta-HCH and p,p'-DDE in Russian human milk were 2, 10 and 3 times higher than corresponding levels in Norway, respectively, while concentrations of sum-PCBs and sum-TEQs (toxic equivalent quantities) of the mono-ortho substituted PCBs were in the same range as corresponding levels in Norway. The PCB-156 contributed most to the sum-TEQs. Highest mean concentrations of HCB (129 microg/kg milk fat) and sum-PCBs (458 microg/kg milk fat) were detected in Naryan-Mar, while highest mean concentrations of sum-HCHs (408 microg/kg milk fat), sum-CHLs (48 microg/kg milk fat), sum-DDTs (1392 microg/kg milk fat) and sum-toxaphenes (13 microg/kg milk fat) were detected in Arkhangelsk. An eastward geographic trend of increasing ratios of alpha/beta-HCH, gamma/beta-HCH, p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and PCB-180/28 was observed. In all areas the levels of sum-HCHs decreased with parity (number of children born). Considerable variation in levels of the analysed organochlorines (OCs) was found in all the studied areas. Breast milk from mothers nursing their second or third child (multiparas) in Naryan-Mar showed a significant different PCB profile compared to mothers giving birth to their first child (primiparas) from the same area and to primi- and multiparas in the other areas. Both p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT showed a significant, but weak, negative correlation with the infants birth weight.

  20. PCDDs, PCDFs, and PCBs in human blood in relation to consumption of crabs from a contaminated Fjord area in Norway.

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, H R; Alexander, J; Rossland, O J; Planting, S; Løvik, M; Gaarder, P I; Gdynia, W; Bjerve, K S; Becher, G

    1996-01-01

    Consumption of fish and shellfish from contaminated areas may be an important source of human exposure to persistent organohalogen compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). We determined concentrations of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDDs and PCDFs and 19 PCB congeners in whole blood samples from three groups of men, 40-54 years of age, with different consumption levels of crabs from a fjord area in southern Norway polluted with organochlorine compounds from a magnesium production plant. A significant increase of many PCDD/PCDF congeners was found in the blood when comparing the referents, moderate-, and high-intake groups. The greatest difference was observed for several of the PCDFs that are characteristic for the contamination of the marine biota of the fjord. PCBs, in general, play a minor role in the contamination of the fjord by the magnesium production process, except for the highly chlorinated congeners such as PCB-209. Nevertheless, almost all PCBs increased from the referents to the high-intake group. However, the relative concentrations of several highly chlorinated PCBs (particularly PCB-209) in blood are unexpectedly low compared to their abundance in crabs, indicating low uptake of these congeners. The exposure to PCDDs/PCDFs from crab consumption calculated from individual body burdens of these compounds were in good agreement with the intake estimated from previously measured concentrations in crabs, reported fishing sites, and consumption. Almost all subjects in the high-intake group exceeded the tolerable weekly intake of 35 pg TEQ/kg body weight/week proposed by a Nordic Expert Group. Images Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. Figure 6. PMID:8841762

  1. Dioxin-like PCBs and PCDD/Fs in surface sediments near the shore of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria.

    PubMed

    Omwoma, Solomon; Lalah, Joseph O; Virani, Munir; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Henkelmann, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria is considered to be contaminated with toxic chemicals emanating from anthropogenic activities, especially near large industrial towns such as Kisumu. This has recently caused concerns about its water quality and impact on aquatic organisms and human beings. This study was justified by the need to generate baseline concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in surface sediment from selected sites in the lake and determine the influence of activities on their concentrations and potential risks to fish-eating birds living near the lake. Surface sediments (<30cm) from three different fish landing beaches, located 200m from the shore of Winam Gulf of Lake Victoria near Kisumu city, Homa Bay and Mbita (control) towns, were analysed. The total mean concentrations (in pgg(-1)drywt) were found to range from 17.4-812 (Σdl-PCBs), 36.6-813 (ΣPCDDs) and 1.45-46.4 (ΣPCDFs). The calculated Toxic Equivalents (TEQWHO(2005)) ranged from 0.001-0.43 (Σdl-PCBs) and 0.09-31 (ΣPCDD/Fs). The fish landing beaches at Kisumu city were found to be contaminated with respect to dl-PCBs and dioxins, followed by Homa Bay and Mbita. The relatively high levels of octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF) influenced the TEQ and the ΣPCDFs/ΣPCDDs ratios indicated chemical processes as partial sources of the dioxins. The levels of contaminants obtained in this study showed potential exposure to aquatic organisms and fish eating birds through food chain transfer.

  2. Depuration of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Breast Milk from California First-Time Mothers (Primiparae)

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Kim; She, Jianwen; Sharp, Margaret; Chow, Joan; Jewell, Nicholas; Gephart, Rosanne; Holden, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the rates of loss (depuration) of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from mothers during lactation. Depuration rates affect infant exposure to chemicals during breast-feeding, and fetal and lactational transfers during subsequent pregnancies. Objective Our objective in this study was to estimate depuration rates of PBDEs and PCBs using serial samples of breast milk. Method Nine first-time mothers (primiparae) each collected samples at 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 weeks after birth. Nine additional primiparae each collected two samples at varying time intervals (18 to > 85 weeks after birth). Analytical precision was assessed to evaluate the accuracy of measured monthly percentage declines in PBDEs and PCBs. Results The four major PBDE congeners decreased 2 or 3% ± 1% per month over the 6-month period. These decreases were consistent over a 50-fold range (21–1,330 ng/g lipid weight) of initial PBDE concentrations in breast milk. The change in PCB-153 ranged from + 0.3% to –0.6% per month, with heterogeneous slopes and greater intraindividual variability. PBDE and PCB concentrations declined 1% per month over longer periods (up to 136 weeks). Conclusions Our data indicate that PBDEs and PCBs are not substantially (4–18%) reduced in primiparae after 6 months of breast-feeding. Consequently, the fetal and lactational exposures for a second child may not be markedly lower than those for the first. Participants were volunteers from a larger study population (n = 82), and were typical in their PBDE/PCB levels and in many demographic and lifestyle factors. These similarities suggest that our results may have broader applicability. PMID:17805415

  3. Dietary Fat Interacts with PCBs to Induce Changes in Lipid Metabolism in Mice Deficient in Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Hennig, Bernhard; Reiterer, Gudrun; Toborek, Michal; Matveev, Sergey V.; Daugherty, Alan; Smart, Eric; Robertson, Larry W.

    2005-01-01

    There is evidence that dietary fat can modify the cytotoxicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and that coplanar PCBs can induce inflammatory processes critical in the pathology of vascular diseases. To test the hypothesis that the interaction of PCBs with dietary fat is dependent on the type of fat, low-density lipoprotein receptor–deficient (LDL-R−/−) mice were fed diets enriched with either olive oil or corn oil for 4 weeks. Half of the animals from each group were injected with PCB-77. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression in aortic arches was non-detectable in the olive-oil–fed mice but was highly expressed in the presence of PCB-77. PCB treatment increased liver neutral lipids and decreased serum fatty acid levels only in mice fed the corn-oil–enriched diet. PCB treatment increased mRNA expression of genes involved in inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress in all mice. Upon PCB treatment, mice in both olive- and corn-oil–diet groups showed induction of genes involved in fatty acid degradation but with up-regulation of different key enzymes. Genes involved in fatty acid synthesis were reduced only upon PCB treatment in corn-oil–fed mice, whereas lipid transport/export genes were altered in olive-oil–fed mice. These data suggest that dietary fat can modify changes in lipid metabolism induced by PCBs in serum and tissues. These findings have implications for understanding the interactions of nutrients with environmental contaminants on the pathology of inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis. PMID:15626652

  4. Contamination levels and congener distribution of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs in buffalo's milk from Caserta province (Italy).

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Serpe, Francesco Paolo; Neugebauer, Frank; Cavallo, Stefania; Gallo, Pasquale; Colarusso, Germana; Baldi, Loredana; Iovane, Giuseppe; Serpe, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    An extraordinary plan of official control was carried out in 2008 in Campania (Italy) with the aim to monitor polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) levels in buffalo milk and to detect the contaminated farms, most of which are located in Caserta province. For these companies has been ordered seizure and execution of additional analyses has been requested in farms falling in the nearness, within a distance of 3km, for a total of 304 farms examined. Moreover, all non-compliant farms were subjected to a periodic sampling in order to monitor trends in the levels of contamination. In this paper the distribution and the concentrations of 17 PCDD/Fs and 12 dioxin-like PCBs in 460 samples of buffalo milk collected in the province of Caserta (Italy) are presented. The range of WHO-TEQ values for the PCDD/Fs in milk was 0.17pgTEQg(-1)fat and 87.0pgTEQg(-1)fat with a mean value 3.63pgTEQg(-1)fat and medium value 2.25pgTEQg(-1)fat. The concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs in the analysed samples ranged from 0.21pgTEQg(-1)fat to 15.9pgTEQg(-1)fat and the WHO-TEQ values of sum of PCDDs, PCDFs and dl-PCBs ranged from 0.45pgTEQg(-1)fat to 103.0pgTEQg(-1)fat. The geo-referencing analysis allowed to individuate a restricted area of the region object of the present study where is located the majority of the non-compliant farms. The study of the congeners distribution has finally suggested that the likely cause of contamination is to be attributed to the illegal burning of waste.

  5. NMR-based metabonomic analysis of the hepatotoxicity induced by combined exposure to PCBs and TCDD in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Chunfeng; Wang Yimei; Sheng Zhiguo; Liu Gang; Fu Ze; Zhao Jing; Zhao Jun; Yan Xianzhong; Zhu Benzhan; Peng Shuangqing

    2010-11-01

    A metabonomic approach using {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy was adopted to investigate the metabonomic pattern of rat urine after oral administration of environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo- p-dioxin (TCDD) alone or in combination and to explore the possible hepatotoxic mechanisms of combined exposure to PCBs and TCDD. {sup 1}H NMR spectra of urines collected 24 h before and after exposure were analyzed via pattern recognition by using principal component analysis (PCA). Serum biochemistry and liver histopathology indicated significant hepatotoxicity in the rats of the combined group. The PCA scores plots of urinary {sup 1}H NMR data showed that all the treatment groups could be easily distinguished from the control group, so could the PCBs or TCDD group and the combined group. The loadings plots of the PCA revealed remarkable increases in the levels of lactate, glucose, taurine, creatine, and 2-hydroxy-isovaleric acid and reductions in the levels of 2-oxoglutarate, citrate, succinate, hippurate, and trimethylamine-N-oxide in rat urine after exposure. These changes were more striking in the combined group. The changed metabolites may be considered possible biomarker for the hepatotoxicity. The present study demonstrates that combined exposure to PCBs and TCDD induced significant hepatotoxicity in rats, and mitochondrial dysfunction and fatty acid metabolism perturbations might contribute to the hepatotoxicity. There was good conformity between changes in the urine metabonomic pattern and those in serum biochemistry and liver histopathology. These results showed that the NMR-based metabonomic approach may provide a promising technique for the evaluation of the combined toxicity of EDs.

  6. Seasonal variability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) congener profiles in butter in Poland: dietary risk evaluation.

    PubMed

    Roszko, Marek; Szymczyk, Krystyna; Rzepkowska, Małgorzata; Jędrzejczak, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Various statistical methods have been employed to analyse in details seasonal diversification of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)/polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congener profiles found in butter fat. The variability of the PCB/PBDE congener profiles indicates the presence of various sources of the milk fat contamination. The obtained results suggest that the environmental chemical background has the highest share in the contamination sources pattern. Ion trap mass spectrometry coupled to high-resolution gas chromatography with semi-permeable membrane dialysis sample cleanup was used for determination of PCBs and PBDEs in milk fat. Determined butter fat PCB profiles were similar to the profiles characteristic for Aroclor 1254 technical mixture. Our data indicate that dietary intake of PCB/PBDE with milk and milk products may be estimated to be about 717.5 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for six-indicator PCBs, 0.329 (equivalent toxicity, TEQ) pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for 12 DL PCBs and 50 pg kg b.w.(-1) day(-1) for PBDEs (sum of 14 congeners).

  7. Determination and quantification of PCBs, POCs and PAHs in Thunnus thynnus from the Straits of Messina (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Saija, Emanuele; Mangano, Valentina; Casale, Katia Ermina; La Torre, Giovanna Loredana; Dugo, Giacomo; Salvo, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This data set is composed to assess the accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) dioxin like (DL) and not dioxin like (NDL), organochlorine pesticides (POCs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Thunnus thynnus and to elucidate the suitability of this species as a bioindicator for monitoring contaminations of these compounds in the marine ecosystems of the Straits of Messina. This investigation was conducted on liver samples of 14 T. thynnus collected during April 2015. Quantitative determination of PCBs (DL and NDL), POCs and PAHs in the examined samples has been carried out by HRGC-MS/MS. Among the PCBs, high prevalence of DL was found while, generally, the values detected for PCBs–NDL were lower than the legal limits. Tuna samples analyzed for PAHs residues revealed that all the samples were contaminated with acenaphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene and anthracene. Moreover, generally the residual levels of DDT and DDT metabolites were low. The total content of PCB–DL, in almost all the samples, showed higher concentration than the legal limit. PMID:26933670

  8. Field estimate of net trophic transfer efficiency of PCBs to Lake Michigan chinook salmon from their prey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; O'Connor, Daniel V.; Stewart, Donald J.; Miller, Michael A.; Masnado, Robert G.

    2002-01-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) has been the predominant piscivore in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Ontario since the 1970s, and therefore accurate quantification of its energy budget is needed for effective management of Great Lakes fisheries. A new approach of evaluating a fish bioenergetics model in the field involves field estimation of the efficiency with which the fish retains PCBs from its food. We used diet information, PCB determinations in both chinook salmon and their prey, and bioenergetics modeling to generate a field estimate of the efficiency with which Lake Michigan chinook salmon retain PCBs from their food. Our field estimate is the most reliable field estimate to date because (a) the estimate was based on a relatively high number (N = 142) of PCB determinations for chinook salmon from Wisconsin waters of Lake Michigan in 1985, (b) a relatively long time series (1978−1988) of detailed observations on chinook salmon diet in Lake Michigan was available, and (c) the estimate incorporated new information from analyses of chinook salmon age and growth during the 1980s and 1990s in Lake Michigan. We estimated that chinook salmon from Lake Michigan retain 53% of the PCBs that are contained within their food.

  9. Residue levels of DDE and PCBs in the blood serum of women in the Port Said region of Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohamed Tawfic; Loutfy, Naglaa; El Shiekh, Einas

    2002-01-04

    An investigation was conducted to detect residues of 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in blood serum samples collected from a cohort of fasting females attending the health insurance outpatient clinic at Port Said between July 1999 and July 2000. Females involved in the study included 43 females diagnosed with invasive adenocarcinoma of the breast, 21 female suffering benign breast disease, and 11 normal healthy females. Serum was separated and its contents of DDE and PCBs were extracted and determined, using gas chromatography, equipped with electron capture detector. Mean residues of DDE detected in the three examined groups of females were 41+/-5.2, 48+/-6.2 and 31+/-2.5ng/g for breast cancer cases, benign breast disease cases and controls, respectively, indicating some significantly less residues in blood serum of control females. While PCBs residues detected were 54+/-17, 59+/-23 and 61+/-21ng/g, for the three groups, respectively. Residues of DDE detected in all females alike in the present study are about 15 times higher than residues detected in Canada and The Netherlands.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in harbor sediments from Sea Lots, Port-of-Spain, Trinidad and Tobago

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mohammed, Azad; Peterman, Paul; Echols, Kathy; Feltz, Kevin; Tegerdine, George; Manoo, Anton; Maraj, Dexter; Agard, John; Orazio, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in nearshore marine surficial sediments from three locations in Trinidad. Sediments were sampled at Sea Lots on the west coast, in south Port-of-Spain Harbor, south of Sea Lots at Caroni Lagoon National Park, and on Trinidad's east coast at Manzanilla. Total PCB concentrations in Sea Lots sediments ranged from 62 to 601 ng/g (dry weight {dw}), which was higher than at Caroni and Manzanilla, 13 and 8 ng/g dw, respectively. Total OCP concentrations at Sea Lots were ranged from 44.5 to 145 ng/g dw, compared with 13.1 and 23.8 n/g (dw), for Caroni and Manzanilla respectively. The concentrations of PCBs and of some OCPs in sediments from Sea Lots were above the Canadian interim sediment quality guidelines. To date, this data is the first report on the levels of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds from Trinidad and Tobago.

  11. Partitioning of PCBs in the muscle and reproductive tissues of paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, at the Falls of the Ohio River

    SciTech Connect

    Gundersen, D.T. ); Pearson, W.D. )

    1992-09-01

    The paddlefish, Polyodon spathula, is a primitive fish characterized by a predominantly cartilaginous skeleton, a virtually scaleless body, and a rostrum or paddle nearly one-third of the body length. At the Falls of the Ohio River near Louisville, KY, paddlefish are harvested for their roe used to produce domestic caviar. The persistence of this small but intensive fishery for the roe of female paddlefish may be slowing or even reversing the recovery of populations in the Falls area of the Ohio River. Residues of toxic substances harmful to humans are being detected in many fishes in the Ohio River. Organochlorine pollutants such as chlordane and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are being detected at levels as high as those of 10 yr ago. Recent data from studies conducted in the Missouri River on PCB levels in the tissues of the shovelnose sturgeon, a species closely related to the paddlefish, indicate that the concentration of PCBs in sturgeon roe is several times that of concentrations in flesh. This study examines the PCB content of the roe of paddlefish at the location of a commercial fishery. The study investigated the partitioning of PCBs into the muscle and reproductive tissues of paddlefish, considered possible correlations between PCB concentration and age and percent lipid, and looked at the existence of any differences in mean PCB concentrations between male and female paddlefish. 17 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from fish and meat by residents of Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Su, Guanyong; Liu, Xiaohua; Gao, Zishen; Xian, Qimin; Feng, Jianfang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Giesy, John P; Wei, Si; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Hongxia

    2012-07-01

    Concentrations of 14 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDEs) and 28 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) congers were measured in 137 samples of fish and meat from Nanjing, a city in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Total concentrations of PBDEs were less in fish (mean of 180 pg/g ww; range 8.0-1100 pg/g ww), but more in non fish foods (mean of 180 pg/g ww; range 15-950 pg/g ww) than those reported from other countries. The total dietary intake of PBDEs and PCBs by humans were 9.9 ng PBDE/d and 870 ng PCB/d, respectively. The daily intake by a 60 kg adult of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ(WHO)) from PCBs was estimated to be 49 pg (PCB)TEQ(WHO)/d (0.82 pg (PCB)TEQ(WHO)/kg bw), which is less than the tolerable daily intake suggested by the World Health Organization (WHO). The daily intake of meat and fish accounted for 57.2% and 42.8% of the total intake of (PCB)TEQ(WHO).

  13. Occurrence and biomagnification of polychlorinated naphthalenes and non- and mono-ortho PCBs in Lake Ontario sediment and biota.

    PubMed

    Helm, Paul A; Gewurtz, Sarah B; Whittle, D Michael; Marvin, Chris H; Fisk, Aaron T; Tomy, Gregg T

    2008-02-15

    Biota and surface sediments collected from Lake Ontario were analyzed for polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and non- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (n/ m-o-PCBs) to compare bioaccumulation behavior of these classes of dioxin-like chemicals in a food web from the Great Lakes. Mean sigmaPCN concentrations (tri-octaCN) ranged from 14 +/- 9 pg/g in plankton to 3500 +/- 3200 pg/g (wet weight) in lake trout while sediments contained from 21 to 38 ng/g (dry weight). Principal components analysis of PCN congener patterns indicated that chlorine substitution determined which congeners favored accumulation (e.g., CN-42, -52, -60, -66, -67, and -73), while others may be subject to metabolism. The bioaccumulative congeners exhibited similar trophic magnification factors (TMFs; 1.23-1.42) and biomagnification factors (BMFs; 5.5-8.6) to the n/m-o-PCBs for the trout/weighted diet relation, although BMFs for a benthic feeding relationship (slimy sculpin/Diporeia) indicated that the n/m-o-PCBs were more bioavailablethroughthe benthic pathway. PCNs contribute significantly to the burden of dioxin-like compounds in Lake Ontario biota, contributing between 12 and 22% of total PCN + PCB TEQ in lake trout and up to 69% in benthic organisms.

  14. Demonstration Testing of a Thermal Desorption Unit to Receive and Treat Waste with Unlimited Concentration of PCBs - 13437

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Timothy L.; Palmer, Carl R.

    2013-07-01

    For the last nine years, EnergySolutions and TD*X Associates LP have teamed up to provide the most comprehensive organic removal treatment process in the radioactive waste industry. The high performance thermal desorption unit (HP-TDU) located at the EnergySolutions Clive facility in Utah has successfully processed over 1,850 tons of organically contaminated radioactive mixed waste. Products from the HP-TDU system include a radioactively contaminated dry solid material that can be disposed in the on-site landfill and an organic condensate with high thermal energy content that is generally below background radiation and capable of free-release to a non-radioactive incinerator. Over the years, Permits and approvals have been obtained through the state of Utah, United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Region 8, and USEPA headquarters that enable the treatment of several waste categories including volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, combustion-coded (CMBST) compounds, volatile metals, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The unit has recently successfully completed Demonstration Testing for PCB concentrations up to 660,000 ppm (parts per million). Solid processed material from this Demonstration Testing was less than two ppm PCBs in three separate treatment runs; reprocessing or additional treatment was not needed to meet this limit. Through post-demonstration permitting, the system is unlimited in scope as approval has been given to receive and solidify up to pure PCBs down to this processing limit concentration to complete treatment of mixed waste. (authors)

  15. Influential role of black carbon in the soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the Indus River Basin, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Usman; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Mahmood, Adeel; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2015-09-01

    Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were assessed in surface soils and passive air samples from the Indus River Basin, and the influential role of black carbon (BC) in the soil-air partitioning process was examined. ∑26-PCBs ranged between 0.002-3.03 pg m(-3) and 0.26-1.89 ng g(-1) for passive air and soil samples, respectively. Lower chlorinated (tri- and tetra-) PCBs were abundant in both air (83.9%) and soil (92.1%) samples. Soil-air partitioning of PCBs was investigated through octanol-air partition coefficients (KOA) and black carbon-air partition coefficients (KBC-A). The results of the paired-t test revealed that both models showed statistically significant agreement between measured and predicted model values for the PCB congeners. Ratios of fBCKBC-AδOCT/fOMKOA>5 explicitly suggested the influential role of black carbon in the retention and soil-air partitioning of PCBs. Lower chlorinated PCBs were strongly adsorbed and retained by black carbon during soil-air partitioning because of their dominance at the sampling sites and planarity effect.

  16. Enhanced tolerance and remediation to mixed contaminates of PCBs and 2,4-DCP by transgenic alfalfa plants expressing the 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Ren, Hejun; Pan, Hongyu; Liu, Jinliang; Zhang, Lanying

    2015-04-09

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) generally led to mixed contamination of soils as a result of commercial and agricultural activities. Their accumulation in the environment poses great risks to human and animal health. Therefore, the effective strategies for disposal of these pollutants are urgently needed. In this study, genetic engineering to enhance PCBs/2,4-DCP phytoremediation is a focus. We cloned the 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase (BphC.B) from a soil metagenomic library, which is the key enzyme of aerobic catabolism of a variety of aromatic compounds, and then it was expressed in alfalfa driven by CaMV 35S promoter using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgenic line BB11 was selected out through PCR, Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays. Its disposal and tolerance to both PCBs and 2,4-DCP were examined. The tolerance capability of transgenic line BB11 towards complex contaminants of PCBs/2,4-DCP significantly increased compared with non-transgenic plants. Strong dissipation of PCBs and high removal efficiency of 2,4-DCP were exhibited in a short time. It was confirmed expressing BphC.B would be a feasible strategy to help achieving phytoremediation in mixed contaminated soils with PCBs and 2,4-DCP.

  17. Investigation of levels in ambient air near sources of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Kanpur, India, and risk assessment due to inhalation.

    PubMed

    Goel, Anubha; Upadhyay, Kritika; Chakraborty, Mrinmoy

    2016-05-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds listed as persistent organic pollutant and have been banned for use under Stockholm Convention (1972). They were used primarily in transformers and capacitors, paint, flame retardants, plasticizers, and lubricants. PCBs can be emitted through the primary and secondary sources into the atmosphere, undergo long-range atmospheric transport, and hence have been detected worldwide. Reported levels in ambient air are generally higher in urban areas. Active sampling of ambient air was conducted in Kanpur, a densely populated and industrialized city in the Indo-Gangetic Plain, for detection of 32 priority PCBs, with the aim to determine the concentration in gas/particle phase and assess exposure risk. More than 50 % of PCBs were detected in air. Occurrence in particles was dominated by heavier congeners, and levels in gas phase were below detection. Levels determined in this study are lower than the levels in Coastal areas of India but are at par with other Asian countries where majority of sites chosen for sampling were urban industrial areas. Human health risk estimates through air inhalation pathway were made in terms of lifetime average daily dose (LADD) and incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCR). The study found lower concentrations of PCBs than guideline values and low health risk estimates through inhalation within acceptable levels, indicating a minimum risk to the adults due to exposure to PCBs present in ambient air in Kanpur.

  18. River otters as biomonitors for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs in Illinois.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Samantha K; Mateus-Pinilla, Nohra E; Singh, Kuldeep; Lehner, Andreas; Satterthwaite-Phillips, Damian; Bluett, Robert D; Rivera, Nelda A; Novakofski, Jan E

    2014-02-01

    The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis) is a biomonitor for organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) associated with a wide range of deleterious health effects in wildlife and humans. We determined concentrations of twenty OHCs in livers of 23 river otters salvaged by the Illinois Department of Natural Resources from 2009 to 2011, determined sex-dependent distribution of OHCs, and compared our results to the reported concentrations of four OHCs in Illinois river otters from 1984 to 1989. Since these contaminants have been banned for over 30 years, we predicted smaller mean concentrations than those previously reported in Illinois otters. We detected eleven of twenty OHCs; PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), dieldrin, and 4,4'-DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) were present in the greatest mean concentrations. We report the largest mean concentration of dieldrin to date in the liver of North American river otters (mean: 174, range: 14.4-534 parts per billion wet wt [ppb]). Mean PCB concentrations were significantly higher in males (mean: 851; range: 30-3450 ppb) than females (mean: 282; range: 40-850 ppb; p=0.04). Mean concentrations of dieldrin were greater than those detected in otters from 1984 to 1989 (mean: 90; range: 30-130 ppb; p<0.05). Our results suggest OHC exposure remains a concern. Future research in Illinois should focus on evaluating OHCs exposures, particularly dieldrin, at the watershed level.

  19. Dioxins/furans and PCBs in bivalves and sediments from NOAA national status and trends program

    SciTech Connect

    Wade, T.; Gardinali, P.; Jackson, T.; Sericano, J.; Chambers, L.

    1995-12-31

    As part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Status and Trends (NS and T) Mussel Watch Program 55 bivalves and 7 sediment samples were analyzed for 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD and PCDF) and planar PCBs. Bivalve samples were collected from selected US East Gulf and West coast sites, while the sediment samples were all from the Gulf coast. Sediment concentrations for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (TCDD and TCDF) ranged from 0.35 to 25 pg/g and 0.42 to 140 pg/g, respectively. The 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 2,3,7,8-TCDF represent only a small percentage of the total PCDD and PCDF in the sediments which is the case for most sediment. The concentration of TCDD and TCDF in bivalves ranged from not detected (ND) to 25 pg/g and ND to 140 pg/g, respectively. Most bivalve samples, in contrast to the sediment contained low proportions of the higher molecular weight PCDDs and PCDFs. The relative toxicological importance of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and dioxin-like PCB to the bivalves from different locations will be compared based on toxicity equivalency factors.

  20. Trophic magnification of PCBs and its relationship to the octanol-water partition coefficient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, D.M.; Mills, M.A.; Cade, B.S.; Burkard, L.P.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation relative to octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and organism trophic position (TP) at the Lake Hartwell Superfund site (South Carolina). We measured PCBs (127 congeners) and stable isotopes (??15N) in sediment, organic matter, phytoplankton, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and fish. TP, as calculated from ??15N, was significantly, positively related to PCB concentrations, and food web trophic magnification factors (TMFs) ranged from 1.5-6.6 among congeners. TMFs of individual congeners increased strongly with log KOW, as did the predictive power (r2) of individual TP-PCB regression models used to calculate TMFs. We developed log KOW-TMF models for eight food webs with vastly different environments (freshwater, marine, arctic, temperate) and species composition (cold- vs warmblooded consumers). The effect of KOW on congener TMFs varied strongly across food webs (model slopes 0.0-15.0) because the range of TMFs among studies was also highly variable. We standardized TMFs within studies to mean = 0, standard deviation (SD) = 1 to normalize for scale differences and found a remarkably consistent KOW effect on TMFs (no difference in model slopes among food webs). Our findings underscore the importance of hydrophobicity (as characterized by KOW) in regulating bioaccumulation of recalcitrant compounds in aquatic systems, and demonstrate that relationships between chemical KOW and bioaccumulation from field studies are more generalized than previously recognized. ?? This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2011 by the American Chemical Society.

  1. Biocontainment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on flat concrete surfaces by microbial carbonate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Okwadha, George D O; Li, Jin

    2011-10-01

    In this study, a biosealant obtained from microbial carbonate precipitation (MCP) was evaluated as an alternative to an epoxy-coating system. A bacterium Sporosarcina pasteurii strain ATCC 11859, which metabolizes urea and precipitates calcite in a calcium-rich environment, was used in this study to generate the biosealant on a PCB-contaminated concrete surface. Concrete cylinders measuring 3 in (76.2 mm) by 6 in (152.4 mm) were made in accordance with ASTM C33 and C192 and used for this purpose. The PCB, urea, Ca(2+), and bacterial cell concentrations were set at 10 ppm, 666 mM, 250 mM, and about 2.1 × 10(8) cells mL(-1), respectively. The results indicate that the biosealed surfaces reduced water permeability by 1-5 orders of magnitude, and had a high resistance to carbonation. Since the MCP biosealant is thermally stable under temperatures of up to 840 °C, the high temperatures that normally exist in the surrounding equipment, which may contain PCB-based fluids, have no effect on the biosealed surfaces. Consequently, there is greater potential to obtain a stronger, coherent, and durable surface by MCP. No measurable amount of PCBs was detected in the permeating water, indicating that the leaching water, if any, will have a minimum impact on the surrounding environment.

  2. The spatial distribution of human exposure to PCBs around a former production site in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Wimmerová, Soňa; Watson, Alan; Drobná, Beata; Šovčíková, Eva; Weber, Roland; Lancz, Kinga; Patayová, Henrieta; Richterová, Denisa; Koštiaková, Vladimíra; Jurečková, Dana; Závacký, Pavol; Strémy, Maximilián; Jusko, Todd A.; Murínová, L'ubica Palkovičová; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Trnovec, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated concentrations of 15 PCB congeners in blood serum of 2,047 adults, 431 8-9-years old children and 1,134 mother-child pairs born in 2001-2003. These subjects were long-standing residents living up to 70 km (to the north) and up to 50 km (to the south) of the former Chemko Strážske PCB production facility in the Michalovce district of Slovakia. We plotted serum concentration against distance from the plant both with and without consideration of the direction of their homes from the site. The decrease in exposure with distance could be described by an exponential function which was dependent on direction and climatic parameters. By kriging we created maps depicting predicted isoconcentration contours for sex- and age-adjusted serum concentration of ΣPCBs for the same group of children, adults and mothers. The principle of our risk analysis was to relate serum concentration data, reflecting PCB body burden, using the critical concentrations established by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES 2010) as thresholds below which the probability of effects on health is regarded as negligible. We conclude that 10 years ago around 200,000 residents were at risk in this densely populated area. Exposure has since decreased but the mechanism for this has not yet been studied. PMID:26250810

  3. Evidence that PCBs are approaching stable concentrations in Lake Michigan fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stow, Craig A.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Eby, Lisa A.; Amrhein, James F.; Hesselberg, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    We examined PCB concentration data for seven species of Lake Michigan fishes to determine what trends were apparent °20 yr after PCB restrictions became effective. Total PCB concentrations in all seven species, lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), brown trout (Salmo trutta), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), and bloater chub (Coregonus hoyi) declined and appeared to stabilize in the mid-to-late 1980s. Concentrations in two species, chinook and coho salmon, appear to have increased slightly since the late 1980s. All species are currently well below the high PCB levels that existed when PCB use was curtailed in the 1970s. We believe stabilizing concentrations are the result of large pools of PCBs that are being recycled in the environment. Atmospheric and sediment PCB inputs to the lake probably constitute current PCB sources. Increasing concentrations in chinook and coho salmon are likely the result of changing growth dynamics caused by alterations in the mid-trophic levels of the food web. Median stable PCB concentrations estimated in this analysis are below the current FDA action level of 2 mg/kg, but not appreciably below this threshold. Improvements beyond these levels may result if management practices that maximize fish growth rates are implemented. Detection of future improvements in PCB levels may require samples in the range of 1000-2000 fish because of the high variability in PCB concentrations among individuals.

  4. Effects of embryonic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on larval zebrafish behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Ava K.; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders have been linked to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutant. The zebrafish is widely recognized as an excellent model system for assessing the effects of toxicant exposure on behavior and neurodevelopment. In the present study, we examined the effect of sub-chronic embryonic exposure to the PCB mixture, Aroclor (A) 1254 on anxiety-related behaviors in zebrafish larvae at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf). We found that exposure to low concentrations of A1254, from 2 to 26 hours post-fertilization (hpf) induced specific behavioral defects in two assays. In one assay with intermittent presentations of a moving visual stimulus, 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae displayed decreased avoidance behavior but no significant differences in thigmotaxis or freezing relative to controls. In the other assay with intermittent presentations of a moving visual stimulus and a stationary visual stimulus, 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae had elevated baseline levels of thigmotaxis but no significant differences in avoidance behavior relative to controls. The 5 ppm larvae also displayed higher terminal levels of freezing relative to controls. Collectively, our results show that exposure to ecologically valid PCB concentrations during embryonic development can induce functional deficits and alter behavioral responses to a visual threat. PMID:26561944

  5. Effects of embryonic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on anxiety-related behaviors in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Sarah T; Remick, Dylan; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M

    2016-03-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an excellent model system for assessing the effects of toxicant exposure on behavior and neurodevelopment. In the present study, we examined the effects of sub-chronic embryonic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutant, on anxiety-related behaviors. We found that exposure to the PCB mixture, Aroclor (A) 1254, from 2 to 26h post-fertilization (hpf) induced two statistically significant behavioral defects in larvae at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf). First, during 135min of free swimming, larvae that had been exposed to 2ppm, 5ppm or 10ppm A1254 exhibited enhanced thigmotaxis (edge preference) relative to control larvae. Second, during the immediately ensuing 15-min visual startle assay, the 5ppm and 10ppm PCB-exposed larvae reacted differently to a visual threat, a red 'bouncing' disk, relative to control larvae. These results are consistent with the anxiogenic and attention-disrupting effects of PCB exposure documented in children, monkeys and rodents and merit further investigation.

  6. Modeling bioaccumulation and biotransformation of PAHs and PCBs by benthic macrofauna from lower Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Dickhut, R.M.; Schaffner, L.C.; Lay, P.; Mitra, S.

    1995-12-31

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of selected PAHs and PCBs from sediments spiked with radiolabeled compounds were examined in benthic communities from lower chesapeake Bay during summer and winter. Kinetic models were then used to determine the steady-state bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for the parent compounds in various benthic macrofaunal organisms, as well as the BAFs of aqueous soluble metabolites that tended to accumulate in the animals. BAFs for the parent compounds increased with the octanol-water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) of the compound up to a log K{sub ow} of approximately 6. However, in contrast to previous studies, the elimination rate constant was the dominant factor controlling the observed nonequilibrium with respect to bioaccumulation of the organic contaminants. Consequently, BAFs for the parent contaminants were related to the physical-chemical factors regulating passive elimination, as well as metabolic transformation of the parent compound. Aqueous soluble metabolite BAFs were directly related to the physical-chemical factors dictating the rate of formation of the conjugated complexes. Overall, body burdens of organic contaminants were higher in the summer relative to winter, as were the aqueous soluble metabolite fractions of contaminants in the animals, possibly indicating that organism activities as well as lipid pools are higher in summer compared to winter. The results indicate that a variety of physical, chemical, and biological factors interact in the ecosystem to dictate bioaccumulation and biotransformation of organic contaminants.

  7. Effects of embryonic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on anxiety-related behaviors in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Sarah T.; Remick, Dylan; Creton, Robbert; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an excellent model system for assessing the effects of toxicant exposure on behavior and neurodevelopment. In the present study, we examined the effects of sub-chronic embryonic exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a ubiquitous anthropogenic pollutant, on anxiety-related behaviors. We found that exposure to the PCB mixture, Aroclor (A) 1254, from 2 to 26 hours post-fertilization (hpf) induced two statistically significant behavioral defects in larvae at 7 days post-fertilization (dpf). First, during 135 min of free swimming, larvae that had been exposed to 2 ppm, 5 ppm or 10 ppm A1254 exhibited enhanced thigmotaxis (edge preference) relative to control larvae. Second, during the immediately ensuing 15-min visual startle assay, the 5 ppm and 10 ppm PCB-exposed larvae reacted differently to a visual threat, a red ‘bouncing’ disk, relative to control larvae. These results are consistent with the anxiogenic and attention-disrupting effects of PCB exposure documented in children, monkeys and rodents and merit further investigation. PMID:26748073

  8. Regional spatial and temporal interpolation of atmospheric PCBs: Interpretation of Lake Michigan mass balance data

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.L.; Depinto, J.V.; Sweet, C.; Hornbuckle, K.C.

    2000-05-01

    During the Lake Michigan Mass Balance (LMMB) Project, over 600 atmospheric samples were collected at eight shoreline sites and during seven cruises. These samples were analyzed for persistent organic pollutants, including PCB congeners, atrazine, and trans-nonachlor. The authors have developed a method for interpreting the gas-phase data that includes fractionating the observed PCB concentration into land- and water-based sources. This approach accounts for differences in gas-phase atmospheric PCB concentration over water and over land. Using this fractionation approach, they have interpolated the measured data over time and space to predict PCB air concentrations over the lake during the LMMB field period. The results predict gas-phase {Sigma}PCB (sum of {approximately}98 congener groups) concentrations for each of 2,319 grid cells over the lake, on a monthly basis. The authors estimate that lake-wide monthly average {sigma}PCB gas-phase concentrations range from 0.136 to 1.158 ng/m{sup 3}, with an annual average PCB concentration of 0.457 ng/m{sup 3}. As expected, the highest concentrations of PCBs over the lake when the winds are from the southwest (out of the Chicago-Gary region) and when land surface temperatures are elevated. The predicted influence of Chicago is described on a monthly basis as a zone of elevated PCB concentrations for approximately 40 km into Lake Michigan.

  9. Trophic magnification of PCBs and Its relationship to the octanol-water partition coefficient.

    PubMed

    Walters, David M; Mills, Marc A; Cade, Brian S; Burkard, Lawrence P

    2011-05-01

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation relative to octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) and organism trophic position (TP) at the Lake Hartwell Superfund site (South Carolina). We measured PCBs (127 congeners) and stable isotopes (δ¹⁵N) in sediment, organic matter, phytoplankton, zooplankton, macroinvertebrates, and fish. TP, as calculated from δ¹⁵N, was significantly, positively related to PCB concentrations, and food web trophic magnification factors (TMFs) ranged from 1.5-6.6 among congeners. TMFs of individual congeners increased strongly with log K(OW), as did the predictive power (r²) of individual TP-PCB regression models used to calculate TMFs. We developed log K(OW)-TMF models for eight food webs with vastly different environments (freshwater, marine, arctic, temperate) and species composition (cold- vs warmblooded consumers). The effect of K(OW) on congener TMFs varied strongly across food webs (model slopes 0.0-15.0) because the range of TMFs among studies was also highly variable. We standardized TMFs within studies to mean = 0, standard deviation (SD) = 1 to normalize for scale differences and found a remarkably consistent K(OW) effect on TMFs (no difference in model slopes among food webs). Our findings underscore the importance of hydrophobicity (as characterized by K(OW)) in regulating bioaccumulation of recalcitrant compounds in aquatic systems, and demonstrate that relationships between chemical K(OW) and bioaccumulation from field studies are more generalized than previously recognized.

  10. Allantoinase in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush): in vitro effects of PCBs, DDT and metals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May; Cotant, Carol A.

    1979-01-01

    1. Allantoinase, an enzyme in the purine-urea cycle, was found in livers of Salvelinus namaycush (Osteichthyes: Salmoniformes). 2. The enzyme was active from pH 6.6 to 8.2 at 37°C and from pH 7.4 to 9.0 at 10°C and had an Arrhenius energy of activation of 11.0 kcal/mol and a temperature quotient of 2.0. The Km of the enzyme homogenate was 8.4 mM allantoin. 3. The concentration of inorganic metals at which 50% inhibition occurred during in vitro exposure were 6.0 mg/l Cu2+, 6.7 mg/l Cd2+, 34 mg/l Hg2+ and 52 mg/l Pb2+. The in vitro sensitivity to PCBs, DDT and DDE and kinetics in the presence of metals were determined. 4. Allantoinase activity was negatively correlated with body length for fish from Lake Michigan but not from Lake Superior or the laboratory.

  11. Suppression of immune functions by PCBs in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriquez Grau, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    This research is part of an effort to develop non-mammalian surrogate immunoassays with the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris to assess immunotoxic potential of xenobiotics to mammals. The objective was to determine if earthworm immunoassays, namely E- and S-rosette formation and phagocytosis, are sensitive to a known mammalian immunotoxin, the PCB Aroclor 1254. Results are presented in terms of PCB exposure and tissue levels during uptake/depuration. Using 5-d filter paper contact exposure, LC{sub 50} and LD{sub 50} were 300 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} and 1140 {mu}g/g dry mass. Nominal PCB exposure concentration of 5 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} and actual tissue levels of 76 {mu}g/g dry mass were sufficient to suppress S-rosette formation, a humoral response. S-rosette suppression and return of function followed PCB levels in coelomic leukocytes, the presumed site of toxicity. Phagocytic response also showed suppressive effects but only at a nominal PCB exposure level of 10 {mu}g/cm{sup 2}, which corresponds to an actual tissue level of 185 {mu}g/g dry mass. However, PCbs had no effect on E-rosette formation with rabbit red blood cells, a component of immunity associated with surface receptor molecules. Compared to published mammalian data on PCB suppression of immunoglobulin production, the earthworm S-rosette immunoassay appeared to be more sensitive.

  12. Predicting bioavailability of PAHs and PCBs with porewater concentrations measured by solid-phase microextraction fibers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Skwarski, Alison; Drake, Brian; Reible, Danny D

    2011-05-01

    Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was measured in the deposit-feeding oligochaete Ilyodrilus templetoni exposed for 28 d to Anacostia River sediment (Washington, DC, USA) and to an initially uncontaminated sediment from Brown Lake (Vicksburg, MS, USA) sequentially diluted with 3 to 25% contaminated New Bedford Harbor sediment (New Bedford, MA, USA). The Anacostia River sediment studies represented exposure to a historically contaminated sediment with limited availability, whereas exposure to the other sediment included both the historically contaminated New Bedford Harbor sediment and fresh redistribution of contaminants into the Brown Lake sediments. Organism tissue concentrations did not correlate with bulk sediment concentrations in the Anacostia River sediment but did correlate with the sequentially diluted sediment. Porewater concentrations measured via disposable solid-phase microextraction fiber (SPME) with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), however, correlated well with organism uptake in all sediments. Bioaccumulation was predicted well by a linear relationship with the product of porewater concentration and compound octanol-water partition coefficient (Anacostia, slope = 1.08, r² = 0.76; sequentially diluted sediments, slope = 1.24, r² = 0.76). The data demonstrate that the octanol-water partition coefficient is a good indicator of the lipid-water partition coefficient and that porewater concentrations provide a more reliable indicator of bioaccumulation in the organism than sediment concentrations, even when the route of uptake is expected to be via sediment ingestion.

  13. Evaluation of PCBs and DDTs in endemic Iberian barbel Barbus bocagei (Steindachner, 1864) populations.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Graciela G; Parra, Irene; Sáez, Mónica; Almodóvar, Ana; Jiménez, Begoña

    2014-05-01

    PCB and DDT levels were evaluated in populations of endemic Iberian barbel (Barbus bocagei) in the Jarama River in Spain via a pollution gradient from well-preserved areas upstream to contaminated downstream areas. Age structure, abundance, recruitment and levels of morphological abnormalities and ectoparasites were assessed. Upstream to downstream PCB concentrations ranged from 3.4 to 101.4 ng/g (ww) and from 0.9 to 19.6 ng/g ww for DDTs. The PCB pattern was dominated by the PCB 153, 138 and 180 congeners, and the less chlorinated ones had a relatively high contribution upstream. Barbels exposed to low PCB and DDT levels had a well-balanced population with a predominant cohort of young fish, indicating good recruitment. The most contaminated sites displayed a disrupted age distribution, where the proportion of young fish was clearly under-represented. Recruitment and total density of barbel populations decreased downstream where the highest PCB and DDT levels were found. In addition, a higher incidence of abnormalities and ectoparasites was observed at these sites. High concentrations of PCBs and DDTs most likely contribute to the reduction of Iberian barbel reproductive performance in the most contaminated sites, as shown by the disrupted age-distribution found in our study.

  14. Reductive dechlorination reduces negative impact of PCBs on in vitro fertilization

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, K.; Mousa, M.; Quensen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The variety of toxic effects ascribed to commercial PCB mixtures is likely because the individual congeners differ in their modes of toxicity and potencies. Similarly, a change in the congener composition of a PCB mixture due to reductive dechlorination by anaerobic microorganisms might be expected to alter the toxicological properties of that PCB mixture. In this study, Aroclors 1,242 and 1,254 were reductively dechlorinated using cultures of microorganisms from two different sites. The resulting dechlorination products and Aroclors were then tested for their effects on in vitro fertilization using mouse gametes. In general, percent fertilization increased with the extent of dechlorination. For example, fertilization in treatments with 10 {micro}g/ml of either Aroclor was only 40% of that in controls without Aroclor, but equal total molar concentrations of the dechlorination products produced by River Raisin microorganisms had no significant effect on fertilization. By this measure, therefore, the microbial dechlorination of PCBs appears to have a beneficial effect in reducing reproductive toxicity.

  15. An Assessment of the Bioaccumulation of PCBs and Chloridane Near the U.S. Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.J.

    2003-12-30

    Studies conducted by the Missouri Department of Conservation in the late 1980s found high levels of PCBs and chlordane in fish from the Blue River near the Kansas City Plant (KCP). Follow-on biomonitoring studies by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff from 1991-1993 (Southworth et al. 1992, Ashwood et al. 1993, Ashwood and Peterson 1994), and again on a more limited basis in 1998 (Ashwood 1998), were conducted for the KCP. The studies in the early 1990s characterized concentrations of PCBs and chlordane in fish from Indian Creek, Boone Creek, and the Blue River. These studies concluded that the KCP appears to be one of multiple sources of PCBs to both Indian Creek and the Blue River. There continues to be interest in the potential role of KCP discharges on PCB concentrations in local fish. Elevated PCB concentrations in Indian Creek fish have consistently been found at the location downstream of the NPDES-permitted 002 discharge, which drains a section of the KCP complex. A risk evaluation conducted during 2001 found that some local fish exceeded risk-based guidelines for PCBs. It has been nearly a decade since intensive sampling of fish was conducted within all waters near the KCP (the 1998 study included Indian Creek only); therefore, an update study was warranted. The purpose of the present study is to provide PCB and chlordane concentrations in fish useful in determining the potential human health risks associated with fish in waters near the KCP, to evaluate the relative significance of KCP discharges relative to other inputs on fish levels, and to determine if levels have changed in the years since fish were last analyzed. Fish were collected near the KCP for PCB and chlordane analyses in October and November of 2002. Although chlordane does not appear to be associated with the KCP (it was most commonly used to treat household termite infestations until 1988), it is of interest from an overall risk standpoint. Because monitoring change over time is an

  16. Residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides in organically-farmed vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zohair, Azza; Salim, Abou-Bakr; Soyibo, Adeola A; Beck, Angus J

    2006-04-01

    The residues of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soils from organic farms and their uptake by four varieties of organic-produced potatoes and three varieties of organic carrots from England were investigated. Samples of the soils, crop peels and cores were all Soxhlet-extracted in triplicate, cleaned up by open-column chromatography and analysed by a multi-residue analytical method using gas chromatography with mass selective detection. The concentrations of PAHs, PCBs and OCPs in soils from organic farms ranged from 590+/-43 to 2301+/-146 microg/kg, 3.56+/-0.73 to 9.61+/-1.98 microg/kg and 52.2+/-4.9 to 478+/-111 microg/kg, respectively. Uptake by different crop varieties were 8.42+/-0.93 to 40.1+/-4.9 microg/kg sigmaPAHs, 0.83+/-0.19 to 2.68+/-0.94 microg/kg sigmaPCBs and 8.09+/-0.83 to 133+/-27 microg/kg sigmaOCPs. Residue uptake from soils depended on plant variety; Desiree potato and Nairobi carrot varieties were more susceptible to PAH contamination. Likewise, uptake of PCBs and OCPs depended on potato variety. There were significant positive correlations between the PCB and OCP concentrations (P<0.05) in soils and carrots but no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of any contaminants in soils and potatoes. Peeling carrots and potatoes was found to remove 52-100% of the contaminant residues depending on crop variety and the properties of the contaminants. Soil-crop bioconcentration factors (BCFs) decreased with increasing logK(ow) for PAHs up to about 4.5 and for PCBs up to about 6.5, above which no changes were discernible for either class of contaminants. No relationship was observed between soil-crop BCFs and logK(ow) for OCPs, most likely because their concentrations were low and variable.

  17. Relationship of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with parasitism, iron homeostasis, and other health outcomes: Results from a cross-sectional study on recently arrived African immigrants.

    PubMed

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Jaén Sánchez, Nieves; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2016-10-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic and persistent chemicals produced between 1930s and 1980s, which accumulate in humans and wildlife. Although a decreasing trend of PCB levels in humans has been described in developed countries, mainly as a consequence of strict regulations and remediation plans, an inverse trend has been recently reported in people from developing countries. We had the opportunity of sampling a series of African immigrants recently arrived to the Spanish archipelago of the Canary Islands, in which high levels of PCBs have been described, and we studied the relationships between their level of contamination and health status. A total of 570 subjects who underwent a complete medical examination and a face-to-face interview were recruited for this study. Hematological and biochemical parameters (blood and urine) were determined in all participants. Serology for the diagnostic of infectious diseases was also performed, and direct identification of parasites was performed in feces, urine or blood samples when appropriate. It is remarkable that up to 26.0% of the population had intestinal parasites, and we found an inverse relationship between PCB levels and parasitism and parasitic diseases: median values of PCBs were lower in parasitized subjects than in subjects without parasites in stool (237.6ng/g fat vs. 154.4ng/g fat for marker PCBs, p=0.015) and median values of dioxin-like PCBs were lower in subjects carrying pathogen parasites than among subjects showing non-pathogen parasites in stool (0.0 ng/g fat vs. 13.1ng/g fat, respectively; p=0.001). Although this inverse association had been described in some vertebrates this is the first study reporting such an association in humans. Furthermore, it has been also recently described that PCBs may disrupt iron metabolism, and we found a direct relationship between serum iron and total PCBs burden (r=0.231, p=0.025), suggesting that PCBs, although at subclinical level, could play a role on iron

  18. Bioaccumulation of PCBs and chlorinated pesticides in seals, fishes and invertebrates from the White Sea, Russia.

    PubMed

    Muir, Derek; Savinova, Tatiana; Savinov, Vladimir; Alexeeva, Ludmila; Potelov, Vladimir; Svetochev, Vladislav

    2003-05-01

    early 1990s. The major OC contaminants in fishes from the White Sea were DDT-related compounds and PCBs. Navaga (Eleginus navaga) had the highest concentrations of the 5 fish species studied with mean summation operator PCB of 41+/-6 ng/g wet wt. while lowest mean concentrations were present in cod muscle (16+/-8 ng/g ww). Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), DDT, CHL-related compounds and PCB congeners were strongly correlated with trophic level of the organisms assigned using delta(15)N values, while beta-HCH, gamma-HCH and cis-chlordane showed no relationship with trophic level. Food web magnification factors (FWMFs) for p,p'-DDE, alpha-HCH, oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor the White Sea were similar to those from marine food webs in the Barents Sea and the Canadian arctic, while FWMFs for HCB and PCBs were generally lower. Overall the results suggest that the White Sea marine food differs in terms of the availability of contaminants in comparison to studies of open ocean arctic food webs due to proximity to urban/industrial areas and greater importance of benthic food sources.

  19. Electrokinetic delivery of persulfate to remediate PCBs polluted soils: Effect of different activation methods.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guangping; Cang, Long; Gomes, Helena I; Zhou, Dongmei

    2016-02-01

    Persulfate-based in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) for the remediation of organic polluted soils has gained much interest in last decade. However, the transportation of persulfate in low-permeability soil is very low, which limits its efficiency in degrading soil pollutants. Additionally, the oxidation-reduction process of persulfate with organic contaminants takes place slowly, while, the reaction will be greatly accelerated by the production of more powerful radicals once it is activated. Electrokinetic remediation (EK) is a good way for transporting persulfate in low-permeability soil. In this study, different activation methods, using zero-valent iron, citric acid chelated Fe(2+), iron electrode, alkaline pH and peroxide, were evaluated to enhance the activity of persulfate delivered by EK. All the activators and the persulfate were added in the anolyte. The results indicated that zero-valent iron, alkaline, and peroxide enhanced the transportation of persulfate at the first stage of EK test, and the longest delivery distance reached sections S4 or S5 (near the cathode) on the 6th day. The addition of activators accelerated decomposition of persulfate, which resulted in the decreasing soil pH. The mass of persulfate delivered into the soil declined with the continuous decomposition of persulfate by activation. The removal efficiency of PCBs in soil followed the order of alkaline activation > peroxide activation > citric acid chelated Fe(2+) activation > zero-valent iron activation > without activation > iron electrode activation, and the values were 40.5%, 35.6%, 34.1%, 32.4%, 30.8% and 30.5%, respectively. The activation effect was highly dependent on the ratio of activator and persulfate.

  20. Protective effects of selenium against DNA adducts formation in Inuit environmentally exposed to PCBs

    PubMed Central

    Ravoori, Srivani; Srinivasan, Cidambi; Pereg, Daria; Robertson, Larry W; Ayotte, Pierre; Gupta, Ramesh C

    2012-01-01

    Dietary habits that expose populations to potential toxicants as well as protective agents simultaneously is a realistic scenario where a meaningful assessment of the interactions and net benefit or damage can be made. A group of Inuit from Salluit, Northern Canada are exposed to high levels of PCBs and selenium, both present in the Inuit traditional foods such as blubber from sea mammals and fatty fish. Blood samples were collected from 83 Inuit, 22–70 years old. Blood selenium and PCB levels were determined previously and ranged from 227 to 2,069 µg/L and 1.7 to 143 µg/L, respectively. DNA isolated from white blood cells were analyzed by modified 32P-postlabeling adductomics technology that detects a multitude of highly polar to lipophilic adducts. The levels of 8-oxodG adducts ranged from 470 to 7,400 adducts/109 nucleotides. Other as yet unidentified polar adducts showed a 30 to 800–fold inter-individual variability. Adduct levels were negatively associated with PCB and selenium levels. The subjects were classified into high and low ratio groups, with respect to selenium/PCB. In the high ratio group, the coefficient of selenium is significantly negatively correlated with 8-oxodG (r = −0.38, p = 0.014) and total adducts (r = −0.41, p = 0.009) while there was no correlation within the low selenium/PCB group. This study suggests increasing selenium has mitigating effect in reducing DNA adducts and therefore, possible negative effects of PCB were not rendered. A protective effect of selenium is highlighted. PMID:19735942

  1. Enantioselective gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of methylsulfonyl PCBs with application to arctic marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Wiberg, K; Letcher, R; Sandau, C; Duffe, J; Norstrom, R; Haglund, P; Bidleman, T

    1998-09-15

    Four different commercially available cyclodextrin (CD) capillary gas chromatography (GC) columns were tested for the enantioselective separation of nine environmentally persistent atropisomeric 3- and 4-methylsulfonyl PCBs (MeSO2-CBs). The selected columns contained cyclodextrins with various cavity diameters (beta- or gamma-CD), which were methylated and/or tert-butyldimethylsilylated (TBDMS) in the 2,3,6-O-positions. The beta-CD column with TBDMS substituents in all of the 2,3,6-O-positions was by far the most selective column for the MeSO2-CBs tested. Enantiomers of congeners with 3-MeSO2 substitution were more easily separated than those with 4-MeSO2 substitution. The separation also seemed to be enhanced for congeners with the chlorine atoms on the non-MeSO2-containing ring and clustered on one side of the same ring. The 2,3-di-O-methyl-6-O-TBDMS-beta-CD was found to give somewhat better selectivity than the corresponding gamma-CD, in comparison between the two columns, which were identical in all other respects. Enantioselective analysis of arctic ringed seal (Phoca hispida) and polar bear (Ursus maritimus) adipose tissue revealed a strong dominance of certain enantiomers. For example, the enantiomer ratio (ER) of 3-MeSO2-CB149 was 0.32 and < 0.1 in ringed seal blubber and polar bear fat, respectively. These low ER values are indicative of highly enantioselective formation, enantioselective metabolism, enantioselective transport across cell membranes, or a combination of the three in both species. Comparable results for the enantiomeric analysis of MeSO2-CBs in biotic tissue extracts were obtained using two highly selective mass spectrometric techniques, ion trap mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and electron capture negative ion low-resolution mass spectrometry.

  2. Effects of PCBs and related compounds on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and mice

    SciTech Connect

    Sleight, S.

    1985-05-01

    Commercial mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) can cause hepatocellular carcinoma in rats and mice. Present evidence indicates that these chemicals act as promoters and not initiators of hepatocarcinogenesis. Our results show that Firemaster BP-6 (FM) and its nontoxic major congener, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), act as promoters in the two-stage model for hepatocarcinogenesis devised by Pitot and associates. A toxic congener, 3,3',4,4',5,5'-HBB, also was assessed for tumor-promoting activity. This congener, though not in FM, is similar to TCDD, in that both cause 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)-type induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes and produce similar toxic responses. FM contains several congeners which are mixed-type inducers in that they induce MC-type and phenobarbital (PB)-type enzymes. The toxicity of FM is most likely associated with its congeners which are mixed-type inducers and not to relatively nontoxic congeners such as 2,2',4,4',5,5'-HBB which are strictly PB-type inducers. Congener 3,3',4,4'5,5'-HBB acted as a tumor promoter only at a dose that was hepatotoxic. A synergistic effect on tumor promoting ability was produced by combining a nontoxic and nonpromoting dose of 3,3',4,4',5,5'-HBB with a promoting dose of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-HBB. Our results suggest that synergism between toxic and nontoxic congeners in FM may explain why mixtures such as FM have greater promoting ability than individual congeners. Our results also indicate that with PBB, toxicity and carcinogenicity are not necessarily related.

  3. Effects of PCBs and related compounds on hepatocarcinogenesis in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Sleight, S

    1985-05-01

    Commercial mixtures of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) can cause hepatocellular carcinoma in rats and mice. Present evidence indicates that these chemicals act as promoters and not initiators of hepatocarcinogenesis. Our results show that Firemaster BP-6 (FM) and its nontoxic major congener, 2,2', 4,4', 5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), act as promoters in the two-stage model for hepatocarcinogenesis devised by Pitot and associates. A toxic congener, 3,3', 4,4', 5,5'-HBB, also was assessed for tumor-promoting activity. This congener, though not in FM, is similar to TCDD, in that both cause 3-methylcholanthrene (MC)-type induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes and produce similar toxic responses. FM contains several congeners which are mixed-type inducers in that they induce MC-type and phenobarbital (PB)-type enzymes. The toxicity of FM is most likely associated with its congeners which are mixed-type inducers and not to relatively nontoxic congeners such as 2,2', 4,4', 5,5'-HBB which are strictly PB-type inducers. Congener 3,3', 4,4', 5,5'-HBB acted as a tumor promoter only at a dose that was hepatotoxic. A synergistic effect on tumor promoting ability was produced by combining a nontoxic and nonpromoting dose of 3,3', 4,4', 5,5'-HBB with a promoting dose of 2,2', 4,4', 5,5'-HBB. Our results suggest that synergism between toxic and nontoxic congeners in FM may explain why mixtures such as FM have greater promoting ability than individual congeners. Our results also indicate that with PBB, toxicity and carcinogenicity are not necessarily related.

  4. Mobilization of PAHs and PCBs from In-Place Contaminated Marine Sediments During Simulated Resuspension Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latimer, J. S.; Davis, W. R.; Keith, D. J.

    1999-10-01

    A particle entrainment simulator was used to experimentally produce representative estuarine resuspension conditions to investigate the resulting transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the overlying water column. Contaminants were evaluated in bulk sediments, size fractionated sediments, resuspended particulate material and in some cases, dissolved phases during the experiments. The two types of sediments used in the experiments, dredged material and bedded estuarine sediment, represented gradients in contaminant loadings and sediment textural characteristics. For the bedded sediment, resuspension tended to winnow the sediments of finer particles. However, in the case of the more highly contaminated dredge material, non-selective resuspension was most common. Resuspension resulted in up to orders of magnitude higher particle-bound organic contaminant concentrations in the overlying water column. Dissolved phase PAH changes during resuspension were variable and at most, increased by a factor of three. The sifting process resulted in the partitioning of fine and coarse particle contaminant loading. For bedded sediments, accurate predictions of PAH and PCB loadings on resuspended particles were made using the mass of resuspended particles of different sizes and the concentrations of contaminants in the particle pools of the bulk sediment. However, due possibly to contributions from other unmeasured particles (e.g. colloids), predictions were not possible for the dredge material. Thus, knowledge of the redistribution and fate of colloids may be important. The partitioning of PAHs between the dissolved and particulate phases during resuspension events was predicted to within a factor of two from the amount of organic carbon in each of the resuspended samples. These experiments show that contaminant transport is a function of the chemistry and textural characteristics of the bulk sediment and the winnowing action

  5. Sex ratios, bill deformities, and PCBs in nestling double-crested cormorants

    SciTech Connect

    Stromborg, K.L.; Sileo, L.; Tuinen, P. van

    1995-12-31

    Deformed double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) nestlings examined from 1988--1992 had a sex ratio highly skewed toward females (66 of 81) compared to normal nestlings (43 of 80) (P < 0.005). The collection site, Green Bay, WI, is heavily contaminated with PCBs and the possibility of gender alteration was investigated in a designed study by comparing the sex of nestling birds determined using three techniques. These nestlings were collected at five sites, both contaminated and uncontaminated. Genetic sex was determined by cytogenetic techniques and phenotypic sex was determined by macroscopic and histologic examination of gonads. Differences between techniques resulted in a few instances of classifying genetic males as females by one or the other gonadal examinations. Sex ratios of the nestlings from the five sites were compared to binomial distributions assuming equal probabilities of males and females. Sex ratios of normal nestlings were not different from expected regardless of sex determination technique (P > 0.10). Deformed nestlings sexed cytogenetically or histologically did not differ from expected (P > 0.40), but deformed nestlings tended to be classified , macroscopically as females at a higher rate than expected (P = 0.092). The observed sex ratios obtained by macroscopic techniques did not differ between the 1968--1992 observational study and the designed study (P > 0.50). Histologic examination suggested two explanations for the skewed sex ratio: nestlings with undeterminable macroscopic sex usually had testes and, some gonads which grossly resembled ovaries were, in fact, testes. If phenotypic gender alteration is present in these birds, it is more evident at the gross structural level than at the histologic level.

  6. Levels of toxic PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs in biotic and abiotic samples from Galveston Bay, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Gardinali, P.; Wade, T.

    1995-12-31

    Concentrations of di-, mono-, non-ortho PCB congeners as well as the seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) were measured in American oyster, blue crab, hardhead catfish liver and sediment samples collected from five sites in the Galveston Bay System. In general, when measuring sediments and sentinel organisms, a geographical gradient of contaminant load is observed between the heavily industrialized and the open bay sites. Although sediment concentrations are relatively low at most stations, toxic PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs are strongly bioconcentrated in all three organisms analyzed. Levels of 2,3,7,8-TCDD ranged from 1.15 to 16.4 pg/g in the oysters, 1.10 to 138 pg/g in the blue crabs and, 11.0 to 101 pg/g in the catfish livers. 2,3,7,8-TCDD concentrations in sediments ranged from non-detected to 4.44 pg/g. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDF ranged from 2.31 to 50.6 pg/g in the oysters, 5.77 to 385 pg/g in the blue crabs and, 5.57 to 8.04 pg/g in the catfish livers, while sediment concentrations were between 0.65 to 7.46 pg/g. When the toxicity equivalent factor (TEF) approach was used to estimate the 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQs), the non-ortho PCB congeners were the major TEQ contributors for the all organisms (29 to 74%). In contrast, the TEQ for the sediment samples were largely dominated by the contribution from PCDDs and PCDFs. The results also suggest that oysters, in spite of their lower concentrations, are more valuable for biomonitoring the availability of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbon contaminants.

  7. Strong sorption of PCBs to nanoplastics, microplastics, carbon nanotubes, and fullerenes.

    PubMed

    Velzeboer, I; Kwadijk, C J A F; Koelmans, A A

    2014-05-06

    The presence of microplastic and carbon-based nanoparticles in the environment may have implications for the fate and effects of traditional hydrophobic chemicals. Here we present parameters for the sorption of 17 CB congeners to 10-180 μm sized polyethylene (micro-PE), 70 nm polystyrene (nano-PS), multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), fullerene (C60), and a natural sediment in the environmentally relevant 10(-5)-10(-1) μg L(-1) concentration range. Effects of salinity and sediment organic matter fouling were assessed by measuring the isotherms in fresh- and seawater, with and without sediment present. Sorption to the "bulk" sorbents sediment organic matter (OM) and micro-PE occurred through linear hydrophobic partitioning with OM and micro-PE having similar sorption affinity. Sorption to MWCNT and nano-PS was nonlinear. PCB sorption to MWCNT and C60 was 3-4 orders of magnitude stronger than to OM and micro-PE. Sorption to nano-PS was 1-2 orders of magnitude stronger than to micro-PE, which was attributed to the higher aromaticity and surface-volume ratio of nano-PS. Organic matter effects varied among sorbents, with the largest OM fouling effect observed for the high surface sorbents MWCNT and nano-PS. Salinity decreased sorption for sediment and MWCNT but increased sorption for the polymers nano-PS and micro-PE. The exceptionally strong sorption of (planar) PCBs to C60, MWCNT, and nano-PS may imply increased hazards upon membrane transfer of these particles.

  8. Evaluation of the release of dioxins and PCBs during kiln-firing of ball clay.

    PubMed

    Broadwater, Kendra; Meeker, John D; Luksemburg, William; Maier, Martha; Garabrant, David; Demond, Avery; Franzblau, Alfred

    2014-01-01

    Ball clay is known to be naturally contaminated with high levels of polychlorinated di-benzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). This study evaluated the potential for PCDD, polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) release during the kiln firing of ball clay in an art studio. Toxic equivalence (TEQ) were calculated using World Health Organization (WHO) 2005 toxic equivalence factors (TEF) and congener concentrations. Ten bags of commercial ball clay were found to have an average TEQ of 1,370 nanograms/kilogram (ng kg(-1)) dry weight (dw), almost exclusively due to PCDDs (99.98% of TEQ). After firing, none of the 29 dioxin-like analytes was measured above the limits of detection (LOD) in the clay samples. Air samples were taken during firings using both low-flow and high-flow air samplers. Few low-flow air samples contained measurable levels of dioxin congeners above the LOD. The mean TEQ in the high volume air samples ranged from 0.07 pg m(-3) to 0.21 pg m(-3) when firing ball clay, and was 0.11 pg m(-3) when no clay was fired. These concentrations are within the range measured in typical residences and well-controlled industrial settings. The congener profiles in the high-flow air samples differed from the unfired clay; the air samples had a considerable contribution to the TEQ from PCDFs and PCBs. Given that the TEQs of all air samples were very low and the profiles differed from the unfired clay, it is likely that the PCDDs in dry ball clay were destroyed during kiln firing. These results suggest that inhalation of volatilized dioxins during kiln firing of dry ball clay is an unlikely source of exposure for vocational and art ceramicists.

  9. Spatial and temporal trends in PCBs in sediment along the lower Rhone River, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desmet, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Roux, Gwenaelle; Persat, Henri; Lefevre, Irene; Peretti, Annie; Chapron, Emmanuel; Anaelle, Simonneau; Miege, Cecile; Babut, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasingly strict control of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) releases in France since the mid-1970s, PCB contamination of fish recently has emerged as a major concern in the lower Rhone River basin. We measured PCB concentrations in Rhone sediment to evaluate the effects of PCB releases from major urban and industrial areas, sediment redistribution by large floods, and regulatory controls on PCB trends from 1970 to present. Profiles of PCBs (the sum of seven indicator PCB congeners) were reconstructed from sediment cores collected from an off-river rural reference site and from three depositional areas along the Rhone upstream and downstream from the city of Lyon, France. Core chronology was determined from radionuclide profiles and flood deposits. PCB concentrations increased progressively in the downstream direction, and reached a maximum concentration in 1991 of 281 μg/kg at the most downstream site. At the rural reference site and at the upstream Rhone site, PCB concentrations peaked in the 1970s (maximum concentration of 13 and 78 μg/kg, respectively) and have decreased exponentially since then. PCB concentrations in the middle and downstream cores were elevated into the early 1990s, decreased very rapidly until 2000, and since then have remained relatively stable. Congener profiles for three time windows (1965–80, 1986–93, and 2000–08) were similar in the three sediment cores from the Rhone and different from those at the rural reference site. The results indicate that permitted discharges from a hazardous-waste treatment facility upstream from Lyon might have contributed to high concentrations into the 1980-90s, but that industrial discharges from the greater Lyon area and tributaries to the Rhone near Lyon have had a greater contribution since the 1990s. There is little indication that PCB concentration in sediments downstream from Lyon will decrease over at least the short term.

  10. Three-year monitoring of atmospheric PCBs and PBDEs at the Chinese Great Wall Station, West Antarctica: Levels, chiral signature, environmental behaviors and source implication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pu; Li, Yingming; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Qinghua; Zhang, Lin; Liu, Fubin; Fu, Jianjie; Meng, Wenying; Wang, Dou; Sun, Huizhong; Zheng, Shucheng; Hao, Yanfen; Liang, Yong; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-02-01

    A three-year monitoring campaign (Jan 2011-2014) of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was conducted using a high-volume air sampler at the Chinese Great Wall Station in King George Island, West Antarctica. The results showed that the Σ20PCB and Σ27PBDE concentrations (gas + particle) were 5.87-72.7 pg m-3 and 0.60-16.1 pg m-3, respectively. The lighter congeners especially PCB-11 (a non-Aroclor congener) dominated Σ20PCBs, while BDE-209 made a significant contribution to Σ27PBDEs apart from the lighter congeners (e.g., BDE-28 and -17). The chiral signature indicated nonracemic residues of chiral PCBs in the samples, suggesting potential influence of the secondary source, i.e. air-seawater exchange, on the atropisomer composition of chiral PCBs in air. Lighter PCBs (excluding PCB-11) showed significant temperature dependence in 2011 and 2012, reflecting the influence of revolatilization emission from the local surface. However, the shallow slopes of the regression lines for gaseous concentrations of POPs against reciprocal temperature (1/T) suggested long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) as an important pathway for both PCBs and PBDEs into the Antarctic environment. Furthermore, correlations and ratios between different signature congeners deriving from the technical formulations indicated a local source of Deca-BDE and photodegradation of higher brominated BDEs. The gas/particle partitioning of POPs was also evaluated and the newly developed steady-state-based model generally showed a better performance than the equilibrium-state-based model. However, the former still underestimated the partitioning of most PCBs (log KOA <11) in particle phase, implying that further optimization is necessary when using it for those compounds with lower log KOA.

  11. PCDDs/PCDFs, dl-PCBs and HCB in the flue gas from coal fired CFB boilers.

    PubMed

    Grochowalski, Adam; Konieczyński, Jan

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the project was to measure the actual emissions of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from four selected power plants in Poland in order to update the national inventory of PCDDs/PCDFs emission. Relatively low PCDDs/PCDFs as well as dl-PCBs concentrations in flue gas obtained in measurements in this study for four different circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boilers indicate practical absence of any hazards caused by PCDDs/PCDFs emission from these units. The results of PCDDs/PCDFs determination obtained in this study indicate that hard coal combustion in large CFB in the four central heating plants (CHP) is not a significant source of PCDDs/PCDFs emission to the environment even if operated by co-firing of waste coal. PCDDs/PCDFs concentration in flue gases as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 0.012-0.060 ng I-TEQ/m(n)(3) and 7.51-46.4 microg I-TEQ/TJ, respectively. Dl-PCBs concentration was practically below the LOQ=0.006 ng WHO-PCB TEQ/m(n)(3) in all experiments. HCB concentration as well as emission factors were recorded in the range of 11.5-42.0 ng/m(n)(3) and 6.19-26.7 mg/TJ, respectively, where the highest value was obtained for co-firing of waste coal, however. Obtained in this work emission factors will be used for national emission inventory purposes instead of the factors proposed by Toolkit or taken from previous measurements. However, consideration should be given to the fact that the measurements in most cases are related to single installations. Therefore, the need for further development of national factors for the power generation industry in Poland is desired.

  12. PCBs and DDE, but not PBDEs, increase with trophic level and marine input in nestling bald eagles.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Kyle Hamish; Cesh, Lillian S; Dooley, Jessica A; Letcher, Robert J; Elliott, John E

    2009-06-01

    Concentrations of persistent contaminants often vary widely among individuals within a population. We hypothesized that such variation was caused mainly by differences in diet (biomagnification) and in coastal systems by the tendency of marine systems to act as contaminant sinks. We examined the relationship between contaminant concentrations and stable isotope ratios in nestling plasma from an apex predator with a particularly broad diet. Our study included freshwater, estuarine, inshore and pelagic breeding sites. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at the pelagic marine sites showed high trophic level and marine input, eagles at the freshwater sites showed low trophic level and marine input, and eagles at the estuarine and inshore marine sites had intermediate values. The relationship between trophic level and marine input may reflect longer food chains in pelagic compared to terrestrial ecosystems. summation operator PCBs and DDE concentrations generally increased with trophic level and marine input, with the exception of the freshwater sites, while summation operator PBDEs, hydroxylated-PBDEs and hydroxylated-PCBs increased with marine input, but were independent of trophic level. The relationships for summation operator PCBs and DDE were often slightly stronger with marine input than trophic level, suggesting that oceanographic processes may be more important than trophic level. At freshwater locations, spatial variation may be more important than trophic level due to the heterogeneity of contaminant profiles between feeding locations (lakes, rivers, agricultural fields). Adults had similar isotopic composition to their chicks but higher contamination. Based on nests where prey composition was determined independently, isotopic enrichment values for nestling plasma were 1.6+/-0.1 (delta(15)N) and -0.4+/-0.2 (delta(13)C). We conclude that trophic level and marine influence are significant factors influencing PCB and DDE concentrations in eagles. However

  13. Evaluation of daily intake of PCDD/Fs and indicator PCBs in formula-fed Spanish children.

    PubMed

    Loran, Susana; Conchello, Pilar; Bayarri, Susana; Herrera, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) occurs predominantly via food intake. In this study, the exposure assessment of these contaminants has been estimated for infant formula-fed children up to 1 year of age. PCDD/F concentrations in the infant formulae was low, ranging between 0.09 and 0.17 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) fat and between 0.30 and 0.46 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1) fat when results were calculated with the lower and medium bound values, respectively. Indicator PCB contamination levels were below 1 ng g(-1) fat in all cases. Thus, the estimated daily intake of PCDD/Fs and indicator PCBs for infants has been assessed taking into account the above-mentioned contamination levels as well as different scenarios of body weight and food consumption data for babies aged 0-12 months. The results vary in the different scenarios considered but, on the whole, the daily estimated dioxin and indicator PCBs intake of the average infant population due to the consumption of infant formulae does not exceed the tolerable daily intake (TDI) of 2 pg WHO-TEQ kg(-1) bw day(-1) recommended by the Scientific Committee on Food (available at http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out90_en.pdf) nor the threshold value of 10 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) proposed by the Dutch National Institute of Health and Environment (RIVM) (Baars et al. 2001. Report no. 711701025, National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, The Netherlands).

  14. Characterization and mechanical separation of metals from computer Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) based on mineral processing methods.

    PubMed

    Sarvar, Mojtaba; Salarirad, Mohammad Mehdi; Shabani, Mohammad Amin

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, a novel mechanical process is proposed for enriching metal content of computer Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs). The PCBs are crushed and divided into three different size fractions namely: -0.59, +0.59 to 1.68 and +1.68 mm. Wet jigging and froth flotation methods are selected for metal enrichment. The coarse size fraction (+1.68 mm) is processed by jigging. The plastic free product is grinded and screened. The oversized product is separated as the first concentrate. It was rich of metal because the grinding process was selective. The undersized product is processed by froth flotation. Based on the obtained results, the middle size fraction (+0.59 to 1.68 mm) and the small size fraction (-0.59 mm) are processed by wet jigging and froth flotation respectively. The wet jigging process is optimized by investigating the effect of pulsation frequency and water flow rate. The results of examining the effect of particle size, solid to liquid ratio, conditioning time and using apolar collector showed that collectorless flotation is a promising method for separating nonmetals of PCBs. 95.6%, 97.5% and 85% of metal content of coarse size, middle size and small size fraction are recovered. The grades of obtained concentrates were 63.3%, 92.5% and 75% respectively. The total recovery is calculated as 95.64% and the grade of the final concentrate was 71.26%. Determining the grade of copper and gold in the final product reveals that 4.95% of copper and 24.46% of gold are lost during the concentration. The major part of the lost gold is accumulated in froth flotation tail.

  15. Effects of RAMEB and/or mechanical mixing on the bioavailability and biodegradation of PCBs in soil/slurry.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinxing; Wang, Yalin; Su, Xiaomei; Yu, Chunna; Qin, Zhihui; Wang, Hui; Hashmi, Muhammad Z; Shi, Jiyan; Shen, Chaofeng

    2016-07-01

    Microbial remediation is preferred as a clean and cost-effective method for restoring environments polluted by organics. But the biodegradation rates of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) are usually extremely restricted by their low bioavailability, especially in soil. Here, a physical method (mechanical mixing) and a chemical method (randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrins, RAMEB) were adopted to improve the bioavailability and biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) of an aged soil. The bioavailability of tri-CBs was increased by adding RAMEB in soil/slurry or assisting mechanical mixing in slurry, but these methods had no effects on the bioavailability of tetra-CBs and high chlorinated PCBs (Cl > 4). The degradation rate of tri-CBs could be obviously enhanced by adding RAMEB in soil or assisting mechanical mixing in slurry. The highest removal amount of tri-CBs reached 43.8% in 100 d with a first-order decay kinetics constant of 0.0059 d(-1). But the removal of tetra-CBs and high chlorinated PCBs (Cl > 4) were not significant in all mesocosms, possibly due to the lack or weakness of the native degrading microflora. Based on the analysis of the richness and diversity of bacterial communities, the characteristics of the heatmap and the variation of bphC copy numbers in the soil/slurry mesocosms, it could be inferred that there was no obvious corresponding relationship between the variation of the bacterial communities and the physical/chemical measures.

  16. Tracking chemicals in products around the world: introduction of a dynamic substance flow analysis model and application to PCBs.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wania, Frank

    2016-09-01

    Dynamically tracking flows and stocks of problematic chemicals in products (CiPs) in the global anthroposphere is essential to understanding their environmental fates and risks. The complex behavior of CiPs during production, use and waste disposal makes this a challenging task. Here we introduce and describe a dynamic substance flow model, named Chemicals in Products - Comprehensive Anthropospheric Fate Estimation (CiP-CAFE), which facilitates the quantification of time-variant flows and stocks of CiPs within and between seven interconnected world regions and the generation of global scale emission estimates. We applied CiP-CAFE to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), first to evaluate its ability to reproduce previously reported global-scale atmospheric emission inventories and second to illustrate its potential applications and merits. CiP-CAFE quantifies the pathways of PCBs during production, use and waste disposal stages, thereby deducing the temporal evolution of in-use and waste stocks and identifying their long-term final sinks. Time-variant estimates of PCB emissions into air, water and soil can be attributed to different processes and be fed directly into a global fate and transport model. By capturing the international movement of PCBs as technical chemicals, and in products and waste, CiP-CAFE reveals that the extent of global dispersal caused by humans is larger than that occurring in the natural environment. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the model output is most sensitive to the PCB production volume and the lifetime of PCB-containing products, suggesting that a shortening of that lifetime is key to reducing future PCB emissions.

  17. Development of electro-optical PCBs with embedded waveguides for data center and high performance computing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immonen, M.; Wu, J.; Yan, H. J.; Zhu, L. X.; Chen, P.; Rapala-Virtanen, T.

    2014-03-01

    Power consumption and scaling the performance and quantity of electrical interconnects for data traffic inside boards and backplanes are one of the critical barriers envisaged in next-generation Data Center (DC) and High-Performance Computing (HPC) applications. In this paper, we report developments of electro-optical PCBs (EO-PCB) with embedded polymer waveguide layers. We show results for fabricating realistic product emulator test vehicles that comprise of reasonable form factor PCBs with optical and electrical layers. The optical layer comprise of multiple waveguides exhibiting a full range of geometric configurations required to meet practical optical routing functions. Test patterns include varied cross-sectional sizes, 90° bends of varying radii (40mm - 2mm), cascaded bends with varying radii, waveguide crossings with varied crossing angles (90° - 20°), splitters, tapered waveguides and waveguide interconnect to midboard interface slots. Moreover, results for fabricating electrical interconnect structures (e.g. tracing layers, vias, plated vias) top/bottom and through optical layers in OE-PCB stack are shown. The purpose of the complex routed copper layers is to enable the crucial demonstration of the fabrication and thermal robustness challenges inherent to electro-optical PCBs with optical layers. Process compatibility with accepted practices and challenges in production scale up for high volumes are key concerns to meet the yield target and cost efficiency. Results include waveguide characterization, waveguide transmission loss, misalignment tolerance, and effect of lamination. Moreover, we show results on waveguide termination by in-plane edge connector and with 90° out-of-plane couplers.

  18. Particle-water partitioning of PCBs in the photic zone: a 25-month study in the open Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Sobek, Anna; Gustafsson, Orjan; Hajdu, Susanna; Larsson, Ulf

    2004-03-01

    From previous laboratory and field studies, it remains unclear whether partitioning of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) to phytoplankton from water is kinetically limited or may be treated as an equilibrium process. Here, we report on the partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to particulate organic carbon (POC), dominated by planktonic primary production, in the open Baltic Sea during a 25-month period. The organic carbon-normalized partition coefficient (Koc) was corrected for temperature, salinity, and sorption to filter-passing organic carbon. At all 21 sampling occasions, the log Koc-log Kow regression was significantly linear, despite a large variation in biogeochemical parameters such as POC concentration and composition, primary production, and phytoplankton species composition. These data strongly suggest that partitioning of PCBs to POC in temperate surface waters is equilibrated and therefore not kinetically limited by factors such as rapid phytoplankton growth rate or large cell size. The partitioning of PCBs to the POC was described throughout seasonal cycles by log Koc = 0.88 +/- 0.07 log Kow + 0.90 +/- 0.47 (95% confidence interval). The slope of the log Koc-log Kow regression for the single sampling occasions varied between 0.56 and 1.25, and there was a seasonal variation in the POC sorbent quality (e.g., log Koc for PCB 28 varied between 5.5 and 6.9; median 5.9). These variations reflect the variability in structural composition of the POC pool in such pelagic waters. Being able to predict particle-water partitioning of HOCs significantly reduces the required complexity of both food web uptake models and predictions of POC-mediated export of HOCs to the deep ocean.

  19. Monitoring of organic micropollutants in Ghana by combination of pellet watch with sediment analysis: e-waste as a source of PCBs.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Junki; Ofosu-Anim, John; Sabi, Edward Benjamin; Akita, Lailah Gifty; Onwona-Agyeman, Siaw; Yamashita, Rei; Takada, Hideshige

    2014-09-15

    Plastic resin pellets collected at 11 beaches covering the whole Ghanaian coastline were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCB concentrations (∑13 congeners) were higher in Accra, capital city, and Tema (39-69 ng/g-pellets) than those in rural coastal towns (1-15 ng/g-pellets) which are close to global background, indicating local inputs of PCBs. River sediments were also analyzed for PCBs together with molecular markers. Sedimentary PCBs concentrations were highest at a site (AR02) downstream of an electronic waste (e-waste) scrapyard. At the site (AR02), concentration of linear alkylbenzenes (LABs), a marker of municipal wastewater, was lower than another site (AR03) which is located at the downstream of downtown Accra. This result suggests that PCBs are introduced more to the river from the e-waste site than from activities in downtown Accra. PAHs concentrations were relatively higher in urban areas with strong petrogenic signature. Abundance of triphenylbenzenes suggested plastic combustion near e-waste scrapyard.

  20. Human exposure to PCBs, PBDEs and HBCDs in Ghana: Temporal variation, sources of exposure and estimation of daily intakes by infants.

    PubMed

    Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Adu-Kumi, Sam; Nakahiro, Kenta; Takahashi, Shin; Isobe, Tomohiko; Sudaryanto, Agus; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Clarke, Edith; Ansa-Asare, Osmund Duodu; Dapaah-Siakwan, Stephen; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2011-07-01

    Human exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was evaluated in Ghana using breast milk samples collected in 2004 and 2009. Mean levels and ranges of PBDEs (4.5; 0.86-18 ng/g lw) and PCBs (62; 15-160 ng/g lw) observed in the present study were unexpectedly high, in spite of the fact that Ghana is a non-industrialized country when compared with many of the Asian and European countries. Significant increases were found in the concentrations of PCBs and PBDEs over the years, while no significant increase was observed for HBCDs. Estimated hazard quotient (HQ) showed that all the mothers had HQ values exceeding the threshold of 1 for PCBs, indicating potential health risk for their children. PCBs in dirty oils and obsolete equipment should be of concern as potential sources in Ghana, and e-waste recycling with little or no experience in safe handling could be a threat to this sub-region noted for unregulated disposal of e-waste. The results may point towards an increase in trends in human milk in Ghana, especially in the larger cities but further analysis would be required to confirm this upward trend in levels. This is the first study to report BFRs in human breast milk from Africa, and undoubtedly from Ghana.

  1. The trophodynamics of PCBs, including mono- and non-ortho congeners, in the food web of North-Central Lake Ontario.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, T L; Metcalfe, C D

    1997-08-18

    The distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the food-web of Lake Ontario was studied to determine the parameters that control the trophodynamics of PCB congeners; including toxic non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs. 'Biomagnification' of PCBs was evident in the food-web as total PCBs increased through trophic levels when concentrations were calculated on both a wet wt. and lipid weight basis; although there was no evidence of biomagnification between forage fish and piscivorous fish. Biomagnification was greatest for congeners with log octanol-water partition (log Kow) coefficients between 6 and 7.5. Non-ortho congeners 77 and 126, and congener 151 were not biomagnified to the extent of other congeners with similar Kow, which was attributed to high rates of metabolic clearance of these compounds. The Toxic Equivalent Quantities (TEQs) associated with non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs increased throughout the Lake Ontario food-web. The high TEQ observed in herring gull eggs was primarily the result of very high concentrations of congener 126 in this component of the food web.

  2. Assessment of health effects in New York City firefighters after exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs): the Staten Island Transformer Fire Health Surveillance Project.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry J; Connelly, Edmond; Reinhold, Gustave A; Byrne, Mike; Prezant, David J

    2002-01-01

    Following an electrical transformer fire in Staten Island, New York, a health surveillance program was established for 60 New York City firefighters and emergency medical technicians exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). Exposure potential was documented after high levels of PCBs and PCDFs were found on transformer and firefighters' uniforms. Personnel received comprehensive medical examinations, and the results were compared with preexposure values. Serum was analyzed for PCBs, PCDFs, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs). Follow-up was conducted 9 mo later. Thirty-two of 58 (55%) firefighters reported initial symptoms, and 3 firefighters required brief medical leave. Pulmonary functions, exercise performance, serum liver functions, and serum lipid profiles were normal or unchanged from preexposure baselines. Serum PCBs averaged 2.92 +/- 1.96 ppb (range = 1.9-11.0 ppb). Five (8%) had serum PCBs that were greater than or equal to 6 ppb. Eight (73%) had a significant decrease (p = .05) in serum PCB level at the time of follow-up. Serum toxic equivalency (TEQ [1998 World Health Organization]) for total PCDDs and PCDFs averaged 39.0 +/- 21.5 (n = 48). Eighteen (38%) had elevated TEQs (i.e., > 40). All firefighters had no short-term heath effects. Modern firefighting uniforms are not meant to replace HAZMAT suits, but these uniforms provide protection from this chemical exposure for most firefighters.

  3. Levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PBDEs in breast milk of women living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: assessment of the temporal trend.

    PubMed

    Schuhmacher, Marta; Kiviranta, Hannu; Ruokojärvi, Päivi; Nadal, Martí; Domingo, José L

    2013-11-01

    The concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in breast milk from women living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) in Catalonia, Spain. The results were compared with the levels obtained in previous surveys carried out in the same area in 1998 (baseline study), 2002 and 2007. The current total concentrations of 2,3,7,8-chlorinated PCDD/Fs in breast milk ranged from 18 to 126 pg g(-1)fat (1.1-12. 3 pg WHO2005-TEQPCDD/F), while the total levels of PCBs ranged from 27 to 405 pg g(-1)fat(0.7-5.3 pg WHO2005-TEQPCB). In turn, PBDE concentrations (sum of 15 congeners) ranged 0.3-5.1 g g(-1)fat, with a mean value of 1.3 ng g(-1)fat. A general decrease in the concentrations for PCDD/Fs, both planar and total PCBs, and PBDEs in breast milk was observed. The levels of PCDD/Fs, PCBs, and PBDEs in milk of women living in urban zones were higher than those corresponding to industrial zones (41%, 26%, and 8%, respectively). For PCDD/Fs and PCBs, the current decreases are in accordance with the reduction in the dietary intake of these pollutants that we have also observed in recent studies carried out in the same area of study.

  4. Residues of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Sediment from CauBay River and Their Impacts on Agricultural Soil, Human Health Risk in KieuKy Area, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Toan, Vu Duc; Quy, Nguyen Phuong

    2015-08-01

    An evaluation of the PCB residues from CauBay River and KieuKy area, Vietnam was carried out. CauBay River has been playing an important role in irrigated water supply for agriculture activities at KieuKy area in the downstream. The PCBs concentrations of sediment, soil samples were analyzed and obtained results indicated the wide extent of contamination of PCBs in CauBay River (from 30.74 to 167.35 ng g(-1) dry weight) and KieuKy area (from 21.62 to 60.22 ng g(-1) dry weight). This clearly reflected the effect of PCB residues from CauBay River to the quality of agricultural soil of the KieuKy area. The PCBs composition analyses in the samples reflect their long-time release. The total cancer risk of PCBs in the soil of KieuKy fell into the very low range suggesting low risk. However, since PCBs were the species of POPs with more concern in this area, ecological risk assessment should be further investigated.

  5. High breast milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) among four women living adjacent to a PCB-contaminated waste site.

    PubMed Central

    Korrick, S A; Altshul, L

    1998-01-01

    As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Since 1993, measures of intrauterine PCB exposure have been obtained for a sample of New Bedford area infants. Among 122 mother-infant pairs, we identified four milk samples with total PCB levels that were significantly higher than the rest, with estimated total PCBs ranging from 1,100 to 2,400 ng/g milk fat compared with an overall mean of 320 ng/g milk fat for the 122 women. The congener profile and history of one case was consistent with past occupational PCB exposures. Otherwise, the source of PCB exposures in these cases was difficult to specify. Environmental exposures including those from fish consumption were likely, whereas residence adjacent to a PCB-contaminated site was considered an unlikely exposure source. In all four cases, the infants were full-term, healthy newborns. Because the developing nervous system is believed to be particularly susceptible to PCBs (for example, prenatal PCB exposures have been associated with prematurity, decrements in birth weight and gestation time, and behavioral and developmental deficits in later infancy and childhood, including decrements in IQ), it is critical to ascertain if breast-feeding is a health risk for the women's infants. Despite the potential for large postnatal PCB exposures via breast milk, there is limited evidence of significant developmental toxicity associated with the transmission of moderate PCB concentrations through breast milk. Breast-feeding is associated with substantial health benefits including better cognitive skills among breast-fed compared with formula-fed infants. We conclude, based on evidence from other studies, that the benefits of breast-feeding probably outweigh any risk from PCB exposures via breast

  6. Testing of the KRIA Ionizing Water Treatment System for Waters Contaminated with Diesel, PCBs, and Nutrients (Nitrogen Forms)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-01

    Treatment of diesel resulted in a 58% increase in removal compared to the control reactor , and this was statistically significant. Treatment of PCBs...SO) and control reactors . T0 is after spiking, T1 is one hour after KRIA operation, T2 is 2 hours, T3 is 4 hours, T4 is 24 hours, and T5 is 72 hours...SO) and control reactors . T0 is after spiking, T1 is one hour after KRIA operation, T2 is 2 hours, T3 is 4 hours, T4 is 24 hours, and T5 is 72 hours

  7. Availability of PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) to mytiluj edulis from artificially resuspended sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Pruell, R.J.; Lake, J.L.; Davis, W.R.; Quinn, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Estuarine sediment containing high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was resuspended into a flowing seawater system. Analysis of the dissolved and particulate phases in the exposure tank indicated a release of some low molecular weight PCB and PAH compounds from the sediment. Both classes of compounds were rapidly incorporated by blue mussels, Mytilus edulis maintained in the system, reaching an apparent equilibrium concentration after twenty days of exposure. The distribution of both classes of compounds accumulated in the mussels suggested selective absorption of specific fractions.

  8. Deposition of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs (Aroclor 1268), and PBDEs in selected plant species from a Superfund Site at Brunswick, Georgia, USA.

    PubMed

    Sajwan, Kenneth S; Senthil Kumar, Kurunthachalam; Kelley, Sarah; Loganathan, Bommanna G

    2009-04-01

    Deposition of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in Loblolly pine needles (Pinus taeda) collected in and around a Linden Chemicals and Plastics (LCP) Superfund Site at Brunswick, Georgia, USA. For the comparison, foliage of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) was also collected to monitor contaminant levels. This study revealed that concentrations of OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs ranged from 0.75-10, 3.4-15 to 0.05-3, ng/g wet wt, respectively in both plant species. Total OCPs concentrations in pine needles decreased from 10 to 2.3 ng/g; and total PCBs decreased from 28 to 9.3 ng/g between 1997 and 2006. To our knowledge, this is the first report on PBDEs concentrations in pine needles and red cedar foliage samples from the Superfund Site at Brunswick, Georgia, USA.

  9. A Critical Review about Human Exposure to Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins (PCDDs), Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) through Foods.

    PubMed

    Fernández-González, R; Yebra-Pimentel, I; Martínez-Carballo, E; Simal-Gándara, J

    2015-01-01

    Dioxins include polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and part of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Only the compounds that are chlorinated at the 2,3,7, and 8 positions have characteristic dioxin toxicity. PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs accumulate in the food chain due to their high lipophilicity, high stability, and low vapor pressure. They are not metabolized easily; however their hydroxylated metabolites are detected in feces. They cause a wide range of endocrine disrupting effects in experimental animals, wildlife, and humans. Endocrine related effects of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs on thyroid hormones, neurodevelopment and reproductive development were referenced. In addition, some studies of contamination of foods, bioaccumulation, dietary exposure assessment, as well as challenges of scientific research in these compounds were reviewed.

  10. Serum levels of PCDDs, PCDFs and PCBs in non-occupationally exposed population groups living near two incineration plants in Tuscany, Italy.

    PubMed

    De Felip, Elena; Abballe, Annalisa; Casalino, Francesco; di Domenico, Alessandro; Domenici, Pierangela; Iacovella, Nicola; Ingelido, Anna Maria; Pretolani, Elisabetta; Spagnesi, Maurizio

    2008-05-01

    A pilot study was carried out in Tuscany, Italy, to provide preliminary information on the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (DL-PCBs), and selected non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs) in groups of subjects living in the vicinity of two incineration plants. Seventy-four volunteers were enrolled from areas identified as under a potential impact from incinerator emissions and from not exposed areas. No significant differences were observed between subjects living in the two types of areas. Total concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and DL-PCBs resulted to be in the range 23-30 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1), lipid base, for subjects in the 27-54 year age groups, while concentrations increased to 40-44 pgTEQ g(-1) for the two 55-67 year age groups. The levels of PCDDs and PCDFs were in good agreement with those observed for unexposed population groups in Italy, while the contribution to total TEQ from DL-PCBs was appreciably higher than those currently observed in the general population in Italy and other countries. As to NDL-PCBs, serum levels of the six "indicator" congeners were in the range 240-300 ng g(-1), lipid base, for subjects in the 27-54 year age groups. A raise in NDL-PCB body burden (430-470 ng g(-1), lipid base) was observed for the two 55+ year age groups, in agreement with the expected age-dependent increase. The findings from this study do not show an incremental exposure to PCDDs and PCDFs in the samples from subjects living around the two incineration plants, whereas PCB congener profiles in all samples suggest a possible impact on the area of interest of industrial activities from near industrial settlements.

  11. Levels and patterns of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and their associations with thyroid hormones in hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) mother-pup pairs.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, Kristin Møller; Villanger, Gro Dehli; Lie, Elisabeth; Karimi, Mahin; Lydersen, Christian; Kovacs, Kit M; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2011-10-01

    Blood (plasma/serum) samples from 14 adult female and their pups (1-4 days old) captured in the West Ice, east of Greenland were analysed for concentrations of total and free thyroxine and triiodothyronine (TT4, FT4, TT3, FT3), and hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs). The levels of all thyroid hormones (THs) were significantly higher in pups than in mothers. Sum OH-PCB levels (ΣOH-PCBs: 4-OH-CB107, 3'-OH-CB138, 4-OH-CB146, 4'-OH-CB172, 4-OH-CB187) were significantly higher in mothers (3.98 ± 1.55 pmol/g; 1.40 ± 0.54 ng/g wet weight) as compared to pups (1.95 ± 0.78 pmol/g; 0.68 ± 0.28 ng/g wet weight). Plasma levels of TT4 and FT4 in mothers increased as a function of pup age, as did levels of individual OH-PCBs in both mothers and pups. The pattern of OH-PCBs in the pups was similar to their mothers. We suggest that OH-PCBs found in pups are transferred from their mothers during gestation and that the transfer also continues after parturition via milk. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that in pups, 4-OH-CB107 and 3'-OH-CB138 were negatively associated with FT4:FT3 and TT3:FT3 ratios, respectively. These relationships were confirmed by partial correlation analysis correcting for pup age. PCA suggested that 4'-OH-CB172 and 4-OH-CB187 were negatively associated with TT3 in mothers. However, this was not confirmed by correlation tests. Although statistical relationships should be interpreted with caution, the study indicates that young developing seals are more sensitive compared to adults with respect to TH-related effects of OH-PCBs.

  12. Congener Profiles and Source-Wise Phase Partitioning Analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-Do Ambient Air, South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongwon; Kim, Donggi; Lee, Gangwoong

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric concentrations and gas–particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan) in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m−3) and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m−3 (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m−3), respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m−3 and 274.2 pg·m−3, respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle–gas partition coefficient Kp (m3·ug−1) and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°). The slope (m) values for log–log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle–gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies) was the dominant source for PCBs. PMID:25347194

  13. Biological monitoring of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the City of Mataró. A population-based cohort study (1995-2012).

    PubMed

    Parera, Jordi; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; Mattioli, Lisa; Abalos, Manuela; Rivera, Josep; Abad, Esteban

    2013-09-01

    There is great concern about the exposure to PCDD/Fs in areas near solid waste incineration (SWI) plants as, in the past, thermal waste treatment was a major source of PCDD/Fs, affecting negatively the environment and the population living nearby the area of influence. The aim of the present study was to monitor PCDD/Fs and PCBs levels in blood samples in general population living nearby a modern SWI. Up to 7 different campaigns were performed between 1995 and 2012. Overall, 104 exposed subjects (living <1000 m from the incinerator plant) and 97 non-exposed subjects (living >3000 m from the incinerator plant) were randomly selected from the municipal census of the City of Mataró in 1995. In addition, workers of the SWI plant were included in the study. Moreover, in 1999, 100 non-exposed subjects living in the nearby City of Arenys de Mar were added to the project. Overall, this study represents the longest consecutive human biomonitoring study of dioxins, furans and PCBs ever conducted in Spain. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were determined according to age, sex and distance to the SWI exposure in whole blood sample pools. No relevant differences in PCDD/Fs and PCBs levels were observed between SWI exposure groups. It could be noted that since 1999 all groups experienced a slight decrease in the levels of PCDD/Fs and marker PCBs. Moreover, concentrations of PCDD/Fs and marker PCBs were higher in women than in men, and in older age group in comparison to the younger ones.

  14. Congener profiles and source-wise phase partitioning analysis of PCDDs/Fs and PCBs in Gyeonggi-do ambient air, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jongwon; Kim, Donggi; Lee, Gangwoong

    2014-10-24

    The atmospheric concentrations and gas-particle partitioning of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at two sites (Suwon and Ansan) in Gyeonggi-do, a heavily industrialized area of Korea, during the year 2010. The sum level (Σ17) of PCDDs/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in the ambient air at Suwon and Ansan ranged from 0.04 to 0.30 pg-TEQ·m(-3) (geometric mean: 0.09 pg-TEQ·m(-3)) and 0.17 to 0.63 pg-TEQ·m(-3) (geometric mean: 0.36 pg-TEQ·m(-3)), respectively. Moreover, the geometric mean concentrations of Σ180 PCBs at Suwon and Ansan were 233.6 pg·m(-3) and 274.2 pg·m(-3), respectively, and di-chlorinated biphenyls and tri-chlorinated biphenyls were the predominant homologs. Among the PCB congeners, 3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl (PCB-11) was the dominant species at both sites during all sampling periods, comprising up to 15.1% of Σ180 PCBs at Ansan and 24.6% at Suwon. We evaluated their gas-to-particle equilibriums by conducting regression between the particle-gas partition coefficient Kp (m(3)·ug(-1)) and the corresponding subcooled liquid vapor pressure (PL°). The slope (m) values for log-log plots of Kp vs. PL° were steeper in industrial areas owing to local source proximity. Moreover, owing to enhanced emissions from combustion-related sources at low temperatures, PCDD/Fs exhibited the largest deviation from the regression line of the particle-gas partition coefficient. Incinerators were found to be the primary emission source of atmospheric PCDDs/Fs, whereas re-evaporation from pre-existing environmental loads (e.g., storage areas or spilled soil and water bodies) was the dominant source for PCBs.

  15. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human breast milk and associated health risks to nursing infants in Northern Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Müller, M H B; Polder, A; Brynildsrud, O B; Karimi, M; Lie, E; Manyilizu, W B; Mdegela, R H; Mokiti, F; Murtadha, M; Nonga, H E; Skaare, J U; Lyche, J L

    2017-04-01

    This is the first study to report organochlorines (OCs), including chlorinated pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human milk from Tanzania. The main aims of this study were to assess the level of contamination and the possible health risks related to OC exposure in nursing infants from the Northern parts of Tanzania. Ninety-five healthy mother-infant couples attending Mount Meru Regional Referral Hospital (MMRRH), Arusha, Tanzania, were assessed for associations between maternal/infant characteristics, i.e. mother's age, BMI, gestational weight gain, occupation, residence and fetal growth parameters and breast milk levels of OCPs, such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, dieldrin and PCBs. p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT were detected in 100% and 75% of the breast milk samples, respectively, and ranged between 24 and 2400ng/g lipid weight (lw) and PCBs ranged between PCBs with health based guidance values. The estimated daily intake (ng/kg body weight/day) of ∑DDTs, dieldrin and nondioxin-like PCBs (∑6PCBs) exceeded the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI) in two, six and forty-eight of the nursing infants, respectively, suggesting potential health risks. In addition, head circumference were negatively associated with p,p´-DDE in female infants, suggesting that OC exposure during pregnancy may influence fetal growth.

  16. Factors influencing the atmospheric concentrations of PCBs at an abandoned e-waste recycling site in South China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Wu, Xiaowei; Hou, Minmin; Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Ruize; Luo, Chunling; Zhang, Gan

    2017-02-01

    The diurnal atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated at an abandoned e-waste recycling site in South China during winter and summer. Total PCB concentrations during winter and summer were 27.6-212 and 368-1704pg/m(3) in the particulate phase and 270-697 and 3000-15,500pg/m(3) in the gaseous phase, respectively. Both gaseous and particulate PCB concentrations and compositions exhibited significant difference between winter and summer samples, but no diurnal variations during the measurement period. The correlation analysis between PCB concentrations and meteorological conditions, including atmospheric temperature, humidity, and mixing layer height, suggested that the seasonal variability of atmospheric PCB concentrations was strongly temperature-dependent, while the diurnal variability was probably source-dependent. The temperature-driven variations can also be proved by the significant linear correlation between ln P and 1/T in the Clausius-Clapeyron plot. Although government has implemented controls to reduce e-waste pollution, both the relatively high concentrations of PCBs and the diurnal variation in the air suggested that emissions from occasional e-waste recycling activities may still exist in this recycling area. These results underline the importance of continuing e-waste recycling site management long after abandonment.

  17. Atmospherically deposited PBDEs, pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in western U.S. National Park fish: Concentrations and consumption guidelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, L.K.; Schwindt, A.R.; Simonich, S.L.M.; Koch, D.C.; Blett, T.F.; Schreck, C.B.; Kent, M.L.; Landers, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western U.S. National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and wildlife contaminant health thresholds. A sensitive (median detection limit, -18 pg/g wet weight), efficient (61% recovery at 8 ng/g), reproducible (4.1% relative standard deviation (RSD)), and accurate (7% deviation from standard reference material (SRM)) analytical method was developed and validated for these analyses. Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDTs, and chlordanes in western U.S. fish were comparable to or lower than mountain fish recently collected from Europe, Canada, and Asia. Dieldrin and PBDE concentrations were higher than recent measurements in mountain fish and Pacific Ocean salmon. Concentrations of most contaminants in western U.S. fish were 1-6 orders of magnitude below calculated recreational fishing contaminant health thresholds. However, lake average contaminant concentrations in fish exceeded subsistence fishing cancer thresholds in 8 of 14 lakes and wildlife contaminant health thresholds for piscivorous birds in 1of 14 lakes. These results indicate that atmospherically deposited organic contaminants can accumulate in high elevation fish, reaching concentrations relevant to human and wildlife health. ?? 2008 American Chemical Society.

  18. Effect of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on food-chain transfer of PCBs in Saginaw Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Hoof, P.L. Van; Hsieh, J.L.; Eadie, B.J.; Lansing, M.B.

    1995-12-31

    The recent invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) has significantly impacted the water quality of the Great Lakes. Relatively little is known about the influence of zebra mussels on contaminant cycling, and transfer to higher trophic organisms. Due to its high filtering rate and ability to rapidly establish large populations, Dreissena could potentially alter the flow of energy through the food web. In addition, this species has demonstrated a large capacity for accumulating lipophilic organic contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Thus, zebra mussels could contribute to enhanced contaminant biomagnification by serving as an additional food-chain link either through direct transfer (ingestion by fish or ducks), and/or indirectly by funneling contaminants out of the pelagic zone down to benthic invertebrates. In order to determine if zebra mussels are enhancing biomagnification of PCBs in a Saginaw Bay food web, two years of field collections of various components (water, sediment, algae, zooplankton, zebra mussel, zebra mussel feces, gammarid amphipods, fish) were analyzed for their PCB congener content. Trophic levels will be characterized using stable isotope ratios of {sup 15}N/{sup 14}N, whereas carbon sources will be identified using {sup 13}C/{sup 13}C ratios.

  19. Contamination of Runoff Water at Gdańsk Airport (Poland) by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs)

    PubMed Central

    Sulej, Anna Maria; Polkowska, Żaneta; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2011-01-01

    Airport runoff can contain high concentrations of various pollutants, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), the environmental levels of which have to be monitored. Airport runoff water samples, collected at the Gdańsk-Rębiechowo Airport from 2008 to 2009, were analysed for PAHs and PCBs by gas chromatography. The aromatic fractions were separated by liquid-liquid extraction and analysed by GC/MS. Total PAH concentrations were 295–6,758 ng/L in 2008 and 180–1,924 ng/L in 2009, while total PCB levels in 2008 ranged from 0.14 to 0.44 μg/L and in 2009 from 0.06 to 0.23 μg/L. The PAH and PCB compositions in airport runoff waters were examined over a range of spatial and temporal scales to determine distributions, trends and possible sources. This pollution is mainly pyrolytic and related to anthropogenic activity. There were significant differences between the samples collected in the two seasons. An understanding of the magnitude of contamination due to airport runoff water is important for the effective management of airport infrastructure. PMID:22247699

  20. Early contamination of European flounder (Platichthys flesus) by PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in European waters.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Margarida; Martinho, Filipe; Vernisseau, Anaïs; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; van der Veer, Henk W; Cabral, Henrique N; Ramos, Fernando; Pardal, Miguel A

    2014-08-15

    Contamination levels and profiles of 7 polychlorinated-p-dioxins, 10 polychlorinated furans (PCDD/Fs) and 12 dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) were investigated in juvenile European flounder (Platichthys flesus) captured in different nursery areas in the northeastern Atlantic coast across its geographical distribution range. The toxic equivalent concentrations (WHO-TEQfish) were also determined in order to evaluate which P. flesus population was more exposed to dioxin-like toxicity. Juveniles caught in the Sørfjord (Norway) showed the lowest WHO-TEQfish concentration (0.052 pg WHO-TEQfish g(-1)wet weight) whereas the highest value was observed in fish from the Wadden Sea (The Netherlands; 0.291 pg WHO-TEQfish g(-1)ww), mainly due to the greater contribution of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, the most toxic congener. Nonetheless, when comparing the results with existent tissue residue-based toxicity benchmarks, no adverse effects resulting from PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs are expected to occur in flounder from the studied systems.

  1. Towards an understanding of the link between environmental emissions and human body burdens of PCBs using CoZMoMAN.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Knut; Czub, Gertje; McLachlan, Michael S; Wania, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Different factors affect how organic contaminants released into the environment over time distribute and accumulate, enter various food-chains, and potentially cause toxic effects in wildlife and humans. A sound chemical risk assessment thus requires the determination of the quantitative relationship between emissions and human exposure. This study aimed to assess the extent of the quantitative and mechanistic understanding of the link between environmental emissions and human body burdens for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the western part of the Baltic Sea drainage basin and to identify any remaining knowledge gaps. An integrated, non-steady state model calculating human body burden from environmental emissions (CoZMoMAN) was created by linking the multi-compartment environmental fate model CoZMo-POP 2 with the human food chain bioaccumulation model ACC-HUMAN. CoZMoMAN predicted concentrations of seven PCB congeners in 11 key model compartments to typically within a factor of 2 to 4 of measured values, although larger discrepancies are noted for soils and humans. We conclude that whereas the most important processes which link emissions of PCBs to human body burdens are quite well understood in this region, some critical knowledge gaps related to the time trend of historical emissions remain to be addressed.

  2. Atmospherically Deposited PBDEs, Pesticides, PCBs, and PAHs in Western US National Park Fish: Concentrations and Consumption Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Luke K.; Schwindt, Adam R.; Simonich, Staci L.; Koch, Dan C.; Blett, Tamara F.; Schreck, Carl B.; Kent, Michael L.; Landers, Dixon H.

    2014-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in 136 fish from 14 remote lakes in 8 western US National Parks/Preserves between 2003 and 2005 and compared to human and wildlife contaminant health thresholds. A sensitive (median detection limit −18 pg/g wet weight), efficient (61% recovery at 8 ng/g), reproducible (4.1 %RSD), and accurate (7 % deviation from SRM) analytical method was developed and validated for these analyses. Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDTs and chlordanes in western US fish were comparable to or lower than mountain fish recently collected from Europe, Canada, and Asia. Dieldrin and PBDE concentrations were higher than recent measurements in mountain fish and Pacific Ocean salmon. Concentrations of most contaminants in western US fish were 1–6 orders of magnitude below calculated recreational fishing contaminant health thresholds. However, contaminant concentrations exceeded subsistence fishing cancer screening values in 8 of 14 lakes. Average contaminant concentrations in fish exceeded wildlife contaminant health thresholds for piscivorous mammals in 5 lakes, and piscivorous birds in all 14 lakes. These results indicate that atmospherically deposited organic contaminants can accumulate in high elevation fish, reaching concentrations relevant to human and wildlife health. PMID:18504962

  3. Spider-mediated flux of PCBs from contaminated sediments to terrestrial ecosystems and potential risks to arachnivorous birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, D.M.; Mills, M.A.; Fritz, K.M.; Raikow, D.F.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated aquatic insect utilization and PCB exposure in riparian spiders at the Lake Hartwell Superfund site (Clemson, SC). We sampled sediments, adult chironomids, terrestrial insects, riparian spiders (Tetragnathidae, Araneidae, and Mecynogea lemniscata), and upland spiders (Araneidae) along a sediment contamination gradient. Stable isotopes (?13C, ? 15N) indicated that riparian spiders primarily consumed aquatic insects whereas upland spiders consumed terrestrial insects. PCBs in chironomids (mean 1240 ng/g among sites) were 2 orders of magnitude higher than terrestrial insects (15.2 ng/g), similar to differences between riparian (820?2012 ng/g) and upland spiders (30 ng/g). Riparian spider PCBs were positively correlated with sediment concentrations for all taxa (r2 = 0.44?0.87). We calculated spider-based wildlife values (WVs, the minimum spider PCB concentrations causing physiologically significant doses in consumers) to assess exposure risks for arachnivorous birds. Spider concentrations exceeded WVs for most birds at heavily contaminated sites and were ?14-fold higher for the most sensitive species (chickadee nestlings, Poecile spp.). Spiders are abundant and ubiquitous in riparian habitats, where they depend on aquatic insect prey. These traits, along with the high degree of spatial correlation between spider and sediment concentrations we observed, suggest that they are model indicator species for monitoring contaminated sediment sites and assessing risks associated with contaminant flux into terrestrial ecosystems. ?? This article not subject to U.S. Copyright. Published 2009 by the American Chemical Society.

  4. Use of stable isotopes of N and C to explain unexpectedly high levels of PCBs and other organochlorines in walrus

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.; Segstro, M.; Stewart, R.; Hobson, K.; Olpinski, S.

    1994-12-31

    Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) blubber from Inukjuak and Akulivik (E. Hudson Bay), Foxe Basin and E. Baffin Is. was analyzed for PCB congeners and other persistent organochlorines (DDT, toxaphene, chlordanes) as part of studies documenting spatial trends in contaminants in Canadian arctic marine biota. Samples from 18 of 53 individuals had wet weight concentrations of {Sigma}PCBs ranging from 1 to 20 {mu}g//g; the remaining individuals had much lower concentrations. Highest concentrations were found in samples from Inukjuak where 11 of 13 animals (males and females) had high levels. {Sigma}PCB concentrations greater than 0.5 {mu}g/g were unexpected based on previous studies in Greenland and Alaska. Local contamination was ruled out because DDT, chlordanes and toxaphene were all elevated, and high levels were found in both males and females from 2 of 4 other locations. {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N isotope measurements using muscle samples from the jaws of walrus and seals, showed that walrus with high EPCB had higher {delta}{sup 15}N values than those with low PCBs. The results suggest that the walrus with elevated organochlorines are feeding at a higher trophic level than those with low levels and are probably utilizing ringed seals (Phoca hispida) for a significant proportion of their diet.

  5. Proposed method for evaluating the effects of PCBs in sediment on egg mass viability and reproductive success in frogs

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, C.S.; Henning, M.H.; Ebert, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    A proposed study design for evaluating the effect of PCBs in the sediments of a large New England river on reproductive success in frogs is described. Depending on field conditions and species abundance, the study will use either bullfrogs, Rana catesbiana; spring peepers, Hyla pickeringii; or green frogs, Rana claymitans as the study model. A selected number of gravid females will be collected from both the target area and a reference area matched with respect to a number of key variables including, but not limited to, stream flow, temperature, pH, substrate type, depth, surrounding land use, and organic carbon content of sediments. The gravid frogs will be transferred to a laboratory, where the egg masses will be stripped following induced ovulation, and then fertilized using semen from males collected in the field. Egg masses will be maintained under static renewal conditions for a period up to and including 7 days post hatch, during which mortality and gross morphological appearance will be evaluated. In the event that statistically significant differences in these endpoints are noted, a dose response model will be developed to relate observed effects to previously determined PCB concentrations in egg masses and maternal tissues. The results of this study will be of significant utility in evaluating reproductive toxicity of PCBs in ecological risk assessment.

  6. A comparison of presynaptic and postsynaptic dopaminergic agonists on inhibitory control performance in rats perinatally exposed to PCBs.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Abby E; Miller, Mellessa M; Nelms Sprowles, Jenna L; Levine, Lauren R; Sable, Helen J K

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) are very stable environmental contaminants whose exposure induces a number of health and cognitive concerns. Currently, it is well known that PCB exposure leads to poor performance on inhibitory control tasks. It is also well known that dopamine (DA) depletion within medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) leads to poor performance on inhibitory control tasks. However, what is not well established is whether or not the inhibitory control problems found following PCB exposure are mediated by DA depletion in mPFC. This study was an investigation into the link between perinatal exposure to PCBs, the effect of this exposure on DA neurotransmission in the mPFC, and inhibitory-control problems during adulthood using a rodent model. The current study served to determine if microinjections of different DA agonists (the presynaptic DA transporter inhibitor and vesicular monoamine transporter agonist bupropion, the postsynaptic DA receptor 2 (DAD2) agonist quinpirole, and the postsynaptic DA receptor 1 (DAD1) agonist SKF81297) directly into the mPFC would differentially improve performance on an inhibitory control task in rats perinatally exposed to an environmentally relevant PCB mixture. Findings suggest several significant sex-based differences on differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL) 15 performance as well as some evidence of differential effectiveness of the DA agonists based on PCB exposure group.

  7. Severe pollution of PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in sediments from Lake Shihwa, Korea: tracking the source.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Minkyu; Choi, Hee-Gu; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) were determined in surface sediments from Lake Shihwa and from creeks that discharge into this artificial lake. The toxic equivalents (TEQs) in sediments ranged from 1.0 to 1770 pg/g dry weight, which were some of the highest values ever reported so far for coastal sediments on a global basis. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs decreased with increasing distance from the creeks to offshore regions of the lake. Based on a multivariate statistical analysis and congener profiles, it was found that high contamination by PCDD/Fs in creek sediments collected around Lake Shihwa was associated with releases from chlor-alkali processes. Significant correlations were found for total organic carbon content and the concentrations of highly chlorinated PCDD/F congeners. This is the first report to document chlor-alkali processes as a significant source of PCDD/F contamination in Korean coastal waters.

  8. PCBs in sludge: development of a practical extraction procedure and its application in an urban water resource recovery facility.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Devrim; Karakas, Filiz; Sanin, F Dilek; Imamoglu, Ipek

    2015-02-01

    Sludges originating from water resource recovery facilities act as a sink for various contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Investigation of such pollutants provides detailed information about the pollutant burden of the region from which incoming wastewater is derived. However, the current extraction methods for PCBs in wastewater and sludge are both time- and solvent-consuming. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to develop a practical PCB extraction procedure and to monitor PCB levels in sludge originating from an urban water resource recovery facility (WRRF). Procedure applicability was shown by comparing the extraction results of certified reference materials with that of Soxhlet and by checking surrogate recovery. Diethyl ether, hexane, and hexane:acetone mixture were evaluated as the PCB extraction solvent; hexane was the most efficient solvent with the recovery results (89 to 102%) in an acceptable range of 70 to 130%. The PCB concentrations of the WRRF sludges were in the range of 3.6 ± 0.3 to 64.4 ± 9.3 μg/kg dry matter.

  9. Association between PCBs and lower embryonic weight in black-crowned night herons in San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Bunck, C.M.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Lowe, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    Reproductive problems, including congenital malformations, reduced hatching success, and decreased survival of hatchlings, have been observed in colonial-nesting water birds at the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge (SFBNWR). Twenty-four black-crowned night heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) eggs were collected from SFBNWR in 1983. Twelve of these were collected from separate nests when late-stage embryos were pipping, and an additional egg was randomly collected from each nest for organochlorine analysis. Overt anomalies and skeletal defects were not apparent. Embryonic weights (with partially absorbed yolk sacs removed) were 15% lower (p lt 0.05) in SFBNWR embryos compared to control embryos from the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center (PWRC). Crown-rump length and femur length were shorter for SFBNWR embryos. The geometric mean polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentration in SFBNWR eggs was 4.1 ppm wet weight, with a range of 0.8-52.0 ppm. A negative correlation (r = - 0.61; p lt 0.05) existed between embryonic weight and log-transformed PCB residues in whole eggs collected from the same nest at SFBNWR, suggesting a possible impact of PCBs on embryonic growth. A correlation with embryonic weight did not occur for DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene) residues. Liver microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity was neither significantly elevated nor correlated with PCB, DDE, or PCB plus DDE log-transformed residues. It is unknown whether the apparent association between PCBs and lower weight is persistent through hatching.

  10. Occupational exposure to PCBs reduces striatal dopamine transporter densities only in women: A β-CIT imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Seegal, Richard F.; Marek, Kenneth L.; Seibyl, John P.; Jennings, Danna L.; Molho, Eric S.; Higgins, Donald S.; Factor, Stewart A.; Fitzgerald, Edward F.; Hills, Elaine A.; Korrick, Susan A.; Wolff, Mary S.; Haase, Richard F.; Todd, Andrew C.; Parsons, Patrick; McCaffrey, Robert F.

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that occupational exposure to PCBs is associated with a reduction in central dopamine (DA) similar to changes previously seen in PCB exposed adult non-human primates. To test that hypothesis we used [123I]β-CIT SPECT imaging to estimate basal ganglia DA transporter density in former capacitor workers. Women, but not men, showed an inverse relationship between lipid-adjusted total serum PCB concentrations and DA transporter densities in the absence of differences in serum PCB concentrations. These sex differences may reflect age-related reductions in the levels of gonadal hormones since these hormones have been shown experimentally to alter response to DA neurotoxicants. These findings may aid in better understanding the roles that sex and age play in modifying central DA function following exposure, not only to PCBs, but also to other DA neurotoxicants as well as further elucidating the role of gonadal hormones in influencing the initiation and/or progression of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:20096358

  11. PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PAHs in dissolved, suspended and settling particulate matrixes from the Baltic Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Naef, C.; Broman, D.; Zebuehr, Y.

    1994-12-31

    The occurrence and dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are discussed on the basis of results from samples taken at pristine coastal and off shore locations in the Baltic Sea. The sampling techniques used were high volume cross flow filtration and sediment traps for suspended and settling particulate matter, respectively, and polyurethane foam adsorbents for the compounds associated with the apparently dissolved fractions. All samples were Soxhlet extracted with toluene and separated on a HPLC system followed by quantification on GS/MS. The importance of parameters such as concentrations of particulate lipids, particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon, etc. for the distribution of the compounds between the suspended and settling particulate matrixes and the dissolved phase in the water are discussed. In situ determined particulate organic carbon-water partition coefficients as well as predicted dissolved organic carbon-water partition coefficients and approximations of the average ``truly`` dissolved concentrations are presented. The particulate and dissolved concentrations in the mixed surface layer are discussed in perspective to the particulate flux of PCBs, PCDD/Fs and PAHs.

  12. Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) in Catfish and Carp Collected from the Rio Grande Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert J. Gonzales Philip R. Fresquez

    2008-05-12

    Concern has existed for years that the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), a complex of nuclear weapons research and support facilities, has released polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to the environment that may have reached adjacent bodies of water through canyons that connect them. In 1997, LANL's Ecology Group began measuring PCBs in fish in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of ephemeral streams that cross LANL and later began sampling fish in Abiquiu and Cochiti reservoirs, which are situated on the Rio Chama and Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL, respectively. In 2002, we electroshocked channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and common carp (Carpiodes carpio) in the Rio Grande upstream and downstream of LANL and analyzed fillets for PCB congeners. We also sampled soils along the Rio Chama and Rio Grande drainages to discern whether a background atmospheric source of PCBs that could impact surface water adjacent to LANL might exist. Trace concentrations of PCBs measured in soil (mean = 4.7E-05 {micro}g/g-ww) appear to be from background global atmospheric sources, at least in part, because the bimodal distribution of low-chlorinated PCB congeners and mid-chlorinated PCB congeners in the soil samples is interpreted to be typical of volatilized PCB congeners that are found in the atmosphere and dust from global fallout. Upstream catfish (n = 5) contained statistically (P = 0.047) higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 2.80E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream catfish (n = 10) (mean = 1.50E-02 {micro}g/g-ww). Similarly, upstream carp (n = 4) contained higher concentrations of total PCBs (mean = 7.98E-02 {micro}g/g-ww) than downstream carp (n = 4) (3.07E-02 {micro}g/g-ww); however, the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.42). The dominant PCB homologue in all fish samples was hexachlorobiphenyls. Total PCB concentrations in fish in 2002 are lower than 1997; however, differences in analytical methods and other uncertainties exist. A

  13. Implementation Of Palladized Iron-Impregnated Reactive Activated Carbon (RAC) System For PCBs Cleanup: Effects Of PCB Loading, Reaction pH, And Co-Existing NOM And Ionic Species

    EPA Science Inventory

    For the treatment of chlorinated organic compounds in the environment, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), we have developed reactive activated carbon (RAC) impregnated with Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles. The RAC system can couple adsorption of PCBs to activated carbon wi...

  14. Distribution of pesticides, PAHs, PCBs, and bioavailable metals in depositional sediments of the lower Missouri River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Echols, K.R.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Orazio, C.E.; May, T.W.; Poulton, B.C.; Peterman, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The lower Missouri River was studied to determine the distribution of selected persistent organic pollutants and bioavailable metals in depositional sediments. Nineteen sites between Omaha, Nebraska and Jefferson City, Missouri were sampled. This stretch of the river receives point-source and non-point-source inputs from industrial, urban, and agricultural activities. As part of an ecological assessment of the river, concentrations of 29 legacy organochlorine pesticides (OC pesticides), including chlordanes, DDTs, and hexachlorocyclohexanes; a select list of current-use pesticides, including trifluralin, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and permethrin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), divalent metals (copper, nickel, zinc, cadmium, and lead), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined. Concentrations (dry weight basis) of OC pesticides in the sediments were less than 1 ng/g, with the exception of the backwater sediment collected from the mouth of the Blue River in the Kansas City metropolitan area, which contained up to 20 ng/g total chlordane, 8.1 ng/g p,p???-DDE, 1.5 ng/g lindane, 4.8 ng/g dieldrin, and 3 ng/g endrin. Concentrations of chlorpyrifos and permethrin ranged from less than 1 ng/g to 5.5 ng/g and 44 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of PCBs ranged from less than 11 ng/g to 250 ng/g, with the Blue River and Sibley sediments containing 100 and 250 ng/g total PCBs, respectively. Concentrations of total PAHs at 17 of the 19 sites ranged from 250 to 700 ng/g, whereas the Riverfront and Blue River sites in Kansas City contained 1100 ng/g and nearly 4000 ng/g, respectively. Concentrations of the metals did not vary significantly among most sites; however, the Blue River site contained elevated concentrations of zinc (104 ??g/g), cadmium (0.7 ??g/g), and lead (34 ??g/g) compared to the other sites. The moderately high concentrations of acid-volatile sulfide in the sediments suggest a low potential for metal

  15. Bioaccumulation Patterns Of PCBs In A Temperate, Freshwater Food Web And Their Relationshop To The Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient (Presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation relative to octanol-water partition coefficient (KOW) and organism tropic position (TP) at the Lake Hartwell Superfund site (South Carolina, USA). We measured PCBs (127 congeners) and stable isotopes (δ

  16. Size specific distribution of the atmospheric particulate PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs and PAHs on a seasonal scale: Implications for cancer risks from inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrendele, Céline; Okonski, Krzysztof; Melymuk, Lisa; Landlová, Linda; Kukučka, Petr; Čupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the seasonal size distribution of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in the atmosphere. Particles were sampled from October 2009 to October 2010 on a seasonal basis using a cascade impactor collecting six size fractions at a rural and urban site in the Brno area, Czech Republic. Higher concentrations of PAHs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were observed in cold seasons at both sites, attributed to the seasonality of the gas-particle partitioning, the increase of emissions and the lower boundary mixing layer in winter. All of the compounds showed a strong accumulation in the fine fraction, with, on average, 71% of ΣPAHs, 73% of ΣPCDD/Fs and 60% of Σdl-PCBs associated with particles <0.95 μm. The human risk assessment via inhalation was addressed and followed the same pattern as for concentrations, with 41 and 7 times higher risk in winter compared to summer at the rural and urban sites, respectively. More than 70% of cancer risks of PAHs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was associated with particles <0.95 μm. Moreover, an overestimation of the cancer risk via inhalation of up to 50% occurred when the size distribution of related compounds was not considered.

  17. Current levels, composition profiles, source identification and potentially ecological risks of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the surface sediments from Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoguang; Peng, Jialin; Yang, Dandan; Zhang, Dahai; Li, Xianguo

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were analyzed to assess the environmental quality in the surface sediments from Bohai Sea (BS), China. Concentrations of ∑37PCBs, ∑7PBDEs and BDE-209 were 0.157-1.699, 0.100-0.479 and 0.464-6.438 ng/g (dry weight), respectively. All of these concentrations decreased generally from the coastal areas towards the outer sea, indicating intensive influences of anthropogenic activities. Principal component analysis (PCA) coupled with multiple linear regression (MLR) revealed that 82.1% of the PCBs in BS came from direct discharge of local anthropogenic activities, 16.3% from surface runoff of contaminated soils and 1.6% from atmospheric deposition. PBDEs were mainly derived from the usage and dismantling of products containing commercial Penta-, Octa- and Deca-BDEs. According to sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), the ecological risks of PCBs could be negligible, and penta- and deca-BDE homologs might be the major contributors of ecological risks in the BS sediments.

  18. Distribution and transfer pattern of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) among the selected environmental media of Ny-Ålesund, the Arctic: As a case study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Ge, Linke; Gao, Hui; Yao, Ting; Fang, Xiaodan; Zhou, Chuanguang; Na, Guangshui

    2014-12-15

    Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) were analyzed in multi-environmental samples collected from Ny-Ålesund, the Arctic to explore their legacy and transfer patterns. PCBs were ubiquitously in the environmental media, within the ranges of 1.73-6.27 and 9.18-141.1 pg m(-3) in vapor and aerosol, 2.76-10.8, 3.09-8.32, 22.5-56.3, 35.4-51.4 and 31.8-39.6 ng g(-1) (dry weight) in soil, sediment, plant, bird guano and reindeer faeces, respectively. The spatial distribution patterns exhibited a general southward decline in soil and sediment from the bay entrance to the inner bay. The concentration ratios of plants to soil inferred that no distinguished selective adsorption of PCBs congeners by plants existed and PCBs were mainly attributed to the air deposition on plant surface. The fugacity ratios among vapor, aerosol and soil indicted that the equilibrium status has not been reached and the net transferring direction was air-soil.

  19. Bioaccumulation of PCBs in liver tissue of dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar C. plumbeus and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jann M; Baduel, Christine; Li, Yan; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Butcher, Paul A; McGrath, Shane P; Peddemors, Victor M; Hearn, Laurence; Mueller, Jochen; Christidis, Les

    2015-12-30

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the marine environment that are known to accumulate in apex predators such as sharks. Liver samples from dusky Carcharhinus obscurus, sandbar Carcharhinus plumbeus, and white Carcharodon carcharias sharks from south-eastern Australian waters were analysed for the seven indicator PCBs 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180. Median ∑PCBs were significantly higher in white than sandbar sharks (3.35 and 0.36 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively, p=0.05) but there were no significant differences between dusky sharks (1.31 μg g(-1) lipid) and the other two species. Congener concentrations were also significantly higher in white sharks. Significant differences in PCB concentrations between mature and immature dusky (3.78 and 0.76 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) and sandbar (1.94 and 0.18 μg g(-1) lipid, respectively) sharks indicated that PCB concentrations in these species increased with age/growth. Higher-chlorinated congeners (hexa and heptachlorobiphenyls) dominated results, accounting for ~90% of ∑PCBs.

  20. Levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sheep milk from an industrialised area of Sardinia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Storelli, M M; Scarano, C; Spanu, C; De Santis, E P L; Busco, V P; Storelli, A; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2012-05-01

    Concentrations of 7 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), 10 polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including 12 dioxin like-PCBs (non- and mono-ortho PCBs) were measured in 80 sheep milk samples from farms located in an industrialized area of Sardinia, Italy. PCDDs and PCDFs mean concentrations were 2.45 and 3.69 pgg(-1) fat basis, respectively. The mean dl-PCB concentration was 2.01 ngg(-1) fat basis, while cumulative ndl-PCB levels ranged from 1.02 to 20.42, with a mean of 4.92 ngg(-1) fat. The results expressed in pg WHO-TEQ/g fat showed that contamination level of milk was below the limit values for human consumption established by EC legislation. In the same way, all the investigated milk exhibited PCDD/Fs concentrations below EU action levels, while dl-PCBs concentrations exceeded the action level of 2.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g fat. These findings point to the need to continue to conduct general monitoring programmes, including also milk samples from areas not close to the contaminant-emitting industries, in order to better evaluate the impact of industrial activities on surrounding environment.

  1. Additional exposure of the Irish adult population to dioxins and PCBs from the diet as a consequence of the 2008 Irish dioxin food contamination incident.

    PubMed

    Tlustos, C; Anderson, W; Flynn, A; Pratt, I

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the discovery of elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs in a porcine fat sample taken as part of the national residues monitoring programme led to the detection of a major feed contamination incidence in the Republic of Ireland. To estimate additional exposure to dioxins and PCBs due to the contamination incident, all data associated with the contamination incident were collected and reviewed. An exposure model was devised that took into account the proportion of contaminated product reaching the final consumer during the contamination incident window and which utilised all additional information that became available after the incident occurred. Exposure estimates derived for both dioxins and PCBs showed that the body burden of the general population remained largely unaffected by the contamination incident and only approximately 10% were exposed to elevated levels of dioxins and PCBs. Whilst this proportion of the population experienced quite a significant additional load to the existing body burden, the estimated exposure values do not suggest that these would be associated with adverse health effects, based on current knowledge. The exposure period was also limited in time to approximately 3 months, following the recall of contaminated meat immediately on detection of the contamination.

  2. Accumulation profile and seasonal variations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in bivalves Crassostrea tulipa (oysters) and Anadara senilis (mussels) at three different aquatic habitats in two seasons in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dodoo, D K; Essumang, D K; Jonathan, J W A

    2013-02-01

    Research has shown that some polychlorinated biphenyl congeners degrade slowly in the environment and build up in the food chain, causing a wide range of possible adverse effects to humans. In order to ascertain the nature of the situation in Ghana, polychlorinated biphenyls congener residues in Crassostrea tulipa (oysters) and Anadara senilis (mussels) at Narkwa, Ada and Anyanui in the coastal region of Ghana were determined. At Narkwa, both bivalves' species were collected; at Ada only Anadara senilis were collected while at Anyanui, only Crassotrea tulipa were collected. The number of each bivalve species collected from each site was 80 (n=80), making up a total of 320 for the dry and the wet seasons. The PCBs were extracted with (1:1) hexane-acetone mixture and analyzed with a gas chromatogram equipped with (65)Ni electron capture detector, model CP 3800 using the mixed PCBs standard of the ICES 7. Total PCBs in the bivalves ranged from 5.55 to 6.37 μg/kg wet weight in mussels and 2.95-11.41 μg/kg wet weight in oysters, respectively. The composition of the PCB homologues in the bivalves was dominated by tri-, hepta- and hexa-PCBs in descending order. Risk assessments conducted on the samples indicated that edible bivalves from Narkwa, Ada and Anyanui in Ghana might pose some health risk to the consumers.

  3. DECHLORINATION OF PCBS, CAHS, HERBICIDES AND PESTICIDES NEAT AND IN SOILS AT 25&DEG;C USING NA/NH3. (R829421E01)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Na/NH3 reductions have been used to dehalogenate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) and pesticides at diffusion controlled rates at room temperature in model compound studies in both dry NH3 and when water was adde...

  4. A Methodological Approach to Assessing the Health Impact of Environmental Chemical Mixtures: PCBs and Hypertension in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Yorita Christensen, Krista L.; White, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We describe an approach to examine the association between exposure to chemical mixtures and a health outcome, using as our case study polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hypertension. The association between serum PCB and hypertension among participants in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was examined. First, unconditional multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and associated 95% confidence intervals. Next, correlation and multicollinearity among PCB congeners was evaluated, and clustering analyses performed to determine groups of related congeners. Finally, a weighted sum was constructed to represent the relative importance of each congener in relation to hypertension risk. PCB serum concentrations varied by demographic characteristics, and were on average higher among those with hypertension. Logistic regression results showed mixed findings by congener and class. Further analyses identified groupings of correlated PCBs. Using a weighted sum approach to equalize different ranges and potencies, PCBs 66, 101, 118, 128 and 187 were significantly associated with increased risk of hypertension. Epidemiologic data were used to demonstrate an approach to evaluating the association between a complex environmental exposure and health outcome. The complexity of analyzing a large number of related exposures, where each may have different potency and range, are addressed in the context of the association between hypertension risk and exposure to PCBs. PMID:22163204

  5. Temporal trends in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dioxins, furans, and PCBs among adult women living in Chapaevsk, Russia: a longitudinal study from 2000 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The present study assessed the temporal trend in serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls (PCBs) among residents of a Russian town where levels of these chemicals are elevated due to prior industrial activity. Methods Two serum samples were collected from eight adult women (in 2000 and 2009), and analyzed with gas chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry. Results The average total toxic equivalency (TEQ) decreased by 30% (from 36 to 25 pg/g lipid), and the average sum of PCB congeners decreased by 19% (from 291 to 211 ng/g lipid). Total TEQs decreased for seven of the eight women, and the sum of PCBs decreased for six of eight women. During this nine year period, larger decreases in serum TEQs and PCBs were found in women with greater increases in body mass index. Conclusions This study provides suggestive evidence that average serum concentrations of dioxins, furans, and PCBs are decreasing over time among residents of this town. PMID:21696632

  6. AN IP3 RECEPTOR-SENSITIVE CALCIUM STORE MEDIATES DISTURBANCES IN INTRACELLULAR CALCIUM UPON EXPOSURE TO AROCLOR 1254 AND ORTHO-SUBSTITUTED PCBS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    An IP3 Receptor-Sensitive Ca2+ Store Mediates Disturbances In Intracellular Ca2+ Upon Exposure To Aroclor 1254 And Ortho-Substituted PCBs JR Inglefield, WR Mundy, and TJ Shafer. Neurotoxicol. Div., NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC. Sponsor: L Birnbaum

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  7. National investigation of semi-volatile organic compounds (PAHs, OCPs, and PCBs) in lake sediments of China: Occurrence, spatial variation and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Chaocan; Huo, Shouliang; Yu, Zhiqiang; Xi, Beidou; Yeager, Kevin M; He, Zhuoshi; Ma, Chunzi; Zhang, Jingtian; Wu, Fengchang

    2017-02-01

    In this study, a large scale investigation of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) in sediments from 52 lakes, located in five geographic regions across China, was conducted to assess sediment quality in terms of organic contaminants. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediment were found to range between 17.00-6,633, 0.12-45.24, and 0.03-13.99ngg(-1), respectively. Lake sediments from different regions exhibited variation in contamination levels, and in the compositions of isomers. The descending order of contamination levels for the three SVOCs groups (i.e., ∑PAHs, ∑OCPs, ∑PCBs) were as follows: the eastern plain region (EPR)>the Yunnan-Guizhou plateau (YGP)>the northeast China region (NCR)>the Qinghai-Tibet plateau (QTP)>the Mongolia-Xinjiang plateau (MXP). High molecular weight PAHs, OCPs and PCBs were found at high concentrations in parts of the EPR and YGP, while lighter isomers were likely to be atmospherically transported, resulting in their nationwide distribution. The sources and type variation (local input or atmospheric deposition) are the primary controls of spatial variation. Additionally, human related socio-economic factors, and geographic conditions also played important roles in influencing the spatial differentiation. According to simple sediment quality guidelines (SQG), the risks posed by PCBs in sediments were not as serious as those posed by PAHs and DDT.

  8. RELATIVE POTENCY BASED ON HEPATIC ENZYME INDUCTION PREDICTS IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE EFFECT OF A MIXTURE OF POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS (PCDDS), DIBENZOFURANS (PCDFS) AND BIPHENYLS (PCBS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    ). Mixture (MIX)-1 contained TCDD , 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (1-PeCDF), 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (4-PeCDF), and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-octachlorodibenzofuran (OCDF). MIX-2 was prepared by adding PCBs to MIX-1, the P...

  9. Evolution of Tolerance to PCBs and Susceptibility to a Bacterial Pathogen (Virbrio harveyi) in an Atlantic Killifish Fish (Fundulus heterclitus) from New Bedford (MA, USA) Harbor

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are studying adaptation in a population of the non-migratory estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus (mummichogs) that has evolved tolerance to some of the effects of the toxic pollutants, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminating their residence site, New Bedford (NB), Mass...

  10. Application of a population-based toxicity quotient approach with field validation to assess potential effects of PCBs to great blue herons

    SciTech Connect

    Shear, N.; Henning, M.; Truchon, S.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment of a river ecosystem contaminated with PCBs, potential effects of PCBs on a population of great blue herons were evaluated using two independent measurement endpoints. The first measurement endpoint was a population-based toxicity quotient, in which predicted dietary intakes of PCBs for herons at six colonies within foraging distance of the river were compared to a literature-based toxicity reference value. While toxicity quotient approaches generally use default exposure factor values to predict potential risks to hypothetical individual organisms, in this application the use of some site-specific exposure characteristics of an actual population yielded an estimate of potential risks to the population as a whole. The second measurement endpoint considered reproductive success as a function of distance of heron colonies from the contaminated river, based on data collected by the state fish and wildlife service since 1979. The results of the two measurement endpoints both indicate that reproductive success is not likely to be adversely affected by the current level of PCBs in the river system. Given the independence of the measurement endpoints, as well as the robustness of the field data set and the site-specificity of the toxicity quotient calculation, uncertainty in this analysis is substantially reduced relative to more traditional screening level risk assessment methods.

  11. Review of PCBs in US Schools: A Brief History, Estimate of the Number of Impacted Schools, and an Approach for Evaluating Indoor Air Samples

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Robert F.; Stewart, James H.; Allen, Joseph G.

    2015-01-01

    PCBs in building materials such as caulks and sealants are a largely unrecognized source of contamination in the building environment. Schools are of particular interest, as the period of extensive school construction (about 1950 to 1980) coincides with the time of greatest use of PCBs as plasticizers in building materials. In the United States, we estimate that the number of schools with PCB in building caulk ranges from 12, 960 to 25, 920 based upon the number of schools built in the time of PCB use, and the proportion of buildings found to contain PCB caulk and sealants. Field and laboratory studies have demonstrated that PCBs from both interior and exterior caulking can be the source of elevated PCB air concentrations in these buildings, at levels that exceed health-based PCB exposure guidelines for building occupa