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Sample records for big bend region

  1. Paleosols and the Cretaceous/Tertiary transition in the Big Bend region of Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Lehman, T.M. )

    1990-04-01

    A marked change in paleosols coincides with Cretaceous/Tertiary transition in fluvial sediments of the Big Bend region in Texas. Early Paleocene paleosols exhibit thick, black epipedons and a greater depth to the argillic and petrocalcic horizons compared to Late Cretaceous paleosols. These features and comparison with modern soils suggest that early Paleocene soils developed under conditions of higher rainfall and cooler temperatures than did Late Cretaceous soils. The change in paleosols occurs abruptly at the highest occurrence of dinosaur bones in the section.

  2. Results of new petrologic and remote sensing studies in the Big Bend region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benker, Stevan Christian

    The initial section of this manuscript involves the South Rim Formation, a series of 32.2-32 Ma comenditic quartz trachytic-rhyolitic volcanics and associated intrusives, erupted and was emplaced in Big Bend National Park, Texas. Magmatic parameters have only been interpreted for one of the two diverse petrogenetic suites comprising this formation. Here, new mineralogic data for the South Rim Formation rocks are presented. Magmatic parameters interpreted from these data assist in deciphering lithospheric characteristics during the mid-Tertiary. Results indicate low temperatures (< 750 °C), reduced conditions (generally below the FMQ buffer), and low pressures (≤ 100 MPa) associated with South Rim Formation magmatism with slight conditional differences between the two suites. Newly discovered fayalite microphenocrysts allowed determination of oxygen fugacity values (between -0.14 and -0.25 DeltaFMQ over temperature ranges of 680-700 °C), via mineral equilibria based QUILF95 calculations, for Emory Peak Suite. Petrologic information is correlated with structural evidence from Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent regions to evaluate debated timing of tectonic transition (Laramide compression to Basin and Range extension) and onset of the southern Rio Grande Rift during the mid-Tertiary. The A-type and peralkaline characteristics of the South Rim Formation and other pre-31 Ma magmatism in Trans-Pecos Texas, in addition to evidence implying earlier Rio Grande Rift onset in Colorado and New Mexico, promotes a near-neutral to transtensional setting in Trans-Pecos Texas by 32 Ma. This idea sharply contrasts with interpretations of tectonic compression and arc-related magmatism until 31 Ma as suggested by some authors. However, evidence discussed cannot preclude a pre-36 Ma proposed by other authors. The later section of this manuscript involves research in the Big Bend area using Google Earth. At present there is high interest in using Google Earth in a variety of scientific

  3. Fossil insect evidence for late Quaternary climatic change in the Big Bend region, Chihuahuan Desert, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, Scott A.; Van Devender, Thomas R.

    1990-09-01

    A series of 50 packrat midden assemblages from the Big Bend region of the Chihuahuan Desert, ranging in age from >36,000 yr B.P. to recent, yielded abundant, diverse arthropod faunas. The mesic nature of regional Wisconsin age climates is substantiated by the fauna from 30,000-12,000 yr B.P., especially during the middle Wisconsin (30,000-20,000 yr B.P.). Late Wisconsin faunas contained grassland species which are confined today to cooler, moister regions. Following 12,000 yr B.P., most of these temperate species were replaced either by desert species or by more cosmopolitan taxa, marking the climatic shift from late Wisconsin to postglacial time. Insects indicative of more severe aridity are first recorded at about 6000 yr B.P., but some temperate species persisted until about 2500 yr B.P. After this, only desert dwellers are recorded.

  4. Water quality and amphibian health in the Big Bend region of the Rio Grande Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Bibek; Hu, F.; Carr, J.A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2011-01-01

    Male and female Rio Grande leopard frogs (Rana berlandieri) were collected in May 2005 from the main stem and tributaries of the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas. Frogs were examined for (1) incidence of testicular ovarian follicles in males; (2) thyroid epithelial cell height, a potential index of exposure to thyroid-disrupting contaminants; and (3) incidence of liver melanomacrophage aggregates, a general index of exposure to contaminants. Standard parameters of surface water quality and concentrations of selected elements, including heavy metals, were determined at each frog collection site. Heavy metals also were measured in whole-frog composite extracts. Water cadmium concentrations in most sites and chloride concentrations in the main stem exceeded federal criteria for freshwater aquatic life. Mercury was detected in frogs from the two collection sites in Terlingua Creek. There was a seventeen percent incidence of testicular ovarian follicles in male frogs. Mean thyroid epithelial cell height was greater in frogs from one of the Terlingua Creek sites (Terlingua Abajo). No differences were observed in the incidence of hepatic macrophage aggregates among sites. In conclusion, although potential cause-effect relationships between indices of habitat quality and amphibian health could not be established, the results of this study raise concerns about the general quality of the aquatic habitat and the potential long-term consequences to the aquatic biota of the Big Bend region. The presence of ovarian follicles in male frogs is noteworthy but further study is necessary to determine whether this phenomenon is natural or anthropogenically induced.

  5. Modeling the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study using CMAQ-MADRID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipping, E. M.; Kumar, N.; Pun, B.; Wu, S.; Seigneur, C.

    2003-12-01

    A scientifically rigorous treatment of particulate matter within the framework of the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model is provided by CMAQ-MADRID (Model for Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution). CMAQ-MADRID is used to simulate the fate and transport of ambient gases and particulate matter (PM) during the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) study. The configuration of CMAQ-MADRID used for this study comprises the Regional Acid Deposition Mechanism v.2 (RADM2) gas-phase chemistry mechanism, a sectional PM solver incorporating the ISORROPIA inorganic thermodynamics module and the AER/EPRI/Caltech (AEC) secondary organic aerosol (SOA) module, and the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) cloud chemistry module. Boundary conditions for gas- and particle-phase species are prescribed by an outer domain simulated using the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition REMSAD (whose domain comprises most of North America). Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and particulate sulfate boundary conditions for the REMSAD domain are provided by the Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation Transport (GOCART) model. Concentrations of sulfur dioxide and particulate sulfate at the CMAQ boundary are scaled to observations from monitoring stations of the Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNet) and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network. The performance of CMAQ-MADRID is evaluated by comparing predictions with field measurements of the principal components contributing to visibility degradation: salts of ammonium with sulfate and nitrate, organic mass, elemental carbon and "other" particulate matter constituents, e.g. dust, sea salt and metal oxides. Model performance with respect to sulfate predictions, including model performance for its gas-phase precursor, sulfur dioxide, is explored across the thirty-seven stations comprising the BRAVO Network. The performance of CMAQ

  6. Environmental contaminants in prey and tissues of the peregrine falcon in the Big Bend Region, Texas, USA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, M.; Skiles, R.; McKinney, B.; Paredes, M.; Buckler, D.; Papoulias, D.; Klein, D.

    2002-01-01

    Peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) have been recorded nesting in Big Bend National Park, Texas, USA and other areas of the Chihuahuan Desert since the early 1900s. From 1993 to 1996, peregrine falcon productivity rates were very low and coincided with periods of low rainfall. However, low productivity also was suspected to be caused by environmental contaminants. To evaluate potential impacts of contaminants on peregrine falcon populations, likely avian and bat prey species were collected during 1994 and 1997 breeding seasons in selected regions of western Texas, primarily in Big Bend National Park. Tissues of three peregrine falcons found injured or dead and feathers of one live fledgling also were analyzed. Overall, mean concentrations of DDE [1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene], a metabolite of DDT [1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane], were low in all prey species except for northern rough-winged swallows (Stelgidopteryx serripennis, mean = 5.1 microg/g ww). Concentrations of mercury and selenium were elevated in some species, up to 2.5 microg/g dw, and 15 microg/g dw, respectively, which upon consumption could seriously affect reproduction of top predators. DDE levels near 5 microg/g ww were detected in carcass of one peregrine falcon found dead but the cause of death was unknown. Mercury, selenium, and DDE to some extent, may be contributing to low reproductive rates of peregrine falcons in the Big Bend region.

  7. Development of a United States-Mexico Emissions Inventory for the Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Hampden; Knipping, Eladio M; Vukovich, Jeffrey M

    2005-05-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational (BRAVO) Study was commissioned to investigate the sources of haze at Big Bend National Park in southwest Texas. The modeling domain of the BRAVO Study includes most of the continental United States and Mexico. The BRAVO emissions inventory was constructed from the 1999 National Emission Inventory for the United States, modified to include finer-resolution data for Texas and 13 U.S. states in close proximity. The first regional-scale Mexican emissions inventory designed for air-quality modeling applications was developed for 10 northern Mexican states, the Tula Industrial Park in the state of Hidalgo, and the Popocatépetl volcano in the state of Puebla. Emissions data were compiled from numerous sources, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission (now Texas Commission on Environmental Quality), the Eastern Research Group, the Minerals Management Service, the Instituto Nacional de Ecología, and the Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía y Informática. The inventory includes emissions for CO, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, particulate matter (PM) < 10 microm in aerodynamic diameter, and PM < 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter. Wind-blown dust and biomass burning were not included in the inventory, although high concentrations of dust and organic PM attributed to biomass burning have been observed at Big Bend National Park. The SMOKE modeling system was used to generate gridded emissions fields for use with the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) and the Community Multiscale Air Quality model modified with the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization and Dissolution (CMAQ-MADRID). The compilation of the inventory, supporting model input data, and issues encountered during the development of the inventory are documented. A comparison of the BRAVO emissions

  8. Big Bend sees big environmental push

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-10-15

    The 1800 MW Big Bend Power Station is a coal-fired facility in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA owned by Tampa Electric. It has four pulverized coal- fired steam units equipped with FGD scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators. Currently the addition of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems is under consideration. The Unit 4 SCR retrofit was completed in June 2007; the remaining three systems are scheduled for completion by 2010. Boiler draft systems will be modified to a balance draft design to accommodate the increased pressure drop of the new systems. 3-D computer models were developed to determine constructability due to the tight clearance at the site. 1 photo.

  9. Remotely Sensed Optical Water Quality for Water Quality Assessment and Seagrass Protection in Florida's Big Bend Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, P. R.; Hu, C.; Cannizarro, J.; Yarbro, L. A.; English, D. C.; Magley, W.; Charbonneau, M.; Barnes, B.

    2012-12-01

    Florida's Big Bend coastal region contains the second largest contiguous seagrass bed in the continental US. Approximately 250,000 ha of seagrass have been mapped in the region, but the total area of offshore seagrass beds might be several times greater. The Suwannee River drains a largely agricultural watershed (26,000 km2) in Georgia and Florida, and its discharge (x= 280 m3/s) affects water clarity over most of the Big Bend seagrass beds. Seagrass density, species composition and areal extent were severely affected by discharge associated with tropical cyclones in 2004 and 2005, focusing attention on this important resource and the near- and far-field impacts of the Suwannee River discharge. The Lower Suwannee River also has been identified by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection as an impaired water body due to high nitrogen and algal biomass. This project attempts to improve water quality and to protect Big Bend seagrasses by making remotely sensed optical water quality data more accessible to managers and stakeholders involved in the process of regulating nutrient loads in the Suwannee River and to provide data to assess effectiveness of management actions. To accomplish these goals, we have developed and tested new algorithms for retrieval of Kd, chlorophyll, and CDOM from Modis imagery, created a time series of optical water quality (OWQ) for the Suwannee River Estuary (SRE), and related seagrass gains and losses to annual variations in optical water quality. During two years of bimonthly ground-truth cruises, chlorophyll concentrations, Aph, Ad, and Acdom in the SRE were 0.3-38.3 mgm-3, 0.013-1.056, 0.013-0.735, and 0.042-7.24, respectively. For most locations and most cruises, CDOM was the dominant determinant of Kd. In the Modis time series, Kd488 estimates (calculated using the Quasi-Analytic Algorithm of Lee et al. 2006) covaried with Suwannee River discharge between 2002 and 2011 with an overall r2 value of 0.64. This relationship is

  10. Sediment Supply Versus Local Hydraulic Controls on Sediment Transport and Storage in the Rio Grande in the Big Bend Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, D. J.; Topping, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico, has a large sediment supply, and a variable hydrology resulting in rapid channel narrowing during years of low mean and peak flow, and channel widening during rare, large-magnitude floods. This dynamic nature makes the Rio Grande a useful natural laboratory to investigate the relative importance of flow strength and sediment supply in controlling channel change. We analyzed a suite of sediment-transport and geomorphic data to determine the cumulative influence of different flood types on changing channel form. In this study, physically-based analyses suggest that channel change on the Rio Grande is controlled by both changes in flow strength and sediment supply over different spatial and temporal scales. Channel narrowing is primarily caused by sediment supplied to the Rio Grande during flash floods on desert tributaries. Tributary floods have large suspended-sediment concentrations, occur for short durations, and attenuate rapidly downstream in the Rio Grande, depositing much of their sediment in downstream reaches. Long-duration floods on the mainstem are the only floods that have the capacity to enlarge the Rio Grande. These floods, released from upstream dams, can either erode or deposit sediment in the Rio Grande depending upon the antecedent in-channel sediment supply and the magnitude and duration of the flood. Geomorphic and sediment-transport analyses show that sand erosion and deposition during long-duration floods are most strongly controlled by the spatial distribution of flow strength as governed by channel slope. However, temporal changes in the grain size and amount of available sand within the channel, as inferred from comprehensive analyses of suspended-sediment concentration and grain size, control the degree of sediment evacuation or accumulation over large spatial scales.

  11. The role of feedback mechanisms in historic channel changes of the lower Rio Grande in the Big Bend region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

    2011-03-01

    Over the last century, large-scale water development of the upper Rio Grande in the U.S. and Mexico, and of the Rio Conchos in Mexico, has resulted in progressive channel narrowing of the lower Rio Grande in the Big Bend region. We used methods operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales to analyze the rate, magnitude, and processes responsible for channel narrowing. These methods included: hydrologic analysis of historic stream gage data, analysis of notes of measured discharges, historic oblique and aerial photograph analysis, and stratigraphic and dendrogeomorphic analysis of inset floodplain deposits. Our analyses indicate that frequent large floods between 1900 and the mid-1940s acted as a negative feedback mechanism and maintained a wide, sandy, multi-threaded river. Declines in mean and peak flow in the mid-1940s resulted in progressive channel narrowing. Channel narrowing has been temporarily interrupted by occasional large floods that widened the channel, however, channel narrowing has always resumed. After large floods in 1990 and 1991, the active channel width of the lower Rio Grande has narrowed by 36-52%. Narrowing has occurred by the vertical accretion of fine-grained deposits on top of sand and gravel bars, inset within natural levees. Channel narrowing by vertical accretion occurred simultaneously with a rapid invasion of non-native riparian vegetation ( Tamarix spp., Arundo donax) which created a positive feedback and exacerbated the processes of channel narrowing and vertical accretion. In two floodplain trenches, we measured 2.75 and 3.5 m of vertical accretion between 1993 and 2008. In some localities, nearly 90% of bare, active channel bars were converted to vegetated floodplain during the same period. Upward shifts of stage-discharge relations occurred resulting in over-bank flooding at lower discharges, and continued vertical accretion despite a progressive reduction in stream flow. Thus, although the magnitude of the average annual

  12. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  13. From Channel to Floodplain: Geomorphic Transformation of the Rio Grande in the Big Bend Region of Texas, Chihuahua, and Coahuila

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.

    2008-12-01

    Multiple analyses indicate that over the last 17 years on the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, a positive feedback mechanism existed between extended base-flows, non-native vegetation invasion, and vertical floodplain accretion which caused rapid channel narrowing and disconnection of the floodplain from the channel. We identified this feedback mechanism using detailed stratigraphic analyses of inset floodplain deposits, dendro-geomorphological analyses of woody vegetation removed from floodplain trenches, hydrologic analyses, and observed shifts in the stage-discharge relation. The active channel width of the Rio Grande has narrowed by 35-50% since 1991. Narrowing has occurred by vertical accretion of fine-grained deposits on top of alternate bars of sand, gravel, and cobbles. These vertically accreting deposits are inset within natural levees. In two long floodplain trenches, we measured 2.75 and 3.5m of vertical accretion, all of which occurred during the past 17 years. In some localities, nearly 90% of bare, active channel bars were converted to vegetated floodplain during the same period. Channel narrowing by vertical accretion coincided with a rapid invasion of non-native riparian vegetation (Tamarix spp., Arundo donax) which increased bank roughness and created a positive feedback of decreased channel capacity, an upward shift of the stage-discharge relation, overbank flooding at lower discharges, and continued vertical accretion. Thus, although peak flows were reduced by 48% and the percent exceedance of both the two-year flood and long- term mean annual flow declined during the past 17 years, overbank flooding continued. These changes reflect a shift in the geomorphic character of the Rio Grande from a wide river with transient channel margins and in-stream geomorphic features to a simple channel with steep, definable, vegetated banks and few bare active geomorphic surfaces.

  14. Mid-Tertiary magmatism in western Big Bend National Park, Texas, U.S.A.: Evolution of basaltic source regions and generation of peralkaline rhyolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Don F.; Ren, Minghua; Adams, David T.; Tsai, Heng; Long, Leon E.

    2012-07-01

    Tertiary magmatism in the Big Bend region of southwestern Texas spanned 47 to 17 Ma and included representatives of all three phases (Early, Main and Late) of the Trans-Pecos magmatic province. Early phase magmatism was manifested in the Alamo Creek Basalt, an alkalic lava series ranging from basalt to benmoreite, and silicic alkalic intrusions of the Christmas Mountains. Main phase magmatism in the late Eocene/early Oligocene produced Bee Mountain Basalt, a lava series ranging from hawaiite and potassic trachybasalt to latite, widespread trachytic lavas of Tule Mountain Trachyte and silicic rocks associated with the Pine Mountain Caldera in the Chisos Mountains. Late main phase magmatism produced trachyte lava and numerous dome complexes of peralkaline Burro Mesa Rhyolite (~ 29 Ma) in western Big Bend National Park. Late stage basaltic magmatism is sparsely represented by a few lavas in the Big Bend Park area, the adjacent Black Gap area and, most notably, in the nearby Bofecillos Mountains, where alkalic basaltic rocks were emplaced as lava and dikes concurrent with active normal faulting. Trace element modeling, Nd isotope ratios and calculated depths of segregation for estimated ancestral basaltic magmas suggest that Alamo Creek basalts (ɛNdt ~ 6.15 to 2.33) were derived from depths (~ 120 to 90 km) near the lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary at temperatures of ~ 1600 to1560 °C, whereas primitive Bee Mountain basalts (ɛNdt ~ 0.285 to - 1.20) may have been segregated at shallower depths (~ 80 to 50 km) and lower temperatures (~ 1520 to 1430 °C) within the continental lithosphere. Nb/La versus Ba/La plots suggest that all were derived from OIB-modified continental lithosphere. Late stage basaltic rocks from the Bofecillos Mountains may indicate a return to source depths and temperatures similar to those calculated for Alamo Creek Basalt primitive magmas. We suggest that a zone of melting ascended into the continental lithosphere during main-phase activity and

  15. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed waters...

  16. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed waters...

  17. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed waters...

  18. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed waters...

  19. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed waters...

  20. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Gray, John E; Theodorakos, Peter M; Fey, David L; Krabbenhoft, David P

    2015-02-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8-11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03-0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9-14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05-3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1-9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63-9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from <0.001 to 760 µg of Hg in leachate/g of sample leached, but only one leachate exceeded the USEPA Hg industrial soil screening level of 31 µg/g. Concentrations of Hg in soil gas collected at mined sites (690-82,000 ng/m(3)) were highly elevated compared to soil gas collected from baseline sites (1.2-77 ng/m(3)). However, air collected from mined areas at a height of 2 m above the ground surface contained concentrations of Hg (4.9-64 ng/m(3)) that were considerably lower than Hg in soil gas from the mined areas. Although concentrations of Hg emitted from mine-contaminated soils and mine wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air within a few meters of the

  1. Mercury concentrations and distribution in soil, water, mine waste leachates, and air in and around mercury mines in the Big Bend region, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Fey, David L.; Krabbenhoft, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Samples of soil, water, mine waste leachates, soil gas, and air were collected from areas mined for mercury (Hg) and baseline sites in the Big Bend area, Texas, to evaluate potential Hg contamination in the region. Soil samples collected within 300 m of an inactive Hg mine contained elevated Hg concentrations (3.8–11 µg/g), which were considerably higher than Hg in soil collected from baseline sites (0.03–0.05 µg/g) distal (as much as 24 km) from mines. Only three soil samples collected within 300 m of the mine exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 µg/g, above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Concentrations of Hg in mine water runoff (7.9–14 ng/L) were generally higher than those found in springs and wells (0.05–3.1 ng/L), baseline streams (1.1–9.7 ng/L), and sources of drinking water (0.63–9.1 ng/L) collected in the Big Bend region. Concentrations of Hg in all water samples collected in this study were considerably below the 2,000 ng/L drinking water Hg guideline and the 770 ng/L guideline recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic wildlife from chronic effects of Hg. Concentrations of Hg in water leachates obtained from leaching of mine wastes varied widely from <0.001 to 760 µg of Hg in leachate/g of sample leached, but only one leachate exceeded the USEPA Hg industrial soil screening level of 31 µg/g. Concentrations of Hg in soil gas collected at mined sites (690–82,000 ng/m3) were highly elevated compared to soil gas collected from baseline sites (1.2–77 ng/m3). However, air collected from mined areas at a height of 2 m above the ground surface contained concentrations of Hg (4.9–64 ng/m3) that were considerably lower than Hg in soil gas from the mined areas. Although concentrations of Hg emitted from mine-contaminated soils and mine wastes were elevated, persistent wind in southwest Texas disperses Hg in the air

  2. Geologic map of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Berry, Margaret E.; Page, William R.; Lehman, Thomas M.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Scott, Robert B.; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahn, James R.; Cooper, Roger W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Williams, Van S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to provide the National Park Service and the public with an updated digital geologic map of Big Bend National Park (BBNP). The geologic map report of Maxwell and others (1967) provides a fully comprehensive account of the important volcanic, structural, geomorphological, and paleontological features that define BBNP. However, the map is on a geographically distorted planimetric base and lacks topography, which has caused difficulty in conducting GIS-based data analyses and georeferencing the many geologic features investigated and depicted on the map. In addition, the map is outdated, excluding significant data from numerous studies that have been carried out since its publication more than 40 years ago. This report includes a modern digital geologic map that can be utilized with standard GIS applications to aid BBNP researchers in geologic data analysis, natural resource and ecosystem management, monitoring, assessment, inventory activities, and educational and recreational uses. The digital map incorporates new data, many revisions, and greater detail than the original map. Although some geologic issues remain unresolved for BBNP, the updated map serves as a foundation for addressing those issues. Funding for the Big Bend National Park geologic map was provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program and the National Park Service. The Big Bend mapping project was administered by staff in the USGS Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, Denver, Colo. Members of the USGS Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center completed investigations in parallel with the geologic mapping project. Results of these investigations addressed some significant current issues in BBNP and the U.S.-Mexico border region, including contaminants and human health, ecosystems, and water resources. Funding for the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in BBNP, and associated data analyses and

  3. The geomorphic effectiveness of a large flood on the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region: insights on geomorphic controls and post-flood geomorphic response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the 1940s, the Rio Grande in the Big Bend region has undergone long periods of channel narrowing, which have been occasionally interrupted by rare, large floods that widen the channel (termed a channel reset). The most recent channel reset occurred in 2008 following a 17-year period of extremely low stream flow and rapid channel narrowing. Flooding was caused by precipitation associated with the remnants of tropical depression Lowell in the Rio Conchos watershed, the largest tributary to the Rio Grande. Floodwaters approached 1500 m3/s (between a 13 and 15 year recurrence interval) and breached levees, inundated communities, and flooded the alluvial valley of the Rio Grande; the wetted width exceeding 2.5 km in some locations. The 2008 flood had the 7th largest magnitude of record, however, conveyed the largest volume of water than any other flood. Because of the narrow pre-flood channel conditions, record flood stages occurred. We used pre- and post-flood aerial photographs, channel and floodplain surveys, and 1-dimensional hydraulic models to quantify the magnitude of channel change, investigate the controls of flood-induced geomorphic changes, and measure the post-flood response of the widened channel. These analyses show that geomorphic changes included channel widening, meander migration, avulsions, extensive bar formation, and vertical floodplain accretion. Reach-averaged channel widening between 26 and 52% occurred, but in some localities exceeded 500%. The degree and style of channel response was related, but not limited to, three factors: 1) bed-load supply and transport, 2) pre-flood channel plan form, and 3) rapid declines in specific stream power downstream of constrictions and areas of high channel bed slope. The post-flood channel response has consisted of channel contraction through the aggradation of the channel bed and the formation of fine-grained benches inset within the widened channel margins. The most significant post-flood geomorphic

  4. New insights on stress rotations from a forward regional model of the San Andreas fault system near its Big Bend in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitzenz, D.D.; Miller, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the stress field surrounding and driving active fault systems is an important component of mechanistic seismic hazard assessment. We develop and present results from a time-forward three-dimensional (3-D) model of the San Andreas fault system near its Big Bend in southern California. The model boundary conditions are assessed by comparing model and observed tectonic regimes. The model of earthquake generation along two fault segments is used to target measurable properties (e.g., stress orientations, heat flow) that may allow inferences on the stress state on the faults. It is a quasi-static model, where GPS-constrained tectonic loading drives faults modeled as mostly sealed viscoelastic bodies embedded in an elastic half-space subjected to compaction and shear creep. A transpressive tectonic regime develops southwest of the model bend as a result of the tectonic loading and migrates toward the bend because of fault slip. The strength of the model faults is assessed on the basis of stress orientations, stress drop, and overpressures, showing a departure in the behavior of 3-D finite faults compared to models of 1-D or homogeneous infinite faults. At a smaller scale, stress transfers from fault slip transiently induce significant perturbations in the local stress tensors (where the slip profile is very heterogeneous). These stress rotations disappear when subsequent model earthquakes smooth the slip profile. Maps of maximum absolute shear stress emphasize both that (1) future models should include a more continuous representation of the faults and (2) that hydrostatically pressured intact rock is very difficult to break when no material weakness is considered. Copyright 2004 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Preliminary survey of the mayflies (Ephemeroptera) and caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Big Bend Ranch State Park and Big Bend National Park

    PubMed Central

    Baumgardner, David E.; Bowles, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The mayfly (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) and caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) fauna of Big Bend National Park and Big Bend Ranch State Park are reported based upon numerous records. For mayflies, sixteen species representing four families and twelve genera are reported. By comparison, thirty-five species of caddisflies were collected during this study representing seventeen genera and nine families. Although the Rio Grande supports the greatest diversity of mayflies (n=9) and caddisflies (n=14), numerous spring-fed creeks throughout the park also support a wide variety of species. A general lack of data on the distribution and abundance of invertebrates in Big Bend National and State Park is discussed, along with the importance of continuing this type of research. PMID:17119610

  6. Assessment of acreage and vegetation change in Florida's Big Bend tidal wetlands using satellite imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Stumpf, Richard P.

    1997-01-01

    Fluctuations in sea level and impending development on the west coast of Florida have aroused concern for the relatively pristine tidal marshes of the Big Bend. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images for 1986 and 1995 are processed and evaluated for signs of change. The images cover 250 km of Florida's Big Bend Gulf Coast, encompassing 160,000 acres of tidal marshes. Change is detected using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and land cover classification. The imagery shows negligible net loss or gain in the marsh over the 9-year period. However, regional changes in biomass are apparent and are due to natural disturbances such as low winter temperatures, fire, storm surge, and the conversion of forest to march. Within the marsh, the most prominent changes in NDVI and in land cover result from the recovery of mangroves from freezes, a decline of transitional upland vegetation, and susceptibility of the marsh edge and interior to variations in tidal flooding.

  7. Thrust-induced collapse of mountains-an example from the "Big Bend" region of the San Andreas Fault, western transverse ranges, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.

    2005-01-01

    Mount Pinos and Frazier Mountain are two prominent mountains just south of the San Andreas fault in the western Transverse Ranges of southern California, a region that has undergone rapid Quaternary contraction and uplift. Both mountains are underlain, at least in part, by thrusts that place granitic and gneissic rocks over sedimentary rocks as young as Pliocene. Broad profiles and nearly flat summits of each mountain have previously been interpreted as relicts of a raised erosion surface. However, several features bring this interpretation into question. First, lag or stream gravels do not mantle the summit surfaces. Second, extensive landslide deposits, mostly pre?Holocene and deeply incised, mantle the flanks of both mountains. Third, a pervasive fracture and crushed?rock network pervades the crystalline rocks underlying both mountains. The orientation of the fractures, prominent in roadcuts on Mount Pinos, is essentially random. 'Hill?and?saddle' morphology characterizes ridges radiating from the summits, especially on Mount Pinos; outcrops are sparse on the hills and are nonexistent in the saddles, suggesting fractures are concentrated in the saddles. Latest movement on the thrusts underlying the two mountain massifs is probably early Quaternary, during which the mountains were uplifted to considerably higher (although unknown) elevations than at present. A model proposes that during thrusting, ground accelerations in the hanging wall, particularly near thrust tips, were high enough to pervasively fracture the hanging?wall rocks, thereby weakening them and producing essentially an assemblage of loose blocks. Movement over flexures in the fault surface accentuated fracturing. The lowered shear stresses necessary for failure, coupled with deep dissection and ongoing seismic activity, reduced gravitational potential by spreading the mountain massifs, triggering flanking landslides and producing broad, flat?topped mountains. This study developed from mapping in

  8. Further assessment of environmental contaminants in avian prey of the peregrine falcon in big bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mora, M.A.; Skiles, R.S.; Paredes, M.

    2007-01-01

    A small resident population of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus anatum) in the Big Bend region of Texas has suffered reproductive failures since 1990. To continue our assessment of the effects of environmental contaminants on the peregrine falcon, we collected representative avian prey species during 2001 at Mariscal Canyon, Big Bend National Park. The avian carcasses were analyzed for inorganic and organochlorine contaminants. Concentrations of Se and Hg were present at high levels (up to 11 and 2.2 ??g/g dry weight, respectively) in some avian prey and could be implicated in reproductive failures of the peregrine falcon in Big Bend National Park. All other inorganic elements were below concentrations known to affect reproduction or to be associated with other deleterious effects in birds. Of all the organochlorines analyzed, only DDE and total PCBs were present above detection limits in all species, although at low concentrations. Our study provides further support to the hypothesis that contaminants in potential avian prey of the peregrine falcon in the Big Bend region are implicated in the productivity failures observed in this species since 1990.

  9. Viscoelastic coupling model of the San Andreas fault along the big bend, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Lisowski, M.

    1997-01-01

    The big bend segment of the San Andreas fault is the 300-km-long segment in southern California that strikes about N65??W, roughly 25?? counterclockwise from the local tangent to the small circle about the Pacific-North America pole of rotation. The broad distribution of deformation of trilateration networks along this segment implies a locking depth of at least 25 km as interpreted by the conventional model of strain accumulation (continuous slip on the fault below the locking depth at the rate of relative plate motion), whereas the observed seismicity and laboratory data on fault strength suggest that the locking depth should be no greater than 10 to 15 km. The discrepancy is explained by the viscoelastic coupling model which accounts for the viscoelastic response of the lower crust. Thus the broad distribution of deformation observed across the big bend segment can be largely associated with the San Andreas fault itself, not subsidiary faults distributed throughout the region. The Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [1995] in using geodetic data to estimate the seismic risk in southern California has assumed that strain accumulated off the San Andreas fault is released by earthquakes located off the San Andreas fault. Thus they count the San Andreas contribution to total seismic moment accumulation more than once, leading to an overestimate of the seismicity for magnitude 6 and greater earthquakes in their Type C zones.

  10. Geologic map of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    The Chisos Mountains form some of the highest ground in Texas, second only to Guadalupe Peak near the New Mexico border. The northern half of the range is mostly above 5,500 feet with Emory Peak the high point at 7,825 feet. The mountains are centrally located in Big Bend National Park between Panther Junction and Punta de la Sierra. Big Bend National Park lies near the diffuse border between the Great Plains Province to the northeast and the Sonoran section of the Basin-and-Range structural province to the west and southwest. These geologically unique regions are distinguished from one another by large differences in their landscape and by the amount and style of internal structural deformation. The Great Plains Province is characterized by flat-lying or gently dipping sedimentary strata, low topographic relief, shallow stream valleys, and by a general lack of faulting. Very little active deposition is occurring on the plains, except in the bottoms of active stream valleys. In southwestern Texas the plains stand at average elevations of 2,000 to 3,300 feet and slope gently east toward the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. The Great Plains have remained relatively unchanged for the last 65 million years, except that they have been uplifted to their present height from lower elevations probably in the last 5 million years. The Basin-and-Range province is characterized by linear parallel mountain ranges, deep sediment-filled valleys, and high structural and topographic relief. The eastern part of the province is at a slightly higher average elevation than the plains. The province is known for its complex patterns of Cenozoic faulting. Today it bears little resemblance to the way it was during the Paleocene when the entire Trans-Pecos region was a simple lowland that was near or slightly below sea level.

  11. Development of Competency-Based Articulated Automotive Program. Big Bend Community College and Area High Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buche, Fred; Cox, Charles

    A competency-based automotive mechanics curriculum was developed at Big Bend Community College (Washington) in order to provide the basis for an advanced placement procedure for high school graduates and experienced adults through a competency assessment. In order to create the curriculum, Big Bend Community College automotive mechanics…

  12. Development of Competency-Based Articulated Automotive Program. Big Bend Community College and Area High Schools. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buche, Fred; Cox, Charles

    A competency-based automotive mechanics curriculum was developed at Big Bend Community College (Washington) in order to provide the basis for an advanced placement procedure for high school graduates and experienced adults through a competency assessment. In order to create the curriculum, Big Bend Community College automotive mechanics…

  13. Vegetation-environment relations of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Treesearch

    Helen M. Poulos; Ann E. Camp

    2005-01-01

    The Sky Island Archipelagos of the Sierra Madre Oriental and Occidental contain a unique array of endemic flora and fauna. Plant species composition in these elevationally restricted forests is thought to vary in relation to environmental gradients. This study quantifies plant population abundance and spatial distribution patterns in pine-oak woodlands of Big Bend...

  14. Stable isotope and trace element studies of black bear hair, Big Bend ecosystem, Texas and Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shanks, W.C. Pat; Hellgren, Eric C.; Stricker, Craig A.; Gemery-Hill, Pamela A.; Onorato, David P.

    2008-01-01

    Hair from black bears (Ursus americanus), collected from four areas in the Big Bend ecosystem, has been analyzed for stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur to determine major food sources and for trace metals to infer possible effects of environmental contaminants. Results indicate that black bears are largely vegetarian, feeding on desert plants, nuts, and berries. Mercury concentrations in bear hair are below safe level standards (

  15. Results of High Velocity Tests at Tampa Electric Company`s Big Bend 4 FGD System.

    SciTech Connect

    DeKraker, D.P.

    1997-10-15

    Test were conducted at the Big Bend Station to determine the feasibility of scrubbing gas from an additional boiler in the existing FGD system. Testing was accomplished by increasing the gas flow from the D absorber tower and measuring the performance of this module. Key performance aspects evaluated during the testing include mist eliminator performance, SO2 removal efficiency, oxidation of absorbed SO2, and limestone utilization.

  16. Pliocene transpressional modification of depositional basins by convergent thrusting adjacent to the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas fault: An example from Lockwood Valley, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.; Minor, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The "Big Bend" of the San Andreas fault in the western Transverse Ranges of southern California is a left stepping flexure in the dextral fault system and has long been recognized as a zone of relatively high transpression compared to adjacent regions. The Lockwood Valley region, just south of the Big Bend, underwent a profound change in early Pliocene time (???5 Ma) from basin deposition to contraction, accompanied by widespread folding and thrusting. This change followed the recently determined initiation of opening of the northern Gulf of California and movement along the southern San Andreas fault at about 6.1 Ma, with the concomitant formation of the Big Bend. Lockwood Valley occupies a 6-km-wide, fault-bounded structural basin in which converging blocks of Paleoproterozoic and Cretaceous crystalline basement and upper Oligocene and lower Miocene sedimentary rocks (Plush Ranch Formation) were thrust over Miocene and Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary rocks (in ascending order, Caliente Formation, Lockwood Clay, and Quatal Formation). All the pre-Quatal sedimentary rocks and most of the Pliocene Quatal Formation were deposited during a mid-Tertiary period of regional transtension in a crustal block that underwent little clockwise vertical-axis rotation as compared to crustal blocks to the south. Ensuing Pliocene and Quaternary transpression in the Big Bend region began during deposition of the poorly dated Quatal Formation and was marked by four converging thrust systems, which decreased the areal extent of the sedimentary basin and formed the present Lockwood Valley structural basin. None of the thrusts appears presently active. Estimated shortening across the center of the basin was about 30 percent. The fortnerly defined eastern Big Pine fault, now interpreted to be two separate, oppositely directed, contractional reverse or thrust faults, marks the northwestern structural boundary of Lockwood Valley. The complex geometry of the Lockwood Valley basin is similar

  17. Historic topographic sheets to satellite imagery—A methodology for evaluating coastal change in Florida's Big Bend tidal marsh

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Streck, Amy E.; Stumpf, Richard P.

    2004-01-01

    This open-file report details the methodology used to rectify, digitize, and mosaic nineteen 19th century topographic sheets on the marsh-dominated Big Bend Gulf coast of Florida. Historic charts of tidal marshes in Florida's Big Bend were prepared in a digital grid-based format for comparison with modern features derived from 1995 satellite imagery. The chart-by-chart rectification process produced a map accuracy of ± 8 m. An effort was made to evaluate secondary map features, such as tree islands, but changes during the intervening years exceed standard surveying errors and rendered the analysis ineffective. A map, at 1:300,000 comparing historic and modern features, is provided to illustrate major changes along the coastline. Shoreline erosion is exceeded by the inland migration of the intertidal zone onto adjoining coastal forest lands. While statements of mapping accuracy are provided in the text, graphic representation of changes in the intertidal zone may be inexact at any given location. Thus caution is advised for site-specific applications. Maps and digital files provided should be used to visualize overall trends and regional anomalies, and not used to critically assess features at a particular location. Final product includes mosaic of historic coastal features and comparison to modern features.

  18. Crustal velocity field near the big bend of California's San Andreas fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snay, R.A.; Cline, M.W.; Philipp, C.R.; Jackson, D.D.; Feng, Y.; Shen, Z.-K.; Lisowski, M.

    1996-01-01

    We use geodetic data spanning the 1920-1992 interval to estimate the horizontal velocity field near the big bend segment of California's San Andreas fault (SAF). More specifically, we estimate a horizontal velocity vector for each node of a two-dimensional grid that has a 15-min-by-15-min mesh and that extends between latitudes 34.0??N and 36.0??N and longitudes 117.5??W and 120.5??W. For this estimation process, we apply bilinear interpolation to transfer crustal deformation information from geodetic sites to the grid nodes. The data include over a half century of triangulation measurements, over two decades of repeated electronic distance measurements, a decade of repeated very long baseline interferometry measurements, and several years of Global Positioning System measurements. Magnitudes for our estimated velocity vectors have formal standard errors ranging from 0.7 to 6.8 mm/yr. Our derived velocity field shows that (1) relative motion associated with the SAF exceeds 30 mm/yr and is distributed on the Earth's surface across a band (> 100 km wide) that is roughly centered on this fault; (2) when velocities are expressed relative to a fixed North America plate, the motion within our primary study region has a mean orientation of N44??W ?? 2?? and the surface trace of the SAF is congruent in shape to nearby contours of constant speed yet this trace is oriented between 5?? and 10?? counterclockwise relative to these contours; and (3) large strain rates (shear rates > 150 nrad/yr and/or areal dilatation rates < -150 nstr/yr) exist near the Garlock fault, near the White Wolf fault, and in the Ventura basin.

  19. Integrated Geologic, Geochemical, and Geophysical Studies of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, John E.; Finn, Carol A.; Morgan, Lisa A.; Page, William R.; Shanks, Wayne C.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Texas, covers 801,163 acres (3,242 km2) and was established in 1944 through a transfer of land from the State of Texas to the United States. The park is located along a 118-mi (190-km) stretch of the Rio Grande at the United States border with Mexico. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a 5-year project in 2003 with the objective of studying a number of broad and diverse geologic, geochemical, and geophysical topics in BBNP. This fact sheet describes results of some of the research by USGS scientists working in BBNP.

  20. Integrating Air Quality Data and Eulerian Modeling Results to Apportion Big Bend Texas' Sulfate Among Sources in the United States and Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schichtel, B. A.; Barna, M. G.; Gebhart, K. A.; Malm, W. C.

    2003-12-01

    The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Study (BRAVO) was an intensive air quality monitoring project that measured speciated fine aerosols from July through October 1999 at 36 sites throughout Texas. A primary goal of BRAVO is to identify the major emission sources that contribute to haze in Big Bend National Park (BBNP), which is located in southwestern Texas. In support of this, the Regional Modeling System for Aerosols and Deposition (REMSAD) was used to predict the sulfate concentrations in most of North America, and estimate the contribution of sulfate from ten U.S. and Mexican source regions to sulfate concentrations measured at Big Bend and the other BRAVO monitoring sites. Several biases were identified in the original REMSAD source apportionment results. For example, during October the predicted contribution of the eastern U.S. sources to eastern Texas were up to two times larger than the measured sulfate. In addition, on days with transport predominately from Mexico to southwest Texas, including Big Bend, the predicted sulfate concentrations systematically underestimated the measured sulfate. Thus, indicating an underestimation of Mexico's contributions. In order to remove these biases, the REMSAD source apportionment results were merged with the measured sulfate data using a synthesis conservation of mass inversion technique to derive daily source apportionment scaling factors. This technique essentially regresses the source apportionment estimates against the measured data. Measured data from all 36 monitoring sites were used in the analysis. Due to the inherent ill-posed nature of this inversion problem constrained least-squares regression was used allowing the coefficients to vary from 0 to 4. The synthesis inversion reduced the average eastern U.S. contribution to sulfate at Big Bend from 42 to 30%, while Mexico's contribution increased from 23 to 41%. Texas's contribution changed from 16 to 14%. In addition to the large source areas, REMSAD

  1. Vertical landscraping, a big regionalism for Dubai.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Dubai's ecologic and economic complications are exacerbated by six years of accelerated expansion, a fixed top-down approach to urbanism and the construction of iconic single-phase mega-projects. With recent construction delays, project cancellations and growing landscape issues, Dubai's tower typologies have been unresponsive to changing environmental, socio-cultural and economic patterns (BBC, 2009; Gillet, 2009; Lewis, 2009). In this essay, a theory of "Big Regionalism" guides an argument for an economically and ecologically linked tower typology called the Condenser. This phased "box-to-tower" typology is part of a greater Landscape Urbanist strategy called Vertical Landscraping. Within this strategy, the Condenser's role is to densify the city, facilitating the creation of ecologic voids that order the urban region. Delineating "Big Regional" principles, the Condenser provides a time-based, global-local urban growth approach that weaves Bigness into a series of urban-regional, economic and ecological relationships, builds upon the environmental performance of the city's regional architecture and planning, promotes a continuity of Dubai's urban history, and responds to its landscape issues while condensing development. These speculations permit consideration of the overlooked opportunities embedded within Dubai's mega-projects and their long-term impact on the urban morphology.

  2. Structure and geomorphology of the "big bend" in the Hosgri-San Gregorio fault system, offshore of Big Sur, central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. Y.; Watt, J. T.; Hartwell, S. R.; Kluesner, J. W.; Dartnell, P.

    2015-12-01

    The right-lateral Hosgri-San Gregorio fault system extends mainly offshore for about 400 km along the central California coast and is a major structure in the distributed transform margin of western North America. We recently mapped a poorly known 64-km-long section of the Hosgri fault offshore Big Sur between Ragged Point and Pfieffer Point using high-resolution bathymetry, tightly spaced single-channel seismic-reflection and coincident marine magnetic profiles, and reprocessed industry multichannel seismic-reflection data. Regionally, this part of the Hosgri-San Gregorio fault system has a markedly more westerly trend (by 10° to 15°) than parts farther north and south, and thus represents a transpressional "big bend." Through this "big bend," the fault zone is never more than 6 km from the shoreline and is a primary control on the dramatic coastal geomorphology that includes high coastal cliffs, a narrow (2- to 8-km-wide) continental shelf, a sharp shelfbreak, and a steep (as much as 17°) continental slope incised by submarine canyons and gullies. Depth-converted industry seismic data suggest that the Hosgri fault dips steeply to the northeast and forms the eastern boundary of the asymmetric (deeper to the east) Sur Basin. Structural relief on Franciscan basement across the Hosgri fault is about 2.8 km. Locally, we recognize five discrete "sections" of the Hosgri fault based on fault trend, shallow structure (e.g., disruption of young sediments), seafloor geomorphology, and coincidence with high-amplitude magnetic anomalies sourced by ultramafic rocks in the Franciscan Complex. From south to north, section lengths and trends are as follows: (1) 17 km, 312°; (2) 10 km, 322°; (3)13 km, 317°; (4) 3 km, 329°; (5) 21 km, 318°. Through these sections, the Hosgri surface trace includes several right steps that vary from a few hundred meters to about 1 km wide, none wide enough to provide a barrier to continuous earthquake rupture.

  3. Large-scale habitat associations of four desert anurans in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dayton, Gage H.; Jung, R.E.; Droege, S.

    2004-01-01

    We used night driving to examine large scale habitat associations of four common desert anurans in Big Bend National Park, Texas. We examined association of soil types and vegetation communities with abundance of Couch's Spadefoots (Scaphiopus couchii), Red-spotted Toads (Bufo punctatus), Texas Toads (Bufo speciosus), and Western Green Toads (Bufo debilis). All four species were disproportionately associated with frequently inundated soils that are relatively high in clay content. Bufo punctatus was associated with rocky soil types more frequently than the other three species. Association between all four species and vegetation types was disproportionate in relation to availability. Bufo debilis and Bufo punctatus were associated with creosote and mixed scrub vegetation. Bufo speciosus and Scaphiopus couchii were associated with mesquite scrub vegetation. Bufo debilis, Scaphiopus couchii, and B. speciosus were more tightly associated with specific habitat types, whereas B. punctatus exhibited a broader distribution across the habitat categories. Examining associations between large-scale habitat categories and species abundance is an important first step in understanding factors that influence species distributions and presence-absence across the landscape.

  4. On the wintertime currents in the Florida Big Bend region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherly, Georges L.; Thistle, David

    1997-09-01

    Moored current meter records and hydrographic sections obtained during the winter over 3 years on the inner shelf in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico indicate the following. The along-isobath flow component is primarily in the upper water column and directed towards the Florida Peninsula (eastward). Near the bottom the flow is primarily and consistently diabathic and shoreward. The eastward upper flow does not appear to be locally driven, but results from an offshore pressure gradient, the cause of which is not identified. The shoreward, near-bottom flow appears to result from the local offshore wind and from estuarine processes resulting from the freshwater input of rivers and springs. The former appears to dominate in the late fall and early winter, and the latter to take over in late winter or early spring, when the wind abates or is from the east. The hydrographic sections indicate that vertically mixed conditions resulting from passing cold fronts do occur, but are relatively short lived and that estuarine hydrographic conditions tend to arise in the intervals between the passages of cold fronts. The proximity of the inertial period to the diurnal tidal periods (the latitude of our moored measurements ≈ 30°N) did not result in the observation of pronounced inertial oscillations. It did result in reversal of the sense of rotation of the K 1 and O 1 tidal ellipses as the bottom was approached. The latter is explained in terms of concepts and a model used in Weatherly et al. (1980)( Journal of Physical Oceanography10, 297-300). 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

  5. EPA Regional Administrator Highlights the Benefits of Reducing Food Waste in South Bend

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (SOUTH BEND, IND. - November 5, 2015) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regional Administrator Susan Hedman joined South Bend Mayor Pete Buttigieg today at Ivy Tech Community College's culinary school to highlight the benefits of diverting food waste fr

  6. Evaluation of canoe surveys for anurans along the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jung, R.E.; Bonine, K.E.; Rosenshield, M.L.; de la Reza, A.; Raimondo, S.; Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys for amphibians along large rivers pose monitoring and sampling problems. We used canoes at night to spotlight and listen for anurans along four stretches of the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas, in 1998 and 1999. We explored temporal and spatial variation in amphibian counts and species richness and assessed relationships between amphibian counts and environmental variables, as well as amphibian-habitat associations along the banks of the Rio Grande. We documented seven anuran species, but Rio Grande leopard frogs (Rana berlandieri) accounted for 96% of the visual counts. Chorus surveys along the river detected similar or fewer numbers of species, but orders of magnitude fewer individuals compared to visual surveys. The number of species varied on average by 37% across monthly and nightly surveys. We found similar average coefficients of variation in counts of Rio Grande leopard frogs on monthly and nightly bases (CVs = 42-44%), suggesting that canoe surveys are a fairly precise technique for counts of this species. Numbers of Rio Grande leopard frogs observed were influenced by river gage levels and air and water temperatures, suggesting that surveys should be conducted under certain environmental conditions to maximize counts and maintain consistency. We found significant differences in species richness and bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) counts among the four river stretches. Four rare anuran species were found along certain stretches but not others, which could represent either sampling error or unmeasured environmental or habitat differences among the river stretches. We found a greater association of Rio Grande leopard frogs with mud banks compared to rock or cliff (canyon) areas and with seepwillow and open areas compared to giant reed and other vegetation types. Canoe surveys appear to be a useful survey technique for anurans along the Rio Grande and may work for other large river systems as well.

  7. Cretaceous basaltic phreatomagmatic volcanism in West Texas: Maar complex at Peña Mountain, Big Bend National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Befus, K. S.; Hanson, R. E.; Lehman, T. M.; Griffin, W. R.

    2008-06-01

    A structurally complex succession of basaltic pyroclastic deposits produced from overlapping phreatomagmatic volcanoes occurs within Upper Cretaceous floodplain deposits in the Aguja Formation in Big Bend National Park, West Texas. Together with similar basaltic deposits recently documented elsewhere in the Aguja Formation, these rocks provide evidence for an episode of phreatomagmatic volcanism that predates onset of arc magmatism in the region in the Paleogene. At Peña Mountain, the pyroclastic deposits are ≥ 70 m thick and consist dominantly of tabular beds of lapillistone and lapilli tuff containing angular to fluidal pyroclasts of altered sideromelane intermixed with abundant accidental terrigenous detritus derived from underlying Aguja sediments. Tephra characteristics indicate derivation from phreatomagmatic explosions involving fine-scale interaction between magma and sediment in the shallow subsurface. Deposition occurred by pyroclastic fall and base-surge processes in near-vent settings; most base-surge deposits lack tractional sedimentary structures and are inferred to have formed by suspension sedimentation from rapidly decelerating surges. Complexly deformed pyroclastic strata beneath a distinct truncation surface within the succession record construction and collapse of an initial volcano, followed by a shift in the location of the conduit and excavation of another maar crater into Aguja strata nearby. Preserved portions of the margin of this second crater are defined by a zone of intense soft-sediment disruption of pyroclastic and nonvolcanic strata. U-Pb isotopic analyses of zircon grains from three basaltic bombs in the succession reveal the presence of abundant xenocrysts, in some cases with ages > 1.0 Ga. The youngest concordant analyses for all three samples yield a weighted mean age of 76.9 ± 1.2 Ma, consistent with the presence of Late Campanian vertebrate fossils in the upper Aguja Formation. We infer that the volcanism is related to the

  8. Stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and dendrogeomorphic analyses of rapid floodplain formation along the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, D.J.; Scott, M.L.; Shafroth, P.B.; Schmidt, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The channel of the lower Rio Grande in the Big Bend region rapidly narrows during years of low mean and peak flow. We conducted stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and dendrogeomorphic analyses within two long floodplain trenches to precisely reconstruct the timing and processes of recent floodplain formation. We show that the channel of the Rio Grande narrowed through the oblique and vertical accretion of inset floodplains following channel-widening floods in 1978 and 1990-1991. Vertical accretion occurred at high rates, ranging from 16 to 35 cm/yr. Dendrogeomorphic analyses show that the onset of channel narrowing occurred during low-flow years when channel bars obliquely and vertically accreted fine sediment. This initial stage of accretion occurred by both bedload and suspended-load deposition within the active channel. Vegetation became established on top of these fine-grained deposits during years of low peak flow and stabilized these developing surfaces. Subsequent deposition by moderate floods (between 1.5 and 7 yr recurrence intervals) caused additional accretion at rapid rates. Suspended-sediment deposition was dominant in the upper deposits, resulting in the formation of natural levees at the channel margins and the deposition of horizontally bedded, fining-upward deposits in the floodplain trough. Overall, channel narrowing and floodplain formation occurred through an evolution from active-channel to floodplain depositional processes. High-resolution dendrogeomorphic analyses provide the ability to specifically correlate the flow record to the onset of narrowing, the establishment of riparian vegetation, the formation of natural levees, and ultimately, the conversion of portions of the active channel to floodplains. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  9. Volcanic and magmatic evolution of a small trachytic vent complex, north Burro Mesa, Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Lisa A.; Shanks, Pat

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic rocks exposed on the northern end of Burro Mesa in Big Bend National Park portray the evolution of an Oligocene central volcanic vent complex that produced two generations of welded block and ash deposits associated with 1) initial dome collapse and 2) subsequent central spine collapse. Peripheral to the vent complex, isolated breccia deposit exposures overlie ignimbrites, tephras, and lavas. These blocks are a few meters to several hundred meters long and 30 m high and consist of monolithic angular and welded trachytic lava clasts in finer-grained matrix. Rheomorphic structures in the breccia deposit show ductile deformation and suggest it formed while above the glass transition temperature.

  10. Plant dieback under exceptional drought driven by elevation, not by plant traits, in Big Bend National Park, Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Elizabeth F.

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, Big Bend National Park, Texas, USA, experienced the most severe single year drought in its recorded history, resulting in significant plant mortality. We used this event to test how perennial plant response to drought varied across elevation, plant growth form and leaf traits. In October 2010 and October 2011, we measured plant cover by species at six evenly-spaced elevations ranging from Chihuahuan desert (666 m) to oak forest in the Chisos mountains (1,920 m). We asked the following questions: what was the relationship between elevation and stem dieback and did susceptibility to drought differ among functional groups or by leaf traits? In 2010, pre-drought, we measured leaf mass per area (LMA) on each species. In 2011, the percent of canopy dieback for each individual was visually estimated. Living canopy cover decreased significantly after the drought of 2011 and dieback decreased with elevation. There was no relationship between LMA and dieback within elevations. The negative relationship between proportional dieback and elevation was consistent in shrub and succulent species, which were the most common growth forms across elevations, indicating that dieback was largely driven by elevation and not by species traits. Growth form turnover did not influence canopy dieback; differences in canopy cover and proportional dieback among elevations were driven primarily by differences in drought severity. These results indicate that the 2011 drought in Big Bend National Park had a large effect on communities at all elevations with average dieback for all woody plants ranging from 8% dieback at the highest elevation to 83% dieback at lowest elevations. PMID:25083346

  11. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor...

  12. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  13. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  14. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton... PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  15. Constructing a near-continuous suspended-sediment budget using acoustic instrumentation on the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, D. J.; Topping, D. J.; Griffiths, R. E.; Sabol, T. A.; Schmidt, J. C.; Bennett, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico, is in disequilibrium. The river in this reach rapidly narrows during low-flow years, and widens during rare, large magnitude floods. One management strategy to improve in-channel habitat for the native ecosystem is to limit the rate and magnitude of channel narrowing during low-flow years through water releases from re-operated upstream dams. The proposed purpose of these dam re-operations is to maximize fine-sediment transport downstream, thereby limiting fine-sediment deposition and channel narrowing. This management strategy requires extensive knowledge of the quantity of fine-sediment supplied to the river channel, the predominant source areas of the supplied sediment, and the suspended-sediment transport dynamics over a range of flow magnitudes and durations. To address these issues, a near-continuous suspended-sediment monitoring program consisting of two suspended-sediment gages was established at two sites in Big Bend National Park, Texas. Suspended-sediment gages consist of two single-frequency sideways-looking acoustic-Doppler profilers that collect data at 15-minute intervals. Acoustic attenuation is used to calculate silt-and-clay concentration, and acoustic backscatter adjusted for silt-and-clay concentration is used to calculate sand concentration in two size classes. Acoustic attenuation and backscatter are calibrated using standard depth-integrated samples and cross-section-calibrated automatic pump samples. Two types of floods affect the sediment budgets of the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park, long-duration releases from upstream dams and short-duration flash floods originating in tributaries upstream or between the gages. Initial analyses of suspended-sediment dynamics during long-duration dam releases show that dam releases have the potential to export fine sediment from the national park reach. Dam releases transported approximately 8% of the total silt

  16. Near-continuous suspended sediment monitoring of the Rio Grande using multi-frequency acoustic instrumentation in Big Bend National Park, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, D. J.; Topping, D. J.; Schmidt, J. C.; Sabol, T. A.; Griffiths, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Rio Grande in the Big Bend region of Texas, USA, and Chihuahua and Coahuila, Mexico, is in disequilibrium. The river in this reach rapidly narrows during low-flow years, and widens during rare, large magnitude floods. One management strategy to improve in-channel habitat for the native ecosystem is to limit the rate and magnitude of channel narrowing during low-flow years through water releases from re-operated upstream dams. The proposed purpose of these dam re-operations is to maximize fine-sediment transport downstream, thereby limiting fine-sediment deposition within the channel and channel narrowing. A suspended-sediment monitoring program consisting of two suspended-sediment gages was established in November 2010 at two sites in Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Texas, to inform these management efforts. Suspended-sediment gages consist of two single-frequency sideways-looking acoustic-Doppler profilers that collect data at 15-minute intervals. Acoustic attenuation is used to calculate silt-and-clay concentration, and acoustic backscatter is used to calculate sand concentration in two size classes. Acoustic attenuation and backscatter are calibrated to velocity-weighted suspended silt-and-clay and sand concentrations in the cross sections near the acoustic instrumentation by using standard depth-integrating samplers deployed according to the Equal-Width-Increment (EWI) method. During flood periods, when depth-integrated samples cannot be collected, automatic pump samplers collect suspended-sediment samples to augment the EWI dataset. Initial analyses indicate that steady, long-duration dam releases are able to transport a consistent load of silt and clay through the study reach in BBNP. However, when tributary flash floods are superimposed on dam releases, the large influx of silt and clay from these tributary floods is not transported through the study reach, even though discharge remains high. When tributary flash floods occur during low-flow periods on

  17. Geological, geochemical, and geophysical studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, J. E.; Page, W.R.

    2008-01-01

    Big Bend National Park (BBNP), Tex., covers 801,163 acres (3,242 km2) and was established in 1944 through a transfer of land from the State of Texas to the United States. The park is located along a 118-mile (190-km) stretch of the Rio Grande at the United States-Mexico border. The park is in the Chihuahuan Desert, an ecosystem with high mountain ranges and basin environments containing a wide variety of native plants and animals, including more than 1,200 species of plants, more than 450 species of birds, 56 species of reptiles, and 75 species of mammals. In addition, the geology of BBNP, which varies widely from high mountains to broad open lowland basins, also enhances the beauty of the park. For example, the park contains the Chisos Mountains, which are dominantly composed of thick outcrops of Tertiary extrusive and intrusive igneous rocks that reach an altitude of 7,832 ft (2,387 m) and are considered the southernmost mountain range in the United States. Geologic features in BBNP provide opportunities to study the formation of mineral deposits and their environmental effects; the origin and formation of sedimentary and igneous rocks; Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic fossils; and surface and ground water resources. Mineral deposits in and around BBNP contain commodities such as mercury (Hg), uranium (U), and fluorine (F), but of these, the only significant mining has been for Hg. Because of the biological and geological diversity of BBNP, more than 350,000 tourists visit the park each year. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been investigating a number of broad and diverse geologic, geochemical, and geophysical topics in BBNP to provide fundamental information needed by the National Park Service (NPS) to address resource management goals in this park. Scientists from the USGS Mineral Resources and National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Programs have been working cooperatively with the NPS and several universities on several research studies within BBNP

  18. Sedimentology and depositional history of Neogene gravel deposits in lower Tornillo Creek area of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Thurwachter, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    Neogene gravel deposits in the lower Tornillo Creek area of Big Bend National Park, Texas, record the filling of a small structural basin formed during Basin and Range tectonism. Four lithofacies are recognized in the Late Miocene La Noria member (informal name): (1) a medial braided-stream lithofacies consisting of upward-fining packages of cross-bedded gravel, sandstone, and siltstone; (2) a distal braided-stream lithofacies consisting of poorly-defined upward-fining packages of fine gravel, sandstone, and mudstone; (3) a calcrete-rich gravel and sandstone lithofacies representing strike-valley and alluvial-fan deposition, and (4) and ephemeral lake-plain lithofacies consisting of massive and burrowed mudstones with sheet-like sandstone interbeds. Upward-fining packages in the braided-stream lithofacies represent the lateral migration and avulsion of the stream tract across the basin; together with the strike-valley and alluvial-fan deposits, these record the initial stages of basin filling. Provenance studies show that much of this sediment was derived from northern Mexico. Overlying ephemeral-lake deposits record the structural tilting and closing of the downstream (north) end of the basin. Gravels and minor sandstones of the Pleistocene Estufa member (informal name) represent basinward progradation of alluvial fans. Deposition of the Estufa member resulted from: (1) Quaternary tectonic activity in the Chisos Mountains area; (2) lowering of local base level by post-Miocene development of the Rio Grande drainage through the area; and (3) Pleistocene pluvial-period climatic changes. Subsequent Quaternary faulting has caused minor deformation of the deposits.

  19. Sedimentology and depositional history of Neogene gravel deposits in lower Tornillo Creek area of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Thurwachter, J.E.

    1984-04-01

    Neogene gravel deposits in the lower Tornillo Creek area of Big Bend National Park, Texas, record the filling of a small structural basin formed during Basin and Range tectonism. Four lithofacies are recognized in the Late Miocene La Noria member (informal name): (1) a medial braided-stream lithofacies consisting of upward-fining packages of cross-bedded gravel, sandstone, and siltstone; (2) a distal braided-stream lithofacies consisting of poorly-defined upward-fining packages of fine gravel, sandstone, and mudstone; (3) a calcrete-rich gravel and sandstone lithofacies representing strike-valley and alluvial-fan deposition, and (4) and ephemeral lake-plain lithofacies consisting of massive and burrowed mudstones with sheet-like sandstone interbeds. Upward-fining packages in the braided-stream lithofacies represent the lateral migration and avulsion of the stream tract across the basin; together with the strike-valley and alluvial-fan deposits, these record the initial stages of basin filling. Provenance studies show that much of this sediment was derived from northern Mexico. Overlying ephemeral-lake deposits record the structural tilting and closing of the downstream (north) end of the basin. Gravels and minor sandstones of the Pleistocene Estufa member (informal name) represent basinward progradation of alluvial fans. Deposition of the Estufa member resulted from: (1) Quaternary tectonic activity in the Chisos Mountains area; (2) lowering of local base level by post-Miocene development of the Rio Grande drainage through the area; and (3) Pleistocene pluvial-period climatic changes. Subsequent Quaternary faulting has caused minor deformation of the deposits.

  20. Eruptive vents for the Burro Mesa Rhyolite, Big Bend National Park, Trans-Pecos Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, G.S.; Parker, D.F. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Detailed mapping of field relations and flow direction of the Burro Mesa Rhyolite (BMR) have identified vent localities at Burro Mesa, Kit Mountain, Cerro Castellan, Trap Mountain, and Goat Mountain, and the suggest the presence of additional, as yet unlocated, centers of eruption. This work confirms recent interpretations that BMR rocks were not erupted from the Pine Canyon caldera, but were instead erupted from isolated feeder localities in the Burro Mesa-Cerro Castellan area. At the Burro Mesa locality, the BMR contains a lower sparsely-porphyritic lava, a central porphyritic ash-flow tuff, and an upper abundantly-porphyritic lava. At all other mapped localities, only sparsely-porphyritic lava and Wasp Springs Flow Breccia (WSFB) are present. Two vents at Burro Mesa represent sources for separate BMR flows, as well as WSFB, which consists of numerous surge deposits with interbedded ash-flow tuff. Flow directional data suggests a third unlocated vent for abundantly-porphyritic lava in the SE region of Burro Mesa. Flow direction data also suggest that the SW end of Kit Mountain was a source for sparsely-porphyritic lava. A feeder dike at Cerro Castellan cuts up through the WSFB, flaring near the top into a volcanic dome of sparsely-porphyritic lava at the top of the mountain. This cross-cutting relationship was present at most vent localities. Mapping and flow direction data of BMR from vents and other localities suggest that the BMR consists of a discontinuous belt of individual domes, which trend in a southwesterly direction from Burro Mesa to Cerro Castellan.

  1. Aeromagnetic mapping of the structure of Pine Canyon caldera and Chisos Mountains intrusion, Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drenth, B.J.; Finn, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of aeromagnetic and gravity data reveals new details of the structure, igneous geology, and temporal evolution of the prominent, enigmatic ca.32 Ma Pine Canyon caldera and the Chisos Mountains (Big Bend National Park, Texas). The main caldera-filling Pine Canyon Rhyolite, the oldest member of the South Rim Formation, is reversely magnetized, allowing it to be used as a key marker bed for determining caldera fill thickness. Modeling of gravity and magnetic anomalies indicates that the Pine Canyon Rhyolite is probably thicker in the northeastern part of the caldera. Lineaments in the magnetic data suggest the presence of buried faults beneath the caldera that may have led to increased downdrop in the northeast versus the southwest, allowing a thicker section of caldera fill to accumulate there. The Pine Canyon caldera has been interpreted as a downsag caldera because it lacks surficial faulting, so these inferred faults are the first mapped features there that could be responsible for caldera collapse. The caldera boundary correlates well with the margins of a gravity low. General features of the caldera match well with basic models of downsag calderas, meaning that the Pine Canyon caldera may be a classic example of downsagging, of which few well-described examples exist, in terms of a geophysical signature. The source of a long-wavelength magnetic high over the Chisos Mountains is interpreted as a previously unknown broad intrusion, the long axis of which trends parallel to a major crustal boundary related to the Ouachita orogeny or an even earlier Precambrian margin. This feature represents the largest intrusion (28-34 km diameter, 1-4 km thick, 700-3000 km3 in volume) in an area where relatively small laccoliths are ubiquitous. The intrusion most likely represents a long-lived (>1 m.y.) reservoir replenished by small batches of magma of varying composition, as reflected in the variation of eruptive products from the Pine Canyon and Sierra Quemada

  2. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization

    SciTech Connect

    Shiheido, Hirokazu Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND3{sub 56–58}, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3. - Highlights: • BEND3 localizes to the nucleus. • The N-terminal 60 amino acids region of BEND3 contains NLS. • Amino acids located between 56 and 58 of BEND3 (KRK) are part of NLS. • KRK motif is highly conserved among BEND3 homologs.

  3. Gravity constraints on the geometry of the Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault in the southern Carrizo Plains and Pine Mountain egion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altintas, Ali Can

    The goal of this project is to combine gravity measurements with geologic observations to better understand the "Big Bend" of the San Andreas Fault (SAF) and its role in producing hydrocarbon-bearing structures in the southern Central Valley of California. The SAF is the main plate boundary structure between the Pacific and North American plates and accommodates ?35 mm/yr of dextral motion. The SAF can be divided into three main parts: the northern, central and southern segments. The boundary between the central and southern segments is the "Big Bend", which is characterized by an ≈30°, eastward bend. This fault curvature led to the creation of a series of roughly east-west thrust faults and the transverse mountain ranges. Four high-resolution gravity transects were conducted across locations on either side of the bend. A total of 166 new gravity measurements were collected. Previous studies suggest significantly inclined dip angle for the San Andreas Fault in the Big Bend area. Yet, our models indicate that the San Andreas Fault is near vertical in the Big Bend area. Also gravity cross-section models suggest that flower structures occur on either side of the bend. These structures are dominated by sedimentary rocks in the north and igneous rocks in the south. The two northern transects in the Carrizo plains have an ≈-70 mgal Bouguer anomaly. The SAF has a strike of ≈315° near these transects. The northern transects are characterized by multiple fault strands which cut marine and terrestrial Miocene sedimentary rocks as well as Quaternary alluvial valley deposits. These fault strands are characterized by ?6 mgal short wavelength variations in the Bouguer gravity anomaly, which correspond to low density fault gouge and fault splays that juxtapose rocks of varying densities. The southern transects cross part of the SAF with a strike of 285°, have a Bouguer anomaly of ≈-50 mgal and are characterized by a broad 15 mgal high. At this location the rocks on

  4. Basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 are essential for its nuclear localization.

    PubMed

    Shiheido, Hirokazu; Shimizu, Jun

    2015-02-20

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has recently been reported to function as a heterochromatin-associated protein in transcriptional repression in the nucleus. BEND3 should have nuclear localization signals (NLSs) to localize to the nucleus in light of its molecular weight, which is higher than that allowed to pass through nuclear pore complexes. We here analyzed the subcellular localization of deletion/site-directed mutants of human BEND3 by an immunofluorescence assay in an attempt to identify the amino acids essential for its nuclear localization. We found that three basic amino acid residues located in the N-terminal region of BEND3 (BEND356-58, KRK) are essential, suggesting that these residues play a role as a functional NLS. These results provide valuable information for progressing research on BEND3.

  5. Regional variation in the mechanical properties of the vertebral column during lateral bending in Morone saxatilis.

    PubMed

    Nowroozi, B N; Brainerd, E L

    2012-10-07

    Unlike mammalian, disc-shaped intervertebral joints (IVJs), the IVJs in fishes are biconid structures, filled with fluid and thought to act as hydrostatic hinge joints during swimming. However, it remains unclear which IVJ structures are dominant in mechanical resistance to forces in fishes, and whether variation in these tissues might impact the function of the vertebral column along its length. Here, we measured the dynamic mechanical behaviour of IVJs from striped bass, Morone saxatilis. During lateral bending, angular stiffness was significantly lower in the caudal and cervical regions, relative to the abdominal region. The neutral zone, defined as the range of motion (ROM) at bending moments less than 0.001 Nm, was longer in the caudal relative to the abdominal IVJs. Hysteresis was 30-40% in all regions, suggesting that IVJs may play a role in energy dissipation during swimming. Cutting the vertical septum had no statistically significant effect, but cutting the encapsulating tissues caused a sharp decline in angular stiffness and a substantial increase in ROM and hysteresis. We conclude that stiffness decreases and ROM increases from cranial to caudal in striped bass, and that the encapsulating tissues play a prominent role in mechanical variation along the length of the vertebral column.

  6. Regional variation in the mechanical properties of the vertebral column during lateral bending in Morone saxatilis

    PubMed Central

    Nowroozi, B. N.; Brainerd, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike mammalian, disc-shaped intervertebral joints (IVJs), the IVJs in fishes are biconid structures, filled with fluid and thought to act as hydrostatic hinge joints during swimming. However, it remains unclear which IVJ structures are dominant in mechanical resistance to forces in fishes, and whether variation in these tissues might impact the function of the vertebral column along its length. Here, we measured the dynamic mechanical behaviour of IVJs from striped bass, Morone saxatilis. During lateral bending, angular stiffness was significantly lower in the caudal and cervical regions, relative to the abdominal region. The neutral zone, defined as the range of motion (ROM) at bending moments less than 0.001 Nm, was longer in the caudal relative to the abdominal IVJs. Hysteresis was 30–40% in all regions, suggesting that IVJs may play a role in energy dissipation during swimming. Cutting the vertical septum had no statistically significant effect, but cutting the encapsulating tissues caused a sharp decline in angular stiffness and a substantial increase in ROM and hysteresis. We conclude that stiffness decreases and ROM increases from cranial to caudal in striped bass, and that the encapsulating tissues play a prominent role in mechanical variation along the length of the vertebral column. PMID:22552920

  7. Ground-rupturing earthquakes on the northern Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault, California, 800 A.D. to Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scharer, Katherine; Weldon, Ray; Biasi, Glenn; Streig, Ashley; Fumal, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    Paleoseismic data on the timing of ground-rupturing earthquakes constrain the recurrence behavior of active faults and can provide insight on the rupture history of a fault if earthquakes dated at neighboring sites overlap in age and are considered correlative. This study presents the evidence and ages for 11 earthquakes that occurred along the Big Bend section of the southern San Andreas Fault at the Frazier Mountain paleoseismic site. The most recent earthquake to rupture the site was the Mw7.7-7.9 Fort Tejon earthquake of 1857. We use over 30 trench excavations to document the structural and sedimentological evolution of a small pull-apart basin that has been repeatedly faulted and folded by ground-rupturing earthquakes. A sedimentation rate of 0.4 cm/yr and abundant organic material for radiocarbon dating contribute to a record that is considered complete since 800 A.D. and includes 10 paleoearthquakes. Earthquakes have ruptured this location on average every 100 years over the last 1200 years, but individual intervals range from 22 to 186 years. The coefficient of variation of the length of time between earthquakes (0.7) indicates quasiperiodic behavior, similar to other sites along the southern San Andreas Fault. Comparison with the earthquake chronology at neighboring sites along the fault indicates that only one other 1857-size earthquake could have occurred since 1350 A.D., and since 800 A.D., the Big Bend and Mojave sections have ruptured together at most 50% of the time in Mw ≥ 7.3 earthquakes.

  8. Thermochronology of mid-Cretaceous dioritic granulites adjacent "Big Bend" in Australia-Pacific plate boundary, northern South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagar, M.; Seward, D.; Heizler, M. T.; Palin, J. M.; Toy, V. G.; Tulloch, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Western Fiordland Orthogneiss (WFO), situated south-east of the Australian-Pacific plate boundary (Alpine Fault), southern South Island, New Zealand is the largest suite of plutonic rocks intruded into the Pacific margin of Gondwana during the final stages of arc plutonism preceding break-up of the supercontinent in the Late Cretaceous. Dextral motion of c. 480 km along the Alpine Fault during the Cenozoic has offset originally contiguous Pacific Gondwana margin rocks in northern and southern South Island. The Glenroy Complex in northern South Island, west of the Alpine Fault is dominated by two-pyroxene+hornblende granulite facies monzodioritic gneisses. U-Pb zircon geochronological and geochemical data indicate the Glenroy Complex was emplaced between 128-122 Ma and is a correlative of the WFO. The Glenroy Complex forms the lower-most block bounded by an east-dipping set of imbricate thrusts that developed during the late Cenozoic to the west of the largest S-shaped restraining bend ("Big Bend") in the Alpine Fault. New 40Ar/39Ar and fission-track thermochronological data, combined with previous geological field-mapping, demonstrate that the Glenroy Complex cooled rapidly (c. 30° C/Ma) after emplacement and granulite facies metamorphism (c. 850°C) at c. 120 Ma, through c. 550 °C by c. 110-100 Ma. The average cooling rate during the Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic was relatively slow, and initial exposure in the late Early Miocene (c. 16 Ma) was followed by reburial to c. 3-4 km (c. 80-100 °C) before final exhumation post-Pliocene. This thermal history is similar to the WFO, which cooled rapidly through c. 350 °C during mid-Cretaceous continental extension, followed by slow cooling during the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic until development of the Australian-Pacific boundary through New Zealand facilitated rapid, exhumation-related cooling from c. 240 °C at c. 20 Ma and final exhumation post-10 Ma (Davids, 1999). However, the Glenroy Complex cooled at a faster

  9. Groundwater recharge estimation and regionalization: the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas and its recharge statistics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    1992-01-01

    The results of a 6 year recharge study in the Great Bend Prairie of central Kansas are statistically analyzed to regionalize the limited number of site-specific but year-round measurements. Emphasis is placed on easily measured parameters and field-measured data. The results of the statistical analysis reveal that a typical recharge event in central Kansas lasts 5-7 days, out of which 3 or 4 days are precipitation days with total precipitation of ??? 83 mm. The maximum soil-profile water storage and the maximum groundwater level resulting from the recharge event exhibit the lowest coefficients of variation, whereas the amount of recharge exhibits the highest coefficient of variation. The yearly recharge in the Great Bend Prairie ranged from 0 to 177 mm with a mean of 56 mm. Most of the recharge events occur during the months of April, May, and June, which coincide with the months of highest precipitation in the region. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the most influential variables affecting recharge are, in order of decreasing importance, total annual precipitation average maximum soil-profile water storage during the spring months, average shallowest depth to water table during the same period, and spring rainfall rate. Classification methods, whereby relatively homogeneous hydrologic-unit areas based on the four recharge-affecting variables are identified, were combined with a Geographic Information Systems (ARC/INFO) overlay analysis to derive an area-wide map of differing recharge regions. This recharge zonation is in excellent agreement with the field-site recharge values. The resulting area-weighted average annual recharge for the region is 36 mm. ?? 1992.

  10. Redundant mechanisms to form silent chromatin at pericentromeric regions rely on BEND3 and DNA methylation.

    PubMed

    Saksouk, Nehmé; Barth, Teresa K; Ziegler-Birling, Celine; Olova, Nelly; Nowak, Agnieszka; Rey, Elodie; Mateos-Langerak, Julio; Urbach, Serge; Reik, Wolf; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena; Imhof, Axel; Déjardin, Jérome; Simboeck, Elisabeth

    2014-11-20

    Constitutive heterochromatin is typically defined by high levels of DNA methylation and H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9Me3), whereas facultative heterochromatin displays DNA hypomethylation and high H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27Me3). The two chromatin types generally do not coexist at the same loci, suggesting mutual exclusivity. During development or in cancer, pericentromeric regions can adopt either epigenetic state, but the switching mechanism is unknown. We used a quantitative locus purification method to characterize changes in pericentromeric chromatin-associated proteins in mouse embryonic stem cells deficient for either the methyltransferases required for DNA methylation or H3K9Me3. DNA methylation controls heterochromatin architecture and inhibits Polycomb recruitment. BEND3, a protein enriched on pericentromeric chromatin in the absence of DNA methylation or H3K9Me3, allows Polycomb recruitment and H3K27Me3, resulting in a redundant pathway to generate repressive chromatin. This suggests that BEND3 is a key factor in mediating a switch from constitutive to facultative heterochromatin.

  11. Earthquake Shakes ``Big Bend'' Region of North America-Caribbean Boundary Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Paul; Calais, Eric; Huerfano, Victor

    2004-02-01

    At 12:45 pm on 22 September, a M6.5 earthquake severely shook the northern Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola. The earthquake caused extensive damage to buildings in the major cities of Puerto Plata and Santiago, along with landslides in outlying areas. The main shock was followed by a large aftershock of M5.1 1 hr and 45 min later. Unfortunately, one person died due to collapse of a building during the main shock, two elderly people died of heart attacks, and one person jumped out of a building and later died of injuries. Fortunately, two partially collapsed school buildings and several office buildings in Puerto Plata that were severely damaged were unoccupied at the time of the early morning main shock. Aftershocks ranging up to nearly M5 continued for over a month, alarming local inhabitants. The M6.5 earthquake is the strongest shock to affect the northern Dominican Republic since a series of thrust events ranging from M6.1-8.1 occurred offshore and northeast of the Dominican Republic between 1943 and 1953 [Dolan and Wald, 1998]. This article summarizes the tectonic setting of the recent earthquake, its focal mechanism and inferred fault plane, damage, and ongoing research.

  12. 40 CFR 81.73 - South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Harbor (Michigan) Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.73 Section 81.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.73 South Bend-Elkhart (Indiana)-Benton...

  13. Status of fish communities in the Rio Grande, Big Bend National Park, Texas - comparison before and after Spring 2003 period of low flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2005-01-01

    During 2003–04 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, re-evaluated the status of fish communities in three reaches of the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park that originally were evaluated when the three reaches were established for study in 1999. The objective was to determine whether there were measurable differences between 1999 and 2003–04 (referred to as 2004) fish community status that likely are attributable to a rare 58-day period of low flow (less than 1 cubic meter per second) in spring 2003 at the Johnson Ranch gaging station on the Rio Grande in Big Bend National Park. The total number of fish species collected at all three sites (Boquillas, Johnson Ranch, and Santa Elena) in 1999 was greater than in 2004. The number of fish species collected at the Boquillas site in 1999 (10) was twice that collected in 2004; the number of species collected at the Johnson Ranch site in 1999 (nine) was almost twice that collected in 2004 (five). In contrast, the numbers at the Santa Elena site were nearly the same, 15 species in 1999, 14 in 2004. Percent community similarity for the Boquillas site is 8.04, for the Johnson Ranch site, 6.65, and for the Santa Elena site, 47.6, which indicates considerably more similarity between the 1999 and 2004 fish communities at the Santa Elena site than for the Boquillas and Johnson Ranch sites. At the Boquillas and Johnson Ranch sites, the fish communities shifted from small minnow (Cyprinidae) dominated in 1999 to largely gar (Lepisosteidae) and catfish (Ictaluridae) dominated in 2004. In contrast, no such shift occurred at the Santa Elena site between 1999 and 2004. Differences in flow conditions between the two downstream sites and the Santa Elena site might account for the dissimilar findings. The findings of the study provide some evidence that the spring 2003 period of low flow affected fish communities, but the findings are not definitive as other factors such as increased salinity

  14. Volatile fluxes through the Big Bend section of the San Andreas Fault, California: helium and carbon-dioxide systematics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.; Barry, Peter H.; Esser, Bradley K.; Hillegonds, Darren; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the source of volatiles and their relationship to the San Andreas Fault System (SAFS), 18 groundwater samples were collected from wells near the Big Bend section of the SAFS in southern California and analyzed for helium and carbon abundance and isotopes. Concentrations of 4He, corrected for air-bubble entrainment, vary from 4.15 to 62.7 (× 10− 8) cm3 STP g− 1 H2O. 3He/4He ratios vary from 0.09 to 3.52 RA (where RA = air 3He/4He), consistent with up to 44% mantle helium in samples. A subset of 10 samples was analyzed for the major volatile phase (CO2) — the hypothesized carrier phase of the helium in the mantle–crust system: CO2/3He ratios vary from 0.614 to 142 (× 1011), and δ13C (CO2) values vary from − 21.5 to − 11.9‰ (vs. PDB). 3He/4He ratios and CO2 concentrations are highest in the wells located in the Mil Potrero and Cuddy valleys adjacent to the SAFS. The elevated 3He/4He ratios are interpreted to be a consequence of a mantle volatile flux though the SAFS diluted by radiogenic He produced in the crust. Samples with the highest 3He/4He ratios also had the lowest CO2/3He ratios. The combined helium isotope, He–CO2 elemental relationships, and δ13C (CO2) values of the groundwater volatiles reveal a mixture of mantle and deep crustal (metamorphic) fluid origins. The flux of fluids into the seismogenic zone at high hydrostatic pressure may cause fault rupture, and transfer volatiles into the shallow crust. We calculate an upward fluid flow rate of 147 mm a− 1 along the SAFS, up to 37 times higher than previous estimates (Kennedy et al., 1997). However, using newly identified characteristics of the SAFS, we calculate a total flux of 3He along the SAFS of 7.4 × 103 cm3 STP a− 1 (0.33 mol 3He a− 1), and a CO2 flux of 1.5 × 1013 cm3STP a− 1 (6.6 × 108 mol a− 1), ~ 1% of previous estimates. Lower fluxes along the Big Bend section of the SAFS suggest that the flux of mantle volatiles alone is insufficient to cause the

  15. Holocene sedimentation and coastal wetlands response to rising sea level at the Aucilla river mouth, a low energy coast in the Big Bend area of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrett, Connie; Hertler, Heidi; Hoenstine, Ronald; Highley, Brad

    1993-01-01

    The shallow dip of the Florida carbonate platform results in low wave energy on Florida ???Big Bend??? coasts. Therefore sedimentation is dominated by river-and tidal-hydrodynamics near the Aucilla River mouth. Where present, Holocene sediments are thin and unconformably overlie Oligocene-aged Suwannee Limestone. The oldest unlithified sediments include reworked carbonate rubble with clay and wood fragments (seven thousand years old or less, based on wood radio-carbon dating). Although this basal sequence is observed in most areas, the sediments that overlie it vary. Sediment sequences from the outer littoral to submarine environments include organic-rich sands, oyster biotherm remains, and cleaner sands with organic-filled burrows. Inner littoral (salt-marsh) sequences generally consist of sandy, fining-upwards sequences in which dry weights of fine-grained clastics and organic components increase up-sequence at similar rates. Offshore sediments preserve greatly attenuated fluvial and salt-marsh facies, if these facies are preserved at all. With sea-level rise, erosion can result from insufficient sediment supply and down-cutting by tidal currents (Dolotov, 1992; and Dalrymple et al., 1992). Dolotov (1992) attributes displacement of original coastal stratigraphy to insufficient sediments for beach profile maintenance, while Dalrymple et al. (1992) attribute erosional truncation (ravinement) or complete removal of portions of typical estuarine sequences to headward migration of tidal channels.

  16. The Bending Vibrations of the C_3-ISOTOPOLOGUES in the 1.9 Terahertz Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breier, A.; Büchling, Thomas; Lutter, Volker; Schnierer, Rico; Fuchs, Guido W.; Giesen, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Short carbon chains are fundamental for the chemistry of stellar and interstellar ambiences. The linear carbon chain molecule C_3 has been found in various interstellar and circumstellar environments, encompassing diffuse interstellar clouds, star forming regions, shells of late type stars, as well as cometary tails. Due to the lack of a permanent dipole moment C_3 can only be detected by electronic transitions in the visible spectral range or by vibrational bands in the mid-and far-infrared region. We performed experiments where C_3 was produced via laser-ablation of a graphite rod with a 3 bar He purge and a subsequent adiabatic expansion into a vaccum resulting in a supersonic jet. We report laboratory measurements of the lowest bending mode transitions of six 13C-isotopologues of the linear C_3 molecule. Fifty-eight transitions have been measured between 1.8-1.9 THz with an accuracy of better than 1 MHz. Molecular parameters have been derived to give accurate line frequency positions of all 13C isotopologues to ease their future interstellar detection. A dedicated observation for singly substituted 13CCC is projected within the SOFIA airborne observatory mission.

  17. Baseline assessment of instream and riparian-zone biological resources on the Rio Grande in and near Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, James Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Five study sites, and a sampling reach within each site, were established on the Rio Grande in and near Big Bend National Park in 1999 to provide the National Park Service with data and information on the status of stream habitat, fish communities, and benthic macroinvertebrates. Differences in stream-habitat conditions and riparian vegetation reflect differences in surface geology among the five sampling reaches. In the most upstream reach, Colorado Canyon, where igneous rock predominates, streambed material is larger; and riparian vegetation is less diverse and not as dense as in the four other, mostly limestone reaches. Eighteen species of fish and a total of 474 individuals were collected among the five reaches; 348 of the 474 were minnows. The most fish species (15) were collected at the Santa Elena reach and the fewest species (9) at the Colorado Canyon and Johnson Ranch reaches. The fish community at Colorado Canyon was least like the fish communities at the four other reaches. Fish trophic structure reflected fish-community structure among the five reaches. Invertivores made up at least 60 percent of the trophic structure at all reaches except Colorado Canyon. Piscivores dominated the trophic structure at Colorado Canyon. At the four other reaches, piscivores were the smallest trophic group. Eighty percent of the benthic macroinvertebrate taxa collected were aquatic insects. Two species of blackfly were the most frequently collected invertebrate taxon. Net-spinning caddisflies were common at all reaches except Santa Elena. The aquatic-insect community at the Boquillas reach was least similar to the aquatic-insect community at the other reaches.

  18. Oceanic plate weakened by flexural bending-induced faulting in the outer rise region of the Mariana subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Lin, J.; Zhan, W.

    2013-12-01

    Strong flexural bending near trenches could significantly weaken oceanic plates through development of trench-parallel extensional normal faults. We assessed the oceanic plate weakening near the outer rise region of the Mariana subduction zone by analyzing and modeling the plate deformation caused by flexural bending. We first obtained a 3-D deformation surface of the subducting plate by removing from seafloor bathymetry the topographic effects of sediments, seamounts, and age-related thermal subsidence. We then calculated theoretical models of plate deformation and inverted for along-trench changes in the vertical force and bending moment at the trench axis, as well as spatial variations in the effective elastic thickness of the subducting plate, that best explain the observations. We found that to replicate simultaneously the observed steep slope of the seafloor near the trench axis and the long-wavelength flexural profiles seaward of the outer rise region, the effective elastic thickness of the plate must change significantly. The best-fitting models reveal that the effective elastic thickness is about 45-55 km seaward of the outer rise (TeMax), but is reduced to only 19-40 km trench-ward of the outer rise region (TeMin); the transition from TeMax to TeMin occurs at Xr =70-120 km away from the trench axis. The resultant reduction in the calculated effective elastic thickness, i.e., 1 - (TeMin /TeMax), is in the range of 20-60%, being the greatest near the Challenger Deep area, where the plate deforms significantly within a narrow distance from the trench axis and the trench axis is the deepest. Our results revealed that reduction in Te along the Mariana trench does not exceed 60%, implying that an elastic core remains in the subducting plate despite pervasive faulting caused by flexural bending near the trench axis.

  19. Modeling and experimental analysis of electrospinning bending region physics in determining fiber diameter for hydrophilic polymer solvent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yunshen

    Electrospinning produces submicron fibers from a wide range of polymer/solvent systems that enable a variety of different applications. In electrospinning process, a straight polymer/solvent charged jet is initially formed, followed by a circular moving jet in the shape of a cone, called the bending region. The process physics in the bending region are difficult to study since the jet diameter cannot be measured directly due to its rapid motion and small size ( microns and smaller), and due to complex coupling of multiple forces, mass transport, and changing jet geometry. Since the solutions studied are hydrophilic, they readily absorb ambient moisture. This thesis explores the role of the bending region in determining the resulting electrospun fiber diameter through a combined experimental and modeling analysis for a variety of hydrophilic polymer/solvent solutions. Electrospinning experiments were conducted over a broad range of operating conditions for 4 different polymer/solvent systems. Comparison of the final straight jet diameters to fiber diameters reveals that between 30% to 60% jet thinning occurs in the bending region. These experiments also reveal that relative humidity significantly affects the electrospinning process and final fiber diameter, even for non-aqueous solutions. A model is developed to obtain insight into the bending region process physics. Important ones include understanding the mass transport for non-aqueous hydrophilic jets (including solvent evaporation and water absorption on the jet surface, radial diffusion, and axial advection), and the coupling between the mass and force balances that determines the final fiber diameter. The absorption and evaporation physics is validated by evaporation experiments. The developed model predicts fiber diameter to within of 8%, even though the solution properties and operating conditions that determines net stretching forces and net evaporation rates vary over a large range. Model analysis reveals

  20. Regional analysis of big five personality factors and suicide rates in Russia.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Extending cross-national and intranational studies on possible aggregate-level associations between personality dimensions and suicide prevalence, this study examined the associations of the Big Five personality factors and suicide rates across 32 regions of the Russian Federation. Failing to replicate one key finding of similar geographic studies, namely, a correspondence of higher suicide rates with lower Agreeableness and Conscientiousness (i.e., higher Psychoticism) scores, higher suicide rates corresponded to higher Agreeableness scores. This effect was obtained with one available data source (regional-level Big Five ratings based on the National Character Survey), but not with another (based on the NEO-PI-R measure). All in all, regional suicide rates across Russia were dissociated from regional variation in personality dimensions.

  1. Analysis of residual stress and hardness in regions of pre-manufactured and manual bends in fixation plates for maxillary advancement.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Marcelo Marotta; Lauria, Andrezza; Mendes, Marcelo Breno Meneses; Claro, Ana Paula Rosifini Alves; Claro, Cristiane Aparecida de Assis; Moreira, Roger William Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze, through Vickers hardness test and photoelasticity analysis, pre-bent areas, manually bent areas, and areas without bends of 10-mm advancement pre-bent titanium plates (Leibinger system). The work was divided into three groups: group I-region without bend, group II-region of 90° manual bend, and group III-region of 90° pre-fabricated bends. All the materials were evaluated through hardness analysis by the Vickers hardness test, stress analysis by residual images obtained in a polariscope, and photoelastic analysis by reflection during the manual bending. The data obtained from the hardness tests were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's tests at a significance level of 5 %. The pre-bent plate (group III) showed hardness means statistically significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of the other groups (I-region without bends, II-90° manually bent region). Through the study of photoelastic reflection, it was possible to identify that the stress gradually increased, reaching a pink color (1.81 δ / λ), as the bending was performed. A general analysis of the results showed that the bent plate region of pre-bent titanium presented the best results.

  2. Survival of Phytophthora ramorum following wildfires in the sudden oak death-impacted forests of the Big Sur region

    Treesearch

    Maia M. Beh; Margaret Metz; Kerri Frangioso; David Rizzo

    2013-01-01

    The summer of 2008 brought the first wildfires to occur in known Phytophthora ramorum-infested forests in California, with the largest individual fire burning in the Big Sur region of the central coast (Monterey County) (Metz et al. 2011). More than 100,000 ha in Big Sur were ultimately burned that summer, providing a natural experiment to examine...

  3. Structure of the Mid-Region Tropomyosin: Bending and Binding Sites for Actin

    SciTech Connect

    Brown,J.; Zhou, Z.; Reshetnikova, L.; Robinson, H.; Yammani, R.; Tobacman, L.; Cohen, C.

    2005-01-01

    Tropomyosin is a two-chain {alpha}-helical coiled coil whose periodic interactions with the F-actin helix are critical for thin filament stabilization and the regulation of muscle contraction. Here we deduce the mechanical and chemical basis of these interactions from the 2.3-Angstrom-resolution crystal structure of the middle three of tropomyosin's seven periods. Geometrically specific bends of the coiled coil, produced by clusters of core alanines, and variable bends about gaps in the core, produced by isolated alanines, occur along the molecule. The crystal packing is notable in signifying that the functionally important fifth period includes an especially favorable protein-binding site, comprising an unusual apolar patch on the surface together with surrounding charged residues. Based on these and other results, we have constructed a specific model of the thin filament, with the N-terminal halves of each period (i.e., the so-called '{alpha} zones') of tropomyosin axially aligned with subdomain 3 of each monomer in F-actin.

  4. Structure of the mid-region of tropomyosin: Bending and binding sites for actin

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jerry H.; Zhou, Zhaocai; Reshetnikova, Ludmilla; Robinson, Howard; Yammani, Rama D.; Tobacman, Larry S.; Cohen, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    Tropomyosin is a two-chain α-helical coiled coil whose periodic interactions with the F-actin helix are critical for thin filament stabilization and the regulation of muscle contraction. Here we deduce the mechanical and chemical basis of these interactions from the 2.3-Å-resolution crystal structure of the middle three of tropomyosin's seven periods. Geometrically specific bends of the coiled coil, produced by clusters of core alanines, and variable bends about gaps in the core, produced by isolated alanines, occur along the molecule. The crystal packing is notable in signifying that the functionally important fifth period includes an especially favorable protein-binding site, comprising an unusual apolar patch on the surface together with surrounding charged residues. Based on these and other results, we have constructed a specific model of the thin filament, with the N-terminal halves of each period (i.e., the so-called “α zones”) of tropomyosin axially aligned with subdomain 3 of each monomer in F-actin. PMID:16365313

  5. Crustal strain near the Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault: analysis of the Los Padres-Tehachapi Trilateration Networks, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Lisowski, M.

    1990-01-01

    In the region of the Los Padres-Tehachapi geodetic network, the San Andreas fault (SAF) changes its orientation by over 30?? from N40??W, close to that predicted by plate motion for a transform boundary, to N73??W. The strain orientation near the SAF is consistent with right-lateral shear along the fault, with maximum shear rate of 0.38??0.01??rad/yr at N63??W. In contrast, away from the SAF the strain orientations on both sides of the fault are consistent with the plate motion direction, with maximum shear rate of 0.19??0.01??rad/yr at N44??W. The best fitting Garlock fault model had computed left-lateral slip rate of 11??2mm/yr below 10km. Buried left-lateral slip of 15??6mm/yr on the Big Pine fault, within the Western Transverse Ranges, provides significant reduction in line length residuals; however, deformation there may be more complicated than a single vertical fault. A subhorizontal detachment on the southern side of the SAF cannot be well constrained by these data. -from Authors

  6. Crustal strain near the Big Bend of the San Andreas Fault: Analysis of the Los Padres-Tehachapi Trilateration Networks, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhart-Phillips, Donna; Lisowski, Michael; Zoback, Mark D.

    1990-02-01

    In the region of the Los Padres-Tehachapi geodetic network, the San Andreas fault (SAF) changes its orientation by over 30° from N40°W, close to that predicted by plate motion for a transform boundary, to N73°W. The strain orientation near the SAF is consistent with right-lateral shear along the fault, with maximum shear rate of 0.38±0.01 μrad/yr at N63°W. In contrast, away from the SAF the strain orientations on both sides of the fault are consistent with the plate motion direction, with maximum shear rate of 0.19±0.01 μrad/yr at N44°W. The strain rate does not drop off rapidly away from the fault, and thus the area is fit by either a broad shear zone below the SAF or a single fault with a relatively deep locking depth. The fit to the line length data is poor for locking depth d less than 25 km. For d of 25 km a buried slip rate of 30 ± 6 mm/yr is estimated. We also estimated buried slip for models that included the Garlock and Big Pine faults, in addition to the SAF. Slip rates on other faults are poorly constrained by the Los Padres-Tehachapi network. The best fitting Garlock fault model had computed left-lateral slip rate of 11±2 mm/yr below 10 km. Buried left-lateral slip of 15±6 mm/yr on the Big Pine fault, within the Western Transverse Ranges, provides significant reduction in line length residuals; however, deformation there may be more complicated than a single vertical fault. A subhorizontal detachment on the southern side of the SAF cannot be well constrained by these data. We investigated the location of the SAF and found that a vertical fault below the surface trace fits the data much better than either a dipping fault or a fault zone located south of the surface trace.

  7. Crustal strain near the big bend of the San Andreas fault: Analysis of the Los Padres-Tehachapi trilateration networks, California

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart-Phillips, D.; Lisowski, M. ); Zoback, M.D. )

    1990-02-10

    In the region of the Los Padres-Tehachapi geodetic network, the San Andreas fault (SAF) changes its orientation by over 30{degree} from N 40{degree}W, close to that predicted by plate motion for a transform boundary, to N 73{degree}W. The strain orientation near the SAF is consistent with right-lateral shear along the fault, with maximum shear rate of 0.38 {plus minus} 0.01 {mu}rad/yr at N 63{degree}W. In contrast, away from the SAF the strain orientations on both sides of the fault are consistent with the plate motion direction, with maximum shear rate of 0.19 {plus minus} 0.01 {mu}rad/yr at N 44{degree}W. The strain rate does not drop off rapidly away from the fault, and thus the area is fit by either a broad shear zone below the SAF or a single fault with a relatively deep locking depth. The fit to the line length data is poor for locking depth d less than 25 km. For d of 25 km a buried slip rate of 30 {plus minus} 6 mm/yr is estimated. The authors also estimated buried slip for models that include the Garlock and Big Pine faults, in addition to the SAF. Slip rates on other faults are poorly constrained by the Los Padres-Tehachapi network. The best fitting Garlock fault model had computed left-lateral slip rate of 11 {plus minus} 2 mm/yr below 10 km. Buried left-lateral slip of 15 {plus minus} 6 mm/yr on the Big Pine fault, within the Western Transverse Ranges, provides significant reduction in line length residuals; however, deformation there may be more complicated than a single vertical fault. A subhorizontal detachment on the southern side of the SAF cannot be well constrained by these data. The authors investigated the location of the SAF and found that a vertical fault below the surface trace fits the data much better than either a dipping fault zone located south of the surface trace.

  8. Effects of turn region treatments on pressure loss through sharp 180-degree bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plevich, C. W.; Metzger, D. E.

    An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of geometric turn region inserts on pressure losses for flow through sharp 180-degree channel turns typical of internal cooling passages in gas turbine engine airfoils. The experiments were conducted in a rectangular cross-sectioned channel with 90-degree transverse rib roughening in both inlet and outlet legs, starting with completely smooth turn regions and progressing through various modifications including corner fillets, radial ribs, and turning vanes. The results show that modifications to the turn region geometry, particularly the inclusion of a single semi-circular turning vane, significantly reduce the pressure losses associated with coolant flows through sharp 180-degree turns and therefore can result in increased coolant flow for a given coolant supply pressure.

  9. Efficient swimmers use bending kinematics to generate low pressure regions for suction-based swimming thrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Sean; Gemmell, Brad; Costello, John; Morgan, Jennifer; Dabiri, John

    2015-11-01

    A longstanding tenet in the conceptualization of animal swimming is that locomotion occurs by pushing against the surrounding water. Implicit in this perspective is the assumption that swimming involves lateral body accelerations that generate locally elevated pressures in the fluid, in order to achieve the expected downstream push of the surrounding water against the ambient pressure. Here we show that to the contrary, efficient swimming animals primarily pull themselves through the water by creating localized regions of low pressure via waves of body surface rotation that generate vortices. These effects are observed using laser diagnostics applied to normal and spinally-transected lampreys. The results suggest rethinking evolutionary adaptations observed in swimming animals as well as the mechanistic basis for bio-inspired underwater vehicles. NSF CBET (1510929).

  10. Broadband Array for Regional Tectonics (BART) Research in Big Beijing Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Li, J.; Wang, B.

    2002-12-01

    North China is always known for its high seismic activity and destructive damage caused by intra-plate earthquakes. Especially around the Capital Circle, with dramatically increasing trend of urbanization, the shadow of potential seismic risk - even a moderate earthquake may cause great social losses, urges a detailed study of the regional structure and active source under this area. On Oct 1 2001, a digital seismic network was set up and operated to monitor earthquakes in the Capital Circle Region (E38.5~41.0, N114.0 ~120.0), namely Big Beijing. The network contains 107 seismic stations with continuous records, including 43 broadband seismometers, 59 short-period seismometers and 5 very-broadband seismometers. Four data acquisition centers are located at Beijing, Tianjin and Shijiazhuang, which receive DDN signals from 75 stations and satellite signals from the other 32 stations. Based on this new built seismic network, a research of Broadband Array for Regional Tectonics (BART) is carried on from March this year. The primary scientific goals of BART are: to investigate the crustal and upper mantle structure under Big Beijing area; to construct a detailed 3-D model of the lithospheric structure in the study area; to relocate earthquakes using the new constructed detailed model; with the combined data of relocated earthquakes, high-resolution crustal structures, tectonics and other geophysical data, to delineate the major active tectonics and other active source and try to interpret the mechanism of intra-plate earthquake in North China. From 23 to 24, April, 6 shots with chemical charges of 2000 ­C 2500kg were conducted near Beijing, with 3 of them along the famous Zhangjiakou ­C Bohai Sea seismic belt. The distance between every 2 shots are less than 60km. In addition to 107 settled stations, 196 portable short-period seismometers were deployed in the area for these shots, and 96 of them formed a combined array of aperture of 30-40 km within the network, and

  11. Approximate formulas for the resonance frequency shift in cavities with big variations of parameters inside small regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dodonov, V. V.

    2010-10-15

    The Mueller-Bethe-Schwinger-Casimir formulas for the frequency shift in electromagnetic resonators are generalized to the case of big variations of electric permittivity inside small regions. These formulas are important, in particular, for the studies of the dynamical Casimir effect.

  12. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of Big Horn Mountains region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. MSS scene 1085-17294 of the Big Horn region has been subjected to detailed structural analysis. Band 7 is particularly good for revealing structural and drainage patterns because of enhance topographic detail and the subdued vegetational contrasts. Considerable stereo coverage through sidelap with adjoining scenes adds to the effectiveness of the study and has been used on both positive transparencies and enlarged prints. Negative prints of Band 7 positive transparencies have proven to be much more useful than positive prints because the higher resolution of the positive transparencies can be maintained. The Bighorn Mountains are crisscrossed by a number of prominent topographic linears, most of which can be correlated with known fault and shear zones in the Precambrian crystalline core. Many of these do not appear to continue into the flanking sedimentary rocks and a few that do (Tensleep, Tongue River lineaments) are very difficult to trace farther out into the basins. The Tongue River lineament, long a source of speculation and uncertainty as to its existence, appears as a very prominent discontinuity in the imagery.

  13. Using "big data" to optimally model hydrology and water quality across expansive regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roehl, E.A.; Cook, J.B.; Conrads, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a new divide and conquer approach that leverages big environmental data, utilizing all available categorical and time-series data without subjectivity, to empirically model hydrologic and water-quality behaviors across expansive regions. The approach decomposes large, intractable problems into smaller ones that are optimally solved; decomposes complex signals into behavioral components that are easier to model with "sub- models"; and employs a sequence of numerically optimizing algorithms that include time-series clustering, nonlinear, multivariate sensitivity analysis and predictive modeling using multi-layer perceptron artificial neural networks, and classification for selecting the best sub-models to make predictions at new sites. This approach has many advantages over traditional modeling approaches, including being faster and less expensive, more comprehensive in its use of available data, and more accurate in representing a system's physical processes. This paper describes the application of the approach to model groundwater levels in Florida, stream temperatures across Western Oregon and Wisconsin, and water depths in the Florida Everglades. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  14. Addition of positively charged tripeptide to N-terminus of the Fos basic region leucine zipper domain: implications on DNA bending, affinity, and specificity.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, T; Sarkar, B

    1999-09-01

    GKH-Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) (GKH: glycine-lysine-histidine) is a modified Fos/Jun heterodimer designed to contain a metal binding motif in the form of a GKH tripeptide at the amino terminus of Fos bZIP domain dimerized with the Jun basic region leucine zipper (bZIP) domain. We examined the effect of the addition of positively charged GKH motif to the N-terminus of Fos(139-211) on the DNA binding characteristics of the Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) heterodimer. Binding studies indicate that while the nonspecific DNA binding affinity of the GKH modified heterodimer increases 4-fold, it specifically binds the activating protein-1 (AP-1) site 6-fold less tightly than the control unmodified counterpart. Furthermore, helical phasing analysis indicates that GKH-Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) and control Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) both bend the DNA at the AP-1 site toward the minor groove. However, due to the presence of the positively charged GKH motif on Fos, the degree of the induced bend by GKH- Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) is greater than that induced by the unmodified Fos/Jun heterodimer. Our results suggest that the unfavorable energetic cost of the increased DNA bending by GKH-Fos(139-211)/Jun(248-334) results in a decrease in both specificity and affinity of binding of the heterodimer to the AP-1 site. These findings may have important implications in protein design as well in our understanding of DNA bending and factors responsible for the functional specificity of different members of the bZIP family of transcription factors.

  15. Region-wide ecological responses of arid Wyoming big sagebrush communities to fuel treatments

    Treesearch

    David A. Pyke; Scott E. Shaff; Andrew I. Lindgren; Eugene W. Schupp; Paul S. Doescher; Jeanne C. Chambers; Jeffrey S. Burnham; Manuela M. Huso

    2014-01-01

    If arid sagebrush ecosystems lack resilience to disturbances or resistance to annual invasives, then alternative successional states dominated by annual invasives, especially cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), are likely after fuel treatments. We identified six Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young) locations (152-381 mm...

  16. Infrared laser spectroscopy of the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals: Stretch-bend Fermi coupling in the alkyl CH stretch region.

    PubMed

    Franke, Peter R; Tabor, Daniel P; Moradi, Christopher P; Douberly, Gary E; Agarwal, Jay; Schaefer, Henry F; Sibert, Edwin L

    2016-12-14

    The n-propyl and i-propyl radicals were generated in the gas phase via pyrolysis of n-butyl nitrite [CH3(CH2)3ONO] and i-butyl nitrite [(CH3)2CHCH2ONO], respectively. Nascent radicals were promptly solvated by a beam of He nanodroplets, and the infrared spectra of the radicals were recorded in the CH stretching region. Several previously unreported bands are observed between 2800 and 3150 cm(-1). The CH stretching modes observed above 3000 cm(-1) are in excellent agreement with CCSD(T) anharmonic frequencies computed using second-order vibrational perturbation theory. However, between 2800 and 3000 cm(-1), the spectra of n- and i-propyl radicals become congested and difficult to assign due to the presence of multiple anharmonic resonance polyads. To model the spectrally congested region, Fermi and Darling-Dennison resonances are treated explicitly using "dressed" Hamiltonians and CCSD(T) quartic force fields in the normal mode representation, and the agreement with experiment is less than satisfactory. Computations employing local mode effective Hamiltonians reveal the origin of the spectral congestion to be strong coupling between the high frequency CH stretching modes and the lower frequency CHn bending/scissoring motions. The most significant coupling is between stretches and bends localized on the same CH2/CH3 group. Spectral simulations using the local mode approach are in excellent agreement with experiment.

  17. Infrared laser spectroscopy of the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals: Stretch-bend Fermi coupling in the alkyl CH stretch region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Peter R.; Tabor, Daniel P.; Moradi, Christopher P.; Douberly, Gary E.; Agarwal, Jay; Schaefer, Henry F.; Sibert, Edwin L.

    2016-12-01

    The n-propyl and i-propyl radicals were generated in the gas phase via pyrolysis of n-butyl nitrite [CH3(CH2)3ONO] and i-butyl nitrite [(CH3)2CHCH2ONO], respectively. Nascent radicals were promptly solvated by a beam of He nanodroplets, and the infrared spectra of the radicals were recorded in the CH stretching region. Several previously unreported bands are observed between 2800 and 3150 cm-1. The CH stretching modes observed above 3000 cm-1 are in excellent agreement with CCSD(T) anharmonic frequencies computed using second-order vibrational perturbation theory. However, between 2800 and 3000 cm-1, the spectra of n- and i-propyl radicals become congested and difficult to assign due to the presence of multiple anharmonic resonance polyads. To model the spectrally congested region, Fermi and Darling-Dennison resonances are treated explicitly using "dressed" Hamiltonians and CCSD(T) quartic force fields in the normal mode representation, and the agreement with experiment is less than satisfactory. Computations employing local mode effective Hamiltonians reveal the origin of the spectral congestion to be strong coupling between the high frequency CH stretching modes and the lower frequency CHn bending/scissoring motions. The most significant coupling is between stretches and bends localized on the same CH2/CH3 group. Spectral simulations using the local mode approach are in excellent agreement with experiment.

  18. Big Data: Big Confusion? Big Challenges?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    12th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium 12th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Big Data : Big Confusion? Big Challenges? Mary Maureen... Data : Big Confusion? Big Challenges? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK...Acquisition Research Symposium • ~!& UNC CHARlD1TE 90% of the data in the world today was created in the last two years Big Data growth from

  19. Validity and reliability of a system to measure passive tissue characteristics of the lumbar region during trunk lateral bending in people with and people without low back pain.

    PubMed

    Gombatto, Sara P; Klaesner, Joseph W; Norton, Barbara J; Minor, Scott D; Van Dillen, Linda R

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the validity and reliability of a new system that was developed to measure lumbar region passive stiffness and end range of motion during a trunk lateral bending movement in vivo. Variables measured included force, end range lumbar region motion, torque, lumbar region stiffness, and passive elastic energy. Validity of the force measurements was examined using standard weights. Validity of lumbar region angle measurements was examined using an instrumented trunk with an electrogoniometer. Reliability of the measurements between trials within a session was examined in a sample of 50 people (25 men, 25 women; mean +/- standard deviation age = 30.7 +/- 8.9 yr); 31 people reported a history of chronic or recurrent low back pain (LBP) and 19 reported no prior history of LBP. The end range lumbar region motion and force measurements demonstrated an excellent linear relationship with the criterion standard measures. Average error between the criterion standard and observed measurements was minimal for all measurements. For reliability testing, the majority of intraclass correlation coefficient values were >0.75. The validity and reliability of the current system are sufficient to examine lumbar region stiffness and end range of motion in people with and people without LBP.

  20. Infrared Laser Spectroscopy of the n-PROPYL and i-PROPYL Radicals in Helium Droplets: Significant Bend-Stretch Coupling Revealed in the CH Stretch Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Christopher P.; Douberly, Gary E.; Tabor, Daniel P.; Sibert, Edwin

    2016-06-01

    The n-propyl and i-propyl radicals were generated in the gas phase via pyrolysis of n-butyl nitrite (CH3(CH2)3ONO) and i-butyl nitrite (CH3CH(CH3)CH2ONO) precursors, respectively. Nascent radicals were promptly solvated by a beam of He nanodroplets, and the infrared spectra of the radicals were recorded in the C-H stretching region. In addition to three vibrations of n-propyl previously measured in an Ar matrix, we observe many unreported bands between 2800 and 3150 wn, which we attribute to propyl radicals. The C-H stretching modes observed above 2960 wn for both radicals are in excellent agreement with anharmonic frequencies computed using VPT2. Between 2800 and 2960 wn, however, the spectra of n-propyl and i-propyl radicals become quite congested and difficult to assign due to the presence of multiple anharmonic resonances. Computations employing a local mode Hamiltonian reveal the origin of the spectral congestion to be strong coupling between the high frequency C-H stretching modes and the lower frequency bending/scissoring motions. The only significant local coupling is between stretches and bends on the same CH2/CH3 group.

  1. Ro-vibrational spectrum of H2O-Ne in the ν2 H2O bending region: A combined ab initio and experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xunchen; Hou, Dan; Thomas, Javix; Li, Hui; Xu, Yunjie

    2016-12-01

    High resolution ro-vibrational transitions of the H2O-Ne complex in the ν2 bending region of H2O at 6 μm have been measured using a rapid scan infrared spectrometer based on an external cavity quantum cascade laser and an astigmatic multipass optical cell. To aid the spectral assignment, a four-dimension potential energy surface of H2O-Ne which depends on the intramolecular bending coordinate of the H2O monomer and the three intermolecular vibrational coordinates has been constructed and the rovibrational transitions have been calculated. Three ortho and two para H2O-20Ne bands have been identified from the experimental spectra. Some weaker transitions belonging to H2O-22Ne have also been identified experimentally. Spectroscopic fits have been performed for both the experimental and theoretical transition frequencies using a simple pseudo-diatomic Hamiltonian including both Coriolis coupling and Fermi resonance terms. The experimental and theoretical spectroscopic constants thus obtained have been compared. Further improvements needed in the potential energy surface and the related spectral simulation have been discussed.

  2. Health assessment for Big D Campground, Kingsville, Ohio, Region 5. CERCLIS No. OHD980611735. Preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-03-15

    The Big 'D' Campground Site is listed on the National Priorities List. The site was used as a landfill for waste products. Preliminary on-site sampling results have not been reported. Physical hazards were not reported. Based on available information, the site is considered to be of potential public health concern because of the risk to human health caused by the possibility of human exposure to hazardous substances. Area residents, on-site employees, and campers may be exposed to waste materials via all the above-mentioned pathways.

  3. Quality of water and sediment in streams affected by historical mining, and quality of Mine Tailings, in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin, Big Bend Area of the United States and Mexico, August 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, Rebecca B.; Kolbe, Christine M.; Belzer, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the International Boundary and Water Commission - U.S. and Mexican Sections, the National Park Service, the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, the Secretaria de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales in Mexico, the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Canon de Santa Elena in Mexico, and the Area de Proteccion de Flora y Fauna Maderas del Carmen in Mexico, collected samples of stream water, streambed sediment, and mine tailings during August 2002 for a study to determine whether trace elements from abandoned mines in the area in and around Big Bend National Park have affected the water and sediment quality in the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo Basin of the United States and Mexico. Samples were collected from eight sites on the main stem of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo, four Rio Grande/Rio Bravo tributary sites downstream from abandoned mines or mine-tailing sites, and 11 mine-tailing sites. Mines in the area were operated to produce fluorite, germanium, iron, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc during the late 1800s through at least the late 1970s. Moderate (relatively neutral) pHs in stream-water samples collected at the 12 Rio Grande/Rio Bravo main-stem and tributary sites indicate that water is well mixed, diluted, and buffered with respect to the solubility of trace elements. The highest sulfate concentrations were in water samples from tributaries draining the Terlingua mining district. Only the sample from the Rough Run Draw site exceeded the Texas Surface Water Quality Standards general-use protection criterion for sulfate. All chloride and dissolved solids concentrations in water samples were less than the general-use protection criteria. Aluminum, copper, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc were detected in all water samples for which each element was analyzed. Cadmium, chromium, and lead were detected in samples less frequently, and silver was not detected in any of the samples. None of the sample concentrations of

  4. The Technological Impact of the E-Rate Program on a School District of the Texas Coastal Bend Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vazquez-Cruz, Juan Diego

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the impact of the E-Rate program on students, teachers, administrators, and the technology environment of a public school district in the Texas Gulf Coast Region. The study was conducted through a mixed methods design, utilizing both quantitative and qualitative data collection; the research design was a…

  5. Comparing α-cellulose δ13C and δ18O to regional climate at Big Thicket National Preserve, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, D. B.; Finkelstein, D. B.; Mora, C. I.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.; Perfect, E.

    2009-12-01

    Few studies have investigated the relationship between tree-ring δ13C, δ18O, and regional climate in the southeastern U.S. In other regions, tree ring δ13C and δ18O have proven useful for analyzing temporal changes in precipitation, temperature, drought, and relative humidity. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationships of regional climate with seasonally-resolved tree-ring cellulose δ13C and δ18O records from longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) trees at Big Thicket National Preserve (BTNP), Texas. BTNP is a semi-tropical area along the southeastern Texas Gulf Coast with a MAP of 1300 mm. Increment cores were collected from living trees in the Big Sandy Creek Unit (BSC) of BTNP, and four trees were randomly selected for isotopic analysis. The latewood (LW) portions of annual rings were removed in small slivers using a scalpel, and α-cellulose was extracted for a 26-year period (1982-2007). The δ13C series were compared to δ18O series from the same tree, and correlations ranged from 0.64 (BSC 005) to 0.18 (BSC 010). Single tree LW δ13C and δ18O chronologies were compared to regional climate records (Region 8, Upper Coast). Three of the four LW δ18O series were significantly correlated to fall (August-October) precipitation and the Palmer z-index, a measure of short-term (monthly) drought. BSC 010 δ18O exhibited no relationship with either climate parameter. Two of the δ13C series were correlated to fall precipitation and z-index. BSC 010 and BSC 015 were not significantly correlated. Averaging the four individual LW δ18O series into a single chronology resulted in significant correlations with fall precipitation (r = -0.60, p = 0.002) and z-index (r = -0.58, p = 0.002). Both relationships were slightly improved by removing BSC 010 from the chronology. The average δ13C chronology was also correlated to fall precipitation (r = -0.59, p = 0.001) and z-index (r = -0.57, p = 0.003). Neither isotope chronology was correlated to

  6. Region-wide ecological responses of arid Wyoming big sagebrush communities to fuel treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyke, David A.; Shaff, Scott E.; Lindgren, Andrew I.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Doescher, Paul S.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Burnham, Jeffrey S.; Huso, Manuela M.

    2014-01-01

    If arid sagebrush ecosystems lack resilience to disturbances or resistance to annual invasives, then alternative successional states dominated by annual invasives, especially cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), are likely after fuel treatments. We identified six Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young) locations (152–381 mm precipitation) that we believed had sufficient resilience and resistance for recovery. We examined impacts of woody fuel reduction (fire, mowing, the herbicide tebuthiuron, and untreated controls, all with and without the herbicide imazapic) on short-term dominance of plant groups and on important land health parameters with the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA). Fire and mowing reduced woody biomass at least 85% for 3 yr, but herbaceous fuels were reduced only by fire (72%) and only in the first year. Herbaceous fuels produced at least 36% more biomass with mowing than untreated areas during posttreatment years. Imazapic only reduced herbaceous biomass after fires (34%). Tebuthiuron never affected herbaceous biomass. Perennial tall grass cover was reduced by 59% relative to untreated controls in the first year after fire, but it recovered by the second year. Cover of all remaining herbaceous groups was not changed by woody fuel treatments. Only imazapic reduced significantly herbaceous cover. Cheatgrass cover was reduced at least 63% with imazapic for 3 yr. Imazapic reduced annual forb cover by at least 45%, and unexpectedly, perennial grass cover by 49% (combination of tall grasses and Sandberg bluegrass [Poa secunda J. Presl.]). Fire reduced density of Sandberg bluegrass between 40% and 58%, decreased lichen and moss cover between 69% and 80%, and consequently increased bare ground between 21% and 34% and proportion of gaps among perennial plants > 2 m (at least 28% during the 3 yr). Fire, mowing, and imazapic may be effective in reducing fuels for 3 yr, but each has potentially undesirable consequences

  7. Region-wide ecological responses of arid Wyoming big sagebrush communities to fuel treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pyke, David A.; Shaff, Scott E.; Lindgren, Andrew I.; Schupp, Eugene W.; Doescher, Paul S.; Chambers, Jeanne C.; Burnham, Jeffrey S.; Huso, Manuela M.

    2014-01-01

    If arid sagebrush ecosystems lack resilience to disturbances or resistance to annual invasives, then alternative successional states dominated by annual invasives, especially cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum L.), are likely after fuel treatments. We identified six Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis Beetle & Young) locations (152–381 mm precipitation) that we believed had sufficient resilience and resistance for recovery. We examined impacts of woody fuel reduction (fire, mowing, the herbicide tebuthiuron, and untreated controls, all with and without the herbicide imazapic) on short-term dominance of plant groups and on important land health parameters with the use of analysis of variance (ANOVA). Fire and mowing reduced woody biomass at least 85% for 3 yr, but herbaceous fuels were reduced only by fire (72%) and only in the first year. Herbaceous fuels produced at least 36% more biomass with mowing than untreated areas during posttreatment years. Imazapic only reduced herbaceous biomass after fires (34%). Tebuthiuron never affected herbaceous biomass. Perennial tall grass cover was reduced by 59% relative to untreated controls in the first year after fire, but it recovered by the second year. Cover of all remaining herbaceous groups was not changed by woody fuel treatments. Only imazapic reduced significantly herbaceous cover. Cheatgrass cover was reduced at least 63% with imazapic for 3 yr. Imazapic reduced annual forb cover by at least 45%, and unexpectedly, perennial grass cover by 49% (combination of tall grasses and Sandberg bluegrass [Poa secunda J. Presl.]). Fire reduced density of Sandberg bluegrass between 40% and 58%, decreased lichen and moss cover between 69% and 80%, and consequently increased bare ground between 21% and 34% and proportion of gaps among perennial plants > 2 m (at least 28% during the 3 yr). Fire, mowing, and imazapic may be effective in reducing fuels for 3 yr, but each has potentially undesirable consequences

  8. Reversal bending fatigue testing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Tan, Ting

    2014-10-21

    Embodiments for apparatuses for testing reversal bending fatigue in an elongated beam are disclosed. Embodiments are configured to be coupled to first and second end portions of the beam and to apply a bending moment to the beam and create a pure bending condition in an intermediate portion of the beam. Embodiments are further configured to cyclically alternate the direction of the bending moment applied to the beam such that the intermediate portion of the beam cyclically bends in opposite directions in a pure bending condition.

  9. Bending fracture in carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Wen-Shyong; Lu, Hsin-Fang

    2008-12-10

    A novel approach was adopted to incur bending fracture in carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Expanded graphite (EG) was made by intercalating and exfoliating natural graphite flakes. The EG was deposited with nickel particles, from which CNTs were grown by chemical vapor deposition. The CNTs were tip-grown, and their roots were fixed on the EG flakes. The EG flakes were compressed, and many CNTs on the surface were fragmented due to the compression-induced bending. Two major modes of the bending fracture were observed: cone-shaped and shear-cut. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to examine the crack growth within the graphene layers. The bending fracture is characterized by two-region crack growth. An opening crack first appears around the outer-tube due to the bending-induced tensile stress. The crack then branches to grow along an inclined direction toward the inner-tube due to the presence of the shear stress in between graphene layers. An inner-tube pullout with inclined side surface is formed. The onset and development of the crack in these two regions are discussed.

  10. Grid-based versus big region approach for inverting CO emissions using Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrakou, T.; Müller, J.-F.

    2006-08-01

    The CO columns retrieved by the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument between May 2000 and April 2001 are used together with the Intermediate Model for the Annual and Global Evolution of Species (IMAGES) global chemistry transport model and its adjoint to provide top-down estimates for anthropogenic, biomass burning, and biogenic CO emissions on the global scale, as well as for the biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) fluxes, whose oxidation constitutes a major indirect CO source. For this purpose, the big region and grid-based Bayesian inversion methods are presented and compared. In the former setup, the monthly emissions over large geographical regions are quantified. In the grid-based setup, the fluxes are optimized at the spatial resolution of the model and on a monthly basis. Source-specific spatiotemporal correlations among errors on the prior emissions are introduced in order to better constrain the inversion problem. Both inversion techniques bring the model columns much closer to the measurements at all latitudes, but the grid-based analysis achieves a higher reduction of the overall model/data bias. Further comparisons with observed mixing ratios at NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory and Global Atmosphere Watch sites, as well as with airborne measurements are also presented. The inferred emission estimates are weakly dependent on the prior errors and correlations. Our best estimate for the global CO source amounts to 2900 Tg CO/yr in both inversion approaches, about 5% higher than the prior. The global anthropogenic emission estimate is 18% larger than the prior, with the biggest increase for east Asia and a substantial decrease in south Asia. The vegetation fire emission estimates decrease as well, from the prior 467 Tg CO/yr to 450 Tg CO/yr in the grid-based solution and 434 Tg CO/yr in the monthly big region setup, mainly due to a significant reduction of African savanna fire emissions. The

  11. Biodiversity, biosphere reserves, and the Big Apple: a study of the New York Metropolitan Region.

    PubMed

    Solecki, William D; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2004-06-01

    The objectives of this article were to assess the dimensions of biodiversity-urban society interactions within the New York Metropolitan Region, a 31-county area with a population of 21.5 million, and to explore pathways to reconcile dysfunctional relationships between these two ever-entwined systems. The article builds on the premise that urban biodiversity exists at a crucial nexus of ecological and societal interactions, linking local, regional, and global scales, and that urban ecologies are projected to become even more dynamic in the future, particularly as a result of global climate change. The pathway proposed to reconcile the biodiversity-urban society relationships is the incorporation of biosphere reserve strategies into regional environmental planning efforts focused on the New York/New Jersey Harbor/Estuary specifically and on the greater New York Metropolitan Region in general. The concepts of the "ecological footprint" and vulnerability to global environmental change are used to analyze the current interactions between biodiversity and urban society, and to evaluate the efficacy of adopting biosphere reserve strategies in the region. New York has long been at the forefront of American environmentalism and landscape planning. Coupled with this history is a still small but growing interest in regional environmental planning efforts (e.g., the U.S. EPA Harbor Estuary Program) and green infrastructure (e.g., the 2002 Humane Metropolis Conference organized by the Ecological Cities Project). The research presented here aims to contribute to these nascent activities. As a megacity, New York may serve as a model for other major cities of the world.

  12. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  13. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  14. Big Cat Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Brain Volumes in Felidae

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Sharleen T.; Arsznov, Bradley M.; Hristova, Ani E.; Yoon, Elise J.; Lundrigan, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography. Skulls (n = 75) were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC) volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in four focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively larger AC volumes

  15. Big Cat Coalitions: A Comparative Analysis of Regional Brain Volumes in Felidae.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Sharleen T; Arsznov, Bradley M; Hristova, Ani E; Yoon, Elise J; Lundrigan, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    Broad-based species comparisons across mammalian orders suggest a number of factors that might influence the evolution of large brains. However, the relationship between these factors and total and regional brain size remains unclear. This study investigated the relationship between relative brain size and regional brain volumes and sociality in 13 felid species in hopes of revealing relationships that are not detected in more inclusive comparative studies. In addition, a more detailed analysis was conducted of four focal species: lions (Panthera leo), leopards (Panthera pardus), cougars (Puma concolor), and cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). These species differ markedly in sociality and behavioral flexibility, factors hypothesized to contribute to increased relative brain size and/or frontal cortex size. Lions are the only truly social species, living in prides. Although cheetahs are largely solitary, males often form small groups. Both leopards and cougars are solitary. Of the four species, leopards exhibit the most behavioral flexibility, readily adapting to changing circumstances. Regional brain volumes were analyzed using computed tomography. Skulls (n = 75) were scanned to create three-dimensional virtual endocasts, and regional brain volumes were measured using either sulcal or bony landmarks obtained from the endocasts or skulls. Phylogenetic least squares regression analyses found that sociality does not correspond with larger relative brain size in these species. However, the sociality/solitary variable significantly predicted anterior cerebrum (AC) volume, a region that includes frontal cortex. This latter finding is despite the fact that the two social species in our sample, lions and cheetahs, possess the largest and smallest relative AC volumes, respectively. Additionally, an ANOVA comparing regional brain volumes in four focal species revealed that lions and leopards, while not significantly different from one another, have relatively larger AC volumes

  16. Perspective: big oil, rural poverty, and environmental degradation in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Aaron, K K

    2005-05-01

    The Niger Delta region of Nigeria is richly endowed with both renewable and non-renewable natural resources. It contains 20 billion of Africa's proven 66 billion barrels of oil reserves and more than 3 trillion cubic meters of gas reserves. Oil and gas resources of the Niger Delta account for over 85% of the nation's gross domestic product (GDP), over 95% of the national budget, and over 80% of the nation's wealth. Paradoxically, the Niger Delta remains the poorest region, due largely to the ecologically unfriendly exploitation of oil and gas and state policies that expropriate the indigenous peoples of the Niger Delta of their rights to these natural resources. The ecological devastation occasioned by the activities of oil transnational corporations (TNCs) have rendered farming and fishing useless, previously the main occupations of these rural people. The people of the Niger Delta are deprived of their share of the wealth on which the entire nation depends; they "benefit" only from compensation for incidents of oil pollution. At the same time, occurrences of oil spills in the Niger Delta region have increased. In this article, it is argued that the ecologically unfriendly activities of oil TNCs, and the state's petroleum development policies, lead to poverty in the Niger Delta, and poverty in turn leads to environmental degradation. It is the dynamics of this interconnectedness that we wish to explore.

  17. [Trends in mental health of residents in a big agricultural-industrial region].

    PubMed

    Treshutin, V A; Goldobina, O A; Shchepin, V O

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of mental health of the population of the Altai Territory evaluated within a ten-year study (1991-2000) revealed pronounced negative processes with the most essential ones being in the children and teenagers category. The complicated social-and-economic transformations conducted in Russian society during the last decade of the past century, which entailed the misadjusted response in a majority of population, exerted an unfavorable influence on the mental health condition. The authors suggested a system of measures and arrangements targeted at neutralizing the detected negative trends in the population mental health; the above system can be successfully used in any country's region.

  18. Big Brother Experiments with the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM in an Idealised Setup to Investigate Lateral Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leps, Nora; Brauch, Jennifer; Ahrens, Bodo

    2017-04-01

    Our work aims at improving the regional coupled atmosphere-ocean model system COSMO-CLM/NEMO for decadal prediction. We address the different restricting conditions of regional climate modelling: Lower boundary conditions of the atmospheric system in the form of the coupled ocean, initial conditions and lateral boundary conditions of the coupled ocean-atmosphere system. Lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) are known to be an issue in dynamical downscaling with limited area regional climate models, and many studies have investigated the LBCs with regard to, e.g., frequency or resolution of LBCs, position of the domain and spurious effects. By default, the formulation of the LBCs in CCLM is a Davies relaxation scheme, which introduces a sponge layer at the lateral boundaries of the domain to dampen reflection of waves produced in the limited area domain at the prescribed boundaries. With idealised studies, it is possible to investigate the performance of this LBC formulation in CCLM in detail. The used framework is that of "big brother experiments" (BBEs). In a BBE, a high resolution simulation is performed over a larger domain, then its output is filtered to represent coarse-grid input, which is used to drive a nested smaller domain on the same high resolution. The differences between the two simulations can directly be attributed to the LBCs. Such experiments were performed in an idealised setup of a zonal flow over flat terrain or idealised hills with varying domain positions. First experiments show that for these idealised flows the relaxation works well for lateral boundary data on a high spatial resolution for different temporal resolutions. Next we plan to perform simulations with filtered lateral boundary data that only contains large scale features of the flow as well as different settings of the relaxation procedure.

  19. Pilot Studies of Geologic and Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in the Big Sky Region, USA, and Opportunities for Commercial Scale Deployment of New Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waggoner, L. A.; Capalbo, S. M.; Talbott, J.

    2007-05-01

    Within the Big Sky region, including Montana, Idaho, South Dakota, Wyoming and the Pacific Northwest, industry is developing new coal-fired power plants using the abundant coal and other fossil-based resources. Of crucial importance to future development programs are robust carbon mitigation plans that include a technical and economic assessment of regional carbon sequestration opportunities. The objective of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP) is to promote the development of a regional framework and infrastructure required to validate and deploy carbon sequestration technologies. Initial work compiled sources and potential sinks for carbon dioxide (CO2) in the Big Sky Region and developed the online Carbon Atlas. Current efforts couple geologic and terrestrial field validation tests with market assessments, economic analysis and regulatory and public outreach. The primary geological efforts are in the demonstration of carbon storage in mafic/basalt formations, a geology not yet well characterized but with significant long-term storage potential in the region and other parts of the world; and in the Madison Formation, a large carbonate aquifer in Wyoming and Montana. Terrestrial sequestration relies on management practices and technologies to remove atmospheric CO2 to storage in trees, plants, and soil. This indirect sequestration method can be implemented today and is on the front-line of voluntary, market-based approaches to reduce CO2 emissions. Details of pilot projects are presented including: new technologies, challenges and successes of projects and potential for commercial-scale deployment.

  20. Southeast Regional Clearinghouse(SERCH)Mini-grants:Big Impacts on Future Explorers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyon, C.; Guimond, K.

    2004-12-01

    SERCH is one of seven regional Broker/Facilitator programs funded by NASA's Space Science Mission Directorate. Our purpose is to promote space science awareness and to enhance interest in science, math, and technology through the use of NASA's mission data, information, and educational products. We work closely with educators and NASA-funded scientists in 14 states (AL, AR, DC, FL, GA, KY, LA, MD, MS, NC, PR, SC/VI, TN, and VA) throughout the southeastern U.S. to share what NASA is doing in space science. Every year SERCH dedicates money from its budget to support education/outreach initiatives that increase the awareness and understanding of the four major scientific themes, or forums from NASA's space science program: 1) Sun-Earth Connection, 2) Solar System Exploration, 3) Structure and Evolution of the Universe, and 4) Astronomical Search for Origins and Planetary Systems. SERCH is particularly interested in proposals for education/outreach efforts that establish strong and lasting partnerships between the space science and education communities and that support the NASA's education mission. We encourage innovative, inter-disciplinary teams involving both scientists and educators to apply. These peer-reviewed grants are awarded for a period of one year in amounts usually ranging from 5,000 to 10,000. Three examples of highly successful previous grant awards include: 1) Teaching Astronomy and Space Science in Kentucky (KY): Designed to improve knowledge of science core concepts and teaching skills in astronomy and space science and increased expertise in achieving current Kentucky academic expectations; 2) Development of Multi-media Space Science Education/Tutorial Modules (MD): The objective is the production of three "turn-key" internet-based multi-media student tutorial modules to enable the mostly part-time professors/instructors teaching introductory astronomy in community colleges to add exciting and cutting-edge topics to their existing astronomy courses

  1. Recombination and Evolution of Duplicate Control Regions in the Mitochondrial Genome of the Asian Big-Headed Turtle, Platysternon megacephalum

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chenfei; Nie, Liuwang; Wang, Jue; Zhou, Huaxing; Hou, Huazhen; Wang, Hao; Liu, Juanjuan

    2013-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences with duplicate control regions (CRs) have been detected in various animal species. In Testudines, duplicate mtCRs have been reported in the mtDNA of the Asian big-headed turtle, Platysternon megacephalum, which has three living subspecies. However, the evolutionary pattern of these CRs remains unclear. In this study, we report the completed sequences of duplicate CRs from 20 individuals belonging to three subspecies of this turtle and discuss the micro-evolutionary analysis of the evolution of duplicate CRs. Genetic distances calculated with MEGA 4.1 using the complete duplicate CR sequences revealed that within turtle subspecies, genetic distances between orthologous copies from different individuals were 0.63% for CR1 and 1.2% for CR2app:addword:respectively, and the average distance between paralogous copies of CR1 and CR2 was 4.8%. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed from the CR sequences, excluding the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) at the 3′ end using three methods: neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood algorithm, and Bayesian inference. These data show that any two CRs within individuals were more genetically distant from orthologous genes in different individuals within the same subspecies. This suggests independent evolution of the two mtCRs within each P. megacephalum subspecies. Reconstruction of separate phylogenetic trees using different CR components (TAS, CD, CSB, and VNTRs) suggested the role of recombination in the evolution of duplicate CRs. Consequently, recombination events were detected using RDP software with break points at ≈290 bp and ≈1,080 bp. Based on these results, we hypothesize that duplicate CRs in P. megacephalum originated from heterological ancestral recombination of mtDNA. Subsequent recombination could have resulted in homogenization during independent evolutionary events, thus maintaining the functions of duplicate CRs in the mtDNA of P. megacephalum. PMID

  2. Discovering Gee's Bend Quilts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Gee's Bend is a small community near Selma, Alabama where cotton plantations filled the land before the Civil War. After the war, the freed slaves of the plantations worked as tenant farmers and founded an African-American community. In 2002, the women of this community brought international attention and acclaim to Gee's Bend through the art of…

  3. Discovering Gee's Bend Quilts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ann

    2008-01-01

    Gee's Bend is a small community near Selma, Alabama where cotton plantations filled the land before the Civil War. After the war, the freed slaves of the plantations worked as tenant farmers and founded an African-American community. In 2002, the women of this community brought international attention and acclaim to Gee's Bend through the art of…

  4. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oglesby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  5. Occipital bending in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Maller, Jerome J; Anderson, Rodney J; Thomson, Richard H; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of occipital bending (an occipital lobe crossing or twisting across the midline) in subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Occipital bending prevalence was investigated in 37 patients with schizophrenia and 44 healthy controls. Ratings showed that prevalence was nearly three times higher among schizophrenia patients (13/37 [35.1%]) than in control subjects (6/44 [13.6%]). Furthermore, those with schizophrenia had greater normalized gray matter volume but less white matter volume and had larger brain-to-cranial ratio. The results suggest that occipital bending is more prevalent among schizophrenia patients than healthy subjects and that schizophrenia patients have different gray matter-white matter proportions. Although the cause and clinical ramifications of occipital bending are unclear, the results infer that occipital bending may be a marker of psychiatric illness.

  6. Extended Big-Brother experiments: the role of lateral boundary data quality and size of integration domain in regional climate modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Køltzow, Morten; Iversen, Trond; Haugen, Jan Erik

    2008-05-01

    Dynamical downscaling by atmospheric Regional Climate Models (RCMs) forced with low-resolution data should produce fine scale climate details with skill. This is investigated by adopting and extending the Big-Brother approach of Denis et al. (2002). A reference climate is established from a fine resolution RCM simulation in a large domain (the Big-Brother). These Big-Brother (BB) data are degraded by removing small scales, and then used for downscaling by the RCM (the Little Brother) with the same resolution as the BB in three domains of different size. Differences between the Little- and BB are attributed to errors caused by the downscaling. We have furthermore extended the original BB method and investigated the impact of the quality of the driving data. The RCM manage to reproduce the general large scale climate features of the BB when forced with high quality data, but show deficiencies when the driving data differ both in phase and scale from the BB. Forced with data with lower quality on a sufficiently large integration domain and in regions influenced by strong local forcing, the RCM significantly improve the climate statistics for local variables (2 m air-temperature, 10 m wind speed, precipitation). We even found that the improvement increased with domain size.

  7. New models for Paleoproterozoic orogenesis in the Cheyenne belt region: Evidence from the geology and U-Pb geochronology of the Big Creek Gneiss, southeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, D.S.; Snoke, A.W.; Premo, W.R.; Chamberlain, K.R.

    2010-01-01

    The disputed age of the deep crust of the Colorado Province is central to hypotheses for Paleoproterozoic crustal growth in the region. We studied the high-grade Big Creek Gneiss, southeastern Wyoming, as a potential exposure of pre-1780 Ma basement rocks. New geologic mapping and U-Pb geochronological data indicate that the Big Creek Gneiss exposes a deeper, but coeval, level of the Green Mountain arc relative to the predominantly supracrustal section to the west. The Big Creek Gneiss is composed of: supracrustal rocks; a ca. 1780 Ma Green Mountain arc-correlative, bimodal intrusive suite; a ca. 1763 Ma extensional(?) bimodal intrusive suite; and widespread ca. 1630 Ma pegmatitic leucogranite. The mafic member of the younger bimodal suite is documented here for the first time. U-Pb zircon ages from migmatite leucosomes indicate penetrative deformation of the Big Creek Gneiss at ca. 1750 Ma. We find that the postarc intrusive suite is mantle-involved, implying a second period of crustal growth. Shortening postdates arc magmatism by ~20 m.y., implying that termination of arc magmatism and accretion were separate events. Finally, criteria previously used to constrain the polarity of subduction for the Green Mountain arc are not reliable. We propose two competing models: (1) southward-dipping Green Mountain arc subduction (present coordinates), with slab breakoff-related magmatism following arc accretion; or (2) northward-dipping subduction, with extensional postarc magmatism. In both models, high-temperature deformation coincides with accretion along the Cheyenne belt, and extensional magmatism is an important component of crustal growth. We prefer the northward-dipping subduction model because it can be better integrated with regional tectonic events and published isotopic compositions of the igneous rocks. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  8. Backed Bending Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costen, Robert C.; Su, Ji

    2004-01-01

    Bending actuators of a proposed type would partly resemble ordinary bending actuators, but would include simple additional components that would render them capable of exerting large forces at small displacements. Like an ordinary bending actuator, an actuator according to the proposal would include a thin rectangular strip that would comprise two bonded layers (possibly made of electroactive polymers with surface electrodes) and would be clamped at one end in the manner of a cantilever beam. Unlike an ordinary bending actuator, the proposed device would include a rigid flat backplate that would support part of the bending strip against backward displacement; because of this feature, the proposed device is called a backed bending actuator. When an ordinary bending actuator is inactive, the strip typically lies flat, the tip displacement is zero, and the force exerted by the tip is zero. During activation, the tip exerts a transverse force and undergoes a bending displacement that results from the expansion or contraction of one or more of the bonded layers. The tip force of an ordinary bending actuator is inversely proportional to its length; hence, a long actuator tends to be weak. The figure depicts an ordinary bending actuator and the corresponding backed bending actuator. The bending, the tip displacement (d(sub t)), and the tip force (F) exerted by the ordinary bending actuator are well approximated by the conventional equations for the loading and deflection of a cantilever beam subject to a bending moment which, in this case, is applied by the differential expansion or contraction of the bonded layers. The bending, displacement, and tip force of the backed bending actuator are calculated similarly, except that it is necessary to account for the fact that the force F(sub b) that resists the displacement of the tip could be sufficient to push part of the strip against the backplate; in such a condition, the cantilever beam would be effectively shortened

  9. WHERE THE GRANULAR FLOWS BEND

    SciTech Connect

    Khomenko, E.; Martinez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; Domingo, V.; Schmidt, W.; Knoelker, M.

    2010-11-10

    Based on IMaX/SUNRISE data, we report on a previously undetected phenomenon in solar granulation. We show that in a very narrow region separating granules and intergranular lanes, the spectral line width of the Fe I 5250.2 A line becomes extremely small. We offer an explanation of this observation with the help of magneto-convection simulations. These regions with extremely small line widths correspond to the places where the granular flows bend from upflow in granules to downflow in intergranular lanes. We show that the resolution and image stability achieved by IMaX/SUNRISE are important requisites to detect this interesting phenomenon.

  10. Contactless laser bending of silicon microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Exner, Horst; Loschner, Udo

    2003-04-01

    We are going to present a new technology for laser bending of silicon microstructures based upon a suggestion of and carried out in cooperation with Prof. Dr. J. Fr'hauf from the Technical University Chemnitz (see acknowledgement). We investigated the influence of various laser process parameters on the bending angle and its reproducibility. Bending of the silicon element as a result of the laser induced thermal stresses in the material occurs toward the incident laser beam. The bending angle depends on a lot of laser process and material parameters. In particular we found that the irra-diation regime is well suited to control the bending angle. First substantial FEM based calculations of laser induced temperature fields using a moving laser heat source show the temperature field propagation in the material and reveal some regions of complicated overheating. As a result of our experiments we show a variety of examples including mul-tiple and also continuous bendings. There are several essential advantages compared to conventional bending technologies with this new method: Laser bending is contactless without using additional tools or external forces. Because of the local laser treatment the heat flux to the neighbouring material is minimized. The laser beam can be applied through windows of glass that means to al-most hermetically sealed micro devices. So laser technology is suitable for machining of already finished microsystems. It opens up a wide field of applications in micro system technologies: clip-chip-mechanism or sliding chips for micro optical benches, the adjustment of optical mirrors or other components or the ability of continuous bending for electro-static drives and so on.

  11. How Big Is Too Big?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James

    2016-01-01

    Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…

  12. How Big Is Too Big?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James

    2016-01-01

    Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…

  13. [Analysis of chemical speciation of heavy metals in L07-11 profile sediments of "Big Ear" Region of Lop Nor Lake].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin-ping; Zhang, Liang-hui; Jiang, Ping-an; Jia, Hong-tao; Zheng, Chun-xia; Fan, Shun-hui

    2014-12-01

    As playa is the typical characteristic in "Big Ear" Region of Lop Nor Lake, it is significant for enriching playa heavy metal earth environmental chemical data by analyzing species distribution of heavy metal among this district. In this thesis, heavy metal Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu in L07-11 Profile Sediments of "Big Ears" Region of Lop Nor Lake are considered as research objects. Tessier sequential extraction and Graphite furnace atomic absorption method (GF-990) are used to discuss and analyze five forms of Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu among sediments. The results show that the content of Cd, Pb, Ni and Cu is in the range from 1.10~2.54, 9.18~20.02, 9.88~17.15, 4.43~21.11 mg · kg(-1), respectively. The value of organic matter range from 8.71-54.72 g · kg(-1). The order of the bioavailable state in heavy metals is Cd>Pb>Cu>Ni. Pb and Cd mainly exist in exchangeable form including water-soluble, and that Ni is in residual form, and that Cu is mostly in Fe-Mn oxide bound iron-manganese oxides or in residual form. Among surface sediments, effective content of heavy metal is more than 80%. Except Cu, the content of heavy metal Cd, Pb, Ni in exchangeable form is more than 60%. Heavy metal Cd and Pb has higher secondary release potential. The content of heavy metal and organic material has some correlation.

  14. Dispersion suppressors with bending

    SciTech Connect

    Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    Dispersion suppressors of two main types are usually used. In one the cell quadrupole focussing structure is the same as in normal cells but some of the dipoles are replaced by drifts. In the other, the quadrupole strengths and/or spacings are different from those of the normal cells, but the bending is about the same as it is in the cells. In SSC designs to date, dispersion suppressors of the former type have been used, consisting of two cells with bending equivalent to one. In this note a suppressor design with normal bending and altered focussing is presented. The advantage of this scheme is that circumference is reduced. The disadvantages are that additional special quadrupoles must be provided (however, they need not be adjustable), and the maximum beta values within them are about 30% higher than the cell maxima.

  15. The Big Sky Model: A Regional Collaboration for Participatory Research on Environmental Health in the Rural West.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Holian, Andrij; Adams, Earle; Jones, David; Knuth, Randy

    2008-01-01

    The case for inquiry-based, hands-on, meaningful science education continues to gain credence as an effective and appropriate pedagogical approach (Karukstis 2005; NSF 2000). An innovative community-based framework for science learning, hereinafter referred to as the Big Sky Model, successfully addresses these educational aims, guiding high school and tribal college students from rural areas of Montana and Idaho in their understanding of chemical, physical, and environmental health concepts. Students participate in classroom lessons and continue with systematic inquiry through actual field research to investigate a pressing, real-world issue: understanding the complex links between poor air quality and respiratory health outcomes. This article provides background information, outlines the procedure for implementing the model, and discusses its effectiveness as demonstrated through various evaluation tools.

  16. The Big Sky Model: A Regional Collaboration for Participatory Research on Environmental Health in the Rural West

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Holian, Andrij; Adams, Earle; Jones, David; Knuth, Randy

    2010-01-01

    The case for inquiry-based, hands-on, meaningful science education continues to gain credence as an effective and appropriate pedagogical approach (Karukstis 2005; NSF 2000). An innovative community-based framework for science learning, hereinafter referred to as the Big Sky Model, successfully addresses these educational aims, guiding high school and tribal college students from rural areas of Montana and Idaho in their understanding of chemical, physical, and environmental health concepts. Students participate in classroom lessons and continue with systematic inquiry through actual field research to investigate a pressing, real-world issue: understanding the complex links between poor air quality and respiratory health outcomes. This article provides background information, outlines the procedure for implementing the model, and discusses its effectiveness as demonstrated through various evaluation tools. PMID:20428505

  17. Occipital bending in depression.

    PubMed

    Maller, Jerome J; Thomson, Richard H S; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V; Anderson, Rodney; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2014-06-01

    There are reports of differences in occipital lobe asymmetry within psychiatric populations when compared with healthy control subjects. Anecdotal evidence and enlarged lateral ventricles suggests that there may also be a different pattern of curvature whereby one occipital lobe wraps around the other, termed 'occipital bending'. We investigated the prevalence of occipital bending in 51 patients with major depressive disorder (males mean age = 41.96 ± 14.00 years, females mean age = 40.71 ± 12.41 years) and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects (males mean age = 40.29 ± 10.23 years, females mean age = 42.47 ± 14.25 years) and found the prevalence to be three times higher among patients with major depressive disorder (18/51, 35.3%) when compared with control subjects (6/48, 12.5%). The results suggest that occipital bending is more common among patients with major depressive disorder than healthy subjects, and that occipital asymmetry and occipital bending are separate phenomena. Incomplete neural pruning may lead to the cranial space available for brain growth being restricted, or ventricular enlargement may exacerbate the natural occipital curvature patterns, subsequently causing the brain to become squashed and forced to 'wrap' around the other occipital lobe. Although the clinical implications of these results are unclear, they provide an impetus for further research into the relevance of occipital bending in major depression disorder. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Single molecule FRET shows uniformity in TBP-induced DNA bending and heterogeneity in bending kinetics†

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Rebecca H.; Goodrich, James A.; Kugel, Jennifer F.

    2012-01-01

    TATA binding protein (TBP) is a key component of the eukaryotic RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription machinery that binds to TATA boxes located in the core promoter regions of many genes. Structural and biochemical studies have shown that when TBP binds DNA, it sharply bends the DNA. We used single-molecule FRET (smFRET) to study DNA bending by human TBP on consensus and mutant TATA boxes in the absence and presence of TFIIA. We found that the state of the bent DNA within populations of TBP/DNA complexes is homogeneous; partially bent intermediates were not observed. In contrast to previous ensemble studies, TBP was found to bend a mutant TATA box to the same extent as the consensus TATA box. Moreover, in the presence of TFIIA the extent of DNA bending was not significantly changed, although TFIIA did increase the fraction of DNA molecules bound by TBP. Analysis of the kinetics of DNA bending and unbending revealed that on the consensus TATA box two kinetically distinct populations of TBP/DNA complexes exist, however, the bent state of the DNA is the same in the two populations. Our smFRET studies reveal that human TBP bends DNA in a largely uniform manner under a variety of different conditions, which was unexpected given previous ensemble biochemical studies. Our new observations lead to us to revise the model for the mechanism of DNA binding by TBP and for how DNA bending is affected by TATA sequence and TFIIA. PMID:22934924

  19. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 5): Big D Campground, Kingsville, OH. (First Remedial Action), September 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    The Big D Campground site is in Kingsville, Ashtabula County, Ohio. The site consists of a 1.2-acre landfill created out of a former sand and gravel quarry. From 1964 to 1976 the site owner accepted approximately 28,000 cubic yards of hazardous materials for disposal which included up to 5,000 drums containing solvents, caustics, and oily substances. A 1986 remedial investigation identified the landfill as the primary source of contamination in soil outside the landfill and ground water underlying the landfill. Ground water contamination is of significant concern because it is migrating towards the drinking water supply wells of nearby residences and Conneaut Creek which is adjacent to and south of the site. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil and ground water are VOCs including PCE and TCE, other organics, and metals including chromium and lead. The selected remedial action for this site includes removing and incinerating up to 5,000 buried drums, bulk wastes, and up to 30,000 cubic yards of contaminated soil followed by onsite disposal of nonhazardous ash residue; pumping and treatment of 40,000,000 to 60,000,000 gallons of ground water.

  1. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  2. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  3. Big bluestem

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is a warm season grass native to North America, accounting for 40% of the herbaceous biomass of the tall grass prairie, and a candidate for bioenergy feedstock production. The goal of this study was to measure among and within population genetic variation of natura...

  4. Big Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  5. Structural basis for DNA bending

    SciTech Connect

    Nadeau, J.G.; Crothers, D.M. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors report proton NMR studies on DNA oligonucleotides that contain A tracts of lengths known to produce various degrees of bending. Spectra of duplexes in the series 5{prime}-(GGCA{sub n}CGG){center dot}(CCGT{sub n}GCC) (n = 3,4,5,7,9) reveal substantial structural changes within the A{sub n}{center dot}T{sub n} tract as its length is increased. Chemical-shift comparisons show that A tracts with fewer than about seven members do not contain regions of uniform structure. Throughout the series, there is a striking monotonic relationship between the location of an A{center dot}T pair in the A tract and the relative position of its ThyH3 resonance. The direction of this chemical-shift dispersion is opposite to that expected from consideration of ring-current effects alone. This model features a substantial negative base-pair tilt, which has been suggested previously as the source of A-tract bending. In contrast, the nuclear Overhauser effect distances are inconsistent with at least one known crystallographic A-tract structure which lacks appreciable base-pair tilt.

  6. Carbon Burnout Project at Tampa Electric's Big Bend Station

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Do regional modifications in tissue mineral content and microscopic mineralization heterogeneity adapt trabecular bone tracts for habitual bending? Analysis in the context of trabecular architecture of deer calcanei

    PubMed Central

    Skedros, John G; Knight, Alex N; Farnsworth, Ryan W; Bloebaum, Roy D

    2012-01-01

    Calcanei of mature mule deer have the largest mineral content (percent ash) difference between their dorsal ‘compression’ and plantar ‘tension’ cortices of any bone that has been studied. The opposing trabecular tracts, which are contiguous with the cortices, might also show important mineral content differences and microscopic mineralization heterogeneity (reflecting increased hemi-osteonal renewal) that optimize mechanical behaviors in tension vs. compression. Support for these hypotheses could reveal a largely unrecognized capacity for phenotypic plasticity – the adaptability of trabecular bone material as a means for differentially enhancing mechanical properties for local strain environments produced by habitual bending. Fifteen skeletally mature and 15 immature deer calcanei were cut transversely into two segments (40% and 50% shaft length), and cores were removed to determine mineral (ash) content from ‘tension’ and ‘compression’ trabecular tracts and their adjacent cortices. Seven bones/group were analyzed for differences between tracts in: first, microscopic trabecular bone packets and mineralization heterogeneity (backscattered electron imaging, BSE); and second, trabecular architecture (micro-computed tomography). Among the eight architectural characteristics evaluated [including bone volume fraction (BVF) and structural model index (SMI)]: first, only the ‘tension’ tract of immature bones showed significantly greater BVF and more negative SMI (i.e. increased honeycomb morphology) than the ‘compression’ tract of immature bones; and second, the ‘compression’ tracts of both groups showed significantly greater structural order/alignment than the corresponding ‘tension’ tracts. Although mineralization heterogeneity differed between the tracts in only the immature group, in both groups the mineral content derived from BSE images was significantly greater (P < 0.01), and bulk mineral (ash) content tended to be greater in the

  8. GIS-based regionalized life cycle assessment: how big is small enough? Methodology and case study of electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Mutel, Christopher L; Pfister, Stephan; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2012-01-17

    We describe a new methodology for performing regionalized life cycle assessment and systematically choosing the spatial scale of regionalized impact assessment methods. We extend standard matrix-based calculations to include matrices that describe the mapping from inventory to impact assessment spatial supports. Uncertainty in inventory spatial data is modeled using a discrete spatial distribution function, which in a case study is derived from empirical data. The minimization of global spatial autocorrelation is used to choose the optimal spatial scale of impact assessment methods. We demonstrate these techniques on electricity production in the United States, using regionalized impact assessment methods for air emissions and freshwater consumption. Case study results show important differences between site-generic and regionalized calculations, and provide specific guidance for future improvements of inventory data sets and impact assessment methods.

  9. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Big Sky Carbon Atlas is an online geoportal designed for you to discover, interpret, and access geospatial data and maps relevant to decision support and education on carbon sequestration in the Big Sky Region. In serving as the public face of the Partnership's spatial Data Libraries, the Atlas provides a gateway to geographic information characterizing CO2 sources, potential geologic sinks, terrestrial carbon fluxes, civil and energy infrastructure, energy use, and related themes. In addition to directly serving the BSCSP and its stakeholders, the Atlas feeds regional data to the NatCarb Portal, contributing to a national perspective on carbon sequestration. Established components of the Atlas include a gallery of thematic maps and an interactive map that allows you to: • Navigate and explore regional characterization data through a user-friendly interface • Print your map views or publish them as PDFs • Identify technical references relevant to specific areas of interest • Calculate straight-line or pipeline-constrained distances from point sources of CO2 to potential geologic sink features • Download regional data layers (feature under development) (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  10. ["Big data"--the progress of hygiene science and practice: evaluation of child and adolescent health in Russian regions].

    PubMed

    Gudinova, Zh V; Zhernakova, G N; Gegechkori, I V; Tol'kova, E N; Vas'kovskaia, Iu S

    2014-01-01

    Theee has been analyzed information of Federal statistics agency for the period from 2007 to 2011 about the distribution of children in health groups, child morbidity and disability in view of all Russian regions. Indices are juxtaposed together in the course of the use of an author's technique "percentile-profile" that gives an evident imagination of the place of the each region according to the each index in the general assembly of Russian regions, about the quality of information on both children's health, and dispensary work and availability of the medico-social care for children (in determination of disability). In the course of the cluster analysis there were selected leading tendencies in the sphere of children's health on Russian territory.

  11. Infrared spectra and tunneling dynamics of the N{sub 2}–D{sub 2}O and OC–D{sub 2}O complexes in the v{sub 2} bend region of D{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yu; Zheng, Rui; Li, Song; Yang, Yu; Duan, Chuanxi

    2013-12-07

    The rovibrational spectra of the N{sub 2}–D{sub 2}O and OC–D{sub 2}O complexes in the v{sub 2} bend region of D{sub 2}O have been measured in a supersonic slit jet expansion using a rapid-scan tunable diode laser spectrometer. Both a-type and b-type transitions were observed for these two complexes. All transitions are doubled, due to the heavy water tunneling within the complexes. Assuming the tunneling splittings are the same in K{sub a} = 0 and K{sub a} = 1, the band origins, all three rotational and several distortion constants of each tunneling state were determined for N{sub 2}–D{sub 2}O in the ground and excited vibrational states, and for OC–D{sub 2}O in the excited vibrational state, respectively. The averaged band origin of OC–D{sub 2}O is blueshifted by 2.241 cm{sup −1} from that of the v{sub 2} band of the D{sub 2}O monomer, compared with 1.247 cm{sup −1} for N{sub 2}–D{sub 2}O. The tunneling splitting of N{sub 2}–D{sub 2}O in the ground state is 0.16359(28) cm{sup −1}, which is about five times that of OC–D{sub 2}O. The tunneling splittings decrease by about 26% for N{sub 2}–D{sub 2}O and 23% for OC–D{sub 2}O, respectively, upon excitation of the D{sub 2}O bending vibration, indicating an increase of the tunneling barrier in the excited vibrational state. The tunneling splittings are found to have a strong dependence on intramolecular vibrational excitation as well as a weak dependence on quantum number K{sub a}.

  12. Infrared spectra and tunneling dynamics of the N2-D2O and OC-D2O complexes in the v2 bend region of D2O.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yu; Zheng, Rui; Li, Song; Yang, Yu; Duan, Chuanxi

    2013-12-07

    The rovibrational spectra of the N2-D2O and OC-D2O complexes in the v2 bend region of D2O have been measured in a supersonic slit jet expansion using a rapid-scan tunable diode laser spectrometer. Both a-type and b-type transitions were observed for these two complexes. All transitions are doubled, due to the heavy water tunneling within the complexes. Assuming the tunneling splittings are the same in K(a) = 0 and K(a) = 1, the band origins, all three rotational and several distortion constants of each tunneling state were determined for N2-D2O in the ground and excited vibrational states, and for OC-D2O in the excited vibrational state, respectively. The averaged band origin of OC-D2O is blueshifted by 2.241 cm(-1) from that of the v2 band of the D2O monomer, compared with 1.247 cm(-1) for N2-D2O. The tunneling splitting of N2-D2O in the ground state is 0.16359(28) cm(-1), which is about five times that of OC-D2O. The tunneling splittings decrease by about 26% for N2-D2O and 23% for OC-D2O, respectively, upon excitation of the D2O bending vibration, indicating an increase of the tunneling barrier in the excited vibrational state. The tunneling splittings are found to have a strong dependence on intramolecular vibrational excitation as well as a weak dependence on quantum number K(a).

  13. Considerations on domain location according to the jump of resolution between the driving data and the nested regional climate model within the Big-Brother experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matte, D.; Laprise, R.; Theriault, J. M.; Lucas-Picher, P.

    2015-12-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of choosing the domain size adequately for dynamical downscaling with nested regional climate models. It is well known that domain should not be too large to avoid large departure from the driving data, and not be too small to provide sufficient distance from the lateral inflow to allow a full development of the small-scale features resolved by the increase resolution. Although practitioners of dynamical downscaling are well aware that the jump of resolution between the driving data and the nested regional climate model impacts the simulated climate, the issue has never been properly study. Larger is the jump of resolution, larger is the distance from the lateral inflow to fully develop the small-scale features permitted by the increase resolution. Our investigation compares direct nesting to achieve a grid mesh of 0.15o from driving data at 3.6°, 1.8o, 0.45° and 0.15° using the perfect-prognostic approach of the Big-Brother protocol. The results show that the small-scale transient-eddy component struggles to be fully developed with reduced resolution of the driving data. Overall, this study suggests that domain location (i.e. domain of interest or subsequent nested domains) must be chosen carefully according to the jump of resolution to allow the optimal development of small-scale features allowed by the increase resolution of the nested model.

  14. Bending the Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Saturn's rings appear strangely warped in this view of the rings seen through the upper Saturn atmosphere.

    The atmosphere acts like a lens in refracting (bending) the light reflected from the rings. As the rings pass behind the overexposed limb (edge) of Saturn as seen from Cassini, the ring structure appears to curve downward due to the bending of the light as it passes through the upper atmosphere.

    This image was obtained using a near-infrared filter. The filter samples a wavelength where methane gas does not absorb light, thus making the far-off rings visible through the upper atmosphere.

    By comparing this image to similar ones taken using filters where methane gas does absorb, scientists can estimate the vertical profile of haze and the abundance of methane in Saturn's high atmosphere.

    The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on April 14, 2005, through a filter sensitive to wavelengths of infrared light centered at 938 nanometers and at a distance of approximately 197,000 kilometers (123,000 miles) from Saturn. The image scale is 820 meters (2,680 feet) per pixel.

  15. Differences in the volume of services and in prices drive big variations in Medicaid spending among US states and regions.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Todd P; Kronick, Richard G

    2011-07-01

    It is well known that Medicaid spending per beneficiary varies widely across states. However, less is known about the cause of this variation, or about whether increased spending is associated with better outcomes. In this article we describe and analyze sources of interstate variation in Medicaid spending over several years. We find substantial variations both in the volume of services and in prices. Overall, per capita spending in the ten highest-spending states was $1,650 above the average national per capita spending, of which $1,186, or 72 percent, was due to the volume of services delivered. Spending in the ten lowest-spending states was $1,161 below the national average, of which $672, or 58 percent, was due to volume. In the mid-Atlantic region, increased price and volume resulted in the most expensive care among regions, whereas reduced price and volume in the South Central region resulted in the least expensive care among regions. Understanding these variations in greater detail should help improve the quality and efficiency of care-a task that will become more important as Medicaid is greatly expanded under the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

  16. Light bending in radiation background

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Taekoon E-mail: tlee@kunsan.ac.kr

    2014-01-01

    We consider the velocity shift of light in presence of radiation emitted by a black body. Within geometric optics formalism we calculate the bending angle of a light ray when there is a gradient in the energy density. We model the bending for two simplified cases. The bending angle is proportional to the inverse square power of the impact parameter (∝1/b{sup 2}) when the dilution of energy density is spherically symmetric. The bending angle is inversely proportional to the impact parameter (∝1/b) when the energy density dilutes cylindrically. Assuming that a neutron star is an isothermal black body, we estimate the order of magnitude for such bending angle and compare it with the bending angle by magnetic field.

  17. Phase trombones with bending

    SciTech Connect

    Courant, E.D.; Garren, A.

    1985-10-01

    The phase shifting trombones considered up to now for SSC application consisted of sets of evenly spaced quadrupoles separated by drift spaces. One such trombone was placed between a dispersion suppressor and a crossing insertion, so that the trombone had zero dispersion. With such trombones, it is possible to change {beta}{sup *} at constant tune, or to change the tunes by several units without altering the cell phase advances in the arcs. An objection to the above type of phase trombone is that it adds to the circumference, since no bending is included. This objection may or may not be valid depending on the potential usefulness of the drift spaces in them. In this note the authors show an alternative trombone design in which dipoles are included between the quadrupoles as in the normal arc cells. Since these trombones have dispersion, they are placed at the ends of the arcs, to be followed in turn by the dispersion suppressors and crossing insertions.

  18. Beam bending via plasmonic lenses.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanhui; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Nawaz, Ahmad Ahsan; Kiraly, Brian; Hao, Qingzhen; Liu, Yanjun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2010-10-25

    We have designed and characterized three different types of plasmonic lenses that cannot only focus, but can also bend electromagnetic (EM) waves. The bending effect is achieved by constructing an asymmetric phase front caused by varying phase retardations in EM waves as they pass through a plasmonic lens. With an incident wave normal to the lens surface, light bends up to 8° off the axial direction. The optical wave propagation was numerically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Simulation results show that the proposed plasmonic lenses allow effective beam bending under both normal and tilted incidence. With their relatively large bending range and capability to perform in the far field, the plamsonic lenses described in this article could be valuable in applications such as photonic communication and plasmonic circuits.

  19. THE STRUCTURAL BASIS OF CILIARY BEND FORMATION

    PubMed Central

    Warner, Fred D.; Satir, Peter

    1974-01-01

    The sliding microtubule model of ciliary motility predicts that cumulative local displacement (Δl) of doublet microtubules relative to one another occurs only in bent regions of the axoneme. We have now tested this prediction by using the radial spokes which join the A subfiber of each doublet to the central sheath as markers of microtubule alignment to measure sliding displacements directly. Gill cilia from the mussel Elliptio complanatus have radial spokes lying in groups of three which repeat at 860 Å along the A subfiber. The spokes are aligned with the two rows of projections along each of the central microtubules that form the central sheath. The projections repeat at 143 Å and form a vernier with the radial spokes in the precise ratio of 6 projection repeats to 1 spoke group repeat. In straight regions of the axoneme, either proximal or distal to a bend, the relative position of spoke groups between any two doublets remains constant for the length of that region. However, in bent regions, the position of spoke groups changes systematically so that Δl (doublet 1 vs. 5) can be seen to accumulate at a maximum of 122 Å per successive 860-Å spoke repeat. Local contraction of microtubules is absent. In straight regions of the axoneme, the radial spokes lie in either of two basic configurations: (a) the parallel configuration where spokes 1–3 of each group are normal (90°) to subfiber A, and (b) the tilted spoke 3 configuration where spoke 3 forms an angle (θ) of 9–20°. Since considerable sliding of doublets relative to the central sheath (∼650 Å) has usually occurred in these regions, the spokes must be considered, functionally, as detached from the sheath projections. In bent regions of the axoneme, two additional spoke configurations occur where all three spokes of each group are tilted to a maximum of ± 33° from normal. Since the spoke angles do not lie on radii through the center of bend curvature, and Δl accumulates in the bend, the spokes

  20. A Dark Bend

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-05

    Saturn's rings appear to bend as they pass behind the planet's darkened limb due to refraction by Saturn's upper atmosphere. The effect is the same as that seen in an earlier Cassini view (see PIA20491), except this view looks toward the unlit face of the rings, while the earlier image viewed the rings' sunlit side. The difference in illumination brings out some noticeable differences. The A ring is much darker here, on the rings' unlit face, since its larger particles primarily reflect light back toward the sun (and away from Cassini's cameras in this view). The narrow F ring (at bottom), which was faint in the earlier image, appears brighter than all of the other rings here, thanks to the microscopic dust that is prevalent within that ring. Small dust tends to scatter light forward (meaning close to its original direction of travel), making it appear bright when backlit. (A similar effect has plagued many a driver with a dusty windshield when driving toward the sun.) This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from about 19 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in red light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on July 24, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 527,000 miles (848,000 kilometers) from Saturn and at a sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 169 degrees. Image scale is 3 miles (5 kilometers) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20497

  1. Oceanic Plate Bending Along the Manila Trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Lin, J.; Zhan, W.

    2014-12-01

    We quantify along-trench variations in plate flexural bending along the Manila trench in the South China Sea. A 3-D interpreted flexural deformation surface of the subducting South China Sea Plate was obtained by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, isostatically-compensated topography based on gravity modeling, age-related lithospheric thermal subsidence, and residual short-wavelength features. We analyzed flexural bending of 21 across-trench profile sections along the Manila trench and then calculated five best-fitting tectonic and plate parameters that control the flexural bending for each of the across-trench profile sections. Results of analysis revealed significant along-trench variations: The trench relief of the Manila trench varies from 0.8 to 2.2 km, trench-axis vertical loading (-V0) from -0.4x1012 to 1.21x1012 N/m, and axial bending moment (-M0) from 0.005x1017 to 0.6x1017 N. The effective elastic plate thickness seaward of the Manila outer-rise region (TeM) ranges from 30 to 40 km, while that trench-ward of the outer-rise (Tem) ranges from 11 to 30 km. This corresponds to a reduction in Te of 26-63% for the Manila trench. The transition from TeM to Tem occurs at a breaking distance of 50-120 km from the Manila trench axis. The axial vertical loading, bending moment, and the effective elastic thickness of the Manila trench are much smaller than the Mariana trench (Zhang et al., 2014). The contrast in the flexural bending between the Mariana and Manila trenches might be related to the difference in the ages of the subducting plates and other tectonic variables. Zhang, F., Lin, J., Zhan, W., 2014. Variations in oceanic plate bending along the Mariana trench, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 401, 206-214. doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2014.05.032

  2. Sheet Bending using Soft Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinke, J.

    2011-05-01

    Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most

  3. Bending Instabilities of Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestre, N.; Camotim, D.

    This paper presents an investigation on the buckling behaviour of single-walled carbon nanotubes (NTs) under bending and unveils several aspects concerning the dependence of critical bending curvature on the NT length. The buckling results are obtained by means of non-linear shell finite element analyses using ABAQUS code. It is shown that eigenvalue analyses do not give a correct prediction of the critical curvature of NTs under bending. Conversely, incremental-iterative non-linear analyses provide a better approximation to the molecular dynamics results due to the progressive ovalization of the NT cross-section under bending. For short NTs, the limit curvature drops with the increasing length mostly due to the decreasing influence of end effects. For moderate to long tubes, the limit curvature remains practically constant and independent on the tube length. An approximate formula based on the Brazier expression is proposed to predict the limit curvature.

  4. Passive, achromatic, nearly isochronous bending system

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David R.; Yunn, Byung C.

    2004-05-18

    A particle beam bending system having a geometry that applies active bending only beyond the chord of the orbit for any momentum component. Using this bending configuration, all momentum components emerge dispersed in position only; all trajectories are parallel by construction. Combining a pair of such bends with reflective symmetry produces a bend cell that is, by construction, achromatic to all orders. By the particular choice of 45.degree. individual bends, a pair of such achromats can be used as the basis of a 180.degree. recirculation arc. Other rational fractions of a full 180.degree. bend serve equally well (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.90.degree./bend.times.1 cell /arc; 2 bends/cell.times.30.degree./bend.times.3 cells/arc, etc), as do combinations of multiple bending numerologies (e.g., 2 bends/cell.times.22.5.degree./bend.times.2 cells+2 bends/cell.times.45.degree./bend.times.1 cell). By the choice of entry pole face rotation of the first magnet and exit pole face rotation of the second magnet (with a value to be determined from the particular beam stability requirements imposed by the choice of bending angle and beam properties to be used in any particular application), desirable focusing properties can be introduced and beam stability can be insured.

  5. A soft stretchable bending sensor and data glove applications.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhong; Yi, Juan; Li, Xiaodong; Lo, Mark Hin Pei; Chen, Michael Z Q; Hu, Yong; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Soft sensors are required to accommodate the flexible and deformable natures of the human body in wearable device applications. They are also suitable for integration with soft robotic devices to monitor the performance status and provide references for feedback control. However, the choices for bending sensors are still highly limited. In this paper, a soft bending sensor is presented. By careful design with a blend of sensitive and insensitive regions, the sensor could be stretchable while being insensitive to stretching. An analytical study was presented on how to design the sensor with the named bending/stretching feature. This feature enables the sensor to be implemented in measuring human motions where a large amount of skin stretch is involved. Two sensor gloves were designed and fabricated based on the proposed soft bending sensor, aiming for different application scenarios. Both the sensor and the gloves were evaluated using a dedicated evaluation platform with experimental results compared against each other.

  6. Business and Science - Big Data, Big Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, A.

    2013-12-01

    Data Science is more than the creation, manipulation, and transformation of data. It is more than Big Data. The business world seems to have a hold on the term 'data science' and, for now, they define what it means. But business is very different than science. In this talk, I address how large datasets, Big Data, and data science are conceptually different in business and science worlds. I focus on the types of questions each realm asks, the data needed, and the consequences of findings. Gone are the days of datasets being created or collected to serve only one purpose or project. The trick with data reuse is to become familiar enough with a dataset to be able to combine it with other data and extract accurate results. As a Data Curator for the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS), my specialty is communication. Our team enables Arctic sciences by ensuring datasets are well documented and can be understood by reusers. Previously, I served as a data community liaison for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Again, my specialty was communicating complex instructions and ideas to a broad audience of data users. Before entering the science world, I was an entrepreneur. I have a bachelor's degree in economics and a master's degree in environmental social science. I am currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Geography. Because my background has embraced both the business and science worlds, I would like to share my perspectives on data, data reuse, data documentation, and the presentation or communication of findings. My experiences show that each can inform and support the other.

  7. Integrating an NTD with One of “The Big Three”: Combined Malaria and Trachoma Survey in Amhara Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, Paul M.; Ngondi, Jeremiah; Biru, Estifanos; Graves, Patricia M.; Ejigsemahu, Yeshewamebrat; Gebre, Teshome; Endeshaw, Tekola; Genet, Asrat; Mosher, Aryc W.; Zerihun, Mulat; Messele, Ayennew; Richards, Frank O.

    2008-01-01

    Background Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia has a population of approximately 19.6 million, is prone to unstable and epidemic malaria, and is severely affected by trachoma. An integrated malaria and trachoma control program is being implemented by the Regional Health Bureau. To provide baseline data, a survey was conducted during December 2006 to estimate malaria parasite prevalence, malaria indicators, prevalence of trachoma, and trachoma risk factors in households and people of all ages in each of the ten zones of the state, excluding three urban centers (0.4% of the population). Methodology/Principal Findings The study was designed to provide prevalence estimates at zone and state levels. Using multi-stage cluster random sampling, 16 clusters of 25 households were randomly selected in each of the ten zones. Household heads were interviewed for malaria indicators and trachoma risk factors (N = 4,101). All people were examined for trachoma signs (N = 17,242), and those in even-numbered households provided blood films for malaria parasite detection (N = 7,745); both thick and thin blood films were read. Zonal malaria parasite prevalence ranged from 2.4% to 6.1%, with the overall state-wide prevalence being 4.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 3.8%–5.6%). The Plasmodium falciparum: Plasmodium vivax ratio ranged from 0.9–2.1 with an overall regional ratio of 1.2. A total of 14.8% of households reported indoor residual spraying in the past year, 34.7% had at least one mosquito net, and 16.1% had one or more long-lasting insecticidal net. Zonal trachoma prevalence (trachomatous inflammation follicular [WHO grade TF] in children aged 1–9 years) ranged from 12.6% to 60.1%, with the overall state-wide prevalence being 32.7% (95% CI: 29.2%–36.5%). State-wide prevalence of trachomatous trichiasis (TT) in persons aged over fifteen was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.3–7.4), and 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2–0.5) in children aged 0–14 years. Overall, an estimated 643

  8. Bending rules for animal propulsion.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Kelsey N; Johnson, Nathan; Beaulieu, Wesley T; Cathcart, Eric; Tirrell, Gregory; Colin, Sean P; Gemmell, Brad J; Dabiri, John O; Costello, John H

    2014-01-01

    Animal propulsors such as wings and fins bend during motion and these bending patterns are believed to contribute to the high efficiency of animal movements compared with those of man-made designs. However, efforts to implement flexible designs have been met with contradictory performance results. Consequently, there is no clear understanding of the role played by propulsor flexibility or, more fundamentally, how flexible propulsors should be designed for optimal performance. Here we demonstrate that during steady-state motion by a wide range of animals, from fruit flies to humpback whales, operating in either air or water, natural propulsors bend in similar ways within a highly predictable range of characteristic motions. By providing empirical design criteria derived from natural propulsors that have convergently arrived at a limited design space, these results provide a new framework from which to understand and design flexible propulsors.

  9. Method for uniformly bending conduits

    DOEpatents

    Dekanich, S.J.

    1984-04-27

    The present invention is directed to a method for bending metal tubing through various radii while maintaining uniform cross section of the tubing. The present invention is practical by filling the tubing to a sufficient level with water, freezing the water to ice and bending the ice-filled tubing in a cooled die to the desired radius. The use of the ice as a filler material provides uniform cross-sectional bends of the tubing and upon removal of the ice provides an uncontaminated interior of the tubing which will enable it to be used in its intended application without encountering residual contaminants in the tubing due to the presence of the filler material.

  10. Self-bending symmetric cusp beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, Lei; Liu, Wei-Wei; Lu, Yao; Li, Yin-Mei; Ren, Yu-Xuan

    2015-12-07

    A type of self-bending symmetric cusp beams with four accelerating intensity maxima is theoretically and experimentally presented. Distinguished from the reported regular polygon beams, the symmetric cusp beams simultaneously exhibit peculiar features of natural autofocusing and self-acceleration during propagation. Further, such beams take the shape of a fine longitudinal needle-like structure at the focal region and possess the strong ability of self-healing over obstacles. All these intriguing properties were verified experimentally. Particularly, the spatial profile of the reconstructed beam exhibits spatially sculpted optical structure with four siamesed curved arms. Thus, we anticipate that the structured beam will benefit optical guiding and optofluidics in surprising ways.

  11. Big Data, Big Problems: A Healthcare Perspective.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa S; Aldosari, Bakheet; Alanazi, Abdullah; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2017-01-01

    Much has been written on the benefits of big data for healthcare such as improving patient outcomes, public health surveillance, and healthcare policy decisions. Over the past five years, Big Data, and the data sciences field in general, has been hyped as the "Holy Grail" for the healthcare industry promising a more efficient healthcare system with the promise of improved healthcare outcomes. However, more recently, healthcare researchers are exposing the potential and harmful effects Big Data can have on patient care associating it with increased medical costs, patient mortality, and misguided decision making by clinicians and healthcare policy makers. In this paper, we review the current Big Data trends with a specific focus on the inadvertent negative impacts that Big Data could have on healthcare, in general, and specifically, as it relates to patient and clinical care. Our study results show that although Big Data is built up to be as a the "Holy Grail" for healthcare, small data techniques using traditional statistical methods are, in many cases, more accurate and can lead to more improved healthcare outcomes than Big Data methods. In sum, Big Data for healthcare may cause more problems for the healthcare industry than solutions, and in short, when it comes to the use of data in healthcare, "size isn't everything."

  12. Bending Rules in Graphene Kirigami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, Bastien F.; Mele, E. J.

    2015-11-01

    The three-dimensional shapes of graphene sheets produced by nanoscale cut-and-join kirigami are studied by combining large-scale atomistic simulations with continuum elastic modeling. Lattice segments are selectively removed from a graphene sheet, and the structure is allowed to close by relaxing in the third dimension. The surface relaxation is limited by a nonzero bending modulus which produces a smoothly modulated landscape instead of the ridge-and-plateau motif found in macroscopic lattice kirigami. The resulting surface shapes and their interactions are well described by a new set of microscopic kirigami rules that resolve the competition between bending and stretching energies.

  13. Bending Rules in Graphene Kirigami.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Bastien F; Mele, E J

    2015-11-06

    The three-dimensional shapes of graphene sheets produced by nanoscale cut-and-join kirigami are studied by combining large-scale atomistic simulations with continuum elastic modeling. Lattice segments are selectively removed from a graphene sheet, and the structure is allowed to close by relaxing in the third dimension. The surface relaxation is limited by a nonzero bending modulus which produces a smoothly modulated landscape instead of the ridge-and-plateau motif found in macroscopic lattice kirigami. The resulting surface shapes and their interactions are well described by a new set of microscopic kirigami rules that resolve the competition between bending and stretching energies.

  14. Bending of floating flexible legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kun Joong; Kim, Ho-Young

    When long thin flexible solid objects, such as the legs of water striders, disposable spoons and human hairs, are pressed against a liquid surface, they bend due to interfacial and hydrostatic forces. To understand the phenomenon, we study the bending of a sheet touching the liquid surface at an angle while clamped at the other end, to find its deflection and the load that the sheet can support before sinking. The theoretically predicted shapes of the sheet and the meniscus match well with experiments. Our theory shows that flexible sheets can support more load than rigid ones before sinking when the sheets are highly hydrophobic.

  15. Compaction managed mirror bend achromat

    DOEpatents

    Douglas, David [Yorktown, VA

    2005-10-18

    A method for controlling the momentum compaction in a beam of charged particles. The method includes a compaction-managed mirror bend achromat (CMMBA) that provides a beamline design that retains the large momentum acceptance of a conventional mirror bend achromat. The CMMBA also provides the ability to tailor the system momentum compaction spectrum as desired for specific applications. The CMMBA enables magnetostatic management of the longitudinal phase space in Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs) thereby alleviating the need for harmonic linearization of the RF waveform.

  16. Five Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  17. Five Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  18. Hormonal regulation of gravitropic bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Cui, D.; Xu, X.; Hu, L.; Cai, W.

    Gravitropic bending is an important subject in the research of plant Recent data support the basics of the Cholodny-Went hypothesis indicating that differential growth in gravitropism is due to redistribution of auxin to the lower sides of gravistimulated roots but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects So we carried a series of work surround the signals induced by auxin end center We found the endogenous signaling molecules nitric oxide NO and cGMP mediate responses to gravistimulation in primary roots of soybean Glycine max Horizontal orientation of soybean roots caused the accumulation of both NO and cGMP in the primary root tip Fluorescence confocal microcopy revealed that the accumulation of NO was asymmetric with NO concentrating in the lower side of the root Auxin induced NO accumulation in root protoplasts and asymmetric NO accumulation in root tips Gravistimulation NO and auxin also induced the accumulation of cGMP a response inhibited by removal of NO or by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase compounds that also reduced gravitropic bending Asymmetric NO accumulation and gravitropic bending were both inhibited by an auxin transport inhibitor and the inhibition of bending was overcome by treatment with NO or 8-bromo-cGMP a cell-permeable analog of cGMP These data indicate that auxin-induced NO and cGMP mediate gravitropic curvature in soybean roots From Hu et al Plant Physiol 2005 137 663-670 The asymmetric distribution of auxin plays a fundamental role in plant gravitropic bending

  19. A four-dimensional potential energy surface and predicted infrared spectra for the Ne-D2O van der Waals complex in the ν2 bending region of D2O molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shanshan; Chen, Dong; Li, Ya; Feng, Eryin; Huang, Wuying

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a four-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) for the Ne-D2O complex is constructed theoretically. The calculations are carried out at CCSD(T) level with large basis sets augmented with mid-bond functions. The PES includes explicit dependence on the ν2 symmetric bending coordinate Q2 of the D2O molecule. Two vibrationally averaged potentials in the ground and first excited bending states are obtained respectively. Using these two potentials we calculate the bound states of the complexes. The theoretical rovibrational transition frequencies for three bands: П(111,ν2 = 1)←Σ000, Σ(111,ν2 = 1)←Σ000 and n = 1, Σ(000,ν2 = 1)←Σ000 are predicted and generally in good agreement with the experimental observed values.

  20. Geodynamics of Bending-related Normal Faults in Subducting Plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Z.; Lin, J.

    2016-12-01

    We investigated bending-related normal faults in subducting plates along several subduction zones through analyzing high-resolution multibeam bathymetry data and geodynamic modeling. The investigated systems include the Tonga, Izu-Bonin-Mariana, Japan, Middle America, Chile, and Puerto Rico trenches. Investigation was focused on spatial variations in normal faulting patterns from trench axes to the outer rise regions. Results of analyses revealed several key observations: (1) Most bending-related normal faults are sub-parallel to the local and regional strikes of the trench axis, including regions of significant trench-axis curvatures. (2) For trenches of significant oblique subduction components, e.g., Tonga and Puerto Rico trenches, the strikes of normal faults still remain sub-parallel to the trench axes. (3) Normal faults could be identified near outer-rise region, but normal faults with relatively large throws are generally located much closer to the trench axis, in regions of relatively large topographic slope. (4) Normal faults can cut through most of the seamounts near trench axes. We speculate that near-trench normal faults are generated by extensional stress due to plate bending and gravity sliding. Geodynamic models are being developed to investigate how near-trench normal faults evolve subjected to various tectonic forces at subduction zones, including subduction-induced plate bending, slab pulling, gravity sliding, and seamount loading, etc.

  1. Bend ductility of tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gurwell, W.E.; Garnich, M.R.; Dudder, G.B.; Lavender, C.A.

    1992-11-01

    A bend ductility test is used to indicate the formability of tungsten heavy alloys sheet. The primary test bends a notchless Charpy impact specimen to a bend angle of approximately 100C. This can be augmented by a bend-completion test. Finite element modeling as well as strain-gaged bend specimens elucidate the strain distribution in the specimen as a function of material thickness and bend angle. The bend ductilities of 70%W, 807.W and 90%W alloys are characterized. As expected, decreasing thickness or tungsten content enhances bend ductility. Oxidation is not detrimental; therefore, controlled atmosphere is not required for cooling. The potentially detrimental effects of mechanical working (e.g., rolling, roller-leveling, grit blasting, and peening) and machining (e.g., cutting and sanding) are illustrated.

  2. Bend ductility of tungsten heavy alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gurwell, W.E.; Garnich, M.R.; Dudder, G.B.; Lavender, C.A.

    1992-11-01

    A bend ductility test is used to indicate the formability of tungsten heavy alloys sheet. The primary test bends a notchless Charpy impact specimen to a bend angle of approximately 100C. This can be augmented by a bend-completion test. Finite element modeling as well as strain-gaged bend specimens elucidate the strain distribution in the specimen as a function of material thickness and bend angle. The bend ductilities of 70%W, 807.W and 90%W alloys are characterized. As expected, decreasing thickness or tungsten content enhances bend ductility. Oxidation is not detrimental; therefore, controlled atmosphere is not required for cooling. The potentially detrimental effects of mechanical working (e.g., rolling, roller-leveling, grit blasting, and peening) and machining (e.g., cutting and sanding) are illustrated.

  3. Vertebrate richness and biogeography in the Big Thicket of Texas

    Treesearch

    Michael H MacRoberts; Barbara R. MacRoberts; D. Craig Rudolph

    2010-01-01

    The Big Thicket of Texas has been described as rich in species and a “crossroads:” a place where organisms from many different regions meet. We examine the species richness and regional affiliations of Big Thicket vertebrates. We found that the Big Thicket is neither exceptionally rich in vertebrates nor is it a crossroads for vertebrates. Its vertebrate fauna is...

  4. Bending loss of terahertz pipe waveguides.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jen-Tang; Hsueh, Yu-Chun; Huang, Yu-Ru; Hwang, Yuh-Jing; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2010-12-06

    We present an experimental study on the bending loss of terahertz (THz) pipe waveguide. Bending loss of pipe waveguides is investigated for various frequencies, polarizations, core diameters, cladding thicknesses, and cladding materials. Our results indicate that the pipe waveguides with lower guiding loss suffer lower bending loss due to stronger mode confinement. The unexpected low bending loss in the investigated simple leaky waveguide structure promises variety of flexible applications.

  5. Acoustic characteristics of circular bends in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firth, D.; Fahy, F. J.

    1984-11-01

    The acoustic properties of circular bends in pipework systems are investigated by calculation of the mode shapes and propagation constants of the acoustic modes of the bend, the torus modes, and by evaluation of the transmission and reflection coefficients at a bend in an otherwise infinite straight pipe. The coefficients for the first three cylinder and torus modes are plotted against frequency for the case of a plane wave incident upon a 90° bend. The pipe walls are assumed to be rigid.

  6. Improved Method Of Bending Concentric Pipes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Proposed method for bending two concentric pipes simultaneously while maintaining void between them replaces present tedious, messy, and labor-intensive method. Array of rubber tubes inserted in gap between concentric pipes. Tubes then inflated with relatively incompressible liquid to fill gap. Enables bending to be done faster and more cleanly, and amenable to automation of significant portion of bending process on computer numerically controlled (CNC) tube-bending machinery.

  7. Steam-bending properties of southern pine

    Treesearch

    Truett J. Lemoine; Peter Koch

    1971-01-01

    Southern pine wood can be successfully steam-bent if the bending jig incorporates a flexible metal bending strap together with a mechanism to apply a uniform end compression load during the bending operation. With clear, 1/2- and 1-inch-thick southern pine at 17-percent moisture content, highest bending rating where obtained with fast-grown, vertical-grain, low-density...

  8. Chinchilla "big" and "little" gastrins.

    PubMed

    Shinomura, Y; Eng, J; Yalow, R S

    1987-02-27

    Gastrin heptadecapeptides (gastrins I and II which differ in the presence of sulfate on the tyrosine of the latter) have been purified and sequenced from several mammalian species including pig, dog, cat, sheep, cow, human and rat. A 34 amino acid precursor ("big" gastrin), generally accounting for only 5% of total gastrin immunoreactivity, has been purified and sequenced only from the pig, human, dog and goat. Recently we have demonstrated that guinea pig (GP) "little" gastrin is a hexadecapeptide due to a deletion of a glutamic acid in the region 6-9 from its NH2-terminus and that GP "big" gastrin is a 33 amino acid peptide. The chinchilla, like the GP, is a New World hystricomorph. This report describes the extraction and purification of "little" and "big" gastrins from 31 chinchilla antra. Chinchilla "little" gastrin is a hexadecapeptide with a sequence identical to that of the GP and its "big" gastrin is a 33 amino acid peptide with the following sequence: (See text)

  9. FFAG lattice without opposite bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trbojevic, Dejan; Courant, Ernest D.; Garren, Al

    2000-08-01

    A future "neutrino factory" or Muon Collider requires fast muon acceleration before the storage ring. Several alternatives for fast muon acceleration have previously been considered. One of them is the FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) synchrotron. The FFAG concept was developed in 1952 by K. R. Symon (ref. 1). The advantages of this design are the fixed magnetic field, large range of particle energy, simple RF; power supplies are simple, and there is no transition energy. But a drawback is that reverse bending magnets are included in the configuration; this increases the size and cost of the ring. Recently some modified FFAG lattice designs have been described where the amount of opposite bending was significantly reduced (ref. 2, ref. 3).

  10. Finite element residual stress analysis of induction heating bended ferritic steel piping

    SciTech Connect

    Kima, Jong Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Hyung-Young; Park, Heung-Bae

    2014-10-06

    Recently, there is a trend to apply the piping bended by induction heating process to nuclear power plants. Residual stress can be generated due to thermo-mechanical mechanism during the induction heating bending process. It is well-known that the residual stress has important effect on crack initiation and growth. The previous studies have focused on the thickness variation. In part, some studies were performed for residual stress evaluation of the austenitic stainless steel piping bended by induction heating. It is difficult to find the residual stresses of the ferritic steel piping bended by the induction heating. The study assessed the residual stresses of induction heating bended ferriticsteel piping via finite element analysis. As a result, it was identified that high residual stresses are generated on local outersurface region of the induction heating bended ferritic piping.

  11. Finite element residual stress analysis of induction heating bended ferritic steel piping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kima, Jong Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Soo; Oh, Young-Jin; Chang, Hyung-Young; Park, Heung-Bae

    2014-10-01

    Recently, there is a trend to apply the piping bended by induction heating process to nuclear power plants. Residual stress can be generated due to thermo-mechanical mechanism during the induction heating bending process. It is well-known that the residual stress has important effect on crack initiation and growth. The previous studies have focused on the thickness variation. In part, some studies were performed for residual stress evaluation of the austenitic stainless steel piping bended by induction heating. It is difficult to find the residual stresses of the ferritic steel piping bended by the induction heating. The study assessed the residual stresses of induction heating bended ferriticsteel piping via finite element analysis. As a result, it was identified that high residual stresses are generated on local outersurface region of the induction heating bended ferritic piping.

  12. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Dongsu

    2007-01-15

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory.

  13. The big deal about big data.

    PubMed

    Moore, Keith D; Eyestone, Katherine; Coddington, Dean C

    2013-08-01

    Big data is a concept that is being widely applied in the retail industries as a means to understand customers' purchasing habits and preferences for followup promotional activity. It is characterized by vast amounts of diverse and rapidly multiplying data that are available at or near real-time. Conversations with executives of leading healthcare organizations provide a barometer for understanding where the industry stands in its adoption of big data as a means to meet the critical information requirements of value-based health care.

  14. Restoring Wyoming big sagebrush

    Treesearch

    Cindy R. Lysne

    2005-01-01

    The widespread occurrence of big sagebrush can be attributed to many adaptive features. Big sagebrush plays an essential role in its communities by providing wildlife habitat, modifying local environmental conditions, and facilitating the reestablishment of native herbs. Currently, however, many sagebrush steppe communities are highly fragmented. As a result, restoring...

  15. ARTIST CONCEPT - BIG JOE

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1963-09-01

    S63-19317 (October 1963) --- Pen and ink views of comparative arrangements of several capsules including the existing "Big Joe" design, the compromise "Big Joe" design, and the "Little Joe". All capsule designs are labeled and include dimensions. Photo credit: NASA

  16. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  17. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  18. Big data for health.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled.

  19. Shape analysis of human brain interhemispheric fissure bending in MRI.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Hietala, Jarmo; Tohka, Jussi

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach to analyze Yakovlevian torque by quantifying the bending of human brain interhemispheric fissure in three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging. It extracts the longitudinal medial surface between the cerebral hemispheres, which are segmented with an accurate and completely automatic technique, as the shape representation of the interhemispheric fissure. The extracted medial surface is modeled with a polynomial surface through least-square fitting. Finally, curvature features, e.g., principal, Gaussian and mean curvatures, are computed at each point of the fitted medial surface to describe the local bending of the interhemispheric fissure. This method was applied to clinical images of healthy controls (12 males, 7 females) and never-medicated schizophrenic subjects (11 males, 7 females). The hypothesis of the normal interhemispheric fissure bending (rightward in the occipital region) was quantitatively demonstrated. Moreover, we found significant differences (p < 0.05) between the male schizophrenics and healthy controls with respect to the interhemispheric fissure bending in the frontal and occipital regions. These results show that our method is applicable for studying abnormal Yakovlevian torque related to mental diseases.

  20. Bending of the looping heart: differential growth revisited.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yunfei; Yao, Jiang; Xu, Gang; Taber, Larry A

    2014-08-01

    In the early embryo, the primitive heart tube (HT) undergoes the morphogenetic process of c-looping as it bends and twists into a c-shaped tube. Despite intensive study for nearly a century, the physical forces that drive looping remain poorly understood. This is especially true for the bending component, which is the focus of this paper. For decades, experimental measurements of mitotic rates had seemingly eliminated differential growth as the cause of HT bending, as it has commonly been thought that the heart grows almost exclusively via hyperplasia before birth and hypertrophy after birth. Recently published data, however, suggests that hypertrophic growth may play a role in looping. To test this idea, we developed finite-element models that include regionally measured changes in myocardial volume over the HT. First, models based on idealized cylindrical geometry were used to simulate the bending process in isolated hearts, which bend without the complicating effects of external loads. With the number of free parameters in the model reduced to the extent possible, stress and strain distributions were compared to those measured in embryonic chick hearts that were isolated and cultured for 24 h. The results show that differential growth alone yields results that agree reasonably well with the trends in our data, but adding active changes in myocardial cell shape provides closer quantitative agreement with stress measurements. Next, the estimated parameters were extrapolated to a model based on realistic 3D geometry reconstructed from images of an actual chick heart. This model yields similar results and captures quite well the basic morphology of the looped heart. Overall, our study suggests that differential hypertrophic growth in the myocardium (MY) is the primary cause of the bending component of c-looping, with other mechanisms possibly playing lesser roles.

  1. The transcription activation domains of Fos and Jun induce DNA bending through electrostatic interactions.

    PubMed Central

    Kerppola, T K; Curran, T

    1997-01-01

    Transcription factor-induced DNA bending is essential for the assembly of active transcription complexes at many promoters. However, most eukaryotic transcription regulatory proteins have modular DNA-binding and activation domains, which appeared to exclude DNA bending as a mechanism of transcription activation by these proteins. We show that the transcription activation domains of Fos and Jun induce DNA bending. In chimeric proteins, the transcription activation domains induce DNA bending independent of the DNA-binding domains. DNA bending by the chimeric proteins is directed diametrically away from the transcription activation domains. Therefore, the opposite directions of DNA bending by Fos and Jun are caused, in part, by the opposite locations of the transcription activation domains relative to the DNA-binding domains in these proteins. DNA bending is reduced in the presence of multivalent cations, indicating that electrostatic interactions contribute to DNA bending by Fos and Jun. Consequently, regions outside the minimal DNA-binding domain can influence DNA structure, and may thereby contribute to the architectural reorganization of the promoter region required for gene activation. PMID:9184234

  2. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.

  3. Big Data in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  4. BigDog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playter, R.; Buehler, M.; Raibert, M.

    2006-05-01

    BigDog's goal is to be the world's most advanced quadruped robot for outdoor applications. BigDog is aimed at the mission of a mechanical mule - a category with few competitors to date: power autonomous quadrupeds capable of carrying significant payloads, operating outdoors, with static and dynamic mobility, and fully integrated sensing. BigDog is about 1 m tall, 1 m long and 0.3 m wide, and weighs about 90 kg. BigDog has demonstrated walking and trotting gaits, as well as standing up and sitting down. Since its creation in the fall of 2004, BigDog has logged tens of hours of walking, climbing and running time. It has walked up and down 25 & 35 degree inclines and trotted at speeds up to 1.8 m/s. BigDog has walked at 0.7 m/s over loose rock beds and carried over 50 kg of payload. We are currently working to expand BigDog's rough terrain mobility through the creation of robust locomotion strategies and terrain sensing capabilities.

  5. Guanine tracts enhance sequence directed DNA bends.

    PubMed Central

    Milton, D L; Casper, M L; Wills, N M; Gesteland, R F

    1990-01-01

    Synthetic DNA fragments were constructed to determine the effect of G tracts, in conjunction with periodically spaced A tracts, on DNA bends. Relative length measurements showed that the G tracts spaced at the half helical turn enhanced the DNA bend. When the G tract was interrupted with a thymine or shortened to one or two guanines, the relative lengths decreased. If the G tract was replaced with either an A tract or a T tract, the bend was cancelled. Replacement with a C tract decreased the relative length to that of a thymine interruption suggesting that bend enhancement due to G tracts requires A tracts on the same strand. PMID:2315040

  6. Ovalization of Tubes Under Bending and Compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demer, L J; Kavanaugh, E S

    1944-01-01

    An empirical equation has been developed that gives the approximate amount of ovalization for tubes under bending loads. Tests were made on tubes in the d/t range from 6 to 14, the latter d/t ratio being in the normal landing gear range. Within the range of the series of tests conducted, the increase in ovalization due to a compression load in combination with a bending load was very small. The bending load, being the principal factor in producing the ovalization, is a rather complex function of the bending moment, d/t ratio, cantilever length, and distance between opposite bearing faces. (author)

  7. Protein-induced bending and DNA cyclization.

    PubMed

    Kahn, J D; Crothers, D M

    1992-07-15

    We have applied T4 ligase-mediated DNA cyclization kinetics to protein-induced bending in DNA. The presence and direction of a static bend can be inferred from J factors for cyclization of 150- to 160-base-pair minicircles, which include a catabolite activator protein binding site phased against a sequence-directed bend. We demonstrate a quasi-thermodynamic linkage between cyclization and protein binding; we find that properly phased DNAs bind catabolite activator protein approximately 200-fold more tightly as circles than as linear molecules. The results unambiguously distinguish DNA bends from isotropically flexible sites and can explain cooperative binding by proteins that need not contact each other.

  8. The Big Bang Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-09-30

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  9. The Big Bang Theory

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  10. Bending Gold Nanorods with Light.

    PubMed

    Babynina, Anastasia; Fedoruk, Michael; Kühler, Paul; Meledin, Alexander; Döblinger, Markus; Lohmüller, Theobald

    2016-10-12

    V-shaped gold nanoantennas are the functional components of plasmonic metasurfaces, which are capable of manipulating light in unprecedented ways. Designing a metasurface requires the custom arrangement of individual antennas with controlled shape and orientation. Here, we show how highly crystalline gold nanorods in solution can be bent, one-by-one, into a V-shaped geometry and printed to the surface of a solid support through a combination of plasmonic heating and optical force. Significantly, we demonstrate that both the bending angle and the orientation of each rod-antenna can be adjusted independent from each other by tuning the laser intensity and polarization. This approach is applicable for the patterning of V-shaped plasmonic antennas on almost any substrate, which holds great potential for the fabrication of ultrathin optical components and devices.

  11. Peeling, sliding, pulling and bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, John; Peng, Gunnar

    2015-11-01

    The peeling of an elastic sheet away from thin layer of viscous fluid is a simply-stated and generic problem, that involves complex interactions between the flow and elastic deformation on a range of length scales. Consider an analogue of capillary spreading, where a blister of injected viscous fluid spreads due to tension in the overlying elastic sheet. Here the tension is coupled to the deformation of the sheet, and thus varies in time and space. A key question is whether or not viscous shear stresses ahead of the blister are sufficient to prevent the sheet sliding inwards and relieving the tension. Our asymptotic analysis reveals a dichotomy between fast and slow spreading, and between two-dimensional and axisymmetric spreading. In combination with bending stresses and gravity, which may dominate parts of the flow but not others, there is a plethora of dynamical regimes.

  12. Peeling, sliding, pulling and bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, John; Peng, Gunnar

    2016-11-01

    The peeling of an elastic sheet away from thin layer of viscous fluid is a simply-stated and generic problem, that involves complex interactions between the flow and elastic deformation on a range of length scales. Consider an analogue of capillary spreading, where a blister of injected viscous fluid spreads due to tension in the overlying elastic sheet. Here the tension is coupled to the deformation of the sheet, and thus varies in time and space. A key question is whether or not viscous shear stresses ahead of the blister are sufficient to prevent the sheet sliding inwards and relieving the tension. Our asymptotic analysis reveals a dichotomy between fast and slow spreading, and between two-dimensional and axisymmetric spreading. In combination with bending stresses and gravity, which may dominate parts of the flow but not others, there is a plethora of dynamical regimes.

  13. Cryptography for Big Data Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-13

    Cryptography for Big Data Security Book Chapter for Big Data: Storage, Sharing, and Security (3S) Distribution A: Public Release Ariel Hamlin1 Nabil...Email: arkady@ll.mit.edu ii Contents 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1 1.1 Introduction...48 Chapter 1 Cryptography for Big Data Security 1.1 Introduction With the amount

  14. HYDRODYNAMICS AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN LOWER MISSISSIPPI RIVER MEANDER BENDS (LOUISIANA): IMPLICATIONS FOR LARGE SEDIMENT DIVERSIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, M. A.; McCorquodale, A.; Meselhe, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    Field data collection and numerical modeling is being conducted in the lower Mississippi River in the region of a meander bend at Myrtle Grove, LA (river km 96 above Head of Passes) in support of a proposed large water and sediment diversion (1,130-2,830 cms) for coastal wetland restoration. Field studies in October 2008, April and May 2009, at discharges ranging from 11,000-21,000 cms, examined the role of bend dynamics on sediment transport through this reach relative to control sites further downriver and USGS monitoring stations upriver. Suspended loads and grain size character measured by ADCP (velocities and backscatter), isokinetic point sampler (P-63), and optical sensors (LISST, OBS, transmissometer) indicate that during the rising-to-high discharge phase, sand lifting off from the downstream edge of the lateral bar upriver of the bend augments that carried from further upriver, and is entrained in the upper 10-25m of the water column. This excess suspended sand is advected around the bend before concentrations are reduced to background levels over the lateral bar downstream of the bend. Bedload transport rates measured by repeat swath bathymetric mapping of migrating dunes are comparable upstream of the bend, downstream, and in the control sites. However, no bedforms are observed in the bend thalweg (up to 60 m deep) supporting the dominance of suspended sand transport in the bend. Both 1D (HEC-RAS and HEC6-T) and 3D (Flow3D) numerical hydrodynamic and sediment transport modeling is underway to simulate this process and the large-scale eddy present in the bend that generates upriver transport along the inside of the meander bend at all observed discharges. Our preliminary results suggest that the outside of meander bends might be an appropriate site for sediment diversions that draw near-surface water from this sediment-rich layer.

  15. The Big Bang Singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  16. Sharing big biomedical data.

    PubMed

    Toga, Arthur W; Dinov, Ivo D

    The promise of Big Biomedical Data may be offset by the enormous challenges in handling, analyzing, and sharing it. In this paper, we provide a framework for developing practical and reasonable data sharing policies that incorporate the sociological, financial, technical and scientific requirements of a sustainable Big Data dependent scientific community. Many biomedical and healthcare studies may be significantly impacted by using large, heterogeneous and incongruent datasets; however there are significant technical, social, regulatory, and institutional barriers that need to be overcome to ensure the power of Big Data overcomes these detrimental factors. Pragmatic policies that demand extensive sharing of data, promotion of data fusion, provenance, interoperability and balance security and protection of personal information are critical for the long term impact of translational Big Data analytics.

  17. Thinking big thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedral, Vlatko

    2016-08-01

    The short synopsis of The Big Picture by Sean Carroll is that it explores the question of whether science can explain everything in the world, and analyses the emerging reality that such an explanation entails.

  18. Big Baby, Heavier Kid?

    MedlinePlus

    ... not prove that being a big baby caused obesity in children, however. The University of Virginia Children's Hospital study ... Human Services. More Health News on Child Nutrition Obesity in Children Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child ...

  19. Big data need big theory too.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Peter V; Dougherty, Edward R; Highfield, Roger R

    2016-11-13

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their 'depth' and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote 'blind' big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2015 The Authors.

  20. Big data need big theory too

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Edward R.; Highfield, Roger R.

    2016-01-01

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their ‘depth’ and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote ‘blind’ big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling at the physics–chemistry–biology interface’. PMID:27698035

  1. a Study on Performance Evaluation of Thermoelectric Cooling System Using Piezoelectric Bending Actuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hee-Sung; Yang, Ho-Dong; Oh, Yool-Kwon

    This study investigated the performance of thermoelectric cooling system using the piezoelectric bending actuator. The temperatures in the cooling region of thermoelectric cooling system were measured with and without operation of piezoelectric bending actuator at the frequencies of 90 Hz and 120 Hz. The cooling coefficients were calculated by the temperature measurement results, and the thermo-flow phenomenon in the cooling region was visualized under the same condition. The coefficient of performance of the thermoelectric cooling system was improved by the piezoelectric bending actuator when the results of temperature measurement and thermo-flow visualization were compared, because that the vibration from the piezoelectric bending actuator generated compulsive convection and the cold air in the cooling region was actively circulated by the compulsive convection.

  2. Restorying the Self: Bending toward Textual Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth; Stornaiuolo, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Ebony Elizabeth Thomas and Amy Stornaiuolo explore new trends in reader response for a digital age, particularly the phenomenon of bending texts using social media. They argue that bending is one form of "restorying," a process by which people reshape narratives to represent a diversity of perspectives and experiences that…

  3. Tube-bending scale/protractor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millett, A. U.

    1977-01-01

    Combination protractor and scale for measuring tube bends has novel pivot that allows tube to remain in contact with scale arms for all bend angles. Device permits rapid and accurate scribing and measurement of mockup fluid lines to obtain production data.

  4. Restorying the Self: Bending toward Textual Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth; Stornaiuolo, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Ebony Elizabeth Thomas and Amy Stornaiuolo explore new trends in reader response for a digital age, particularly the phenomenon of bending texts using social media. They argue that bending is one form of "restorying," a process by which people reshape narratives to represent a diversity of perspectives and experiences that…

  5. 46 CFR 56.80-5 - Bending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result in a bend surface free of cracks, as determined by a method of inspection specified in the design... ultrasonics or other acceptable method. Alternatively, the pipe may be drilled, gaged, and fitted with a...

  6. 46 CFR 56.80-5 - Bending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result in a bend surface free of cracks, as determined by a method of inspection specified in the design... ultrasonics or other acceptable method. Alternatively, the pipe may be drilled, gaged, and fitted with a...

  7. 46 CFR 56.80-5 - Bending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result in a bend surface free of cracks, as determined by a method of inspection specified in the design... ultrasonics or other acceptable method. Alternatively, the pipe may be drilled, gaged, and fitted with a...

  8. 46 CFR 56.80-5 - Bending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result in a bend surface free of cracks, as determined by a method of inspection specified in the design... ultrasonics or other acceptable method. Alternatively, the pipe may be drilled, gaged, and fitted with a...

  9. 46 CFR 56.80-5 - Bending.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Forming § 56.80-5 Bending. Pipe may be bent by any hot or cold method and to any radius which will result in a bend surface free of cracks, as determined by a method of inspection specified in the design... ultrasonics or other acceptable method. Alternatively, the pipe may be drilled, gaged, and fitted with a...

  10. Bending of light in conformal Weyl gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2010-06-15

    We reexamine the bending of light issue associated with the metric of the static, spherically symmetric solution of Weyl gravity discovered by Mannheim and Kazanas (1989). To this end we employ the procedure used recently by Rindler and Ishak to obtain the bending angle of light by a centrally concentrated spherically symmetric matter distribution in a Schwarzschild-de Sitter background. In earlier studies the term {gamma}r in the metric led to the paradoxical result of a bending angle proportional to the photon impact parameter, when using the usual formalism appropriate to asymptotically flat space-times. However, employing the approach of light bending of Rindler and Ishak we show that the effects of this term are in fact insignificant, with the discrepancy between the two procedures attributed to the definition of the bending angle between the asymptotically flat and nonflat spaces.

  11. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  12. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  13. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  14. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  15. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  16. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  17. HCMM energy budget data as a model input for assessing regions of high potential groundwater pollution. [Big Sioux River Basin, SOuth Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, D. G. (Principal Investigator); Heilman, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Evidence of a heat sink produced by perched water tables was detected with HCMM night thermal data. The region of shallow water was not visible on HCMM visible or day IR imagery. The results are consistant with previous aircraft investigations.

  18. A pulsatile developing flow in a bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiriet, M.; Graham, J. M. R.; Issa, R. I.

    1992-06-01

    Low frequency pulsatile flow of an incompressible viscous fluid has been numerically investigated in a rigid 90° bend of circular cross-section, using the finite-volume method. The governing parameters are as follows : amplitude ratio of 1.25, Womersley parameter of 4, peak Reynolds number of 358, peak Dean number of 113, Strouhal number ranging from 0.05 to 0.45. With this set of input data, no flow reversal is observed and a single axial vortex occurs in the half cross-section. Upstream and downstream effects of the bend are mainly characterized by an inward shift of the peak axial velocity in the upstream straight tube and the persistency of the secondary motions several diameters down the exit straight pipe. Secondary motions, present in steady flow, weaken greatly when the unsteady axial component of the flow (W) is lower than the mean flow bar{W}. The axial shear stress tau_a, whose maximum is more often located at the outer part of the bend, increases and remains nearly constant about 8 diameters downstream from the bend inlet. The circumferential shear stress tau_c maximum, located slightly towards the outer bend, is 28% of tau_a maximum, and 20% when W < bar{W}. The magnitude of both tau_a and tau_c increases during the accelerative phase. The low shear region is more often located near the inner tube wall. However, the existence of bends in a tube network might increase the deposit of solid particles, with respect to straight pipes, only when W (t)>W, and locally at the inner edge. Un écoulement pulsé à basse fréquence d'un fluide incompressible visqueux a été étudié numériquement dans un coude, à 90°, de parois rigides et de section droite circulaire et constante, par la méthode des volumes finis. Les valeurs des paramètres adimensionnels gouvernant l'écoulement sont: un rapport d'amplitude de 1,25, un paramètre de Womersley de 4, un nombre de Reynolds crête de 358, un nombre de Dean crête de 113; le nombre de Strouhal varie entre 0

  19. Bend Properties of Sapphire Fibers at Elevated Temperatures. 1; Bend Survivability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Sayir, Haluk

    1995-01-01

    The effect of temperature on the bend radius that a c-axis-oriented sapphire fiber can withstand was determined for fibers of various diameter. Bend stress rupture tests were performed for times of 1-100 h and temperatures of 300-1700 C. Fibers would survive the bend test undeformed, would fracture or would deform. The bend survival radius was determined to be the radius above which no fibers fractured or deformed for a given time-temperature treatment. It was found that the ability of fibers to withstand curvature decreases substantially with time and increasing temperature and that fibers of smaller diameter (46-83 micron) withstood smaller bend radii than would be expected from just a difference in fiber diameter when compared with the bend results of the fibers of large diameter (144 micron). This was probably due to different flaw populations, causing high temperature bend failure for the tested sapphire fibers of different diameters.

  20. Big trees of the Midsouth Forest Survey

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May

    1990-01-01

    Forestry agencies and associations across the country maintain registers of champion big trees.Listings of the biggest trees encountered on the USDA Forest Service's continuing survey of the forest lands of seven Midsouth States have been prepared.The listings report the biggest trees encountered by species for each State and the Midsouth region.These listings...

  1. Assessing present and future climate changes in Siberia and their regional socioeconomic consequences using a web-based big data geoprocessing platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, V. A.; Gordov, E. P.

    2016-12-01

    Recently initiated collaborative research project is presented. Its main objective is to develop high spatial and temporal resolution datasets for studying the ongoing and future climate changes in Siberia, caused by global and regional processes in the atmosphere and the ocean. This goal will be achieved by using a set of regional and global climate models for the analysis of the mechanisms of climate change and quantitative assessment of changes in key climate variables, including analysis of extreme weather and climate events and their dynamics, evaluation of the frequency, amplitude and the risks caused by the extreme events in the region. The main practical application of the project is to provide experts, stakeholders and the public with quantitative information about the future climate change in Siberia obtained on the base of a computational web- geoinformation platform. The thematic platform will be developed in order to facilitate processing and analysis of high resolution georeferenced datasets that will be delivered and made available to scientific community, policymakes and other end users as a result of the project. Software packages will be developed to implement calculation of various climatological indicators in order to characterize and diagnose climate change and its dynamics, as well as to archive results in digital form of electronic maps (GIS layers). By achieving these goals the project will provide science based tools necessary for developing mitigation measures for adapting to climate change and reducing negative impact on the population and infrastructure of the region. Financial support of the computational web- geoinformation platform prototype development by the RF Ministry of Education and Science under Agreement 14.613.21.0037 (RFMEFI61315X0037) is acknowledged.

  2. Big data bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Greene, Casey S; Tan, Jie; Ung, Matthew; Moore, Jason H; Cheng, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Recent technological advances allow for high throughput profiling of biological systems in a cost-efficient manner. The low cost of data generation is leading us to the "big data" era. The availability of big data provides unprecedented opportunities but also raises new challenges for data mining and analysis. In this review, we introduce key concepts in the analysis of big data, including both "machine learning" algorithms as well as "unsupervised" and "supervised" examples of each. We note packages for the R programming language that are available to perform machine learning analyses. In addition to programming based solutions, we review webservers that allow users with limited or no programming background to perform these analyses on large data compendia.

  3. Big data in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science.

  4. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-08-27

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  5. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  6. The oroclinal bend in the South Island, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortimer, N.

    2014-07-01

    Most of the South Island of New Zealand lies within an Eocene-Recent continental shear zone related to Pacific-Australia plate motion. Macroscopic finite strain in this shear zone has, in the past, been tracked through the deformation of the Dun Mountain Ophiolite Belt. This paper identifies additional sub-vertical basement strain markers including: Buller-Takaka Terrane boundary, Darran Suite and Jurassic volcanic belt within the Median Batholith, Taieri-Wakatipu-Goulter Synform axial trace, Esk Head Melange and bedding form surfaces within the Buller, Takaka and Torlesse terranes. An analysis of the oroclinal bend over the entire Zealandia continent shows that it is a composite feature involving pre- as well as post-Eocene bending of basement structures. Satisfactory paleogeographic reconstructions of Zealandia cannot be made without the use of substantial regional scale, non-rigid intracontinental deformation.

  7. Metal atom dynamics in superbulky metallocenes: a comparison of (Cp(BIG))2Sn and (Cp(BIG))2Eu.

    PubMed

    Harder, Sjoerd; Naglav, Dominik; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Nowik, Israel; Herber, Rolfe H

    2014-02-17

    Cp(BIG)2Sn (Cp(BIG) = (4-n-Bu-C6H4)5cyclopentadienyl), prepared by reaction of 2 equiv of Cp(BIG)Na with SnCl2, crystallized isomorphous to other known metallocenes with this ligand (Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb). Similarly, it shows perfect linearity, C-H···C(π) bonding between the Cp(BIG) rings and out-of-plane bending of the aryl substituents toward the metal. Whereas all other Cp(BIG)2M complexes show large disorder in the metal position, the Sn atom in Cp(BIG)2Sn is perfectly ordered. In contrast, (119)Sn and (151)Eu Mößbauer investigations on the corresponding Cp(BIG)2M metallocenes show that Sn(II) is more dynamic and loosely bound than Eu(II). The large displacement factors in the group 2 and especially in the lanthanide(II) metallocenes Cp(BIG)2M can be explained by static metal disorder in a plane parallel to the Cp(BIG) rings. Despite parallel Cp(BIG) rings, these metallocenes have a nonlinear Cpcenter-M-Cpcenter geometry. This is explained by an ionic model in which metal atoms are polarized by the negatively charged Cp rings. The extent of nonlinearity is in line with trends found in M(2+) ion polarizabilities. The range of known calculated dipole polarizabilities at the Douglas-Kroll CCSD(T) level was extended with values (atomic units) for Sn(2+) 15.35, Sm(2+)(4f(6) (7)F) 9.82, Eu(2+)(4f(7) (8)S) 8.99, and Yb(2+)(4f(14) (1)S) 6.55. This polarizability model cannot be applied to predominantly covalently bound Cp(BIG)2Sn, which shows a perfectly ordered structure. The bent geometry of Cp*2Sn should therefore not be explained by metal polarizability but is due to van der Waals Cp*···Cp* attraction and (to some extent) to a small p-character component in the Sn lone pair.

  8. Geomorpho-tectonic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez-González, Leomaris; Andreani, Louis; Stanek, Klaus P.; Gloaguen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This work applies recent advances in tectonic geomorphology in order to understand the geomorphic evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend located along the Caribbean-Gonâve-North American plate boundary. We propose a classification of landscapes according to their erosional stages. The approach is mainly based on the combination of two DEM-based geomorphic indices: the hypsometric integral which highlights elevated surfaces, and the surface roughness which increases when the relief is incised by the drainage network. River longitudinal profiles were also analyzed as the drainage network responds quickly to base-level change triggered by external forcing such as tectonics. Anomalies in river profiles (knickpoints and convex segments) were mapped using stream length-gradient (SL) and normalized steepness (ksn) indices. The results provide new insights for understanding the complex evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend. Three main morphotectonic regions were identified in Jamaica: (1) the Blue Mountain-Wagwater unit located at the eastern tip of the island, (2) the Jamaican highlands plateau which covers most of the northern and central areas and (3) the tilted block province located along the southern part of Jamaica. Each region has a specific morphological signature which marks a different stage in the Late Miocene to present evolution of the Jamaican restraining bend. The evolution of the bend is mainly associated with the western propagation of major E-trending strike-slip faults and NW-trending thrusts. In the western and central parts of Jamaica the present-day motion between the Caribbean plate and the Gonâve microplate is broadly distributed along several structures, while in the easternmost part of the island this motion seems to be almost completely accommodated along the Blue Mountain range and the Plantain-Garden Fault.

  9. Comment on 'Heavy element production in inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis'

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2007-03-15

    The work of Matsuura et al. [Phys. Rev. D 72, 123505 (2005)] claims that heavy nuclei could have been produced in a combined p- and r-process in very high baryon density regions of an inhomogeneous big bang. However, they do not account for observational constraints and previous studies which show that such high baryon density regions did not significantly contribute to big bang abundances.

  10. Initial Ares I Bending Filter Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Bedrossian, Nazareth; Hall, Robert; Norris, H. Lee; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The Ares-I launch vehicle represents a challenging flex-body structural environment for control system design. Software filtering of the inertial sensor output will be required to ensure control system stability and adequate performance. This paper presents a design methodology employing numerical optimization to develop the Ares-I bending filters. The filter design methodology was based on a numerical constrained optimization approach to maximize stability margins while meeting performance requirements. The resulting bending filter designs achieved stability by adding lag to the first structural frequency and hence phase stabilizing the first Ares-I flex mode. To minimize rigid body performance impacts, a priority was placed via constraints in the optimization algorithm to minimize bandwidth decrease with the addition of the bending filters. The bending filters provided here have been demonstrated to provide a stable first stage control system in both the frequency domain and the MSFC MAVERIC time domain simulation.

  11. Bending instability in electrospinning of nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarin, A. L.; Koombhongse, S.; Reneker, D. H.

    2001-03-01

    A localized approximation was developed to calculate the bending electric force acting on an electrified polymer jet, which is a key element of the electrospinning process for manufacturing of nanofibers. Using this force, a far reaching analogy between the electrically driven bending instability and the aerodynamically driven instability was established. Continuous, quasi-one-dimensional, partial differential equations were derived and used to predict the growth rate of small electrically driven bending perturbations of a liquid column. A discretized form of these equations, that accounts for solvent evaporation and polymer solidification, was used to calculate the jet paths during the course of nonlinear bending instability leading to formation of large loops and resulting in nanofibers. The results of the calculations are compared to the experimental data acquired in the present work. Agreement of theory and experiment is discussed.

  12. Bending artificial muscle from nylon filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M.; Hunter, Ian W.

    2016-04-01

    Highly oriented nylon and polyethylene fibers shrink in length and expand in diameter when heated. Using this property, in this work, for the first time we are introducing a type of bending artificial muscle from nylon filaments such as fishing line. Reversible radius of curvature of 0.23 mm-1 was achieved with maximum reversible bending amplitude of 115 mm for the nylon bending actuator. Peak force of up to 2040 mN was measured with a catch-state force of up to 40% of the active force. A 3 dB roll-off frequency of around 0.7 Hz was observed in the frequency response of the bending actuator in water.

  13. Thermal static bending of deployable interlocked booms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staugaitis, C. L.; Predmore, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Metal ribbons processed with a heat-forming treatment are enabled to form tubelike structures when deployed from a roll. Deployable booms of this have been utilized for gravity-gradient stabilization on the RAE, ATS, and Nimbus D satellites. An experimental thermal-mechanics test apparatus was developed to measure the thermal static bending and twist of booms up to 3 meters long. The apparatus was calibrated by using the correlation between calculated and observed thermal bending of a seamless tube. Thermal static bending values of 16 interlocked deployable booms were observed to be within a factor of 2.5 of the values calculated from seamless-tube theory. Out-of-Sun-plane thermal bending was caused by complex heat transfer across the interlocked seam. Significant thermal static twisting was not observed.

  14. Big Joe Capsule Assembly Activities

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1959-08-01

    Big Joe Capsule Assembly Activities in 1959 at NASA Glenn Research Center (formerly NASA Lewis). Big Joe was an Atlas missile that successfully launched a boilerplate model of the Mercury capsule on September 9, 1959.

  15. Seeding considerations in restoring big sagebrush habitat

    Treesearch

    Scott M. Lambert

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes methods of managing or seeding to restore big sagebrush communities for wildlife habitat. The focus is on three big sagebrush subspecies, Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis), basin big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata), and mountain...

  16. Minimal Bending Energies of Bilayer Polyhedra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Phillips, Rob

    2010-11-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on bilayer polyhedra composed of amphiphilic molecules, we study the elastic bending energies of bilayer vesicles forming polyhedral shapes. Allowing for segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges of polyhedra, we find that bilayer polyhedra can indeed have lower bending energies than spherical bilayer vesicles. However, our analysis also implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the snub dodecahedron, rather than the icosahedron, generally represents the energetically favorable shape of bilayer polyhedra.

  17. Tool bending in New Caledonian crows

    PubMed Central

    Sugasawa, Shoko; van der Wal, Jessica E. M.; Klump, Barbara C.; St Clair, James J. H.

    2016-01-01

    ‘Betty’ the New Caledonian crow astonished the world when she ‘spontaneously’ bent straight pieces of garden wire into hooked foraging tools. Recent field experiments have revealed that tool bending is part of the species' natural behavioural repertoire, providing important context for interpreting Betty's iconic wire-bending feat. More generally, this discovery provides a compelling illustration of how natural history observations can inform laboratory-based research into the cognitive capacities of non-human animals. PMID:27853622

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of DNA base-pair opening by sharp bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Peiwen; Dai, Liang; van der Maarel, Johan R. C.; Yan, Jie

    2013-03-01

    Many biological processes require sharp bending of DNA. According to worm-like chain model, the bending energy dominates the free energy cost of those processes containing DNA loops shorter than 40 nm, such as DNA wrapping around histones, Lac repressor looping and virus DNA packaging. However, several recent experimental observations suggest that the WLC model s not applicable under tight bending conditions. In full atom molecular dynamics simulations, a double stranded, 20 base-pairs DNA fragment is forced to bend by an external spring. It is found that one or two AT-rich regions are disrupted for sufficiently small end-to-end distance. The disrupted DNA base-pairs separate and usually stack with the neighbouring base-pairs to form a defect. It is shown that these defects are more bendable than the bending rigidity of the duplex in the regular B-form. The simulation suggests a curvature dependent, non-harmonic bending elasticity of the DNA backbone is necessary to describe the DNA conformation under tight bending conditions.

  19. Feature guided waves (FGW) in fiber reinforced composite plates with 90° transverse bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xudong; Ratassepp, Madis; Fan, Zheng; Manogharan, Prabhakaran; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2016-02-01

    Fiber reinforced composite materials have been increasingly used in high performance structures such as aircraft and large wind turbine blades. 90◦ composite bends are common in reinforcing structural elements, which are prone to defects such as delamination, crack, fatigue, etc. Current techniques are based on local inspection which makes the whole bend area scanning time consuming and tedious. This paper explores the feasibility of using feature guided waves (FGW) for rapid screening of 90◦ composite laminated bends. In this study, the behavior of the bend-guided wave in the anisotropic composite material is investigated through modal studies by applying the Semi-Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method, also 3D Finite Element (FE) simulations are performed to visualize the results and to obtain cross validation. To understand the influence of the anisotropy, three-dimensional dispersion surfaces of the guided modes in flat laminated plates are obtained, showing the dependence of the phase velocity with the frequency and the fiber orientation. S H0-like and S 0-like bend-guided modes are identified with energy concentrated in the bend region, limiting energy radiation into adjacent plates and thus achieving increased inspection length. Finally, parametric studies are carried out to further investigate the properties of these two bend-guided modes, demonstrating the variation of the group velocity, the energy concentration, and the attenuation with the frequency.

  20. A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.

  1. A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.

  2. Analysis of Surface Roughening in AA6111 Automotive Sheet Under Pure Bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y.; Zhao, P. Z.; Jin, H.; Wu, P. D.; Lloyd, D. J.

    2016-02-01

    The finite element method is used to numerically simulate the topographic development in an aluminum sheet, AA6111, under pure bending. The measured electron backscatter diffraction data are directly incorporated into the finite element model, and the constitutive response at an integration point is described by the single crystal plasticity theory. The effects of strain-rate sensitivity, work hardening, and imposed initial surface roughness on surface roughening are studied. It is found that the grains in top surface layers of the sheet play a big role in controlling the outer surface roughness due to the strain gradient across sheet thickness in bending, while the grain size and texture of the surface layers have a direct impact on finishing surface qualities.

  3. A Sobering Big Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Since Susan Adler, Alberta Dougan, and Jesus Garcia like "big ideas," the author offers one to ponder: young people in this country can not read with comprehension. The saddest thing about this crisis is that it is no secret. The 2001 results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for reading, published in every major…

  4. The big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    Our universe was born billions of years ago in a hot, violent explosion of elementary particles and radiation - the big bang. What do we know about this ultimate moment of creation, and how do we know it? Drawing upon the latest theories and technology, this new edition of The big bang, is a sweeping, lucid account of the event that set the universe in motion. Joseph Silk begins his story with the first microseconds of the big bang, on through the evolution of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, quasars, and into the distant future of our universe. He also explores the fascinating evidence for the big bang model and recounts the history of cosmological speculation. Revised and updated, this new edition features all the most recent astronomical advances, including: Photos and measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE), and Infrared Space Observatory; the latest estimates of the age of the universe; new ideas in string and superstring theory; recent experiments on neutrino detection; new theories about the presence of dark matter in galaxies; new developments in the theory of the formation and evolution of galaxies; the latest ideas about black holes, worm holes, quantum foam, and multiple universes.

  5. The Big Sky inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  6. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  7. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  8. Big-City Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to implementing innovative classroom technology programs, urban school districts face significant challenges stemming from their big-city status. These range from large bureaucracies, to scalability, to how to meet the needs of a more diverse group of students. Because of their size, urban districts tend to have greater distance…

  9. The Big Sky inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  10. Big Enough for Everyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coote, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The UK's coalition government wants to build a "Big Society." The Prime Minister says "we are all in this together" and building it is the responsibility of every citizen as well as every government department. The broad vision is welcome, but everything depends on how the vision is translated into policy and practice. The…

  11. A Big Bang Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  12. A Big Bang Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  13. Big Enough for Everyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coote, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The UK's coalition government wants to build a "Big Society." The Prime Minister says "we are all in this together" and building it is the responsibility of every citizen as well as every government department. The broad vision is welcome, but everything depends on how the vision is translated into policy and practice. The…

  14. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  15. Countering misinformation concerning big sagebrush

    Treesearch

    Bruce L Welch; Craig Criddle

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the scientific merits of eight axioms of range or vegetative management pertaining to big sagebrush. These axioms are: (1) Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. wyomingensis) does not naturally exceed 10 percent canopy cover and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana) does not naturally exceed 20 percent canopy...

  16. Big Data and Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  17. Big Data and Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  18. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  19. How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own…

  20. Coherent thermoelectric transport in single, double, and U-bend structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pye, A. J.; Faux, D. A.; Kearney, M. J.

    2015-02-14

    Coherent, i.e., ballistic, thermoelectric transport in electron waveguide structures containing right-angle bends in single, double, and U-bend configurations is investigated. A theory based on Green's functions is used to derive the transmission function (and from that the transport coefficients) and allows for the inclusion of realistic models of spatially distributed imperfections. The results for the single and double-bend structures are presented in more detail than elsewhere in the literature. In the U-bend structure, sharp resonances in the stop-band region of the transmission function lead to large-magnitude peaks in the thermopower and consequently a large thermoelectric figure of merit (of order ten in some instances). These properties are still readily apparent even in the presence of moderate edge roughness or Anderson disorder.

  1. Measurements of emittance growth through the achromatic bend at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.J.; Kehne, D.

    1997-07-01

    Measurements of emittance growth in a high peak current beam as it passes through an achromatic double bend are summarized. Experiments were performed using the ATF at Brookhaven National Laboratory by X.J. Wang and D. Kehne as a collaboration resulting from the proposal attached at the end of the document. The ATF consists off an RF gun (1 MeV), two sections of linac (40-75 MeV), a diagnostic section immediately following the linac, a 20{degree} bend magnet, a variable aperture slit at a high dispersion point, 5 quadrupoles, then another 20{degree} bend followed by another diagnostic section. The TRANSPORT deck describing the region from the end of the linac to the end of the diagnostic line following the achromatic bends is attached to the end of this document. Printouts of the control screens are also attached.

  2. Channel width dependence of electrical characteristics of a-Si:H TFTs under bending stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Hyungon; Cho, Kyoungah; Kim, Sangsig

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigate the electrical characteristics of bendable a-Si:H thin-film transistors (TFTs) with various channel widths as a function of bending stress. Compared with a narrower channel TFT, a wider channel TFT exhibits a stable performance even at a bending strain of 1.3%. Our stress and strain distribution analysis reveals an inverse relationship between the channel width and the channel stress. As the channel width widens from 8 to 50 μm, the stress experienced by the middle channel region decreases from 545 to 277 MPa. Moreover, a 50 μm-channel-width TFT operates stably even after a 15 000 bending cycle while the 8 μm-channel-width TFT fails to operate after a 2000 bending cycle.

  3. Axisymmetric Bending Oscillations of Stellar Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, J. A.

    1996-12-01

    Self-gravitating stellar disks with random motion support both exponentially growing and, in some cases, purely oscillatory axisymmetric bending modes, unlike their cold disk counterparts. A razor-thin disk with even a very small degree of random motion in the plane is both unstable and possesses a discrete spectrum of neutral modes, irrespective of the sharpness of the edge. Random motion normal to the disk plane is stabilizing but at the same time allows bending waves to couple to the internal vibrations of the particles, which causes the formerly neutral modes to decay through Landau damping. Focusing first on instabilities, I here determine the degree of random motion normal to the plane needed to suppress global, axisymmetric, bending instabilities in a family of self-gravitating disks. As found previously, bending instabilities are suppressed only when the thickness exceeds that expected from a local criterion when the degree of pressure support within the disk plane is comparable to, or exceeds, the support from rotation. Nevertheless, a modest disk thickness would seem to be adequate for the bending stability of most disk galaxies, except perhaps near their centers. The discretization of the neutral spectrum in a zero-thickness disk is due to the existence of a turning point for bending waves in a warm disk, which is absent when the disk is cold. When the disk is given a finite thickness, the discrete neutral modes generally become strongly damped through wave-particle interactions. It is surprising therefore that I find some simulations of warm, stable disks can support (quasi-)neutral, large-scale, bending modes that decay very slowly, if at all.

  4. Variations in oceanic plate bending along the Mariana trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Fan; Lin, Jian; Zhan, Wenhuan

    2014-09-01

    We quantify along-trench variations in plate flexural bending along the Mariana trench in the western Pacific Ocean. A 3-D interpreted flexural deformation surface of the subducting Pacific Plate was obtained by removing from the observed bathymetry the effects of sediment loading, isostatically-compensated topography based on gravity modeling, age-related lithospheric thermal subsidence, and residual short-wavelength features. We analyzed flexural bending of 75 across-trench profile sections and calculated five best-fitting tectonic and plate parameters that control the flexural bending. Results of analysis revealed significant along-trench variations: the trench relief varies from 0.9 to 5.7 km, trench-axis vertical loading (-V0) from -0.73×1012 to 3.17×1012 N/m, and axial bending moment (-M0) from 0.1×1017 to 2.7×1017 N. The effective elastic plate thickness seaward of the outer-rise region (TeM) ranges from 45 to 52 km, while that trench-ward of the outer-rise (Tem) ranges from 19 to 40 km. This corresponds to a reduction in Te of 21-61%. The transition from TeM to Tem occurs at a breaking distance of 60-125 km from the trench axis, which is near the outer-rise and corresponds to the onset of observed pervasive normal faults. The Challenger Deep area is associated with the greatest trench relief and axial vertical loading, while areas with seamounts at the trench axis are often associated with more subtle trench relief, smaller axial vertical loading, and greater topographic bulge at the outer-rise.

  5. Bend-insensitive optical fibers for FTTH applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Jun

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews recent development in bend-insensitive fibers for fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) applications. First, requirements for bend-insensitive fibers are discussed. Then different design approaches for reducing fiber bending loss are described and compared. A new bend-insensitive fiber using the nano-engineered ring design is presented in detail.

  6. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend...

  7. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend...

  8. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend...

  9. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend...

  10. 49 CFR 192.313 - Bends and elbows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each bend must have a smooth contour and be free from buckling, cracks, or any other mechanical damage. (3) On pipe containing a longitudinal weld, the longitudinal weld must be as... Lines and Mains § 192.313 Bends and elbows. (a) Each field bend in steel pipe, other than a wrinkle bend...

  11. Arbitrary angle waveguide bends based on zero-index metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. H.; Zhang, L. H.; Chen, Y. Q.; Feng, T. H.; Jiang, H. T.; Chen, H.

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, efficient arbitrary angle bends based on impedance-matched zero-index metamaterials (ZIMs) are proposed. Numerical simulations on ZIM-based bends are carried out in waveguide systems. The results show clearly that electromagnetic waves can tunnel through the ZIM-based bends with high transmittance at any bending angles. Moreover, a realistic ZIM-based bends are designed and fabricated on microstrip transmission line. Both simulated and experimental results confirm well the low loss and arbitrary angle bending effects in a system hiring ZIM-based microstrip ring resonator as bending corners.

  12. The Big One

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-13

    Mimas' gigantic crater Herschel lies near the moon's limb in this Cassini view. A big enough impact could potentially break up a moon. Luckily for Mimas, whatever created Herschel was not quite big enough to cause that level of disruption. When large impacts happen, they deliver tremendous amounts of energy -- sometimes enough to cause global destruction. Even impacts that are not catastrophic can leave enormous, near-permanent scars on bodies like Mimas (246 miles or 396 kilometers across). This view looks toward the anti-Saturn hemisphere of Mimas. North on Mimas is up and rotated 32 degrees to the left. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Nov. 19, 2016. The view was acquired at a distance of approximately 53,000 miles (85,000 kilometers) from Mimas. Image scale is 1,677 feet (511 meters) per pixel. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20523

  13. A holographic big bang?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshordi, N.; Mann, R. B.; Pourhasan, R.

    2015-11-01

    We present a cosmological model in which the Universe emerges out of the collapse of a five-dimensional (5D) star as a spherical three-brane. The initial singularity of the big bang becomes hidden behind a causal horizon. Near scale-invariant primordial curvature perturbations can be induced on the brane via a thermal atmosphere that is in equilibrium with the brane, circumventing the need for a separate inflationary process and providing an important test of the model.

  14. DARPA's Big Mechanism program.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul R

    2015-07-16

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  15. The Next Big Idea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract George S. Eisenbarth will remain in our memories as a brilliant scientist and great collaborator. His quest to discover the cause and prevention of type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes started from building predictive models based on immunogenetic markers. Despite his tremendous contributions to our understanding of the natural history of pre-type 1 diabetes and potential mechanisms, George left us with several big questions to answer before his quest is completed. PMID:23786296

  16. Big Bang Circus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosini, C.

    2011-06-01

    Big Bang Circus is an opera I composed in 2001 and which was premiered at the Venice Biennale Contemporary Music Festival in 2002. A chamber group, four singers and a ringmaster stage the story of the Universe confronting and interweaving two threads: how early man imagined it and how scientists described it. Surprisingly enough fancy, myths and scientific explanations often end up using the same images, metaphors and sometimes even words: a strong tension, a drumskin starting to vibrate, a shout…

  17. DARPA's Big Mechanism program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Paul R.

    2015-07-01

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  18. Big3. Editorial

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christoph U.; Séroussi, Brigitte; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To provide an editorial introduction into the 2014 IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics with an overview of the content, the new publishing scheme, and upcoming 25th anniversary. Methods A brief overview of the 2014 special topic, Big Data - Smart Health Strategies, and an outline of the novel publishing model is provided in conjunction with a call for proposals to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Yearbook. Results ‘Big Data’ has become the latest buzzword in informatics and promise new approaches and interventions that can improve health, well-being, and quality of life. This edition of the Yearbook acknowledges the fact that we just started to explore the opportunities that ‘Big Data’ will bring. However, it will become apparent to the reader that its pervasive nature has invaded all aspects of biomedical informatics – some to a higher degree than others. It was our goal to provide a comprehensive view at the state of ‘Big Data’ today, explore its strengths and weaknesses, as well as its risks, discuss emerging trends, tools, and applications, and stimulate the development of the field through the aggregation of excellent survey papers and working group contributions to the topic. Conclusions For the first time in history will the IMIA Yearbook be published in an open access online format allowing a broader readership especially in resource poor countries. For the first time, thanks to the online format, will the IMIA Yearbook be published twice in the year, with two different tracks of papers. We anticipate that the important role of the IMIA yearbook will further increase with these changes just in time for its 25th anniversary in 2016. PMID:24853037

  19. The big data-big model (BDBM) challenges in ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The field of ecology has become a big-data science in the past decades due to development of new sensors used in numerous studies in the ecological community. Many sensor networks have been established to collect data. For example, satellites, such as Terra and OCO-2 among others, have collected data relevant on global carbon cycle. Thousands of field manipulative experiments have been conducted to examine feedback of terrestrial carbon cycle to global changes. Networks of observations, such as FLUXNET, have measured land processes. In particular, the implementation of the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), which is designed to network different kinds of sensors at many locations over the nation, will generate large volumes of ecological data every day. The raw data from sensors from those networks offer an unprecedented opportunity for accelerating advances in our knowledge of ecological processes, educating teachers and students, supporting decision-making, testing ecological theory, and forecasting changes in ecosystem services. Currently, ecologists do not have the infrastructure in place to synthesize massive yet heterogeneous data into resources for decision support. It is urgent to develop an ecological forecasting system that can make the best use of multiple sources of data to assess long-term biosphere change and anticipate future states of ecosystem services at regional and continental scales. Forecasting relies on big models that describe major processes that underlie complex system dynamics. Ecological system models, despite great simplification of the real systems, are still complex in order to address real-world problems. For example, Community Land Model (CLM) incorporates thousands of processes related to energy balance, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. Integration of massive data from multiple big data sources with complex models has to tackle Big Data-Big Model (BDBM) challenges. Those challenges include interoperability of multiple

  20. Big Data Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Dagliati, Arianna; Sacchi, Lucia; Segagni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The so-called big data revolution provides substantial opportunities to diabetes management. At least 3 important directions are currently of great interest. First, the integration of different sources of information, from primary and secondary care to administrative information, may allow depicting a novel view of patient’s care processes and of single patient’s behaviors, taking into account the multifaceted nature of chronic care. Second, the availability of novel diabetes technologies, able to gather large amounts of real-time data, requires the implementation of distributed platforms for data analysis and decision support. Finally, the inclusion of geographical and environmental information into such complex IT systems may further increase the capability of interpreting the data gathered and extract new knowledge from them. This article reviews the main concepts and definitions related to big data, it presents some efforts in health care, and discusses the potential role of big data in diabetes care. Finally, as an example, it describes the research efforts carried on in the MOSAIC project, funded by the European Commission. PMID:25910540

  1. Big data integration for regional hydrostratigraphic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Numerical models provide a way to evaluate groundwater systems, but determining the hydrostratigraphic units (HSUs) used in devising these models remains subjective, nonunique, and uncertain. A novel geophysical-hydrogeologic data integration scheme is proposed to constrain the estimation of continuous HSUs. First, machine-learning and multivariate statistical techniques are used to simultaneously integrate borehole hydrogeologic (lithology, hydraulic conductivity, aqueous field parameters, dissolved constituents) and geophysical (gamma, spontaneous potential, and resistivity) measurements. Second, airborne electromagnetic measurements are numerically inverted to obtain subsurface resistivity structure at randomly selected locations. Third, the machine-learning algorithm is trained using the borehole hydrostratigraphic units and inverted airborne resistivity profiles. The trained machine-learning algorithm is then used to estimate HSUs at independent resistivity profile locations. We demonstrate efficacy of the proposed approach to map the hydrostratigraphy of a heterogeneous surficial aquifer in northwestern Nebraska.

  2. Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamyan, V. M.; Bondarev, V. N.; Zavalniuk, V. V.

    2016-11-01

    It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.

  3. FLUCTUATING MOTOR FORCES BEND GROWING MICROTUBULES

    PubMed Central

    Shekhar, Nandini; Neelam, Srujana; Wu, Jun; Ladd, Anthony JC; Dickinson, Richard B.; Lele, Tanmay P.

    2013-01-01

    Despite their rigidity, microtubules in living cells bend significantly during polymerization resulting in greater curvature than can be explained by thermal forces alone. However, the source of the non-thermal forces that bend growing microtubules remains obscure. We analyzed the motion of microtubule tips in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts expressing EGFP-EB1, a fluorescent +TIP protein that specifically binds to the growing ends of microtubules. We found that dynein inhibition significantly reduced the deviation of the growing tip from its initial trajectory. Inhibiting myosin modestly reduced tip fluctuations, while simultaneous myosin and dynein inhibition caused no further decrease in fluctuations compared to dynein inhibition alone. Our results can be interpreted with a model in which dynein linkages play a key role in generating and transmitting fluctuating forces that bend growing microtubules. PMID:24039637

  4. Disaggregating asthma: Big investigation versus big data.

    PubMed

    Belgrave, Danielle; Henderson, John; Simpson, Angela; Buchan, Iain; Bishop, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan

    2017-02-01

    We are facing a major challenge in bridging the gap between identifying subtypes of asthma to understand causal mechanisms and translating this knowledge into personalized prevention and management strategies. In recent years, "big data" has been sold as a panacea for generating hypotheses and driving new frontiers of health care; the idea that the data must and will speak for themselves is fast becoming a new dogma. One of the dangers of ready accessibility of health care data and computational tools for data analysis is that the process of data mining can become uncoupled from the scientific process of clinical interpretation, understanding the provenance of the data, and external validation. Although advances in computational methods can be valuable for using unexpected structure in data to generate hypotheses, there remains a need for testing hypotheses and interpreting results with scientific rigor. We argue for combining data- and hypothesis-driven methods in a careful synergy, and the importance of carefully characterized birth and patient cohorts with genetic, phenotypic, biological, and molecular data in this process cannot be overemphasized. The main challenge on the road ahead is to harness bigger health care data in ways that produce meaningful clinical interpretation and to translate this into better diagnoses and properly personalized prevention and treatment plans. There is a pressing need for cross-disciplinary research with an integrative approach to data science, whereby basic scientists, clinicians, data analysts, and epidemiologists work together to understand the heterogeneity of asthma.

  5. Bend detector for a pipeline pig

    SciTech Connect

    Laymon, D.; Berry, J.M.

    1986-12-16

    A bend detector is described for use on a pipeline pig assembly; the pipeline pig assembly comprising a front pig element and a rear pig element pivotally connected to each other by the bend detector, the front pig element having a longitudinally disposed housing with means for driving the pipeline assembly by the flow of a fluid through a pipeline system. The rear pig element has a longitudinally disposed housing with means for axially supporting the housing in the pipeline system. The detector includes a means for determining the distance traversed by the pipeline pig assembly through the pipeline system. The bend detector comprises a universal joint having a pair of yoke members being pivotally interconnected to a central member so as to oscillate about a pair of mutually perpendicular axes lying in a plane generally perpendicular to the axis of the pipeline, each of the yoke members having a yoke and a collar. The detector also includes a means for mounting each collar to the front pig element and the rear pig element, respectively, the central member being provided with a substantially longitudinal bore for receiving a hollow sleeve, a central opening in each collar thereby forming an axially aligned passageway with the hollow sleeve. A cable is received in the passageway and has its rear end anchored to the mounting means of the rear pig element, the forward end of the cable connected to an actuator shaft for a stylus for recording a bend along the pipeline system, whereby when the pig assembly traverses a bend. The front pig element pivots with respect to the rear pig element thereby pivoting the sleeve relative to the passageway and thereby exerting a pull on the cable causing the actuator shaft to move longitudinally rearward; thereby indicating the location and degree of the bend.

  6. Material nonlinearity plate bending analysis with boundary element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyono, Effendy, Marwan; Wijianto

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, material nonlinearity plate bending analysis with boundary element method is presented. The nonlinear term in the formula is analysed by considering that the material is assumed to undergo small strains. The von Mises criterion is used to evaluate the plastic zone and elastic perfectly plastic material behaviour is assumed. The domain integral due to material nonlinearity is evaluated using a cell discretization technique and a total incremental method is implemented to solve the nonlinear system of equation. The size of the increment, the number of boundary elements and the number of domain cells are varied to study the convergence of the analysis. The size of load increment shows big influence on the results. The smaller the size the better results can be obtained, however 200 steps to reach the final load is a reasonable size to get a good results. The number of boundary and domain cells has an influence on the accuracy of the results. The increased number of boundary as well as domain cells gives better results, however a relative coarser mesh can be implemented to have a good results. The current results have a good agreement with the previous results by other researchers.

  7. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  8. Minimal Bending Energies of Bilayer Polyhedra

    PubMed Central

    Haselwandter, Christoph A.; Phillips, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on bilayer polyhedra composed of amphiphilic molecules, we study the elastic bending energies of bilayer vesicles forming polyhedral shapes. Allowing for segregation of excess amphiphiles along the ridges of polyhedra, we find that bilayer polyhedra can indeed have lower bending energies than spherical bilayer vesicles. However, our analysis also implies that, contrary to what has been suggested on the basis of experiments, the snub dodecahedron, rather than the icosahedron, generally represents the energetically favorable shape of bilayer polyhedra. PMID:21231425

  9. Band bending in conjugated polymer layers.

    PubMed

    Lange, Ilja; Blakesley, James C; Frisch, Johannes; Vollmer, Antje; Koch, Norbert; Neher, Dieter

    2011-05-27

    We use the Kelvin probe method to study the energy-level alignment of four conjugated polymers deposited on various electrodes. Band bending is observed in all polymers when the substrate work function exceeds critical values. Through modeling, we show that the band bending is explained by charge transfer from the electrodes into a small density of states that extends several hundred meV into the band gap. The energetic spread of these states is correlated with charge-carrier mobilities, suggesting that the same states also govern charge transport in the bulk of these polymers. © 2011 American Physical Society

  10. The effects of bending speed on the lumbo-pelvic kinematics and movement pattern during forward bending in people with and without low back pain.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Sharon M H; Szeto, Grace P Y; Li, Linda M K; Wong, Dim C M; Yip, Millie M P; Lee, Raymond Y W

    2017-04-17

    Impaired lumbo-pelvic movement in people with low back pain during bending task has been reported previously. However, the regional mobility and the pattern of the lumbo-pelvic movement were found to vary across studies. The inconsistency of the findings may partly be related to variations in the speed at which the task was executed. This study examined the effects of bending speeds on the kinematics and the coordination lumbo-pelvic movement during forward bending, and to compare the performance of individuals with and without low back pain. The angular displacement, velocity and acceleration of the lumbo-pelvic movement during the repeated forward bending executed at five selected speeds were acquired using the three dimensional motion tracking system in seventeen males with low back pain and eighteen males who were asymptomatic. The regional kinematics and the degree of coordination of the lumbo-pelvic movement during bending was compared and analysed between two groups. Significantly compromised performance in velocity and acceleration of the lumbar spine and hip joint during bending task at various speed levels was shown in back pain group (p < 0.01). Both groups displayed a high degree of coordination of the lumbo-pelvic displacement during forward bending executed across the five levels of speed examined. Significant between-group difference was revealed in the coordination of the lumbo-pelvic velocity and acceleration (p < 0.01). Asymptomatic group moved with a progressively higher degree of lumbo-pelvic coordination for velocity and acceleration while the back pain group adopted a uniform lumbo-pelvic pattern across all the speed levels examined. The present findings show that bending speed imposes different levels of demand on the kinematics and pattern of the lumbo-pelvic movement. The ability to regulate the lumbo-pelvic movement pattern during the bending task that executed at various speed levels was shown only in pain-free individuals but not

  11. Analytical investigation in bending characteristic of twisted stacked-tape cable conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takayasu, Makoto; Chiesa, Luisa

    2015-12-01

    An analytical model to evaluate bending strains of a twisted stack-tape cable (TSTC) conductor has been developed. Through a comparison with experimental results obtained for a soldered 32-tape YBCO TSTC conductor, it has been found that a Perfect-Slip Model (PSM) taking into account the slipping between tapes in a stacked-tape cable during bending gives much better estimation of the bending performance compared to a No-Slip Model (NSM). In the PSM case the tapes can slip so that the internal longitudinal axial strain can be released. The longitudinal strains of compression and tension regions along the tape are balanced in one twist-pitch and cancel out evenly in a long cable. Therefore, in a cable the strains due to bending can be minimized. This is an important advantage of a TSTC conductor. The effect of the cable diameter size on the bending strain is also expected to be minor, and all tapes composing a TSTC conductor have the same strain response under bending, therefore the cable critical current can be characterized from a single tape behaviour.

  12. Spaceflight-induced bone loss alters failure mode and reduces bending strength in murine spinal segments.

    PubMed

    Berg-Johansen, Britta; Liebenberg, Ellen C; Li, Alfred; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation rates are quadrupled in astronauts following spaceflight. While bending motions are main contributors to herniation, the effects of microgravity on the bending properties of spinal discs are unknown. Consequently, the goal of this study was to quantify the bending properties of tail discs from mice with or without microgravity exposure. Caudal motion segments from six mice returned from a 30-day Bion M1 mission and eight vivarium controls were loaded to failure in four-point bending. After testing, specimens were processed using histology to determine the location of failure, and adjacent motion segments were scanned with micro-computed tomography (μCT) to quantify bone properties. We observed that spaceflight significantly shortened the nonlinear toe region of the force-displacement curve by 32% and reduced the bending strength by 17%. Flight mouse spinal segments tended to fail within the growth plate and epiphyseal bone, while controls tended to fail at the disc-vertebra junction. Spaceflight significantly reduced vertebral bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, and trabecular thickness, which may explain the tendency of flight specimens to fail within the epiphyseal bone. Together, these results indicate that vertebral bone loss during spaceflight may degrade spine bending properties and contribute to increased disc herniation risk in astronauts.

  13. Spaceflight-Induced Bone Loss Alters Failure Mode and Reduces Bending Strength in Murine Spinal Segments

    PubMed Central

    Berg-Johansen, Britta; Liebenberg, Ellen C.; Li, Alfred; Macias, Brandon R.; Hargens, Alan R.; Lotz, Jeffrey C.

    2017-01-01

    Intervertebral disc herniation rates are quadrupled in astronauts following spaceflight. While bending motions are main contributors to herniation, the effects of microgravity on the bending properties of spinal discs are unknown. Consequently, the goal of this study was to quantify the bending properties of tail discs from mice with or without microgravity exposure. Caudal motion segments from six mice returned from a 30-day Bion M1 mission and eight vivarium controls were loaded to failure in four-point bending. After testing, specimens were processed using histology to determine the location of failure, and adjacent motion segments were scanned with micro-computed tomography (μCT) to quantify bone properties. We observed that spaceflight significantly shortened the nonlinear toe region of the force-displacement curve by 32% and reduced the bending strength by 17%. Flight mouse spinal segments tended to fail within the growth plate and epiphyseal bone, while controls tended to fail at the disc-vertebra junction. Spaceflight significantly reduced vertebral bone volume fraction, bone mineral density, and trabecular thickness, which may explain the tendency of flight specimens to fail within the epiphyseal bone. Together, these results indicate that vertebral bone loss during spaceflight may degrade spine bending properties and contribute to increased disc herniation risk in astronauts. PMID:26285046

  14. Delocalization and stretch-bend mixing of the HOH bend in liquid water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, William B.; Fournier, Joseph A.; Biswas, Rajib; Voth, Gregory A.; Tokmakoff, Andrei

    2017-08-01

    Liquid water's rich sub-picosecond vibrational dynamics arise from the interplay of different high- and low-frequency modes evolving in a strong yet fluctuating hydrogen bond network. Recent studies of the OH stretching excitations of H2O indicate that they are delocalized over several molecules, raising questions about whether the bending vibrations are similarly delocalized. In this paper, we take advantage of an improved 50 fs time-resolution and broadband infrared (IR) spectroscopy to interrogate the 2D IR lineshape and spectral dynamics of the HOH bending vibration of liquid H2O. Indications of strong bend-stretch coupling are observed in early time 2D IR spectra through a broad excited state absorption that extends from 1500 cm-1 to beyond 1900 cm-1, which corresponds to transitions from the bend to the bend overtone and OH stretching band between 3150 and 3550 cm-1. Pump-probe measurements reveal a fast 180 fs vibrational relaxation time, which results in a hot-ground state spectrum that is the same as observed for water IR excitation at any other frequency. The fastest dynamical time scale is 80 fs for the polarization anisotropy decay, providing evidence for the delocalized or excitonic character of the bend. Normal mode analysis conducted on water clusters extracted from molecular dynamics simulations corroborate significant stretch-bend mixing and indicate delocalization of δHOH on 2-7 water molecules.

  15. Sampling Operations on Big Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-29

    Sampling Operations on Big Data Vijay Gadepally, Taylor Herr, Luke Johnson, Lauren Milechin, Maja Milosavljevic, Benjamin A. Miller Lincoln...ll.mit.edu Abstract—The 3Vs - Volume, Velocity and Variety - of Big Data continues to be a large challenge for systems and algorithms designed to store... big data in Section II, followed by a description of the analytic environment D4M in Section III. We then describe the types of sampling methods and

  16. Probing the elastic limit of DNA bending.

    PubMed

    Le, Tung T; Kim, Harold D

    2014-01-01

    Sharp bending of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) plays an essential role in genome structure and function. However, the elastic limit of dsDNA bending remains controversial. Here, we measured the opening rates of small dsDNA loops with contour lengths ranging between 40 and 200 bp using single-molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer. The relationship of loop lifetime to loop size revealed a critical transition in bending stress. Above the critical loop size, the loop lifetime changed with loop size in a manner consistent with elastic bending stress, but below it, became less sensitive to loop size, indicative of softened dsDNA. The critical loop size increased from ∼ 60 bp to ∼ 100 bp with the addition of 5 mM magnesium. We show that our result is in quantitative agreement with the kinkable worm-like chain model, and furthermore, can reproduce previously reported looping probabilities of dsDNA over the range between 50 and 200 bp. Our findings shed new light on the energetics of sharply bent dsDNA.

  17. Strong bending of the DNA double helix

    PubMed Central

    Vologodskii, Alexander; D. Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim

    2013-01-01

    During the past decade, the issue of strong bending of the double helix has attracted a lot of attention. Here, we overview the major experimental and theoretical developments in the field sorting out reliably established facts from speculations and unsubstantiated claims. Theoretical analysis shows that sharp bends or kinks have to facilitate strong bending of the double helix. It remains to be determined what is the critical curvature of DNA that prompts the appearance of the kinks. Different experimental and computational approaches to the problem are analyzed. We conclude that there is no reliable evidence that any anomalous behavior of the double helix happens when DNA fragments in the range of 100 bp are circularized without torsional stress. The anomaly starts at the fragment length of about 70 bp when sharp bends or kinks emerge in essentially every molecule. Experimental data and theoretical analysis suggest that kinks may represent openings of isolated base pairs, which had been experimentally detected in linear DNA molecules. The calculation suggests that although the probability of these openings in unstressed DNA is close to 10−5, it increases sharply in small DNA circles reaching 1 open bp per circle of 70 bp. PMID:23677618

  18. Age of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalrymple, G.B.; Clague, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    40Ar/39Ar age data on alkalic and tholeiitic basalts from Diakakuji and Kinmei Seamounts in the vicinity of the Hawaiian-Emperor bend indicate that these volcanoes are about 41 and 39 m.y. old, respectively. Combined with previously published age data on Yuryaku and Ko??ko Seamounts, the new data indicate that the best age for the bend is 42.0 ?? 1.4 m.y. Petrochemical data indicate that the volcanic rocks recovered from bend seamounts are indistinguishable from Hawaiian volcanic rocks, strengthening the hypothesis that the Hawaiian-Emperor bend is part of the Hawaiian volcanic chain. 40Ar/39Ar total fusion ages on altered whole-rock basalt samples are consistent with feldspar ages and with 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating data and appear to reflect the crystallization ages of the samples even though conventional K-Ar ages are significantly younger. The cause of this effect is not known but it may be due to low-temperature loss of 39Ar from nonretentive montmorillonite clays that have also lost 40Ar. ?? 1976.

  19. Design of a hydraulic bending machine

    Treesearch

    Steven G. Hankel; Marshall Begel

    2004-01-01

    To keep pace with customer demands while phasing out old and unserviceable test equipment, the staff of the Engineering Mechanics Laboratory (EML) at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, designed and assembled a hydraulic bending test machine. The EML built this machine to test dimension lumber, nominal 2 in. thick and up to 12 in. deep, at spans up to...

  20. Bending rate damping in elastic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, H. T.; Wang, Y.; Fabiano, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    Preliminary results of an investigation of the bending rate damping model for elastic structures are presented. A model for which the internal damping term is physically plausible and which can accomodate cantilevered boundary conditions is discussed. The model formulation and mathematical foundations are given, and numerical results are discussed.

  1. Monitoring the Bending Stiffness of DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chongli; Lou, Xiongwen; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Chen, Huimin; Archer, Lynden

    2007-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the accessibility of genomic sequences provides an inherent regulation mechanism for gene expression through variations in bending stiffness encoded by the nucleic acid sequence. Cyclization of dsDNA is the prevailing method for determining DNA bending stiffness. Recent cyclization data for short dsDNA raises several fundamental questions about the soundness of the cyclization method, particularly in cases where the probability of highly bent DNA conformations is low. We herein evaluate the role of T4 DNA ligase in the cyclization reaction by inserting an environmental sensitive base analogue, 2-amino purine, to the DNA molecule. By monitoring the 2-AP fluorescence under standard cyclization conditions, it is found that in addition to trapping highly-bent cyclic DNA conformations, T4 DNA ligase enhances the apparent base pair flip out rate, thus exaggerating the measured flexibility. This result is further confirmed using fluorescence anisotropy experiments. We show that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on suitably labeled dsDNA provides an alternative approach for quantifying the bending stiffness of short fragments. DNA bending stiffness results obtained using FRET are compared with literature values.

  2. Interdisciplinary Invitations: Exploring Gee's Bend Quilts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David

    2012-01-01

    Engaging with the quilts of Gee's Bend offers a rich opportunity for students in grades four through eight to develop appreciation for pattern, rhythm, and innovation while learning about history, entrepreneurship, and political activism. By easily accessing print, film, and Internet resources teachers can include these vibrant quilts and…

  3. Interdisciplinary Invitations: Exploring Gee's Bend Quilts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca; Whitin, Phyllis; Whitin, David

    2012-01-01

    Engaging with the quilts of Gee's Bend offers a rich opportunity for students in grades four through eight to develop appreciation for pattern, rhythm, and innovation while learning about history, entrepreneurship, and political activism. By easily accessing print, film, and Internet resources teachers can include these vibrant quilts and…

  4. Plastic properties of matrix composites in bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, V. V.; Papkovskaya, O. B.

    1997-11-01

    Using the methods of integrated cross-sections and elastic solutions, we solve an elastico-plastic problem of bending of a Kirchhoff inhomogeneous square plate. The elastico-plastic properties and the effective yield stress of the inhomogeneous plate are calculated on an electronic computer. The computational results form the basis for a qualitative analysis and for the conclusions made.

  5. Strong bending of the DNA double helix.

    PubMed

    Vologodskii, Alexander; Frank-Kamenetskii, Maxim D

    2013-08-01

    During the past decade, the issue of strong bending of the double helix has attracted a lot of attention. Here, we overview the major experimental and theoretical developments in the field sorting out reliably established facts from speculations and unsubstantiated claims. Theoretical analysis shows that sharp bends or kinks have to facilitate strong bending of the double helix. It remains to be determined what is the critical curvature of DNA that prompts the appearance of the kinks. Different experimental and computational approaches to the problem are analyzed. We conclude that there is no reliable evidence that any anomalous behavior of the double helix happens when DNA fragments in the range of 100 bp are circularized without torsional stress. The anomaly starts at the fragment length of about 70 bp when sharp bends or kinks emerge in essentially every molecule. Experimental data and theoretical analysis suggest that kinks may represent openings of isolated base pairs, which had been experimentally detected in linear DNA molecules. The calculation suggests that although the probability of these openings in unstressed DNA is close to 10(-5), it increases sharply in small DNA circles reaching 1 open bp per circle of 70 bp.

  6. Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect

    McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B.

    1997-08-01

    The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Spatial distribution and risk assessment of Johnsongrass (sorghum halepense) in Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We used Landsat 7 ETM+ imagery to illustrate how remotely sensed data can model predicted Johnsongrass habitat. We used spectral reflectance values for three seasons of data across 5 years (fall 1999, summer and fall 2000, spring and fall 2001, spring 2002, and spring 2003) to capture Johnsongrass v...

  8. Better Housing Now: Public-Private Venture Housing at Big Bend National Park, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-01

    States I amisl Pd Gan. ilag Ila MarounHouston 0 San Antoni 5ifV and? Nation4leai sevenvncls Foda - o~’ I Butte i’dhf Junctions Old0 .#kr e~’ FIG...Carlsbad, New Mexico . Rail facilities are available in Carlsbad or in Van Horn, TX., approximately 100 miles to the south. Good, open roads are available

  9. Faunal communities and habitat characteristics of the Big Bend seagrass meadows, 2009-2010.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrass meadows are important habitats that serve as nursery, feeding, and sheltering grounds for many marine species. In addition to the ecosystem functions and services they provide, seagrass habitats and associated fauna are commonly observed to have naturally high levels of...

  10. Faunal communities and habitat characteristics of the Big Bend seagrass meadows, 2009-2010.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seagrass meadows are important habitats that serve as nursery, feeding, and sheltering grounds for many marine species. In addition to the ecosystem functions and services they provide, seagrass habitats and associated fauna are commonly observed to have naturally high levels of...

  11. How Big is Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  12. Bending effects on lasing action of semiconductor nanowires.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weisong; Ma, Yaoguang; Wang, Yipei; Meng, Chao; Wu, Xiaoqin; Ye, Yu; Dai, Lun; Tong, Limin; Liu, Xu; Yang, Qing

    2013-01-28

    High flexibility has been one of advantages for one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires (NWs) in wide application of nanoscale integrated circuits. We investigate the bending effects on lasing action of CdSe NWs. Threshold increases and differential efficiency decreases gradually when we decrease the bending radius step by step. Red shift and mode reduction in the output spectra are also observed. The bending loss of laser oscillation is considerably larger than that of photoluminescence (PL), and both show the exponential relationship with the bending radius. Diameter and mode dependent bending losses are investigated. Furthermore, the polarizations of output can be modulated linearly by bending the NWs into different angles continuously.

  13. Experimental Characterization of Stretch-Bending Formability of AHSS Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitting, Daniela; Ofenheimer, Aldo; Pauli, Heinrich; Till, Edwin T.

    2011-05-01

    Deformation conditions of combined stretching and bending are known to enhance material formability compared to forming conditions without bending (e.g. in-plane stretching). These phenomena can be observed for most conventional steel grades but is even more pronounced for Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) sheets. Consequently, there is an urgent need in industry to quantify the phenomena of enhanced material formability due to bending effects. In this work new stretch-bend test setups are presented which can be used in addition to the conventional Angular Stretch Bend Test to systematically investigate the influence of various stretch-bending deformation conditions on the formability of AHSS sheets.

  14. Background seismicity rate at subduction zones linked to slab-bending-related hydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Tomoaki; Ide, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    Tectonic properties strongly control variations in seismicity among subduction zones. In particular, fluid distribution in subduction zones influences earthquake occurrence, and it varies among subduction zones due to variations in fluid sources such as hydrated oceanic plates. However, the relationship between variations in fluid distribution and variations in seismicity among subduction zones is unclear. Here we divide Earth's subduction zones into 111 regions and estimate background seismicity rates using the epidemic type aftershock sequence model. We demonstrate that background seismicity rate correlates to the amount of bending of the incoming oceanic plate, which in turn is related to the hydration of oceanic plates via slab-bending-related faults. Regions with large bending may have high-seismicity rates because a strongly hydrated oceanic plate causes high pore fluid pressure and reduces the strength of the plate interface. We suggest that variations in fluid distribution can also cause variations in seismicity in subduction zones.

  15. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-01-04

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best

  16. Bending mechanics of the red-eared slider turtle carapace.

    PubMed

    Achrai, Ben; Bar-On, Benny; Wagner, H Daniel

    2014-02-01

    The turtle shell is a natural shield that possesses complex hierarchical structure, giving rise to superior mechanical properties. The keratin-covered boney top (dorsal) part of the shell, termed carapace, is composed of rigid sandwich-like ribs made of a central foam-like interior flanked by two external cortices. The ribs are attached to one another in a 3-D interdigitated manner at soft unmineralized collagenous sutures. This unique structural combination promotes sophisticated mechanical response upon predator attacks. In the present study mechanical bending tests were performed to examine the static behavior of the red-eared slider turtle carapace, in different orientations and from various locations, as well as from whole-rib and sub-layer regions. In addition, the suture properties were evaluated as well and compared with those of the rib. A simplified classical analysis was used here to rationalize the experimental results of the whole rib viewed as a laminated composite. The measured strength (~300MPa) and bending modulus (~7-8.5GPa) of the rib were found to be of the same order of magnitude as the strength and modulus of the cortices. The theoretical prediction of the ribs' moduli, predicted in terms of the individual sub-layers moduli, agreed well with the experimental results. The suture regions were found to be more compliant and weaker than the ribs, but comparatively tough, likely due to the interlocking design of the boney zigzag elements. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-01-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. Efforts are underway to showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is

  18. [KCl] Dependence of B-DNA Groove Bending Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; van der Vaart, Arjan

    2017-06-01

    The energetics of B-DNA bending toward the major and minor grooves were quantified by free energy simulations at four different KCl concentrations. Increased [KCl] led to more flexible DNA, with persistence lengths that agreed well with experimental values. At all salt concentrations, major groove bending was preferred, although preferences for major and minor groove bending were similar for the A-tract containing sequence. Since the phosphate repulsions and DNA internal energy favored minor groove bending, the preference for major groove bending was thought to originate from differences in solvation. Water in the minor groove was tighter bound than water in the major groove, and harder to displace than major groove water, which favored the compression of the major groove upon bending. Higher [KCl] decreased the persistence length for both major and minor groove bending but did not greatly affect the free energy spacing between the minor and major groove bending curves. For sequences without A-tracts, salt affected major and minor bending to nearly the same degree, and did not change the preference for major groove bending. For the A-tract containing sequence, an increase in salt concentration decreased the already small energetic difference between major and minor groove bending. Since salts did not significantly affect the relative differences in bending energetics and hydration, it is likely that the increased bending flexibilities upon salt increase are simply due to screening.

  19. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  20. "Big Events" and Networks.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel; Rossi, Diana; Flom, Peter L

    2006-01-01

    Some, but not all, "big events" such as wars, revolutions, socioeconomic transitions, economic collapses, and ecological disasters in recent years seem to lead to large-scale HIV outbreaks (Friedman et al, in press; Hankins et al 2002). This was true of transitions in the USSR, South Africa and Indonesia, for example, but not those in the Philippines or (so far) in Argentina. It has been hypothesized that whether or not HIV outbreaks occur is shaped in part by the nature and extent of changes in the numbers of voluntary or involuntary risk-takers, which itself may be related to the growth of roles such as sex-sellers or drug sellers; the riskiness of the behaviors engaged in by risk-takers; and changes in sexual and injection networks and other "mixing patterns" variables. Each of these potential causal processes, in turn, is shaped by the nature of pre-existing social networks and the patterns and content of normative regulation and communication that happen within these social networks-and on how these social networks and their characteristics are changed by the "big event" in question. We will present ideas about what research is needed to help understand these events and to help guide both indigenous community-based efforts to prevent HIV outbreaks and also to guide those who organize external intervention efforts and aid.

  1. Gas-liquid two phase flow through a vertical 90 elbow bend

    SciTech Connect

    Spedding, P.L.; Benard, E.

    2007-07-15

    Pressure drop data are reported for two phase air-water flow through a vertical to horizontal 90 elbow bend set in 0.026 m i.d. pipe. The pressure drop in the vertical inlet tangent showed some significant differences to that found for straight vertical pipe. This was caused by the elbow bend partially choking the inflow resulting in a build-up of pressure and liquid in the vertical inlet riser and differences in the structure of the flow regimes when compared to the straight vertical pipe. The horizontal outlet tangent by contrast gave data in general agreement with literature even to exhibiting a drag reduction region at low liquid rates and gas velocities between 1 and 2 m s{sup -1}. The elbow bend pressure drop was best correlated in terms of l{sub e}/d determined using the actual pressure loss in the inlet vertical riser. The data showed a general increase with fluid rates that tapered off at high fluid rates and exhibited a negative pressure region at low rates. The latter was attributed to the flow being smoothly accommodated by the bend when it passed from slug flow in the riser to smooth stratified flow in the outlet tangent. A general correlation was presented for the elbow bend pressure drop in terms of total Reynolds numbers. A modified Lockhart-Martinelli model gave prediction of the data. (author)

  2. Nursing Needs Big Data and Big Data Needs Nursing.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Patricia Flatley; Bakken, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary big data initiatives in health care will benefit from greater integration with nursing science and nursing practice; in turn, nursing science and nursing practice has much to gain from the data science initiatives. Big data arises secondary to scholarly inquiry (e.g., -omics) and everyday observations like cardiac flow sensors or Twitter feeds. Data science methods that are emerging ensure that these data be leveraged to improve patient care. Big data encompasses data that exceed human comprehension, that exist at a volume unmanageable by standard computer systems, that arrive at a velocity not under the control of the investigator and possess a level of imprecision not found in traditional inquiry. Data science methods are emerging to manage and gain insights from big data. The primary methods included investigation of emerging federal big data initiatives, and exploration of exemplars from nursing informatics research to benchmark where nursing is already poised to participate in the big data revolution. We provide observations and reflections on experiences in the emerging big data initiatives. Existing approaches to large data set analysis provide a necessary but not sufficient foundation for nursing to participate in the big data revolution. Nursing's Social Policy Statement guides a principled, ethical perspective on big data and data science. There are implications for basic and advanced practice clinical nurses in practice, for the nurse scientist who collaborates with data scientists, and for the nurse data scientist. Big data and data science has the potential to provide greater richness in understanding patient phenomena and in tailoring interventional strategies that are personalized to the patient. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  3. An infrared study of the bending region of acetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillman, J. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Halsey, G. W.; Nadler, Shachar; Blass, W. E.

    1991-04-01

    Acetylene spectra observed with instrumental resolutions of 0.0025 and 0.005 cm-1 were obtained at The National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, Arizona using the FTS spectrometer at the National Solar Observatory McMath telescope facility. These resolutions are factors of 6 and 3 times, respectively, that of the best prior study in the literature. The higher resolution allowed the assignment of many more low-J Q-branch transitions. The range of optical densities available in this study also allowed the extension of observed and assigned transitions to significantly higher J-values than reported in prior studies. Availability of improved standard lines resulted in high quality transition wavenumbers which are accurate to approximately +/-0.0001 cm-1. Using proven combination difference techniques and analysis software, this study produces the best available molecular parameters for the ν4 and ν5 states of acetylene. In addition, because acetylene has no permanent dipole moment, this study extends the precision of available ground state parameters B0 and D0 and produces for the first time an estimator of H0. In addition to H0 values for both isotopic species treated, we have obtained for the first time a value for H5 for the dominant isotopmer. The value of H5 for the 13C12CH2 was not determined and thus thought to be significantly smaller than H5 for 12C2H2. This study also obtains l-doubling parameters for both degenerate fundamental states in the lesser isotopmer for the first time as well as H4 for both isotopmers and B4 and D4 for the lesser isotopmer. NASA/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellow, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, 1986, 1987 (during which periods a portion of this work was completed).

  4. [Graves' dermopathy on the big toe].

    PubMed

    Couderc, E; Cante, V; Renaud, O; Guillet, G

    2013-05-01

    Localized myxoedema is a rare dermopathy in patients with Graves' disease. The pretibial area is the most commonly affected region but herein we present a case of myxoedema of the big toe. A 44-year-old male with Graves' disease ongoing for seven years presented bilateral ophthalmopathy and myxoedema of the big toes. The myxoedema was treated successfully with intralesional steroids. The physiopathology of myxoedema involves fibroblast activation and glycosaminoglycan production. This activation could result from stimulation of TSH receptors at their surface by TSH receptor antibodies (TRAK) or from an inflammatory process. The pretibial topography may be related to the high frequency in this area of microtrauma, with modulation of the cytokine microenvironment. The atypical localization seems to correlate with a Koebner phenomenon. Treatment of Graves' disease is generally insufficient to resolve the cutaneous problems. Topical corticosteroid therapy generally results in rapid improvement of recent lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  6. The Rise of Big Data in Neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2016-02-01

    In some fields, Big Data has been instrumental in analyzing, predicting, and influencing human behavior. However, Big Data approaches have so far been less central in speech-language pathology. This article introduces the concept of Big Data and provides examples of Big Data initiatives pertaining to adult neurorehabilitation. It also discusses the potential theoretical and clinical contributions that Big Data can make. The article also recognizes some impediments in building and using Big Data for scientific and clinical inquiry.

  7. Research on relation between bending stress and characteristic frequency of H-shaped beam by free vibration deflection

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Takeshi

    2014-05-27

    In order to investigate a relation between a bending stress and a characteristic frequency of a beam, 4-point loading which had constant moment region was conducted to a beam with H shape configuration experimentally and numerically. H-shaped beam has many characteristic deformation modes. Axial tensile stress in the beam made its characteristic frequency higher, and compressive stress lower. In the experiment, some characteristic frequencies got higher by a bending stress, and the others stayed in a small frequency fluctuation. The distinction is anticipated as a capability to measure a bending stress of a beam by its characteristic frequencies.

  8. Human T cells expressing BEND3 on their surface represent a novel subpopulation that preferentially produces IL-6 and IL-8

    PubMed Central

    Shiheido, Hirokazu; Kitagori, Koji; Sasaki, Chiyomi; Kobayashi, Shio; Aoyama, Takane; Urata, Kozue; Oku, Takuma; Hirayama, Yoshitaka; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Hikida, Masaki; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Watanabe, Takeshi; Shimizu, Jun

    2014-01-01

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has no transmembrane region, is localized in the cytoplasm, and is involved in chromatin function and transcription. We here identified a novel subpopulation of human T cells that expressed BEND3 on their cell surface (BEND3+ T cells). BEND3+ T cells consisted of approximately 3% of T cells in the peripheral blood, were present in both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and were also observed in cord blood. The stimulation of BEND3+ T cells through the TCR/CD3 complex led to the production of various kinds of cytokines; however, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 produced by BEND3+ T cells were higher than those by BEND3− T cells. The proportion of BEND3+ T cells was also increased in some patients with inflammatory diseases. Taken together, these results indicate that BEND3+ T cells are a new subpopulation of T cells in terms of their cytokine profile. Further analyses on BEND3+ T cells may be of importance and useful in understanding human T cell immunology. PMID:25400923

  9. Human T cells expressing BEND3 on their surface represent a novel subpopulation that preferentially produces IL-6 and IL-8.

    PubMed

    Shiheido, Hirokazu; Kitagori, Koji; Sasaki, Chiyomi; Kobayashi, Shio; Aoyama, Takane; Urata, Kozue; Oku, Takuma; Hirayama, Yoshitaka; Yoshitomi, Hiroyuki; Hikida, Masaki; Yoshifuji, Hajime; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Watanabe, Takeshi; Shimizu, Jun

    2014-06-01

    BEN domain-containing protein 3 (BEND3) has no transmembrane region, is localized in the cytoplasm, and is involved in chromatin function and transcription. We here identified a novel subpopulation of human T cells that expressed BEND3 on their cell surface (BEND3(+) T cells). BEND3(+) T cells consisted of approximately 3% of T cells in the peripheral blood, were present in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, and were also observed in cord blood. The stimulation of BEND3(+) T cells through the TCR/CD3 complex led to the production of various kinds of cytokines; however, the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 produced by BEND3(+) T cells were higher than those by BEND3(-) T cells. The proportion of BEND3(+) T cells was also increased in some patients with inflammatory diseases. Taken together, these results indicate that BEND3(+) T cells are a new subpopulation of T cells in terms of their cytokine profile. Further analyses on BEND3(+) T cells may be of importance and useful in understanding human T cell immunology.

  10. Interaction of low-frequency axisymmetric ultrasonic guided waves with bends in pipes of arbitrary bend angle and general bend radius.

    PubMed

    Verma, Bhupesh; Mishra, Tarun Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2014-03-01

    The use of ultrasonic guided waves for the inspection of pipes with elbow and U-type bends has received much attention in recent years, but studies for more general bend angles which may also occur commonly, for example in cross-country pipes, are limited. Here, we address this topic considering a general bend angle φ, a more general mean bend radius R in terms of the wavelength of the mode studied and pipe thickness b. We use 3D Finite Element (FE) simulation to understand the propagation of fundamental axisymmetric L(0,2) mode across bends of different angles φ. The effect of the ratio of the mean bend radius to the wavelength of the mode studied, on the transmission and reflection of incident wave is also considered. The studies show that as the bend angle is reduced, a progressively larger extent of mode-conversion affects the transmission and velocity characteristics of the L(0,2) mode. However the overall message on the potential of guided waves for inspection and monitoring of bent pipes remains positive, as bends seem to impact mode transmission only to the extent of 20% even at low bend angles. The conclusions seem to be valid for different typical pipe thicknesses b and bend radii. The modeling approach is validated by experiments and discussed in light of physics of guided waves.

  11. Three-dimensional flow structure and patterns of bed shear stress in an evolving compound meander bend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engel, Frank; Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2016-01-01

    Compound meander bends with multiple lobes of maximum curvature are common in actively evolving lowland rivers. Interaction among spatial patterns of mean flow, turbulence, bed morphology, bank failures and channel migration in compound bends is poorly understood. In this paper, acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) measurements of the three-dimensional (3D) flow velocities in a compound bend are examined to evaluate the influence of channel curvature and hydrologic variability on the structure of flow within the bend. Flow structure at various flow stages is related to changes in bed morphology over the study timeframe. Increases in local curvature within the upstream lobe of the bend reduce outer bank velocities at morphologically significant flows, creating a region that protects the bank from high momentum flow and high bed shear stresses. The dimensionless radius of curvature in the upstream lobe is one-third less than that of the downstream lobe, with average bank erosion rates less than half of the erosion rates for the downstream lobe. Higher bank erosion rates within the downstream lobe correspond to the shift in a core of high velocity and bed shear stresses toward the outer bank as flow moves through the two lobes. These erosion patterns provide a mechanism for continued migration of the downstream lobe in the near future. Bed material size distributions within the bend correspond to spatial patterns of bed shear stress magnitudes, indicating that bed material sorting within the bend is governed by bed shear stress. Results suggest that patterns of flow, sediment entrainment, and planform evolution in compound meander bends are more complex than in simple meander bends. Moreover, interactions among local influences on the flow, such as woody debris, local topographic steering, and locally high curvature, tend to cause compound bends to evolve toward increasing planform complexity over time rather than stable configurations.

  12. Development of Bend Sensor for Catheter Tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagano, Yoshitaka; Sano, Akihito; Fujimoto, Hideo

    Recently, a minimally invasive surgery which makes the best use of the catheter has been becoming more popular. In endovascular coil embolization for a cerebral aneurysm, the observation of the catheter's painting phenomenon is very important to execute the appropriate manipulation of the delivery wire and the catheter. In this study, the internal bend sensor which consists of at least two bending enhanced plastic optical fibers was developed in order to measure the curvature of the catheter tip. Consequently, the painting could be more sensitively detected in the neighborhood of the aneurysm. In this paper, the basic characteristics of the developed sensor system are described and its usefulness is confirmed from the comparison of the insertion force of delivery wire and the curvature of catheter tip in the experiment of coil embolization.

  13. Molecular Origin of Model Membrane Bending Rigidity

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtisovski, Erol; Taulier, Nicolas; Waks, Marcel; Ober, Raymond; Urbach, Wladimir

    2007-06-22

    The behavior of the bending modulus {kappa} of bilayers in lamellar phases was studied by Small Angle X-ray Scattering technique for various nonionic C{sub i}E{sub j} surfactants. The bilayers are either unswollen and dispersed in water or swollen by water and dispersed in dodecane. For unswollen bilayers, the values of {kappa} decrease with both an increase in the area per surfactant molecule and in the polar head length. They increase when the aliphatic chain length increases at constant area per surfactant molecule. Whereas for water-swollen membranes, the values of {kappa} decrease as the content of water increases converging to the value of the single monolayer bending modulus. Such a behavior results from the decoupling of the fluctuations of the two surfactant membrane monolayers. Our results emphasize the determinant contribution of the surfactant conformation to {kappa}.

  14. Monitoring thermoplastic composites under cyclic bending tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccardi, Simone; Meola, Carosena; Carlomagno, Giovanni Maria; Simeoli, Giorgio; Acierno, Domenico; Russo, Pietro

    2016-05-01

    This work is concerned with the use of infrared thermography to visualize temperature variations linked to thermo-elastic effects developing over the surface of a specimen undergoing deflection under bending tests. Several specimens are herein considered, which involve change of matrix and/or reinforcement. More specifically, the matrix is either a pure polypropylene, or a polypropylene added with a certain percentage of compatibilizing agent; the reinforcement is made of glass, or jute. Cyclic bending tests are carried out by the aid of an electromechanical actuator. Each specimen is viewed, during deflection, from one surface by an infrared imaging device. As main finding the different specimens display surface temperature variations which depend on the type of material in terms of both matrix and reinforcement.

  15. Holey fibers for low bend loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Kazuhide; Saito, Kotaro; Yamada, Yusuke; Kurokawa, Kenji; Shimizu, Tomoya; Fukai, Chisato; Matsui, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Bending-loss insensitive fiber (BIF) has proved an essential medium for constructing the current fiber to the home (FTTH) network. By contrast, the progress that has been made on holey fiber (HF) technologies provides us with novel possibilities including non-telecom applications. In this paper, we review recent progress on hole-assisted type BIF. A simple design consideration is overviewed. We then describe some of the properties of HAF including its mechanical reliability. Finally, we introduce some applications of HAF including to high power transmission. We show that HAF with a low bending loss has the potential for use in various future optical technologies as well as in the optical communication network.

  16. Effect of confinements: Bending in Paramecium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eddins, Aja; Yang, Sung; Spoon, Corrie; Jung, Sunghwan

    2012-02-01

    Paramecium is a unicellular eukaryote which by coordinated beating of cilia, generates metachronal waves which causes it to execute a helical trajectory. We investigate the swimming parameters of the organism in rectangular PDMS channels and try to quantify its behavior. Surprisingly a swimming Paramecium in certain width of channels executes a bend of its flexible body (and changes its direction of swimming) by generating forces using the cilia. Considering a simple model of beam constrained between two walls, we predict the bent shapes of the organism and the forces it exerts on the walls. Finally we try to explain how bending (by sensing) can occur in channels by conducting experiments in thin film of fluid and drawing analogy to swimming behavior observed in different cases.

  17. Torsion and transverse bending of cantilever plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reissner, Eric; Stein, Manuel

    1951-01-01

    The problem of combined bending and torsion of cantilever plates of variable thickness, such as might be considered for solid thin high-speed airplane or missile wings, is considered in this paper. The deflections of the plate are assumed to vary linearly across the chord; minimization of the potential energy by means of the calculus of variations then leads to two ordinary linear differential equations for the bending deflections and the twist of the plate. Because the cantilever is analyzed as a plate rather than as a beam, the effect of constraint against axial warping in torsion is inherently included. The application of this method to specific problems involving static deflection, vibration, and buckling of cantilever plates is presented. In the static-deflection problems, taper and sweep are considered.

  18. Vortex breakdown in simple pipe bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ault, Jesse; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Pipe bends and elbows are one of the most common fluid mechanics elements that exists. However, despite their ubiquity and the extensive amount of research related to these common, simple geometries, unexpected complexities still remain. We show that for a range of geometries and flow conditions, these simple flows experience unexpected fluid dynamical bifurcations resembling the bubble-type vortex breakdown phenomenon. Specifically, we show with simulations and experiments that recirculation zones develop within the bends under certain conditions. As a consequence, fluid and particles can remain trapped within these structures for unexpectedly-long time scales. We also present simple techniques to mitigate this recirculation effect which can potentially have impact across industries ranging from biomedical and chemical processing to food and health sciences.

  19. Environmental Analysis of the Air Bending Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellens, Karel; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R.

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a data collection effort, allowing to assess the overall environmental impact of the air bending process using the CO2PE!-Methodology. First the different modes of the air bending process are investigated, including both productive and non-productive modes. In particular consumption of electric power is recorded for the different modes. Subsequently, time studies allow determining the importance of productive and nonproductive modes of the involved process. The study demonstrates that the influence of standby losses can be substantial. In addition to life cycle analysis, in depth process analysis also provides insight in achievable environmental impact reducing measures towards machine tool builders and eco-design recommendations for product developers. The energy consumption of three different machine tool architectures are analysed and compared within this paper.

  20. Monoclinal bending of strata over laccolithic intrusions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koch, F.G.; Johnson, A.M.; Pollard, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    Sedimentary strata on top of some laccolithic intrusions are nearly horizontal and little deformed, but are bent into steeply dipping monoclinal flexures over the peripheries of these intrusions. This form of bending is not explained by previous theories of laccolithic intrusion, which predict either horizontal undeformed strata over the center and faulted strata around the periphery, or strata bent continuously into a dome. However, a slight generalization of these theories accomodates the observed form and contains the previous forms as special cases. A critical assumption is that the strength of contacts within a multilayered overburden is overcome locally by layer-parallel shear. If this strength is less than the strength of the layers themselves, then layers over the center remain bonded together and display negligible bending, whereas layers over the periphery slip over one another and are readily bent into a monoclinal flexure. ?? 1981.

  1. DNA Bending Stiffness on Small Length Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Chongli; Chen, Huimin; Lou, Xiong Wen; Archer, Lynden A.

    2008-01-01

    Bending properties of short (15 90 bp), double-stranded DNA fragments are quantified using fluorescence resonance energy transfer and small angle x-ray scattering. Results from both types of measurements indicate that short double-stranded DNA fragments exhibit surprisingly high flexibility. These observations are discussed in terms of base-pair-level length fluctuations originating from dynamic features of Watson-Crick base pairs.

  2. The Last Big Bang

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Austin D.; Meade, Roger Allen

    2016-09-13

    As one of the very few people in the world to give the “go/no go” decision to detonate a nuclear device, Austin “Mac” McGuire holds a very special place in the history of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the world. As Commander of Joint Task Force Unit 8.1.1, on Christmas Island in the spring and summer of 1962, Mac directed the Los Alamos data collection efforts for twelve of the last atmospheric nuclear detonations conducted by the United States. Since data collection was at the heart of nuclear weapon testing, it fell to Mac to make the ultimate decision to detonate each test device. He calls his experience THE LAST BIG BANG, since these tests, part of Operation Dominic, were characterized by the dramatic displays of the heat, light, and sounds unique to atmospheric nuclear detonations – never, perhaps, to be witnessed again.

  3. BIG DATA AND STATISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Rossell, David

    2016-01-01

    Big Data brings unprecedented power to address scientific, economic and societal issues, but also amplifies the possibility of certain pitfalls. These include using purely data-driven approaches that disregard understanding the phenomenon under study, aiming at a dynamically moving target, ignoring critical data collection issues, summarizing or preprocessing the data inadequately and mistaking noise for signal. We review some success stories and illustrate how statistical principles can help obtain more reliable information from data. We also touch upon current challenges that require active methodological research, such as strategies for efficient computation, integration of heterogeneous data, extending the underlying theory to increasingly complex questions and, perhaps most importantly, training a new generation of scientists to develop and deploy these strategies. PMID:27722040

  4. Big cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population.

  5. Big-bounce genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changhong; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the possibility of using dark matter particle's mass and its interaction cross section as a smoking gun signal of the existence of a big bounce at the early stage in the evolution of our currently observed universe. A model independent study of dark matter production in the pre-bounce contraction and the post-bounce expansion epochs of the bounce universe reveals a new venue for achieving the observed relic abundance of our present universe, in which a significantly smaller amount of dark matter with a smaller cross section—as compared to the prediction of standard cosmology—is produced and the information about the bounce universe evolution is preserved by the out-of-thermal-equilibrium process. Once the value of dark matter mass and interaction cross section are obtained by direct detection in laboratories, this alternative route becomes a signature prediction of the bounce universe scenario.

  6. The multi-bend achromat storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Eriksson, Mikael

    2016-07-27

    Not very long ago, the 3{sup rd} generation storage ring technology was judged as mature. Most of the 3{sup rd} generation storage rings used the Double-Bend Achromat (DBA) or Triple-Bend Achromat (TBA) concepts. It was however a well-known fact that increasing the number of magnet cells in the rings is a powerful way of decreasing the electron beam emittance and thus the source brilliance, but at the penalty of increasing the size and cost of the rings. Preserving the Dynamic Aperture (DA) in the rings became also an issue when increasing the number of magnet cells. The Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) concept, including a miniaturization of the ring elements, has now drastically changed the picture. The MBA rings, now in construction or being planned, offer orders of magnitudes higher brilliance than rings of conventional designs. Several light sources around the world are now implementing or planning to implement this MBA concept. This article touches on the science drivers for higher brilliance. We will then describe the MBA concept with its advantages as well as its challenges. A short survey of the MBA activity around the world will also be presented. The author apologies for focusing on the MAX IV project regarding technical solutions. This is motivated by that MAX IV is the facility he knows best and it might be regarded as a fore-runner for the MBA concept.

  7. Forming and Bending of Metal Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebosky, Paul; Tyszka, Daniel; Niebur, Glen; Schmid, Steven

    2004-06-01

    This study examines the formability of a porous tantalum foam, known as trabecular metal (TM). Used as a bone ingrowth surface on orthopedic implants, TM is desirable due to its combination of high strength, low relative density, and excellent osteoconductive properties. This research aims to develop bend and stretch forming as a cost-effective alternative to net machining and EDM for manufacturing thin parts made of TM. Experimentally, bending about a single axis using a wiping die was studied by observing cracking and measuring springback. It was found that die radius and clearance strongly affect the springback properties of TM, while punch speed, embossings, die radius and clearance all influence cracking. Depending on the various combinations of die radius and clearance, springback factor ranged from .70-.91. To examine the affect of the foam microstructure, bending also was examined numerically using a horizontal hexagonal mesh. As the hexagonal cells were elongated along the sheet length, elastic springback decreased. This can be explained by the earlier onset of plastic hinging occurring at the vertices of the cells. While the numerical results matched the experimental results for the case of zero clearance, differences at higher clearances arose due to an imprecise characterization of the post-yield properties of tantalum. By changing the material properties of the struts, the models can be modified for use with other open-cell metallic foams.

  8. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bedford, J.; Ward, J.; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.

    2007-04-15

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe.

  9. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the second performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for

  10. Experiment to Evaluate the Feasibility of Utilizing Skylab-EREP Remote Sensing Data for Tectonic Analysis Through a Study of the Big Horn Mountain Region, Wyoming, South Dakota and Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Caldwell, J.; Lehman, D.; Palmer, S.; Pan, K. L.; Swenson, A.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. S190B imagery was the best single product from which fairly detailed structural and some lithologic mapping could be accomplished in the Big Horn basin, the Owl Creek Mountains, and the northern Big Horn Mountains. The Nye-Bowler lineament could not be extended east of its presently mapped location although a linear (fault or monocline) was noted that may be part of the lineament, but north of postulated extensions. Much more structure was discernible in the Big Horn basin than could be seen on LANDSAT-1 imagery; RB-57 color IR photography, in turn, revealed additional folds and faults. A number of linears, several of which could be identified as faults and one a monocline, cut obliquely the east-west trending Owl Creek uplift. The heavy forest cover of the Black Hills makes direct lithologic delineation impossible. However, drainage and linear overlays revealed differences in pattern between the areas of exposed Precambrian crystalline core and the flanking Paleozoic rocks. S192 data, even precision corrected segments, were not of much use.

  11. Semi-empirical formula for gamma-ray streaming through bend duct with arbitrary flexion angles.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Norihiro; Sasamoto, Nobuo

    2010-08-01

    Semi-empirical formulas for the duct streaming of gamma rays are useful as ever for application to practical shielding designs. Based on the algorithm of the DIN's formula, a new semi-empirical formula has been developed. Major improvements are the re-definition of the duct leg region, introduction of the gamma-ray energy-dependent total dose albedo and formulation for the bend duct with arbitrary flexion angles. Validity of the formula was verified through benchmark analyses of gamma-ray streaming through three-legged duct with rectangular bend and the one with the flexion angle of 137 degrees .

  12. 76 FR 81992 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0..., Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend...

  13. 78 FR 4465 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0... Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant... (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The NRC is...

  14. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement

  15. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Lerose, Damiana; Bochmann, Arne; Christiansen, Silke H; Nietzsche, Sandor; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-05-06

    Ion beams can be used to permanently bend and re-align nanowires after growth. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with energetic ions, achieving bending and alignment in different directions. Not only the bending of single nanowires is studied in detail, but also the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires. Computer simulations reveal how the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Detailed structural characterization identifies dislocations to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent, even surviving annealing procedures.

  16. Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhao-xian; Chen, Ze-guo; Ming, Yang; Wu, Ying; Lu, Yan-qing

    2016-02-01

    We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.

  17. Recent developments in bend-insensitive and ultra-bend-insensitive fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, David; de Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Provost, Lionel; Montaigne, Nelly; Gooijer, Frans; Aldea, Eugen; Jensma, Jaap; Sillard, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Designed to overcome the limitations in case of extreme bending conditions, Bend- and Ultra-Bend-Insensitive Fibers (BIFs and UBIFs) appear as ideal solutions for use in FTTH networks and in components, pigtails or patch-cords for ever demanding applications such as military or sensing. Recently, however, questions have been raised concerning the Multi-Path-Interference (MPI) levels in these fibers. Indeed, they are potentially subject to interferences between the fundamental mode and the higher-order mode that is also bend resistant. This MPI is generated because of discrete discontinuities such as staples, bends and splices/connections that occur on distance scales that become comparable to the laser coherent length. In this paper, we will demonstrate the high MPI tolerance of all-solid single-trench-assisted BIFs and UBIFs. We will present the first comprehensive study combining theoretical and experimental points of view to quantify the impact of fusion splices on coherent MPI. To be complete, results for mechanical splices will also be reported. Finally, we will show how the single-trench- assisted concept combined with the versatile PCVD process allows to tightly control the distributions of fibers characteristics. Such controls are needed to massively produce BIFs and to meet the more stringent specifications of the UBIFs.

  18. Parameters design of the dielectric elastomer spring-roll bending actuator (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinrong; Liu, Liwu; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers are novel soft smart material that could deform sustainably when subjected to external electric field. That makes dielectric elastomers promising materials for actuators. In this paper, a spring-roll actuator that would bend when a high voltage is applied was fabricated based on dielectric elastomer. Using such actuators as active parts, the flexible grippers and inchworm-inspired crawling robots were manufactured, which demonstrated some examples of applications in soft robotics. To guide the parameters design of dielectric elastomer based spring-roll bending actuators, the theoretical model of such actuators was established based on thermodynamic theories. The initial deformation and electrical induced bending angle of actuators were formulated. The failure of actuators was also analyzed considering some typical failure modes like electromechanical instability, electrical breakdown, loss of tension and maximum tolerant stretch. Thus the allowable region of actuators was determined. Then the bending angle-voltage relations and failure voltages of actuators with different parameters, including stretches of the dielectric elastomer film, number of active layers, and dimensions of spring, were investigated. The influences of each parameter on the actuator performances were discussed, providing meaningful guidance to the optical design of the spring-roll bending actuators.

  19. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2005-11-01

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies and assessment frameworks; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. The groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO2 utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other DOE regional partnerships. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but all policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best management practices for soil C in the

  20. Big Bang of Massenergy and Negative Big Bang of Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    There is a balance between Big Bang of Massenergy and Negative Big Bang of Spacetime in the universe. Also some scientists considered there is an anti-Big Bang who could produce the antimatter. And the paper supposes there is a structure balance between Einstein field equation and negative Einstein field equation, a balance between massenergy structure and spacetime structure, a balance between an energy of nucleus of the stellar matter and a dark energy of nucleus of the dark matter-dark energy, and a balance between the particle and the wave-a balance system between massenergy (particle) and spacetime (wave). It should explain of the problems of the Big Bang. http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR16/Session/M13.8

  1. The challenges of big data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  2. Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behavior is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.

  3. Big Data and Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Jane Hyatt; Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Big data is heralded as having the potential to revolutionize health care by making large amounts of data available to support care delivery, population health, and patient engagement. Critics argue that big data's transformative potential is inhibited by privacy requirements that restrict health information exchange. However, there are a variety of permissible activities involving use and disclosure of patient information that support care delivery and management. This article presents an overview of the legal framework governing health information, dispels misconceptions about privacy regulations, and highlights how ambulatory care providers in particular can maximize the utility of big data to improve care. PMID:25401945

  4. Computer simulation of flagellar movement VIII: coordination of dynein by local curvature control can generate helical bending waves.

    PubMed

    Brokaw, Charles J

    2002-10-01

    Computer simulations have been carried out with a model flagellum that can bend in three dimensions. A pattern of dynein activation in which regions of dynein activity propagate along each doublet, with a phase shift of approximately 1/9 wavelength between adjacent doublets, will produce a helical bending wave. This pattern can be termed "doublet metachronism." The simulations show that doublet metachronism can arise spontaneously in a model axoneme in which activation of dyneins is controlled locally by the curvature of each outer doublet microtubule. In this model, dyneins operate both as sensors of curvature and as motors. Doublet metachronism and the chirality of the resulting helical bending pattern are regulated by the angular difference between the direction of the moment and sliding produced by dyneins on a doublet and the direction of the controlling curvature for that doublet. A flagellum that is generating a helical bending wave experiences twisting moments when it moves against external viscous resistance. At high viscosities, helical bending will be significantly modified by twist unless the twist resistance is greater than previously estimated. Spontaneous doublet metachronism must be modified or overridden in order for a flagellum to generate the planar bending waves that are required for efficient propulsion of spermatozoa. Planar bending can be achieved with the three-dimensional flagellar model by appropriate specification of the direction of the controlling curvature for each doublet. However, experimental observations indicate that this "hard-wired" solution is not appropriate for real flagella. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Characterization of bending loss in hollow flexible terahertz waveguides.

    PubMed

    Doradla, Pallavi; Joseph, Cecil S; Kumar, Jayant; Giles, Robert H

    2012-08-13

    Attenuation characteristics of hollow, flexible, metal and metal/dielectric coated polycarbonate waveguides were investigated using an optically pumped far infrared (FIR) laser at 215 µm. The bending loss of silver coated polycarbonate waveguides were measured as a function of various bending angles, bending radii, and bore diameters. Minimal propagation losses of 1.77, 0.96 dB/m were achieved by coupling the lowest loss TE11 mode into the silver or gold coated waveguide, and HE11 mode into the silver/polystyrene coated waveguides respectively. The maximal bending loss was found to be less than 1 dB/m for waveguides of 2 to 4.1 mm bore diameters, with a 6.4 cm bend radius, and up to 150° bending angle. The investigation shows the preservation of single laser mode in smaller bore waveguides even at greater bending angles.

  6. A study on springback of bending linear flow split profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, P.; Taplick, C.; Özel, M.; Groche, P.

    2016-11-01

    The bending of linear flow split profiles made up of high strength materials involves high bending loads leading to high springback and geometrical defects. In addition, the linear flow split profiles are made stronger due to the high plastic deformation applied by the process itself. The bending method proposed in this paper combines the linear flow splitting process with a movable bending tool. The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of superimposed stresses exerted by the linear flow splitting process on bending load and springback of the profile by using a finite element model. The latter was validated by means of experimental results. The results show that the bending loads and the springback were reduced by increasing the superposition of stress applied by the linear flow splitting process. The reduction in the bending loads leads to a reduction in the cross-sectional distortion. Furthermore, the springback was compensated by controlling the amount of superimposed stress.

  7. Vertebral bending mechanics and xenarthrous morphology in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jillian D; Jones, Katrina E; Hautier, Lionel; Loughry, W J; Pierce, Stephanie E

    2016-10-01

    The vertebral column has evolved to accommodate the broad range of locomotor pressures found across vertebrate lineages. Xenarthran (armadillos, sloths and anteaters) vertebral columns are characterized by xenarthrous articulations, novel intervertebral articulations located in the posterior trunk that are hypothesized to stiffen the vertebral column to facilitate digging. To determine the degree to which xenarthrous articulations impact vertebral movement, we passively measured compliance and range of motion during ventroflexion, dorsiflexion and lateral bending across the thoracolumbar region of the nine-banded armadillo, Dasypus novemcinctus Patterns of bending were compared with changes in vertebral morphology along the column to determine which morphological features best predict intervertebral joint mechanics. We found that compliance was lower in post-diaphragmatic, xenarthrous vertebrae relative to pre-xenarthrous vertebrae in both sagittal and lateral planes of bending. However, we also found that range of motion was higher in this region. These changes in mechanics are correlated with the transition from pre-xenarthrous to xenarthrous vertebrae, as well as with the transition from thoracic to lumbar vertebrae. Our results thus substantiate the hypothesis that xenarthrous articulations stiffen the vertebral column. Additionally, our data suggest that xenarthrous articulations, and their associated enlarged metapophyses, also act to increase the range of motion of the post-diaphragmatic region. We propose that xenarthrous articulations perform the dual role of stiffening the vertebral column and increasing mobility, resulting in passively stable vertebrae that are capable of substantial bending under appropriate loads. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.).

    PubMed

    Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W

    2014-01-01

    Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to "unfold" and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head.

  9. Evolving efficiency of restraining bends within wet kaolin analog experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatem, Alexandra E.; Cooke, Michele L.; Madden, Elizabeth H.

    2015-03-01

    Restraining bends along strike-slip fault systems evolve by both propagation of new faults and abandonment of fault segments. Scaled analog modeling using wet kaolin allows for qualitative and quantitative observations of this evolution. To explore how bend geometry affects evolution, we model bends with a variety of initial angles, θ, from θ = 0° for a straight fault to θ = 30°. High-angle restraining bends (θ ≥ 20°) overcome initial inefficiencies by abandoning unfavorably oriented restraining segments and propagating multiple new, inwardly dipping, oblique-slip faults that are well oriented to accommodate convergence within the bend. Restraining bends with 0° < θ ≤ 15° maintain activity along the restraining bend segment and grow a single new oblique slip fault on one side of the bend. In all restraining bends, the first new fault propagates at ~5 mm of accumulated convergence. Particle Image Velocimetry analysis provides a complete velocity field throughout the experiments. From these data, we quantify the strike-slip efficiency of the system as the percentage of applied plate-parallel velocity accommodated as slip in the direction of plate motion along faults within the restraining bend. Bends with small θ initially have higher strike-slip efficiency compared to bends with large θ. Although they have different fault geometries, all systems with a 5 cm bend width reach a steady strike-slip efficiency of 80% after 50 mm of applied plate displacement. These experimental restraining bends resemble crustal faults in their asymmetric fault growth, asymmetric topographic gradient, and strike-slip efficiency.

  10. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W.

    2014-01-01

    Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to “unfold” and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head. PMID:25018734

  11. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of the Effect of Angle of Attack and Flapping-Hinge Offset on Periodic Bending Moments and Flapping of a Small Rotor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, John Locke; Brooks, George W.; Maglieri, Domenic J.

    1959-01-01

    A two-blade rotor having a diameter of 4 feet and a solidity of 0.037 was tested in the Langley 300-MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to obtain information on the effect of certain rotor variables on the blade periodic bending moments and flapping angles during the various stages of transformation between the helicopter and autogiro configuration. Variables studied included collective pitch angle, flapping-hinge offset, rotor angle of attack, and tip-speed ratio. The results show that the blade periodic bending moments generally increase with tip-speed ratio up into the transition region, diminish over a certain range of tip-speed ratio, and increase again at higher tip-speed ratios. Above the transition region, the bending moments increase with collective pitch angle and rotor angle of attack. The absence of a flapping hinge results in a significant amplification of the periodic bending moments, the magnitudes of which increase with tip-speed ratio. When the flapping hinge is used, an increase in flapping-hinge offset results in reduced period bending moments. The aforementioned trends exhibited by the bending moments for changes in the variables are essentially duplicated by the periodic flapping motions. The existence of substantial amounts of blade stall increased both the periodic bending moments and the flapping angles. Harmonic analysis of the bending moments shows significant contributions of the higher harmonics, particularly in the transition region.

  12. The big sur ecoregion sudden oak death adaptive management project: ecological monitoring

    Treesearch

    Allison C. Wickland; Kerri M. Frangioso; David M. Rizzo; Ross K. Meentemeyer

    2008-01-01

    The Big Sur area is one of the most ecologically diverse regions in California. Land preservation efforts are well established in Big Sur, including numerous preserves, state parks and the Los Padres National Forest. However, there are still many conservation threats that cut across these areas including exotic species (plants, animals, and pathogens) and alterations...

  13. The Dependency of Nematic and Twist-bend Mesophase Formation on Bend Angle

    PubMed Central

    Mandle, Richard J.; Archbold, Craig T.; Sarju, Julia P.; Andrews, Jessica L.; Goodby, John W.

    2016-01-01

    We have prepared and studied a family of cyanobiphenyl dimers with varying linking groups with a view to exploring how molecular structure dictates the stability of the nematic and twist-bend nematic mesophases. Using molecular modelling and 1D 1H NOESY NMR spectroscopy, we determine the angle between the two aromatic core units for each dimer and find a strong dependency of the stability of both the nematic and twist-bend mesophases upon this angle, thereby satisfying earlier theoretical models. PMID:27819300

  14. COMPARISON OF DOUBLE BEND AND TRIPLE BEND ACHROMATIC LATTICE STRUCTURES AND NSLS-II.

    SciTech Connect

    KRAMER, S.L.; KRINSKY, S.; BENGTSSON, J.

    2006-06-26

    The Double Bend Achromatic (DBA) and the Triple Bend Achromatic (TBA) lattice have been studied rather extensively for use for the NSLS-II storage ring. The advantage of the TBA compared to the DBA in terms of emittance per period is well known. However, the DBA has the advantage of greater number of ID straight sections for the users and maybe easier to tune the dispersive section for reduced chromatic sextupole strength. We present a comparison of these lattices based on optimization of the non-linear driving terms using high order achromatic cancellation of driving terms of the nonlinear lattice.

  15. The BigBOSS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  16. Big Data and Perioperative Nursing.

    PubMed

    Westra, Bonnie L; Peterson, Jessica J

    2016-10-01

    Big data are large volumes of digital data that can be collected from disparate sources and are challenging to analyze. These data are often described with the five "Vs": volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value. Perioperative nurses contribute to big data through documentation in the electronic health record during routine surgical care, and these data have implications for clinical decision making, administrative decisions, quality improvement, and big data science. This article explores methods to improve the quality of perioperative nursing data and provides examples of how these data can be combined with broader nursing data for quality improvement. We also discuss a national action plan for nursing knowledge and big data science and how perioperative nurses can engage in collaborative actions to transform health care. Standardized perioperative nursing data has the potential to affect care far beyond the original patient. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation of load effect on macro-bend losses for an SMS fiber structure with a small bend radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmah, Fitri; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo; Hatta, Agus Muhamad

    2016-11-01

    Modelling of load effect on macro-bend losses for a singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber structure with small bend radius is presented. Load effect on macro-bend losses for the SMS fiber structure placed between two high-density polyethylene (HDPE) boards are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A model on macro-bend losses for SMS fiber structure is constructed by using the light transmission formula in a straight SMS fiber structure and taking into account the effective number of guided modes due to the macrobending. In the experimental, a mandrel with a diameter of 0.8 mm is used to induce the bend. When the loads are applied on the system, the mandrel will affect the bend losses for the SMS fiber structure. It is shown numerically and experimentally that the bend-loss of SMS fiber structure strongly depends on the applied loads and the multimode fiber (MMF) lengths.

  18. Design of a Variable Thickness Plate to Focus Bending Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schiller, Noah H.; Lin, Sz-Chin Steven; Cabell, Randolph H.; Huang, Tony Jun

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a thin plate whose thickness is tailored in order to focus bending waves to a desired location on the plate. Focusing is achieved by smoothly varying the thickness of the plate to create a type of lens, which focuses structural-borne energy. Damping treatment can then be positioned at the focal point to efficiently dissipate energy with a minimum amount of treatment. Numerical simulations of both bounded and unbounded plates show that the design is effective over a broad frequency range, focusing traveling waves to the same region of the plate regardless of frequency. This paper also quantifies the additional energy dissipated by local damping treatment installed on a variable thickness plate relative to a uniform plate.

  19. The role of big laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, R.-D.

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the role of big laboratories in their function as research infrastructures. Starting from the general definition and features of big laboratories, the paper goes on to present the key ingredients and issues, based on scientific excellence, for the successful realization of large-scale science projects at such facilities. The paper concludes by taking the example of scientific research in the field of particle physics and describing the structures and methods required to be implemented for the way forward.

  20. Big Spherules near 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This frame from the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows spherules up to about 5 millimeters (one-fifth of an inch) in diameter. The camera took this image during the 924th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Aug. 30, 2006), when the rover was about 200 meters (650 feet) north of 'Victoria Crater.'

    Opportunity discovered spherules like these, nicknamed 'blueberries,' at its landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' and investigations determined them to be iron-rich concretions that formed inside deposits soaked with groundwater. However, such concretions were much smaller or absent at the ground surface along much of the rover's trek of more than 5 kilometers (3 miles) southward to Victoria. The big ones showed up again when Opportunity got to the ring, or annulus, of material excavated and thrown outward by the impact that created Victoria Crater. Researchers hypothesize that some layer beneath the surface in Victoria's vicinity was once soaked with water long enough to form the concretions, that the crater-forming impact dispersed some material from that layer, and that Opportunity might encounter that layer in place if the rover drives down into the crater.

  1. Broadband light bending with plasmonic nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xingjie; Emani, Naresh K; Kildishev, Alexander V; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Shalaev, Vladimir M

    2012-01-27

    The precise manipulation of a propagating wave using phase control is a fundamental building block of optical systems. The wavefront of a light beam propagating across an interface can be modified arbitrarily by introducing abrupt phase changes. We experimentally demonstrated unparalleled wavefront control in a broadband optical wavelength range from 1.0 to 1.9 micrometers. This is accomplished by using an extremely thin plasmonic layer (~λ/50) consisting of an optical nanoantenna array that provides subwavelength phase manipulation on light propagating across the interface. Anomalous light-bending phenomena, including negative angles of refraction and reflection, are observed in the operational wavelength range.

  2. Light-bending tests of Lorentz invariance

    SciTech Connect

    Tso, Rhondale; Bailey, Quentin G.

    2011-10-15

    Classical light-bending is investigated for weak gravitational fields in the presence of hypothetical local Lorentz violation. Using an effective field theory framework that describes general deviations from local Lorentz invariance, we derive a modified deflection angle for light passing near a massive body. The results include anisotropic effects not present for spherical sources in General Relativity as well as Weak Equivalence Principle violation. We develop an expression for the relative deflection of two distant stars that can be used to analyze data in past and future solar-system observations. The measurement sensitivities of such tests to coefficients for Lorentz violation are discussed.

  3. Bending of light in quantum gravity.

    PubMed

    Bjerrum-Bohr, N E J; Donoghue, John F; Holstein, Barry R; Planté, Ludovic; Vanhove, Pierre

    2015-02-13

    We consider the scattering of lightlike matter in the presence of a heavy scalar object (such as the Sun or a Schwarzschild black hole). By treating general relativity as an effective field theory we directly compute the nonanalytic components of the one-loop gravitational amplitude for the scattering of massless scalars or photons from an external massive scalar field. These results allow a semiclassical computation of the bending angle for light rays grazing the Sun, including long-range ℏ contributions. We discuss implications of this computation, in particular, the violation of some classical formulations of the equivalence principle.

  4. Mixed-Mode-Bending Delamination Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crews, John H., Jr.; Reeder, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Mixed-mode-bending delamination apparatus generates two types of delamination stress simultaneously in specimen from single externally applied point load. In technique, indivial mode I and mode II contributions to delamination in specimen analyzed by use of simple beam-theory equations, eliminating need for time-consuming, difficult numerical analysis. Allows wider range of mode I/mode II ratios than possible with many other methods. Mixed-mode delamination testing of interest in all fields utilizing composite materials, used mostly in aerospace field, but also used in automobiles, lightweight armored military vehicles, boats, and sporting equipment. Useful in general lumber, plywood, and adhesive industries, as well.

  5. Thermoelastic bending of locally heated orthotropic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Gol'tsev, A. S.

    2007-03-01

    The thermoelastic bending of locally heated orthotropic shells is studied using the classical theory of thermoelasticity of thin shallow orthotropic shells and the method of fundamental solutions. Linear distribution of temperature over thickness and the Newton's law of cooling are assumed. Numerical analysis is carried out for orthotropic shells of arbitrary Gaussian curvature made of a strongly anisotropic material. The behavior of thermal forces and moments near the zone of local heating is studied for two areas of thermal effect: along a coordinate axis and along a circle of unit radius. Generalized conclusions are drawn

  6. MHD bending waves in a current sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musielak, Z. E.; Suess, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    Transverse MHD bending waves are considered in an isothermal and compressible two-dimensional current sheet of finite thickness in which the magnetic field changes direction and strength. The general form of the wave equation is obtained. It is shown that rotation of the magnetic field across the current sheet prevents the existence of singular points so that continuous spectrum solutions and the concomitant wave decay disappear. Instead, normal modes exist and closed integral solution for arbitrary current sheet structure are found. The results are discussed in terms of small-scale waves on the heliospheric current sheet.

  7. Great Bend tornadoes of August 30, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.; Dundas, R.

    1977-01-01

    Photogrammetric analyses of movies and still pictures taken of the Great Bend, Kansas Tornado series have been used to develop design specifications for nuclear power plants and facilities. A maximum tangential velocity of 57 m/sec and a maximum vertical velocity of 27 m/sec are determined for one suction vortex having a translational velocity of 32 m/sec. Three suction vortices with radii in the 20 to 30 m range are noted in the flow field of one tornado; these suction vortices apparently form a local convergence of inflow air inside the outer portion of the tornado core.

  8. Great Bend tornadoes of August 30, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umenhofer, T. A.; Fujita, T. T.; Dundas, R.

    1977-01-01

    Photogrammetric analyses of movies and still pictures taken of the Great Bend, Kansas Tornado series have been used to develop design specifications for nuclear power plants and facilities. A maximum tangential velocity of 57 m/sec and a maximum vertical velocity of 27 m/sec are determined for one suction vortex having a translational velocity of 32 m/sec. Three suction vortices with radii in the 20 to 30 m range are noted in the flow field of one tornado; these suction vortices apparently form a local convergence of inflow air inside the outer portion of the tornado core.

  9. Anomalous bending effect in photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Tu, Haohua; Jiang, Zhi; Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2008-04-14

    An unexpected transmission loss up to 50% occurs to intense femtosecond pulses propagating along an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber over a length of 1 m. A specific leaky-fiber mode gains amplification along the fiber at the expense of the fundamental fiber mode through stimulated four-wave mixing and Raman scattering, leading to this transmission loss. Bending near the fiber entrance dissipates the propagating seed of this leaky mode, preventing the leaky mode amplification and therefore enhancing the transmission of these pulses.

  10. Challenges of Big Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-01-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions. PMID:25419469

  11. Challenges of Big Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-06-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions.

  12. Powering Big Data for Nursing Through Partnership.

    PubMed

    Harper, Ellen M; Parkerson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The Big Data Principles Workgroup (Workgroup) was established with support of the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. Building on the Triple Aim challenge, the Workgroup sought to identify Big Data principles, barriers, and challenges to nurse-sensitive data inclusion into Big Data sets. The product of this pioneering partnership Workgroup was the "Guiding Principles for Big Data in Nursing-Using Big Data to Improve the Quality of Care and Outcomes."

  13. Accessibility of the pre-big-bang models to LIGO

    SciTech Connect

    Mandic, Vuk; Buonanno, Alessandra

    2006-03-15

    The recent search for a stochastic background of gravitational waves with LIGO interferometers has produced a new upper bound on the amplitude of this background in the 100 Hz region. We investigate the implications of the current and future LIGO results on pre-big-bang models of the early Universe, determining the exclusion regions in the parameter space of the minimal pre-big-bang scenario. Although the current LIGO reach is still weaker than the indirect bound from big bang nucleosynthesis, future runs by LIGO, in the coming year, and by Advanced LIGO ({approx}2009) should further constrain the parameter space, and in some parts surpass the Big Bang nucleosynthesis bound. It will be more difficult to constrain the parameter space in nonminimal pre-big bang models, which are characterized by multiple cosmological phases in the yet not well understood stringy phase, and where the higher-order curvature and/or quantum-loop corrections in the string effective action should be included.

  14. Guided Wave Travel Time Tomography for Bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volker, Arno; Bloom, Joost

    2011-06-01

    The concept of predictive maintenance using permanent sensors that monitor the integrity of an installation is an interesting addition to the current method of periodic inspections. Guided wave tomography has been developed to map the wall thickness using the travel times of guided waves. The method has been demonstrated for straight pipes. The extension of this method to bends is not straightforward because natural focusing occurs due to geometrical path differences. This yields a phase jump, which complicates travel time picking. Because ray-tracing is no longer sufficient to predict the travel times a recursive wave field extrapolation has been developed. The method uses a short spatial convolution operator to propagate a wave field through a bend. The method allows to calculate the wave field at the detector ring, including the phase jump as a consequence of the natural focusing. The recursive wave field extrapolation is done in the space-frequency domain. Therefore dispersion effects can be included easily in the forward modeling. Comparison with measurements shows the accuracy of the method.

  15. Laser bending of pre-stressed thin-walled nickel micro-tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Jamil, M. S.; Imam Fauzi, E. R.; Juinn, C. S.; Sheikh, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    Laser forming is an innovative technique of producing bending, spatial forming and alignment of both metallic and non-metallic parts by introducing thermal stresses into a work piece with a laser beam. It involves a complex interaction of process parameters to mechanical and thermal characteristics of materials. This paper presents a comprehensive experimental and numerical study of laser bending process of thin-walled micro-tubes. The effect of input parameters, namely laser power, pulse length and pre-stress constraint, on the process and the final product characteristics are investigated. Results of the analysis show that the bending angle of the tube increases considerably when a constraint is imposed at the tube's free end during the heating period. The introduction of compressive pre-stresses (from mechanical bending) in the irradiated region increases the final deformation which varies almost linearly with the amount of pre-stress. Due to high thermal conductivity and thin-walled structure of the tube, the heat dissipates quickly from the irradiated region to its surrounding material. Therefore, a combination of short pulse duration and high power is preferable to generate a higher thermal gradient and induce plastic strain. Design of experiment and regression analysis are implemented to develop an empirical model based on simulation results. Sensitivity analysis is also performed to determine the influence of independent variables on output response. It is evident that initial displacement and pulse length have a stronger positive effect on the output response as compared to laser power.

  16. Effect of bending stiffness and confinement on a polymer chain under tension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poier, Peter; Likos, Christos N.; Matthews, Richard

    2014-03-01

    Type II topoisomerase are enzymes that (un)knot DNA. There is experimental evidence that a certain type II topoisomerase preferentially cleaves adenine (A) and thymine (T) rich regions of the DNA. It is believed that AT-rich sequences are more flexible than random ones. This raises the question of whether the flexibility of the preferred cleavage sites of topoisomerase II could play an important role in the regulation of knotting. With this motivation we study the effect of the bending stiffness and confinement on the free-energy cost of a knot in a polymer chain under tension. For the polymer chain we use a coarse-grained model. Via thermodynamic-integration we calculate the change of the free-energy cost of a knot due to modifications of the bending stiffness. The free-energy cost exhibits a minimum at a non-zero value for the bending stiffness. Our simulations suggest that this minimum is related to a suppression of the bending at the points where the strands of the polymer cross in the knotted region. We study how the minimum of the free-energy cost is affected by changing the knot type and introducing a two dimensional confinement for the polymer chain. The results of this work might be of importance for the localization of knots in DNA.

  17. Quality of Big Data in health care.

    PubMed

    Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Natarajan, Ramachandran; Ferrell, Regina K

    2015-01-01

    The current trend in Big Data analytics and in particular health information technology is toward building sophisticated models, methods and tools for business, operational and clinical intelligence. However, the critical issue of data quality required for these models is not getting the attention it deserves. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the issues of data quality in the context of Big Data health care analytics. The insights presented in this paper are the results of analytics work that was done in different organizations on a variety of health data sets. The data sets include Medicare and Medicaid claims, provider enrollment data sets from both public and private sources, electronic health records from regional health centers accessed through partnerships with health care claims processing entities under health privacy protected guidelines. Assessment of data quality in health care has to consider: first, the entire lifecycle of health data; second, problems arising from errors and inaccuracies in the data itself; third, the source(s) and the pedigree of the data; and fourth, how the underlying purpose of data collection impact the analytic processing and knowledge expected to be derived. Automation in the form of data handling, storage, entry and processing technologies is to be viewed as a double-edged sword. At one level, automation can be a good solution, while at another level it can create a different set of data quality issues. Implementation of health care analytics with Big Data is enabled by a road map that addresses the organizational and technological aspects of data quality assurance. The value derived from the use of analytics should be the primary determinant of data quality. Based on this premise, health care enterprises embracing Big Data should have a road map for a systematic approach to data quality. Health care data quality problems can be so very specific that organizations might have to build their own custom software or data

  18. Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) communities: Ecology, importance and restoration potential

    Treesearch

    Stephen B. Monsen; Nancy L. Shaw

    2000-01-01

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt.) is the most common and widespread sagebrush species in the Intermountain region. Climatic patterns, elevation gradients, soil characteristics and fire are among the factors regulating the distribution of its three major subspecies. Each of these subspecies is considered a topographic climax dominant....

  19. Characterization of the bending stiffness of large space structure joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey

    1989-01-01

    A technique for estimating the bending stiffness of large space structure joints is developed and demonstrated for an erectable joint concept. Experimental load-deflection data from a three-point bending test was used as input to solve a closed-form expression for the joint bending stiffness which was derived from linear beam theory. Potential error sources in both the experimental and analytical procedures are identified and discussed. The bending stiffness of a mechanically preloaded erectable joint is studied at three applied moments and seven joint orientations. Using this technique, the joint bending stiffness was bounded between 6 and 17 percent of the bending stiffness of the graphite/epoxy strut member.

  20. Investigating Seed Longevity of Big Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wijayratne, Upekala C.; Pyke, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The Intermountain West is dominated by big sagebrush communities (Artemisia tridentata subspecies) that provide habitat and forage for wildlife, prevent erosion, and are economically important to recreation and livestock industries. The two most prominent subspecies of big sagebrush in this region are Wyoming big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. wyomingensis) and mountain big sagebrush (A. t. ssp. vaseyana). Increased understanding of seed bank dynamics will assist with sustainable management and persistence of sagebrush communities. For example, mountain big sagebrush may be subjected to shorter fire return intervals and prescribed fire is a tool used often to rejuvenate stands and reduce tree (Juniperus sp. or Pinus sp.) encroachment into these communities. A persistent seed bank for mountain big sagebrush would be advantageous under these circumstances. Laboratory germination trials indicate that seed dormancy in big sagebrush may be habitat-specific, with collections from colder sites being more dormant. Our objective was to investigate seed longevity of both subspecies by evaluating viability of seeds in the field with a seed retrieval experiment and sampling for seeds in situ. We chose six study sites for each subspecies. These sites were dispersed across eastern Oregon, southern Idaho, northwestern Utah, and eastern Nevada. Ninety-six polyester mesh bags, each containing 100 seeds of a subspecies, were placed at each site during November 2006. Seed bags were placed in three locations: (1) at the soil surface above litter, (2) on the soil surface beneath litter, and (3) 3 cm below the soil surface to determine whether dormancy is affected by continued darkness or environmental conditions. Subsets of seeds were examined in April and November in both 2007 and 2008 to determine seed viability dynamics. Seed bank samples were taken at each site, separated into litter and soil fractions, and assessed for number of germinable seeds in a greenhouse. Community composition data

  1. Bending response of single layer MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Si; Cao, Guoxin

    2016-03-01

    Using molecular mechanics (or dynamics) simulations, three different approaches, including the targeted molecular mechanics, four-point bending and nanotube methods, are employed to investigate the bending response of single layer MoS2 (SLMoS2), among which four-point bending is the most accurate approach to determine the bending stiffness according to the continuum theory. It is found that when the bending curvature radius is large enough (e.g. >4 nm), three approaches will give the same bending stiffness of SLMoS2 and the bending behavior is isotropic for SLMoS2, whereas the nanotube method with small tubes (e.g. <4 nm) cannot give the correct bending stiffness. Compared with the reported result from the MoS2 nanotube calculated by density functional theory, the revised Stillinger-Weber (SW) and reactive empirical bond-order (REBO) potentials can give the reasonable bending stiffness of SLMoS2 (8.7-13.4 eV) as well as the effective deformed conformation. In addition, since the Mo-S bond deformation of SLMoS2 under bending is similar to that under in-plane tension/compression, the continuum bending theory can quite accurately predict the bending stiffness of SLMoS2 if a reasonable thickness of SLMoS2 is given. For SLMoS2, the reasonable thickness should be larger than the distance between its two S atomic planes and lower than the distance between two Mo atomic planes of bulk MoS2 crystal, e.g. 0.375-0.445 nm.

  2. Transient Pinning and Pulling: A Mechanism for Bending Microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Kent, Ian A.; Rane, Parag S.; Dickinson, Richard B.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.; Lele, Tanmay P.

    2016-01-01

    Microtubules have a persistence length of the order of millimeters in vitro, but inside cells they bend over length scales of microns. It has been proposed that polymerization forces bend microtubules in the vicinity of the cell boundary or other obstacles, yet bends develop even when microtubules are polymerizing freely, unaffected by obstacles and cell boundaries. How these bends are formed remains unclear. By tracking the motions of microtubules marked by photobleaching, we found that in LLC-PK1 epithelial cells local bends develop primarily by plus-end directed transport of portions of the microtubule contour towards stationary locations (termed pinning points) along the length of the microtubule. The pinning points were transient in nature, and their eventual release allowed the bends to relax. The directionality of the transport as well as the overall incidence of local bends decreased when dynein was inhibited, while myosin inhibition had no observable effect. This suggests that dynein generates a tangential force that bends microtubules against stationary pinning points. Simulations of microtubule motion and polymerization accounting for filament mechanics and dynein forces predict the development of bends of size and shape similar to those observed in cells. Furthermore, simulations show that dynein-generated bends at a pinning point near the plus end can cause a persistent rotation of the tip consistent with the observation that bend formation near the tip can change the direction of microtubule growth. Collectively, these results suggest a simple physical mechanism for the bending of growing microtubules by dynein forces accumulating at pinning points. PMID:26974838

  3. The mechanics of gravitropic bending in leafy dicot stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Mueller, W. J.; Blotter, P. T.; Harris, C. S.; White, R. G.; Gillespie, L. S.; Sliwinski, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of the gravitropic bending in stems of the cocklebur and castor bean are investigated. The results of these experiments demonstrate the quick stopping of growth and the increased tensions on the upper layer of a horizontal stem. It is suggested that bending apparently occurs as the resistance of the upper surface layers is extended to the inner cells below. A model of stem bending is developed which can explain the asymmetry of the stem-cell response.

  4. Compliance measurements of chevron notched four point bend specimen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calomino, Anthony; Bubsey, Raymond; Ghosn, Louis J.

    1994-01-01

    The experimental stress intensity factors for various chevron notched four point bend specimens are presented. The experimental compliance is verified using the analytical solution for a straight through crack four point bend specimen and the boundary integral equation method for one chevron geometry. Excellent agreement is obtained between the experimental and analytical results. In this report, stress intensity factors, loading displacements and crack mouth opening displacements are reported for different crack lengths and different chevron geometries, under four point bend loading condition.

  5. The mechanics of gravitropic bending in leafy dicot stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Mueller, W. J.; Blotter, P. T.; Harris, C. S.; White, R. G.; Gillespie, L. S.; Sliwinski, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of the gravitropic bending in stems of the cocklebur and castor bean are investigated. The results of these experiments demonstrate the quick stopping of growth and the increased tensions on the upper layer of a horizontal stem. It is suggested that bending apparently occurs as the resistance of the upper surface layers is extended to the inner cells below. A model of stem bending is developed which can explain the asymmetry of the stem-cell response.

  6. BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization.

  7. BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization. PMID:26507581

  8. Multiple-cladding fibers with reduced bend loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana; Bulla, Douglas A. P.; Ankiewicz, Adrian; Love, John D.; Bailey, Ron

    2007-04-01

    We demonstrate that a highly bend-resistant fiber can be realized. It is shown theoretically that, by introducing both depressed and elevated rings into the cladding, bending loss can be reduced significantly. A fiber based on this design has been fabricated and characterized as a first step toward achieving this goal. The results show that a multiple-cladding fiber is highly bend resistant when compared with the standard telecom single-mode fiber.

  9. Bending response of single layer MoS2.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Si; Cao, Guoxin

    2016-03-11

    Using molecular mechanics (or dynamics) simulations, three different approaches, including the targeted molecular mechanics, four-point bending and nanotube methods, are employed to investigate the bending response of single layer MoS2 (SLMoS2), among which four-point bending is the most accurate approach to determine the bending stiffness according to the continuum theory. It is found that when the bending curvature radius is large enough (e.g. >4 nm), three approaches will give the same bending stiffness of SLMoS2 and the bending behavior is isotropic for SLMoS2, whereas the nanotube method with small tubes (e.g. <4 nm) cannot give the correct bending stiffness. Compared with the reported result from the MoS2 nanotube calculated by density functional theory, the revised Stillinger-Weber (SW) and reactive empirical bond-order (REBO) potentials can give the reasonable bending stiffness of SLMoS2 (8.7-13.4 eV) as well as the effective deformed conformation. In addition, since the Mo-S bond deformation of SLMoS2 under bending is similar to that under in-plane tension/compression, the continuum bending theory can quite accurately predict the bending stiffness of SLMoS2 if a reasonable thickness of SLMoS2 is given. For SLMoS2, the reasonable thickness should be larger than the distance between its two S atomic planes and lower than the distance between two Mo atomic planes of bulk MoS2 crystal, e.g. 0.375-0.445 nm.

  10. High-efficiency beam bending using graded photonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Oner, B B; Turduev, M; Kurt, H

    2013-05-15

    We explore beam-bending properties of graded index (GRIN) waveguide with hyperbolic secant profile. The transmission efficiency and bandwidth features are extracted for GRIN photonic crystal (PC) media composed of dielectric rods. Light guiding performance of the GRIN PC medium is analyzed for 90° and 180° waveguide bends. The finite-difference time-domain method is deployed to investigate the performance of the designed GRIN waveguides. By the help of proposed photonic configuration, bending of light is achieved with a high efficiency within a broad bandwidth, which promotes the use of GRIN PC structures for efficient light-bending purposes.

  11. Electrostatic effects in DNA bending by GCN4 mutants.

    PubMed

    Strauss-Soukup, J K; Maher, L J

    1998-01-27

    DNA architecture has been shown to be important for cellular processes such as activation of transcription, recombination, and replication. Many proteins reconfigure the shape of duplex DNA upon binding. Previous experiments have shown that some members of the eukaryotic bZIP family of DNA binding proteins appear to bend DNA, while others do not. We are exploring the role of electrostatic effects in DNA bending by bZIP proteins. The yeast bZIP transcription factor GCN4 does not induce DNA bending in vitro. Previously we substituted basic residues for three neutral amino acids in GCN4 to produce a GCN4 derivative that bends DNA by approximately 15 degrees. This result is consistent with a model of induced DNA bending wherein excess positive charge in proximity to one face of the double helix neutralizes local phosphate diester anions resulting in a laterally-asymmetric charge distribution along the DNA. Such an unbalanced charge distribution can result in collapse of the DNA toward the neutralized surface. We now present a more comprehensive analysis of electrostatic effects in DNA bending by GCN4 derivatives. It is shown that the direction and extent of DNA bending by these derivatives are a linear function of the charges of the amino acids adjacent to the basic domain of the protein. This relation holds over the charge range +6 (16 degrees bend toward the minor groove) to -6 (25 degrees bend toward the major groove).

  12. Bending-induced extension in two-dimensional crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Douxing; Li, Yao; Wang, Tzu-Chiang; Guo, Wanlin

    2017-02-01

    We find by ab initio simulations that significant overall tensile strain can be induced by pure bending in a wide range of two-dimensional crystals perpendicular to the bending moment, just like an accordion being bent to open. This bending-induced tensile strain increases in a power law with bent curvature and can be over 20% in monolayered black phosphorus and transition metal dichalcogenides at a moderate curvature of 2 nm^{-1} but more than an order weaker in graphene and hexagon boron nitride. This accordion effect is found to be a quantum mechanical effect raised by the asymmetric response of chemical bonds and electron density to the bending curvature.

  13. Bending Behavior of Porous Sintered Stainless Steel Fiber Honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shuiping; Wan, Zhenping; Lu, Longsheng; Tang, Yong

    2017-02-01

    A novel porous honeycomb-type substrate has been developed using solid-state sintering stainless steel fibers. The porous sintered stainless steel fiber honeycombs (PSSSFH) are composed of a skeleton of sintered stainless steel fibers, three-dimensionally interconnected porous structures and multiple parallel microchannels. The bending behavior of the PSSSFH is investigated using three-point bending tests. Four stages, including an elastic stage, a yielding stage with a plateau, a hardening stage and a failure stage, are observed during the bending process of the PSSSFH. In the initial yielding stage, the bending forces increase slowly with displacement increasing, and then a yielding plateau follows, which is unique compared with other porous materials. Moreover, the structure parameters of the PSSSFH are varied to investigate the influence on the bending strength. It is determined that the multiple parallel microchannels can enhance the bending strength of porous stainless steel fiber sintered substrates (PSSFSS) and do not influence the variation trend of bending strength of PSSFSS with porosity increasing. The open ratio is conducive to increasing the bending strength, and the microchannel diameters ranging from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm have little influence on the bending strength. In addition, both the increasing of sintering temperature and sintering time can strengthen the PSSSFH.

  14. Bending Behavior of Porous Sintered Stainless Steel Fiber Honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Shuiping; Wan, Zhenping; Lu, Longsheng; Tang, Yong

    2016-12-01

    A novel porous honeycomb-type substrate has been developed using solid-state sintering stainless steel fibers. The porous sintered stainless steel fiber honeycombs (PSSSFH) are composed of a skeleton of sintered stainless steel fibers, three-dimensionally interconnected porous structures and multiple parallel microchannels. The bending behavior of the PSSSFH is investigated using three-point bending tests. Four stages, including an elastic stage, a yielding stage with a plateau, a hardening stage and a failure stage, are observed during the bending process of the PSSSFH. In the initial yielding stage, the bending forces increase slowly with displacement increasing, and then a yielding plateau follows, which is unique compared with other porous materials. Moreover, the structure parameters of the PSSSFH are varied to investigate the influence on the bending strength. It is determined that the multiple parallel microchannels can enhance the bending strength of porous stainless steel fiber sintered substrates (PSSFSS) and do not influence the variation trend of bending strength of PSSFSS with porosity increasing. The open ratio is conducive to increasing the bending strength, and the microchannel diameters ranging from 0.5 mm to 1.5 mm have little influence on the bending strength. In addition, both the increasing of sintering temperature and sintering time can strengthen the PSSSFH.

  15. Modified Numerical Simulation Model of Blood Flow in Bend

    PubMed Central

    Liu, X; Zhou, X; Hao, X; Sang, X

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The numerical simulation model of blood flow in bend is studied in this paper. The curvature modification is conducted for the blood flow model in bend to obtain the modified blood flow model in bend. The modified model is verified by U tube. By comparing the simulation results with the experimental results obtained by measuring the flow data in U tube, it was found that the modified blood flow model in bend can effectively improve the prediction accuracy of blood flow data affected by the curvature effect. PMID:27398727

  16. Hot bending with a fiber coupled solid state laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bammer, F.; Schumi, T.; Schuöcker, D.

    2010-09-01

    For bending of brittle materials it is necessary to heat up the forming zone. This can be done with a fiber coupled solid state laser, whose beam is evenly distributed on the bending line with a beam splitter installed in the lower tool (die) of a bending press. With polarization optics the laser beam is divided there into partial beams that are evenly distributed on the bending line with lenses and prisms. A setup for a bending length of 200mm heated by a fiber-coupled 3kW Nd:YAG-laser shows the feasibility of the concept. Successful operation was shown for the Mg-alloy AZ31, which breaks during forming at room temperature, but can be well formed at temperatures in the range of 200-300°C. Other materials benefiting from this method are Ti-alloys, high-strength-Al-alloys, and high-strength-steels. Typical heating times are in the range of up to 5s and much of the heat input is generated during the bending operation where the laser continues to work. Laser Assisted Bending with a fiber coupled solid state laser is a straightforward way to perform the bending of brittle materials in a process as simple as cold bending.

  17. Sorting of bed load sediment by flow in meander bends.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parker, G.; Andrews, E.D.

    1985-01-01

    Equilibrium sorting of coarse mobile bed load sediment in meander bends is considered. A theory of two-dimensional bed load transport of graded material, including the effects of gravity on lateral slopes and secondary currents, is developed. This theory is coupled with a simple tratement of flow in bends, an analytically determined bend shape, and the condition of continuity of each grain size range in transport to describe sorting. The theory indicates that the locus of coarse sediment shifts from the inside bank to the outside bank near the bend apex, as is observed.-Authors

  18. Complex optimization for big computational and experimental neutron datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Feng; Archibald, Richard; Niedziela, Jennifer; Bansal, Dipanshu; Delaire, Olivier

    2016-12-01

    We present a framework to use high performance computing to determine accurate solutions to the inverse optimization problem of big experimental data against computational models. We demonstrate how image processing, mathematical regularization, and hierarchical modeling can be used to solve complex optimization problems on big data. We also demonstrate how both model and data information can be used to further increase solution accuracy of optimization by providing confidence regions for the processing and regularization algorithms. We use the framework in conjunction with the software package SIMPHONIES to analyze results from neutron scattering experiments on silicon single crystals, and refine first principles calculations to better describe the experimental data.

  19. Complex optimization for big computational and experimental neutron datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Feng; Archibald, Richard; Niedziela, Jennifer; Bansal, Dipanshu; Delaire, Olivier

    2016-11-07

    Here, we present a framework to use high performance computing to determine accurate solutions to the inverse optimization problem of big experimental data against computational models. We demonstrate how image processing, mathematical regularization, and hierarchical modeling can be used to solve complex optimization problems on big data. We also demonstrate how both model and data information can be used to further increase solution accuracy of optimization by providing confidence regions for the processing and regularization algorithms. Finally, we use the framework in conjunction with the software package SIMPHONIES to analyze results from neutron scattering experiments on silicon single crystals, and refine first principles calculations to better describe the experimental data.

  20. PERMEABILITY OF SALTSTONE MEASUREMENT BY BEAM BENDING

    SciTech Connect

    Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-01-30

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and, quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. A performance property for Saltstone mixes that is important but not routinely measured is the liquid permeability or saturated hydraulic conductivity of the cured Saltstone mix. The value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity is an input into the Performance Assessment for the SRS Z-Area vaults. Therefore, it is important to have a method available that allows for an accurate and reproducible measurement of permeability quickly and inexpensively. One such method that could potentially meet these requirements for the measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity is the technique of beam bending, developed by Professor George Scherer at Princeton University. In order to determine the feasibility of this technique for Saltstone mixes, a summer student, David Feliciano, was hired to work at Princeton under the direction of George Scherer. This report details the results of this study which demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the beam bending method to measurement of permeability of Saltstone samples. This research effort used samples made at Princeton from a Modular Caustic side solvent extraction Unit based simulant (MCU) and premix at a water to premix ratio of 0.60. The saturated hydraulic conductivities for these mixes were measured by the beam bending technique and the values determined were of the order of 1.4 to 3.4 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. These values of hydraulic conductivity are consistent with independently measured values of this property on similar MCU based mixes by Dixon and Phifer. These values are also consistent with the hydraulic conductivity of a generic Saltstone mix measured by Langton in 1985. The high water to premix ratio used for Saltstone along with the relatively low degree of hydration for

  1. Priming the Pump for Big Data at Sentara Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Kern, Howard P; Reagin, Michael J; Reese, Bertram S

    2016-01-01

    Today's healthcare organizations are facing significant demands with respect to managing population health, demonstrating value, and accepting risk for clinical outcomes across the continuum of care. The patient's environment outside the walls of the hospital and physician's office-and outside the electronic health record (EHR)-has a substantial impact on clinical care outcomes. The use of big data is key to understanding factors that affect the patient's health status and enhancing clinicians' ability to anticipate how the patient will respond to various therapies. Big data is essential to delivering sustainable, highquality, value-based healthcare, as well as to the success of new models of care such as clinically integrated networks (CINs) and accountable care organizations.Sentara Healthcare, based in Norfolk, Virginia, has been an early adopter of the technologies that have readied us for our big data journey: EHRs, telehealth-supported electronic intensive care units, and telehealth primary care support through MDLIVE. Although we would not say Sentara is at the cutting edge of the big data trend, it certainly is among the fast followers. Use of big data in healthcare is still at an early stage compared with other industries. Tools for data analytics are maturing, but traditional challenges such as heightened data security and limited human resources remain the primary focus for regional health systems to improve care and reduce costs. Sentara primarily makes actionable use of big data in our CIN, Sentara Quality Care Network, and at our health plan, Optima Health. Big data projects can be expensive, and justifying the expense organizationally has often been easier in times of crisis. We have developed an analytics strategic plan separate from but aligned with corporate system goals to ensure optimal investment and management of this essential asset.

  2. [Big data in official statistics].

    PubMed

    Zwick, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany.

  3. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  4. Considerations on Geospatial Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, Zhen; GUO, Huadong; WANG, Changlin

    2016-11-01

    Geospatial data, as a significant portion of big data, has recently gained the full attention of researchers. However, few researchers focus on the evolution of geospatial data and its scientific research methodologies. When entering into the big data era, fully understanding the changing research paradigm associated with geospatial data will definitely benefit future research on big data. In this paper, we look deep into these issues by examining the components and features of geospatial big data, reviewing relevant scientific research methodologies, and examining the evolving pattern of geospatial data in the scope of the four ‘science paradigms’. This paper proposes that geospatial big data has significantly shifted the scientific research methodology from ‘hypothesis to data’ to ‘data to questions’ and it is important to explore the generality of growing geospatial data ‘from bottom to top’. Particularly, four research areas that mostly reflect data-driven geospatial research are proposed: spatial correlation, spatial analytics, spatial visualization, and scientific knowledge discovery. It is also pointed out that privacy and quality issues of geospatial data may require more attention in the future. Also, some challenges and thoughts are raised for future discussion.

  5. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  6. Geodynamics of oroclinal bending: Insights from the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2014-12-01

    The Alpine Orogen in the Mediterranean region exhibits a series of orogenic curvatures (oroclines). The evolution of these oroclines is relatively well constrained by a plethora of geophysical and geological data, and therefore, their origin can inform us on the fundamental processes controlling oroclinal bending. Here, a synthesis of the geometry of Mediterranean oroclines, followed by a discussion on their geodynamic origin is presented. The geometrical synthesis is based on a new classification of Mediterranean oroclines, which defines a first-order orocline (Adriatic Orocline) by the general northward-convex shape of the Alpine Orogen from Cyprus to Gibraltar. Superimposed on the limbs of this orocline, are second-, third- and fourth-order oroclines. The major process that led to the formation of the Adriatic Orocline is the indentation of Adria into Europe, whereas second- and third-order oroclines (e.g., Western Mediterranean and Gibraltar oroclines, respectively) were primarily controlled by a combination of trench retreat and slab tearing. It appears, therefore, that the geodynamics of Mediterranean oroclines has been entirely dependent on plate boundary migration and segmentation, as expressed in the interlinked processes of indentation, trench retreat and slab tearing. The relative contribution of specific geodynamic processes, and their maturity, could be inferred from geometrical characteristics, such as the amplitude-to-width ratio, the orientation of the curvature (convex or concave) relative to the convergence vector, and their geometrical relationship with backarc extensional basins (e.g., in the concave side of the orocline). Based on the information from the Mediterranean oroclines, it is concluded that oroclinal bending commonly involves lithospheric-scale processes, and is not restricted to thin-skinned deformation. However, contrary to previous suggestions that assume that the whole lithosphere can buckle, there is no clear evidence that such

  7. Bend-insensitive fiber based vibration sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanping; Lu, Ping; Baset, Farhana; Bhardwaj, Vedula Ravi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2014-05-01

    We report two novel fiber-optic vibration sensors based on standard telecom bend-insensitive fiber (BIF). A tapered BIF forming a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer could measure continuous and damped vibration from 1 Hz up to 500 kHz. An enclosed microcantilever is fabricated inside the BIF by chemical etching and fusion spliced with a readout singlemode fiber that exhibits a frequency range from 5 Hz to 10 kHz with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) up to 68 dB. The unique double cladding structure of the BIF ensures both sensors with advantages of compactness, high resistance to the external disturbance and stronger mechanical strength.

  8. Bending equation for a quasianisotropic plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shachnev, V. A.

    2010-10-01

    In the framework of the linear theory of elasticity, an exact bending equation is obtained for the median plane of a plate whose material is a monoclinic system with the axis of symmetry perpendicular to the plate plane. As an example, the equation of the median plane of an isotropic plate is considered; the operator of this equation coincides with the operator of Sophie Germain's approximate equation. As the plate thickness tends to zero, the right-hand side of the equation is asymptotically equivalent to the right-hand side of the approximate equation. In addition, equations relating the median plane transverse stresses and the total stresses in the plate boundary planes to the median plane deflexions are obtained.

  9. Separation of blood in microchannel bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattert, Christoph; Jurischka, Reinhold; Schoth, Andreas; Kerth, Paul; Menz, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Biological applications of micro assay devices require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. This is achieved by a new blood separation technique based on a microchannel bend structure developed within the collaborative Micro-Tele-BioChip (μTBC) project co-funded by the German Ministry For Education and Research (BMBF). Different prototype polymer chips have been manufactured with an UV-LIGA process and hot embossing technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been determined by experimental measurements using human whole blood. Results show different separation efficiencies for cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry and blood sample characteristics and suggest an alternative blood separation method as compared to existing micro separation technologies.

  10. Separation of blood in microchannel bends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blattert, Christoph; Jurischka, Reinhold; Schoth, Andreas; Kerth, Paul; Menz, Wolfgang

    2003-12-01

    Biological applications of micro assay devices require integrated on-chip microfluidics for separation of plasma or serum from blood. This is achieved by a new blood separation technique based on a microchannel bend structure developed within the collaborative Micro-Tele-BioChip (μTBC) project co-funded by the German Ministry For Education and Research (BMBF). Different prototype polymer chips have been manufactured with an UV-LIGA process and hot embossing technology. The separation efficiency of these chips has been determined by experimental measurements using human whole blood. Results show different separation efficiencies for cells and plasma depending on microchannel geometry and blood sample characteristics and suggest an alternative blood separation method as compared to existing micro separation technologies.

  11. Floating objects with finite resistance to bending.

    PubMed

    Vella, Dominic

    2008-08-19

    We consider the equilibrium flotation of a thin, flexible cylinder at the interface between a liquid and a gas. In particular, we determine the maximum load that such a cylinder can support without sinking. We find that as the length of such a cylinder increases the maximum load at first increases. However, the maximum load reaches a plateau when the length of the cylinder is comparable to the elastocapillary length, which is determined by a balance between the bending of the cylinder and surface tension. We then consider the implications of our analysis for the walking on water of both arthropods and man-made robots. In particular, we show that the legs of water striders are typically slightly shorter than this 'optimal' length, suggesting that elastocapillary effects may act as a selection pressure.

  12. Bending of Light in Ellis Wormhole Geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Amrita; Potapov, Alexander A.

    A recent work by Dey and Sen derived the approximate light deflection angle α by an Ellis wormhole in terms of proper radial distance ℓ that covers the entire spacetime. On the other hand, Bodenner and Will calculated the expressions for light bending in Schwarzschild geometry using various coordinates and showed that they all reduce to a single formula when re-expressed in the coordinate independent language of "circumferential radius" rC identified with the standard radial coordinate rS. We shall argue that the coordinate invariant language for two-way wormholes should be ℓ rather than rS. Hence here we find the exact deflection α in Ellis wormhole geometry first in terms of ℓ and then in terms of rS. We confirm the latter expression using three different methods. We argue that the practical measurement scheme does not necessarily single out either ℓ or rS. Some errors in the literature are corrected.

  13. Light bending in f(T) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2016-05-01

    In the framework of f(T) gravity, we focus on a weak-field and spherically symmetric solution for the Lagrangian f(T) = T + αT2, where α is a small constant which parametrizes the departure from general relativity (GR). In particular, we study the propagation of light and obtain the correction to the general relativistic bending angle. Moreover, we discuss the impact of this correction on some gravitational lensing observables, and evaluate the possibility of constraining the theory parameter α by means of observations. In particular, on taking into account the astrometric accuracy in the Solar System, we obtain that |α|≤ 1.85 × 105m2; this bound is looser than those deriving from the analysis of Solar System dynamics, e.g. |α|≤ 5 × 10-1m2 [L. Iorio, N. Radicella and M. L. Ruggiero, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 1508 (2015) 021, arXiv:1505.06996 [gr-qc].], |α|≤ 1.8 × 104m2 [L. Iorio and E. N. Saridakis, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 427 (2012) 1555, arXiv:1203.5781 [gr-qc].] or |α|≤ 1.2 × 102m2 [Y. Xie and X. M. Deng, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 433 (2013) 3584, arXiv:1312.4103 [gr-qc].]. However, we suggest that, since the effect only depends on the impact parameter, better constraints could be obtained by studying light bending from planetary objects.

  14. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S. M. Reza; Beard, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined. PMID:26229957

  15. Multiwavelength astronomy and big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Two major characteristics of modern astronomy are multiwavelength (MW) studies (fromγ-ray to radio) and big data (data acquisition, storage and analysis). Present astronomical databases and archives contain billions of objects observed at various wavelengths, both galactic and extragalactic, and the vast amount of data on them allows new studies and discoveries. Astronomers deal with big numbers. Surveys are the main source for discovery of astronomical objects and accumulation of observational data for further analysis, interpretation, and achieving scientific results. We review the main characteristics of astronomical surveys, compare photographic and digital eras of astronomical studies (including the development of wide-field observations), describe the present state of MW surveys, and discuss the Big Data in astronomy and related topics of Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics. The review includes many numbers and data that can be compared to have a possibly overall understanding on the Universe, cosmic numbers and their relationship to modern computational facilities.

  16. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Zachary D; Lee, Skylar Y; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-07-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a "four-headed beast"--it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the "genomical" challenges of the next decade.

  17. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  18. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Zachary D.; Lee, Skylar Y.; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H.; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J.; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C.; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a “four-headed beast”—it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the “genomical” challenges of the next decade. PMID:26151137

  19. Statistical mechanics of bend flexoelectricity and the twist-bend phase in bent-core liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Shamid, Shaikh M; Dhakal, Subas; Selinger, Jonathan V

    2013-05-01

    We develop a Landau theory for bend flexoelectricity in liquid crystals of bent-core molecules. In the nematic phase of the model, the bend flexoelectric coefficient increases as we reduce the temperature toward the nematic to polar phase transition. At this critical point, there is a second-order transition from high-temperature uniform nematic phase to low-temperature nonuniform polar phase composed of twist-bend or splay-bend deformations. To test the predictions of Landau theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to find the director and polarization configurations as functions of temperature, applied electric field, and interaction parameters.

  20. Exascale computing and big data

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Daniel A.; Dongarra, Jack

    2015-06-25

    Scientific discovery and engineering innovation requires unifying traditionally separated high-performance computing and big data analytics. The tools and cultures of high-performance computing and big data analytics have diverged, to the detriment of both; unification is essential to address a spectrum of major research domains. The challenges of scale tax our ability to transmit data, compute complicated functions on that data, or store a substantial part of it; new approaches are required to meet these challenges. Finally, the international nature of science demands further development of advanced computer architectures and global standards for processing data, even as international competition complicates the openness of the scientific process.

  1. [Big Data- challenges and risks].

    PubMed

    Krauß, Manuela; Tóth, Tamás; Hanika, Heinrich; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Dinya, Elek

    2015-12-06

    The term "Big Data" is commonly used to describe the growing mass of information being created recently. New conclusions can be drawn and new services can be developed by the connection, processing and analysis of these information. This affects all aspects of life, including health and medicine. The authors review the application areas of Big Data, and present examples from health and other areas. However, there are several preconditions of the effective use of the opportunities: proper infrastructure, well defined regulatory environment with particular emphasis on data protection and privacy. These issues and the current actions for solution are also presented.

  2. Coupled-Mode Flutter of Bending-Bending Type in Highly-Flexible Uniform Airfoils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourazarm, Pariya; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2016-11-01

    We study the behavior of a highly flexible uniform airfoil placed in wind both numerically and experimentally. It is shown that for a non-rotating highly-flexible cantilevered airfoil, placed at very small angles of attack (less than 1 degree), the airfoil loses its stability by buckling. For slightly higher angles of attack (more than 1 degree) a coupled-mode flutter in which the first and the second flapwise modes coalesce toward a flutter mode is observed, and thus the observed flutter has a bending-bending nature. The flutter onset and frequency found experimentally matched the numerical predictions. If the same airfoil is forced to rotate about its fixed end, the static deflection decreases and the observed couple-mode flutter becomes of flapwise-torsional type, same as what has already been observed for flutter of rotating wind turbine blades. The support provided by the National Science Foundation, CBET-1437988, is greatly acknowledged.

  3. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  4. How the bending kinematics of swimming lampreys build negative pressure fields for suction thrust.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, Brad J; Fogerson, Stephanie M; Costello, John H; Morgan, Jennifer R; Dabiri, John O; Colin, Sean P

    2016-12-15

    Swimming animals commonly bend their bodies to generate thrust. For undulating animals such as eels and lampreys, their bodies bend in the form of waves that travel from head to tail. These kinematics accelerate the flow of adjacent fluids, which alters the pressure field in a manner that generates thrust. We used a comparative approach to evaluate the cause-and-effect relationships in this process by quantifying the hydrodynamic effects of body kinematics at the body-fluid interface of the lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, during steady-state swimming. We compared the kinematics and hydrodynamics of healthy control lampreys to lampreys whose spinal cord had been transected mid-body, resulting in passive kinematics along the posterior half of their body. Using high-speed particle image velocimetry (PIV) and a method for quantifying pressure fields, we detail how the active bending kinematics of the control lampreys were crucial for setting up strong negative pressure fields (relative to ambient fields) that generated high-thrust regions at the bends as they traveled all along the body. The passive kinematics of the transected lamprey were only able to generate significant thrust at the tail, relying on positive pressure fields. These different pressure and thrust scenarios are due to differences in how active versus passive body waves generated and controlled vorticity. This demonstrates why it is more effective for undulating lampreys to pull, rather than push, themselves through the fluid.

  5. Effect of bending on the dynamics and wrinkle formation for a capsule in shear flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsac, Anne-Virginie; Dupont, Claire; Barthes-Biesel, Dominique; Vidrascu, Marina; Le Tallec, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    When microcapsules are subjected to an external flow, the droplets enclosed within a thin hyperelastic wall undergo large deformations, which often lead to buckling of the thin capsule wall. The objective is to study numerically an initially spherical capsule in shear flow and analyze the influence of the membrane bending rigidity on the capsule dynamics and wrinkle formation. The 3D fluid-structure interactions are modeled coupling a boundary integral method to solve for the internal and external Stokes flows with a thin shell finite element method to solve for the wall deformation. Hyperelastic constitutive laws are implemented to model the deformation of the capsule mid-surface and the generalized Hooke's law for the bending effects. We show that the capsule global motion and deformation are mainly governed by in-plane membrane tensions and are marginally influenced by the bending stiffness Ks. The bending stiffness, however, plays a role locally in regions of compressive tensions. The wrinkle wavelength depends on Ks following a power law, which provides an experimental technique to determine the value of Ks through inverse analysis.

  6. Using Timelapse LiDAR to Quantify River Bend Change on the Coastal Trinity River, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, J.; Mohrig, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    Timelapse airborne lidar collected over 4 years on the coastal Trinity River in east Texas, USA, shows profound spatial variability in point bar shape and growth as well as cut bank erosion in channel bends. The difference map covers 88 river kilometers with 54 bends included in the study. The transition from quasi-uniform flow into backwater affected flow occurs about halfway through the survey, and is accompanied by distinct changes in point bar growth and cut bank erosion. Within a single bend, the extent and amount of point bar deposition and outer-bank erosion are typically well-correlated, implying that bank pull and bar push are intimately linked. Point bar depositional area decreases from an average of about 72,000 square meters in the region of quasi uniform flow down to less than 20,000 square meters before the bars become completely subaqueous in the backwater zone. The volume of sediment deposited on the sub-aerial bars drops by about 64% throughout the survey reach. The volume of sediment eroded from cutbanks behaves similarly. These trends nicely coincide with results from Smith 2012 that show a sharp decrease in the lateral migration rate of the channel in the backwater zone of the Trinity River. Results from this study help to deepen the understanding of the system's morphodynamics by connecting changes in the geomorphology with river bend kinematics, hydraulics and sediment transport.

  7. Bending the Curve: Sensitivity to Bending of Curved Paths and Application in Room-Scale VR.

    PubMed

    Langbehn, Eike; Lubos, Paul; Bruder, Gerd; Steinicke, Frank

    2017-04-01

    Redirected walking (RDW) promises to allow near-natural walking in an infinitely large virtual environment (VE) by subtle manipulations of the virtual camera. Previous experiments analyzed the human sensitivity to RDW manipulations by focusing on the worst-case scenario, in which users walk perfectly straight ahead in the VE, whereas they are redirected on a circular path in the real world. The results showed that a physical radius of at least 22 meters is required for undetectable RDW. However, users do not always walk exactly straight in a VE. So far, it has not been investigated how much a physical path can be bent in situations in which users walk a virtual curved path instead of a straight one. Such curved walking paths can be often observed, for example, when users walk on virtual trails, through bent corridors, or when circling around obstacles. In such situations the question is not, whether or not the physical path can be bent, but how much the bending of the physical path may vary from the bending of the virtual path. In this article, we analyze this question and present redirection by means of bending gains that describe the discrepancy between the bending of curved paths in the real and virtual environment. Furthermore, we report the psychophysical experiments in which we analyzed the human sensitivity to these gains. The results reveal encouragingly wider detection thresholds than for straightforward walking. Based on our findings, we discuss the potential of curved walking and present a first approach to leverage bent paths in a way that can provide undetectable RDW manipulations even in room-scale VR.

  8. Atomic mechanisms governing the elastic limit and the incipient plasticity of bending Si nanowires.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kun; Han, Xiaodong; Wang, Lihua; Zhang, Yuefei; Yue, Yonghai; Qin, Yan; Zhang, Xiaona; Zhang, Ze

    2009-06-01

    Individual single-crystalline Si nanowires (NWs) were bent by forming loops or arcs with different radius. Positional-resolved atomic level strain distribution (PRALSD) along both of the radial and axial directions were calculated and mapped directly from the atomic-resolution strained high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images of the bent Si NWs. For the first time, the neutral-strain axis shifted from the compressive zone to the tensile region was directly demonstrated from the PRALSD along the radial direction. Bending-induced ripple-buckling of the bent Si NW was observed and a significant strain variation along the bending axial direction in the compressive region was revealed. The tensile surface atomic steps and the compressive buckling are the physical origin of the asymmetric tensile-compressive properties of postelastic instabilities and the incipient plasticity. Both of the tensile surface atomic-steps and the compressive buckling initiated versatile ductile plastic dislocation events.

  9. Relating tensile, bending, and shear test data of asphalt binders to pavement performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.S.; Tsai, C.J.

    1998-12-01

    Eight different asphalt binders representing a wide range of applications for pavement construction were tested in uniaxial tension, bending, and shear stresses. Theoretical analyses were performed in this study to covert the data from the three engineering tests to stiffness moduli for predicting pavement performance. At low temperatures, high asphalt stiffness may induce pavement thermal cracking; thus, the allowable maximum stiffness was set at 1,000 MPa. At high temperatures, low asphalt stiffness may lead to pavement rutting (ruts in the road); master curves were constructed to rank the potential for rutting in the asphalts. All three viscoelastic functions were shown to be interchangeable within the linear viscoelastic region. When subjected to large deformation in the direct tension test, asphalt binders behaved nonlinear viscoelastic in which the data under bending, shear and tension modes were not comparable. The asphalts were, however, found toe exhibit linear viscoelasticity up to the failure point in the steady-state strain region.

  10. On stress concentration in the bending of sandwich beams with transversely flexible core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frostig, Y.

    Stress concentrations in sandwich beams with compressible cores, subjected to bending loading are investigated, and the level of stress concentrations under ordinary bending loads in various regions of the structure, and under some common-practice conditions, is analytically determined. The cases investigated include stress concentration effects for the following conditions: (1) in the vicinity of concentrated loads and supporting zones, (2) at the edges of debonding regions-edge core and in the vicinity of vertical cut-off connections, and (3) at the location of diaphragms which are bonded and unbonded in the adjacent core and embedded in it. The results are determined with the aid of a variational rigorous analytical systematic elastic high-order theory which uses closed-form solutions.

  11. A new hydrocarbon empirical potential in angle bending calculation for the molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ping, Tan Ai; Hoe, Yeak Su

    2014-07-10

    Typically, short range potential only depends on neighbouring atoms and its parameters function can be categorized into bond stretching, angle bending and bond rotation potential. In this paper, we present our work called Angle Bending (AB) potential, whereas AB potential is the extension of our previous work namely Bond Stretching (BS) potential. Basically, potential will tend to zero after truncated region, potential in specific region can be represented by different piecewise polynomial. We proposed the AB piecewise potential which is possible to solve a system involving three atoms. AB potential able to handle the potential of covalent bonds for three atoms as well as two atoms cases due to its degeneracy properties. Continuity for the piecewise polynomial has been enforced by coupling with penalty methods. There are still plenty of improvement spaces for this AB potential. The improvement for three atoms AB potential will be studied and further modified into torsional potential which are the ongoing current research.

  12. Reconnaissance Observations of Newly Identified Active Faults and Their Relationship to Evolution of the Mount McKinley Restraining Bend, Denali National Park, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, S. P.; Benowitz, J.

    2012-12-01

    The processes of restraining bend formation and evolution along strike-slip faults remain poorly understood. Although connections between exhumation, fault displacement, and structural geometry are difficult to establish, long-lived active faults contribute to rock uplift, partition strain, and provide insight into the crustal stresses that result from the complex geometry of a restraining bend. The highest topography in North America, Mount McKinley (also known as Denali), is closely associated with an ~17 degree bend in the Denali fault and the region exhibits structural, geomorphic, and thermochronologic constraints on the late Cenozoic evolution of the Mount McKinley restraining bend. As a component of our investigation into the initiation and growth of this restraining bend, we are mapping the bedrock and surficial geology along the north side of the restraining bend to document evidence for Quaternary-active faults. Previous workers only document one active fault, the East Fork fault, north of the Denali fault. The lack of active faults is surprising due to the high rate of regional seismicity. Our initial studies recognize several previously undocumented faults that offset late Pleistocene glacial moraines and fluvial/alluvial surfaces, indicating active deformation is more widely spread than previously recognized and illustrating distinct patterns of strain accommodation. The East Fork fault and nearby structures occur east of the apex of the restraining bend and are sub-vertical with characteristically south-side-down displacements. Faults occurring adjacent to, and west of, the restraining bend apex are all south-side-up thrust faults and appear to have accommodated a significant component of the modern topographic development on the north side of the Denali fault. Future work will target the structural geometry and slip rates of these faults in order to determine how this restraining bend has evolved to the present configuration, and these results will

  13. Modelling, inference and big data in biophysics.

    PubMed

    Ho, Joshua W K; Grant, Guy H

    2017-07-30

    In recognition of the increasing importance of big data in biophysics, a new session called 'Modelling, inference, big data' is incorporated into the IUPAB/EBSA Congress on 18 July 2017 at Edinburgh, UK.

  14. Torsion and bending of prismatic rods of hollow rectangular section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramyan, B L

    1951-01-01

    The torsion and bending of hollow rectangular beams was investigated without the requirement that wall thickness be small compared with the transverse dimensions. The limits of applicability of the usual Bredt formula are indicated for the case of a square hollow tube in torsion. Formulas are given for bending stresses at different parts of the cross section of a hollow rectangular beam.

  15. Observation and Modeling of Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Bend Junctions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Jie; Anantram, M. P.; Jaffe, R. L.; Kong, J.; Dai, H.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) bends, with diameters from approx. 1.0 to 2.5 nm and bend angles from 18 deg. to 34 deg., are observed in catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbons at 600 - 1200 C. An algorithm using molecular dynamics simulation (MD) techniques is developed to model these structures that are considered to be SWNT junctions formed by topological defects (i.e. pentagon-heptagon pairs). The algorithm is used to predict the tube helicities and defect configurations for bend junctions using the observed tube diameters and bend angles. The number and arrangement of the defects at the junction interfaces are found to depend on the tube helicities and bend angle. The structural and energetic calculations using the Brenner potential show a number of stable junction configurations for each bend angle with the 34 deg. bends being more stable than the others. Tight binding calculations for local density of state (LDOS) and transmission coefficients are carried out to investigate electrical properties of the bend junctions.

  16. View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of tube bending shop in boilermakers department located in southeast corner of the structural shop building (building 57). The computer controlled tube bender can be programmed to bend boiler tubing to nearly any required configuration - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Flexible DNA bending in HU-DNA cocrystal structures.

    PubMed

    Swinger, Kerren K; Lemberg, Kathryn M; Zhang, Ying; Rice, Phoebe A

    2003-07-15

    HU and IHF are members of a family of prokaryotic proteins that interact with the DNA minor groove in a sequence-specific (IHF) or non-specific (HU) manner to induce and/or stabilize DNA bending. HU plays architectural roles in replication initiation, transcription regulation and site-specific recombination, and is associated with bacterial nucleoids. Cocrystal structures of Anabaena HU bound to DNA (1P71, 1P78, 1P51) reveal that while underlying proline intercalation and asymmetric charge neutralization mechanisms of DNA bending are similar for IHF and HU, HU stabilizes different DNA bend angles ( approximately 105-140 degrees ). The two bend angles within a single HU complex are not coplanar, and the resulting dihedral angle is consistent with negative supercoiling. Comparison of HU-DNA and IHF-DNA structures suggests that sharper bending is correlated with longer DNA binding sites and smaller dihedral angles. An HU-induced bend may be better modeled as a hinge, not a rigid bend. The ability to induce or stabilize varying bend angles is consistent with HU's role as an architectural cofactor in many different systems that may require differing geometries.

  18. BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    BENDING SHOP & OVEN. United Engineering Co., Alameda, California. Plan, two elevations, sections, and details. Alben Froberg, Architect, Oakland, California. Sheet no. 1 of 1. Various scales. December 15, 1941. pencil on tracing paper - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Bending Shop & Oven, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  19. Studies reveal effects of pipe bends on fluid flow cavitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stonemetz, R. E.

    1966-01-01

    Incipient cavitation in liquids flowing in pipes curved in one plane are affected by the pipe bend radii and pipe diameters, but little by pipe bend angles ranging from 60 to 120 degrees. Critical cavitation indices decrease with higher Reynolds number and pressure ratio. Bulk liquid temperature increase lowers the mean critical velocity at which cavitation occurs.

  20. Actuators Help Correct For Gravitational Bending Of Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Roy; Strain, Douglas M.

    1996-01-01

    Force-actuator scheme devised to help correct for decrease, caused by gravitational bending, in gain of 34-m-diameter paraboloidal microwave antenna reflector used for tracking distant spacecraft and observing celestial radio sources. Also applicable to other antennas bending significantly under own weight, with consequent degradation of performance.

  1. In vivo measurement of bending stiffness in fracture healing

    PubMed Central

    Hente, Reiner; Cordey, Jacques; Perren, Stephan M

    2003-01-01

    Background Measurement of the bending stiffness a healing fracture represents a valid variable in the assessment of fracture healing. However, currently available methods typically have high measurement errors, even for mild pin loosening. Furthermore, these methods cannot provide actual values of bending stiffness, which precludes comparisons among individual fractures. Thus, even today, little information is available with regards to the fracture healing pattern with respect to actual values of bending stiffness. Our goals were, therefore: to develop a measurement device that would allow accurate and sensitive measurement of bending stiffness, even in the presence of mild pin loosening; to describe the course of healing in individual fractures; and help to evaluate whether the individual pattern of bending stiffness can be predicted at an early stage of healing. Methods A new measurement device has been developed to precisely measure the bending stiffness of the healing fracture by simulating four-point-bending. The system was calibrated on aluminum models and intact tibiae. The influence of pin loosening on measurement error was evaluated. The system was tested at weekly intervals in an animal experiment to determine the actual bending stiffness of the fracture. Transverse fractures were created in the right tibia of twelve sheep, and then stabilized with an external fixator. At ten weeks, bending stiffness of the tibiae were determined in a four-point-bending test device to validate the in-vivo-measurement data. Results In-vivo bending stiffness can be measured accurately and sensitive, even in the early phase of callus healing. Up to a bending stiffness of 10 Nm/degree, measurement error was below 3.4% for one pin loose, and below 29.3% for four pins loose, respectively. Measurement of stiffness data over time revealed a significant logarithmic increase between the third and seventh weeks, whereby the logarithmic rate of change among sheep was similar, but

  2. Lithospheric bending at subduction zones based on depth soundings and satellite gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, Daniel A.; Sandwell, David T.

    1995-01-01

    A global study of trench flexure was performed by simultaneously modeling 117 bathymetric profiles (original depth soundings) and satellite-derived gravity profiles. A thin, elastic plate flexure model was fit to each bathymetry/gravity profile by minimization of the L(sub 1) norm. The six model parameters were regional depth, regional gravity, trench axis location, flexural wavelength, flexural amplitude, and lithospheric density. A regional tilt parameter was not required after correcting for age-related trend using a new high-resolution age map. Estimates of the density parameter confirm that most outer rises are uncompensated. We find that flexural wavelength is not an accurate estimate of plate thickness because of the high curvatures observed at a majority of trenches. As in previous studies, we find that the gravity data favor a longer-wavelength flexure than the bathymetry data. A joint topography-gravity modeling scheme and fit criteria are used to limit acceptable parameter values to models for which topography and gravity yield consistent results. Even after the elastic thicknesses are converted to mechanical thicknesses using the yield strength envelope model, residual scatter obscures the systematic increase of mechanical thickness with age; perhaps this reflects the combination of uncertainties inherent in estimating flexural wavelength, such as extreme inelastic bending and accumulated thermoelastic stress. The bending moment needed to support the trench and outer rise topography increases by a factor of 10 as lithospheric age increases from 20 to 150 Ma; this reflects the increase in saturation bending moment that the lithosphere can maintain. Using a stiff, dry-olivine rheology, we find that the lithosphere of the GDH1 thermal model (Stein and Stein, 1992) is too hot and thin to maintain the observed bending moments. Moreover, the regional depth seaward of the oldest trenches (approximately 150 Ma) exceeds the GDH1 model depths by about 400 m.

  3. Lithospheric bending at subduction zones based on depth soundings and satellite gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levitt, Daniel A.; Sandwell, David T.

    1995-01-01

    A global study of trench flexure was performed by simultaneously modeling 117 bathymetric profiles (original depth soundings) and satellite-derived gravity profiles. A thin, elastic plate flexure model was fit to each bathymetry/gravity profile by minimization of the L(sub 1) norm. The six model parameters were regional depth, regional gravity, trench axis location, flexural wavelength, flexural amplitude, and lithospheric density. A regional tilt parameter was not required after correcting for age-related trend using a new high-resolution age map. Estimates of the density parameter confirm that most outer rises are uncompensated. We find that flexural wavelength is not an accurate estimate of plate thickness because of the high curvatures observed at a majority of trenches. As in previous studies, we find that the gravity data favor a longer-wavelength flexure than the bathymetry data. A joint topography-gravity modeling scheme and fit criteria are used to limit acceptable parameter values to models for which topography and gravity yield consistent results. Even after the elastic thicknesses are converted to mechanical thicknesses using the yield strength envelope model, residual scatter obscures the systematic increase of mechanical thickness with age; perhaps this reflects the combination of uncertainties inherent in estimating flexural wavelength, such as extreme inelastic bending and accumulated thermoelastic stress. The bending moment needed to support the trench and outer rise topography increases by a factor of 10 as lithospheric age increases from 20 to 150 Ma; this reflects the increase in saturation bending moment that the lithosphere can maintain. Using a stiff, dry-olivine rheology, we find that the lithosphere of the GDH1 thermal model (Stein and Stein, 1992) is too hot and thin to maintain the observed bending moments. Moreover, the regional depth seaward of the oldest trenches (approximately 150 Ma) exceeds the GDH1 model depths by about 400 m.

  4. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  5. Ultimate bending capacity of strain hardening steel pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yan-fei; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Hong; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jing; Cao, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Based on Hencky's total strain theory of plasticity, ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes can be determined analytically assuming an elastic-linear strain hardening material, the simplified analytical solution is proposed as well. Good agreement is observed when ultimate bending capacities obtained from analytical solutions are compared with experimental results from full-size tests of steel pipes. Parametric study conducted as part of this paper indicates that the strain hardening effect has significant influence on the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. It is shown that pipe considering strain hardening yields higher bending capacity than that of pipe assumed as elastic-perfectly plastic material. Thus, the ignorance of strain hardening effect, as commonly assumed in current codes, may underestimate the ultimate bending capacity of steel pipes. The solutions proposed in this paper are applicable in the design of offshore/onshore steel pipes, supports of offshore platforms and other tubular structural steel members.

  6. Bending properties of nickel electrodes for nickel-hydrogen batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Bradley

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries which fail prematurely by electrical shorting. This is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. This study investigates the bending properties of nickel electrodes in an attempt to correlate the bending properties with the propensity of the electrode to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. Effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variation were addressed. Two color imaging techniques were employed which allowed differentiation of phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hydroxide surface loading on each electrode, relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  7. Bending Properties of Nickel Electrodes for Nickel-Hydrogen Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lerch, Brad A.; Wilson, Richard M.; Keller, Dennis; Corner, Ralph

    1995-01-01

    Recent changes in manufacturing have resulted in nickel-hydrogen batteries that fail prematurely by electrical shorting, This failure is believed to be a result of a blistering problem in the nickel electrodes. In this study the bending properties of nickel electrodes are investigated in an attempt to correlate the bending properties of the electrode with its propensity to blister. Nickel electrodes from three different batches of material were tested in both the as-received and impregnated forms. The effects of specimen curvature and position within the electrode on the bending strength were studied, and within-electrode and batch-to-batch variations were addressed. Two color-imaging techniques were employed to differentiate between the phases within the electrodes. These techniques aided in distinguishing the relative amounts of nickel hyroxide surface loading on each electrode, thereby relating surface loading to bend strength. Bend strength was found to increase with the amount of surface loading.

  8. Big Sunspot Group

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-08-26

    A large group of sunspots that rotated across the Sun over six days (Aug. 21-26, 2015) started out as a single cluster, but gradually separated into distinct groups. This region produced several M-class (medium-sized) flares. These were the only significant spots on the Sun during this period. The still image shows the separated group as it appeared on Aug. 26., 2015. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19876

  9. Big Opportunities in Small Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, T. Gregory

    2007-01-01

    A transformation is occurring that will have a major impact on how academic science is done and how scientists are trained. That transformation--driven by declining federal funds, as well as by the rising cost of technology and the need for costly, labor-intensive interdisciplinary approaches--is from small science to big science. It is…

  10. Big6 Turbotools and Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    The different tools that are helpful during the Synthesis stage, their role in boosting students abilities in Synthesis and the way in which it can be customized to meet the needs of each group of students are discussed. Big6 TurboTools offers several tools to help complete the task. In Synthesis stage, these same tools along with Turbo Report and…

  11. The Case for "Big History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  12. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  13. True Randomness from Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests.

  14. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  15. Too Big for the Sieve

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-11

    In this image, the scoop on NASA Curiosity rover shows the larger soil particles that were too big to filter through a sample-processing sieve that is porous only to particles less than 0.006 inches 150 microns across.

  16. Banking Wyoming big sagebrush seeds

    Treesearch

    Robert P. Karrfalt; Nancy Shaw

    2013-01-01

    Five commercially produced seed lots of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. var. wyomingensis (Beetle & Young) S.L. Welsh [Asteraceae]) were stored under various conditions for 5 y. Purity, moisture content as measured by equilibrium relative humidity, and storage temperature were all important factors to successful seed storage. Our results indicate...

  17. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  18. True Randomness from Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests. PMID:27666514

  19. 1976 Big Thompson flood, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R. D.; Vandas, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the early evening of July 31, 1976, a large stationary thunderstorm released as much as 7.5 inches of rainfall in about an hour (about 12 inches in a few hours) in the upper reaches of the Big Thompson River drainage. This large amount of rainfall in such a short period of time produced a flash flood that caught residents and tourists by surprise. The immense volume of water that churned down the narrow Big Thompson Canyon scoured the river channel and destroyed everything in its path, including 418 homes, 52 businesses, numerous bridges, paved and unpaved roads, power and telephone lines, and many other structures. The tragedy claimed the lives of 144 people. Scores of other people narrowly escaped with their lives. The Big Thompson flood ranks among the deadliest of Colorado's recorded floods. It is one of several destructive floods in the United States that has shown the necessity of conducting research to determine the causes and effects of floods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research and operates a Nationwide streamgage network to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson Flood. Such research and streamgage information are part of an ongoing USGS effort to reduce flood hazards and to increase public awareness.

  20. True Randomness from Big Data.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A; Woodruff, David P; Yang, Guang

    2016-09-26

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests.