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Sample records for big 1-98 participants

  1. Molecular risk assessment of BIG 1-98 participants by expression profiling using RNA from archival tissue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose of the work reported here is to test reliable molecular profiles using routinely processed formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues from participants of the clinical trial BIG 1-98 with a median follow-up of 60 months. Methods RNA from fresh frozen (FF) and FFPE tumor samples of 82 patients were used for quality control, and independent FFPE tissues of 342 postmenopausal participants of BIG 1-98 with ER-positive cancer were analyzed by measuring prospectively selected genes and computing scores representing the functions of the estrogen receptor (eight genes, ER_8), the progesterone receptor (five genes, PGR_5), Her2 (two genes, HER2_2), and proliferation (ten genes, PRO_10) by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) on TaqMan Low Density Arrays. Molecular scores were computed for each category and ER_8, PGR_5, HER2_2, and PRO_10 scores were combined into a RISK_25 score. Results Pearson correlation coefficients between FF- and FFPE-derived scores were at least 0.94 and high concordance was observed between molecular scores and immunohistochemical data. The HER2_2, PGR_5, PRO_10 and RISK_25 scores were significant predictors of disease free-survival (DFS) in univariate Cox proportional hazard regression. PRO_10 and RISK_25 scores predicted DFS in patients with histological grade II breast cancer and in lymph node positive disease. The PRO_10 and PGR_5 scores were independent predictors of DFS in multivariate Cox regression models incorporating clinical risk indicators; PRO_10 outperformed Ki-67 labeling index in multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses. Conclusions Scores representing the endocrine responsiveness and proliferation status of breast cancers were developed from gene expression analyses based on RNA derived from FFPE tissues. The validation of the molecular scores with tumor samples of participants of the BIG 1-98 trial demonstrates that such scores can serve as independent prognostic factors to estimate

  2. The Breast International Group 1-98 trial: big results for women with hormone-sensitive early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Monnier, Alain M

    2007-05-01

    As there is a risk for relapse in early breast cancer, especially at 1-3 years post surgery, the need for adjuvant therapy is clear. In terms of disease-free survival, aromatase inhibitors have emerged as superior to tamoxifen for the adjuvant treatment of hormone-sensitive breast cancer in several Phase III clinical trials. Of these trials, the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial stands out as unique in design, as it is the only trial to address whether an aromatase inhibitor is more effective as initial adjuvant therapy or as sequential therapy with an aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen in either order and in rigor of end points and safety evaluations. When compared with tamoxifen, letrozole has been shown to significantly reduce recurrence risk in the overall population by 19% and also significantly reduced recurrence risk in the patient subgroups at increased risk: node-positive and previously chemotherapy-treated patients. Letrozole is the only aromatase inhibitor to demonstrate a significant 27% reduction in the risk of distant metastases (p = 0.001) in the clinically relevant, hormone receptor-positive population in the initial adjuvant setting. Recent results also suggest that letrozole in particular reduces the risk of distant metastases early on after initial surgery for breast cancer. This is important, as early distant metastatic events compose the majority of early recurrences and are a well-recognized predictor of breast cancer death. Letrozole has been found to be well tolerated in the initial adjuvant treatment setting, and these data have been confirmed by long-term safety data from the monotherapy analysis in the BIG 1-98 study. Thus far, the results from the BIG 1-98 trial provide clear support for the use of letrozole in the initial adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Future studies will provide the definitive answer to questions of which initial adjuvant therapy is superior (i.e., anastrozole or letrozole) and information as to the

  3. Letrozole as upfront endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone-sensitive breast cancer: BIG 1-98

    PubMed Central

    Thuerlimann, Beat

    2007-01-01

    The BIG 1-98 trial is a large, randomized, independently conducted clinical trial designed to compare the efficacy of upfront letrozole versus tamoxifen monotherapy and to compare sequential or up-front use of letrozole and/or tamoxifen as an early adjuvant therapy for patients with early breast cancer. We report on the results from the primary core analysis of the BIG 1-98 trial of 8,010 patients, which compares monotherapy with letrozole versus tamoxifen. This pre-planned core analysis allowed the use of patient data from the monotherapy arms of letrozole and tamoxifen and from the sequential arms prior to the drug switch point. Patients randomized to letrozole had a 19% improved disease-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81; P = 0.003), due especially to reduced distant metastases (HR = 0.73; P = 0.001). A 14% risk reduction of fatal events in favor of letrozole was also observed (P = NS). The results from the monotherapy arms alone confirmed the findings from the primary core analysis. Based on the results from this trial, the aromatase inhibitor letrozole (Femara®) is currently recommended as a part of standard adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer and has recently been approved in the early adjuvant setting in both Europe and the United States. A subsequent analysis after additional follow-up will address the question of monotherapy versus sequential therapy. PMID:17912636

  4. Letrozole compared with tamoxifen for elderly patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: the BIG 1-98 trial.

    PubMed

    Crivellari, Diana; Sun, Zhuoxin; Coates, Alan S; Price, Karen N; Thürlimann, Beat; Mouridsen, Henning; Mauriac, Louis; Forbes, John F; Paridaens, Robert J; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Gelber, Richard D; Colleoni, Marco; Láng, István; Del Mastro, Lucia; Gladieff, Laurence; Rabaglio, Manuela; Smith, Ian E; Chirgwin, Jacquie H; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2008-04-20

    To explore potential differences in efficacy, treatment completion, and adverse events (AEs) in elderly women receiving adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole for five years in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial. This report includes the 4,922 patients allocated to 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial. The median follow-up was 40.4 months. Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis was used to examine the patterns of differences in disease-free survival and incidences of AEs according to age. In addition, three categoric age groups were defined: "younger postmenopausal" patients were younger than 65 years (n = 3,127), "older" patients were 65 to 74 years old (n = 1,500), and "elderly" patients were 75 years of age or older (n = 295). Efficacy results for subpopulations defined by age were similar to the overall trial results: Letrozole significantly improved disease-free survival (DFS), the primary end point, compared with tamoxifen. Elderly patients were less likely to complete trial treatment, but at rates that were similar in the two treatment groups. The incidence of bone fractures, observed more often in the letrozole group, did not differ by age. In elderly patients, letrozole had a significantly higher incidence of any grade 3 to 5 protocol-specified non-fracture AE compared with tamoxifen (P = .002), but differences were not significant for thromboembolic or cardiac AEs. Adjuvant treatment with letrozole had superior efficacy (DFS) compared with tamoxifen in all age groups. On the basis of a small number of patients older than 75 years (6%), age per se should not unduly affect the choice of adjuvant endocrine therapy.

  5. Bone mineral density and circulating biomarkers in the BIG 1-98 trial comparing adjuvant letrozole, tamoxifen and their sequences

    PubMed Central

    DeCensi, Andrea; Sun, Zhuoxin; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Thürlimann, Beat; McIntosh, Christina; Tondini, Carlo; Monnier, Alain; Campone, Mario; Debled, Marc; Schönenberger, Astrid; Zaman, Khalil; Johansson, Harriet; Price, Karen N.; Gelber, Richard D.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Coates, Alan S.; Aebi, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of the BIG 1-98 treatments on bone mineral density. BIG 1-98 compared 5-year adjuvant hormone therapy in postmenopausal women allocated to four groups: tamoxifen (T); letrozole (L); 2-years T, 3-years L (TL); 2-years L, 3-years T (LT). Methods Bone mineral density T-score was measured prospectively annually by dual energy X-ray absorption in 424 patients enrolled in a sub-study after three (n=150), four (n=200), and five years (n=74) from randomization, and one year after treatment cessation. Prevalence of osteoporosis and the association of C-telopeptide, osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase with T-scores were assessed. Results At 3 years, T had the highest and TL the lowest T-score. All arms except for LT showed a decline up to 5 years, with TL exhibiting the greatest. At 5 years, there were significant differences on lumbar T-score only between T and TL, whereas for femur T-score differences were significant for T vs. L or TL, and L vs. LT. The 5-year prevalence of spine and femur osteoporosis was highest on TL (14.5%, 7.1%) then L (4.3%, 5.1%), LT (4.2%, 1.4%) and T (4%, 0). C-telopeptide and osteocalcin were significantly associated with T-scores. Conclusions While adjuvant L increases bone mineral density loss compared with T, the sequence LT has an acceptable bone safety profile. C-telopeptide and osteocalcin are useful markers of bone density that may be used to monitor bone health during treatment. The sequence LT may be a valid treatment option in patients with low and intermediate risk of recurrence. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT00369850 PMID:24487691

  6. Relative Effectiveness of Letrozole Compared With Tamoxifen for Patients With Lobular Carcinoma in the BIG 1-98 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Metzger Filho, Otto; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Mallon, Elizabeth; Gusterson, Barry; Viale, Giuseppe; Winer, Eric P.; Thürlimann, Beat; Gelber, Richard D.; Colleoni, Marco; Ejlertsen, Bent; Debled, Marc; Price, Karen N.; Regan, Meredith M.; Coates, Alan S.; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative effectiveness of letrozole compared with tamoxifen for patients with invasive ductal or lobular carcinoma. Patients and Methods Patients diagnosed with early-stage invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) or classic invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) who were randomly assigned onto the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial and who had centrally reviewed pathology data were included (N = 2,923). HER2-negative IDC and ILC were additionally classified as hormone receptor–positive with high (luminal B [LB] –like) or low (luminal A [LA] –like) proliferative activity by Ki-67 labeling index. Survival analyses were performed with weighted Cox models that used inverse probability of censoring weighted modeling. Results The median follow-up time was 8.1 years. In multivariable models for disease-free survival (DFS), significant interactions between treatment and histology (ILC or IDC; P = .006) and treatment and subgroup (LB like or LA like; P = .01) were observed. In the ILC subset, there was a 66% reduction in the hazard of a DFS event with letrozole for LB (hazard ratio [HR], 0.34; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.55) and a 50% reduction for LA subtypes (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32 to 0.78). In the IDC subset, there was a significant 35% reduction in the hazard of a DFS event with letrozole for the LB subtype (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.79), but no difference between treatments was noted for IDC and the LA subtype (HR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.20). Conclusion The magnitude of benefit of adjuvant letrozole is greater for patients diagnosed with lobular carcinoma versus ductal carcinoma. PMID:26215945

  7. Cognitive function in postmenopausal women receiving adjuvant letrozole or tamoxifen for breast cancer in the BIG 1-98 randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kelly Anne; Ribi, Karin; Sun, Zhuoxin; Stephens, Alisa; Thompson, Alastair; Harvey, Vernon; Thürlimann, Beat; Cardoso, Fatima; Pagani, Olivia; Coates, Alan S.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Price, Karen N.; Gelber, Richard D.; Bernhard, Jürg

    2010-01-01

    Summary Cognitive function in postmenopausal women receiving letrozole or tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine treatment was compared during the fifth year of treatment in a substudy of the BIG 1-98 trial. In BIG 1-98 patients were randomized to receive adjuvant A) 5-years tamoxifen, B) 5-years letrozole, C) 2-years tamoxifen followed by 3-years letrozole, or D) 2-years letrozole followed by 3-years tamoxifen. The primary comparison was the difference in composite score for patients taking letrozole (B+C; N=65) versus tamoxifen (A+D; N=55). The patients taking letrozole had better overall cognitive function than those taking tamoxifen (difference in mean composite z-scores =0.28, p=0.04, 95% CI:0.02, 0.54, Cohen's D = 0.40 indicating small to moderate effect). In this substudy, breast cancer patients taking adjuvant letrozole during the fifth year of treatment had better cognitive function than those taking tamoxifen, suggesting aromatase inhibitors do not adversely impact cognition compared with tamoxifen. PMID:20385495

  8. Bone fractures among postmenopausal patients with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer treated with 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial

    PubMed Central

    Rabaglio, M.; Sun, Z.; Castiglione-Gertsch, M.; Hawle, H.; Thürlimann, B.; Mouridsen, H.; Campone, M.; Forbes, J. F.; Paridaens, R. J.; Colleoni, M.; Pienkowski, T.; Nogaret, J.-M.; Láng, I.; Smith, I.; Gelber, R. D.; Goldhirsch, A.; Coates, A. S.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To compare the incidence and timing of bone fractures in postmenopausal women treated with 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole for endocrine-responsive early breast cancer in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial. Methods: We evaluated 4895 patients allocated to 5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial who received at least some study medication (median follow-up 60.3 months). Bone fracture information (grade, cause, site) was collected every 6 months during trial treatment. Results: The incidence of bone fractures was higher among patients treated with letrozole [228 of 2448 women (9.3%)] versus tamoxifen [160 of 2447 women (6.5%)]. The wrist was the most common site of fracture in both treatment groups. Statistically significant risk factors for bone fractures during treatment included age, smoking history, osteoporosis at baseline, previous bone fracture, and previous hormone replacement therapy. Conclusions: Consistent with other trials comparing aromatase inhibitors to tamoxifen, letrozole was associated with an increase in bone fractures. Benefits of superior disease control associated with letrozole and lower incidence of fracture with tamoxifen should be considered with the risk profile for individual patients. PMID:19474112

  9. The advantage of letrozole over tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial is consistent in younger postmenopausal women and in those with chemotherapy-induced menopause.

    PubMed

    Chirgwin, Jacquie; Sun, Zhuoxin; Smith, Ian; Price, Karen N; Thürlimann, Beat; Ejlertsen, Bent; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Regan, Meredith M; Goldhirsch, Aron; Coates, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, is ineffective in the presence of ovarian estrogen production. Two subpopulations of apparently postmenopausal women might derive reduced benefit from letrozole due to residual or returning ovarian activity: younger women (who have the potential for residual subclinical ovarian estrogen production), and those with chemotherapy-induced menopause who may experience return of ovarian function. In these situations tamoxifen may be preferable to an aromatase inhibitor. Among 4,922 patients allocated to the monotherapy arms (5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen) in the BIG 1-98 trial we identified two relevant subpopulations: patients with potential residual ovarian function, defined as having natural menopause, treated without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and age ≤ 55 years (n = 641); and those with chemotherapy-induced menopause (n = 105). Neither of the subpopulations examined showed treatment effects differing from the trial population as a whole (interaction P values are 0.23 and 0.62, respectively). Indeed, both among the 641 patients aged ≤ 55 years with natural menopause and no chemotherapy (HR 0.77 [0.51, 1.16]) and among the 105 patients with chemotherapy-induced menopause (HR 0.51 [0.19, 1.39]), the disease-free survival (DFS) point estimate favoring letrozole was marginally more beneficial than in the trial as a whole (HR 0.84 [0.74, 0.95]). Contrary to our initial concern, DFS results for young postmenopausal patients who did not receive chemotherapy and patients with chemotherapy-induced menopause parallel the letrozole benefit seen in the BIG 1-98 population as a whole. These data support the use of letrozole even in such patients.

  10. The advantage of letrozole over tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial is consistent in younger postmenopausal women and in those with chemotherapy-induced menopause

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhuoxin; Smith, Ian; Price, Karen N.; Thürlimann, Beat; Ejlertsen, Bent; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Regan, Meredith M.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Coates, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, is ineffective in the presence of ovarian estrogen production. Two subpopulations of apparently postmenopausal women might derive reduced benefit from letrozole due to residual or returning ovarian activity: younger women (who have the potential for residual subclinical ovarian estrogen production), and those with chemotherapy-induced menopause who may experience return of ovarian function. In these situations tamoxifen may be preferable to an aromatase inhibitor. Among 4,922 patients allocated to the monotherapy arms (5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen) in the BIG 1-98 trial we identified two relevant subpopulations: patients with potential residual ovarian function, defined as having natural menopause, treated without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and age ≤55 years (n = 641); and those with chemotherapy-induced menopause (n = 105). Neither of the subpopulations examined showed treatment effects differing from the trial population as a whole (interaction P values are 0.23 and 0.62, respectively). Indeed, both among the 641 patients aged ≤55 years with natural menopause and no chemotherapy (HR 0.77 [0.51, 1.16]) and among the 105 patients with chemotherapy-induced menopause (HR 0.51 [0.19, 1.39]), the disease-free survival (DFS) point estimate favoring letrozole was marginally more beneficial than in the trial as a whole (HR 0.84 [0.74, 0.95]). Contrary to our initial concern, DFS results for young postmenopausal patients who did not receive chemotherapy and patients with chemotherapy-induced menopause parallel the letrozole benefit seen in the BIG 1-98 population as a whole. These data support the use of letrozole even in such patients. PMID:21892704

  11. Cognitive function in postmenopausal breast cancer patients one year after completing adjuvant endocrine therapy with letrozole and/or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Kelly-Anne; Aldridge, Julie; Ribi, Karin; Sun, Zhuoxin; Thompson, Alastair; Harvey, Vernon; Thürlimann, Beat; Cardoso, Fatima; Pagani, Olivia; Coates, Alan S.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Price, Karen N.; Gelber, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine therapy for breast cancer may affect cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine whether cognitive function improves after cessation of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Change in cognitive function was assessed in 100 postmenopausal breast cancer patients in the BIG 1-98 trial, who were randomized to receive 5 years of adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole alone or in sequence. Cognitive function was evaluated by computerized tests during the fifth year of trial treatment (Y5) and 1 year after treatment completion (Y6). Cognitive test scores were standardized according to age-specific norms and the change assessed using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. There was significant improvement in the composite cognitive function score from Y5 to Y6 (median of change = 0.22, effect size = 0.53, P < 0.0001). This improvement was consistent in women taking either tamoxifen or letrozole at Y5 (P = 0.0006 and P = 0.0002, respectively). For postmenopausal patients who received either adjuvant letrozole or tamoxifen alone or in sequence, cognitive function improved after cessation of treatment. PMID:21046229

  12. Interpreting Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Regan, Meredith M; Price, Karen N; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Thürlimann, Beat; Gelber, Richard D

    2011-05-26

    The Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 study is a four-arm trial comparing 5 years of monotherapy with tamoxifen or with letrozole or with sequences of 2 years of one followed by 3 years of the other for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early invasive breast cancer. From 1998 to 2003, BIG -98 enrolled 8,010 women. The enhanced design f the trial enabled two complementary analyses of efficacy and safety. Collection of tumor specimens further enabled treatment comparisons based on tumor biology. Reports of BIG 1-98 should be interpreted in relation to each individual patient as she weighs the costs and benefits of available treatments. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT00004205.

  13. Interpreting breast international group (BIG) 1-98: a randomized, double-blind, phase III trial comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive, early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 study is a four-arm trial comparing 5 years of monotherapy with tamoxifen or with letrozole or with sequences of 2 years of one followed by 3 years of the other for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early invasive breast cancer. From 1998 to 2003, BIG -98 enrolled 8,010 women. The enhanced design f the trial enabled two complementary analyses of efficacy and safety. Collection of tumor specimens further enabled treatment comparisons based on tumor biology. Reports of BIG 1-98 should be interpreted in relation to each individual patient as she weighs the costs and benefits of available treatments. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT00004205. PMID:21635709

  14. Design, conduct, and analyses of Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98: A randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing letrozole and tamoxifen as adjuvant endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with receptor-positive, early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Price, Karen N; Gelber, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Background Aromatase inhibitors provide superior disease control when compared with tamoxifen as adjuvant therapy for postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer. Purpose To present the design, history, and analytic challenges of the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial: an international, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, phase-III study comparing the aromatase inhibitor letrozole with tamoxifen in this clinical setting. Methods From 1998–2003, BIG 1-98 enrolled 8028 women to receive monotherapy with either tamoxifen or letrozole for 5 years, or sequential therapy of 2 years of one agent followed by 3 years of the other. Randomization to one of four treatment groups permitted two complementary analyses to be conducted several years apart. The first, reported in 2005, provided a head-to-head comparison of letrozole versus tamoxifen. Statistical power was increased by an enriched design, which included patients who were assigned sequential treatments until the time of the treatment switch. The second, reported in late 2008, used a conditional landmark approach to test the hypothesis that switching endocrine agents at approximately 2 years from randomization for patients who are disease-free is superior to continuing with the original agent. Results The 2005 analysis showed the superiority of letrozole compared with tamoxifen. The patients who were assigned tamoxifen alone were unblinded and offered the opportunity to switch to letrozole. Results from other trials increased the clinical relevance about whether or not to start treatment with letrozole or tamoxifen, and analysis plans were expanded to evaluate sequential versus single-agent strategies from randomization. Limitations Due to the unblinding of patients assigned tamoxifen alone, analysis of updated data will require ascertainment of the influence of selective crossover from tamoxifen to letrozole. Conclusions BIG 1-98 is an example of an enriched design, involving

  15. Participation in global value chain and green technology progress: evidence from big data of Chinese enterprises.

    PubMed

    Song, Malin; Wang, Shuhong

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the stimulative effects of Chinese enterprises' participation in the global value chain (GVC) on the progress of their green technologies. Using difference-in-difference panel models with big data of Chinese enterprises, we measured influencing factors such as enterprise participation degree, enterprise scale, corporate ownership, and research and development (R&D) investment. The results revealed that participation in the GVC can considerably improve the green technology levels in all enterprises, except state-owned ones. However, the older an enterprise, the higher the sluggishness is likely to be in its R&D activities; this is particularly true for state-owned enterprises. The findings provide insights into the strategy of actively addressing Chinese enterprises' predicament of being restricted to the lower end of the GVC.

  16. A Framework for Learning about Big Data with Mobile Technologies for Democratic Participation: Possibilities, Limitations, and Unanticipated Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Thomas M.; Schuler-Brown, Sarah; Way, Winmar

    2013-01-01

    As Big Data becomes increasingly important in policy-making, research, marketing, and commercial applications, we argue that literacy in this domain is critical for engaged democratic participation and that peer-generated data from mobile technologies offer rich possibilities for students to learn about this new genre of data. Through the lens of…

  17. A Framework for Learning about Big Data with Mobile Technologies for Democratic Participation: Possibilities, Limitations, and Unanticipated Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Thomas M.; Schuler-Brown, Sarah; Way, Winmar

    2013-01-01

    As Big Data becomes increasingly important in policy-making, research, marketing, and commercial applications, we argue that literacy in this domain is critical for engaged democratic participation and that peer-generated data from mobile technologies offer rich possibilities for students to learn about this new genre of data. Through the lens of…

  18. The big picture unfolds: Using photovoice to study user participation in mental health services.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jessica Pui-Shan; Tse, Samson; Davidson, Larry

    2016-12-01

    User participation is advocated on the basis that consumers know their own needs better than anyone else. Photovoice is a participatory research method that empowers the grass-root population to give voice on concerned issues for eliciting social change. This study explores the experience and impact of user participation in mental health services (MHS) in Hong Kong through photovoice. It also examines the effects of this method in studying user participation. In this qualitative inquiry, authors, two peer researchers and three participants were involved in the various stages of research design, data collection and data analysis. Participants took photos showing their perception and experiences of being involved in different MHS systems. They shared their narratives through these images and reflected on the participatory experience of photovoice. User participation was experienced as a gradual process of assuming control that involved personal responsibility, connection with peers, collaboration with staff, redefinition of boundaries and social inclusion. Meaningful participation gave rise to a sense of contribution, interpersonal connection and self-worth and transformed one's identity. Participants enjoyed the mutual interaction and derived benefit from the photovoice process. Issues such as consent and confidentiality arose in implementation. Participation entails partnership among service users, providers and peers. Photovoice opens up new space for unfolding expert knowledge. Further application of this participatory approach with the local community is suggested in order to develop person-centered care. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Plasma proANP1-98 levels are positively associated with central obesity: A cross-sectional study in a general population of China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhengbao; Zhang, Qiu; Peng, Hao; Zhong, Chongke; Liu, Yan; Huangfu, Xinfeng; Tian, Yunfan; Chao, Xiangqin; Wang, Aili; Jin, Jianhua; Zhang, Yonghong

    2017-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its prohormone activating enzyme are associated with central obesity, suggesting there may be a potential relationship between proANP1-98 and central obesity. However, the association is still lack of population-based evidence. We explored the association in a general population of China. We measured plasma proANP1-98, waist circumference and other traditional biomarkers in 2203 participants aged≥30y. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine the association between plasma proANP1-98 and central obesity, and odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. High proANP1-98 was significantly associated with increased risk of central obesity in participants, and the multivariate adjusted OR (95% CI) of central obesity associated with the second, third and fourth quartiles of proANP1-98 were 1.33 (1.03-1.72), 1.69 (1.31-2.19) and 1.76 (1.35-2.29), respectively, compared with the lowest quartile of proANP1-98. There was a dose-response relationship between proANP1-98 and risk of central obesity among the participants (Ptrend<0.001). Sensitivity analyses further confirmed these associations. Adding proANP1-98 to a model containing conventional risk factors improved discriminatory power of central obesity (as shown by significant improvement in continuous NRI and IDI). Contrary to known reduced ANP levels in central obesity, we found that plasma proANP1-98 was positively associated with central obesity, suggesting that elevated plasma proANP1-98 may be a marker or a risk factor for central obesity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 49 CFR 1.98 - The Research and Innovative Technology Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false The Research and Innovative Technology Administration. 1.98 Section 1.98 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.98 The Research and Innovative Technology...

  1. 49 CFR 1.98 - The Research and Innovative Technology Administration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Research and Innovative Technology Administration. 1.98 Section 1.98 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation ORGANIZATION AND DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Operating Administrations § 1.98 The Research and Innovative Technology...

  2. When the Big Fish Turns Small: Effects of Participating in Gifted Summer Programs on Academic Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, David Yun; Rinn, Anne N.; Tan, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the presence and prevalence of the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) in summer programs for the gifted, (b) identify group and individual difference variables that help predict those who are more susceptible to the BFLPE, and (c) put the possible BFLPE on academic self-concept in a larger context of…

  3. When the Big Fish Turns Small: Effects of Participating in Gifted Summer Programs on Academic Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, David Yun; Rinn, Anne N.; Tan, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the presence and prevalence of the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) in summer programs for the gifted, (b) identify group and individual difference variables that help predict those who are more susceptible to the BFLPE, and (c) put the possible BFLPE on academic self-concept in a larger context of…

  4. 5. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST OF BUILDING 444. (1/1/98) Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST OF BUILDING 444. (1/1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. 4. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT BUILDING 444. (1/1/98) Rocky ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT BUILDING 444. (1/1/98) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  6. Big Data: Big Confusion? Big Challenges?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    12th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium 12th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Big Data : Big Confusion? Big Challenges? Mary Maureen... Data : Big Confusion? Big Challenges? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...Acquisition Research Symposium • ~!& UNC CHARlD1TE 90% of the data in the world today was created in the last two years Big Data growth from

  7. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  8. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  9. Treatment Adherence and Its Impact on Disease-Free Survival in the Breast International Group 1-98 Trial of Tamoxifen and Letrozole, Alone and in Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Coates, Alan S.; Price, Karen N.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Debled, Marc; Gelber, Richard D.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Smith, Ian; Rabaglio, Manuela; Forbes, John F.; Neven, Patrick; Láng, István; Colleoni, Marco; Thürlimann, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate adherence to endocrine treatment and its relationship with disease-free survival (DFS) in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 clinical trial. Methods The BIG 1-98 trial is a double-blind trial that randomly assigned 6,193 postmenopausal women with hormone receptor–positive early breast cancer in the four-arm option to 5 years of tamoxifen (Tam), letrozole (Let), or the agents in sequence (Let-Tam, Tam-Let). This analysis included 6,144 women who received at least one dose of study treatment. Conditional landmark analyses and marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationship between DFS and treatment adherence (persistence [duration] and compliance with dosage). Competing risks regression was used to assess demographic, disease, and treatment characteristics of the women who stopped treatment early because of adverse events. Results Both aspects of low adherence (early cessation of letrozole and a compliance score of < 90%) were associated with reduced DFS (multivariable model hazard ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.93; P = .01; and multivariable model hazard ratio, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.38; P = .02, respectively). Sequential treatments were associated with higher rates of nonpersistence (Tam-Let, 20.8%; Let-Tam, 20.3%; Tam 16.9%; Let 17.6%). Adverse events were the reason for most trial treatment early discontinuations (82.7%). Apart from sequential treatment assignment, reduced adherence was associated with older age, smoking, node negativity, or prior thromboembolic event. Conclusion Both persistence and compliance are associated with DFS. Toxicity management and, for sequential treatments, patient and physician awareness, may improve adherence. PMID:27217455

  10. Obesity and Risk of Recurrence or Death After Adjuvant Endocrine Therapy With Letrozole or Tamoxifen in the Breast International Group 1-98 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ewertz, Marianne; Gray, Kathryn P.; Regan, Meredith M.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Price, Karen N.; Thürlimann, Beat; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Forbes, John F.; Paridaens, Robert J.; Rabaglio, Manuela; Gelber, Richard D.; Colleoni, Marco; Láng, István; Smith, Ian E.; Coates, Alan S.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Mouridsen, Henning T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the association of baseline body mass index (BMI) with the risk of recurrence or death in postmenopausal women with early-stage breast cancer receiving adjuvant tamoxifen or letrozole in the Breast International Group (BIG) 1-98 trial at 8.7 years of median follow-up. Patients and Methods This report analyzes 4,760 patients with breast cancer randomly assigned to 5 years of monotherapy with letrozole or tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial with available information on BMI at randomization. Multivariable Cox modeling assessed the association of BMI with disease-free survival, overall survival (OS), breast cancer–free interval, and distant recurrence-free interval and tested for treatment-by-BMI interaction. Median follow-up was 8.7 years. Results Seventeen percent of patients have died. Obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) had slightly poorer OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.19; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.44) than patients with normal BMI (< 25 kg/m2), whereas no trend in OS was observed in overweight (BMI 25 to < 30 kg/m2) versus normal-weight patients (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.20). Treatment-by-BMI interactions were not statistically significant. The HRs for OS comparing obese versus normal BMI were HR = 1.22 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.60) and HR = 1.18 (95% CI, 0.91 to 1.52) in the letrozole and tamoxifen groups, respectively. Conclusion There was no evidence that the benefit of letrozole over tamoxifen differed according to patients' BMI. PMID:23045588

  11. Big Science! Big Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beigel, Allan

    1991-01-01

    Lessons learned by the University of Arizona through participation in two major scientific projects, construction of an astronomical observatory and a super cyclotron, are discussed. Four criteria for institutional participation in such projects are outlined, including consistency with institutional mission, adequate resources, leadership, and…

  12. How Big Is Too Big?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James

    2016-01-01

    Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…

  13. How Big Is Too Big?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James

    2016-01-01

    Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…

  14. Plasma proatrial natriuretic factor (1-98) concentration after myocardial infarction: relation to indices of cardiac and renal function.

    PubMed Central

    Bonarjee, V. V.; Omland, T.; Nilsen, D. W.; Caidahl, K.; Sundsfjord, J. A.; Dickstein, K.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--(a) To assess the relation between plasma concentrations of proatrial natriuretic factor (1-98) and non-invasively derived indices of left ventricular systolic and diastolic performance and (b) to assess the potential confounding effect of renal function and age on this relation in patients with acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN--Cross sectional comparison of biochemical and echocardiographic indices of cardiac function. SETTING--Norwegian central hospital. PATIENTS--Sixty four patients with acute myocardial infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Relation between plasma proatrial natriuretic factor (1-98) concentrations and echocardiographic indices of left ventricular systolic function as assessed by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. Sensitivity and specificity of plasma proatrial natriuretic factor (1-98) concentration as a measure of left ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction. RESULTS--Plasma proatrial natriuretic factor (1-98) concentrations were significantly related to left ventricular ejection fraction (r = -0.33; P = 0.008), age (r = 0.43; P < 0.001), and creatinine clearance (r = - 0.53; P < 0.001). In a multivariate model left ventricular ejection fraction and creatinine clearance were both independently related to plasma values. The mean concentration of proatrial natriuretic factor (1-98) was significantly higher in patients with an ejection fraction of < 40% than in those with an ejection fraction of > or = 40% (1876 (1151) v 1174 (530) pmol/l; P = 0.03) and in patients with an abnormal transmitral E/A ratio ( < 0.65 or > 1.65, where E/A is ratio of peak early filling velocity to peak atrial component) compared with those with a normal ratio (1572 (895) v 1137 (523) pmol/l, respectively; P = 0.02). When patients were subdivided according to the median concentration of proatrial natriuretic factor (1192 pmol/l) the sensitivity and specificity were 89% and 56% respectively for detecting a left ventricular ejection

  15. Nursing Needs Big Data and Big Data Needs Nursing.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary big data initiatives in health care will benefit from greater integration with nursing science and nursing practice; in turn, nursing science and nursing practice has much to gain from the data science initiatives. Big data arises secondary to scholarly inquiry (e.g., -omics) and everyday observations like cardiac flow sensors or Twitter feeds. Data science methods that are emerging ensure that these data be leveraged to improve patient care. Big data encompasses data that exceed human comprehension, that exist at a volume unmanageable by standard computer systems, that arrive at a velocity not under the control of the investigator and possess a level of imprecision not found in traditional inquiry. Data science methods are emerging to manage and gain insights from big data. The primary methods included investigation of emerging federal big data initiatives, and exploration of exemplars from nursing informatics research to benchmark where nursing is already poised to participate in the big data revolution. We provide observations and reflections on experiences in the emerging big data initiatives. Existing approaches to large data set analysis provide a necessary but not sufficient foundation for nursing to participate in the big data revolution. Nursing's Social Policy Statement guides a principled, ethical perspective on big data and data science. There are implications for basic and advanced practice clinical nurses in practice, for the nurse scientist who collaborates with data scientists, and for the nurse data scientist. Big data and data science has the potential to provide greater richness in understanding patient phenomena and in tailoring interventional strategies that are personalized to the patient. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  16. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  17. Big game hunting practices, meanings, motivations and constraints: a survey of Oregon big game hunters

    Treesearch

    Suresh K. Shrestha; Robert C. Burns

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a self-administered mail survey in September 2009 with randomly selected Oregon hunters who had purchased big game hunting licenses/tags for the 2008 hunting season. Survey questions explored hunting practices, the meanings of and motivations for big game hunting, the constraints to big game hunting participation, and the effects of age, years of hunting...

  18. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  19. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  20. Big bluestem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is a warm season grass native to North America, accounting for 40% of the herbaceous biomass of the tall grass prairie, and a candidate for bioenergy feedstock production. The goal of this study was to measure among and within population genetic variation of natura...

  1. Big Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  2. Crystal structure of YD/sub 1. 96/ and YH/sub 1. 98/ by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Khatamian, D.; Kamitakahara, W.A.; Barnes, R.G.; Peterson, D.T.

    1980-03-15

    The crystal structure of YD/sub 1.96/ and YH/sub 1.98/ has been examined at room temperature and 11 K by neutron-diffraction techniques. Refinement of the data reveals the occupation of both tetrahedral and octahedral interstices of the fcc metal lattice. These results help to explain some features observed in the optical properties of YH/sub x/.

  3. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  4. NMR study of Cu2Se and Cu1.98Ag0.2Se superionic conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirusi Arvij, Ali; Ross, Joseph H., Jr.; Ballikaya, Sedat; Uher, Ctirad

    2015-03-01

    Cu2Se and Cu1.98Ag0.2Se are well known as superionic conductors and recently as thermoelectric materials due to observation of high ZT. We will report NMR of these compounds. Our results include indications of glassy anharmonic behavior at low temperatures, Cu ionic motion which becomes initiated near 90K, and motional narrowing near the phase transition at high temperatures as well as modified dynamics observed in the Ag-doped sample. NMR is particularly well suited to probe low frequency dynamics and at low temperatures the relaxation rate indicates anharmonic rattling behavior similar to what has been observed in other thermoelectric materials. A 90K change in the NMR spectra corresponds to the recently observed transport anomaly and indicates that the slow motion of Cu ions is initiated at this temperature and eventually becomes liquid-like at higher temperatures. We detect fast ionic motion in Cu2Se starting at 140K whereas in the Ag-doped compound this onset shifts to a higher temperature around 300K. At high temperatures the spectra become motionally narrowed, and we will discuss the narrowing and shifts in terms of activated carrier density and ionic motion. This work was supported by the Robert A. Welch Foundation.

  5. Big Data, Big Problems: A Healthcare Perspective.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa S; Aldosari, Bakheet; Alanazi, Abdullah; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Much has been written on the benefits of big data for healthcare such as improving patient outcomes, public health surveillance, and healthcare policy decisions. Over the past five years, Big Data, and the data sciences field in general, has been hyped as the "Holy Grail" for the healthcare industry promising a more efficient healthcare system with the promise of improved healthcare outcomes. However, more recently, healthcare researchers are exposing the potential and harmful effects Big Data can have on patient care associating it with increased medical costs, patient mortality, and misguided decision making by clinicians and healthcare policy makers. In this paper, we review the current Big Data trends with a specific focus on the inadvertent negative impacts that Big Data could have on healthcare, in general, and specifically, as it relates to patient and clinical care. Our study results show that although Big Data is built up to be as a the "Holy Grail" for healthcare, small data techniques using traditional statistical methods are, in many cases, more accurate and can lead to more improved healthcare outcomes than Big Data methods. In sum, Big Data for healthcare may cause more problems for the healthcare industry than solutions, and in short, when it comes to the use of data in healthcare, "size isn't everything."

  6. Five Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  7. Five Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  8. Improvement of thermoelectric properties and their correlations with electron effective mass in Cu1.98SxSe1‑x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lanling; Fei, Frank Yun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Funing; Wang, Chunlei; Li, Jichao; Wang, Jiyang; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Sulphur doping effects on the crystal structures, thermoelectric properties, density-of-states, and effective mass in Cu1.98SxSe1‑x were studied based on the electrical and thermal transport property measurements, and first-principles calculations. The X-ray diffraction patterns and Rietveld refinements indicate that room temperature Cu1.98SxSe1‑x (x = 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.16) and Cu1.98SxSe1‑x (x = 0.8, 0.9, 1.0) have the same crystal structure as monoclinic-Cu2Se and orthorhombic-Cu2S, respectively. Sulphur doping can greatly enhance zT values when x is in the range of 0.8≤ × ≤1.0. Furthermore, all doped samples show stable thermoelectric compatibility factors over a broad temperature range from 700 to 1000 K, which could greatly benefit their practical applications. First-principles calculations indicate that both the electron density-of-sates and the effective mass for all the compounds exhibit non-monotonic sulphur doping dependence. It is concluded that the overall thermoelectric performance of the Cu1.98SxSe1‑x system is mainly correlated with the electron effective mass and the density-of-states.

  9. Improvement of thermoelectric properties and their correlations with electron effective mass in Cu1.98SxSe1-x.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lanling; Fei, Frank Yun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Funing; Wang, Chunlei; Li, Jichao; Wang, Jiyang; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-01-16

    Sulphur doping effects on the crystal structures, thermoelectric properties, density-of-states, and effective mass in Cu1.98SxSe1-x were studied based on the electrical and thermal transport property measurements, and first-principles calculations. The X-ray diffraction patterns and Rietveld refinements indicate that room temperature Cu1.98SxSe1-x (x = 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.16) and Cu1.98SxSe1-x (x = 0.8, 0.9, 1.0) have the same crystal structure as monoclinic-Cu2Se and orthorhombic-Cu2S, respectively. Sulphur doping can greatly enhance zT values when x is in the range of 0.8≤ × ≤1.0. Furthermore, all doped samples show stable thermoelectric compatibility factors over a broad temperature range from 700 to 1000 K, which could greatly benefit their practical applications. First-principles calculations indicate that both the electron density-of-sates and the effective mass for all the compounds exhibit non-monotonic sulphur doping dependence. It is concluded that the overall thermoelectric performance of the Cu1.98SxSe1-x system is mainly correlated with the electron effective mass and the density-of-states.

  10. Improvement of thermoelectric properties and their correlations with electron effective mass in Cu1.98SxSe1−x

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lanling; Fei, Frank Yun; Wang, Jun; Wang, Funing; Wang, Chunlei; Li, Jichao; Wang, Jiyang; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Dou, Shixue; Wang, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Sulphur doping effects on the crystal structures, thermoelectric properties, density-of-states, and effective mass in Cu1.98SxSe1−x were studied based on the electrical and thermal transport property measurements, and first-principles calculations. The X-ray diffraction patterns and Rietveld refinements indicate that room temperature Cu1.98SxSe1−x (x = 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.16) and Cu1.98SxSe1−x (x = 0.8, 0.9, 1.0) have the same crystal structure as monoclinic-Cu2Se and orthorhombic-Cu2S, respectively. Sulphur doping can greatly enhance zT values when x is in the range of 0.8≤ × ≤1.0. Furthermore, all doped samples show stable thermoelectric compatibility factors over a broad temperature range from 700 to 1000 K, which could greatly benefit their practical applications. First-principles calculations indicate that both the electron density-of-sates and the effective mass for all the compounds exhibit non-monotonic sulphur doping dependence. It is concluded that the overall thermoelectric performance of the Cu1.98SxSe1−x system is mainly correlated with the electron effective mass and the density-of-states. PMID:28091545

  11. The effects of surface spin on magnetic properties of weak magnetic ZnLa0.02Fe1.98O4 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In order to prominently investigate the effects of the surface spin on the magnetic properties, the weak magnetic ZnLa0.02Fe1.98O4 nanoparticles were chosen as studying objects which benefit to reduce as possibly the effects of interparticle dipolar interaction and crystalline anisotropy energies. By annealing the undiluted and diluted ZnLa0.02Fe1.98O4 nanoparticles at different temperatures, we observed the rich variations of magnetic ordering states (superparamagnetism, weak ferromagnetism, and paramagnetism). The magnetic properties can be well understood by considering the effects of the surface spin of the magnetic nanoparticles. Our results indicate that in the nano-sized magnets with weak magnetism, the surface spin plays a crucial rule in the magnetic properties. PMID:25294976

  12. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Dongsu

    2007-01-15

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory.

  13. The big deal about big data.

    PubMed

    Moore, Keith D; Eyestone, Katherine; Coddington, Dean C

    2013-08-01

    Big data is a concept that is being widely applied in the retail industries as a means to understand customers' purchasing habits and preferences for followup promotional activity. It is characterized by vast amounts of diverse and rapidly multiplying data that are available at or near real-time. Conversations with executives of leading healthcare organizations provide a barometer for understanding where the industry stands in its adoption of big data as a means to meet the critical information requirements of value-based health care.

  14. Restoring Wyoming big sagebrush

    Treesearch

    Cindy R. Lysne

    2005-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of big sagebrush can be attributed to many adaptive features. Big sagebrush plays an essential role in its communities by providing wildlife habitat, modifying local environmental conditions, and facilitating the reestablishment of native herbs. Currently, however, many sagebrush steppe communities are highly fragmented. As a result, restoring...

  15. ARTIST CONCEPT - BIG JOE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-09-01

    S63-19317 (October 1963) --- Pen and ink views of comparative arrangements of several capsules including the existing "Big Joe" design, the compromise "Big Joe" design, and the "Little Joe". All capsule designs are labeled and include dimensions. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  17. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  18. Diode-pumped Tm : Sc{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} laser ({lambda} = 1.98 {mu}m)

    SciTech Connect

    Zavartsev, Yu D; Zagumennyi, A I; Kalachev, Yu L; Kutovoi, S A; Mikhailov, Viktor A; Podreshetnikov, V V; Shcherbakov, Ivan A

    2011-05-31

    Lasing at a wavelength of 1.98 {mu}m is obtained for the first time in a diode-pumped ({lambda} = 792 {mu}m) active element made of a Tm{sup 3+}: Sc{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} crystal grown by the Czochralski method. The laser slope efficiency reached 18.7% at the output power up to 520 mW. (lasers)

  19. Big data for health.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled.

  20. Comparative validity of brief to medium-length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

    2011-12-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are faced with a variety of options as to inventory length. Furthermore, a 6-factor model has been proposed to extend and update the Big Five model, in part by adding a dimension of Honesty/Humility or Honesty/Propriety. In this study, 3 popular brief to medium-length Big Five measures (NEO Five Factor Inventory, Big Five Inventory [BFI], and International Personality Item Pool), and 3 six-factor measures (HEXACO Personality Inventory, Questionnaire Big Six Scales, and a 6-factor version of the BFI) were placed in competition to best predict important student life outcomes. The effect of test length was investigated by comparing brief versions of most measures (subsets of items) with original versions. Personality questionnaires were administered to undergraduate students (N = 227). Participants' college transcripts and student conduct records were obtained 6-9 months after data was collected. Six-factor inventories demonstrated better predictive ability for life outcomes than did some Big Five inventories. Additional behavioral observations made on participants, including their Facebook profiles and cell-phone text usage, were predicted similarly by Big Five and 6-factor measures. A brief version of the BFI performed surprisingly well; across inventory platforms, increasing test length had little effect on predictive validity. Comparative validity of the models and measures in terms of outcome prediction and parsimony is discussed.

  1. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.

  2. Big Data in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  3. BigDog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  4. The Big Bang Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-09-30

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  5. The Big Bang Theory

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  6. Who Benefits from Participative Management?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoliel, Pascale; Somech, Anit

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study seeks to explore the moderating role of teachers' personality traits from the Big Five typology on the relationship between participative management and teacher outcomes with respect to performance, satisfaction and strain. The study suggests that participative management may produce different results depending on teachers'…

  7. Prognostic and Predictive Value of Centrally Reviewed Ki-67 Labeling Index in Postmenopausal Women With Endocrine-Responsive Breast Cancer: Results From Breast International Group Trial 1-98 Comparing Adjuvant Tamoxifen With Letrozole

    PubMed Central

    Viale, Giuseppe; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Regan, Meredith M.; Coates, Alan S.; Mastropasqua, Mauro G.; Dell'Orto, Patrizia; Maiorano, Eugenio; MacGrogan, Gaëtan; Braye, Stephen G.; Öhlschlegel, Christian; Neven, Patrick; Orosz, Zsolt; Olszewski, Wojciech P.; Knox, Fiona; Thürlimann, Beat; Price, Karen N.; Castiglione-Gertsch, Monica; Gelber, Richard D.; Gusterson, Barry A.; Goldhirsch, Aron

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prognostic and predictive value of Ki-67 labeling index (LI) in a trial comparing letrozole (Let) with tamoxifen (Tam) as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. Patients and Methods Breast International Group (BIG) trial 1-98 randomly assigned 8,010 patients to four treatment arms comparing Let and Tam with sequences of each agent. Of 4,922 patients randomly assigned to receive 5 years of monotherapy with either agent, 2,685 had primary tumor material available for central pathology assessment of Ki-67 LI by immunohistochemistry and had tumors confirmed to express estrogen receptors after central review. The prognostic and predictive value of centrally measured Ki-67 LI on disease-free survival (DFS) were assessed among these patients using proportional hazards modeling, with Ki-67 LI values dichotomized at the median value of 11%. Results Higher values of Ki-67 LI were associated with adverse prognostic factors and with worse DFS (hazard ratio [HR; high:low] = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.3). The magnitude of the treatment benefit for Let versus Tam was greater among patients with high tumor Ki-67 LI (HR [Let:Tam] = 0.53; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.72) than among patients with low tumor Ki-67 LI (HR [Let:Tam] = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.15; interaction P = .09). Conclusion Ki-67 LI is confirmed as a prognostic factor in this study. High Ki-67 LI levels may identify a patient group that particularly benefits from initial Let adjuvant therapy. PMID:18981464

  8. Changing the personality of a face: Perceived Big Two and Big Five personality factors modeled in real photographs.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mirella; Vetter, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    General, spontaneous evaluations of strangers based on their faces have been shown to reflect judgments of these persons' intention and ability to harm. These evaluations can be mapped onto a 2D space defined by the dimensions trustworthiness (intention) and dominance (ability). Here we go beyond general evaluations and focus on more specific personality judgments derived from the Big Two and Big Five personality concepts. In particular, we investigate whether Big Two/Big Five personality judgments can be mapped onto the 2D space defined by the dimensions trustworthiness and dominance. Results indicate that judgments of the Big Two personality dimensions almost perfectly map onto the 2D space. In contrast, at least 3 of the Big Five dimensions (i.e., neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness) go beyond the 2D space, indicating that additional dimensions are necessary to describe more specific face-based personality judgments accurately. Building on this evidence, we model the Big Two/Big Five personality dimensions in real facial photographs. Results from 2 validation studies show that the Big Two/Big Five are perceived reliably across different samples of faces and participants. Moreover, results reveal that participants differentiate reliably between the different Big Two/Big Five dimensions. Importantly, this high level of agreement and differentiation in personality judgments from faces likely creates a subjective reality which may have serious consequences for those being perceived-notably, these consequences ensue because the subjective reality is socially shared, irrespective of the judgments' validity. The methodological approach introduced here might prove useful in various psychological disciplines. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Cryptography for Big Data Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-13

    Cryptography for Big Data Security Book Chapter for Big Data: Storage, Sharing, and Security (3S) Distribution A: Public Release Ariel Hamlin1 Nabil...Email: arkady@ll.mit.edu ii Contents 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1 1.1 Introduction...48 Chapter 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1.1 Introduction With the amount

  10. The Big Bang Singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  11. Sharing big biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Toga, Arthur W; Dinov, Ivo D

    The promise of Big Biomedical Data may be offset by the enormous challenges in handling, analyzing, and sharing it. In this paper, we provide a framework for developing practical and reasonable data sharing policies that incorporate the sociological, financial, technical and scientific requirements of a sustainable Big Data dependent scientific community. Many biomedical and healthcare studies may be significantly impacted by using large, heterogeneous and incongruent datasets; however there are significant technical, social, regulatory, and institutional barriers that need to be overcome to ensure the power of Big Data overcomes these detrimental factors. Pragmatic policies that demand extensive sharing of data, promotion of data fusion, provenance, interoperability and balance security and protection of personal information are critical for the long term impact of translational Big Data analytics.

  12. Thinking big thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedral, Vlatko

    2016-08-01

    The short synopsis of The Big Picture by Sean Carroll is that it explores the question of whether science can explain everything in the world, and analyses the emerging reality that such an explanation entails.

  13. Big Baby, Heavier Kid?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not prove that being a big baby caused obesity in children, however. The University of Virginia Children's Hospital study ... Human Services. More Health News on Child Nutrition Obesity in Children Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child ...

  14. Comparison of experimental and theoretical normal-force distributions (including Reynolds number effects) on an ogive-cylinder body at Mach number 1.98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Edward W; Jorgensen, Leland H

    1956-01-01

    Effects of Reynolds number and angle of attack on the pressure distribution and normal-force characteristics of a body of revolution consisting of a fineness ratio 3 ogival nose tangent to a cylindrical afterbody 7 diameters long have been determined. The test Mach number was 1.98 and the angle-of-attack range from 0 degree to 20 degrees. The Reynolds numbers, based on body diameter, were 0.15 x 10(6) and 0.45 x 10(6). The experimental results are compared with theory.

  15. Big data need big theory too.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Peter V; Dougherty, Edward R; Highfield, Roger R

    2016-11-13

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their 'depth' and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote 'blind' big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2015 The Authors.

  16. Big data need big theory too

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Edward R.; Highfield, Roger R.

    2016-01-01

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their ‘depth’ and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote ‘blind’ big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling at the physics–chemistry–biology interface’. PMID:27698035

  17. Big Bend sees big environmental push

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-10-15

    The 1800 MW Big Bend Power Station is a coal-fired facility in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA owned by Tampa Electric. It has four pulverized coal- fired steam units equipped with FGD scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators. Currently the addition of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems is under consideration. The Unit 4 SCR retrofit was completed in June 2007; the remaining three systems are scheduled for completion by 2010. Boiler draft systems will be modified to a balance draft design to accommodate the increased pressure drop of the new systems. 3-D computer models were developed to determine constructability due to the tight clearance at the site. 1 photo.

  18. Big data bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Greene, Casey S; Tan, Jie; Ung, Matthew; Moore, Jason H; Cheng, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Recent technological advances allow for high throughput profiling of biological systems in a cost-efficient manner. The low cost of data generation is leading us to the "big data" era. The availability of big data provides unprecedented opportunities but also raises new challenges for data mining and analysis. In this review, we introduce key concepts in the analysis of big data, including both "machine learning" algorithms as well as "unsupervised" and "supervised" examples of each. We note packages for the R programming language that are available to perform machine learning analyses. In addition to programming based solutions, we review webservers that allow users with limited or no programming background to perform these analyses on large data compendia.

  19. Big data in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science.

  20. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-08-27

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  1. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  2. Cruise report, RV ocean alert cruise A1-98-HW; January 30 through February 23, 1998, Honolulu to Honolulu, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.

    1998-01-01

    The major objective of cruise A1-98 was to map portions of the insular slopes of Oahu, Kauai, Maui, Molokai, and Hawaii and to survey in detail US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) ocean dumping sites using a Simrad EM300 high-resolution multibeam mapping system. The cruise was a jointly funded project between the US Army Corps of Engineers (USCOE), USEPA, and the US Geological Survey (USGS). The USACOE and EPA are interested in these areas because of a series of ocean dump sites off Oahu, Kauai, Maui, and Hawaii (Fig. 1) that require high-resolution base maps for site monitoring purposes. The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has several on-going projects off Oahu and Maui that lack high-precision base maps for a variety of ongoing geological studies. The cruise was conducted under a Cooperative Agreement between the USGS and the Ocean Mapping Group, University of New Brunswick, Canada.

  3. Effects of Yaw on the Heat Transfer to a Blunt Cone-Cylinder Configuration at a Mach Number of 1.98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Roland D.

    1958-01-01

    A heat-transfer investigation has been made on a blunt cone-cylinder model at a Mach number of 1.98 at yaw angles from 0 deg to 9 deg. The results indicate that, except for the hemispherical nose, the heat-transfer coefficient increased on the windward side and decreased on the leeward side as yaw angle was increased. In general, the increase in heat transfer on the windward side was higher than the corresponding decrease on the leeward side. A comparison with theory (NACA Technical Note 4208) yielded agreement which was, in general, within 10 percent on the cone at all test conditions and on the cylinder at an angle of yaw of 0 deg.

  4. Big Joe Capsule Assembly Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-08-01

    Big Joe Capsule Assembly Activities in 1959 at NASA Glenn Research Center (formerly NASA Lewis). Big Joe was an Atlas missile that successfully launched a boilerplate model of the Mercury capsule on September 9, 1959.

  5. Seeding considerations in restoring big sagebrush habitat

    Treesearch

    Scott M. Lambert

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes methods of managing or seeding to restore big sagebrush communities for wildlife habitat. The focus is on three big sagebrush subspecies, Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis), basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata), and mountain...

  6. A Sobering Big Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Since Susan Adler, Alberta Dougan, and Jesus Garcia like "big ideas," the author offers one to ponder: young people in this country can not read with comprehension. The saddest thing about this crisis is that it is no secret. The 2001 results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for reading, published in every major…

  7. The big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    Our universe was born billions of years ago in a hot, violent explosion of elementary particles and radiation - the big bang. What do we know about this ultimate moment of creation, and how do we know it? Drawing upon the latest theories and technology, this new edition of The big bang, is a sweeping, lucid account of the event that set the universe in motion. Joseph Silk begins his story with the first microseconds of the big bang, on through the evolution of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, quasars, and into the distant future of our universe. He also explores the fascinating evidence for the big bang model and recounts the history of cosmological speculation. Revised and updated, this new edition features all the most recent astronomical advances, including: Photos and measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE), and Infrared Space Observatory; the latest estimates of the age of the universe; new ideas in string and superstring theory; recent experiments on neutrino detection; new theories about the presence of dark matter in galaxies; new developments in the theory of the formation and evolution of galaxies; the latest ideas about black holes, worm holes, quantum foam, and multiple universes.

  8. The Big Sky inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  9. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  10. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  11. Big-City Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to implementing innovative classroom technology programs, urban school districts face significant challenges stemming from their big-city status. These range from large bureaucracies, to scalability, to how to meet the needs of a more diverse group of students. Because of their size, urban districts tend to have greater distance…

  12. The Big Sky inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  13. Big Enough for Everyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coote, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The UK's coalition government wants to build a "Big Society." The Prime Minister says "we are all in this together" and building it is the responsibility of every citizen as well as every government department. The broad vision is welcome, but everything depends on how the vision is translated into policy and practice. The…

  14. A Big Bang Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  15. A Big Bang Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  16. Big Enough for Everyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coote, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The UK's coalition government wants to build a "Big Society." The Prime Minister says "we are all in this together" and building it is the responsibility of every citizen as well as every government department. The broad vision is welcome, but everything depends on how the vision is translated into policy and practice. The…

  17. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  18. Countering misinformation concerning big sagebrush

    Treesearch

    Bruce L Welch; Craig Criddle

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the scientific merits of eight axioms of range or vegetative management pertaining to big sagebrush. These axioms are: (1) Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) does not naturally exceed 10 percent canopy cover and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) does not naturally exceed 20 percent canopy...

  19. Big Data and Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  20. Big Data and Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  1. Business and Science - Big Data, Big Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, A.

    2013-12-01

    Data Science is more than the creation, manipulation, and transformation of data. It is more than Big Data. The business world seems to have a hold on the term 'data science' and, for now, they define what it means. But business is very different than science. In this talk, I address how large datasets, Big Data, and data science are conceptually different in business and science worlds. I focus on the types of questions each realm asks, the data needed, and the consequences of findings. Gone are the days of datasets being created or collected to serve only one purpose or project. The trick with data reuse is to become familiar enough with a dataset to be able to combine it with other data and extract accurate results. As a Data Curator for the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS), my specialty is communication. Our team enables Arctic sciences by ensuring datasets are well documented and can be understood by reusers. Previously, I served as a data community liaison for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Again, my specialty was communicating complex instructions and ideas to a broad audience of data users. Before entering the science world, I was an entrepreneur. I have a bachelor's degree in economics and a master's degree in environmental social science. I am currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Geography. Because my background has embraced both the business and science worlds, I would like to share my perspectives on data, data reuse, data documentation, and the presentation or communication of findings. My experiences show that each can inform and support the other.

  2. Optimizing Clinical Research Participant Selection with Informatics.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunhua

    2015-11-01

    Clinical research participants are often not reflective of real-world patients due to overly restrictive eligibility criteria. Meanwhile, unselected participants introduce confounding factors and reduce research efficiency. Biomedical informatics, especially Big Data increasingly made available from electronic health records, offers promising aids to optimize research participant selection through data-driven transparency.

  3. How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own…

  4. The Big One

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-13

    Mimas' gigantic crater Herschel lies near the moon's limb in this Cassini view. A big enough impact could potentially break up a moon. Luckily for Mimas, whatever created Herschel was not quite big enough to cause that level of disruption. When large impacts happen, they deliver tremendous amounts of energy -- sometimes enough to cause global destruction. Even impacts that are not catastrophic can leave enormous, near-permanent scars on bodies like Mimas (246 miles or 396 kilometers across). This view looks toward the anti-Saturn hemisphere of Mimas. North on Mimas is up and rotated 32 degrees to the left. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Nov. 19, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 53,000 miles (85,000 kilometers) from Mimas. Image scale is 1,677 feet (511 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20523

  5. A holographic big bang?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshordi, N.; Mann, R. B.; Pourhasan, R.

    2015-11-01

    We present a cosmological model in which the Universe emerges out of the collapse of a five-dimensional (5D) star as a spherical three-brane. The initial singularity of the big bang becomes hidden behind a causal horizon. Near scale-invariant primordial curvature perturbations can be induced on the brane via a thermal atmosphere that is in equilibrium with the brane, circumventing the need for a separate inflationary process and providing an important test of the model.

  6. DARPA's Big Mechanism program.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul R

    2015-07-16

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  7. The Next Big Idea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract George S. Eisenbarth will remain in our memories as a brilliant scientist and great collaborator. His quest to discover the cause and prevention of type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes started from building predictive models based on immunogenetic markers. Despite his tremendous contributions to our understanding of the natural history of pre-type 1 diabetes and potential mechanisms, George left us with several big questions to answer before his quest is completed. PMID:23786296

  8. Big Bang Circus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosini, C.

    2011-06-01

    Big Bang Circus is an opera I composed in 2001 and which was premiered at the Venice Biennale Contemporary Music Festival in 2002. A chamber group, four singers and a ringmaster stage the story of the Universe confronting and interweaving two threads: how early man imagined it and how scientists described it. Surprisingly enough fancy, myths and scientific explanations often end up using the same images, metaphors and sometimes even words: a strong tension, a drumskin starting to vibrate, a shout…

  9. DARPA's Big Mechanism program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Paul R.

    2015-07-01

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  10. Big3. Editorial

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christoph U.; Séroussi, Brigitte; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To provide an editorial introduction into the 2014 IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics with an overview of the content, the new publishing scheme, and upcoming 25th anniversary. Methods A brief overview of the 2014 special topic, Big Data - Smart Health Strategies, and an outline of the novel publishing model is provided in conjunction with a call for proposals to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Yearbook. Results ‘Big Data’ has become the latest buzzword in informatics and promise new approaches and interventions that can improve health, well-being, and quality of life. This edition of the Yearbook acknowledges the fact that we just started to explore the opportunities that ‘Big Data’ will bring. However, it will become apparent to the reader that its pervasive nature has invaded all aspects of biomedical informatics – some to a higher degree than others. It was our goal to provide a comprehensive view at the state of ‘Big Data’ today, explore its strengths and weaknesses, as well as its risks, discuss emerging trends, tools, and applications, and stimulate the development of the field through the aggregation of excellent survey papers and working group contributions to the topic. Conclusions For the first time in history will the IMIA Yearbook be published in an open access online format allowing a broader readership especially in resource poor countries. For the first time, thanks to the online format, will the IMIA Yearbook be published twice in the year, with two different tracks of papers. We anticipate that the important role of the IMIA yearbook will further increase with these changes just in time for its 25th anniversary in 2016. PMID:24853037

  11. PEG Coating Reduces NMR Relaxivity of Mn0.5Zn0.5Gd0.02Fe1.98O4 Hyperthermia Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Bashar; Qadri, Shahnaz; Obaidat, Ihab M.; Bowtell, Richard W.; Haik, Yousef

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate both T1 and T2 MR relaxation enhancement of Gd substituted Zn-Mn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles. Both uncoated and polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated particles were used. Materials and Methods Chemical co-precipitation was used to synthesize particles in the form Mn0.5Zn0.5Gd0.02Fe1.98O4 suitable for hyperthermia applications. Physical characterization of the magnetic nanoparticles included SEM, TEM, ICP, and SQUID. T1 and T2 measurements were performed at 1.5 T. Results The saturation magnetization was 12.86 emu/g while the particle’s magnetic moment was 1.86 × 10−19 J/T. The particle size increased due to coating, while 1/T1 and 1/T2 relaxivities (26 °C) decreased from 2.5 to 0.7 and from 201.3 to 76.6 s−1 mM−1, respectively at a magnetic field 1.5 T. Conclusion The reduction in both 1/T1 and 1/T2 is attributed to increased distance of closest approach between the protons and the magnetic core caused by the shielding provided by the high molecular weight PEG. 1/T2 data is compared to existing theoretical models using a modified radius that takes into account both possible agglomeration of the particles and increased inter-particle separation induced by PEG coating. PMID:21928382

  12. Big Data Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Dagliati, Arianna; Sacchi, Lucia; Segagni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The so-called big data revolution provides substantial opportunities to diabetes management. At least 3 important directions are currently of great interest. First, the integration of different sources of information, from primary and secondary care to administrative information, may allow depicting a novel view of patient’s care processes and of single patient’s behaviors, taking into account the multifaceted nature of chronic care. Second, the availability of novel diabetes technologies, able to gather large amounts of real-time data, requires the implementation of distributed platforms for data analysis and decision support. Finally, the inclusion of geographical and environmental information into such complex IT systems may further increase the capability of interpreting the data gathered and extract new knowledge from them. This article reviews the main concepts and definitions related to big data, it presents some efforts in health care, and discusses the potential role of big data in diabetes care. Finally, as an example, it describes the research efforts carried on in the MOSAIC project, funded by the European Commission. PMID:25910540

  13. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Big Sky Carbon Atlas is an online geoportal designed for you to discover, interpret, and access geospatial data and maps relevant to decision support and education on carbon sequestration in the Big Sky Region. In serving as the public face of the Partnership's spatial Data Libraries, the Atlas provides a gateway to geographic information characterizing CO2 sources, potential geologic sinks, terrestrial carbon fluxes, civil and energy infrastructure, energy use, and related themes. In addition to directly serving the BSCSP and its stakeholders, the Atlas feeds regional data to the NatCarb Portal, contributing to a national perspective on carbon sequestration. Established components of the Atlas include a gallery of thematic maps and an interactive map that allows you to: • Navigate and explore regional characterization data through a user-friendly interface • Print your map views or publish them as PDFs • Identify technical references relevant to specific areas of interest • Calculate straight-line or pipeline-constrained distances from point sources of CO2 to potential geologic sink features • Download regional data layers (feature under development) (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  14. Disaggregating asthma: Big investigation versus big data.

    PubMed

    Belgrave, Danielle; Henderson, John; Simpson, Angela; Buchan, Iain; Bishop, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan

    2017-02-01

    We are facing a major challenge in bridging the gap between identifying subtypes of asthma to understand causal mechanisms and translating this knowledge into personalized prevention and management strategies. In recent years, "big data" has been sold as a panacea for generating hypotheses and driving new frontiers of health care; the idea that the data must and will speak for themselves is fast becoming a new dogma. One of the dangers of ready accessibility of health care data and computational tools for data analysis is that the process of data mining can become uncoupled from the scientific process of clinical interpretation, understanding the provenance of the data, and external validation. Although advances in computational methods can be valuable for using unexpected structure in data to generate hypotheses, there remains a need for testing hypotheses and interpreting results with scientific rigor. We argue for combining data- and hypothesis-driven methods in a careful synergy, and the importance of carefully characterized birth and patient cohorts with genetic, phenotypic, biological, and molecular data in this process cannot be overemphasized. The main challenge on the road ahead is to harness bigger health care data in ways that produce meaningful clinical interpretation and to translate this into better diagnoses and properly personalized prevention and treatment plans. There is a pressing need for cross-disciplinary research with an integrative approach to data science, whereby basic scientists, clinicians, data analysts, and epidemiologists work together to understand the heterogeneity of asthma.

  15. HARNESSING BIG DATA FOR PRECISION MEDICINE: INFRASTRUCTURES AND APPLICATIONS.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kun-Hsing; Hart, Steven N; Goldfeder, Rachel; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; Parker, Stephen C J; Snyder, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Precision medicine is a health management approach that accounts for individual differences in genetic backgrounds and environmental exposures. With the recent advancements in high-throughput omics profiling technologies, collections of large study cohorts, and the developments of data mining algorithms, big data in biomedicine is expected to provide novel insights into health and disease states, which can be translated into personalized disease prevention and treatment plans. However, petabytes of biomedical data generated by multiple measurement modalities poses a significant challenge for data analysis, integration, storage, and result interpretation. In addition, patient privacy preservation, coordination between participating medical centers and data analysis working groups, as well as discrepancies in data sharing policies remain important topics of discussion. In this workshop, we invite experts in omics integration, biobank research, and data management to share their perspectives on leveraging big data to enable precision medicine.Workshop website: http://tinyurl.com/PSB17BigData; HashTag: #PSB17BigData.

  16. Sampling Operations on Big Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-29

    Sampling Operations on Big Data Vijay Gadepally, Taylor Herr, Luke Johnson, Lauren Milechin, Maja Milosavljevic, Benjamin A. Miller Lincoln...ll.mit.edu Abstract—The 3Vs - Volume, Velocity and Variety - of Big Data continues to be a large challenge for systems and algorithms designed to store... big data in Section II, followed by a description of the analytic environment D4M in Section III. We then describe the types of sampling methods and

  17. How Big is Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  18. "Big Events" and Networks.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel; Rossi, Diana; Flom, Peter L

    2006-01-01

    Some, but not all, "big events" such as wars, revolutions, socioeconomic transitions, economic collapses, and ecological disasters in recent years seem to lead to large-scale HIV outbreaks (Friedman et al, in press; Hankins et al 2002). This was true of transitions in the USSR, South Africa and Indonesia, for example, but not those in the Philippines or (so far) in Argentina. It has been hypothesized that whether or not HIV outbreaks occur is shaped in part by the nature and extent of changes in the numbers of voluntary or involuntary risk-takers, which itself may be related to the growth of roles such as sex-sellers or drug sellers; the riskiness of the behaviors engaged in by risk-takers; and changes in sexual and injection networks and other "mixing patterns" variables. Each of these potential causal processes, in turn, is shaped by the nature of pre-existing social networks and the patterns and content of normative regulation and communication that happen within these social networks-and on how these social networks and their characteristics are changed by the "big event" in question. We will present ideas about what research is needed to help understand these events and to help guide both indigenous community-based efforts to prevent HIV outbreaks and also to guide those who organize external intervention efforts and aid.

  19. Age and Gender Differences in Motivational Manifestations of the Big Five from Age 16 to 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Regula; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Allemand, Mathias; Penke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated age and gender differences in motivational manifestations of the Big Five in a large German-speaking Internet sample (N = 19,022). Participants ranging in age from 16 to 60 years completed the Five Individual Reaction Norms Inventory (FIRNI; Denissen & Penke, 2008a), and two traditional Big Five…

  20. Age and Gender Differences in Motivational Manifestations of the Big Five from Age 16 to 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Regula; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Allemand, Mathias; Penke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated age and gender differences in motivational manifestations of the Big Five in a large German-speaking Internet sample (N = 19,022). Participants ranging in age from 16 to 60 years completed the Five Individual Reaction Norms Inventory (FIRNI; Denissen & Penke, 2008a), and two traditional Big Five…

  1. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  2. The Rise of Big Data in Neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2016-02-01

    In some fields, Big Data has been instrumental in analyzing, predicting, and influencing human behavior. However, Big Data approaches have so far been less central in speech-language pathology. This article introduces the concept of Big Data and provides examples of Big Data initiatives pertaining to adult neurorehabilitation. It also discusses the potential theoretical and clinical contributions that Big Data can make. The article also recognizes some impediments in building and using Big Data for scientific and clinical inquiry.

  3. The Last Big Bang

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Austin D.; Meade, Roger Allen

    2016-09-13

    As one of the very few people in the world to give the “go/no go” decision to detonate a nuclear device, Austin “Mac” McGuire holds a very special place in the history of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the world. As Commander of Joint Task Force Unit 8.1.1, on Christmas Island in the spring and summer of 1962, Mac directed the Los Alamos data collection efforts for twelve of the last atmospheric nuclear detonations conducted by the United States. Since data collection was at the heart of nuclear weapon testing, it fell to Mac to make the ultimate decision to detonate each test device. He calls his experience THE LAST BIG BANG, since these tests, part of Operation Dominic, were characterized by the dramatic displays of the heat, light, and sounds unique to atmospheric nuclear detonations – never, perhaps, to be witnessed again.

  4. BIG DATA AND STATISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Rossell, David

    2016-01-01

    Big Data brings unprecedented power to address scientific, economic and societal issues, but also amplifies the possibility of certain pitfalls. These include using purely data-driven approaches that disregard understanding the phenomenon under study, aiming at a dynamically moving target, ignoring critical data collection issues, summarizing or preprocessing the data inadequately and mistaking noise for signal. We review some success stories and illustrate how statistical principles can help obtain more reliable information from data. We also touch upon current challenges that require active methodological research, such as strategies for efficient computation, integration of heterogeneous data, extending the underlying theory to increasingly complex questions and, perhaps most importantly, training a new generation of scientists to develop and deploy these strategies. PMID:27722040

  5. Big cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population.

  6. Big-bounce genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changhong; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the possibility of using dark matter particle's mass and its interaction cross section as a smoking gun signal of the existence of a big bounce at the early stage in the evolution of our currently observed universe. A model independent study of dark matter production in the pre-bounce contraction and the post-bounce expansion epochs of the bounce universe reveals a new venue for achieving the observed relic abundance of our present universe, in which a significantly smaller amount of dark matter with a smaller cross section—as compared to the prediction of standard cosmology—is produced and the information about the bounce universe evolution is preserved by the out-of-thermal-equilibrium process. Once the value of dark matter mass and interaction cross section are obtained by direct detection in laboratories, this alternative route becomes a signature prediction of the bounce universe scenario.

  7. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bedford, J.; Ward, J.; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.

    2007-04-15

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe.

  8. Earth Science Big Data Activities at Research Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Baumann, Peter; Evans, Ben; Riedel, Morris

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation we introduce Earth science related activities of the Big Data Interest Group (BDIG) in Research Data Alliance (RDA). "RDA is an international organization focused on the development of infrastructure and community activities that reduce barriers to data sharing and exchange, and the acceleration of data driven innovation worldwide." The participation of researchers in RDA is voluntary. As the name implies, an Interest Group is a collection of participants sharing the same interest. The BDIG seeks to address community needs on all things having to do with Big Data. The ultimate goal of RDA Big Data Interest Group is to produce a set of recommendation documents to advise diverse research communities with respect to: • How to select an appropriate Big Data solution for a particular science application to realize optimal value? and • What are the best practices in dealing with various data and computing issues associated with such a solution? The primary means to reaching such recommendations is through the establishment and work of Working Groups, each of which focuses on a specific issue. Although BDIG is not specific to Earth science, its recent activities revolve mostly around it. We introduce some of these activities that are designed to advance our knowledge and to characterize Big Data in Earth science.

  9. Big Bang of Massenergy and Negative Big Bang of Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    There is a balance between Big Bang of Massenergy and Negative Big Bang of Spacetime in the universe. Also some scientists considered there is an anti-Big Bang who could produce the antimatter. And the paper supposes there is a structure balance between Einstein field equation and negative Einstein field equation, a balance between massenergy structure and spacetime structure, a balance between an energy of nucleus of the stellar matter and a dark energy of nucleus of the dark matter-dark energy, and a balance between the particle and the wave-a balance system between massenergy (particle) and spacetime (wave). It should explain of the problems of the Big Bang. http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR16/Session/M13.8

  10. The challenges of big data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  11. Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behavior is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.

  12. Big Data and Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Jane Hyatt; Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Big data is heralded as having the potential to revolutionize health care by making large amounts of data available to support care delivery, population health, and patient engagement. Critics argue that big data's transformative potential is inhibited by privacy requirements that restrict health information exchange. However, there are a variety of permissible activities involving use and disclosure of patient information that support care delivery and management. This article presents an overview of the legal framework governing health information, dispels misconceptions about privacy regulations, and highlights how ambulatory care providers in particular can maximize the utility of big data to improve care. PMID:25401945

  13. The BigBOSS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  14. Big Data and Perioperative Nursing.

    PubMed

    Westra, Bonnie L; Peterson, Jessica J

    2016-10-01

    Big data are large volumes of digital data that can be collected from disparate sources and are challenging to analyze. These data are often described with the five "Vs": volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value. Perioperative nurses contribute to big data through documentation in the electronic health record during routine surgical care, and these data have implications for clinical decision making, administrative decisions, quality improvement, and big data science. This article explores methods to improve the quality of perioperative nursing data and provides examples of how these data can be combined with broader nursing data for quality improvement. We also discuss a national action plan for nursing knowledge and big data science and how perioperative nurses can engage in collaborative actions to transform health care. Standardized perioperative nursing data has the potential to affect care far beyond the original patient. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of big laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, R.-D.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward.

  16. Big Spherules near 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This frame from the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows spherules up to about 5 millimeters (one-fifth of an inch) in diameter. The camera took this image during the 924th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Aug. 30, 2006), when the rover was about 200 meters (650 feet) north of 'Victoria Crater.'

    Opportunity discovered spherules like these, nicknamed 'blueberries,' at its landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' and investigations determined them to be iron-rich concretions that formed inside deposits soaked with groundwater. However, such concretions were much smaller or absent at the ground surface along much of the rover's trek of more than 5 kilometers (3 miles) southward to Victoria. The big ones showed up again when Opportunity got to the ring, or annulus, of material excavated and thrown outward by the impact that created Victoria Crater. Researchers hypothesize that some layer beneath the surface in Victoria's vicinity was once soaked with water long enough to form the concretions, that the crater-forming impact dispersed some material from that layer, and that Opportunity might encounter that layer in place if the rover drives down into the crater.

  17. Challenges of Big Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-01-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions. PMID:25419469

  18. Challenges of Big Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-06-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions.

  19. Powering Big Data for Nursing Through Partnership.

    PubMed

    Harper, Ellen M; Parkerson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The Big Data Principles Workgroup (Workgroup) was established with support of the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. Building on the Triple Aim challenge, the Workgroup sought to identify Big Data principles, barriers, and challenges to nurse-sensitive data inclusion into Big Data sets. The product of this pioneering partnership Workgroup was the "Guiding Principles for Big Data in Nursing-Using Big Data to Improve the Quality of Care and Outcomes."

  20. Speciation of uranium and doping induced defects in Gd1.98U0.02Zr2O7: Photoluminescence, X-ray photoelectron and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Santosh K.; Reghukumar, C.; Pathak, Nimai; Sudarshan, K.; Tyagi, D.; Mohapatra, M.; Pujari, P. K.; Kadam, R. M.

    2017-02-01

    Based on photoluminescence spectroscopy it was inferred that uranium stabilizes as both U(IV) as well as U(VI) in Gd2Zr2O7 which was also corroborated using X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). Absence of equidistant vibronic structure in emission spectrum of Gd1.98U0.02Zr2O7 confirmed that U(VI) stabilizes in the form of UO66-. Based on luminescence lifetime it was inferred that majority of UO66- stabilizes at both Gd3+/Zr4+ whereas U4+ stabilizes only at Zr4+ sites. The positron lifetime doesn't change on uranium doping indicating the formation of antisite defect. Infact it is this antisite defect in Gd1.98U0.02Zr2O7 which favours the stabilization of its fluorite phase.

  1. [Big data in official statistics].

    PubMed

    Zwick, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany.

  2. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  3. Considerations on Geospatial Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, Zhen; GUO, Huadong; WANG, Changlin

    2016-11-01

    Geospatial data, as a significant portion of big data, has recently gained the full attention of researchers. However, few researchers focus on the evolution of geospatial data and its scientific research methodologies. When entering into the big data era, fully understanding the changing research paradigm associated with geospatial data will definitely benefit future research on big data. In this paper, we look deep into these issues by examining the components and features of geospatial big data, reviewing relevant scientific research methodologies, and examining the evolving pattern of geospatial data in the scope of the four ‘science paradigms’. This paper proposes that geospatial big data has significantly shifted the scientific research methodology from ‘hypothesis to data’ to ‘data to questions’ and it is important to explore the generality of growing geospatial data ‘from bottom to top’. Particularly, four research areas that mostly reflect data-driven geospatial research are proposed: spatial correlation, spatial analytics, spatial visualization, and scientific knowledge discovery. It is also pointed out that privacy and quality issues of geospatial data may require more attention in the future. Also, some challenges and thoughts are raised for future discussion.

  4. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S. M. Reza; Beard, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined. PMID:26229957

  5. Multiwavelength astronomy and big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Two major characteristics of modern astronomy are multiwavelength (MW) studies (fromγ-ray to radio) and big data (data acquisition, storage and analysis). Present astronomical databases and archives contain billions of objects observed at various wavelengths, both galactic and extragalactic, and the vast amount of data on them allows new studies and discoveries. Astronomers deal with big numbers. Surveys are the main source for discovery of astronomical objects and accumulation of observational data for further analysis, interpretation, and achieving scientific results. We review the main characteristics of astronomical surveys, compare photographic and digital eras of astronomical studies (including the development of wide-field observations), describe the present state of MW surveys, and discuss the Big Data in astronomy and related topics of Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics. The review includes many numbers and data that can be compared to have a possibly overall understanding on the Universe, cosmic numbers and their relationship to modern computational facilities.

  6. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Zachary D; Lee, Skylar Y; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-07-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a "four-headed beast"--it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the "genomical" challenges of the next decade.

  7. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  8. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Zachary D.; Lee, Skylar Y.; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H.; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J.; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C.; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a “four-headed beast”—it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the “genomical” challenges of the next decade. PMID:26151137

  9. Exascale computing and big data

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Daniel A.; Dongarra, Jack

    2015-06-25

    Scientific discovery and engineering innovation requires unifying traditionally separated high-performance computing and big data analytics. The tools and cultures of high-performance computing and big data analytics have diverged, to the detriment of both; unification is essential to address a spectrum of major research domains. The challenges of scale tax our ability to transmit data, compute complicated functions on that data, or store a substantial part of it; new approaches are required to meet these challenges. Finally, the international nature of science demands further development of advanced computer architectures and global standards for processing data, even as international competition complicates the openness of the scientific process.

  10. [Big Data- challenges and risks].

    PubMed

    Krauß, Manuela; Tóth, Tamás; Hanika, Heinrich; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Dinya, Elek

    2015-12-06

    The term "Big Data" is commonly used to describe the growing mass of information being created recently. New conclusions can be drawn and new services can be developed by the connection, processing and analysis of these information. This affects all aspects of life, including health and medicine. The authors review the application areas of Big Data, and present examples from health and other areas. However, there are several preconditions of the effective use of the opportunities: proper infrastructure, well defined regulatory environment with particular emphasis on data protection and privacy. These issues and the current actions for solution are also presented.

  11. Modelling, inference and big data in biophysics.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joshua W K; Grant, Guy H

    2017-07-30

    In recognition of the increasing importance of big data in biophysics, a new session called 'Modelling, inference, big data' is incorporated into the IUPAB/EBSA Congress on 18 July 2017 at Edinburgh, UK.

  12. Cancer's Big Data Problem

    DOE PAGES

    Breaux, Justin H. S.

    2017-03-15

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has partnered with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to use DOE supercomputers to aid in the fight against cancer by building sophisticated models based on data available at the population, patient, and molecular levels. Here, through a three-year pilot project called the Joint Design of Advanced Computing Solutions for Cancer (JDACSC), four participating national laboratories--Argonne, Lawrence Livermore, Los Alamos, and Oak Ridge--will focus on three problems singled out by the NCI as the biggest bottlenecks to advancing cancer research.

  13. Beware Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Arfon

    1978-01-01

    In 1972 Sidney Stringer Community School and College was established in the inner city of Coventry. Its aims directed attention to community participation and the enlargement of the decision making process. Discusses the problems with delegating educational responsibility to the community. (Author/RK)

  14. Beware Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Arfon

    1978-01-01

    In 1972 Sidney Stringer Community School and College was established in the inner city of Coventry. Its aims directed attention to community participation and the enlargement of the decision making process. Discusses the problems with delegating educational responsibility to the community. (Author/RK)

  15. Chinchilla "big" and "little" gastrins.

    PubMed

    Shinomura, Y; Eng, J; Yalow, R S

    1987-02-27

    Gastrin heptadecapeptides (gastrins I and II which differ in the presence of sulfate on the tyrosine of the latter) have been purified and sequenced from several mammalian species including pig, dog, cat, sheep, cow, human and rat. A 34 amino acid precursor ("big" gastrin), generally accounting for only 5% of total gastrin immunoreactivity, has been purified and sequenced only from the pig, human, dog and goat. Recently we have demonstrated that guinea pig (GP) "little" gastrin is a hexadecapeptide due to a deletion of a glutamic acid in the region 6-9 from its NH2-terminus and that GP "big" gastrin is a 33 amino acid peptide. The chinchilla, like the GP, is a New World hystricomorph. This report describes the extraction and purification of "little" and "big" gastrins from 31 chinchilla antra. Chinchilla "little" gastrin is a hexadecapeptide with a sequence identical to that of the GP and its "big" gastrin is a 33 amino acid peptide with the following sequence: (See text)

  16. Big Opportunities in Small Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, T. Gregory

    2007-01-01

    A transformation is occurring that will have a major impact on how academic science is done and how scientists are trained. That transformation--driven by declining federal funds, as well as by the rising cost of technology and the need for costly, labor-intensive interdisciplinary approaches--is from small science to big science. It is…

  17. Big6 Turbotools and Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    The different tools that are helpful during the Synthesis stage, their role in boosting students abilities in Synthesis and the way in which it can be customized to meet the needs of each group of students are discussed. Big6 TurboTools offers several tools to help complete the task. In Synthesis stage, these same tools along with Turbo Report and…

  18. The Case for "Big History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  19. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  20. True Randomness from Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests.

  1. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  2. Too Big for the Sieve

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-11

    In this image, the scoop on NASA Curiosity rover shows the larger soil particles that were too big to filter through a sample-processing sieve that is porous only to particles less than 0.006 inches 150 microns across.

  3. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  4. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  5. True Randomness from Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests. PMID:27666514

  6. 1976 Big Thompson flood, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R. D.; Vandas, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the early evening of July 31, 1976, a large stationary thunderstorm released as much as 7.5 inches of rainfall in about an hour (about 12 inches in a few hours) in the upper reaches of the Big Thompson River drainage. This large amount of rainfall in such a short period of time produced a flash flood that caught residents and tourists by surprise. The immense volume of water that churned down the narrow Big Thompson Canyon scoured the river channel and destroyed everything in its path, including 418 homes, 52 businesses, numerous bridges, paved and unpaved roads, power and telephone lines, and many other structures. The tragedy claimed the lives of 144 people. Scores of other people narrowly escaped with their lives. The Big Thompson flood ranks among the deadliest of Colorado's recorded floods. It is one of several destructive floods in the United States that has shown the necessity of conducting research to determine the causes and effects of floods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research and operates a Nationwide streamgage network to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson Flood. Such research and streamgage information are part of an ongoing USGS effort to reduce flood hazards and to increase public awareness.

  7. True Randomness from Big Data.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A; Woodruff, David P; Yang, Guang

    2016-09-26

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests.

  8. China: Big Changes Coming Soon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowen, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Big changes are ahead for China, probably abrupt ones. The economy has grown so rapidly for many years, over 30 years at an average of nine percent a year, that its size makes it a major player in trade and finance and increasingly in political and military matters. This growth is not only of great importance internationally, it is already having…

  9. The Case for "Big History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  10. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  11. Big sagebrush seed bank densities following wildfires

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) is a critical shrub to many wildlife species including sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush is killed by wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally short-lived and do not s...

  12. A survey of big data research

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hua; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Chanpaul Jin; Daneshmand, Mahmoud; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Honggang

    2015-01-01

    Big data create values for business and research, but pose significant challenges in terms of networking, storage, management, analytics and ethics. Multidisciplinary collaborations from engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and social scientists are needed to tackle, discover and understand big data. This survey presents an overview of big data initiatives, technologies and research in industries and academia, and discusses challenges and potential solutions. PMID:26504265

  13. Big Sagebrush Seed Bank Densities Following Wildfires

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) is a critical shrub to such sagebrush obligate species as sage grouse, (Centocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush do not sprout after wildfires wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally sho...

  14. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Laura B.; Rogers, Joseph W.; Hertig, John B.; Weber, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27559194

  15. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  16. A SWOT Analysis of Big Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Dileepan, Parthasarati; Wheatley, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    This is the decade of data analytics and big data, but not everyone agrees with the definition of big data. Some researchers see it as the future of data analysis, while others consider it as hype and foresee its demise in the near future. No matter how it is defined, big data for the time being is having its glory moment. The most important…

  17. Judging Big Deals: Challenges, Outcomes, and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of five Big Deal electronic journal packages to which Hofstra University's Axinn Library subscribes. COUNTER usage reports were used to judge the value of each Big Deal. Limitations of usage statistics are also discussed. In the end, the author concludes that four of the five Big Deals are good deals…

  18. Judging Big Deals: Challenges, Outcomes, and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of five Big Deal electronic journal packages to which Hofstra University's Axinn Library subscribes. COUNTER usage reports were used to judge the value of each Big Deal. Limitations of usage statistics are also discussed. In the end, the author concludes that four of the five Big Deals are good deals…

  19. A SWOT Analysis of Big Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Dileepan, Parthasarati; Wheatley, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    This is the decade of data analytics and big data, but not everyone agrees with the definition of big data. Some researchers see it as the future of data analysis, while others consider it as hype and foresee its demise in the near future. No matter how it is defined, big data for the time being is having its glory moment. The most important…

  20. Circadian preference and the big five: the role of impulsivity and sensation seeking.

    PubMed

    Russo, Paolo Maria; Leone, Luigi; Penolazzi, Barbara; Natale, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    In the present study, the relationship between personality dimensions and Circadian Preference was evaluated using a structural equation modeling approach. Participants (N=390; 53.8% female, mean age: 26.8 ± 8.1 yrs) completed measures of Circadian Preference, Impulsivity, Sensation Seeking, and the Big Five factors. A mediation structural equation model assessed the direct and indirect effects of the Big Five factors on Circadian Preference. The results showed that Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking were significantly associated with Eveningness, whereas no significant direct effects of the Big Five traits were detected once the effects of Impulsivity and Sensation Seeking were taken into account.

  1. The BigBoss Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

    2012-06-07

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  2. Sr{sub 1.98}Eu{sub 0.02}SiO{sub 4} luminescence whisker based on vapor-phase deposition: Facile synthesis, uniform morphology and enhanced luminescence properties

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Jian; Hassan, Dhia A.; Zeng, Renjie; Peng, Dongliang

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • For the first time, it is possible to obtain Sr{sub 1.98}Eu{sub 0.02}SiO{sub 4} whisker. • The whiskers are smooth and uniform with L/D ratio over 50. • Durability and thermal stability of the whisker are enhanced. - Abstract: A high performance strontium silicate phosphor has been successfully synthesized though a facile vapor-phase deposition method. The product consists of single crystal whiskers which are smooth and uniform, and with a sectional equivalent diameter of around 5 μm; the aspect ratio is over 50 and no agglomeration can be observed. X-ray diffraction result confirmed that the crystal structure of the whisker was α’-Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}. The exact chemical composition was Sr{sub 1.98}Eu{sub 0.02}SiO{sub 4} which was analyzed by energy dispersive spectrometer and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. The whisker shows broad green emission with peak at 523 nm ranging from 470 to 600 nm (excited at 370 nm). Compared with traditional Sr{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}:Eu phosphor, durability (at 85% humidity and 85 °C) and thermal stability of the whisker are obviously improved. Moreover, growth mechanism of the Sr{sub 1.98}Eu{sub 0.02}SiO{sub 4} whiskers is Vapor–Liquid–Solid. On a macro-scale, the product is still powder which makes it suitable for the current packaging process of WLEDs.

  3. Participative Design for Participative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.

    This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational…

  4. Participative Design for Participative Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emery, Merrelyn, Ed.

    This four-part volume addresses design principles for introducing democratic forms in workplaces, educational institutions, and social institutions, based on a trend toward participative democracy in Australia. Following an introduction, part I sets the context with two papers: "The Agenda for the Next Wave" and "Educational…

  5. The "big win" and resistance to extinction when gambling.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Sauter, John M; King, Brent M

    2004-11-01

    One hypothesis for the reason a person might become a pathological gambler is that the individual initially experiences a big win, which creates a fallacious expectation of winning, which may then lead to persistent gambling despite suffering large losses. Although this hypothesis has been around for several decades, only one controlled empirical study has addressed it, and that study reported null results. In the present experiment, the authors tested the "big win" hypothesis by having 4 groups of participants with little to no experience gambling play a computer-simulated slot machine for credits that were exchangeable for cash. One group experienced a large win on the very 1st play. Another experienced a large win on the 5th play. A 3rd group experienced 2 small wins on the 2nd and 5th plays. No other winning outcomes were programmed. The 4th group never experienced a win. The authors observed a significant effect of group. Participants who experienced a large win on the 1st play quit playing the simulation earlier than participants who experienced a large win on the 5th play. These results appear to question the "big win" as an explanation for pathological gambling. They are more consistent with a behavioral theory of gambling behavior. The present study should also promote the use of laboratory-based research to test long-standing hypotheses in the gambling literature.

  6. Big-Leaf Mahogany on CITES Appendix II: Big Challenge, Big Opportunity

    Treesearch

    JAMES GROGAN; PAULO BARRETO

    2005-01-01

    On 15 November 2003, big-leaf mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla King, Meliaceae), the most valuable widely traded Neotropical timber tree, gained strengthened regulatory protection from its listing on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species ofWild Fauna and Flora (CITES). CITES is a United Nations-chartered agreement signed by 164...

  7. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  8. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-08-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  9. Solution of a braneworld big crunch/big bang cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, Paul L.; Turok, Neil; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2007-11-15

    We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch/big bang singularity. We show that the four-dimensional description fails at the first nontrivial order in (V/c){sup 2}. At this order, there is nontrivial mixing of the two relevant four-dimensional perturbation modes (the growing and decaying modes) as the boundary branes move from the narrowly separated limit described by Kaluza-Klein theory to the well-separated limit where gravity is confined to the positive-tension brane. We comment on the cosmological significance of the result and compute other quantities of interest in five-dimensional cosmological scenarios.

  10. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-13

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  11. Internet-based brain training games, citizen scientists, and big data: ethical issues in unprecedented virtual territories.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Ryan H; Rommelfanger, Karen S

    2015-04-22

    Internet brain training programs, where consumers serve as both subjects and funders of the research, represent the closest engagement many individuals have with neuroscience. Safeguards are needed to protect participants' privacy and the evolving scientific enterprise of big data.

  12. Big Data in Medicine is Driving Big Changes

    PubMed Central

    Verspoor, K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarise current research that takes advantage of “Big Data” in health and biomedical informatics applications. Methods Survey of trends in this work, and exploration of literature describing how large-scale structured and unstructured data sources are being used to support applications from clinical decision making and health policy, to drug design and pharmacovigilance, and further to systems biology and genetics. Results The survey highlights ongoing development of powerful new methods for turning that large-scale, and often complex, data into information that provides new insights into human health, in a range of different areas. Consideration of this body of work identifies several important paradigm shifts that are facilitated by Big Data resources and methods: in clinical and translational research, from hypothesis-driven research to data-driven research, and in medicine, from evidence-based practice to practice-based evidence. Conclusions The increasing scale and availability of large quantities of health data require strategies for data management, data linkage, and data integration beyond the limits of many existing information systems, and substantial effort is underway to meet those needs. As our ability to make sense of that data improves, the value of the data will continue to increase. Health systems, genetics and genomics, population and public health; all areas of biomedicine stand to benefit from Big Data and the associated technologies. PMID:25123716

  13. Big data in medicine is driving big changes.

    PubMed

    Martin-Sanchez, F; Verspoor, K

    2014-08-15

    To summarise current research that takes advantage of "Big Data" in health and biomedical informatics applications. Survey of trends in this work, and exploration of literature describing how large-scale structured and unstructured data sources are being used to support applications from clinical decision making and health policy, to drug design and pharmacovigilance, and further to systems biology and genetics. The survey highlights ongoing development of powerful new methods for turning that large-scale, and often complex, data into information that provides new insights into human health, in a range of different areas. Consideration of this body of work identifies several important paradigm shifts that are facilitated by Big Data resources and methods: in clinical and translational research, from hypothesis-driven research to data-driven research, and in medicine, from evidence-based practice to practice-based evidence. The increasing scale and availability of large quantities of health data require strategies for data management, data linkage, and data integration beyond the limits of many existing information systems, and substantial effort is underway to meet those needs. As our ability to make sense of that data improves, the value of the data will continue to increase. Health systems, genetics and genomics, population and public health; all areas of biomedicine stand to benefit from Big Data and the associated technologies.

  14. Exascale computing and big data

    DOE PAGES

    Reed, Daniel A.; Dongarra, Jack

    2015-06-25

    Scientific discovery and engineering innovation requires unifying traditionally separated high-performance computing and big data analytics. The tools and cultures of high-performance computing and big data analytics have diverged, to the detriment of both; unification is essential to address a spectrum of major research domains. The challenges of scale tax our ability to transmit data, compute complicated functions on that data, or store a substantial part of it; new approaches are required to meet these challenges. Finally, the international nature of science demands further development of advanced computer architectures and global standards for processing data, even as international competition complicates themore » openness of the scientific process.« less

  15. Big data and ophthalmic research.

    PubMed

    Clark, Antony; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel; Semmens, James B

    2016-01-01

    Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, health services utilization, and health outcomes. Furthermore, the quantity of data available for research has increased exponentially in recent times, particularly as e-health initiatives come online in health systems across the globe. We review some big data concepts, the databases and data linkage systems used in eye research-including their advantages and limitations, the types of studies previously undertaken, and the future direction for big data in eye research.

  16. District Bets Big on Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The big clock in Dowan McNair-Lee's 8th grade classroom in the Stuart-Hobson Middle School is silent, but she can hear the minutes ticking away nonetheless. On this day, like any other, the clock is a constant reminder of how little time she has to prepare her students--for spring tests, and for high school and all that lies beyond it. The…

  17. District Bets Big on Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The big clock in Dowan McNair-Lee's 8th grade classroom in the Stuart-Hobson Middle School is silent, but she can hear the minutes ticking away nonetheless. On this day, like any other, the clock is a constant reminder of how little time she has to prepare her students--for spring tests, and for high school and all that lies beyond it. The…

  18. Statistical Inference: The Big Picture.

    PubMed

    Kass, Robert E

    2011-02-01

    Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative "big picture" depiction.

  19. Genesis of the big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpher, Ralph A.; Herman, Robert

    The authors of this volume have been intimately connected with the conception of the big bang model since 1947. Following the late George Gamov's ideas in 1942 and more particularly in 1946 that the early universe was an appropriate site for the synthesis of the elements, they became deeply involved in the question of cosmic nucleosynthesis and particularly the synthesis of the light elements. In the course of this work they developed a general relativistic model of the expanding universe with physics folded in, which led in a progressive, logical sequence to our prediction of the existence of a present cosmic background radiation some seventeen years before the observation of such radiation was reported by Penzias and Wilson. In addition, they carried out with James W. Follin, Jr., a detailed study of the physics of what was then considered to be the very early universe, starting a few seconds after the big bang, which still provides a methodology for studies of light element nucleosynthesis. Because of their involvement, they bring a personal perspective to the subject. They present a picture of what is now believed to be the state of knowledge about the evolution of the expanding universe and delineate the story of the development of the big bang model as they have seen and lived it from their own unique vantage point.

  20. Big data: the management revolution.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Andrew; Brynjolfsson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    Big data, the authors write, is far more powerful than the analytics of the past. Executives can measure and therefore manage more precisely than ever before. They can make better predictions and smarter decisions. They can target more-effective interventions in areas that so far have been dominated by gut and intuition rather than by data and rigor. The differences between big data and analytics are a matter of volume, velocity, and variety: More data now cross the internet every second than were stored in the entire internet 20 years ago. Nearly real-time information makes it possible for a company to be much more agile than its competitors. And that information can come from social networks, images, sensors, the web, or other unstructured sources. The managerial challenges, however, are very real. Senior decision makers have to learn to ask the right questions and embrace evidence-based decision making. Organizations must hire scientists who can find patterns in very large data sets and translate them into useful business information. IT departments have to work hard to integrate all the relevant internal and external sources of data. The authors offer two success stories to illustrate how companies are using big data: PASSUR Aerospace enables airlines to match their actual and estimated arrival times. Sears Holdings directly analyzes its incoming store data to make promotions much more precise and faster.

  1. EHR Big Data Deep Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Lenert, L.; Lopez-Campos, G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Given the quickening speed of discovery of variant disease drivers from combined patient genotype and phenotype data, the objective is to provide methodology using big data technology to support the definition of deep phenotypes in medical records. Methods As the vast stores of genomic information increase with next generation sequencing, the importance of deep phenotyping increases. The growth of genomic data and adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) in medicine provides a unique opportunity to integrate phenotype and genotype data into medical records. The method by which collections of clinical findings and other health related data are leveraged to form meaningful phenotypes is an active area of research. Longitudinal data stored in EHRs provide a wealth of information that can be used to construct phenotypes of patients. We focus on a practical problem around data integration for deep phenotype identification within EHR data. The use of big data approaches are described that enable scalable markup of EHR events that can be used for semantic and temporal similarity analysis to support the identification of phenotype and genotype relationships. Conclusions Stead and colleagues’ 2005 concept of using light standards to increase the productivity of software systems by riding on the wave of hardware/processing power is described as a harbinger for designing future healthcare systems. The big data solution, using flexible markup, provides a route to improved utilization of processing power for organizing patient records in genotype and phenotype research. PMID:25123744

  2. Turning big bang into big bounce. I. Classical dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dzierzak, Piotr; Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz

    2009-11-15

    The big bounce (BB) transition within a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model is analyzed in the setting of loop geometry underlying the loop cosmology. We solve the constraint of the theory at the classical level to identify physical phase space and find the Lie algebra of the Dirac observables. We express energy density of matter and geometrical functions in terms of the observables. It is the modification of classical theory by the loop geometry that is responsible for BB. The classical energy scale specific to BB depends on a parameter that should be fixed either by cosmological data or determined theoretically at quantum level, otherwise the energy scale stays unknown.

  3. Relationship between circadian typology and big five personality domains.

    PubMed

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Marco; Natale, Vincenzo

    2009-02-01

    We explored the relationship between personality, based on the five-factor model, and circadian preference. To this end, 503 participants (280 females, 223 males) were administered the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ) and the self-report version of the Big Five Observer (BFO) to determine circadian preference and personality features, respectively. Morning types scored significantly higher than evening and intermediate types on the conscientiousness factor. Evening types were found to be more neurotic than morning types. With reference to the big five personality model, our data, together with those of all the previous studies, indicate that the conscientiousness domain is the one that best discriminates among the three circadian types. Results are discussed with reference to neurobiological models of personality.

  4. Big Machines and Big Science: 80 Years of Accelerators at Stanford

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, Gregory

    2008-12-16

    Longtime SLAC physicist Greg Loew will present a trip through SLAC's origins, highlighting its scientific achievements, and provide a glimpse of the lab's future in 'Big Machines and Big Science: 80 Years of Accelerators at Stanford.'

  5. Dynamic Investigation of Release Characteristics of a Streamlined Internal Store from a Simulated Bomb Bay of the Republic F-105 Airplane at Mach Numbers of 0.8, 1.4, and 1.98, Coord. No. AF-222

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John B.

    1956-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the 27- by 27-inch preflight jet of the Langley Pilotless Aircraft Research Station at Wallops Island, Va., of the release characteristics of a dynamically scaled streamlined-type internally carried store from a simulated bomb bay at Mach numbers M(sub o) of 0.8, 1.4, and 1.98. A l/17-scale model of the Republic F-105 half-fuselage and bomb-bay configuration was used with a streamlined store shape of a fineness ratio of 6.00. Simulated altitudes were 3,400 feet at M(sub o) = 0.8, 3,400, and 29,000 feet at M(sub o) = 1.4, and 29,000 feet at M(sub o) = 1.98. At supersonic speeds, high pitching moments are induced on the store in the vicinity of the bomb bay at high dynamic pressures. Successful ejections could not be made with the original configuration at supersonic speeds at near sea-level conditions. The pitching moments caused by unsymmetrical pressures on the store in a disturbed flow field were overcome by replacing the high-aspect-ratio fin with a low-aspect-ratio fin that had a 30-percent area increase which was less subject to aeroelastic effects. Release characteristics of the store were improved by orienting the fins so that they were in a more uniform flow field at the point of store release. The store pitching moments were shown to be reduced by increasing the simulated altitude. Favorable ejections were made at subsonic speeds at near sea-level conditions.

  6. Medical big data: promise and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology. PMID:28392994

  7. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Zongtao Li, Ying Zheng, Xibin Liu, Yan Dai, Jiting Kang, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  8. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Zongtao; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xibin; Liu, Yan; Dai, Jiting; Kang, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  9. Big data: an introduction for librarians.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Modern life produces data at an astounding rate and shows no signs of slowing. This has lead to new advances in data storage and analysis and the concept of "big data," that is, massive data sets that can yield surprising insights when analyzed. This column will briefly describe what big data is and why it is important. It will also briefly explore the possibilities and problems of big data and the implications it has for librarians. A list of big data projects and resources is also included.

  10. Medical big data: promise and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-03-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  11. The LHC's Next Big Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-03-01

    When the sun rose over America on July 4, 2012, the world of science had radically changed. The Higgs boson had been discovered. Mind you, the press releases were more cautious than that, with "a new particle consistent with being the Higgs boson" being the carefully constructed phrase of the day. But, make no mistake, champagne corks were popped and backs were slapped. The data had spoken and a party was in order. Even if the observation turned out to be something other than the Higgs boson, the first big discovery from data taken at the Large Hadron Collider had been made.

  12. Big bang nucleosynthesis: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.

    2013-07-23

    An update on the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is presented. With the value of the baryon-tophoton ratio determined to high precision by WMAP, standard BBN is a parameter-free theory. In this context, the theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, {sup 4}He, and {sup 7}Li is discussed and compared to their observational determination. While concordance for D and {sup 4}He is satisfactory, the prediction for {sup 7}Li exceeds the observational determination by a factor of about four. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed.

  13. The faces of Big Science.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Gottfried

    2014-06-01

    Fifty years ago, academic science was a calling with few regulations or financial rewards. Today, it is a huge enterprise confronted by a plethora of bureaucratic and political controls. This change was not triggered by specific events or decisions but reflects the explosive 'knee' in the exponential growth that science has sustained during the past three-and-a-half centuries. Coming to terms with the demands and benefits of 'Big Science' is a major challenge for today's scientific generation. Since its foundation 50 years ago, the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) has been of invaluable help in meeting this challenge.

  14. Comparative Validity of Brief to Medium-Length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are…

  15. Comparative Validity of Brief to Medium-Length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are…

  16. Big.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Nancy; Everhart, Harry

    2000-01-01

    Presents information on the different types of data projectors, to help librarians make a smart selection for their library. Describes multimedia projectors; document cameras; large-screen televisions, monitors, and flat panels; electronic whiteboards, and identifies uses, manufacturers, and prices. Notes three important ways that data projectors…

  17. Untapped Potential: Fulfilling the Promise of Big Brothers Big Sisters and the Bigs and Littles They Represent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John M.; Moore, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    American children represent a great untapped potential in our country. For many young people, choices are limited and the goal of a productive adulthood is a remote one. This report paints a picture of who these children are, shares their insights and reflections about the barriers they face, and offers ways forward for Big Brothers Big Sisters as…

  18. Big Challenges and Big Opportunities: The Power of "Big Ideas" to Change Curriculum and the Culture of Teacher Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical knowledge of pre-service teachers is currently "under the microscope" and the subject of research. This paper proposes a different approach to teacher content knowledge based on the "big ideas" of mathematics and the connections that exist within and between them. It is suggested that these "big ideas"…

  19. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  20. Astronomical surveys and big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ -rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ -ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS), and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  1. Big data in oncologic imaging.

    PubMed

    Regge, Daniele; Mazzetti, Simone; Giannini, Valentina; Bracco, Christian; Stasi, Michele

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is a complex disease and unfortunately understanding how the components of the cancer system work does not help understand the behavior of the system as a whole. In the words of the Greek philosopher Aristotle "the whole is greater than the sum of parts." To date, thanks to improved information technology infrastructures, it is possible to store data from each single cancer patient, including clinical data, medical images, laboratory tests, and pathological and genomic information. Indeed, medical archive storage constitutes approximately one-third of total global storage demand and a large part of the data are in the form of medical images. The opportunity is now to draw insight on the whole to the benefit of each individual patient. In the oncologic patient, big data analysis is at the beginning but several useful applications can be envisaged including development of imaging biomarkers to predict disease outcome, assessing the risk of X-ray dose exposure or of renal damage following the administration of contrast agents, and tracking and optimizing patient workflow. The aim of this review is to present current evidence of how big data derived from medical images may impact on the diagnostic pathway of the oncologic patient.

  2. The BigBOSS spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinsky, Patrick; Bebek, Chris; Besuner, Robert; Carton, Pierre-Henri; Edelstein, Jerry; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael E.; Poppett, Claire; Prieto, Eric; Schlegel, David; Sholl, Michael

    2012-09-01

    BigBOSS is a proposed ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a 14,000 square degree galaxy and quasi-stellar object redshift survey. It consists of a 5,000- fiber-positioner focal plane feeding the spectrographs. The optical fibers are separated into ten 500 fiber slit heads at the entrance of ten identical spectrographs in a thermally insulated room. Each of the ten spectrographs has a spectral resolution (λ/Δλ) between 1500 and 4000 over a wavelength range from 360 - 980 nm. Each spectrograph uses two dichroic beam splitters to separate the spectrograph into three arms. It uses volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings for high efficiency and compactness. Each arm uses a 4096x4096 15 μm pixel charge coupled device (CCD) for the detector. We describe the requirements and current design of the BigBOSS spectrograph. Design trades (e.g. refractive versus reflective) and manufacturability are also discussed.

  3. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga Road. Note gate for road to Tamarack Campground - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  5. View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. Bridal Veil Falls at center distance. Looking east - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  6. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  7. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. Big sagebrush transplanting success in crested wheatgrass stands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The conversion of formerly big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate ssp. wyomingensis)/bunchgrass communities to annual grass dominance, primarily cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), in Wyoming big sagebrush ecosystems has sparked the increasing demand to establish big sagebrush on disturbed rangelands. The e...

  9. BigBWA: approaching the Burrows-Wheeler aligner to Big Data technologies.

    PubMed

    Abuín, José M; Pichel, Juan C; Pena, Tomás F; Amigo, Jorge

    2015-12-15

    BigBWA is a new tool that uses the Big Data technology Hadoop to boost the performance of the Burrows-Wheeler aligner (BWA). Important reductions in the execution times were observed when using this tool. In addition, BigBWA is fault tolerant and it does not require any modification of the original BWA source code. BigBWA is available at the project GitHub repository: https://github.com/citiususc/BigBWA. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. An embedding for the big bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesson, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    A cosmological model is given that has good physical properties for the early and late universe but is a hypersurface in a flat five-dimensional manifold. The big bang can therefore be regarded as an effect of a choice of coordinates in a truncated higher-dimensional geometry. Thus the big bang is in some sense a geometrical illusion.

  11. A New Look at Big History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkey, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out a "big history" which resonates with the priorities of our own time. A globalizing world calls for new spacial scales to underpin what the history curriculum addresses, "big history" calls for new temporal scales, while concern over climate change calls for a new look at subject boundaries. The article…

  12. Big trees in the southern forest inventory

    Treesearch

    Christopher M. Oswalt; Sonja N. Oswalt; Thomas J. Brandeis

    2010-01-01

    Big trees fascinate people worldwide, inspiring respect, awe, and oftentimes, even controversy. This paper uses a modified version of American Forests’ Big Trees Measuring Guide point system (May 1990) to rank trees sampled between January of 1998 and September of 2007 on over 89,000 plots by the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Inventory and...

  13. In Search of the Big Bubble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew; Wentzky, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    Freely rising air bubbles in water sometimes assume the shape of a spherical cap, a shape also known as the "big bubble". Is it possible to find some objective function involving a combination of a bubble's attributes for which the big bubble is the optimal shape? Following the basic idea of the definite integral, we define a bubble's surface as…

  14. Big game habitat use in southeastern Montana

    Treesearch

    James G. MacCracken; Daniel W. Uresk

    1984-01-01

    The loss of suitable, high quality habitat is a major problem facing big game managers in the western United States. Agricultural, water, road and highway, housing, and recreational development have contributed to loss of natural big game habitat (Wallmo et al. 1976, Reed 1981). In the western United States, surface mining of minerals has great potential to adversely...

  15. Hom-Big Brackets: Theory and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liqiang; Sheng, Yunhe

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of hom-big brackets, which is a generalization of Kosmann-Schwarzbach's big brackets. We show that it gives rise to a graded hom-Lie algebra. Thus, it is a useful tool to study hom-structures. In particular, we use it to describe hom-Lie bialgebras and hom-Nijenhuis operators.

  16. A New Look at Big History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkey, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out a "big history" which resonates with the priorities of our own time. A globalizing world calls for new spacial scales to underpin what the history curriculum addresses, "big history" calls for new temporal scales, while concern over climate change calls for a new look at subject boundaries. The article…

  17. Insights into big sagebrush seedling storage practices

    Treesearch

    Emily C. Overton; Jeremiah R. Pinto; Anthony S. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. [Asteraceae]) is an essential component of shrub-steppe ecosystems in the Great Basin of the US, where degradation due to altered fire regimes, invasive species, and land use changes have led to increased interest in the production of high-quality big sagebrush seedlings for conservation and restoration projects. Seedling...

  18. In Search of the Big Bubble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew; Wentzky, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    Freely rising air bubbles in water sometimes assume the shape of a spherical cap, a shape also known as the "big bubble". Is it possible to find some objective function involving a combination of a bubble's attributes for which the big bubble is the optimal shape? Following the basic idea of the definite integral, we define a bubble's surface as…

  19. Big system: Interactive graphics for the engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quenneville, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The BCS Interactive Graphics System (BIG System) approach to graphics was presented, along with several significant engineering applications. The BIG System precompiler, the graphics support library, and the function requirements of graphics applications are discussed. It was concluded that graphics standardization and a device independent code can be developed to assure maximum graphic terminal transferability.

  20. Structuring the Curriculum around Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleman, Janet; Knighton, Barbara; Brophy, Jere

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an inside look at Barbara Knighton's classroom teaching. She uses big ideas to guide her planning and instruction and gives other teachers suggestions for adopting the big idea approach and ways for making the approach easier. This article also represents a "small slice" of a dozen years of collaborative research,…

  1. Exploiting big data for critical care research.

    PubMed

    Docherty, Annemarie B; Lone, Nazir I

    2015-10-01

    Over recent years the digitalization, collection and storage of vast quantities of data, in combination with advances in data science, has opened up a new era of big data. In this review, we define big data, identify examples of critical care research using big data, discuss the limitations and ethical concerns of using these large datasets and finally consider scope for future research. Big data refers to datasets whose size, complexity and dynamic nature are beyond the scope of traditional data collection and analysis methods. The potential benefits to critical care are significant, with faster progress in improving health and better value for money. Although not replacing clinical trials, big data can improve their design and advance the field of precision medicine. However, there are limitations to analysing big data using observational methods. In addition, there are ethical concerns regarding maintaining confidentiality of patients who contribute to these datasets. Big data have the potential to improve medical care and reduce costs, both by individualizing medicine, and bringing together multiple sources of data about individual patients. As big data become increasingly mainstream, it will be important to maintain public confidence by safeguarding data security, governance and confidentiality.

  2. An embedding for the big bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesson, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    A cosmological model is given that has good physical properties for the early and late universe but is a hypersurface in a flat five-dimensional manifold. The big bang can therefore be regarded as an effect of a choice of coordinates in a truncated higher-dimensional geometry. Thus the big bang is in some sense a geometrical illusion.

  3. Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J; Westreich, Daniel J; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2015-01-01

    Big Data has increasingly been promoted as a revolutionary development in the future of science, including epidemiology. However, the definition and implications of Big Data for epidemiology remain unclear. We here provide a working definition of Big Data predicated on the so-called ‘3 Vs’: variety, volume, and velocity. From this definition, we argue that Big Data has evolutionary and revolutionary implications for identifying and intervening on the determinants of population health. We suggest that as more sources of diverse data become publicly available, the ability to combine and refine these data to yield valid answers to epidemiologic questions will be invaluable. We conclude that, while epidemiology as practiced today will continue to be practiced in the Big Data future, a component of our field’s future value lies in integrating subject matter knowledge with increased technical savvy. Our training programs and our visions for future public health interventions should reflect this future. PMID:25756221

  4. Ethics and Epistemology in Big Data Research.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Wendy; Mason, Paul H; Kerridge, Ian; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-03-20

    Biomedical innovation and translation are increasingly emphasizing research using "big data." The hope is that big data methods will both speed up research and make its results more applicable to "real-world" patients and health services. While big data research has been embraced by scientists, politicians, industry, and the public, numerous ethical, organizational, and technical/methodological concerns have also been raised. With respect to technical and methodological concerns, there is a view that these will be resolved through sophisticated information technologies, predictive algorithms, and data analysis techniques. While such advances will likely go some way towards resolving technical and methodological issues, we believe that the epistemological issues raised by big data research have important ethical implications and raise questions about the very possibility of big data research achieving its goals.

  5. Application of Generalizability Theory to the Big Five Inventory.

    PubMed

    Arterberry, Brooke J; Martens, Matthew P; Cadigan, Jennifer M; Rohrer, David

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the Big Five Personality Inventory score reliability (BFI: John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) utilizing Generalizability Theory analyses. Participants were recruited from a large public Midwestern university and provided complete data for the BFI on three measurement occasions (n = 264). Results suggested score reliability for scales with 7-10 items were adequate. However, score reliability for two item scales did not reach a .80 threshold. These findings have indicated BFI score reliability was, in general, acceptable and demonstrated the advantages of using Generalizability Theory analyses to examine score reliability.

  6. Application of Generalizability Theory to the Big Five Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cadigan, Jennifer M.; Rohrer, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the Big Five Personality Inventory score reliability (BFI: John, Donahue, & Kentle, 1991) utilizing Generalizability Theory analyses. Participants were recruited from a large public Midwestern university and provided complete data for the BFI on three measurement occasions (n = 264). Results suggested score reliability for scales with 7-10 items were adequate. However, score reliability for two item scales did not reach a .80 threshold. These findings have indicated BFI score reliability was, in general, acceptable and demonstrated the advantages of using Generalizability Theory analyses to examine score reliability. PMID:25419025

  7. Development and validation of Big Four personality scales for the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality--Second Edition (SNAP-2).

    PubMed

    Calabrese, William R; Rudick, Monica M; Simms, Leonard J; Clark, Lee Anna

    2012-09-01

    Recently, integrative, hierarchical models of personality and personality disorder (PD)--such as the Big Three, Big Four, and Big Five trait models--have gained support as a unifying dimensional framework for describing PD. However, no measures to date can simultaneously represent each of these potentially interesting levels of the personality hierarchy. To unify these measurement models psychometrically, we sought to develop Big Five trait scales within the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality--Second Edition (SNAP-2). Through structural and content analyses, we examined relations between the SNAP-2, the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) ratings in a large data set (N = 8,690), including clinical, military, college, and community participants. Results yielded scales consistent with the Big Four model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Introversion, and Antagonism) and not the Big Five, as there were insufficient items related to Openness. Resulting scale scores demonstrated strong internal consistency and temporal stability. Structural validity and external validity were supported by strong convergent and discriminant validity patterns between Big Four scale scores and other personality trait scores and expectable patterns of self-peer agreement. Descriptive statistics and community-based norms are provided. The SNAP-2 Big Four Scales enable researchers and clinicians to assess personality at multiple levels of the trait hierarchy and facilitate comparisons among competing big-trait models.

  8. Development and Validation of Big Four Personality Scales for the Schedule for Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2nd Edition (SNAP-2)

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, William R.; Rudick, Monica M.; Simms, Leonard J.; Clark, Lee Anna

    2012-01-01

    Recently, integrative, hierarchical models of personality and personality disorder (PD)—such as the Big Three, Big Four and Big Five trait models—have gained support as a unifying dimensional framework for describing PD. However, no measures to date can simultaneously represent each of these potentially interesting levels of the personality hierarchy. To unify these measurement models psychometrically, we sought to develop Big Five trait scales within the Schedule for Adaptive and Nonadaptive Personality–2nd Edition (SNAP-2). Through structural and content analyses, we examined relations between the SNAP-2, Big Five Inventory (BFI), and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) ratings in a large data set (N = 8,690), including clinical, military, college, and community participants. Results yielded scales consistent with the Big Four model of personality (i.e., Neuroticism, Conscientiousness, Introversion, and Antagonism) and not the Big Five as there were insufficient items related to Openness. Resulting scale scores demonstrated strong internal consistency and temporal stability. Structural and external validity was supported by strong convergent and discriminant validity patterns between Big Four scale scores and other personality trait scores and expectable patterns of self-peer agreement. Descriptive statistics and community-based norms are provided. The SNAP-2 Big Four Scales enable researchers and clinicians to assess personality at multiple levels of the trait hierarchy and facilitate comparisons among competing “Big Trait” models. PMID:22250598

  9. Propeptide big-endothelin, N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide and mortality. The Ludwigshafen risk and cardiovascular health (LURIC) study.

    PubMed

    Gergei, Ingrid; Krämer, Bernhard K; Scharnagl, Hubert; Stojakovic, Tatjana; März, Winfried; Mondorf, Ulrich

    The endothelin system (Big-ET-1) is a key regulator in cardiovascular (CV) disease and congestive heart failure (CHF). We have examined the incremental value of Big-ET-1 in predicting total and CV mortality next to the well-established CV risk marker N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP). Big-ET-1 and NT-proBNP were determined in 2829 participants referred for coronary angiography (follow-up 9.9 years). Big-ET-1 is an independent predictor of total, CV mortality and death due to CHF. The conjunct use of Big-ET-1 and NT-proBNP improves the risk stratification of patients with intermediate to high risk of CV death and CHF. Big-ET-1improves risk stratification in patients referred for coronary angiography.

  10. Evidence of the big fix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-06-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value vh. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self-coupling are fixed when we vary vh. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental law in our case.

  11. Was the Big Bang hot?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for verifying the spectrum defined by Woody and Richards (WR, 1981), which serves as a base for dust-distorted models of the 3 K background, are discussed. WR detected a sharp deviation from the Planck curve in the 3 K background. The absolute intensity of the background may be determined by the frequency dependence of the dipole anisotropy of the background or the frequency dependence effect in galactic clusters. Both methods involve the Doppler shift; analytical formulae are defined for characterization of the dipole anisotropy. The measurement of the 30-300 GHz spectra of cold galactic dust may reveal the presence of significant amounts of needle-shaped grains, which would in turn support a theory of a cold Big Bang.

  12. Team Science and Big Brains.

    PubMed

    Katz, Anne

    2017-07-01

    Recently, I was honored with the task of moderating a session at the Oncology Nursing Society's 42nd Annual Congress in Denver, Colorado. The panel discussion, "Team Science: A Discussion With the Experts," was described as an opportunity to learn about team science implementation in the conduct of cancer research. The panel members were leaders in oncology research. As the session was about to begin, I looked over at the panelists and decided that this session should have been called "The Big Brains Session" because the panelists are giants in the field. And yes, I was just a little intimidated to be posing questions to the panel, not to mention moderating their discussion.
.

  13. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-04-28

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  14. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  15. Microsystems - The next big thing

    SciTech Connect

    STINNETT,REGAN W.

    2000-05-11

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a big name for tiny devices that will soon make big changes in everyday life and the workplace. These and other types of Microsystems range in size from a few millimeters to a few microns, much smaller than a human hair. These Microsystems have the capability to enable new ways to solve problems in commercial applications ranging from automotive, aerospace, telecommunications, manufacturing equipment, medical diagnostics to robotics, and in national security applications such as nuclear weapons safety and security, battlefield intelligence, and protection against chemical and biological weapons. This broad range of applications of Microsystems reflects the broad capabilities of future Microsystems to provide the ability to sense, think, act, and communicate, all in a single integrated package. Microsystems have been called the next silicon revolution, but like many revolutions, they incorporate more elements than their predecessors. Microsystems do include MEMS components fabricated from polycrystalline silicon processed using techniques similar to those used in the manufacture of integrated electrical circuits. They also include optoelectronic components made from gallium arsenide and other semiconducting compounds from the III-V groups of the periodic table. Microsystems components are also being made from pure metals and metal alloys using the LIGA process, which utilizes lithography, etching, and casting at the micron scale. Generically, Microsystems are micron scale, integrated systems that have the potential to combine the ability to sense light, heat, pressure, acceleration, vibration, and chemicals with the ability to process the collected data using CMOS circuitry, execute an electrical, mechanical, or photonic response, and communicate either optically or with microwaves.

  16. Learning English through Social Interaction: The Case of "Big Brother 2006," Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaanta, Leila; Jauni, Heidi; Leppanen, Sirpa; Peuronen, Saija; Paakkinen, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    In line with recent Conversation Analytic work on language learning as situated practice, this article investigates how interactants can create language learning opportunities for themselves and others in and through social interaction. The study shows how the participants of "Big Brother Finland," a reality TV show, whose main…

  17. Perceptions of "Big Sisters" and Their "Little Sisters" Regarding Mentoring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarles, Alice; Maldonado, Nancy L.; Lacey, Candace H.; Thompson, Steve D.

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the relationships between six Little Sisters (mentees) and their Big Sisters (mentors) to develop an understanding of the perceptions of high-risk adolescent female mentees and their mentors regarding their mentoring relationships. Participants were purposefully selected--those actively involved in a formal…

  18. Hardiness and the Big Five Personality Traits among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-fang

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the construct of hardiness with the Big Five personality traits among 362 Chinese university students. Participants in the study responded to the Dispositional Hardiness Scale (Bartone, Ursano, Wright, & Ingraham, 1989) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992). Results indicate that personality…

  19. Learning English through Social Interaction: The Case of "Big Brother 2006," Finland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaanta, Leila; Jauni, Heidi; Leppanen, Sirpa; Peuronen, Saija; Paakkinen, Terhi

    2013-01-01

    In line with recent Conversation Analytic work on language learning as situated practice, this article investigates how interactants can create language learning opportunities for themselves and others in and through social interaction. The study shows how the participants of "Big Brother Finland," a reality TV show, whose main…

  20. [Big data in medicine and healthcare].

    PubMed

    Rüping, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Healthcare is one of the business fields with the highest Big Data potential. According to the prevailing definition, Big Data refers to the fact that data today is often too large and heterogeneous and changes too quickly to be stored, processed, and transformed into value by previous technologies. The technological trends drive Big Data: business processes are more and more executed electronically, consumers produce more and more data themselves - e.g. in social networks - and finally ever increasing digitalization. Currently, several new trends towards new data sources and innovative data analysis appear in medicine and healthcare. From the research perspective, omics-research is one clear Big Data topic. In practice, the electronic health records, free open data and the "quantified self" offer new perspectives for data analytics. Regarding analytics, significant advances have been made in the information extraction from text data, which unlocks a lot of data from clinical documentation for analytics purposes. At the same time, medicine and healthcare is lagging behind in the adoption of Big Data approaches. This can be traced to particular problems regarding data complexity and organizational, legal, and ethical challenges. The growing uptake of Big Data in general and first best-practice examples in medicine and healthcare in particular, indicate that innovative solutions will be coming. This paper gives an overview of the potentials of Big Data in medicine and healthcare.

  1. Big data and the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Peters, Steve G; Buntrock, James D

    2014-01-01

    The electronic medical record has evolved from a digital representation of individual patient results and documents to information of large scale and complexity. Big Data refers to new technologies providing management and processing capabilities, targeting massive and disparate data sets. For an individual patient, techniques such as Natural Language Processing allow the integration and analysis of textual reports with structured results. For groups of patients, Big Data offers the promise of large-scale analysis of outcomes, patterns, temporal trends, and correlations. The evolution of Big Data analytics moves us from description and reporting to forecasting, predictive modeling, and decision optimization.

  2. Processing Solutions for Big Data in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillatre, L.; Lepiller, D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives a simple introduction to processing solutions applied to massive amounts of data. It proposes a general presentation of the Big Data paradigm. The Hadoop framework, which is considered as the pioneering processing solution for Big Data, is described together with YARN, the integrated Hadoop tool for resource allocation. This paper also presents the main tools for the management of both the storage (NoSQL solutions) and computing capacities (MapReduce parallel processing schema) of a cluster of machines. Finally, more recent processing solutions like Spark are discussed. Big Data frameworks are now able to run complex applications while keeping the programming simple and greatly improving the computing speed.

  3. Big questions, big science: meeting the challenges of global ecology.

    PubMed

    Schimel, David; Keller, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Ecologists are increasingly tackling questions that require significant infrastucture, large experiments, networks of observations, and complex data and computation. Key hypotheses in ecology increasingly require more investment, and larger data sets to be tested than can be collected by a single investigator's or s group of investigator's labs, sustained for longer than a typical grant. Large-scale projects are expensive, so their scientific return on the investment has to justify the opportunity cost-the science foregone because resources were expended on a large project rather than supporting a number of individual projects. In addition, their management must be accountable and efficient in the use of significant resources, requiring the use of formal systems engineering and project management to mitigate risk of failure. Mapping the scientific method into formal project management requires both scientists able to work in the context, and a project implementation team sensitive to the unique requirements of ecology. Sponsoring agencies, under pressure from external and internal forces, experience many pressures that push them towards counterproductive project management but a scientific community aware and experienced in large project science can mitigate these tendencies. For big ecology to result in great science, ecologists must become informed, aware and engaged in the advocacy and governance of large ecological projects.

  4. Music Ensemble Participation: Personality Traits and Music Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrance, Tracy A.; Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to examine the relationship between personality type and ensemble choice and (2) to examine the differences in personality across age and music experience in young adults. Participants (N = 137; 68 instrumentalists, 69 vocalists) completed a demographic survey and the Big Five Personality Inventory.…

  5. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-01-04

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best

  6. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  7. NOAA Big Data Partnership RFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2014-12-01

    In February 2014, the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued a Big Data Request for Information (RFI) from industry and other organizations (e.g., non-profits, research laboratories, and universities) to assess capability and interest in establishing partnerships to position a copy of NOAA's vast data holdings in the Cloud, co-located with easy and affordable access to analytical capabilities. This RFI was motivated by a number of concerns. First, NOAA's data facilities do not necessarily have sufficient network infrastructure to transmit all available observations and numerical model outputs to all potential users, or sufficient infrastructure to support simultaneous computation by many users. Second, the available data are distributed across multiple services and data facilities, making it difficult to find and integrate data for cross-domain analysis and decision-making. Third, large datasets require users to have substantial network, storage, and computing capabilities of their own in order to fully interact with and exploit the latent value of the data. Finally, there may be commercial opportunities for value-added products and services derived from our data. Putting a working copy of data in the Cloud outside of NOAA's internal networks and infrastructures should reduce demands and risks on our systems, and should enable users to interact with multiple datasets and create new lines of business (much like the industries built on government-furnished weather or GPS data). The NOAA Big Data RFI therefore solicited information on technical and business approaches regarding possible partnership(s) that -- at no net cost to the government and minimum impact on existing data facilities -- would unleash the commercial potential of its environmental observations and model outputs. NOAA would retain the master archival copy of its data. Commercial partners would not be permitted to charge fees for access to the NOAA data they receive, but

  8. Cosmic relics from the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, L.J.

    1988-12-01

    A brief introduction to the big bang picture of the early universe is given. Dark matter is discussed; particularly its implications for elementary particle physics. A classification scheme for dark matter relics is given. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Quantum nature of the big bang.

    PubMed

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Pawlowski, Tomasz; Singh, Parampreet

    2006-04-14

    Some long-standing issues concerning the quantum nature of the big bang are resolved in the context of homogeneous isotropic models with a scalar field. Specifically, the known results on the resolution of the big-bang singularity in loop quantum cosmology are significantly extended as follows: (i) the scalar field is shown to serve as an internal clock, thereby providing a detailed realization of the "emergent time" idea; (ii) the physical Hilbert space, Dirac observables, and semiclassical states are constructed rigorously; (iii) the Hamiltonian constraint is solved numerically to show that the big bang is replaced by a big bounce. Thanks to the nonperturbative, background independent methods, unlike in other approaches the quantum evolution is deterministic across the deep Planck regime.

  10. Big Data and Analytics in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Tan, S S-L; Gao, G; Koch, S

    2015-01-01

    This editorial is part of the Focus Theme of Methods of Information in Medicine on "Big Data and Analytics in Healthcare". The amount of data being generated in the healthcare industry is growing at a rapid rate. This has generated immense interest in leveraging the availability of healthcare data (and "big data") to improve health outcomes and reduce costs. However, the nature of healthcare data, and especially big data, presents unique challenges in processing and analyzing big data in healthcare. This Focus Theme aims to disseminate some novel approaches to address these challenges. More specifically, approaches ranging from efficient methods of processing large clinical data to predictive models that could generate better predictions from healthcare data are presented.

  11. Fires Burning near Big Sur, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-06-30

    Fires near Big Sur, Calif., continued to burn unchecked when the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer ASTER instrument on NASA Terra satellite captured this image on Sunday, June 29, 2008.

  12. Quality of Big Data in Healthcare

    DOE PAGES

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Ramachandran, Natarajan; Ferrell, Regina Kay

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in Big Data Analytics and in particular Health information technology is towards building sophisticated models, methods and tools for business, operational and clinical intelligence, but the critical issue of data quality required for these models is not getting the attention it deserves. The objective of the paper is to highlight the issues of data quality in the context of Big Data Healthcare Analytics.

  13. COBE looks back to the Big Bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of NASA-Goddard's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), the first NASA satellite designed to observe the primeval explosion of the universe. The spacecraft carries three extremely sensitive IR and microwave instruments designed to measure the faint residual radiation from the Big Bang and to search for the formation of the first galaxies. COBE's far IR absolute spectrophotometer has shown that the Big Bang radiation has a blackbody spectrum, proving that there was no large energy release after the explosion.

  14. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  15. Dark energy, wormholes, and the big rip

    SciTech Connect

    Faraoni, V.; Israel, W.

    2005-03-15

    The time evolution of a wormhole in a Friedmann universe approaching the big rip is studied. The wormhole is modeled by a thin spherical shell accreting the superquintessence fluid--two different models are presented. Contrary to recent claims that the wormhole overtakes the expansion of the universe and engulfs it before the big rip is reached, it is found that the wormhole becomes asymptotically comoving with the cosmic fluid and the future evolution of the universe is fully causal.

  16. Data Confidentiality Challenges in Big Data Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Jian; Zhao, Dongfang

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, we address the problem of data confidentiality in big data analytics. In many fields, much useful patterns can be extracted by applying machine learning techniques to big data. However, data confidentiality must be protected. In many scenarios, data confidentiality could well be a prerequisite for data to be shared. We present a scheme to provide provable secure data confidentiality and discuss various techniques to optimize performance of such a system.

  17. Is 'big biology' a commercial enterprise?

    PubMed Central

    Swindells, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Big projects in biology - such as the human genome project and a number of related and ensuing enterprises - require big funding. A new tradition is growing in which some types of basic research take place within commercial organizations. This article reviews some of the reasons for this and some of the key players, in the USA, Europe and Japan, and highlights some issues to be considered when deciding whether particular research belongs in a company rather than an academic setting. PMID:11983050

  18. Big data in the new media environment.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Matthew Brook; Falk, Emily B; Konrath, Sara

    2014-02-01

    Bentley et al. argue for the social scientific contextualization of "big data" by proposing a four-quadrant model. We suggest extensions of the east-west (i.e., socially motivated versus independently motivated) decision-making dimension in light of findings from social psychology and neuroscience. We outline a method that leverages linguistic tools to connect insights across fields that address the individuals underlying big-data media streams.

  19. COBE looks back to the Big Bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of NASA-Goddard's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), the first NASA satellite designed to observe the primeval explosion of the universe. The spacecraft carries three extremely sensitive IR and microwave instruments designed to measure the faint residual radiation from the Big Bang and to search for the formation of the first galaxies. COBE's far IR absolute spectrophotometer has shown that the Big Bang radiation has a blackbody spectrum, proving that there was no large energy release after the explosion.

  20. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  1. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  2. The NOAA Big Data Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Beaujardiere, J.

    2015-12-01

    The US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) is a Big Data producer, generating tens of terabytes per day from hundreds of sensors on satellites, radars, aircraft, ships, and buoys, and from numerical models. These data are of critical importance and value for NOAA's mission to understand and predict changes in climate, weather, oceans, and coasts. In order to facilitate extracting additional value from this information, NOAA has established Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) with five Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) providers — Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft, Open Cloud Consortium — to determine whether hosting NOAA data in publicly-accessible Clouds alongside on-demand computational capability stimulates the creation of new value-added products and services and lines of business based on the data, and if the revenue generated by these new applications can support the costs of data transmission and hosting. Each IaaS provider is the anchor of a "Data Alliance" which organizations or entrepreneurs can join to develop and test new business or research avenues. This presentation will report on progress and lessons learned during the first 6 months of the 3-year CRADAs.

  3. Big-bang nucleosynthesis revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olive, Keith A.; Schramm, David N.; Steigman, Gary; Walker, Terry P.

    1989-01-01

    The homogeneous big-bang nucleosynthesis yields of D, He-3, He-4, and Li-7 are computed taking into account recent measurements of the neutron mean-life as well as updates of several nuclear reaction rates which primarily affect the production of Li-7. The extraction of primordial abundances from observation and the likelihood that the primordial mass fraction of He-4, Y(sub p) is less than or equal to 0.24 are discussed. Using the primordial abundances of D + He-3 and Li-7 we limit the baryon-to-photon ratio (eta in units of 10 exp -10) 2.6 less than or equal to eta(sub 10) less than or equal to 4.3; which we use to argue that baryons contribute between 0.02 and 0.11 to the critical energy density of the universe. An upper limit to Y(sub p) of 0.24 constrains the number of light neutrinos to N(sub nu) less than or equal to 3.4, in excellent agreement with the LEP and SLC collider results. We turn this argument around to show that the collider limit of 3 neutrino species can be used to bound the primordial abundance of He-4: 0.235 less than or equal to Y(sub p) less than or equal to 0.245.

  4. 78 FR 3911 - Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN; Final Comprehensive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Big Stone National Wildlife Refuge, Big Stone and Lac Qui Parle Counties, MN... (CCP) and finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment (EA) for Big Stone.../FONSI on the planning Web site at http://www.fws.gov/midwest/planning/BigStoneNWR/index.html . A...

  5. Big data: survey, technologies, opportunities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nawsher; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio; Inayat, Zakira; Ali, Waleed Kamaleldin Mahmoud; Alam, Muhammad; Shiraz, Muhammad; Gani, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data.

  6. Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nawsher; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio; Inayat, Zakira; Mahmoud Ali, Waleed Kamaleldin; Alam, Muhammad; Shiraz, Muhammad; Gani, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data. PMID:25136682

  7. Native perennial forb variation between mountain big sagebrush and Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities.

    PubMed

    Davies, Kirk W; Bates, Jon D

    2010-09-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) occupies large portions of the western United States and provides valuable wildlife habitat. However, information is lacking quantifying differences in native perennial forb characteristics between mountain big sagebrush [A. tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle] and Wyoming big sagebrush [A. tridentata spp. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh] plant communities. This information is critical to accurately evaluate the quality of habitat and forage that these communities can produce because many wildlife species consume large quantities of native perennial forbs and depend on them for hiding cover. To compare native perennial forb characteristics on sites dominated by these two subspecies of big sagebrush, we sampled 106 intact big sagebrush plant communities. Mountain big sagebrush plant communities produced almost 4.5-fold more native perennial forb biomass and had greater native perennial forb species richness and diversity compared to Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities (P < 0.001). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) and the multiple-response permutation procedure (MRPP) demonstrated that native perennial forb composition varied between these plant communities (P < 0.001). Native perennial forb composition was more similar within plant communities grouped by big sagebrush subspecies than expected by chance (A = 0.112) and composition varied between community groups (P < 0.001). Indicator analysis did not identify any perennial forbs that were completely exclusive and faithful, but did identify several perennial forbs that were relatively good indicators of either mountain big sagebrush or Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities. Our results suggest that management plans and habitat guidelines should recognize differences in native perennial forb characteristics between mountain and Wyoming big sagebrush plant communities.

  8. Big five personality and adolescent Internet addiction: The mediating role of coping style.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yueyue; Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Zhao, Liyan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the unique associations between big five personality traits and adolescent Internet addiction (IA), as well as the mediating role of coping style underlying these relations. Our theoretical model was tested with 998 adolescents. Participants provided self-report data on demographic variables, big five personality traits, coping style, and IA. After controlling for demographic variables, it was found that agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with IA, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience were positively associated with IA. Mediation analyses further indicated that conscientiousness had an indirect impact on adolescent IA through decreased emotion-focused coping, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience had indirect impacts on adolescent IA through increased emotion-focused coping. In contrast, problem-focused coping had no mediating role. These findings suggest that emotion-focused coping may, in part, account for the association between big five personality and adolescent IA.

  9. "Big data" and "open data": What kind of access should researchers enjoy?

    PubMed

    Chatellier, Gilles; Varlet, Vincent; Blachier-Poisson, Corinne

    2016-02-01

    The healthcare sector is currently facing a new paradigm, the explosion of "big data". Coupled with advances in computer technology, the field of "big data" appears promising, allowing us to better understand the natural history of diseases, to follow-up new technologies (devices, drugs) implementation and to participate in precision medicine, etc. Data sources are multiple (medical and administrative data, electronic medical records, data from rapidly developing technologies such as DNA sequencing, connected devices, etc.) and heterogeneous while their use requires complex methods for accurate analysis. Moreover, faced with this new paradigm, we must determine who could (or should) have access to which data, how to combine collective interest and protection of personal data and how to finance in the long-term both operating costs and databases interrogation. This article analyses the opportunities and challenges related to the use of open and/or "big data", from the viewpoint of pharmacologists and representatives of the pharmaceutical and medical device industry.

  10. Rethinking Big Science. Modest, mezzo, grand science and the development of the Bevalac, 1971-1993.

    PubMed

    Westfall, Catherine

    2003-03-01

    Historians of science have tended to focus exclusively on scale in investigations of largescale research, perhaps because it has been easy to assume that comprehending a phenomenon dubbed "Big Science" hinges on an understanding of bigness. A close look at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac, a medium-scale "mezzo science" project formed by uniting two preexisting machines--the modest SuperHILAC and the grand Bevatron--shows what can be gained by overcoming this preoccupation with bigness. The Bevalac story reveals how interconnections, connections, and disconnections ultimately led to the development of a new kind of science that transformed the landscape of large-scale research in the United States. Important lessons in historiography also emerge: the value of framing discussions in terms of networks, the necessity of constantly expanding and refining methodology, and the importance of avoiding the rhetoric of participants and instead finding words to tell our own stories.

  11. Who Chokes Under Pressure? The Big Five Personality Traits and Decision-Making under Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Kaileigh A.; Silasi-Mansat, Crina D.; Worthy, Darrell A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the Big Five personality factors could predict who thrives or chokes under pressure during decision-making. The effects of the Big Five personality factors on decision-making ability and performance under social (Experiment 1) and combined social and time pressure (Experiment 2) were examined using the Big Five Personality Inventory and a dynamic decision-making task that required participants to learn an optimal strategy. In Experiment 1, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed an interaction between neuroticism and pressure condition. Neuroticism negatively predicted performance under social pressure, but did not affect decision-making under low pressure. Additionally, the negative effect of neuroticism under pressure was replicated using a combined social and time pressure manipulation in Experiment 2. These results support distraction theory whereby pressure taxes highly neurotic individuals' cognitive resources, leading to sub-optimal performance. Agreeableness also negatively predicted performance in both experiments. PMID:28373740

  12. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement

  13. Boosting Big National Lab Data

    SciTech Connect

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin

    2013-02-21

    Introduction: Big data. Love it or hate it, solving the world’s most intractable problems requires the ability to make sense of huge and complex sets of data and do it quickly. Speeding up the process – from hours to minutes or from weeks to days – is key to our success. One major source of such big data are physical experiments. As many will know, these physical experiments are commonly used to solve challenges in fields such as energy security, manufacturing, medicine, pharmacology, environmental protection and national security. Experiments use different instruments and sensor types to research for example the validity of new drugs, the base cause for diseases, more efficient energy sources, new materials for every day goods, effective methods for environmental cleanup, the optimal ingredients composition for chocolate or determine how to preserve valuable antics. This is done by experimentally determining the structure, properties and processes that govern biological systems, chemical processes and materials. The speed and quality at which we can acquire new insights from experiments directly influences the rate of scientific progress, industrial innovation and competitiveness. And gaining new groundbreaking insights, faster, is key to the economic success of our nations. Recent years have seen incredible advances in sensor technologies, from house size detector systems in large experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider and the ‘Eye of Gaia’ billion pixel camera detector to high throughput genome sequencing. These developments have led to an exponential increase in data volumes, rates and variety produced by instruments used for experimental work. This increase is coinciding with a need to analyze the experimental results at the time they are collected. This speed is required to optimize the data taking and quality, and also to enable new adaptive experiments, where the sample is manipulated as it is observed, e.g. a substance is injected into a

  14. Pockmarks off Big Sur, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paull, C.; Ussler, W.; Maher, N.; Greene, H. Gary; Rehder, G.; Lorenson, T.; Lee, H.

    2002-01-01

    A pockmark field was discovered during EM-300 multi-beam bathymetric surveys on the lower continental slope off the Big Sur coast of California. The field contains ??? 1500 pockmarks which are between 130 and 260 m in diameter, and typically are 8-12 m deep located within a 560 km2 area. To investigate the origin of these features, piston cores were collected from both the interior and the flanks of the pockmarks, and remotely operated vehicle observation (ROV) video and sampling transects were conducted which passed through 19 of the pockmarks. The water column within and above the pockmarks was sampled for methane concentration. Piston cores and ROV collected push cores show that the pockmark field is composed of monotonous fine silts and clays and the cores within the pockmarks are indistinguishable from those outside the pockmarks. No evidence for either sediment winnowing or diagenetic alteration suggestive of fluid venting was obtained. 14C measurements of the organic carbon in the sediments indicate continuous sedimentation throughout the time resolution of the radiocarbon technique ( ??? 45000 yr BP), with a sedimentation rate of ??? 10 cm per 1000 yr both within and between the pockmarks. Concentrations of methane, dissolved inorganic carbon, sulfate, chloride, and ammonium in pore water extracted from within the cores are generally similar in composition to seawater and show little change with depth, suggesting low biogeochemical activity. These pore water chemical gradients indicate that neither significant accumulations of gas are likely to exist in the shallow subsurface ( ??? 100 m) nor is active fluid advection occurring within the sampled sediments. Taken together the data indicate that these pockmarks are more than 45000 yr old, are presently inactive, and contain no indications of earlier fluid or gas venting events. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Small Molecules-Big Data.

    PubMed

    Császár, Attila G; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Árendás, Péter

    2016-11-17

    Quantum mechanics builds large-scale graphs (networks): the vertices are the discrete energy levels the quantum system possesses, and the edges are the (quantum-mechanically allowed) transitions. Parts of the complete quantum mechanical networks can be probed experimentally via high-resolution, energy-resolved spectroscopic techniques. The complete rovibronic line list information for a given molecule can only be obtained through sophisticated quantum-chemical computations. Experiments as well as computations yield what we call spectroscopic networks (SN). First-principles SNs of even small, three to five atomic molecules can be huge, qualifying for the big data description. Besides helping to interpret high-resolution spectra, the network-theoretical view offers several ideas for improving the accuracy and robustness of the increasingly important information systems containing line-by-line spectroscopic data. For example, the smallest number of measurements necessary to perform to obtain the complete list of energy levels is given by the minimum-weight spanning tree of the SN and network clustering studies may call attention to "weakest links" of a spectroscopic database. A present-day application of spectroscopic networks is within the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) approach, whereby the transitions information on a measured SN is turned into experimental energy levels via a weighted linear least-squares refinement. MARVEL has been used successfully for 15 molecules and allowed to validate most of the transitions measured and come up with energy levels with well-defined and realistic uncertainties. Accurate knowledge of the energy levels with computed transition intensities allows the realistic prediction of spectra under many different circumstances, e.g., for widely different temperatures. Detailed knowledge of the energy level structure of a molecule coming from a MARVEL analysis is important for a considerable number of modeling

  16. Big bang nucleosynthesis: Present status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Yeh, Tsung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of the lightest nuclides via a dynamic interplay among the four fundamental forces during the first seconds of cosmic time. A brief overview of the essentials of this physics is given, and new calculations presented of light-element abundances through 6Li and 7Li, with updated nuclear reactions and uncertainties including those in the neutron lifetime. Fits are provided for these results as a function of baryon density and of the number of neutrino flavors Nν. Recent developments are reviewed in BBN, particularly new, precision Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements that now probe the baryon density, helium content, and the effective number of degrees of freedom Neff. These measurements allow for a tight test of BBN and cosmology using CMB data alone. Our likelihood analysis convolves the 2015 Planck data chains with our BBN output and observational data. Adding astronomical measurements of light elements strengthens the power of BBN. A new determination of the primordial helium abundance is included in our likelihood analysis. New D/H observations are now more precise than the corresponding theoretical predictions and are consistent with the standard model and the Planck baryon density. Moreover, D/H now provides a tight measurement of Nν when combined with the CMB baryon density and provides a 2 σ upper limit Nν<3.2 . The new precision of the CMB and D/H observations together leaves D/H predictions as the largest source of uncertainties. Future improvement in BBN calculations will therefore rely on improved nuclear cross-section data. In contrast with D/H and 4He, 7Li predictions continue to disagree with observations, perhaps pointing to new physics. This paper concludes with a look at future directions including key nuclear reactions, astronomical observations, and theoretical issues.

  17. What can zookeepers tell us about interacting with big cats in captivity?

    PubMed

    Szokalski, Monika S; Litchfield, Carla A; Foster, Wendy K

    2013-03-01

    Despite the potential dangers involved, interactions between zookeepers and captive big cats are increasing. Research with other animals, particularly nonhuman primates, suggests that closer interactions can be beneficial not only for the animals and their keepers, but also for zoo visitors. This study sought to determine whether the same benefits may apply to keeper-big cat interactions. An online questionnaire was completed by 86 keepers worldwide, assessing which types of handling (hands-on, protected, hands-off) they practice with their big cats, whether they practice training, and what their opinions of these methods are (through a series of rating scales and open-ended questions). Protected contact was the most frequently used handling method among this sample, particularly with lions, tigers, and cheetahs, and training was practiced by the majority of participants with all big cat species. Participants perceived protected contact as the most beneficial handling practice for big cats, keepers, and visitors, noting how it can allow a close bond between keeper and cat, as well as its educational value for zoo visitors. Contrastingly, concerns were raised about the use of hands-on approaches, particularly with regard to the safety of all parties involved and the potential for wrong messages to be sent to visitors. Further, training was reported to be more beneficial for each group than any handling practice, yielding similar potential benefits as protected contact. Consistent with existing information with other species, these findings will be useful in directing objective research examining the use of different handling and training methods with big cats.

  18. Enhancement of β-catenin activity by BIG1 plus BIG2 via Arf activation and cAMP signals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun-Chun; Le, Kang; Kato, Jiro; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Multifunctional β-catenin, with critical roles in both cell–cell adhesion and Wnt-signaling pathways, was among HeLa cell proteins coimmunoprecipitated by antibodies against brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange factors 1 and 2 (BIG1 or BIG2) that activate ADP-ribosylation factors (Arfs) by accelerating the replacement of bound GDP with GTP. BIG proteins also contain A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) sequences that can act as scaffolds for multimolecular assemblies that facilitate and limit cAMP signaling temporally and spatially. Direct interaction of BIG1 N-terminal sequence with β-catenin was confirmed using yeast two-hybrid assays and in vitro synthesized proteins. Depletion of BIG1 and/or BIG2 or overexpression of guanine nucleotide-exchange factor inactive mutant, but not wild-type, proteins interfered with β-catenin trafficking, leading to accumulation at perinuclear Golgi structures. Both phospholipase D activity and vesicular trafficking were required for effects of BIG1 and BIG2 on β-catenin activation. Levels of PKA-phosphorylated β-catenin S675 and β-catenin association with PKA, BIG1, and BIG2 were also diminished after BIG1/BIG2 depletion. Inferring a requirement for BIG1 and/or BIG2 AKAP sequence in PKA modification of β-catenin and its effect on transcription activation, we confirmed dependence of S675 phosphorylation and transcription coactivator function on BIG2 AKAP-C sequence. PMID:27162341

  19. Age and gender differences in motivational manifestations of the Big Five from age 16 to 60.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Regula; Denissen, Jaap J A; Allemand, Mathias; Penke, Lars

    2013-02-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated age and gender differences in motivational manifestations of the Big Five in a large German-speaking Internet sample (N = 19,022). Participants ranging in age from 16 to 60 years completed the Five Individual Reaction Norms Inventory (FIRNI; Denissen & Penke, 2008a), and two traditional Big Five measures. Age differences were found suggesting that mean levels of neuroticism and extraversion are negatively associated with age, whereas agreeableness and conscientiousness are positively associated. Openness to experience demonstrated a curvilinear association with age, with the highest mean levels in midlife. Gender differences were found suggesting that women, on average, have higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion, and agreeableness, while men are more open to experience. Neither the main effect of gender nor Age × Gender interactions were significant in the case of conscientiousness. In comparison to the 2 traditional Big Five measures, age differences in the motivational manifestations of the Big Five as assessed by the FIRNI were more pronounced, which might be explained by the greater developmental plasticity of flexible motivational processes or the intraindividual phrasing of the items of the FIRNI, compared to the kinds of behavioral descriptions that are emphasized in traditional Big Five items. The further study of such motivational processes might contribute to a better understanding of personality development. (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  1. Benchmarking Big Data Systems and the BigData Top100 List.

    PubMed

    Baru, Chaitanya; Bhandarkar, Milind; Nambiar, Raghunath; Poess, Meikel; Rabl, Tilmann

    2013-03-01

    "Big data" has become a major force of innovation across enterprises of all sizes. New platforms with increasingly more features for managing big datasets are being announced almost on a weekly basis. Yet, there is currently a lack of any means of comparability among such platforms. While the performance of traditional database systems is well understood and measured by long-established institutions such as the Transaction Processing Performance Council (TCP), there is neither a clear definition of the performance of big data systems nor a generally agreed upon metric for comparing these systems. In this article, we describe a community-based effort for defining a big data benchmark. Over the past year, a Big Data Benchmarking Community has become established in order to fill this void. The effort focuses on defining an end-to-end application-layer benchmark for measuring the performance of big data applications, with the ability to easily adapt the benchmark specification to evolving challenges in the big data space. This article describes the efforts that have been undertaken thus far toward the definition of a BigData Top100 List. While highlighting the major technical as well as organizational challenges, through this article, we also solicit community input into this process.

  2. Mentoring in Schools: An Impact Study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Kauh, Tina J.; McMaken, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring involved 1,139 9- to 16-year-old students in 10 cities nationwide. Youth were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (receiving mentoring) or a control group (receiving no mentoring) and were followed for 1.5 school years. At the end of the first school…

  3. Serving, Learning and Mentoring through the Big Brothers Big Sisters Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sivukamaran, Thillainatarajan; Holland, Glenda; Clark, Leonard J.

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the collaborative partnership between a Big Brothers Big Sisters organization, an elementary school and the College of Education at a public university. The partnership utilized a mentoring system consisting of elementary students, college students, elementary teachers and university faculty. Benefits of the various…

  4. Big Data in Caenorhabditis elegans: quo vadis?

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, Harald; Moerman, Donald

    2015-01-01

    A clear definition of what constitutes “Big Data” is difficult to identify, but we find it most useful to define Big Data as a data collection that is complete. By this criterion, researchers on Caenorhabditis elegans have a long history of collecting Big Data, since the organism was selected with the idea of obtaining a complete biological description and understanding of development. The complete wiring diagram of the nervous system, the complete cell lineage, and the complete genome sequence provide a framework to phrase and test hypotheses. Given this history, it might be surprising that the number of “complete” data sets for this organism is actually rather small—not because of lack of effort, but because most types of biological experiments are not currently amenable to complete large-scale data collection. Many are also not inherently limited, so that it becomes difficult to even define completeness. At present, we only have partial data on mutated genes and their phenotypes, gene expression, and protein–protein interaction—important data for many biological questions. Big Data can point toward unexpected correlations, and these unexpected correlations can lead to novel investigations; however, Big Data cannot establish causation. As a result, there is much excitement about Big Data, but there is also a discussion on just what Big Data contributes to solving a biological problem. Because of its relative simplicity, C. elegans is an ideal test bed to explore this issue and at the same time determine what is necessary to build a multicellular organism from a single cell. PMID:26543198

  5. Big Data in Caenorhabditis elegans: quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Hutter, Harald; Moerman, Donald

    2015-11-05

    A clear definition of what constitutes "Big Data" is difficult to identify, but we find it most useful to define Big Data as a data collection that is complete. By this criterion, researchers on Caenorhabditis elegans have a long history of collecting Big Data, since the organism was selected with the idea of obtaining a complete biological description and understanding of development. The complete wiring diagram of the nervous system, the complete cell lineage, and the complete genome sequence provide a framework to phrase and test hypotheses. Given this history, it might be surprising that the number of "complete" data sets for this organism is actually rather small--not because of lack of effort, but because most types of biological experiments are not currently amenable to complete large-scale data collection. Many are also not inherently limited, so that it becomes difficult to even define completeness. At present, we only have partial data on mutated genes and their phenotypes, gene expression, and protein-protein interaction--important data for many biological questions. Big Data can point toward unexpected correlations, and these unexpected correlations can lead to novel investigations; however, Big Data cannot establish causation. As a result, there is much excitement about Big Data, but there is also a discussion on just what Big Data contributes to solving a biological problem. Because of its relative simplicity, C. elegans is an ideal test bed to explore this issue and at the same time determine what is necessary to build a multicellular organism from a single cell. © 2015 Hutter and Moerman. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  6. The Structural Consequences of Big Data-Driven Education.

    PubMed

    Zeide, Elana

    2017-06-01

    Educators and commenters who evaluate big data-driven learning environments focus on specific questions: whether automated education platforms improve learning outcomes, invade student privacy, and promote equality. This article puts aside separate unresolved-and perhaps unresolvable-issues regarding the concrete effects of specific technologies. It instead examines how big data-driven tools alter the structure of schools' pedagogical decision-making, and, in doing so, change fundamental aspects of America's education enterprise. Technological mediation and data-driven decision-making have a particularly significant impact in learning environments because the education process primarily consists of dynamic information exchange. In this overview, I highlight three significant structural shifts that accompany school reliance on data-driven instructional platforms that perform core school functions: teaching, assessment, and credentialing. First, virtual learning environments create information technology infrastructures featuring constant data collection, continuous algorithmic assessment, and possibly infinite record retention. This undermines the traditional intellectual privacy and safety of classrooms. Second, these systems displace pedagogical decision-making from educators serving public interests to private, often for-profit, technology providers. They constrain teachers' academic autonomy, obscure student evaluation, and reduce parents' and students' ability to participate or challenge education decision-making. Third, big data-driven tools define what "counts" as education by mapping the concepts, creating the content, determining the metrics, and setting desired learning outcomes of instruction. These shifts cede important decision-making to private entities without public scrutiny or pedagogical examination. In contrast to the public and heated debates that accompany textbook choices, schools often adopt education technologies ad hoc. Given education

  7. Big Jobs: Planning for Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nancy P.

    2005-01-01

    Three- to five-year-olds grow emotionally participating in meaningful and challenging physical, social, and problem-solving activities outdoors in an early childhood program on a farm. Caring for animals, planting, raking, shoveling, and engaging in meaningful indoor activities, under adult supervision, children learn to work collaboratively,…

  8. Big Jobs: Planning for Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Nancy P.

    2005-01-01

    Three- to five-year-olds grow emotionally participating in meaningful and challenging physical, social, and problem-solving activities outdoors in an early childhood program on a farm. Caring for animals, planting, raking, shoveling, and engaging in meaningful indoor activities, under adult supervision, children learn to work collaboratively,…

  9. Big Books and Small Marvels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Reader Organisation's Get into Reading programme is all about getting people together in groups to engage with serious books. The groups are mixed and the participants sometimes challenging, but the outcomes are often remarkable. Jane Davis, who founded the Reader Organisation and continues to oversee Get into Reading, has witnessed a massive…

  10. Big Books and Small Marvels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Reader Organisation's Get into Reading programme is all about getting people together in groups to engage with serious books. The groups are mixed and the participants sometimes challenging, but the outcomes are often remarkable. Jane Davis, who founded the Reader Organisation and continues to oversee Get into Reading, has witnessed a massive…

  11. Volume and Value of Big Healthcare Data

    PubMed Central

    Dinov, Ivo D.

    2016-01-01

    Modern scientific inquiries require significant data-driven evidence and trans-disciplinary expertise to extract valuable information and gain actionable knowledge about natural processes. Effective evidence-based decisions require collection, processing and interpretation of vast amounts of complex data. The Moore's and Kryder's laws of exponential increase of computational power and information storage, respectively, dictate the need rapid trans-disciplinary advances, technological innovation and effective mechanisms for managing and interrogating Big Healthcare Data. In this article, we review important aspects of Big Data analytics and discuss important questions like: What are the challenges and opportunities associated with this biomedical, social, and healthcare data avalanche? Are there innovative statistical computing strategies to represent, model, analyze and interpret Big heterogeneous data? We present the foundation of a new compressive big data analytics (CBDA) framework for representation, modeling and inference of large, complex and heterogeneous datasets. Finally, we consider specific directions likely to impact the process of extracting information from Big healthcare data, translating that information to knowledge, and deriving appropriate actions. PMID:26998309

  12. A Review of Big Graph Mining Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atastina, I.; Sitohang, B.; Saptawati, G. A. P.; Moertini, V. S.

    2017-03-01

    Big Graph Mining” is a continuously developing research that was started in 2009 until now. After 7 years, there are many researches that put this topic as the main concern. However, there is no mapping or summary concerning the important issues and solutions to explain this topic. This paper contains a summary of researches that have been conducted since 2009. The result is grouped based on the algorithms, built system and also preprocess techniques that have been developed. Based on survey, there are 11 algorithms and 6 distributed systems to analyse the Big Graph have been improved. While improved pre-process algorithm only covers: sampling and compression technique. These improving algorithms are usually aimed to frequent sub graphs discovery, whereas slightly those of is aimed to cluster Big Graph, and there is no algorithm to classify Big Graph. As a conclusion of this survey, there is a need for more researches to be conducted to improve a comprehensive Graph Mining System, especially for very big Graph.

  13. Volume and Value of Big Healthcare Data.

    PubMed

    Dinov, Ivo D

    Modern scientific inquiries require significant data-driven evidence and trans-disciplinary expertise to extract valuable information and gain actionable knowledge about natural processes. Effective evidence-based decisions require collection, processing and interpretation of vast amounts of complex data. The Moore's and Kryder's laws of exponential increase of computational power and information storage, respectively, dictate the need rapid trans-disciplinary advances, technological innovation and effective mechanisms for managing and interrogating Big Healthcare Data. In this article, we review important aspects of Big Data analytics and discuss important questions like: What are the challenges and opportunities associated with this biomedical, social, and healthcare data avalanche? Are there innovative statistical computing strategies to represent, model, analyze and interpret Big heterogeneous data? We present the foundation of a new compressive big data analytics (CBDA) framework for representation, modeling and inference of large, complex and heterogeneous datasets. Finally, we consider specific directions likely to impact the process of extracting information from Big healthcare data, translating that information to knowledge, and deriving appropriate actions.

  14. Transcriptome marker diagnostics using big data.

    PubMed

    Han, Henry; Liu, Ying

    2016-02-01

    The big omics data are challenging translational bioinformatics in an unprecedented way for its complexities and volumes. How to employ big omics data to achieve a rivalling-clinical, reproducible disease diagnosis from a systems approach is an urgent problem to be solved in translational bioinformatics and machine learning. In this study, the authors propose a novel transcriptome marker diagnosis to tackle this problem using big RNA-seq data by viewing whole transcriptome as a profile marker systematically. The systems diagnosis not only avoids the reproducibility issue of the existing gene-/network-marker-based diagnostic methods, but also achieves rivalling-clinical diagnostic results by extracting true signals from big RNA-seq data. Their method demonstrates a better fit for personalised diagnostics by attaining exceptional diagnostic performance via using systems information than its competitive methods and prepares itself as a good candidate for clinical usage. To the best of their knowledge, it is the first study on this topic and will inspire the more investigations in big omics data diagnostics.

  15. Resources available for autism research in the big data era: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Recently, there has been a move encouraged by many stakeholders towards generating big, open data in many areas of research. One area where big, open data is particularly valuable is in research relating to complex heterogeneous disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The inconsistencies of findings and the great heterogeneity of ASD necessitate the use of big and open data to tackle important challenges such as understanding and defining the heterogeneity and potential subtypes of ASD. To this end, a number of initiatives have been established that aim to develop big and/or open data resources for autism research. In order to provide a useful data reference for autism researchers, a systematic search for ASD data resources was conducted using the Scopus database, the Google search engine, and the pages on ‘recommended repositories’ by key journals, and the findings were translated into a comprehensive list focused on ASD data. The aim of this review is to systematically search for all available ASD data resources providing the following data types: phenotypic, neuroimaging, human brain connectivity matrices, human brain statistical maps, biospecimens, and ASD participant recruitment. A total of 33 resources were found containing different types of data from varying numbers of participants. Description of the data available from each data resource, and links to each resource is provided. Moreover, key implications are addressed and underrepresented areas of data are identified. PMID:28097074

  16. The Big Five personality dimensions and mental health: The mediating role of alexithymia.

    PubMed

    Atari, Mohammad; Yaghoubirad, Mahsa

    2016-12-01

    The role of personality constructs on mental health has attracted research attention in the last few decades. The Big Five personality traits have been introduced as parsimonious dimensions of non-pathological traits. The five-factor model of personality includes neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness to experience. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the Big Five dimensions and mental health considering the mediating role of alexithymia as an important emotional-processing construct. A total of 257 participants were recruited from non-clinical settings in the general population. All participants completed the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine the hypothesized mediated model. Findings indicated that the Big Five personality dimensions could significantly predict scores of alexithymia. Moreover, alexithymia could predict mental health scores as measured by indices of depression, anxiety, social functioning, and somatic symptoms. The fit indices (GFI=0.94; CFI=0.91; TLI=0.90; RMSEA=0.071; CMIN/df=2.29) indicated that the model fits the data. Therefore, the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and mental health is mediated by alexithymia.

  17. Resources available for autism research in the big data era: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Al-Jawahiri, Reem; Milne, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Recently, there has been a move encouraged by many stakeholders towards generating big, open data in many areas of research. One area where big, open data is particularly valuable is in research relating to complex heterogeneous disorders such as Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The inconsistencies of findings and the great heterogeneity of ASD necessitate the use of big and open data to tackle important challenges such as understanding and defining the heterogeneity and potential subtypes of ASD. To this end, a number of initiatives have been established that aim to develop big and/or open data resources for autism research. In order to provide a useful data reference for autism researchers, a systematic search for ASD data resources was conducted using the Scopus database, the Google search engine, and the pages on 'recommended repositories' by key journals, and the findings were translated into a comprehensive list focused on ASD data. The aim of this review is to systematically search for all available ASD data resources providing the following data types: phenotypic, neuroimaging, human brain connectivity matrices, human brain statistical maps, biospecimens, and ASD participant recruitment. A total of 33 resources were found containing different types of data from varying numbers of participants. Description of the data available from each data resource, and links to each resource is provided. Moreover, key implications are addressed and underrepresented areas of data are identified.

  18. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  19. The dominance of big pharma: power.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a normative model for the assessment of the exercise of power by Big Pharma. By drawing on the work of Steven Lukes, it will be argued that while Big Pharma is overtly highly regulated, so that its power is indeed restricted in the interests of patients and the general public, the industry is still able to exercise what Lukes describes as a third dimension of power. This entails concealing the conflicts of interest and grievances that Big Pharma may have with the health care system, physicians and patients, crucially through rhetorical engagements with Patient Advocacy Groups that seek to shape public opinion, and also by marginalising certain groups, excluding them from debates over health care resource allocation. Three issues will be examined: the construction of a conception of the patient as expert patient or consumer; the phenomenon of disease mongering; the suppression or distortion of debates over resource allocation.

  20. Hot big bang or slow freeze?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2014-09-01

    We confront the big bang for the beginning of the universe with an equivalent picture of a slow freeze - a very cold and slowly evolving universe. In the freeze picture the masses of elementary particles increase and the gravitational constant decreases with cosmic time, while the Newtonian attraction remains unchanged. The freeze and big bang pictures both describe the same observations or physical reality. We present a simple “crossover model” without a big bang singularity. In the infinite past space-time is flat. Our model is compatible with present observations, describing the generation of primordial density fluctuations during inflation as well as the present transition to a dark energy-dominated universe.

  1. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  2. Big Sky and Greenhorn Elemental Comparison

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-17

    NASA's Curiosity Mars rover examined both the "Greenhorn" and "Big Sky" targets with the rover's Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument. Greenhorn is located within an altered fracture zone and has an elevated concentration of silica (about 60 percent by weight). Big Sky is the unaltered counterpart for comparison. The bar plot on the left shows scaled concentrations as analyzed by Curiosity's APXS. The bar plot on the right shows what the Big Sky composition would look like if silica (SiO2) and calcium-sulfate (both abumdant in Greenhorn) were added. The similarity in the resulting composition suggests that much of the chemistry of Greenhorn could be explained by the addition of silica. Ongoing research aims to distinguish between that possible explanation for silicon enrichment and an alternative of silicon being left behind when some other elements were removed by acid weathering. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20275

  3. Unsupervised Tensor Mining for Big Data Practitioners.

    PubMed

    Papalexakis, Evangelos E; Faloutsos, Christos

    2016-09-01

    Multiaspect data are ubiquitous in modern Big Data applications. For instance, different aspects of a social network are the different types of communication between people, the time stamp of each interaction, and the location associated to each individual. How can we jointly model all those aspects and leverage the additional information that they introduce to our analysis? Tensors, which are multidimensional extensions of matrices, are a principled and mathematically sound way of modeling such multiaspect data. In this article, our goal is to popularize tensors and tensor decompositions to Big Data practitioners by demonstrating their effectiveness, outlining challenges that pertain to their application in Big Data scenarios, and presenting our recent work that tackles those challenges. We view this work as a step toward a fully automated, unsupervised tensor mining tool that can be easily and broadly adopted by practitioners in academia and industry.

  4. Big Data Analytics for Genomic Medicine

    PubMed Central

    He, Karen Y.; Ge, Dongliang; He, Max M.

    2017-01-01

    Genomic medicine attempts to build individualized strategies for diagnostic or therapeutic decision-making by utilizing patients’ genomic information. Big Data analytics uncovers hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other insights through examining large-scale various data sets. While integration and manipulation of diverse genomic data and comprehensive electronic health records (EHRs) on a Big Data infrastructure exhibit challenges, they also provide a feasible opportunity to develop an efficient and effective approach to identify clinically actionable genetic variants for individualized diagnosis and therapy. In this paper, we review the challenges of manipulating large-scale next-generation sequencing (NGS) data and diverse clinical data derived from the EHRs for genomic medicine. We introduce possible solutions for different challenges in manipulating, managing, and analyzing genomic and clinical data to implement genomic medicine. Additionally, we also present a practical Big Data toolset for identifying clinically actionable genetic variants using high-throughput NGS data and EHRs. PMID:28212287

  5. The caBIG Terminology Review Process

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Hayamizu, Terry F.; Bodenreider, Olivier; Davis, Brian; Stafford, Grace A.; Ringwald, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is developing an integrated biomedical informatics infrastructure, the cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®), to support collaboration within the cancer research community. A key part of the caBIG architecture is the establishment of terminology standards for representing data. In order to evaluate the suitability of existing controlled terminologies, the caBIG Vocabulary and Data Elements Workspace (VCDE WS) working group has developed a set of criteria that serve to assess a terminology's structure, content, documentation, and editorial process. This paper describes the evolution of these criteria and the results of their use in evaluating four standard terminologies: the Gene Ontology (GO), the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt), the Common Terminology for Adverse Events (known as CTCAE), and the laboratory portion of the Logical Objects, Identifiers, Names and Codes (LOINC). The resulting caBIG criteria are presented as a matrix that may be applicable to any terminology standardization effort. PMID:19154797

  6. Big data in food safety: An overview.

    PubMed

    Marvin, Hans J P; Janssen, Esmée M; Bouzembrak, Yamine; Hendriksen, Peter J M; Staats, Martijn

    2017-07-24

    Technology is now being developed that is able to handle vast amounts of structured and unstructured data from diverse sources and origins. These technologies are often referred to as big data, and open new areas of research and applications that will have an increasing impact in all sectors of our society. In this paper we assessed to which extent big data is being applied in the food safety domain and identified several promising trends. In several parts of the world, governments stimulate the publication on internet of all data generated in public funded research projects. This policy opens new opportunities for stakeholders dealing with food safety to address issues which were not possible before. Application of mobile phones as detection devices for food safety and the use of social media as early warning of food safety problems are a few examples of the new developments that are possible due to big data.

  7. Big Science and the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2012-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the particle accelerator operating at CERN, is probably the most complex and ambitious scientific project ever accomplished by humanity. The sheer size of the enterprise, in terms of financial and human resources, naturally raises the question whether society should support such costly basic-research programs. I address this question by first reviewing the process that led to the emergence of Big Science and the role of large projects in the development of science and technology. I then compare the methodologies of Small and Big Science, emphasizing their mutual linkage. Finally, after examining the cost of Big Science projects, I highlight several general aspects of their beneficial implications for society.

  8. Big Data Analytics for Genomic Medicine.

    PubMed

    He, Karen Y; Ge, Dongliang; He, Max M

    2017-02-15

    Genomic medicine attempts to build individualized strategies for diagnostic or therapeutic decision-making by utilizing patients' genomic information. Big Data analytics uncovers hidden patterns, unknown correlations, and other insights through examining large-scale various data sets. While integration and manipulation of diverse genomic data and comprehensive electronic health records (EHRs) on a Big Data infrastructure exhibit challenges, they also provide a feasible opportunity to develop an efficient and effective approach to identify clinically actionable genetic variants for individualized diagnosis and therapy. In this paper, we review the challenges of manipulating large-scale next-generation sequencing (NGS) data and diverse clinical data derived from the EHRs for genomic medicine. We introduce possible solutions for different challenges in manipulating, managing, and analyzing genomic and clinical data to implement genomic medicine. Additionally, we also present a practical Big Data toolset for identifying clinically actionable genetic variants using high-throughput NGS data and EHRs.

  9. Big Data in Designing Clinical Trials: Opportunities and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Charles S.; Matuszak, Martha M.; Schipper, Matthew J.; Jolly, Shruti; Hayman, James A.; Ten Haken, Randall K.

    2017-01-01

    Emergence of big data analytics resource systems (BDARSs) as a part of routine practice in Radiation Oncology is on the horizon. Gradually, individual researchers, vendors, and professional societies are leading initiatives to create and demonstrate use of automated systems. What are the implications for design of clinical trials, as these systems emerge? Gold standard, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have high internal validity for the patients and settings fitting constraints of the trial, but also have limitations including: reproducibility, generalizability to routine practice, infrequent external validation, selection bias, characterization of confounding factors, ethics, and use for rare events. BDARS present opportunities to augment and extend RCTs. Preliminary modeling using single- and muti-institutional BDARS may lead to better design and less cost. Standardizations in data elements, clinical processes, and nomenclatures used to decrease variability and increase veracity needed for automation and multi-institutional data pooling in BDARS also support ability to add clinical validation phases to clinical trial design and increase participation. However, volume and variety in BDARS present other technical, policy, and conceptual challenges including applicable statistical concepts, cloud-based technologies. In this summary, we will examine both the opportunities and the challenges for use of big data in design of clinical trials. PMID:28913177

  10. Cosmic inflation and big bang interpreted as explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebhan, E.

    2012-12-01

    It has become common understanding that the recession of galaxies and the corresponding redshift of light received from them can only be explained by an expansion of the space between them and us. In this paper, for the presently favored case of a universe without spatial curvature, it is shown that this interpretation is restricted to comoving coordinates. It is proven by construction that within the framework of general relativity other coordinates exist in relation to which these phenomena can be explained by a motion of the cosmic substrate across space, caused by an explosionlike big bang or by inflation preceding an almost big bang. At the place of an observer, this motion occurs without any spatial expansion. It is shown that in these “explosion coordinates” the usual redshift comes about by a Doppler shift and a subsequent gravitational shift. Making use of this interpretation, it can easily be understood why in comoving coordinates light rays of short spatial extension expand and thus constitute an exemption from the rule that small objects up to the size of the solar system or even galaxies do not participate in the expansion of the universe. It is also discussed how the two interpretations can be reconciled with each other.

  11. How quantum is the big bang?

    PubMed

    Bojowald, Martin

    2008-06-06

    When quantum gravity is used to discuss the big bang singularity, the most important, though rarely addressed, question is what role genuine quantum degrees of freedom play. Here, complete effective equations are derived for isotropic models with an interacting scalar to all orders in the expansions involved. The resulting coupling terms show that quantum fluctuations do not affect the bounce much. Quantum correlations, however, do have an important role and could even eliminate the bounce. How quantum gravity regularizes the big bang depends crucially on properties of the quantum state.

  12. Effective dynamics of the matrix big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Craps, Ben; Rajaraman, Arvind; Sethi, Savdeep

    2006-05-15

    We study the leading quantum effects in the recently introduced matrix big bang model. This amounts to a study of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory compactified on the Milne orbifold. We find a one-loop potential that is attractive near the big bang. Surprisingly, the potential decays very rapidly at late times where it appears to be generated by D-brane effects. Usually, general covariance constrains the form of any effective action generated by renormalization group flow. However, the form of our one-loop potential seems to violate these constraints in a manner that suggests a connection between the cosmological singularity and long wavelength, late time physics.

  13. Livermore Big Trees Park: 1998 Results

    SciTech Connect

    Mac Queen, D; Gallegos, G; Surano, K

    2002-04-18

    This report is an in-depth study of results from environmental sampling conducted in 1998 by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at Big Trees Park in the city of Livermore. The purpose of the sampling was to determine the extent and origin of plutonium found in soil at concentrations above fallout-background levels in the park. This report describes the sampling that was conducted, the chemical and radio-chemical analyses of the samples, the quality control assessments and statistical analyses of the analytical results, and LLNL's interpretations of the results. It includes a number of data analyses not presented in LLNL's previous reports on Big Trees Park.

  14. Harnessing the Heart of Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Scruggs, Sarah B.; Watson, Karol; Su, Andrew I.; Hermjakob, Henning; Yates, John R.; Lindsey, Merry L.; Ping, Peipei

    2015-01-01

    The exponential increase in Big Data generation combined with limited capitalization on the wealth of information embedded within Big Data have prompted us to revisit our scientific discovery paradigms. A successful transition into this digital era of medicine holds great promise for advancing fundamental knowledge in biology, innovating human health and driving personalized medicine, however, this will require a drastic shift of research culture in how we conceptualize science and use data. An e-transformation will require global adoption and synergism among computational science, biomedical research and clinical domains. PMID:25814682

  15. New physics and the new big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P.

    1985-11-01

    The old concept of the big bang is reviewed, and modifications that have recently occurred in the theory are described. The concept of the false vacuum is explained, and its role in the cosmic inflation scenario is shown. The way inflation solves critical problems of the old big bang scenario is indicated. The potential of supersymmetry and Kaluza-Klein theories for the development of a superunified theory of physical forces is discussed. Superstrings and their possible role in a superunified theory, including their usefulness in solving the problem of infinities, is considered.

  16. The origin of the big-bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, R. K.

    1992-04-01

    A singularity-free model of the universe is developed within the framework of the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker cosmology, which gives a physical explanation for the origin of the big bang and for the preponderance of matter over antimatter. It is shown that the model retains all the useful features of the standard-cosmology (Weinberg, 1972; Sandage, 1988) hot big-bang (HBB) model and resolves, in a very natural way, all the difficulties of the HBB model, such as the occurrence of space-time singularity. The new model also resolves the problem of the baryon asymmetry and can accont for the currently observed value of nu.

  17. Big Data for cardiology: novel discovery?

    PubMed

    Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor

    2016-03-21

    Big Data promises to change cardiology through a massive increase in the data gathered and analysed; but its impact goes beyond improving incrementally existing methods. The potential of comprehensive data sets for scientific discovery is examined, and its impact on the scientific method generally and cardiology in particular is posited, together with likely consequences for research and practice. Big Data in cardiology changes how new insights are being discovered. For it to flourish, significant modifications in the methods, structures, and institutions of the profession are necessary. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. How do we identify big rivers? And how big is big?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miall, Andrew D.

    2006-04-01

    "Big rivers" are the trunk rivers that carry the water and sediment load from major orogens, or that drain large areas of a continent. Identifying such rivers in the ancient record is a challenge. Some guidance may be provided by tectonic setting and sedimentological evidence, including the scale of architectural elements, and clues from provenance studies, but such data are not infallible guides to river magnitude. The scale of depositional elements is the most obvious clue to channel size, but evidence is typically sparse and inadequate, and may be misleading. For example, thick fining-upward successions may be tectonic cyclothems. Two examples of the analysis of large ancient river systems are discussed here in order to highlight problems of methodology and interpretation. The Hawkesbury Sandstone (Triassic) of the Sydney Basin, Australia, is commonly cited as the deposit of a large river, on the basis of abundant very large-scale crossbedding. An examination of very large outcrops of this unit, including a coastal cliff section 6 km long near Sydney, showed that even with 100% exposure there are ambiguities in the determination of channel scale. It was concluded in this case that the channel dimensions of the Hawkesbury rivers were about half the size of the modern Brahmaputra River. The tectonic setting of a major ancient fluvial system is commonly not a useful clue to river scale. The Hawkesbury Sandstone is a system draining transversely from a cratonic source into a foreland basin, whereas most large rivers in foreland basins flow axially and are derived mainly from the orogenic uplifts (e.g., the large tidally influenced rivers of the Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta). Epeirogenic tilting of a continent by the dynamic topography process may generate drainages in unexpected directions. For example, analyses of detrital zircons in Upper Paleozoic-Mesozoic nonmarine successions in the SW United States suggests significant derivation from the Appalachian orogen

  19. Are youth mentoring programs good value-for-money? An evaluation of the Big Brothers Big Sisters Melbourne Program.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Marjory L; Fisher, Jane

    2009-01-30

    The Big Brothers Big Sisters (BBBS) program matches vulnerable young people with a trained, supervised adult volunteer as mentor. The young people are typically seriously disadvantaged, with multiple psychosocial problems. Threshold analysis was undertaken to determine whether investment in the program was a worthwhile use of limited public funds. The potential cost savings were based on US estimates of life-time costs associated with high-risk youth who drop out-of-school and become adult criminals. The intervention was modelled for children aged 10-14 years residing in Melbourne in 2004. If the program serviced 2,208 of the most vulnerable young people, it would cost AUD 39.5 M. Assuming 50% were high-risk, the associated costs of their adult criminality would be AUD 3.3 billion. To break even, the program would need to avert high-risk behaviours in only 1.3% (14/1,104) of participants. This indicative evaluation suggests that the BBBS program represents excellent 'value for money'.

  20. Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241-mile transmission corridor extending between the Big Creek Hydroelectric System in the Sierra National Forest in Fresno County and the Eagle Rock Substation in Los Angeles, California, Visalia, Tulare County, CA

  1. AirMSPI PODEX BigSur Terrain Images

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-12-13

    ... Browse Images from the PODEX 2013 Campaign   Big Sur target (Big Sur, California) 02/03/2013 Terrain-projected   Select ...   Version number   For more information, see the Data Product Specifications (DPS)   ...

  2. Opportunity and Challenges for Migrating Big Data Analytics in Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amitkumar Manekar, S.; Pradeepini, G., Dr.

    2017-08-01

    Big Data Analytics is a big word now days. As per demanding and more scalable process data generation capabilities, data acquisition and storage become a crucial issue. Cloud storage is a majorly usable platform; the technology will become crucial to executives handling data powered by analytics. Now a day’s trend towards “big data-as-a-service” is talked everywhere. On one hand, cloud-based big data analytics exactly tackle in progress issues of scale, speed, and cost. But researchers working to solve security and other real-time problem of big data migration on cloud based platform. This article specially focused on finding possible ways to migrate big data to cloud. Technology which support coherent data migration and possibility of doing big data analytics on cloud platform is demanding in natute for new era of growth. This article also gives information about available technology and techniques for migration of big data in cloud.

  3. Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163888.html Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy The sometimes ... each, the researchers found. Costs are also a big concern. In 2013, the United States spent $75 ...

  4. Retrospective evaluation of the BIG score to predict mortality in pediatric blunt trauma.

    PubMed

    Grandjean-Blanchet, Charlotte; Emeriaud, Guillaume; Beaudin, Marianne; Gravel, Jocelyn

    2017-08-14

    This study's objective was to measure the criterion validity of the BIG score (a new pediatric trauma score composed of the initial base deficit [BD], international normalized ratio [INR], and Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS]) to predict in-hospital mortality among children admitted to the emergency department with blunt trauma requiring an admission to the intensive care unit, knowing that a score <16 identifies children with a high probability of survival. This was a retrospective cohort study performed in a single tertiary care pediatric hospital between 2008 and 2016. Participants were all children admitted to the emergency department for a blunt trauma requiring intensive care unit admission or who died in the emergency department. The primary analysis was the association between a BIG score ≥16 and in-hospital mortality. Twenty-eight children died among the 336 who met the inclusion criteria. Two hundred eighty-four children had information on the three components of the BIG score, and they were included in the primary analysis. A BIG score ≥16 demonstrated a sensitivity of 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.76-0.98) and specificity of 0.83 (95% CI: 0.78-0.87) to identify mortality. Using receiver operating characteristic curves, the area under the curve was higher for the BIG score (0.97; 95% IC: 0.95-0.99) in comparison to the Injury Severity Score (0.78; 95% IC: 0.71-0.85). In this retrospective cohort, the BIG score was an excellent predictor of survival for children admitted to the emergency department following a blunt trauma.

  5. BigMouth: a multi-institutional dental data repository

    PubMed Central

    Walji, Muhammad F; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Stark, Paul C; White, Joel M; Kookal, Krishna K; Phan, Dat; Tran, Duong; Bernstam, Elmer V; Ramoni, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Few oral health databases are available for research and the advancement of evidence-based dentistry. In this work we developed a centralized data repository derived from electronic health records (EHRs) at four dental schools participating in the Consortium of Oral Health Research and Informatics. A multi-stakeholder committee developed a data governance framework that encouraged data sharing while allowing control of contributed data. We adopted the i2b2 data warehousing platform and mapped data from each institution to a common reference terminology. We realized that dental EHRs urgently need to adopt common terminologies. While all used the same treatment code set, only three of the four sites used a common diagnostic terminology, and there were wide discrepancies in how medical and dental histories were documented. BigMouth was successfully launched in August 2012 with data on 1.1 million patients, and made available to users at the contributing institutions. PMID:24993547

  6. Maintenance of Certification: Big Brother or Responsible Regulation?

    PubMed Central

    Rainsberry, R. Paul N.

    1984-01-01

    From a beginning of providing continuing education where there was none, the College of Family Physicians of Canada, in 30 years, has created a system of study credits, a certification process, and now a maintenance of certification process individually tailored to the participant's practice. Every five years certificants can identify learning needs, evaulate the results of a pre- and post-test, and structure a program of continuing education to meet specific needs. They are required only to participate—not to reach a predetermined standard. Few other non-punitive methods can be this specific. The Maintenance of Certification Program is a prevention of the Big Brother syndrome, rather than a manifestation of it. PMID:20469424

  7. BigMouth: a multi-institutional dental data repository.

    PubMed

    Walji, Muhammad F; Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Stark, Paul C; White, Joel M; Kookal, Krishna K; Phan, Dat; Tran, Duong; Bernstam, Elmer V; Ramoni, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Few oral health databases are available for research and the advancement of evidence-based dentistry. In this work we developed a centralized data repository derived from electronic health records (EHRs) at four dental schools participating in the Consortium of Oral Health Research and Informatics. A multi-stakeholder committee developed a data governance framework that encouraged data sharing while allowing control of contributed data. We adopted the i2b2 data warehousing platform and mapped data from each institution to a common reference terminology. We realized that dental EHRs urgently need to adopt common terminologies. While all used the same treatment code set, only three of the four sites used a common diagnostic terminology, and there were wide discrepancies in how medical and dental histories were documented. BigMouth was successfully launched in August 2012 with data on 1.1 million patients, and made available to users at the contributing institutions.

  8. Financing Big City Schools: Some Possible Breakthroughs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marland, S.P., Jr.

    Among the many factors contributing to the crisis in big-city school finance are (1) the in-migration of the poor to the cities accompanied by the out-migration of the higher-income people; (2) higher teacher salaries; (3) the new mandates placed on schools such as cradle-to-grave accomodation in educational opportunities, manpower retraining,…

  9. Big Gods: Extended prosociality or group binding?

    PubMed

    Galen, Luke W

    2016-01-01

    Big Gods are described as having a "prosocial" effect. However, this conflates parochialism (group cohesion) with cooperation extended to strangers or out-group members. An examination of the cited experimental studies indicates that religion is actually associated with increased within-group parochialism, rather than extended or universal prosociality, and that the same general mechanisms underlie both religious and secular effects.

  10. Big-Time Sports in American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    For almost a century, big-time college sports has been a wildly popular but consistently problematic part of American higher education. The challenges it poses to traditional academic values have been recognized from the start, but they have grown more ominous in recent decades, as cable television has become ubiquitous, commercial opportunities…

  11. Big Broadband Connectivity in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windhausen, John, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The economic and social future of the United States depends on answering the growing demand for very high-speed broadband connectivity, a capability termed "big broadband." Failure to take on the challenge could lead to a decline in global competitiveness and an inability to educate students. (Contains 20 notes.)

  12. Reseeding big sagebrush: Techniques and issues

    Treesearch

    Nancy L. Shaw; Ann M. DeBolt; Roger Rosentreter

    2005-01-01

    Reestablishing big sagebrush on rangelands now dominated by native perennial grasses, introduced perennial grasses, or exotic annual grasses, particularly cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), serves to stabilize soil, improve moisture availability and nutrient recyling, increase biological diversity, and foster community stability and resiliency. A first...

  13. Big physics quartet win government backing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Four major physics-based projects are among 10 to have been selected by Japan’s Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology for funding in the coming decade as part of its “roadmap” of big-science projects.

  14. Seeding big sagebrush successfully on Intermountain rangelands

    Treesearch

    Susan E. Meyer; Thomas W. Warren

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush can be seeded successfully on climatically suitable sites in the Great Basin using the proper seeding guidelines. These guidelines include using sufficient quantities of high-quality seed of the correct subspecies and ecotype, seeding in late fall to mid-winter, making sure that the seed is not planted too deeply, and seeding into an environment...

  15. The BigHorn Home Improvement Center

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The BigHorn Home Improvement Center is one of the nation's first commercial buildings to integrate daylighting and natural ventilation cooling systems into a retail space. It is expected to reduce energy costs by 62% compared to conventionally designed retail buildings.

  16. Stalin’s Big-Fleet Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    the Dunkerque class. Italy reacted by pushing the construction of its first thirty-five-thousand-ton battleship, the Vittorio Veneto . In 1935 France...Soviets to prepare plans for a forty-two-thousand-ton bat- tleship, similar to the Vittorio Veneto class.48 The first draft of a comprehensive big-fleet

  17. Treatment Integrity: Revisiting Some Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwood, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    The contributors to this special issue have helped everyone consider the next steps in building a research and practice agenda regarding the use of treatment integrity. Such an agenda must converge with the big ideas that link treatment integrity to the effectiveness of evidence-based practices (EBPs), and ultimately that of the profession. In…

  18. "Big data" and the electronic health record.

    PubMed

    Ross, M K; Wei, W; Ohno-Machado, L

    2014-08-15

    Implementation of Electronic Health Record (EHR) systems continues to expand. The massive number of patient encounters results in high amounts of stored data. Transforming clinical data into knowledge to improve patient care has been the goal of biomedical informatics professionals for many decades, and this work is now increasingly recognized outside our field. In reviewing the literature for the past three years, we focus on "big data" in the context of EHR systems and we report on some examples of how secondary use of data has been put into practice. We searched PubMed database for articles from January 1, 2011 to November 1, 2013. We initiated the search with keywords related to "big data" and EHR. We identified relevant articles and additional keywords from the retrieved articles were added. Based on the new keywords, more articles were retrieved and we manually narrowed down the set utilizing predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Our final review includes articles categorized into the themes of data mining (pharmacovigilance, phenotyping, natural language processing), data application and integration (clinical decision support, personal monitoring, social media), and privacy and security. The increasing adoption of EHR systems worldwide makes it possible to capture large amounts of clinical data. There is an increasing number of articles addressing the theme of "big data", and the concepts associated with these articles vary. The next step is to transform healthcare big data into actionable knowledge.

  19. Big-Time Fundraising for Today's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    In this enlightening book, nationally recognized author and fundraising consultant Stanley Levenson shows school leaders how to move away from labor-intensive, nickel-and-dime bake sales and car washes, and into the world of big-time fundraising. Following the model used by colleges and universities, the author presents a wealth of practical…

  20. Big Bubbles in Boiling Liquids: Students' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costu, Bayram

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elicit students' conceptions about big bubbles in boiling liquids (water, ethanol and aqueous CuSO[subscript 4] solution). The study is based on twenty-four students at different ages and grades. The clinical interviews technique was conducted to solicit students' conceptions and the interviews were analyzed to…

  1. Challenges of Big Data in Educational Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David C.; Webb, Mary; Ifenthaler, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses four measurement challenges of data science or "big data" in educational assessments that are enabled by technology: 1. Dealing with change over time via time-based data. 2. How a digital performance space's relationships interact with learner actions, communications and products. 3. How layers of…

  2. Marketing Your Library with the Big Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Read was developed by the National Endowment for the Arts to revitalize the role of culture in American society and encourage the reading of landmark literature. Each year since 2007, the DeKalb Public Library, Northern Illinois University, and Kishwaukee Community College have partnered to foster literacy in the community. This article…

  3. The Lure of the Big Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky, Ira W.; Rudiger, Charles W.

    1991-01-01

    Despite all the horror stories about big-city politics, diminishing resources, and pressure-cooker workloads, urban superintendencies continue to attract a certain breed of men and women. Frequently cited reasons include the challenge, sophistication, complexity, resources, diversity, people, visibility, and compensation associated with the job.…

  4. Science Literacy Circles: Big Ideas about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devick-Fry, Jane; LeSage, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Science literacy circles incorporate the organization of both science notebooks and literature circles to help K-8 students internalize big ideas about science. Using science literacy circles gives students opportunities to engage in critical thinking as they inductively develop understanding about science concepts. (Contains 1 table and 7…

  5. Big-Time Fundraising for Today's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Stanley

    2006-01-01

    In this enlightening book, nationally recognized author and fundraising consultant Stanley Levenson shows school leaders how to move away from labor-intensive, nickel-and-dime bake sales and car washes, and into the world of big-time fundraising. Following the model used by colleges and universities, the author presents a wealth of practical…

  6. Marketing Your Library with the Big Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Read was developed by the National Endowment for the Arts to revitalize the role of culture in American society and encourage the reading of landmark literature. Each year since 2007, the DeKalb Public Library, Northern Illinois University, and Kishwaukee Community College have partnered to foster literacy in the community. This article…

  7. Big Bubbles in Boiling Liquids: Students' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costu, Bayram

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elicit students' conceptions about big bubbles in boiling liquids (water, ethanol and aqueous CuSO[subscript 4] solution). The study is based on twenty-four students at different ages and grades. The clinical interviews technique was conducted to solicit students' conceptions and the interviews were analyzed to…

  8. The Big Ideas behind Whole System Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Whole system reform means that every vital part of the system--school, community, district, and government--contributes individually and in concert to forward movement and success, using practice, not research, as the driver of reform. With this in mind, several "big ideas", based on successful implementation, informed Ontario's reform…

  9. Big trees of the Midsouth Forest Survey

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1990-01-01

    Forestry agencies and associations across the country maintain registers of champion big trees.Listings of the biggest trees encountered on the USDA Forest Service's continuing survey of the forest lands of seven Midsouth States have been prepared.The listings report the biggest trees encountered by species for each State and the Midsouth region.These listings...

  10. Big-Time Sports in American Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    For almost a century, big-time college sports has been a wildly popular but consistently problematic part of American higher education. The challenges it poses to traditional academic values have been recognized from the start, but they have grown more ominous in recent decades, as cable television has become ubiquitous, commercial opportunities…

  11. Big Broadband Connectivity in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windhausen, John, Jr.

    2008-01-01

    The economic and social future of the United States depends on answering the growing demand for very high-speed broadband connectivity, a capability termed "big broadband." Failure to take on the challenge could lead to a decline in global competitiveness and an inability to educate students. (Contains 20 notes.)

  12. Big Data Cognition for City Emergency Rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xin; Chen, Yongxin; Wang, Weisheng

    2016-11-01

    There are many kinds of data produced in the city daily life, which operates as an elementary component of the citizen life support system. The city unexpected incidents occurs in a seemingly unpredictable patterns. With the Big Data analysis the emergency rescue can be carried out efficiently. In this paper, the Big Data cognition for city emergency rescue is studied from four perspectives. From the data volume perspective, the spatial data analysis technology is divided into two parts, the indoor data and the outdoor data. From the data velocity perspective, the big data is collected from the eyes in the sky and objects on-the-ground networks, together with demographic data. From the data variety analysis perspective, the population distribution data, the socio-economic data and model estimates are included. From the data value mining perspective, the crime model estimates are studied. In the end, the application in the big public venues emergency rescue is introduced, which is located in Urumqi, Xinjiang, China.

  13. Big Island Demonstration Project - Black Liquor

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-01

    Black liquor is a papermaking byproduct that also serves as a fuel for pulp and paper mills. This project involves the design, construction, and operation of a black liquor gasifier that will be integrated into Georgia-Pacific's Big Island facility in Virginia, a mill that has been in operation for more than 100 years.

  14. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a…

  15. Big Ideas in Primary Mathematics: Issues and Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This article is located within the literature arguing for attention to Big Ideas in teaching and learning mathematics for understanding. The focus is on surveying the literature of Big Ideas and clarifying what might constitute Big Ideas in the primary Mathematics Curriculum based on both theoretical and pragmatic considerations. This is…

  16. 16. AERIAL VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM TAKEN ON 2161962 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. AERIAL VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM TAKEN ON 2-16-1962 BY L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS PHOTOGRAPHER SINGER. PHOTO SHOWS THE RESERVOIR NEAR FULL CAPACITY AND WATER BEING RELEASED ON THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR FULL CAPACITY AFTER CONSTRUCTION. PICTURE WAS DEVELOPED FROM COPY NEGATIVES WHICH WERE TAKEN ON 2-15-1973 BY PHOTOGRAPHER D. MEIER OF L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 15. AERIAL VIEW OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM TAKEN ON FEBRUARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. AERIAL VIEW OF BIG TUJUNGA DAM TAKEN ON FEBRUARY 17, 1962, BY L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS PHOTOGRAPHER WEBB. PHOTO SHOWS THE RESERVOIR NEAR FULL CAPACITY AND WATER BEING RELEASED ON THE DOWNSTREAM SIDE. - Big Tujunga Dam, 809 West Big Tujunga Road, Sunland, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata spp vaseyana) seed production

    Treesearch

    Melissa L. Landeen

    2015-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) is the most widespread and common shrub in the sagebrush biome of western North America. Of the three most common subspecies of big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), mountain big sagebrush (ssp. vaseyana; MBS) is the most resilient to disturbance, but still requires favorable climactic conditions and a viable post-...

  20. View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of New Big Oak Flat Road seen from Old Wawona Road near location of photograph HAER CA-148-17. Note road cuts, alignment, and tunnels. Devils Dance Floor at left distance. Looking northwest - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  1. New Evidence on the Development of the Word "Big."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sena, Rhonda; Smith, Linda B.

    1990-01-01

    Results indicate that curvilinear trend in children's understanding of word "big" is not obtained in all stimulus contexts. This suggests that meaning and use of "big" is complex, and may not refer simply to larger objects in a set. Proposes that meaning of "big" constitutes a dynamic system driven by many perceptual,…

  2. 9. View from middle adit Wawona Tunnel of Big Oak ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View from middle adit Wawona Tunnel of Big Oak Flat Road with retaining walls at lower left and center left with east portal of tunnel #1. - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  3. 75 FR 71069 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming... December 1, 2010, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County...

  4. 7. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE MULTIPLE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. SOUTHEAST VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE MULTIPLE ARCHES, AN UPSTREAM VIEW OF THE PARAPET WALL ALONG THE CREST OF THE DAM, AND THE SHELTER HOUSE AT THE EAST END OF THE DAM. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. Big Ideas in Primary Mathematics: Issues and Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Mike

    2013-01-01

    This article is located within the literature arguing for attention to Big Ideas in teaching and learning mathematics for understanding. The focus is on surveying the literature of Big Ideas and clarifying what might constitute Big Ideas in the primary Mathematics Curriculum based on both theoretical and pragmatic considerations. This is…

  6. West Virginia's big trees: setting the record straight

    Treesearch

    Melissa Thomas-Van Gundy; Robert. Whetsell

    2016-01-01

    People love big trees, people love to find big trees, and people love to find big trees in the place they call home. Having been suspicious for years, my coauthor and historian Rob Whetsell, approached me with a species identification challenge. There are several photographs of giant trees used by many people to illustrate the past forests of West Virginia,...

  7. Big Data Analytics Methodology in the Financial Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, James; Joseph, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Firms in industry continue to be attracted by the benefits of Big Data Analytics. The benefits of Big Data Analytics projects may not be as evident as frequently indicated in the literature. The authors of the study evaluate factors in a customized methodology that may increase the benefits of Big Data Analytics projects. Evaluating firms in the…

  8. A Big Data Analytics Methodology Program in the Health Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, James; Joseph, Anthony; Howell-Barber, H.

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of Big Data Analytics are cited frequently in the literature. However, the difficulties of implementing Big Data Analytics can limit the number of organizational projects. In this study, the authors evaluate business, procedural and technical factors in the implementation of Big Data Analytics, applying a methodology program. Focusing…

  9. 76 FR 7810 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Lovell, Wyoming..., 2011, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn Federal Savings...

  10. 76 FR 26240 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming..., 2011, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County Weed and...

  11. Sports and the Big6: The Information Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Mike

    1997-01-01

    Explores the connection between sports and the Big6 information problem-solving process and how sports provides an ideal setting for learning and teaching about the Big6. Topics include information aspects of baseball, football, soccer, basketball, figure skating, track and field, and golf; and the Big6 process applied to sports. (LRW)

  12. ["Big data" - large data, a lot of knowledge?].

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Torsten

    2015-01-28

    Since a couple of years, the term Big Data describes technologies to extract knowledge from data. Applications of Big Data and their consequences are also increasingly discussed in the mass media. Because medicine is an empirical science, we discuss the meaning of Big Data and its potential for future medical research.

  13. 76 FR 7837 - Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Big Rivers Electric Corporation; Notice of Filing Take notice that on February 4, 2011, Big Rivers Electric Corporation (Big Rivers) filed a notice of cancellation of its...

  14. Big data - a 21st century science Maginot Line? No-boundary thinking: shifting from the big data paradigm.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiuzhen; Jennings, Steven F; Bruce, Barry; Buchan, Alison; Cai, Liming; Chen, Pengyin; Cramer, Carole L; Guan, Weihua; Hilgert, Uwe Kk; Jiang, Hongmei; Li, Zenglu; McClure, Gail; McMullen, Donald F; Nanduri, Bindu; Perkins, Andy; Rekepalli, Bhanu; Salem, Saeed; Specker, Jennifer; Walker, Karl; Wunsch, Donald; Xiong, Donghai; Zhang, Shuzhong; Zhang, Yu; Zhao, Zhongming; Moore, Jason H

    2015-01-01

    Whether your interests lie in scientific arenas, the corporate world, or in government, you have certainly heard the praises of big data: Big data will give you new insights, allow you to become more efficient, and/or will solve your problems. While big data has had some outstanding successes, many are now beginning to see that it is not the Silver Bullet that it has been touted to be. Here our main concern is the overall impact of big data; the current manifestation of big data is constructing a Maginot Line in science in the 21st century. Big data is not "lots of data" as a phenomena anymore; The big data paradigm is putting the spirit of the Maginot Line into lots of data. Big data overall is disconnecting researchers and science challenges. We propose No-Boundary Thinking (NBT), applying no-boundary thinking in problem defining to address science challenges.

  15. WBP: The wood Brazilian BIG-GT demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Carpentieri, E.

    1993-12-31

    Brazil is one of the leading countries in the use of renewable energy. Most of its electricity comes from hydro power, about 200,000 barrels a day of ethanol from sugar cane is used as fuel, around 38% of the pig iron, and 20% of the steel production, uses charcoal as a reducing medium. Located in the tropics, with the sun shining all year round, and with its vast territory, the Country may be regarded as having all the basic conditions to develop a modern Biomass for Electricity industry. The conjunction of those characteristics with, the necessity of developing new energy resources for electricity production in the Northeast of the Country, the results of the studies made by Princeton University, Shell and Chesf, the progress achieved by the BIG-GT (Biomass Integrated Gasification Gas Turbine) technology in Europe, and the organization of the Global Environment Facility (GEF), provided the unique opportunity for the implementation of a commercial demonstration in Brazil. This paper describes the idea, the scope, the technical challenges, and actual status of development of the WBP, a project which aims to demonstrate the commercial viability of the BIG-GT technology. It also highlights, the project management structure, the role of the GEF, World Bank and of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), and the participation of the Brazilian Federal Government, through the Ministry of Science and Technology (MCT). Finally it describes the Participants (ELETROBRAS, CVRD, CIENTEC, SHELL, and CHESF), their role in the project, and how the group was formed and operates.

  16. Big Crater as Viewed by Pathfinder Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The 'Big Crater' is actually a relatively small Martian crater to the southeast of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. It is 1500 meters (4900 feet) in diameter, or about the same size as Meteor Crater in Arizona. Superimposed on the rim of Big Crater (the central part of the rim as seen here) is a smaller crater nicknamed 'Rimshot Crater.' The distance to this smaller crater, and the nearest portion of the rim of Big Crater, is 2200 meters (7200 feet). To the right of Big Crater, south from the spacecraft, almost lost in the atmospheric dust 'haze,' is the large streamlined mountain nicknamed 'Far Knob.' This mountain is over 450 meters (1480 feet) tall, and is over 30 kilometers (19 miles) from the spacecraft. Another, smaller and closer knob, nicknamed 'Southeast Knob' can be seen as a triangular peak to the left of the flanks of the Big Crater rim. This knob is 21 kilometers (13 miles) southeast from the spacecraft.

    The larger features visible in this scene - Big Crater, Far Knob, and Southeast Knob - were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the 4th of July, 1997, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken over 20 years ago. The scene includes rocky ridges and swales or 'hummocks' of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of South Twin Peak. The largest rock in the nearfield, just left of center in the foreground, nicknamed 'Otter', is about 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) long and 10 meters (33 feet) from the spacecraft.

    This view of Big Crater was produced by combining 6 individual 'Superpan' scenes from the left and right eyes of the IMP camera. Each frame consists of 8 individual frames (left eye) and 7 frames (right eye) taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA

  17. Big Crater as Viewed by Pathfinder Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The 'Big Crater' is actually a relatively small Martian crater to the southeast of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. It is 1500 meters (4900 feet) in diameter, or about the same size as Meteor Crater in Arizona. Superimposed on the rim of Big Crater (the central part of the rim as seen here) is a smaller crater nicknamed 'Rimshot Crater.' The distance to this smaller crater, and the nearest portion of the rim of Big Crater, is 2200 meters (7200 feet). To the right of Big Crater, south from the spacecraft, almost lost in the atmospheric dust 'haze,' is the large streamlined mountain nicknamed 'Far Knob.' This mountain is over 450 meters (1480 feet) tall, and is over 30 kilometers (19 miles) from the spacecraft. Another, smaller and closer knob, nicknamed 'Southeast Knob' can be seen as a triangular peak to the left of the flanks of the Big Crater rim. This knob is 21 kilometers (13 miles) southeast from the spacecraft.

    The larger features visible in this scene - Big Crater, Far Knob, and Southeast Knob - were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the 4th of July, 1997, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken over 20 years ago. The scene includes rocky ridges and swales or 'hummocks' of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of South Twin Peak. The largest rock in the nearfield, just left of center in the foreground, nicknamed 'Otter', is about 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) long and 10 meters (33 feet) from the spacecraft.

    This view of Big Crater was produced by combining 6 individual 'Superpan' scenes from the left and right eyes of the IMP camera. Each frame consists of 8 individual frames (left eye) and 7 frames (right eye) taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA

  18. EAARL-B Topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit, Texas, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Hardy, Matthew; Nagle, David B.

    2015-01-01

    These mosaics, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, provide lidar-derived first-surface and bare-earth topography for the Big Sandy Creek Corridor Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas. Elevation measurements were acquired by the second-generation Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL-B) on January 19, 21, 22, 29, and 30, 2014, in cooperation with the National Park Service – Gulf Coast Network.

  19. EAARL-B topography—Big Thicket National Preserve: Big Sandy Creek Unit, Texas, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredericks, Alexandra M.; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Nagle, David B.

    2015-01-01

    These mosaics, prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, provide lidar-derived first-surface and bare-earth topography for the Big Sandy Creek Unit of Big Thicket National Preserve in Texas. Elevation measurements were acquired by the second-generation Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL-B) on January 19, 21, 22, and 30, 2014, in cooperation with the National Park Service – Gulf Coast Network.

  20. Medical technologies can carry big payoff, big costs. How to assess needs and build strategies.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Dave

    2008-01-01

    New diagnostic and clinical intervention technologies are transforming U.S. health care delivery, but these advances in patient care come with a big payoff and big costs--and a strong sense of urgency. This special editorial package on capital financing looks at: The CFO's role in determining the business impact and capital financing. What Wall Street needs now in terms of credit profiles. The balance of cost and care concerns in new technology decisions.

  1. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Notes [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to several hundreds light years on each side of the black hole, or about several thousand million million km! More information This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising

  2. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Note: [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to 1000 light-years, or about 9000 million million km! More Information: This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates

  3. Research recruitment using Facebook advertising: big potential, big challenges.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Julie M; Peters, Colleen; Oliver, Debra Parker

    2013-03-01

    To our knowledge, ours is the first study to report on Facebook advertising as an exclusive mechanism for recruiting women ages 35-49 years residing in the USA into a health-related research study. We directed our survey to women ages 35-49 years who resided in the USA exclusively using three Facebook advertisements. Women were then redirected to our survey site. There were 20,568,960 women on Facebook that met the eligibility criteria. The three ads resulted in 899,998 impressions with a reach of 374,225 women. Of the women reached, 280 women (0.075 %) clicked the ad. Of the women who clicked the ad, nine women (3.2 %) proceeded past the introductory page. Social networking, and in particular Facebook, is an innovative venue for recruiting participants for research studies. Challenges include developing an ad to foster interest without biasing the sample, and motivating women who click the ad to complete the survey. There is still much to learn about this potential method of recruitment.

  4. Use of Big-Screen Films in Multiple Childbirth Education Classroom Settings

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    Although two recent films, Orgasmic Birth and Pregnant in America, were intended for the big screen, they can also serve as valuable teaching resources in multiple childbirth education settings. Each film conveys powerful messages about birth and today's birthing culture. Depending on a childbirth educator's classroom setting (hospital, birthing center, or home birth environment), particular portions in each film, along with extra clips featured on the films' DVDs, can enhance an educator's curriculum and spark compelling discussions with class participants. PMID:21358831

  5. High School Students as Mentors: Findings from the Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring Impact Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Kauh, Tina J.; Cooney, Siobhan M.; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; McMaken, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    High schools have recently become a popular source of mentors for school-based mentoring (SBM) programs. The high school Bigs program of Big Brothers Big Sisters of America, for example, currently involves close to 50,000 high-school-aged mentors across the country. While the use of these young mentors has several potential advantages, their age…

  6. A Comparative Investigation of the BigCAT and Erickson S-24 Measures of Speech-Associated Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanryckeghem, Martine; Brutten, Gene J.

    2012-01-01

    The BigCAT and the Erickson S-24, self-report measures of communication attitude, were administered in a randomly determined order to 72 adults who stuttered (PWS) and 72 who did not (PWNS). The two groups of participants differed from each other to a statistically significant extent on both of these measures of speech-associated attitude,…

  7. The Mixed Plate: A Field Experience on the Cultural and Environmental Diversity of the Big Island of Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John B.; Fujimoto-Strait, Ava R.

    2017-01-01

    The intent of this paper was to outline a field endeavor that encourages increased insight into important geographic themes pertaining to the Big Island of Hawai'i. Student participants in this field course come away with an enhanced comprehension and appreciation of the benefits associated with learning to incorporate geographical perspectives as…

  8. The Mixed Plate: A Field Experience on the Cultural and Environmental Diversity of the Big Island of Hawai'i

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, John B.; Fujimoto-Strait, Ava R.

    2017-01-01

    The intent of this paper was to outline a field endeavor that encourages increased insight into important geographic themes pertaining to the Big Island of Hawai'i. Student participants in this field course come away with an enhanced comprehension and appreciation of the benefits associated with learning to incorporate geographical perspectives as…

  9. A Comparative Investigation of the BigCAT and Erickson S-24 Measures of Speech-Associated Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanryckeghem, Martine; Brutten, Gene J.

    2012-01-01

    The BigCAT and the Erickson S-24, self-report measures of communication attitude, were administered in a randomly determined order to 72 adults who stuttered (PWS) and 72 who did not (PWNS). The two groups of participants differed from each other to a statistically significant extent on both of these measures of speech-associated attitude,…

  10. BigNeuron dataset V.0.0

    DOE Data Explorer

    Ramanathan, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    The cleaned bench testing reconstructions for the gold166 datasets have been put online at github https://github.com/BigNeuron/Events-and-News/wiki/BigNeuron-Events-and-News https://github.com/BigNeuron/Data/releases/tag/gold166_bt_v1.0 The respective image datasets were released a while ago from other sites (major pointer is available at github as well https://github.com/BigNeuron/Data/releases/tag/Gold166_v1 but since the files were big, the actual downloading was distributed at 3 continents separately)

  11. Big Data - What is it and why it matters.

    PubMed

    Tattersall, Andy; Grant, Maria J

    2016-06-01

    Big data, like MOOCs, altmetrics and open access, is a term that has been commonplace in the library community for some time yet, despite its prevalence, many in the library and information sector remain unsure of the relationship between big data and their roles. This editorial explores what big data could mean for the day-to-day practice of health library and information workers, presenting examples of big data in action, considering the ethics of accessing big data sets and the potential for new roles for library and information workers.

  12. Big data are coming to psychiatry: a general introduction.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Bauer, Michael

    2015-12-01

    Big data are coming to the study of bipolar disorder and all of psychiatry. Data are coming from providers and payers (including EMR, imaging, insurance claims and pharmacy data), from omics (genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data), and from patients and non-providers (data from smart phone and Internet activities, sensors and monitoring tools). Analysis of the big data will provide unprecedented opportunities for exploration, descriptive observation, hypothesis generation, and prediction, and the results of big data studies will be incorporated into clinical practice. Technical challenges remain in the quality, analysis and management of big data. This paper discusses some of the fundamental opportunities and challenges of big data for psychiatry.

  13. Fixing the Big Bang Theory's Lithium Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    How did our universe come into being? The Big Bang theory is a widely accepted and highly successful cosmological model of the universe, but it does introduce one puzzle: the cosmological lithium problem. Have scientists now found a solution?Too Much LithiumIn the Big Bang theory, the universe expanded rapidly from a very high-density and high-temperature state dominated by radiation. This theory has been validated again and again: the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation and observations of the large-scale structure of the universe both beautifully support the Big Bang theory, for instance. But one pesky trouble-spot remains: the abundance of lithium.The arrows show the primary reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and their flux ratios, as predicted by the authors model, are given on the right. Synthesizing primordial elements is complicated! [Hou et al. 2017]According to Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory, primordial nucleosynthesis ran wild during the first half hour of the universes existence. This produced most of the universes helium and small amounts of other light nuclides, including deuterium and lithium.But while predictions match the observed primordial deuterium and helium abundances, Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory overpredicts the abundance of primordial lithium by about a factor of three. This inconsistency is known as the cosmological lithium problem and attempts to resolve it using conventional astrophysics and nuclear physics over the past few decades have not been successful.In a recent publicationled by Suqing Hou (Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) and advisorJianjun He (Institute of Modern Physics National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences), however, a team of scientists has proposed an elegant solution to this problem.Time and temperature evolution of the abundances of primordial light elements during the beginning of the universe. The authors model (dotted lines

  14. SETI as a part of Big History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    Big History is an emerging academic discipline which examines history scientifically from the Big Bang to the present. It uses a multidisciplinary approach based on combining numerous disciplines from science and the humanities, and explores human existence in the context of this bigger picture. It is taught at some universities. In a series of recent papers ([11] through [15] and [17] through [18]) and in a book [16], we developed a new mathematical model embracing Darwinian Evolution (RNA to Humans, see, in particular, [17] and Human History (Aztecs to USA, see [16]) and then we extrapolated even that into the future up to ten million years (see 18), the minimum time requested for a civilization to expand to the whole Milky Way (Fermi paradox). In this paper, we further extend that model in the past so as to let it start at the Big Bang (13.8 billion years ago) thus merging Big History, Evolution on Earth and SETI (the modern Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence) into a single body of knowledge of a statistical type. Our idea is that the Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM), so far used as the key stochastic process of financial mathematics (Black-Sholes models and related 1997 Nobel Prize in Economics!) may be successfully applied to the whole of Big History. In particular, in this paper we derive Big History Theory based on GBMs: just as the GBM is the “movie” unfolding in time, so the Statistical Drake Equation is its “still picture”, static in time, and the GBM is the time-extension of the Drake Equation. Darwinian Evolution on Earth may be easily described as an increasing GBM in the number of living species on Earth over the last 3.5 billion years. The first of them was RNA 3.5 billion years ago, and now 50

  15. Reducing waste in Big D

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, R.

    1994-03-01

    The city of Dallas is in a unique position among major metropolitan areas of the US. Despite boasting a population of more than 1 million, which grows by 1.3% each year, and a municipal solid waste (MSW) stream averaging 1.2 million tons per year, the city -- the eighth-largest in the country -- has another 50 years of landfill disposal capacity left. This fact is even more impressive when one considers that Dallas' only municipal facility, known as the McCommas Bluff Landfill, accepted 33% more MSW in 1993 than in 1992. The positive landfill situation, however, does not mean Dallas lacks ambition for recycling and waste reduction. Last, April, the city set an aggressive goal of reducing 40% of its MSW from the landfill by 1997. To help reach this mark over the next three years, the city has banned lead-acid batteries, grass clippings, and leaves from landfills, mandated news and office paper collection, and set up a composting operation at the landfill. At present, Dallas recycles about 13% of its waste. Surprisingly, most of the residential recycling effort has been based on voluntary participation through dozens of drop-off sites scattered around the city, rather than on curbside service. The only curbside program the city is conducting is a once-per-week, blue bag pilot program involving 2,000 Dallas homes.

  16. The "BIG BIRD" of the "YELLOW YOUNG" man: do nontarget properties cascade?

    PubMed

    Roux, Sébastien; Bonin, Patrick; Kandel, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether in speech production object properties flow in a cascaded manner or whether cascaded processing is restricted to the object's identity. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants saw pictured objects and had to state either their size (GRAND or PETIT-meaning big and small) or their name. The size of the objects varied as a function of the way they were presented on the computer screen (Experiment 1) or their real size in the world (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, faces of young and old men were coloured in yellow or in green. The task was to name either the colour (JAUNE or VERT, meaning yellow and green, respectively) or the age (JEUNE or VIEUX, meaning young and old, respectively) of the face. In Experiments 1 and 2, no reliable effects of phonological relatedness ("GORILLE-grand"-a big gorilla) were found on the object-naming latencies. However, size-naming latencies were shorter when the adjective shared the initial phoneme of the picture name (i.e., "GRAND-gorille") than when it did not (i.e., "GRAND-dinosaure"-saying "big" in response to a big dinosaur). In Experiment 3, phonological overlap did not affect colour naming latencies, or age naming latencies. Overall, these findings strongly suggest that cascaded processing is restricted to the object's identity in conceptually driven naming tasks.

  17. Health Informatics Scientists' Perception About Big Data Technology.

    PubMed

    Minou, John; Routsis, Fotios; Gallos, Parisis; Mantas, John

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present the perceptions of the Health Informatics Scientists about the Big Data Technology in Healthcare. An empirical study was conducted among 46 scientists to assess their knowledge about the Big Data Technology and their perceptions about using this technology in healthcare. Based on the study findings, 86.7% of the scientists had knowledge of Big data Technology. Furthermore, 59.1% of the scientists believed that Big Data Technology refers to structured data. Additionally, 100% of the population believed that Big Data Technology can be implemented in Healthcare. Finally, the majority does not know any cases of use of Big Data Technology in Greece while 57,8% of the them mentioned that they knew use cases of the Big Data Technology abroad.

  18. WE-H-BRB-00: Big Data in Radiation Oncology.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Stanley

    2016-06-01

    Big Data in Radiation Oncology: (1) Overview of the NIH 2015 Big Data Workshop, (2) Where do we stand in the applications of big data in radiation oncology?, and (3) Learning Health Systems for Radiation Oncology: Needs and Challenges for Future Success The overriding goal of this trio panel of presentations is to improve awareness of the wide ranging opportunities for big data impact on patient quality care and enhancing potential for research and collaboration opportunities with NIH and a host of new big data initiatives. This presentation will also summarize the Big Data workshop that was held at the NIH Campus on August 13-14, 2015 and sponsored by AAPM, ASTRO, and NIH. The workshop included discussion of current Big Data cancer registry initiatives, safety and incident reporting systems, and other strategies that will have the greatest impact on radiation oncology research, quality assurance, safety, and outcomes analysis.

  19. The brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein, BIG2, regulates the constitutive release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles.

    PubMed

    Islam, Aminul; Shen, Xiaoyan; Hiroi, Toyoko; Moss, Joel; Vaughan, Martha; Levine, Stewart J

    2007-03-30

    The type I, 55-kDa tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR1) is released from cells to the extracellular space where it can bind and modulate TNF bioactivity. Extracellular TNFR1 release occurs by two distinct pathways: the inducible proteolytic cleavage of TNFR1 ectodomains and the constitutive release of full-length TNFR1 in exosome-like vesicles. Regulation of both TNFR1 release pathways appears to involve the trafficking of cytoplasmic TNFR1 vesicles. Vesicular trafficking is controlled by ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs), which are active in the GTP-bound state and inactive when bound to GDP. ARF activation is enhanced by guanine nucleotide-exchange factors that catalyze replacement of GDP by GTP. We investigated whether the brefeldin A (BFA)-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange proteins, BIG1 and/or BIG2, are required for TNFR1 release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Effects of specific RNA interference (RNAi) showed that BIG2, but not BIG1, regulated the release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles, whereas neither BIG2 nor BIG1 was required for the IL-1beta-induced proteolytic cleavage of TNFR1 ectodomains. BIG2 co-localized with TNFR1 in diffusely distributed cytoplasmic vesicles, and the association between BIG2 and TNFR1 was disrupted by BFA. Consistent with the preferential activation of class I ARFs by BIG2, ARF1 and ARF3 participated in the extracellular release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles in a nonredundant and additive fashion. We conclude that the association between BIG2 and TNFR1 selectively regulates the extracellular release of TNFR1 exosome-like vesicles from human vascular endothelial cells via an ARF1- and ARF3-dependent mechanism.

  20. Federal participation in LEED

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Christopher; Dyer, Beverly

    2004-11-10

    The federal government has been an active participant in the development and use of USGBC's Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Green Building Rating System (LEED). This paper presents a review of this participation and some expectations for ongoing partnership.

  1. The big data-big model (BDBM) challenges in ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The field of ecology has become a big-data science in the past decades due to development of new sensors used in numerous studies in the ecological community. Many sensor networks have been established to collect data. For example, satellites, such as Terra and OCO-2 among others, have collected data relevant on global carbon cycle. Thousands of field manipulative experiments have been conducted to examine feedback of terrestrial carbon cycle to global changes. Networks of observations, such as FLUXNET, have measured land processes. In particular, the implementation of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), which is designed to network different kinds of sensors at many locations over the nation, will generate large volumes of ecological data every day. The raw data from sensors from those networks offer an unprecedented opportunity for accelerating advances in our knowledge of ecological processes, educating teachers and students, supporting decision-making, testing ecological theory, and forecasting changes in ecosystem services. Currently, ecologists do not have the infrastructure in place to synthesize massive yet heterogeneous data into resources for decision support. It is urgent to develop an ecological forecasting system that can make the best use of multiple sources of data to assess long-term biosphere change and anticipate future states of ecosystem services at regional and continental scales. Forecasting relies on big models that describe major processes that underlie complex system dynamics. Ecological system models, despite great simplification of the real systems, are still complex in order to address real-world problems. For example, Community Land Model (CLM) incorporates thousands of processes related to energy balance, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. Integration of massive data from multiple big data sources with complex models has to tackle Big Data-Big Model (BDBM) challenges. Those challenges include interoperability of multiple

  2. Participative Training Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, John

    Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

  3. Participative Training Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, John

    Based on extensive field experience, this two-part book is intended to be a practical guide for maximizing participative training methods. The first part of the book looks at the principles and the core skills involved in participative training. It shows how trainee participation corresponds to the processes of adult learning and describes each…

  4. School Lunch Program Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucchino, Lori; Ranney, Christine K.

    1990-01-01

    Reductions in participation in National School Lunch Program in 1981-82 are of concern to hunger groups and legislators. Extent to which Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Acts (OBRA) of 1980-81 contributes to participation decline was measured by simulation model in New York State. Results suggest that OBRA increased participation; declining…

  5. Widening Participation: What Works?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    In this brief article, the author talks about what--other than money--works to widen higher education (HE) participation for adult learners. He also discusses the problems in trying to discover what works to widen participation for adults. One problem is that the decision to participate in any formal learning episode, including HE, is not a simple…

  6. Big data challenges for large radio arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, D. L.; Wagstaff, K.; Thompson, D. R.; D'Addario, L.; Navarro, R.; Mattmann, C.; Majid, W.; Lazio, J.; Preston, J.; Rebbapragada, U.

    2012-03-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing technologies to address big data issues, with an emphasis in three areas: 1) Lower-power digital processing architectures to make highvolume data generation operationally affordable, 2) Date-adaptive machine learning algorithms for real-time analysis (or "data triage") of large data volumes, and 3) Scalable data archive systems that allow efficient data mining and remote user code to run locally where the data are stored.

  7. Advances in Risk Analysis with Big Data.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tsan-Ming; Lambert, James H

    2017-08-01

    With cloud computing, Internet-of-things, wireless sensors, social media, fast storage and retrieval, etc., organizations and enterprises have access to unprecedented amounts and varieties of data. Current risk analysis methodology and applications are experiencing related advances and breakthroughs. For example, highway operations data are readily available, and making use of them reduces risks of traffic crashes and travel delays. Massive data of financial and enterprise systems support decision making under risk by individuals, industries, regulators, etc. In this introductory article, we first discuss the meaning of big data for risk analysis. We then examine recent advances in risk analysis with big data in several topic areas. For each area, we identify and introduce the relevant articles that are featured in the special issue. We conclude with a discussion on future research opportunities. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Risk externalities and too big to fail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleb, Nassim N.; Tapiero, Charles S.

    2010-09-01

    This paper establishes the case for a fallacy of economies of scale in large aggregate institutions and the effects of scale risks. The problem of rogue trading and excessive risk taking is taken as a case example. Assuming (conservatively) that a firm exposure and losses are limited to its capital while external losses are unbounded, we establish a condition for a firm not to be allowed to be too big to fail. In such a case, the expected external losses second derivative with respect to the firm capital at risk is positive. Examples and analytical results are obtained based on simplifying assumptions and focusing exclusively on the risk externalities that firms too big to fail can have.

  9. Relational Databases and Biomedical Big Data.

    PubMed

    de Silva, N H Nisansa D

    2017-01-01

    In various biomedical applications that collect, handle, and manipulate data, the amounts of data tend to build up and venture into the range identified as bigdata. In such occurrences, a design decision has to be taken as to what type of database would be used to handle this data. More often than not, the default and classical solution to this in the biomedical domain according to past research is relational databases. While this used to be the norm for a long while, it is evident that there is a trend to move away from relational databases in favor of other types and paradigms of databases. However, it still has paramount importance to understand the interrelation that exists between biomedical big data and relational databases. This chapter will review the pros and cons of using relational databases to store biomedical big data that previous researches have discussed and used.

  10. 'Big Crater' in 360-degree panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crater dubbed 'Big Crater', approximately 2200 meters (7200 feet)away was imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) as part of a 360-degree color panorama, taken over sols 8, 9 and 10. 'Big Crater' is actually a relatively small Martian crater to the southeast of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. It is 1500 meters (4900 feet) in diameter, or about the same size as Meteor Crater in Arizona.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  11. [Graves' dermopathy on the big toe].

    PubMed

    Couderc, E; Cante, V; Renaud, O; Guillet, G

    2013-05-01

    Localized myxoedema is a rare dermopathy in patients with Graves' disease. The pretibial area is the most commonly affected region but herein we present a case of myxoedema of the big toe. A 44-year-old male with Graves' disease ongoing for seven years presented bilateral ophthalmopathy and myxoedema of the big toes. The myxoedema was treated successfully with intralesional steroids. The physiopathology of myxoedema involves fibroblast activation and glycosaminoglycan production. This activation could result from stimulation of TSH receptors at their surface by TSH receptor antibodies (TRAK) or from an inflammatory process. The pretibial topography may be related to the high frequency in this area of microtrauma, with modulation of the cytokine microenvironment. The atypical localization seems to correlate with a Koebner phenomenon. Treatment of Graves' disease is generally insufficient to resolve the cutaneous problems. Topical corticosteroid therapy generally results in rapid improvement of recent lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Big Data Analytics in Chemical Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Leo; Lu, Bo; Castillo, Ivan

    2017-02-27

    Big data analytics is the journey to turn data into insights for more informed business and operational decisions. As the chemical engineering community is collecting more data (volume) from different sources (variety), this journey becomes more challenging in terms of using the right data and the right tools (analytics) to make the right decisions in real time (velocity). This article highlights recent big data advancements in five industries, including chemicals, energy, semiconductors, pharmaceuticals, and food, and then discusses technical, platform, and culture challenges. To reach the next milestone in multiplying successes to the enterprise level, government, academia, and industry need to collaboratively focus on workforce development and innovation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Volume 8 is June 7, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  13. The discovery value of "Big Science".

    PubMed

    Esparza, José; Yamada, Tadataka

    2007-04-16

    The increasing complexity of biomedical research is leading to the exploration of new models for large-scale collaborative research. This Big Science approach, however, has created anxieties and potential tensions between investigator-driven research, and research guided by a more organized, collaborative effort. Another potential tension exists between research conducted purely in search of new knowledge and research aimed at finding solutions. We argue that big biomedicine--the work of coordinated multidisciplinary groups that use the latest technologies to solve complex problems--can be an important way to harness the creativity of individual investigators, stimulate innovation, and supply the infrastructure, experimental systems, and resources needed to solve the urgent health problems confronted by our global society. We discuss this using the example of the Global HIV Vaccine Enterprise.

  14. Visualizing Big Data Outliers through Distributed Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Leland

    2017-08-29

    Visualizing outliers in massive datasets requires statistical pre-processing in order to reduce the scale of the problem to a size amenable to rendering systems like D3, Plotly or analytic systems like R or SAS. This paper presents a new algorithm, called hdoutliers, for detecting multidimensional outliers. It is unique for a) dealing with a mixture of categorical and continuous variables, b) dealing with big-p (many columns of data), c) dealing with big-n (many rows of data), d) dealing with outliers that mask other outliers, and e) dealing consistently with unidimensional and multidimensional datasets. Unlike ad hoc methods found in many machine learning papers, hdoutliers is based on a distributional model that allows outliers to be tagged with a probability. This critical feature reduces the likelihood of false discoveries.

  15. Can big business save health care?

    PubMed

    Dunn, Philip

    2007-01-01

    Corporate America has decided to stop bellyaching about the cost and quality of the health care it helps buy for its employees. Now it's taking concrete action. Large employers such as Wal-Mart, Oracle, Cisco, BP America and many, many others are pressuring providers to meet performance standards, adopt information technology and transform the efficiency of their operations. Big Business wants value for its buck, and it's now putting money where its mouth is.

  16. Livermore Big Trees Park: 1998 summary results

    SciTech Connect

    Gallegos, G; MacQueen, D; Surano, K

    1999-08-13

    This report summarizes work conducted in 1998 by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to determine the extent and origin of plutonium at concentrations above background levels at Big Trees Park in the city of Livermore. This summary includes the project background and sections that explain the sampling, radiochemical and data analysis, and data interpretation. This report is a summary report only and is not intended as a rigorous technical or statistical analysis of the data.

  17. Meaningfully Integrating Big Earth Science Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pebesma, E. J.; Stasch, C.

    2014-12-01

    After taking the technical hurdles to deal with big earth observationdata, large challenges remain to avoid that operations are carried out that are not meaningful. Examples of this are summing things that should not be summed, or interpolating phenomena that shouldnot be interpolated. We propose a description of data at the level of their meaning, to allow for notifying data users whenmeaningless operations are being executed. We present a prototypicalimplementation in R.

  18. Dark radiation emerging after big bang nucleosynthesis?

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, Willy; Meyers, Joel

    2011-03-15

    We show how recent data from observations of the cosmic microwave background may suggest the presence of additional radiation density which appeared after big bang nucleosynthesis. We propose a general scheme by which this radiation could be produced from the decay of nonrelativistic matter, we place constraints on the properties of such matter, and we give specific examples of scenarios in which this general scheme may be realized.

  19. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  20. The Big Idea. Dynamic Stakeholder Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Defense AT&L: November–December 2014 8 The Big IDEA Dynamic Stakeholder Management Lt. Col. Franklin D. Gaillard II, USAF Frank Gaillard, Ph.D...information systems at Global Campus, Troy University. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources

  1. Singularities in big-bang cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penrose, R.

    1988-03-01

    A review of the history of the development of the big bang theory is presented, including the nature of singularities in black holes and their contribution to the study of the origin of the universe. Various models of the origin of the universe, the question of cosmic censorship, and the possible effects of gravitational collapse are examined. The relationship between considerations of quantum gravity and the structure of quantum theory is discussed.

  2. Functional connectomics from a "big data" perspective.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingrui; He, Yong

    2017-02-14

    In the last decade, explosive growth regarding functional connectome studies has been observed. Accumulating knowledge has significantly contributed to our understanding of the brain's functional network architectures in health and disease. With the development of innovative neuroimaging techniques, the establishment of large brain datasets and the increasing accumulation of published findings, functional connectomic research has begun to move into the era of "big data", which generates unprecedented opportunities for discovery in brain science and simultaneously encounters various challenging issues, such as data acquisition, management and analyses. Big data on the functional connectome exhibits several critical features: high spatial and/or temporal precision, large sample sizes, long-term recording of brain activity, multidimensional biological variables (e.g., imaging, genetic, demographic, cognitive and clinic) and/or vast quantities of existing findings. We review studies regarding functional connectomics from a big data perspective, with a focus on recent methodological advances in state-of-the-art image acquisition (e.g., multiband imaging), analysis approaches and statistical strategies (e.g., graph theoretical analysis, dynamic network analysis, independent component analysis, multivariate pattern analysis and machine learning), as well as reliability and reproducibility validations. We highlight the novel findings in the application of functional connectomic big data to the exploration of the biological mechanisms of cognitive functions, normal development and aging and of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We advocate the urgent need to expand efforts directed at the methodological challenges and discuss the direction of applications in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Big Data Challenges for Large Radio Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Thompson, David; D'Addario, Larry; Navarro, Robert; Mattmann, Chris; Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Preston, Robert; Rebbapragada, Umaa

    2012-01-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields.

  4. Gravitation, phase transitions, and the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, L.M.

    1982-11-08

    Introduced here is a model of the early universe based on the possibility of a first-order phase transition involving gravity, and arrived at by a consideration of instabilities in the semiclassical theory. The evolution of the system is very different from the standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker big-bang scenario, indicating the potential importance of semiclassical finite-temperature gravitational effects. Baryosynthesis and monopole production in this scenario are also outlined.

  5. Big Data Challenges for Large Radio Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Dayton L.; Wagstaff, Kiri; Thompson, David; D'Addario, Larry; Navarro, Robert; Mattmann, Chris; Majid, Walid; Lazio, Joseph; Preston, Robert; Rebbapragada, Umaa

    2012-01-01

    Future large radio astronomy arrays, particularly the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), will be able to generate data at rates far higher than can be analyzed or stored affordably with current practices. This is, by definition, a "big data" problem, and requires an end-to-end solution if future radio arrays are to reach their full scientific potential. Similar data processing, transport, storage, and management challenges face next-generation facilities in many other fields.

  6. Funding big research with small money.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Joanne V; Koithan, Mary; Unruh, Lynn; Lundmark, Vicki

    2014-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that maybe successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives.With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools,and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives.In this article, the guest authors introduce crowd sourcing asa strategy for funding big research with small money.

  7. Vertical landscraping, a big regionalism for Dubai.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dubai's ecologic and economic complications are exacerbated by six years of accelerated expansion, a fixed top-down approach to urbanism and the construction of iconic single-phase mega-projects. With recent construction delays, project cancellations and growing landscape issues, Dubai's tower typologies have been unresponsive to changing environmental, socio-cultural and economic patterns (BBC, 2009; Gillet, 2009; Lewis, 2009). In this essay, a theory of "Big Regionalism" guides an argument for an economically and ecologically linked tower typology called the Condenser. This phased "box-to-tower" typology is part of a greater Landscape Urbanist strategy called Vertical Landscraping. Within this strategy, the Condenser's role is to densify the city, facilitating the creation of ecologic voids that order the urban region. Delineating "Big Regional" principles, the Condenser provides a time-based, global-local urban growth approach that weaves Bigness into a series of urban-regional, economic and ecological relationships, builds upon the environmental performance of the city's regional architecture and planning, promotes a continuity of Dubai's urban history, and responds to its landscape issues while condensing development. These speculations permit consideration of the overlooked opportunities embedded within Dubai's mega-projects and their long-term impact on the urban morphology.

  8. Big data for space situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Pugh, Mark; Sheaff, Carolyn; Raquepas, Joe; Rocci, Peter

    2017-05-01

    Recent advances in big data (BD) have focused research on the volume, velocity, veracity, and variety of data. These developments enable new opportunities in information management, visualization, machine learning, and information fusion that have potential implications for space situational awareness (SSA). In this paper, we explore some of these BD trends as applicable for SSA towards enhancing the space operating picture. The BD developments could increase in measures of performance and measures of effectiveness for future management of the space environment. The global SSA influences include resident space object (RSO) tracking and characterization, cyber protection, remote sensing, and information management. The local satellite awareness can benefit from space weather, health monitoring, and spectrum management for situation space understanding. One area in big data of importance to SSA is value - getting the correct data/information at the right time, which corresponds to SSA visualization for the operator. A SSA big data example is presented supporting disaster relief for space situation awareness, assessment, and understanding.

  9. Meteor Observations as Big Data Citizen Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gritsevich, M.; Vinkovic, D.; Schwarz, G.; Nina, A.; Koschny, D.; Lyytinen, E.

    2016-12-01

    Meteor science represents an excellent example of the citizen science project, where progress in the field has been largely determined by amateur observations. Over the last couple of decades technological advancements in observational techniques have yielded drastic improvements in the quality, quantity and diversity of meteor data, while even more ambitious instruments are about to become operational. This empowers meteor science to boost its experimental and theoretical horizons and seek more advanced scientific goals. We review some of the developments that push meteor science into the Big Data era that requires more complex methodological approaches through interdisciplinary collaborations with other branches of physics and computer science. We argue that meteor science should become an integral part of large surveys in astronomy, aeronomy and space physics, and tackle the complexity of micro-physics of meteor plasma and its interaction with the atmosphere. The recent increased interest in meteor science triggered by the Chelyabinsk fireball helps in building the case for technologically and logistically more ambitious meteor projects. This requires developing new methodological approaches in meteor research, with Big Data science and close collaboration between citizen science, geoscience and astronomy as critical elements. We discuss possibilities for improvements and promote an opportunity for collaboration in meteor science within the currently established BigSkyEarth http://bigskyearth.eu/ network.

  10. Envisioning the Future of 'Big Data' Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Bui, Alex A T; Darrell Van Horn, John

    2017-03-30

    In our era of digital biomedicine, data take many forms, from "omics" to imaging, mobile health (mHealth), and electronic health records (EHRs). With the availability of more efficient digital collection methods, scientists in many domains now find themselves confronting ever larger sets of data and trying to make sense of it all (1-4). Indeed, data which used to be considered large now seems small as the amount of data now being collected in a single day by an investigator can surpass what might have been generated over his/her career even a decade ago (e.g., (5)). This deluge of biomedical information requires new thinking about how data are generated, managed, and ultimately leveraged to further scientific understanding and for improving healthcare. Responding to this challenge, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has spearheaded the "Big Data to Knowledge" (BD2K) program (6). Data scientists are being engaged through BD2K to guide biomedical researchers through the thickets of data they are producing. NIH Director, Francis Collins, has noted, "Indeed, we are at a point in history where Big Data should not intimidate, but inspire us. We are in the midst of a revolution that is transforming the way we do biomedical research…we just have to devise creative ways to sift through this mountain of data and make sense of it" (7). The NIH is now taking its first major steps toward realizing biomedical science as an interdisciplinary "big data" science.

  11. Adapting bioinformatics curricula for big data

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Anna C.; Giffin, Kristine A.; Greene, Casey S.

    2016-01-01

    Modern technologies are capable of generating enormous amounts of data that measure complex biological systems. Computational biologists and bioinformatics scientists are increasingly being asked to use these data to reveal key systems-level properties. We review the extent to which curricula are changing in the era of big data. We identify key competencies that scientists dealing with big data are expected to possess across fields, and we use this information to propose courses to meet these growing needs. While bioinformatics programs have traditionally trained students in data-intensive science, we identify areas of particular biological, computational and statistical emphasis important for this era that can be incorporated into existing curricula. For each area, we propose a course structured around these topics, which can be adapted in whole or in parts into existing curricula. In summary, specific challenges associated with big data provide an important opportunity to update existing curricula, but we do not foresee a wholesale redesign of bioinformatics training programs. PMID:25829469

  12. Navigating a Sea of Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, D.; Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.; Shepherd, A.; Allison, M. D.; Rauch, S.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Oceanographic research is evolving rapidly. New technologies, strategies, and related infrastructures have catalyzed a change in the nature of oceanographic data. Heterogeneous and complex data types can be produced and transferred at great speeds. This shift in volume, variety, and velocity of data produced has led to increased challenges in managing these Big Data. In addition, distributed research communities have greater needs for data quality control, discovery and public accessibility, and seamless integration for interdisciplinary study. Organizations charged with curating oceanographic data must also evolve to meet these needs and challenges, by employing new technologies and strategies. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) was created in 2006, to fulfill the data management needs of investigators funded by the NSF Ocean Sciences Biological and Chemical Sections and Polar Programs Antarctic Organisms and Ecosystems Program. Since its inception, the Office has had to modify internal systems and operations to address Big Data challenges to meet the needs of the ever-evolving oceanographic research community. Some enhancements include automated procedures replacing labor-intensive manual tasks, adoption of metadata standards facilitating machine client access, a geospatial interface and the use of Semantic Web technologies to increase data discovery and interoperability. This presentation will highlight some of the BCO-DMO advances that enable us to successfully fulfill our mission in a Big Data world.

  13. Partnership between small biotech and big pharma.

    PubMed

    Wiederrecht, Gregory J; Hill, Raymond G; Beer, Margaret S

    2006-08-01

    The process involved in the identification and development of novel breakthrough medicines at big pharma has recently undergone significant changes, in part because of the extraordinary complexity that is associated with tackling diseases of high unmet need, and also because of the increasingly demanding requirements that have been placed on the pharmaceutical industry by investors and regulatory authorities. In addition, big pharma no longer have a monopoly on the tools and enabling technologies that are required to identify and discover new drugs, as many biotech companies now also have these capabilities. As a result, researchers at biotech companies are able to identify credible drug leads, as well as compounds that have the potential to become marketed medicinal products. This diversification of companies that are involved in drug discovery and development has in turn led to increased partnering interactions between the biotech sector and big pharma. This article examines how Merck and Co Inc, which has historically relied on a combination of internal scientific research and licensed products, has poised itself to become further engaged in partnering with biotech companies, as well as academic institutions, to increase the probability of success associated with identifying novel medicines to treat unmet medical needs--particularly in areas such as central nervous system disorders, obesity/metabolic diseases, atheroma and cancer, and also to cultivate its cardiovascular, respiratory, arthritis, bone, ophthalmology and infectious disease franchises.

  14. Big bounce from spin and torsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popławski, Nikodem J.

    2012-04-01

    The Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity naturally extends general relativity to account for the intrinsic spin of matter. Spacetime torsion, generated by spin of Dirac fields, induces gravitational repulsion in fermionic matter at extremely high densities and prevents the formation of singularities. Accordingly, the big bang is replaced by a bounce that occurred when the energy density {ɛ ∝ gT^4} was on the order of {n^2/m_Pl^2} (in natural units), where {n ∝ gT^3} is the fermion number density and g is the number of thermal degrees of freedom. If the early Universe contained only the known standard-model particles ( g ≈ 100), then the energy density at the big bounce was about 15 times larger than the Planck energy. The minimum scale factor of the Universe (at the bounce) was about 1032 times smaller than its present value, giving ≈ 50 μm. If more fermions existed in the early Universe, then the spin-torsion coupling causes a bounce at a lower energy and larger scale factor. Recent observations of high-energy photons from gamma-ray bursts indicate that spacetime may behave classically even at scales below the Planck length, supporting the classical spin-torsion mechanism of the big bounce. Such a classical bounce prevents the matter in the contracting Universe from reaching the conditions at which a quantum bounce could possibly occur.

  15. Human neuroimaging as a "Big Data" science.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, John Darrell; Toga, Arthur W

    2014-06-01

    The maturation of in vivo neuroimaging has led to incredible quantities of digital information about the human brain. While much is made of the data deluge in science, neuroimaging represents the leading edge of this onslaught of "big data". A range of neuroimaging databasing approaches has streamlined the transmission, storage, and dissemination of data from such brain imaging studies. Yet few, if any, common solutions exist to support the science of neuroimaging. In this article, we discuss how modern neuroimaging research represents a multifactorial and broad ranging data challenge, involving the growing size of the data being acquired; sociological and logistical sharing issues; infrastructural challenges for multi-site, multi-datatype archiving; and the means by which to explore and mine these data. As neuroimaging advances further, e.g. aging, genetics, and age-related disease, new vision is needed to manage and process this information while marshalling of these resources into novel results. Thus, "big data" can become "big" brain science.

  16. Statistical methods and computing for big data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun; Chen, Ming-Hui; Schifano, Elizabeth; Wu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Big data are data on a massive scale in terms of volume, intensity, and complexity that exceed the capacity of standard analytic tools. They present opportunities as well as challenges to statisticians. The role of computational statisticians in scientific discovery from big data analyses has been under-recognized even by peer statisticians. This article summarizes recent methodological and software developments in statistics that address the big data challenges. Methodologies are grouped into three classes: subsampling-based, divide and conquer, and online updating for stream data. As a new contribution, the online updating approach is extended to variable selection with commonly used criteria, and their performances are assessed in a simulation study with stream data. Software packages are summarized with focuses on the open source R and R packages, covering recent tools that help break the barriers of computer memory and computing power. Some of the tools are illustrated in a case study with a logistic regression for the chance of airline delay. PMID:27695593

  17. Big Data Analytics for Prostate Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Coates, James; Souhami, Luis; El Naqa, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a first-line treatment option for localized prostate cancer and radiation-induced normal tissue damage are often the main limiting factor for modern radiotherapy regimens. Conversely, under-dosing of target volumes in an attempt to spare adjacent healthy tissues limits the likelihood of achieving local, long-term control. Thus, the ability to generate personalized data-driven risk profiles for radiotherapy outcomes would provide valuable prognostic information to help guide both clinicians and patients alike. Big data applied to radiation oncology promises to deliver better understanding of outcomes by harvesting and integrating heterogeneous data types, including patient-specific clinical parameters, treatment-related dose-volume metrics, and biological risk factors. When taken together, such variables make up the basis for a multi-dimensional space (the "RadoncSpace") in which the presented modeling techniques search in order to identify significant predictors. Herein, we review outcome modeling and big data-mining techniques for both tumor control and radiotherapy-induced normal tissue effects. We apply many of the presented modeling approaches onto a cohort of hypofractionated prostate cancer patients taking into account different data types and a large heterogeneous mix of physical and biological parameters. Cross-validation techniques are also reviewed for the refinement of the proposed framework architecture and checking individual model performance. We conclude by considering advanced modeling techniques that borrow concepts from big data analytics, such as machine learning and artificial intelligence, before discussing the potential future impact of systems radiobiology approaches.

  18. Application and Prospect of Big Data in Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Danchi; Xu, Xinyi

    2017-04-01

    Because of developed information technology and affordable data storage, we h ave entered the era of data explosion. The term "Big Data" and technology relate s to it has been created and commonly applied in many fields. However, academic studies just got attention on Big Data application in water resources recently. As a result, water resource Big Data technology has not been fully developed. This paper introduces the concept of Big Data and its key technologies, including the Hadoop system and MapReduce. In addition, this paper focuses on the significance of applying the big data in water resources and summarizing prior researches by others. Most studies in this field only set up theoretical frame, but we define the "Water Big Data" and explain its tridimensional properties which are time dimension, spatial dimension and intelligent dimension. Based on HBase, the classification system of Water Big Data is introduced: hydrology data, ecology data and socio-economic data. Then after analyzing the challenges in water resources management, a series of solutions using Big Data technologies such as data mining and web crawler, are proposed. Finally, the prospect of applying big data in water resources is discussed, it can be predicted that as Big Data technology keeps developing, "3D" (Data Driven Decision) will be utilized more in water resources management in the future.

  19. Becoming a Runner: Big, Middle and Small Stories about Physical Activity Participation in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Meridith; Phoenix, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    How do older adults learn to tell a "new" story about, through, and with the body? We know that narratives are embodied, lived and central to the process of meaning-making--and as such, they do not lie in the waiting for telling, but are an active part of everyday interaction. Telling stories about ourselves to others is one way in which…

  20. Becoming a Runner: Big, Middle and Small Stories about Physical Activity Participation in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Meridith; Phoenix, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    How do older adults learn to tell a "new" story about, through, and with the body? We know that narratives are embodied, lived and central to the process of meaning-making--and as such, they do not lie in the waiting for telling, but are an active part of everyday interaction. Telling stories about ourselves to others is one way in which…

  1. Quality of Big Data in health care.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Natarajan, Ramachandran; Ferrell, Regina K

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in Big Data analytics and in particular health information technology is toward building sophisticated models, methods and tools for business, operational and clinical intelligence. However, the critical issue of data quality required for these models is not getting the attention it deserves. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the issues of data quality in the context of Big Data health care analytics. The insights presented in this paper are the results of analytics work that was done in different organizations on a variety of health data sets. The data sets include Medicare and Medicaid claims, provider enrollment data sets from both public and private sources, electronic health records from regional health centers accessed through partnerships with health care claims processing entities under health privacy protected guidelines. Assessment of data quality in health care has to consider: first, the entire lifecycle of health data; second, problems arising from errors and inaccuracies in the data itself; third, the source(s) and the pedigree of the data; and fourth, how the underlying purpose of data collection impact the analytic processing and knowledge expected to be derived. Automation in the form of data handling, storage, entry and processing technologies is to be viewed as a double-edged sword. At one level, automation can be a good solution, while at another level it can create a different set of data quality issues. Implementation of health care analytics with Big Data is enabled by a road map that addresses the organizational and technological aspects of data quality assurance. The value derived from the use of analytics should be the primary determinant of data quality. Based on this premise, health care enterprises embracing Big Data should have a road map for a systematic approach to data quality. Health care data quality problems can be so very specific that organizations might have to build their own custom software or data

  2. Temperament and Character Inventory-R (TCI-R) and Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ): convergence and divergence.

    PubMed

    Capanna, Cristina; Struglia, Francesca; Riccardi, Ilaria; Daneluzzo, Enrico; Stratta, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the correspondence between measures of two competing theories of personality, the five-factor model as measured by the Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ), and Cloninger's psychobiological theory measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). A sample of 900 Italian participants, balanced with respect to sex (393 men and 507 women), and representative of the adult population with respect to age (range 18 to 70 years; M = 39.6, SD = 15.7) completed the TCI-R and the Big Five Questionnaire. All TCI-R personality dimensions except Self-Transcendence were moderately correlated with one or more of the Big Five dimensions (from r = .40 to .61), and the two instruments showed areas of convergence. However, the differences outweighed the similarities, indicating that these current conceptualizations and measures of personality are somewhat inconsistent with each other.

  3. Body image and personality among British men: associations between the Big Five personality domains, drive for muscularity, and body appreciation.

    PubMed

    Benford, Karis; Swami, Viren

    2014-09-01

    The present study examined associations between the Big Five personality domains and measures of men's body image. A total of 509 men from the community in London, UK, completed measures of drive for muscularity, body appreciation, the Big Five domains, and subjective social status, and provided their demographic details. The results of a hierarchical regression showed that, once the effects of participant body mass index (BMI) and subjective social status had been accounted for, men's drive for muscularity was significantly predicted by Neuroticism (β=.29). In addition, taking into account the effects of BMI and subjective social status, men's body appreciation was significantly predicted by Neuroticism (β=-.35) and Extraversion (β=.12). These findings highlight potential avenues for the development of intervention approaches based on the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and body image.

  4. Putting the five-factor model into context: evidence linking big five traits to narrative identity.

    PubMed

    Raggatt, Peter

    2006-10-01

    The study examined relationships between the Big Five personality traits and thematic content extracted from self-reports of life history data. One hundred and five "mature age" university students (M=30.1 years) completed the NEO PI-R trait measure, and the Personality Web Protocol. The protocol examines constituents of identity by asking participants to describe 24 key "attachments" from their life histories (significant events, people, places, objects, and possessions). Participants sorted these attachments into clusters and provided a self-descriptive label for each cluster (e.g., "adventurous self"). It was predicted that the thematic content of these cluster labels would be systematically related to Big Five trait scores (e.g., that labels referring to strength or positive emotions would be linked to Extraversion). The hypothesized links were obtained for each of the Big Five trait domains except Conscientiousness. Results are discussed with a view to broadening our understanding of the Five-Factor Model in relation to units of personality other than traits.

  5. Abraham Pais Prize for History of Physics Lecture: Big, Bigger, Too Big? From Los Alamos to Fermilab and the SSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoddeson, Lillian

    2012-03-01

    The modern era of big science emerged during World War II. Oppenheimer's Los Alamos laboratory offered the quintessential model of a government-funded, mission-oriented facility directed by a strong charismatic leader. The postwar beneficiaries of this model included the increasingly ambitious large laboratories that participated in particle physics--in particular, Brookhaven, SLAC, and Fermilab. They carried the big science they practiced into a new realm where experiments eventually became as large and costly as entire laboratories had been. Meanwhile the available funding grew more limited causing the physics research to be concentrated into fewer and bigger experiments that appeared never to end. The next phase in American high-energy physics was the Superconducting Super Collider, the most costly pure physics project ever attempted. The SSC's termination was a tragedy for American science, but for historians it offers an opportunity to understand what made the success of earlier large high-energy physics laboratories possible, and what made the continuation of the SSC impossible. The most obvious reason for the SSC's failure was its enormous and escalating budget, which Congress would no longer support. Other factors need to be recognized however: no leader could be found with directing skills as strong as those of Wilson, Panofsky, Lederman, or Richter; the scale of the project subjected it to uncomfortable public and Congressional scrutiny; and the DOE's enforcement of management procedures of the military-industrial complex that clashed with those typical of the scientific community led to the alienation and withdrawal of many of the most creative scientists, and to the perception and the reality of poor management. These factors, exacerbated by negative pressure from scientists in other fields and a post-Cold War climate in which physicists had little of their earlier cultural prestige, discouraged efforts to gain international support. They made the SSC

  6. Big Data, Big Problems: Incorporating Mission, Values, and Culture in Provider Affiliations.

    PubMed

    Shaha, Steven H; Sayeed, Zain; Anoushiravani, Afshin A; El-Othmani, Mouhanad M; Saleh, Khaled J

    2016-10-01

    This article explores how integration of data from clinical registries and electronic health records produces a quality impact within orthopedic practices. Data are differentiated from information, and several types of data that are collected and used in orthopedic outcome measurement are defined. Furthermore, the concept of comparative effectiveness and its impact on orthopedic clinical research are assessed. This article places emphasis on how the concept of big data produces health care challenges balanced with benefits that may be faced by patients and orthopedic surgeons. Finally, essential characteristics of an electronic health record that interlinks musculoskeletal care and big data initiatives are reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biobanking with Big Data: A Need for Developing "Big Data Metrics".

    PubMed

    Zisis, Kozlakidis

    2016-10-01

    The term "big data" has often been used as an all-encompassing phrase for research that involves the use of large-scale data sets. However, the use of the term does little to signify the underlying complexity of definitions, of data sets, and of the requirements that need to be taken into consideration for sustainable research and the estimation of downstream impact. In particular, "big data" is frequently connected with biobanks and biobank networks as the institutions involved in tissue preservation are increasingly and perhaps unavoidably linked to the de facto preservation of information.

  8. Patterns of public participation.

    PubMed

    Slutsky, Jean; Tumilty, Emma; Max, Catherine; Lu, Lanting; Tantivess, Sripen; Hauegen, Renata Curi; Whitty, Jennifer A; Weale, Albert; Pearson, Steven D; Tugendhaft, Aviva; Wang, Hufeng; Staniszewska, Sophie; Weerasuriya, Krisantha; Ahn, Jeonghoon; Cubillos, Leonardo

    2016-08-15

    Purpose - The paper summarizes data from 12 countries, chosen to exhibit wide variation, on the role and place of public participation in the setting of priorities. The purpose of this paper is to exhibit cross-national patterns in respect of public participation, linking those differences to institutional features of the countries concerned. Design/methodology/approach - The approach is an example of case-orientated qualitative assessment of participation practices. It derives its data from the presentation of country case studies by experts on each system. The country cases are located within the historical development of democracy in each country. Findings - Patterns of participation are widely variable. Participation that is effective through routinized institutional processes appears to be inversely related to contestatory participation that uses political mobilization to challenge the legitimacy of the priority setting process. No system has resolved the conceptual ambiguities that are implicit in the idea of public participation. Originality/value - The paper draws on a unique collection of country case studies in participatory practice in prioritization, supplementing existing published sources. In showing that contestatory participation plays an important role in a sub-set of these countries it makes an important contribution to the field because it broadens the debate about public participation in priority setting beyond the use of minipublics and the observation of public representatives on decision-making bodies.

  9. Floods in the Big Creek basin, Linn County, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinitz, Albert J.

    1977-01-01

    Flood information for the Big Creek basin in Linn County, Iowa, should be of use to those concerned with the design of bridges and other structures on the flood plains of the streams. Water-surface profiles for the flood of May 1974 are given for Big Creek and its major tributaries, East Big, Crabapple, Elbow, and Abbe Creeks. The May 1974 flood was at least a 50-year flood on East Big Creek and along certain reaches of Big and Abbe Creeks. Also included for Big Creek are a profile of the December 1971 medium-stage flow and a partial profile for the minor flood of July 1971. Profiles for the low-water condition of October 26, 1972, are shown for all reaches. Water-surface profiles for the 25- and 50-year floods are estimated in relation to the May 1974 flood.

  10. Data management by using R: big data clinical research series.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhongheng

    2015-11-01

    Electronic medical record (EMR) system has been widely used in clinical practice. Instead of traditional record system by hand writing and recording, the EMR makes big data clinical research feasible. The most important feature of big data research is its real-world setting. Furthermore, big data research can provide all aspects of information related to healthcare. However, big data research requires some skills on data management, which however, is always lacking in the curriculum of medical education. This greatly hinders doctors from testing their clinical hypothesis by using EMR. To make ends meet, a series of articles introducing data management techniques are put forward to guide clinicians to big data clinical research. The present educational article firstly introduces some basic knowledge on R language, followed by some data management skills on creating new variables, recoding variables and renaming variables. These are very basic skills and may be used in every project of big data research.

  11. Big questions come in bundles, hence they should be tackled systemically.

    PubMed

    Bunge, Mario

    2014-01-01

    A big problem is, by definition, one involving either multiple traits of a thing, or a collection of things. Because such problems are systemic or global rather than local or sectoral, they call for a systemic approach, and often a multidisciplinary one as well. Just think of individual and public health problems, or of income inequality, gender discrimination, housing, environmental, or political participation issues. All of them are inter-related, so that focusing on one of them at a time is bound to produce either short-term solutions or utter failure. This is also why single-issue political movements are bound to fail. In other words, big problems are systemic and must, therefore be approached systemically--though with the provisos that systemism must not be confused with holism and that synthesis complements analysis instead of replacing it.

  12. Big Five personality traits: are they really important for the subjective well-being of Indians?

    PubMed

    Tanksale, Deepa

    2015-02-01

    This study empirically examined the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and subjective well-being (SWB) in India. SWB variables used were life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect. A total of 183 participants in the age range 30-40 years from Pune, India, completed the personality and SWB measures. Backward stepwise regression analysis showed that the Big Five traits accounted for 17% of the variance in life satisfaction, 35% variance in positive affect and 28% variance in negative affect. Conscientiousness emerged as the strongest predictor of life satisfaction. In line with the earlier research findings, neuroticism and extraversion were found to predict negative affect and positive affect, respectively. Neither openness to experience nor agreeableness contributed to SWB. The research emphasises the need to revisit the association between personality and SWB across different cultures, especially non-western cultures.

  13. Vertebrate richness and biogeography in the Big Thicket of Texas

    Treesearch

    Michael H MacRoberts; Barbara R. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The Big Thicket of Texas has been described as rich in species and a “crossroads:” a place where organisms from many different regions meet. We examine the species richness and regional affiliations of Big Thicket vertebrates. We found that the Big Thicket is neither exceptionally rich in vertebrates nor is it a crossroads for vertebrates. Its vertebrate fauna is...

  14. Foreword: Big Data and Its Application in Health Disparities Research.

    PubMed

    Onukwugha, Eberechukwu; Duru, O Kenrik; Peprah, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    The articles presented in this special issue advance the conversation by describing the current efforts, findings and concerns related to Big Data and health disparities. They offer important recommendations and perspectives to consider when designing systems that can usefully leverage Big Data to reduce health disparities. We hope that ongoing Big Data efforts can build on these contributions to advance the conversation, address our embedded assumptions, and identify levers for action to reduce health care disparities.

  15. Children's Participation in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brostrom, Stig

    2012-01-01

    In (post) modern society children are seen as active subjects and participants who have a legitimate basis in the United Nations Convention of the Rights of the Child. As a consequence of this, children are able to play an active role in the planning of/and participation in both education and research in their own preschool settings. This article…

  16. Outdoor recreation participation trends

    Treesearch

    H. Ken Cordell; Barbara L. McDonald; R. Jeff Teasley; John C. Bergstrom; Jack Martin; Jim Bason; Vernon R. Leeworthy

    1999-01-01

    As part of the national assessment of outdoor recreation trends, the authors have taken a look at participation patterns and levels of participation across activities and across segments of our society. The primary source of data is the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment (NSRE). The NSRE is the latest in the continuing series of National Recreation...

  17. Big data analytics in healthcare: promise and potential.

    PubMed

    Raghupathi, Wullianallur; Raghupathi, Viju

    2014-01-01

    To describe the promise and potential of big data analytics in healthcare. The paper describes the nascent field of big data analytics in healthcare, discusses the benefits, outlines an architectural framework and methodology, describes examples reported in the literature, briefly discusses the challenges, and offers conclusions. The paper provides a broad overview of big data analytics for healthcare researchers and practitioners. Big data analytics in healthcare is evolving into a promising field for providing insight from very large data sets and improving outcomes while reducing costs. Its potential is great; however there remain challenges to overcome.

  18. Differential Privacy Preserving in Big Data Analytics for Connected Health.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi; Song, Zihao; Song, Houbing; Zhou, Yanhong; Wang, Yi; Wu, Guowei

    2016-04-01

    In Body Area Networks (BANs), big data collected by wearable sensors usually contain sensitive information, which is compulsory to be appropriately protected. Previous methods neglected privacy protection issue, leading to privacy exposure. In this paper, a differential privacy protection scheme for big data in body sensor network is developed. Compared with previous methods, this scheme will provide privacy protection with higher availability and reliability. We introduce the concept of dynamic noise thresholds, which makes our scheme more suitable to process big data. Experimental results demonstrate that, even when the attacker has full background knowledge, the proposed scheme can still provide enough interference to big sensitive data so as to preserve the privacy.

  19. [Embracing medical innovation in the era of big data].

    PubMed

    You, Suning

    2015-01-01

    Along with the advent of big data era worldwide, medical field has to place itself in it inevitably. The current article thoroughly introduces the basic knowledge of big data, and points out the coexistence of its advantages and disadvantages. Although the innovations in medical field are struggling, the current medical pattern will be changed fundamentally by big data. The article also shows quick change of relevant analysis in big data era, depicts a good intention of digital medical, and proposes some wise advices to surgeons.

  20. [Contemplation on the application of big data in clinical medicine].

    PubMed

    Lian, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Medicine is another area where big data is being used. The link between clinical treatment and outcome is the key step when applying big data in medicine. In the era of big data, it is critical to collect complete outcome data. Patient follow-up, comprehensive integration of data resources, quality control and standardized data management are the predominant approaches to avoid missing data and data island. Therefore, establishment of systemic patients follow-up protocol and prospective data management strategy are the important aspects of big data in medicine.

  1. 'Big data' in pharmaceutical science: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Dossetter, Al G; Ecker, Gerhard; Laverty, Hugh; Overington, John

    2014-05-01

    Future Medicinal Chemistry invited a selection of experts to express their views on the current impact of big data in drug discovery and design, as well as speculate on future developments in the field. The topics discussed include the challenges of implementing big data technologies, maintaining the quality and privacy of data sets, and how the industry will need to adapt to welcome the big data era. Their enlightening responses provide a snapshot of the many and varied contributions being made by big data to the advancement of pharmaceutical science.

  2. Depression and Political Participation*

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  3. Depression and Political Participation.

    PubMed

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument-whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group.

  4. Big Impacts and Transient Oceans on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, K. J.; Korycansky, D. G.; Nixon, C. A.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the thermal consequences of very big impacts on Titan [1]. Titan's thick atmosphere and volatile-rich surface cause it to respond to big impacts in a somewhat Earth-like manner. Here we construct a simple globally-averaged model that tracks the flow of energy through the environment in the weeks, years, and millenia after a big comet strikes Titan. The model Titan is endowed with 1.4 bars of N2 and 0.07 bars of CH4, methane lakes, a water ice crust, and enough methane underground to saturate the regolith to the surface. We assume that half of the impact energy is immediately available to the atmosphere and surface while the other half is buried at the site of the crater and is unavailable on time scales of interest. The atmosphere and surface are treated as isothermal. We make the simplifying assumptions that the crust is everywhere as methane saturated as it was at the Huygens landing site, that the concentration of methane in the regolith is the same as it is at the surface, and that the crust is made of water ice. Heat flow into and out of the crust is approximated by step-functions. If the impact is great enough, ice melts. The meltwater oceans cool to the atmosphere conductively through an ice lid while at the base melting their way into the interior, driven down in part through Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities between the dense water and the warm ice. Topography, CO2, and hydrocarbons other than methane are ignored. Methane and ethane clathrate hydrates are discussed quantitatively but not fully incorporated into the model.

  5. Big Data Analytics for Prostate Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Coates, James; Souhami, Luis; El Naqa, Issam

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a first-line treatment option for localized prostate cancer and radiation-induced normal tissue damage are often the main limiting factor for modern radiotherapy regimens. Conversely, under-dosing of target volumes in an attempt to spare adjacent healthy tissues limits the likelihood of achieving local, long-term control. Thus, the ability to generate personalized data-driven risk profiles for radiotherapy outcomes would provide valuable prognostic information to help guide both clinicians and patients alike. Big data applied to radiation oncology promises to deliver better understanding of outcomes by harvesting and integrating heterogeneous data types, including patient-specific clinical parameters, treatment-related dose–volume metrics, and biological risk factors. When taken together, such variables make up the basis for a multi-dimensional space (the “RadoncSpace”) in which the presented modeling techniques search in order to identify significant predictors. Herein, we review outcome modeling and big data-mining techniques for both tumor control and radiotherapy-induced normal tissue effects. We apply many of the presented modeling approaches onto a cohort of hypofractionated prostate cancer patients taking into account different data types and a large heterogeneous mix of physical and biological parameters. Cross-validation techniques are also reviewed for the refinement of the proposed framework architecture and checking individual model performance. We conclude by considering advanced modeling techniques that borrow concepts from big data analytics, such as machine learning and artificial intelligence, before discussing the potential future impact of systems radiobiology approaches. PMID:27379211

  6. Probing the Big Bang with LEP

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, D.N. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL )

    1990-06-01

    It is shown that LEP probes the Big Bang in two significant ways: (1) nucleosynthesis and (2) dark matter constraints. In the first case, LEP verifies the cosmological standard model prediction on the number of neutrino types, thus strengthening the conclusion that the cosmological baryon density is {approximately}6% of the critical value. In the second case, LEP shows that the remaining non-baryonic cosmological matter must be somewhat more massive and/or more weakly interacting that the favorite non-baryonic dark matter candidates of a few years ago. 59 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The New Big Science at the NSLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The term ``New Big Science'' refers to a phase shift in the kind of large-scale science that was carried out throughout the U.S. National Laboratory system, when large-scale materials science accelerators rather than high-energy physics accelerators became marquee projects at most major basic research laboratories in the post-Cold War era, accompanied by important changes in the character and culture of the research ecosystem at these laboratories. This talk explores some aspects of this phase shift at BNL's National Synchrotron Light Source.

  8. The Next Big Thing - Eric Haseltine

    ScienceCinema

    Eric Haseltine

    2016-07-12

    Eric Haseltine, Haseltine Partners president and former chief of Walt Disney Imagineering, presented "The Next Big Thing," on Sept. 11, at the ORNL. He described the four "early warning signs" that a scientific breakthrough is imminent, and then suggested practical ways to turn these insights into breakthrough innovations. Haseltine is former director of research at the National Security Agency and associate director for science and technology for the director of National Intelligence, former executive vice president of Walt Disney Imagineering and director of engineering for Hughes Aircraft. He has 15 patents in optics, special effects and electronic media, and more than 100 publications in science and technical journals, the web and Discover Magazine.

  9. Nuclear Receptors, RXR, and the Big Bang.

    PubMed

    Evans, Ronald M; Mangelsdorf, David J

    2014-03-27

    Isolation of genes encoding the receptors for steroids, retinoids, vitamin D, and thyroid hormone and their structural and functional analysis revealed an evolutionarily conserved template for nuclear hormone receptors. This discovery sparked identification of numerous genes encoding related proteins, termed orphan receptors. Characterization of these orphan receptors and, in particular, of the retinoid X receptor (RXR) positioned nuclear receptors at the epicenter of the "Big Bang" of molecular endocrinology. This Review provides a personal perspective on nuclear receptors and explores their integrated and coordinated signaling networks that are essential for multicellular life, highlighting the RXR heterodimer and its associated ligands and transcriptional mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Big Bang and Cosmic Inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guth, Alan H.

    2014-03-01

    A summary is given of the key developments of cosmology in the 20th century, from the work of Albert Einstein to the emergence of the generally accepted hot big bang model. The successes of this model are reviewed, but emphasis is placed on the questions that the model leaves unanswered. The remainder of the paper describes the inflationary universe model, which provides plausible answers to a number of these questions. It also offers a possible explanation for the origin of essentially all the matter and energy in the observed universe.

  11. Nuclear Receptors, RXR & the Big Bang

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Ronald M.; Mangelsdorf, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Isolation of genes encoding the receptors for steroids, retinoids, vitamin D and thyroid hormone, and their structural and functional analysis revealed an evolutionarily conserved template for nuclear hormone receptors. This discovery sparked identification of numerous genes encoding related proteins, termed orphan receptors. Characterization of these orphan receptors, and in particular of the retinoid X receptor (RXR), positioned nuclear receptors at the epicenter of the “Big Bang” of molecular endocrinology. This review provides a personal perspective on nuclear receptors and explores their integrated and coordinated signaling networks that are essential for multi-cellular life, highlighting the RXR heterodimer and its associated ligands and transcriptional mechanism. PMID:24679540

  12. Nanobiotech in big pharma: a business perspective.

    PubMed

    Würmseher, Martin; Firmin, Lea

    2017-03-01

    Since the early 2000s, numerous publications have presented major scientific opportunities that can be achieved through integrating insights from the area of nanotech into biotech (nanobiotech). This paper aims to explore the economic significance that nanobiotech has gained in the established pharmaceutical industry (big pharma). The empirical investigation draws on patent data as well as product revenue data; and to put the results into perspective, the amounts are compared with the established/traditional biotech sector. The results indicate that the new technology still plays only a minor role - at least from a commercial perspective.

  13. Probing the Big Bang with LEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that LEP probes the Big Bang in two significant ways: (1) nucleosynthesis, and (2) dark matter constraints. In the first case, LEP verifies the cosmological standard model prediction on the number of neutrino types, thus strengthening the conclusion that the cosmological baryon density is approximately 6 percent of the critical value. In the second case, LEP shows that the remaining non-baryonic cosmological matter must be somewhat more massive and/or more weakly interacting than the favorite non-baryonic dark matter candidates of a few years ago.

  14. Diversity in Big Data: A Review.

    PubMed

    Drosou, Marina; Jagadish, H V; Pitoura, Evaggelia; Stoyanovich, Julia

    2017-06-01

    Big data technology offers unprecedented opportunities to society as a whole and also to its individual members. At the same time, this technology poses significant risks to those it overlooks. In this article, we give an overview of recent technical work on diversity, particularly in selection tasks, discuss connections between diversity and fairness, and identify promising directions for future work that will position diversity as an important component of a data-responsible society. We argue that diversity should come to the forefront of our discourse, for reasons that are both ethical-to mitigate the risks of exclusion-and utilitarian, to enable more powerful, accurate, and engaging data analysis and use.

  15. A Smile as Big as the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-15

    NASA Kennedy Space Center Director Bob Cabana, left, presents a special plaque to Michael Kersjes, author and former special education teacher and football coach from Michigan, after his presentation to workers during the Disability Awareness and Action Working Group, or DAAWG, event. The theme of Kersjes' presentation was "Power of the Human Spirit." Kersjes is the author of the book, "A Smile as Big as the Moon," which told the true story of how he worked to get special education students into Space Camp, a competitive education program at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. His book was made into a movie in 2012.

  16. A Smile as Big as the Moon

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-10-15

    Michael Kersjes, author and former special education teacher and football coach from Michigan, speaks to workers during the Disability Awareness and Action Working Group, or DAAWG, event at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The theme of his presentation was "Power of the Human Spirit." Kersjes is the author of the book, "A Smile as Big as the Moon," which told the true story of how he worked to get special education students into Space Camp, a competitive education program at the U.S. Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama. His book was made into a movie in 2012.

  17. Atomes du big bang : premiere detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet-Bidaud, J. M.

    1994-09-01

    Ce fut au Keck d'ouvrir le bal, en debusquant du deuterium a plus de 10 milliards d'annees-lumiere. Puis, en juillet, vint l'annonce qu'Hubble avait apercu de l'helium flottant dans le milieu intergalactque lontain. Que ces deux prouesses realisees a la lumiere de quasars se confirment et elles ouvriraient enfin la chasse aux atomes primordiaux nes dans les trois premieres minutes de l'Univers. Avec toutefois un probleme : l'une apporterait de l'eau au moulin du Big Bang, mais l'autre ferait plutot figure de pave dans la mare ...

  18. Ocean Networks Canada's "Big Data" Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.; Pirenne, B.; Owens, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ocean Networks Canada operates two large undersea observatories that collect, archive, and deliver data in real time over the Internet. These data contribute to our understanding of the complex changes taking place on our ocean planet. Ocean Networks Canada's VENUS was the world's first cabled seafloor observatory to enable researchers anywhere to connect in real time to undersea experiments and observations. Its NEPTUNE observatory is the largest cabled ocean observatory, spanning a wide range of ocean environments. Most recently, we installed a new small observatory in the Arctic. Together, these observatories deliver "Big Data" across many disciplines in a cohesive manner using the Oceans 2.0 data management and archiving system that provides national and international users with open access to real-time and archived data while also supporting a collaborative work environment. Ocean Networks Canada operates these observatories to support science, innovation, and learning in four priority areas: study of the impact of climate change on the ocean; the exploration and understanding the unique life forms in the extreme environments of the deep ocean and below the seafloor; the exchange of heat, fluids, and gases that move throughout the ocean and atmosphere; and the dynamics of earthquakes, tsunamis, and undersea landslides. To date, the Ocean Networks Canada archive contains over 130 TB (collected over 7 years) and the current rate of data acquisition is ~50 TB per year. This data set is complex and diverse. Making these "Big Data" accessible and attractive to users is our priority. In this presentation, we share our experience as a "Big Data" institution where we deliver simple and multi-dimensional calibrated data cubes to a diverse pool of users. Ocean Networks Canada also conducts extensive user testing. Test results guide future tool design and development of "Big Data" products. We strive to bridge the gap between the raw, archived data and the needs and

  19. Pre - big bang inflation requires fine tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, Michael S.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    1997-10-01

    The pre-big-bang cosmology inspired by superstring theories has been suggested as an alternative to slow-roll inflation. We analyze, in both the Jordan and Einstein frames, the effect of spatial curvature on this scenario and show that too much curvature --- of either sign --- reduces the duration of the inflationary era to such an extent that the flatness and horizon problems are not solved. Hence, a fine-tuning of initial conditions is required to obtain enough inflation to solve the cosmological problems.

  20. [Research with big data: the European perspective].

    PubMed

    Bender, Stefan; Elias, P

    2015-08-01

    The article examines the impact that legislative developments in the European Union have had, still have and are continuing to have on cross-border access to microdata for research purposes. Therefore, we describe two competing aims: the tension between the ambitions of the EU to create a European Research Area within which research communities gain access to and share data across national boundaries; and the desire within the EU to establish a harmonious legislative framework that provides protection from the misuse of personal information. We attempt to examine which new developments at the EU level will have an impact upon research plans and the challenges researchers face when analysing big data.