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Sample records for big heads small

  1. Small queens and big-headed workers in a monomorphic ponerine ant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tomonori; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Junichi; Nakajima, Yumiko; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2008-10-01

    Evolution of caste is a central issue in the biology of social insects. Comparative studies on their morphology so far suggest the following three patterns: (1) a positive correlation between queen worker size dimorphism and the divergence in reproductive ability between castes, (2) a negative correlation among workers between morphological diversity and reproductive ability, and (3) a positive correlation between queen worker body shape difference and the diversity in worker morphology. We conducted morphological comparisons between castes in Pachycondyla luteipes, workers of which are monomorphic and lack their reproductive ability. Although the size distribution broadly overlapped, mean head width, head length, and scape length were significantly different between queens and workers. Conversely, in eye length, petiole width, and Weber’s length, the size differences were reversed. The allometries (head length/head width, scape length/head width, and Weber’s length/head width) were also significantly different between queens and workers. Morphological examinations showed that the body shape was different between queens and workers, and the head part of workers was disproportionately larger than that of queens. This pattern of queen worker dimorphism is novel in ants with monomorphic workers and a clear exception to the last pattern. This study suggests that it is possible that the loss of individual-level selection, the lack of reproductive ability, influences morphological modification in ants.

  2. Small Libraries, Big Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts,Gary

    2005-01-01

    Small libraries don't have the resources to adopt every new technology. It is important that small libraries operate strategically, adopting only those technologies that are the most beneficial to their patrons.

  3. Small Schools, Big Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsey, R. John

    2011-01-01

    Historically, small schools have played a very important role in the provision of schooling in Australia. Numerically, using an enrollment of 200 or less, small schools represent approximately 45% of the schools in Australia. Population growth and the consequences of this, in particular for food production, water and energy, mean that the…

  4. Big Project, Small Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schon, Jennifer A.; Eitel, Karla B.; Bingaman, Deirdre; Miller, Brant G.; Rittenburg, Rebecca A.

    2014-01-01

    Donnelly, Idaho, is a small town surrounded by private ranches and Forest Service property. Through the center of Donnelly runs Boulder Creek, a small tributary feeding into Cascade Lake Reservoir. Boulder Creek originates from a mountain lake north of Donnelly. Since 1994 it has been listed as "impaired" by the Environmental Protection…

  5. Big Opportunities in Small Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewey, T. Gregory

    2007-01-01

    A transformation is occurring that will have a major impact on how academic science is done and how scientists are trained. That transformation--driven by declining federal funds, as well as by the rising cost of technology and the need for costly, labor-intensive interdisciplinary approaches--is from small science to big science. It is…

  6. Small Molecules-Big Data.

    PubMed

    Császár, Attila G; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Árendás, Péter

    2016-11-17

    Quantum mechanics builds large-scale graphs (networks): the vertices are the discrete energy levels the quantum system possesses, and the edges are the (quantum-mechanically allowed) transitions. Parts of the complete quantum mechanical networks can be probed experimentally via high-resolution, energy-resolved spectroscopic techniques. The complete rovibronic line list information for a given molecule can only be obtained through sophisticated quantum-chemical computations. Experiments as well as computations yield what we call spectroscopic networks (SN). First-principles SNs of even small, three to five atomic molecules can be huge, qualifying for the big data description. Besides helping to interpret high-resolution spectra, the network-theoretical view offers several ideas for improving the accuracy and robustness of the increasingly important information systems containing line-by-line spectroscopic data. For example, the smallest number of measurements necessary to perform to obtain the complete list of energy levels is given by the minimum-weight spanning tree of the SN and network clustering studies may call attention to "weakest links" of a spectroscopic database. A present-day application of spectroscopic networks is within the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) approach, whereby the transitions information on a measured SN is turned into experimental energy levels via a weighted linear least-squares refinement. MARVEL has been used successfully for 15 molecules and allowed to validate most of the transitions measured and come up with energy levels with well-defined and realistic uncertainties. Accurate knowledge of the energy levels with computed transition intensities allows the realistic prediction of spectra under many different circumstances, e.g., for widely different temperatures. Detailed knowledge of the energy level structure of a molecule coming from a MARVEL analysis is important for a considerable number of modeling

  7. Big Ideas and Small Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Small solutions solve discrete, well-bounded problems and can be pieces of larger solutions. They can move things forward by mixing and matching available components in new and previously unimagined ways. A number of innovations, which at first glance are completely unrelated, can come together and create important synergics. This article…

  8. Funding big research with small money.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Joanne V; Koithan, Mary; Unruh, Lynn; Lundmark, Vicki

    2014-06-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that maybe successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives.With the goal of presenting practical approaches helpful to nurse leaders advancing organizational change, content includes evidence-based projects, tools,and resources that mobilize and sustain organizational change initiatives.In this article, the guest authors introduce crowd sourcing asa strategy for funding big research with small money.

  9. Big Heads, Small Details and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah; O'Reilly, Helen; Frith, Uta

    2009-01-01

    Autism is thought to be associated with a bias towards detail-focussed processing. While the cognitive basis remains controversial, one strong hypothesis is that there are high processing costs associated with changing from local into global processing. A possible neural mechanism underlying this processing style is abnormal neural connectivity;…

  10. ATLAS: Big Data in a Small Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, Larry; Tonry, John

    2015-08-01

    For even small telescope projects, the petabyte scale is now upon us. The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (ATLAS; Tonry 2011) will robotically survey the entire visible sky from Hawaii multiple times per night to search for near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) on impact trajectories. While the ATLAS optical system is modest by modern astronomical standards -- two 0.5 m F/2.0 telescopes -- each year the ATLAS system will obtain ~103 measurements of 109 astronomical sources to a photometric accuracy of <5%. This ever-growing dataset must be searched in real-time for moving objects then archived for further analysis, and alerts for newly discovered near-Earth NEAs disseminated within tens of minutes from detection. ATLAS's all-sky coverage ensures it will discover many ``rifle shot'' near-misses moving rapidly on the sky as they shoot past the Earth, so the system will need software to automatically detect highly-trailed sources and discriminate them from the thousands of satellites and pieces of space junk that ATLAS will see each night. Additional interrogation will identify interesting phenomena from beyond the solar system occurring over millions of transient sources per night. The data processing and storage requirements for ATLAS demand a ``big data'' approach typical of commercial Internet enterprises. We describe our approach to deploying a nimble, scalable and reliable data processing infrastructure, and promote ATLAS as steppingstone to eventual processing scales in the era of LSST.

  11. ATLAS: Big Data in a Small Package?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denneau, Larry

    2016-01-01

    For even small astronomy projects, the petabyte scale is now upon us. The Asteroid Terrestrial-impact Last Alert System (Tonry 2011) will survey the entire visible sky from Hawaii multiple times per night to search for near-Earth asteroids on impact trajectories. While the ATLAS optical system is modest by modern astronomical standards - two 0.5 m F/2.0 telescopes - each night the ATLAS system will measure nearly 109 astronomical sources to a photometric accuracy of <5%, totaling 1012 individual observations over its initial 3-year mission. This ever-growing dataset must be searched in real-time for moving objects and transients then archived for further analysis, and alerts for newly discovered near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) disseminated within tens of minutes from detection. ATLAS's all-sky coverage ensures it will discover many `rifle shot' near-misses moving rapidly on the sky as they shoot past the Earth, so the system will need software to automatically detect highly-trailed sources and discriminate them from the thousands of low-Earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous orbit (GEO) satellites ATLAS will see each night. Additional interrogation will identify interesting phenomena from millions of transient sources per night beyond the solar system. The data processing and storage requirements for ATLAS demand a `big data' approach typical of commercial internet enterprises. We describe our experience in deploying a nimble, scalable and reliable data processing infrastructure, and suggest ATLAS as steppingstone to data processing capability needed as we enter the era of LSST.

  12. Diet of the endangered big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum

    PubMed Central

    Hau, Billy C.H.; Karraker, Nancy E.

    2016-01-01

    Populations of the big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum are declining at unprecedented rates across most of its distribution in Southeast Asia owing to unsustainable harvest for pet, food, and Chinese medicine markets. Research on Asian freshwater turtles becomes more challenging as populations decline and basic ecological information is needed to inform conservation efforts. We examined fecal samples collected from P. megacephalum in five streams in Hong Kong to quantify the diet, and we compared the germination success of ingested and uningested seeds. Fruits, primarily of Machilus spp., were most frequently consumed, followed by insects, plant matter, crabs and mollusks. The niche breadth of adults was wider than that of juveniles. Diet composition differed between sites, which may be attributable to the history of illegal trapping at some sites, which reduced the proportion of larger and older individuals. Digestion of Machilus spp. fruits by P. megacephalum enhanced germination success of seeds by about 30%. However, most digested seeds are likely defecated in water in this highly aquatic species, which limits the potential benefit to dispersal. The results of our study can be used by conservation-related captive breeding programs to ensure a more optimal diet is provided to captive P. megacephalum. PMID:27994979

  13. Diet of the endangered big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yik-Hei; Hau, Billy C H; Karraker, Nancy E

    2016-01-01

    Populations of the big-headed turtle Platysternon megacephalum are declining at unprecedented rates across most of its distribution in Southeast Asia owing to unsustainable harvest for pet, food, and Chinese medicine markets. Research on Asian freshwater turtles becomes more challenging as populations decline and basic ecological information is needed to inform conservation efforts. We examined fecal samples collected from P. megacephalum in five streams in Hong Kong to quantify the diet, and we compared the germination success of ingested and uningested seeds. Fruits, primarily of Machilus spp., were most frequently consumed, followed by insects, plant matter, crabs and mollusks. The niche breadth of adults was wider than that of juveniles. Diet composition differed between sites, which may be attributable to the history of illegal trapping at some sites, which reduced the proportion of larger and older individuals. Digestion of Machilus spp. fruits by P. megacephalum enhanced germination success of seeds by about 30%. However, most digested seeds are likely defecated in water in this highly aquatic species, which limits the potential benefit to dispersal. The results of our study can be used by conservation-related captive breeding programs to ensure a more optimal diet is provided to captive P. megacephalum.

  14. Small Public Libraries Can Serve Big. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Norm

    Small public libraries can deliver service like big libraries, without sacrificing hometown warmth and charm. By borrowing strategies used by successful small businesses in the private sector, defining goals and exploiting low cost technologies, small public libraries can serve customer wants as well as much larger institutions. Responding to just…

  15. Partnership between small biotech and big pharma.

    PubMed

    Wiederrecht, Gregory J; Hill, Raymond G; Beer, Margaret S

    2006-08-01

    The process involved in the identification and development of novel breakthrough medicines at big pharma has recently undergone significant changes, in part because of the extraordinary complexity that is associated with tackling diseases of high unmet need, and also because of the increasingly demanding requirements that have been placed on the pharmaceutical industry by investors and regulatory authorities. In addition, big pharma no longer have a monopoly on the tools and enabling technologies that are required to identify and discover new drugs, as many biotech companies now also have these capabilities. As a result, researchers at biotech companies are able to identify credible drug leads, as well as compounds that have the potential to become marketed medicinal products. This diversification of companies that are involved in drug discovery and development has in turn led to increased partnering interactions between the biotech sector and big pharma. This article examines how Merck and Co Inc, which has historically relied on a combination of internal scientific research and licensed products, has poised itself to become further engaged in partnering with biotech companies, as well as academic institutions, to increase the probability of success associated with identifying novel medicines to treat unmet medical needs--particularly in areas such as central nervous system disorders, obesity/metabolic diseases, atheroma and cancer, and also to cultivate its cardiovascular, respiratory, arthritis, bone, ophthalmology and infectious disease franchises.

  16. Small Buildings = Big Opportunity for Energy Savings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-12-01

    Small buildings have a big impact on energy use. In the United States, 44.6 million small buildings consume 44% of the overall energy used in buildings, presenting an enormous opportunity to cut costs, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Big Questions and Little Children: Science and Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Louise

    This resource pamphlet is intended to acquaint the Head Start teacher with the possibilities of teaching science in a preschool program for disadvantaged children. Introductory sections stress the importance of including science in a Head Start program, briefly indicate how to use the pamphlet, and suggest some things to seek and avoid. A section…

  18. [Vascular dementia: big effects of small lesions].

    PubMed

    Gold, G; Kövari, E

    2011-11-09

    Vascular dementia due to multiple large strokes (multi-infarct dementia) is a well known entity. However, new clinicopathologic and neuroimaging data have highlighted the common occurrence of small vessel and microscopic vascular pathology in aging brains and recognized that vascular dementia due to small lesions is probably the most common form. In such cases, cortical microinfarcts are the strongest correlate of global cognitive function followed by basal ganglia and thalamic lacunes. Demyelination is only weekly associated with cognition and this relation is no longer significant after adjustement for the presence of lacunes. Awareness of the importance of small vascular lesions in brain aging, can improve diagnostic accuracy and help identify new targets, that could lead to novel therapeutic approaches in old age dementia.

  19. Big Challenges for a Small City School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2007

    2007-01-01

    So well-chronicled are the challenges faced by schools in large urban and metropolitan areas that a lay person may perceive the nation's rural and small-city schools as bucolic settings where educators do not have a care in the world other than keeping the occasional cow from wandering onto the playground during recess. The reality, of course, is…

  20. Small Art Images--Big Art Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Pam

    2005-01-01

    When small art images are incorporated into the curriculum, students are afforded opportunities to slow down, observe minute details, and communicate ideas about art and artists. This sort of purposeful art contemplation takes students beyond the day-to-day educational practice. It is through these sorts of art activities that students develop…

  1. Starting Small for Big School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scharff, Helen A.; DeAngelis, Deirdre A.; Talbert, Joan E.

    2010-01-01

    In the Scaffolded Apprenticeship Model (SAM), a school improvement strategy in place in New York City; Boston, Massachusetts; and Oakland, California, teacher teams improve their schools by studying and closing high-leverage learning gaps for small groups of struggling students as a strategy for systemic change. SAM's goal is for each school to…

  2. A Big Year for Small Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, Louis; Erickson, K.

    2013-10-01

    2013 is a watershed year for celestial events involving the solar system’s unsung heroes, small bodies. The Cosmic Valentine of Asteroid 2012 DA14 which passed within ~ 3.5 Earth radii of the Earth's surface (February 15, 2013), Comet C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS and the Thanksgiving 2013 pass of Comet ISON, which will pass less than 0.012 AU (1.8 million km) from the solar surface and could be visible during the day. All this in addition to Comet Lemmon and a host of meteor showers makes 2013 a landmark year to deliver the excitement of planetary science to the audiences worldwide. To deliver the excitement and wonder of our solar system’s small bodies to worldwide audiences, NASA’s JPL and GSFC education teams in partnership with NASA EDGE will reach out to the public through multiple venues including broadcast media, social media, science and math focused educational activities, observing challenges, interactive visualization tools like “Eyes on the Solar System” and more culminating in the Thanksgiving Day Comet ISON perihelion passage. This talk will highlight NASA’s focused education effort to engage the public in small bodies science and the role these objects play in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  3. How Big of an Effect Do Small Dams Have? Using Geomorphological Footprints to Quantify Spatial Impact of Low-Head Dams and Identify Patterns of Across-Dam Variation.

    PubMed

    Fencl, Jane S; Mather, Martha E; Costigan, Katie H; Daniels, Melinda D

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal connectivity is a fundamental characteristic of rivers that can be disrupted by natural and anthropogenic processes. Dams are significant disruptions to streams. Over 2,000,000 low-head dams (<7.6 m high) fragment United States rivers. Despite potential adverse impacts of these ubiquitous disturbances, the spatial impacts of low-head dams on geomorphology and ecology are largely untested. Progress for research and conservation is impaired by not knowing the magnitude of low-head dam impacts. Based on the geomorphic literature, we refined a methodology that allowed us to quantify the spatial extent of low-head dam impacts (herein dam footprint), assessed variation in dam footprints across low-head dams within a river network, and identified select aspects of the context of this variation. Wetted width, depth, and substrate size distributions upstream and downstream of six low-head dams within the Upper Neosho River, Kansas, United States of America were measured. Total dam footprints averaged 7.9 km (3.0-15.3 km) or 287 wetted widths (136-437 wetted widths). Estimates included both upstream (mean: 6.7 km or 243 wetted widths) and downstream footprints (mean: 1.2 km or 44 wetted widths). Altogether the six low-head dams impacted 47.3 km (about 17%) of the mainstem in the river network. Despite differences in age, size, location, and primary function, the sizes of geomorphic footprints of individual low-head dams in the Upper Neosho river network were relatively similar. The number of upstream dams and distance to upstream dams, but not dam height, affected the spatial extent of dam footprints. In summary, ubiquitous low-head dams individually and cumulatively altered lotic ecosystems. Both characteristics of individual dams and the context of neighboring dams affected low-head dam impacts within the river network. For these reasons, low-head dams require a different, more integrative, approach for research and management than the individualistic approach

  4. How Big of an Effect Do Small Dams Have? Using Geomorphological Footprints to Quantify Spatial Impact of Low-Head Dams and Identify Patterns of Across-Dam Variation

    PubMed Central

    Costigan, Katie H.; Daniels, Melinda D.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal connectivity is a fundamental characteristic of rivers that can be disrupted by natural and anthropogenic processes. Dams are significant disruptions to streams. Over 2,000,000 low-head dams (<7.6 m high) fragment United States rivers. Despite potential adverse impacts of these ubiquitous disturbances, the spatial impacts of low-head dams on geomorphology and ecology are largely untested. Progress for research and conservation is impaired by not knowing the magnitude of low-head dam impacts. Based on the geomorphic literature, we refined a methodology that allowed us to quantify the spatial extent of low-head dam impacts (herein dam footprint), assessed variation in dam footprints across low-head dams within a river network, and identified select aspects of the context of this variation. Wetted width, depth, and substrate size distributions upstream and downstream of six low-head dams within the Upper Neosho River, Kansas, United States of America were measured. Total dam footprints averaged 7.9 km (3.0–15.3 km) or 287 wetted widths (136–437 wetted widths). Estimates included both upstream (mean: 6.7 km or 243 wetted widths) and downstream footprints (mean: 1.2 km or 44 wetted widths). Altogether the six low-head dams impacted 47.3 km (about 17%) of the mainstem in the river network. Despite differences in age, size, location, and primary function, the sizes of geomorphic footprints of individual low-head dams in the Upper Neosho river network were relatively similar. The number of upstream dams and distance to upstream dams, but not dam height, affected the spatial extent of dam footprints. In summary, ubiquitous low-head dams individually and cumulatively altered lotic ecosystems. Both characteristics of individual dams and the context of neighboring dams affected low-head dam impacts within the river network. For these reasons, low-head dams require a different, more integrative, approach for research and management than the individualistic

  5. How big of an effect do small dams have? Using geomorphological footprints to quantify spatial impact of low-head dams and identify patterns of across-dam variation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fencl, Jane S.; Mather, Martha E.; Costigan, Katie H.; Daniels, Melinda D.

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal connectivity is a fundamental characteristic of rivers that can be disrupted by natural and anthropogenic processes. Dams are significant disruptions to streams. Over 2,000,000 low-head dams (<7.6 m high) fragment United States rivers. Despite potential adverse impacts of these ubiquitous disturbances, the spatial impacts of low-head dams on geomorphology and ecology are largely untested. Progress for research and conservation is impaired by not knowing the magnitude of low-head dam impacts. Based on the geomorphic literature, we refined a methodology that allowed us to quantify the spatial extent of low-head dam impacts (herein dam footprint), assessed variation in dam footprints across low-head dams within a river network, and identified select aspects of the context of this variation. Wetted width, depth, and substrate size distributions upstream and downstream of six low-head dams within the Upper Neosho River, Kansas, United States of America were measured. Total dam footprints averaged 7.9 km (3.0–15.3 km) or 287 wetted widths (136–437 wetted widths). Estimates included both upstream (mean: 6.7 km or 243 wetted widths) and downstream footprints (mean: 1.2 km or 44 wetted widths). Altogether the six low-head dams impacted 47.3 km (about 17%) of the mainstem in the river network. Despite differences in age, size, location, and primary function, the sizes of geomorphic footprints of individual low-head dams in the Upper Neosho river network were relatively similar. The number of upstream dams and distance to upstream dams, but not dam height, affected the spatial extent of dam footprints. In summary, ubiquitous low-head dams individually and cumulatively altered lotic ecosystems. Both characteristics of individual dams and the context of neighboring dams affected low-head dam impacts within the river network. For these reasons, low-head dams require a different, more integrative, approach for research and management than the individualistic

  6. Small zebrafish in a big chemical pond.

    PubMed

    Helenius, I Taneli; Yeh, J-R Joanna

    2012-07-01

    The number of possible small organic molecules of different structure is virtually limitless. One of the main goals of chemical biologists is to identify, from this "chemical space", entities that affect biological processes or systems in a specific manner. This can lead to a better understanding of the regulation and components of various biological machineries, as well as provide insights into efficacious therapeutic targets and drug candidates. However, the challenges confronting chemical biologists are multiple. How do we efficiently identify compounds that possess desirable activities without unwanted off-target effects? Once a candidate compound has been found, how do we determine its mode of action? In this Prospects piece, we call attention to recent studies using embryonic and larval zebrafish to illustrate the breadth and depth of questions in chemical biology that may be addressed using this model, and hope that they can serve as catalysts for future investigational ideas.

  7. Effect of furosemide and dietary sodium on kidney and plasma big and small renin

    SciTech Connect

    Iwao, H.; Michelakis, A.M.

    1981-12-01

    Renin was found in mouse plasma in high-molecular-weight forms (big big renin, big renin) and a low-molecular-weight form (small renin). They were measuerd by a radioimmunoassay procedure for the direct measurement of renin. In the kidney, 89% of total renin was small renin and the rest was big big and big renin. This distribution pattern of renins was not changed when the kideny tissue was homogenized in the presence of protease inhibitors. Low-sodium or high-sodium diets changed renal renin content, but not the distribution pattern of renins in the kidney. Acute stimulation of renin release by furosemide increased small renin but not big big and big renin in plasma. However, dietary sodium depletion for 2 weeks significantly increased big big, big, and small renin in plasma of mice with or without submaxillary glands. In contrast, high-sodium intake significantly decreased big big, big, and small renin in plasma of mice with or without submaxillary glands.

  8. Small Bodies, Big Discoveries: NASA's Small Bodies Education Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, L.; Erickson, K. J.

    2014-12-01

    2014 is turning out to be a watershed year for celestial events involving the solar system's unsung heroes, small bodies. This includes the close flyby of comet C/2013 A1 / Siding Spring with Mars in October and the historic Rosetta mission with its Philae lander to comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Beyond 2014, the much anticipated 2015 Pluto flyby by New Horizons and the February Dawn Mission arrival at Ceres will take center stage. To deliver the excitement and wonder of our solar system's small bodies to worldwide audiences, NASA's JPL and GSFC education teams in partnership with NASA EDGE will reach out to the public through multiple venues including broadcast media, social media, science and math focused educational activities, observing challenges, interactive visualization tools like "Eyes on the Solar System" and more. This talk will highlight NASA's focused education effort to engage the public in small bodies mission science and the role these objects play in our understanding of the formation and evolution of the solar system.

  9. Evaluation of lamprey larvicides in the Big Garlic River and Saux Head Lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1969-01-01

    Bayluscide (5,2'-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide) and TFM (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) were evaluated as selective larvicides for control of the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, in the Big Garlic River and Saux Head Lake in Marquette County, Michigan. Population estimates and movement of ammocetes were determined from the recapture of marked ammocetes released before chemical treatment. In 1966 the estimated population of 3136 ammocetes off the stream mouth in Saux Head Lake was reduced 89% by treatment with granular Bayluscide; this percentage was supported by a population estimate of 120 ammocetes in 1967, an indicated reduction of 96% from 1966. Post-marking movement of ammocetes was greater upstream than downstream.

  10. How Big Is Too Big? How Small Is Too Small?--Child Care Facility Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the size of child-care-center spaces as a factor for designing developmentally appropriate facilities. Explores a range of architectural and design issues related to the size of spaces and ways of subdividing rooms to provide opportunities for small-group, quiet activities that are important to quality child care. (AA)

  11. "small problems, Big Trouble": An Art and Science Collaborative Exhibition Reflecting Seemingly small problems Leading to Big Threats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, J. L.; Brey, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    "small problems, Big Trouble" (spBT) is an exhibition of artist Judith Waller's paintings accompanied by text panels written by Earth scientist Dr. James A. Brey and several science researchers and educators. The text panels' message is as much the focus of the show as the art--true interdisciplinarity! Waller and Brey's history of art and earth science collaborations include the successful exhibition "Layers: Places in Peril". New in spBT is extended collaboration with other scientists in order to create awareness of geoscience and other subjects (i.e. soil, parasites, dust, pollutants, invasive species, carbon, ground water contaminants, solar wind) small in scale which pose significant threats. The paintings are the size of a mirror, a symbol suggesting the problems depicted are those we increasingly need to face, noting our collective reflections of shared current and future reality. Naturalistic rendering and abstract form in the art helps reach a broad audience including those familiar with art and those familiar with science. The goal is that gallery visitors gain greater appreciation and understanding of both—and of the sober content of the show as a whole. "small problems, Big Trouble" premiers in Wisconsin April, 2015. As in previous collaborations, Waller and Brey actively utilize art and science (specifically geoscience) as an educational vehicle for active student learning. Planned are interdisciplinary university and area high school activities linked through spBT. The exhibition in a public gallery offers a means to enhance community awareness of and action on scientific issues through art's power to engage people on an emotional level. This AGU presentation includes a description of past Waller and Brey activities: incorporating art and earth science in lab and studio classrooms, producing gallery and museum exhibitions and delivering workshops and other presentations. They also describe how walking the paths of several past earth science

  12. Transforming fragments into candidates: small becomes big in medicinal chemistry.

    PubMed

    de Kloe, Gerdien E; Bailey, David; Leurs, Rob; de Esch, Iwan J P

    2009-07-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) represents a logical and efficient approach to lead discovery and optimisation. It can draw on structural, biophysical and biochemical data, incorporating a wide range of inputs, from precise mode-of-binding information on specific fragments to wider ranging pharmacophoric screening surveys using traditional HTS approaches. It is truly an enabling technology for the imaginative medicinal chemist. In this review, we analyse a representative set of 23 published FBDD studies that describe how low molecular weight fragments are being identified and efficiently transformed into higher molecular weight drug candidates. FBDD is now becoming warmly endorsed by industry as well as academia and the focus on small interacting molecules is making a big scientific impact.

  13. Stochastic Control Problems where Small Intervention Costs Have Big Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Oksendal, B.

    1999-11-15

    We study an impulse control problem where the cost of interfering in a stochastic system with an impulse of size {zeta} element of R is given by c+{lambda} vertical bar {zeta} vertical bar , where c and {lambda} are positive constants. We call {lambda} the proportional cost coefficient and c the intervention cost . We find the value/cost function V{sub c} for this problem for each c>0 and we show that lim{sub c{sup yields}{sub 0}+}V{sub c}=W , where W is the value function for the corresponding singular stochastic control problem. Our main result is that dV{sub c}/dc = {infinity} at c=0. This illustrates that the introduction of an intervention cost c>0 , however small, into a system can have a big effect on the value function: the increase in the value function is in no proportion to the increase in c (from c=0 )

  14. "Small Steps, Big Rewards": You Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Steps, Big Rewards": You Can Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Past Issues / Winter 2008 Table of Contents For ... million Americans are at risk for type 2 diabetes." "Fifty four million Americans are at risk for ...

  15. Making a Big Bang on the small screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Nick

    2010-01-01

    While the quality of some TV sitcoms can leave viewers feeling cheated out of 30 minutes of their lives, audiences and critics are raving about the science-themed US comedy The Big Bang Theory. First shown on the CBS network in 2007, the series focuses on two brilliant postdoc physicists, Leonard and Sheldon, who are totally absorbed by science. Adhering to the stereotype, they also share a fanatical interest in science fiction, video-gaming and comic books, but unfortunately lack the social skills required to connect with their 20-something nonacademic contemporaries.

  16. Small Buildings = Big Opportunity for Energy Savings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-09-01

    This fact sheet describes the Small Buildings and Small Portfolios roadmap, which outlines approaches and strategic priorities for the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Office to pursue over the next three to five years that will support the implementation of high-potential energy efficiency opportunities for small business and building owners and operators.

  17. How to Make Your Small Band Sound Big!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Criswell, Chad

    2009-01-01

    If one asks many small-town band directors, most will say that working and performing with a small band can be just as satisfying and musically robust as directing a larger one. There are a lot of advantages as well; smaller class sizes, fewer extracurricular activities, and more time to work one on one with students are just a few of the benefits…

  18. Small Districts, Big Problems: Making School Everybody's House.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Richard A.; Schmuck, Patricia A.

    During a 6-month odyssey over America's back roads, 80 schools in 25 small school districts in 21 states were visited, in hopes of finding effective schools where smallness facilitated participation by all. District size ranged from 450 to 2,000 students. Data collection included observation of classes and meetings; group interviews of classes;…

  19. Big impacts by small RNAs in plant development.

    PubMed

    Chuck, George; Candela, Héctor; Hake, Sarah

    2009-02-01

    The identification and study of small RNAs, including microRNAs and trans-acting small interfering RNAs, have added a layer of complexity to the many pathways that regulate plant development. These molecules, which function as negative regulators of gene expression, are now known to have greatly expanded roles in a variety of developmental processes affecting all major plant structures, including meristems, leaves, roots, and inflorescences. Mutants with specific developmental phenotypes have also advanced our knowledge of the biogenesis and mode of action of these diverse small RNAs. In addition, previous models on the cell autonomy of microRNAs may have to be revised as more data accumulate supporting their long distance transport. As many of these small RNAs appear to be conserved across different species, knowledge gained from one species is expected to have general application. However, a few surprising differences in small RNA function seem to exist between monocots and dicots regarding meristem initiation and sex determination. Integrating these unique functions into the overall scheme for plant growth will give a more complete picture of how they have evolved as unique developmental systems.

  20. MicroRNAs: Small RNAs with Big Effects

    PubMed Central

    Anglicheau, Dany; Muthukumar, Thangamani; Suthanthiran, Manikkam

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs are evolutionarily conserved, small (~20–25 nucleotides), single-stranded molecules that suppress the expression of protein-coding genes by translational repression, messenger RNA degradation, or both. More than 700 microRNAs have been identified in the human genome. Amazingly, a single miRNA can regulate the expression of hundreds of mRNAs/proteins within a cell. The small RNAs are fast emerging as master regulators of innate and adaptive immunity, and very likely to play a pivotal role in transplantation. The clinical application of RNA sequencing (“next – generation sequencing”) should facilitate transcriptome profiling at an unprecedented resolution. We provide an overview of microRNA biology and their hypothesized roles in transplantation. PMID:20574417

  1. Optimization of Deflection of a Big NEO through Impact with a Small One

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kaijian; Huang, Weiping; Wang, Yuncai; Niu, Wei; Wu, Gongyou

    2014-01-01

    Using a small near-Earth object (NEO) to impact a larger and potentially threatening NEO has been suggested as an effective method to avert a collision with Earth. This paper develops a procedure for analysis of the technique for specific NEOs. First, an optimization method is used to select a proper small body from the database. Some principles of optimality are achieved with the optimization process. Then, the orbit of the small body is changed to guarantee that it flies toward and impacts the big threatening NEO. Kinetic impact by a spacecraft is chosen as the strategy of deflecting the small body. The efficiency of this method is compared with that of a direct kinetic impact to the big NEO by a spacecraft. Finally, a case study is performed for the deflection of the Apophis NEO, and the efficiency of the method is assessed. PMID:25525627

  2. Small Ideas for Saving Big Health Care Dollars

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jodi L.; Lai, Deborah; Ringel, Jeanne S.; Vaiana, Mary E.; Wasserman, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A focused review of recent RAND Health research identified small ideas that could save the U.S. health care system $13 to $22 billion per year, in the aggregate, if successfully implemented. In the substituting lower-cost treatments category, ideas are to reduce use of anesthesia providers in routine gastroenterology procedures for low-risk patients, change payment policy for emergency transport, increase use of lower-cost antibiotics for treatment of acute otitis media, shift care from emergency departments to retail clinics when appropriate, eliminate co-payments for higher-risk patients taking cholesterol-lowering drugs, increase use of $4 generic drugs, and reduce Medicare Part D use of brand-name prescription drugs by patients with diabetes. In the patient safety category, ideas are to prevent three types of health care–associated infections: (1) central line–associated bloodstream infections, (2) ventilator-associated pneumonia, and (3) catheter-associated urinary tract infections; use preoperative and anesthesia checklists to prevent operative and postoperative events; prevent in-facility pressure ulcers; use ultrasound guidance for central line placement; and prevent recurrent falls. Small ideas do not require systemic change; thus, they may be both more feasible to operationalize and less likely to encounter stiff political and organizational resistance. PMID:28083318

  3. The Big Impact of Small Groups on College Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, B.; Martinez, J.; Polidan, E.; Angelis, E.

    2015-01-01

    College drinking is a problem with severe academic, health, and safety consequences. The underlying social processes that lead to increased drinking activity are not well understood. Social Norms Theory is an approach to analysis and intervention based on the notion that students’ misperceptions about the drinking culture on campus lead to increases in alcohol use. In this paper we develop an agent-based simulation model, implemented in MATLAB, to examine college drinking. Students’ drinking behaviors are governed by their identity (and how others perceive it) as well as peer influences, as they interact in small groups over the course of a drinking event. Our simulation results provide some insight into the potential effectiveness of interventions such as social norms marketing campaigns. PMID:26677347

  4. Small robot will give astronauts a big hand.

    PubMed

    Flinn, E D

    2000-02-01

    Now being built at NASA-Ames is a small robot that will work independently alongside astronauts in space. About the size of a softball, the 5-in.-diam. Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA) will serve as an intelligent robot, providing another set of eyes and ears and an extra nose to the crew and ground support personnel. The device will move and operate on its own in the microgravity environment of space-based vehicles. Yuri Gawdiak, principal investigator for the projects, expects astronauts to fly a demonstration model of the device aboard a Space Shuttle in about two years. The first crew to use PSAs will test the examine safety issues. Those tests, if successful, will lead to a demonstration aboard the International Space Station. Gawdiak says the project has an annual budget of about $500,000.

  5. The Big Impact of Small Groups on College Drinking.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, B; Martinez, J; Polidan, E; Angelis, E

    College drinking is a problem with severe academic, health, and safety consequences. The underlying social processes that lead to increased drinking activity are not well understood. Social Norms Theory is an approach to analysis and intervention based on the notion that students' misperceptions about the drinking culture on campus lead to increases in alcohol use. In this paper we develop an agent-based simulation model, implemented in MATLAB, to examine college drinking. Students' drinking behaviors are governed by their identity (and how others perceive it) as well as peer influences, as they interact in small groups over the course of a drinking event. Our simulation results provide some insight into the potential effectiveness of interventions such as social norms marketing campaigns.

  6. When small is big: the role of impurities in electrocatalysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Strmcnik, Dusan; Li, Dongguo; Lopes, Pietro P.; Tripkovic, Dusan; Kodama, Kensaku; Stamenkovic, Vojislav R.; Markovic, Nenad M.

    2015-11-01

    Improvements in the fundamental understanding of electrocatalysis have started to revolutionize the development of electrochemical interfaces for the efficient conversion of chemical energy into electricity, as well as for the utilization of electrons to produce new chemicals that then can be re-used in energy conversion systems. Here, some facets of the role of trace level of impurities (from 10-7 to 10-6 M) in electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction, hydrogen oxidation and evolution reactions, and CO oxidation reactions are explored on well-characterized platinum single crystal surfaces and high surface area materials in alkaline and acidic environments. Of particular interest is the effect of anions (e.g., Cl-, NO3-) and cations (i.e., Cu2+) present in the supporting electrolytes as well as surface defects (i.e., ad-islands) that are present on metal surfaces. The examples presented are chosen to demonstrate that a small level of impurities may play a crucial role in governing the reactivity of electrochemical interfaces.

  7. Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Introducing the Next Small Big Thing.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Hina; Drummen, Gregor P C; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2016-02-06

    Intercellular communication was long thought to be regulated exclusively through direct contact between cells or via release of soluble molecules that transmit the signal by binding to a suitable receptor on the target cell, and/or via uptake into that cell. With the discovery of small secreted vesicular structures that contain complex cargo, both in their lumen and the lipid membrane that surrounds them, a new frontier of signal transduction was discovered. These "extracellular vesicles" (EV) were initially thought to be garbage bags through which the cell ejected its waste. Whilst this is a major function of one type of EV, i.e., apoptotic bodies, many EVs have intricate functions in intercellular communication and compound exchange; although their physiological roles are still ill-defined. Additionally, it is now becoming increasingly clear that EVs mediate disease progression and therefore studying EVs has ignited significant interests among researchers from various fields of life sciences. Consequently, the research effort into the pathogenic roles of EVs is significantly higher even though their protective roles are not well established. The "Focus on extracellular vesicles" series of reviews highlights the current state of the art regarding various topics in EV research, whilst this review serves as an introductory overview of EVs, their biogenesis and molecular composition.

  8. Focus on Extracellular Vesicles: Introducing the Next Small Big Thing

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Hina; Drummen, Gregor P. C.; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Intercellular communication was long thought to be regulated exclusively through direct contact between cells or via release of soluble molecules that transmit the signal by binding to a suitable receptor on the target cell, and/or via uptake into that cell. With the discovery of small secreted vesicular structures that contain complex cargo, both in their lumen and the lipid membrane that surrounds them, a new frontier of signal transduction was discovered. These “extracellular vesicles” (EV) were initially thought to be garbage bags through which the cell ejected its waste. Whilst this is a major function of one type of EV, i.e., apoptotic bodies, many EVs have intricate functions in intercellular communication and compound exchange; although their physiological roles are still ill-defined. Additionally, it is now becoming increasingly clear that EVs mediate disease progression and therefore studying EVs has ignited significant interests among researchers from various fields of life sciences. Consequently, the research effort into the pathogenic roles of EVs is significantly higher even though their protective roles are not well established. The “Focus on extracellular vesicles” series of reviews highlights the current state of the art regarding various topics in EV research, whilst this review serves as an introductory overview of EVs, their biogenesis and molecular composition. PMID:26861301

  9. Nanotechnology: what is it and why is small so big?

    PubMed

    Leary, James F

    2010-10-01

    SIZE matters… the size of the scalpel determines the precision of the surgery. Nanotechnology affords us the chance to construct nanotools that are on the size scale of molecules, allowing us to treat each cell of the human body as a patient. Nanomedicine will allow for eradication of disease at the single-cell level. Since nanotools are self-assembling, nanomedicine has the potential to perform parallel processing medicine on a massive scale. These nanotools can be made of biocompatible and biodegradable nanomaterials. They can be "smart" in that they can use sophisticated targeting strategies, which can perform error checking to prevent harm if even a very small fraction of them are mistargeted. Built-in molecular biosensors can provide controlled drug delivery with feedback control for individual cell dosing. If designed to repair existing cells rather than to just destroy diseased cells, these nanomedical devices can perform in-situ regenerative medicine, programming cells along less dangerous cell pathways to prevent tissues and organs from being destroyed by the treatments and thus providing an attractive alternative to allogeneic organ transplants. Nanomedical tools, while tiny in size, can have a huge impact on medicine and health care. Earlier and more sensitive diagnosis will lead to presymptomatic diagnosis and treatment of disease before permanent damage occurs to tissues and organs. This should result in the delivery of better medicine at lower costs with better outcomes. Lastly, and importantly, some of the first uses of nanotechnology and nanomedicine are occurring in the field of ophthalmology. Some of the potential benefits of nanotechnology for future treatment of retinopathies and optic nerve damage are discussed at the end of this paper.

  10. Small things make a big difference: particulate matter and exercise.

    PubMed

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Smoliga, James M; Rundell, Kenneth W

    2012-12-01

    The increased risk of morbidity and mortality among adults and children with pre-existing cardiovascular or respiratory illness from emission-derived particulate matter (PM) is well documented. However, the detrimental effects of PM inhalation on the exercising, healthy population is still in question. This review will focus on the acute and chronic responses to PM inhalation during exercise and how PM exposure influences exercise performance. The smaller ultrafine PM (<0.01 μm aerodynamic diameter) appears to have the most severe health consequences compared with the larger coarse PM (2.5 < PM <10 μm aerodynamic diameter). While the response to PM inhalation may affect those with a pre-existing condition, the healthy population is not immune to the effects of PM inhalation, especially during exercise. This population, including the competitive athlete, is susceptible to pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function (both acute and chronic in nature), the increased risk of asthma, vascular endothelial dysfunction, mild elevations in pulmonary artery pressure and diminished exercise performance. PM exposure is usually associated with vehicular traffic, but other sources of PM, including small engines from lawn and garden equipment, cigarette smoke, wood smoke and cooking, may also impair health and performance. The physiological effects of PM are dependent on the source of PM, various environmental factors, physical attributes and nature of exercise. There are a number of measures an athlete can take to reduce exposure to PM, as well as the deleterious effects that result from the inevitable exposure to PM. Considering the acute and chronic physiological responses to PM inhalation, individuals living and exercising in urban areas in close proximity to major roadways should consider ambient air pollution levels (in particular, PM and ozone) prior to engaging in vigorous exercise, and those exposed to PM through other sources may need to make lifestyle alterations

  11. Effect of small head tilt on ocular fundus image: Consideration of proper head positioning for ocular fundus scanning

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin Hae; Kang, Nam Yeo; Kim, Jihyun; Baek, Jiwon; Hong, Seung Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Head tilt and resultant ocular cyclotorsion can influence the results of ophthalmologic examinations. Thus, proper head positioning during fundus scanning has been emphasized. However, there is no perfect method to control the head tilt and little is known about the effect of small head tilts. In this study, we investigated the effect of minimal head tilt on the ocular cyclotorsion which we cannot easily detect. Forty-seven participants without ophthalmologic or vestibular abnormalities were recruited as normal subjects. Their faces were positioned at the desired head tilt using a customized adjustable head tilter and facial and fundus photographs of both the left and right eyes were taken in the upright neutral position; as well as at rightward and leftward head tilts of 2°, 4°, and 6°. The actual head tilt was determined using the facial photographs by measuring the slope of a line that intersected the corneal reflexes of both eyes. Rotational changes in the fundus images were recorded and the correlation of these changes with the degree of head tilt was determined. The degree of head tilt was significantly correlated with rotational changes in the fundus images from both the right and left eyes (P < 0.001; right eye: R2 = 0.897, left eye: R2 = 0.899). The mean relative compensations for head tilt, mediated by the ocular counterrolling reflex, were 0.376 ± 0.255 in the right eye (range: −0.02 to 1.0), and 0.350 ± 0.263 in the left eye (range: −0.03 to 1.0), and exhibited a significant negative correlation with head tilt (P < 0.05). The mean relative compensation of the right eye did not differ significantly from that of the left eye (P = 0.380), but the value did vary widely among individuals and within individuals. Even very small head tilt was partially and variably compensated for, and caused significant rotation in the fundus image. We concluded that proper head positioning does not guarantee the minimal ocular

  12. Radiation-related small head sizes among prenatally exposed A-bomb survivors.

    PubMed

    Otake, M; Schull, W J

    1993-02-01

    Of 1566 individuals prenatally exposed to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1473 had the circumference of their head measured at least once between ages 9 and 19. Among these 1473 individuals, 62 had small heads--the circumference of the heads was two standard deviations or more below the observed specific-age-at measurement mean. Of 26 cases with severe mental retardation, 15 (58%) had small heads. Most (86%) of the individuals with small heads were exposed in the first trimester (about < 12 weeks postovulation) or second trimester (about 12-24 weeks postovulation)--55% in the former period and 31% in the latter. Various dose-response relationships, with and without a threshold, have been fitted to the data grouped by the trimester or postovulatory age (weeks after ovulation) at which exposure occurred. A significant effect of radiation on the frequency of individuals with atypically small heads is observed only in the first and second trimesters and for the intervals postovulation of 0-7 weeks and 8-15 weeks. Although the risk of a small head at 0-7 weeks postovulation increases significantly with increasing dose, no increase in risk for severe mental retardation is noted in this period. No excess risk of a small head was seen in the third trimester (about > or = 25 weeks postovulation) or among individuals exposed at 16 weeks or more postovulation. The mean IQ values of mentally retarded cases with and without small heads were 63.8 and 68.9, respectively. No significant difference exists between these two IQ means, but both were significantly smaller than 96.4, the IQ value for individuals with small heads without severe mental retardation and 107.8, the value for the overall sample.

  13. Thinking Big about Getting Small: An Ideological Genealogy of Small-School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafka, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Background: Support for small schools, and specifically for the creation of small, autonomous schools of choice, has grown considerably in the past decade--particularly in the context of urban schooling. Funded by private and public monies, small-school initiatives have been implemented in most of the nation's city school districts and have become…

  14. Subject Heading Revision: A System for Small Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibtag, Susan

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the processes involved in improving the subject catalog at a medical library. Policy decisions concerning heading sources and revision methodology and plans for analyzing, weeding, and increasing the relevance of subject terms is discussed. The making of catalog changes and the results of catalog revision are also described. (JL)

  15. The Changing Roles of Online Deans and Department Heads in Small Private Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halupa, Colleen M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of best practices and challenges for deans and department heads of online programmes in the ever-changing world of higher education. It concentrates on the challenges for small private universities and tertiary education institutions in the United States, Australia, and New Zealand. Department heads must consider…

  16. Prizes to solve problems in and beyond medicine, big and small: it can work.

    PubMed

    Erren, Thomas C

    2007-01-01

    This article complements Dr. Charlton's follow-up of David Horrobin's suggestion in Nature two decades ago to offer sizeable prizes for practical approaches to either eliminate a problem in medicine or reduce the cost of its solution. Examples from the 20th and 21st centuries illustrate that prizes--small and big--have generated sustained and successful attacks on defined problems in biology, physics and, lately, mathematics. Provided that glittering prizes are offered and awarded with care, they can lead to effective problem-solving in medicine and related biomedical sciences as well.

  17. Penguin head movement detected using small accelerometers: a proxy of prey encounter rate.

    PubMed

    Kokubun, Nobuo; Kim, Jeong-Hoon; Shin, Hyoung-Chul; Naito, Yasuhiko; Takahashi, Akinori

    2011-11-15

    Determining temporal and spatial variation in feeding rates is essential for understanding the relationship between habitat features and the foraging behavior of top predators. In this study we examined the utility of head movement as a proxy of prey encounter rates in medium-sized Antarctic penguins, under the presumption that the birds should move their heads actively when they encounter and peck prey. A field study of free-ranging chinstrap and gentoo penguins was conducted at King George Island, Antarctica. Head movement was recorded using small accelerometers attached to the head, with simultaneous monitoring for prey encounter or body angle. The main prey was Antarctic krill (>99% in wet mass) for both species. Penguin head movement coincided with a slow change in body angle during dives. Active head movements were extracted using a high-pass filter (5 Hz acceleration signals) and the remaining acceleration peaks (higher than a threshold acceleration of 1.0 g) were counted. The timing of head movements coincided well with images of prey taken from the back-mounted cameras: head movement was recorded within ±2.5 s of a prey image on 89.1±16.1% (N=7 trips) of images. The number of head movements varied largely among dive bouts, suggesting large temporal variations in prey encounter rates. Our results show that head movement is an effective proxy of prey encounter, and we suggest that the method will be widely applicable for a variety of predators.

  18. Big data from small data: data-sharing in the 'long tail' of neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Adam R; Nielson, Jessica L; Cragin, Melissa H; Bandrowski, Anita E; Martone, Maryann E

    2014-11-01

    The launch of the US BRAIN and European Human Brain Projects coincides with growing international efforts toward transparency and increased access to publicly funded research in the neurosciences. The need for data-sharing standards and neuroinformatics infrastructure is more pressing than ever. However, 'big science' efforts are not the only drivers of data-sharing needs, as neuroscientists across the full spectrum of research grapple with the overwhelming volume of data being generated daily and a scientific environment that is increasingly focused on collaboration. In this commentary, we consider the issue of sharing of the richly diverse and heterogeneous small data sets produced by individual neuroscientists, so-called long-tail data. We consider the utility of these data, the diversity of repositories and options available for sharing such data, and emerging best practices. We provide use cases in which aggregating and mining diverse long-tail data convert numerous small data sources into big data for improved knowledge about neuroscience-related disorders.

  19. Revisiting constraints on small scale perturbations from big-bang nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Keisuke; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Tada, Yuichiro

    2016-08-01

    We revisit the constraints on the small scale density perturbations (1 04 Mpc-1≲k ≲1 05 Mpc-1 ) from the modification of the freeze-out value of the neutron-proton ratio at the big-bang nucleosynthesis era. Around the freeze-out temperature T ˜0.5 MeV , the universe can be divided into several local patches that have different temperatures since any perturbation that enters the horizon after the neutrino decoupling has not diffused yet. Taking account of this situation, we calculate the freeze-out value in detail. We find that the small scale perturbations decrease the n -p ratio in contrast to previous works. With the use of the latest observed 4He abundance, we obtain the constraint on the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations as ΔR2≲0.018 on 1 04 Mpc-1≲k ≲1 05 Mpc-1 .

  20. The VLTI Auxiliary Telescope System: a big challenge for a small company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flebus, Carlo; Gloesener, Pierre; Koehler, Bertrand

    2004-09-01

    AMOS S.A. is a small company specialised in the fields of opto-mechanical, thermal and vacuum technology. To develop, manufacture and test the ESO VLTI Auxiliary Telescope System (ATS) was considered internally as a big challenge. ATS is a large-sized project and difficult to manage for a small company (since ATS, AMOS has hired about 25 people and now employs about 60 people). ATS is also technically a very complex system because of the following reasons: Unusual telescope (mobile telescope) Very tight system performances (e.g. Image quality, OPD, Pointing) Severe design constraints because of existing site interfaces (e.g. volume, mass) and environment (including wind and earthquake) Multidisciplinary engineering system (mechanical, optical, electrical, thermal, pneumatic, hydraulic) This paper describes how this project has been managed in practice by AMOS and also the important role of the system engineering. The last paragraph will be dedicated to the main lessons learned.

  1. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: How Small is Big Enough?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg (Abraham); Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) derives its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse potential of approximately 900 seconds - a 100% increase over today's best chemical rockets. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project, funded by NASA's AES program, includes five key task activities: (1) Recapture, demonstration, and validation of heritage graphite composite (GC) fuel (selected as the "Lead Fuel" option); (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Operating Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary DDT&E plan and schedule for NTP development was outlined by GRC, DOE and industry that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce cost for the GTD tests and FTD mission, small NTR engines, in either the 7.5 or 16.5 klbf thrust class, were considered. Both engine options used GC fuel and a "common" fuel element (FE) design. The small approximately 7.5 klbf "criticality-limited" engine produces approximately 157 megawatts of thermal power (MWt) and its core is configured with parallel rows of hexagonal-shaped FEs and tie tubes (TTs) with a FE to TT ratio of approximately 1:1. The larger approximately 16.5 klbf Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE), developed by LANL at the end of the Rover program, produces approximately 367 MWt and has a FE to TT ratio of approximately 2:1. Although both engines use a common 35 inch (approximately 89 cm) long FE, the SNRE's larger diameter core contains approximately 300 more FEs needed to produce an additional 210 MWt of power. To reduce the cost of the FTD mission, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered to reduce the LH2 propellant loading, the stage size and complexity. Use of existing and

  2. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75 000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research. PMID:26492224

  3. Big Data: the challenge for small research groups in the era of cancer genomics.

    PubMed

    Noor, Aisyah Mohd; Holmberg, Lars; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita

    2015-11-17

    In the past decade, cancer research has seen an increasing trend towards high-throughput techniques and translational approaches. The increasing availability of assays that utilise smaller quantities of source material and produce higher volumes of data output have resulted in the necessity for data storage solutions beyond those previously used. Multifactorial data, both large in sample size and heterogeneous in context, needs to be integrated in a standardised, cost-effective and secure manner. This requires technical solutions and administrative support not normally financially accounted for in small- to moderate-sized research groups. In this review, we highlight the Big Data challenges faced by translational research groups in the precision medicine era; an era in which the genomes of over 75,000 patients will be sequenced by the National Health Service over the next 3 years to advance healthcare. In particular, we have looked at three main themes of data management in relation to cancer research, namely (1) cancer ontology management, (2) IT infrastructures that have been developed to support data management and (3) the unique ethical challenges introduced by utilising Big Data in research.

  4. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: How Small is Big Enough?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, S. K.; Sefcik, R. J.; Fittje, J. E.; McCurdy, D. R.; Qualls, A. L.; Schnitzler, B. G.; Werner, J.; Weitzberg, A.; Joyner, C. R.

    2015-01-01

    In FY11, NASA formulated a plan for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development that included Foundational Technology Development followed by system-level Technology Demonstrations The ongoing NTP project, funded by NASAs Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program, is focused on Foundational Technology Development and includes 5 key task activities:(1) Fuel element fabrication and non-nuclear validation testing of heritage fuel options;(2) Engine conceptual design;(3) Mission analysis and engine requirements definition;(4) Identification of affordable options for ground testing; and(5) Formulation of an affordable and sustainable NTP development program Performance parameters for Point of Departure designs for a small criticality-limited and full size 25 klbf-class engine were developed during FYs 13-14 using heritage fuel element designs for both RoverNERVA Graphite Composite (GC) and Ceramic Metal (Cermet) fuel forms To focus the fuel development effort and maximize use of its resources, the AES program decided, in FY14, that a leader-follower down selection between GC and cermet fuel was required An Independent Review Panel (IRP) was convened by NASA and tasked with reviewing the available fuel data and making a recommendation to NASA. In February 2015, the IRP recommended and the AES program endorsed GC as the leader fuel In FY14, a preliminary development schedule DDTE plan was produced by GRC, DOE industry for the AES program. Assumptions, considerations and key task activities are presented here Two small (7.5 and 16.5 klbf) engine sizes were considered for ground and flight technology demonstration within a 10-year timeframe; their ability to support future human exploration missions was also examined and a recommendation on a preferred size is provided.

  5. Phosphorus mass balance in a highly eutrophic semi-enclosed inlet near a big metropolis: a small inlet can contribute towards particulate organic matter production.

    PubMed

    Asaoka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Tamiji

    2011-01-01

    Terrigenous loading into enclosed water bodies has been blamed for eutrophic conditions marked by massive algal growth and subsequent hypoxia due to decomposition of dead algal cells. This study aims to describe the eutrophication and hypoxia processes in a semi-enclosed water body lying near a big metropolis. Phosphorus mass balance in a small inlet, Ohko Inlet, located at the head of Hiroshima Bay, Japan, was quantified using a numerical model. Dissolved inorganic phosphorous inflow from Kaita Bay next to the inlet was five times higher than that from terrigenous load, which may cause an enhancement of primary production. Therefore, it was concluded that not only the reduction of material load from the land and the suppression of benthic flux are needed, but also reducing the inflow of high phosphorus and oxygen depleted water from Kaita Bay will form a collective alternative measure to remediate the environmental condition of the inlet.

  6. Genetic Structure, Nestmate Recognition and Behaviour of Two Cryptic Species of the Invasive Big-Headed Ant Pheidole megacephala

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Denis; Tindo, Maurice; Kenne, Martin; Mbenoun Masse, Paul Serge; Van Bossche, Vanessa; De Coninck, Eliane; Aron, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Background Biological invasions are recognized as a major cause of biodiversity decline and have considerable impact on the economy and human health. The African big-headed ant Pheidole megacephala is considered one of the world's most harmful invasive species. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand its ecological and demographic features, we combined behavioural (aggression tests), chemical (quantitative and qualitative analyses of cuticular lipids) and genetic (mitochondrial divergence and polymorphism of DNA microsatellite markers) data obtained for eight populations in Cameroon. Molecular data revealed two cryptic species of P. megacephala, one inhabiting urban areas and the other rainforests. Urban populations belong to the same phylogenetic group than those introduced in Australia and in other parts of the world. Behavioural analyses show that the eight populations sampled make up four mutually aggressive supercolonies. The maximum distance between nests from the same supercolony was 49 km and the closest distance between two nests belonging to two different supercolonies was 46 m. The genetic data and chemical analyses confirmed the behavioural tests as all of the nests were correctly assigned to their supercolony. Genetic diversity appears significantly greater in Africa than in introduced populations in Australia; by contrast, urban and Australian populations are characterized by a higher chemical diversity than rainforest ones. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our study shows that populations of P. megacephala in Cameroon adopt a unicolonial social structure, like invasive populations in Australia. However, the size of the supercolonies appears several orders of magnitude smaller in Africa. This implies competition between African supercolonies and explains why they persist over evolutionary time scales. PMID:22371822

  7. Recombination and Evolution of Duplicate Control Regions in the Mitochondrial Genome of the Asian Big-Headed Turtle, Platysternon megacephalum

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Chenfei; Nie, Liuwang; Wang, Jue; Zhou, Huaxing; Hou, Huazhen; Wang, Hao; Liu, Juanjuan

    2013-01-01

    Complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences with duplicate control regions (CRs) have been detected in various animal species. In Testudines, duplicate mtCRs have been reported in the mtDNA of the Asian big-headed turtle, Platysternon megacephalum, which has three living subspecies. However, the evolutionary pattern of these CRs remains unclear. In this study, we report the completed sequences of duplicate CRs from 20 individuals belonging to three subspecies of this turtle and discuss the micro-evolutionary analysis of the evolution of duplicate CRs. Genetic distances calculated with MEGA 4.1 using the complete duplicate CR sequences revealed that within turtle subspecies, genetic distances between orthologous copies from different individuals were 0.63% for CR1 and 1.2% for CR2app:addword:respectively, and the average distance between paralogous copies of CR1 and CR2 was 4.8%. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed from the CR sequences, excluding the variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) at the 3′ end using three methods: neighbor-joining, maximum likelihood algorithm, and Bayesian inference. These data show that any two CRs within individuals were more genetically distant from orthologous genes in different individuals within the same subspecies. This suggests independent evolution of the two mtCRs within each P. megacephalum subspecies. Reconstruction of separate phylogenetic trees using different CR components (TAS, CD, CSB, and VNTRs) suggested the role of recombination in the evolution of duplicate CRs. Consequently, recombination events were detected using RDP software with break points at ≈290 bp and ≈1,080 bp. Based on these results, we hypothesize that duplicate CRs in P. megacephalum originated from heterological ancestral recombination of mtDNA. Subsequent recombination could have resulted in homogenization during independent evolutionary events, thus maintaining the functions of duplicate CRs in the mtDNA of P. megacephalum. PMID

  8. Small Core, Big Network: A Comprehensive Approach to GIS Teaching Practice Based on Digital Three-Dimensional Campus Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Jiechen; Li, Manchun; Zhong, Lishan

    2014-01-01

    Geographic information science (GIS) features a wide range of disciplines and has broad applicability. Challenges associated with rapidly developing GIS technology and the currently limited teaching and practice materials hinder universities from cultivating highly skilled GIS graduates. Based on the idea of "small core, big network," a…

  9. Demonstration of variable speed permanent magnet generator at small, low-head hydro site

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Kinloch, David

    2015-12-18

    Small hydro developers face a limited set of bad choices when choosing a generator for a small low-head hydro site. Direct drive synchronous generators are expensive and technically complex to install. Simpler induction generators are higher speed, requiring a speed increaser, which results in inefficiencies and maintenance problems. In addition, both induction and synchronous generators turn at a fixed speed, causing the turbine to run off its peak efficiency curve whenever the available head is different than the designed optimum head.The solution to these problems is the variable speed Permanent Magnet Generators (PMG). At the Weisenberger Mill in Midway, KY, a variable speed Permanent Magnet Generator has been installed and demonstrated. This new PMG system replaced an existing induction generator that had a HTD belt drive speed increaser system. Data was taken from the old generator before it was removed and compared to data collected after the PMG system was installed. The new variable speed PMG system is calculated to produce over 96% more energy than the old induction generator system during an average year. This significant increase was primarily due to the PMG generator operating at the correct speed at the maximum head, and the ability for the PMG generator to reduce its speed to lower optimum speeds as the stream flow increased and the net head decreased.This demonstration showed the importance of being able to adjust the speed of fixed blade turbines. All fixed blade turbines with varying net heads could achieve higher efficiencies if the speed can be matched to the optimum speed as the head changes. In addition, this demonstration showed that there are many potential efficiencies that could be realized with variable speed technology at hydro sites where mismatched turbine and generator speeds result in lower power output, even at maximum head. Funding for this project came from the US Dept. of Energy, through Award Number DE-EE0005429.

  10. Small Bodies, Big Concepts: Engaging Teachers and Their Students in Visual Analysis of Comets and Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, W. H.; Buxner, S.; Lebofsky, L. A.; Ristvey, J.; Weeks, S.; Zolensky, M.

    2011-12-01

    Small Bodies, Big Concepts is a multi-disciplinary, professional development project that engages 5th - 8th grade teachers in high end planetary science using a research-based pedagogical framework, Designing Effective Science Instruction (DESI). In addition to developing sound background knowledge with a focus on visual analysis, teachers' awareness of the process of learning new content is heightened, and they use that experience to deepen their science teaching practice. Culling from NASA E/PO educational materials, activities are sequenced to enhance conceptual understanding of big ideas in space science: what do we know, how do we know it, why do we care? Helping teachers develop a picture of the history and evolution of our understanding of the solar system, and honing in on the place of comets and asteroids in helping us answer old questions and discover new ones, teachers see the power and excitement underlying planetary science as human endeavor. Research indicates that science inquiry is powerful in the classroom and mission scientists are real-life models of science inquiry in action. Using guest scientist facilitators from the Planetary Science Institute, NASA Johnson Space Center, Lockheed Martin, and NASA E/PO professionals from McREL and NASA AESP, teachers practice framing scientific questions, using current visual data, and adapting NASA E/PO activities related to current exploration of asteroids and comets in our Solar System. Cross-curricular elements included examining research-based strategies for enhancing English language learners' ability to engage in higher order questions and a professional astronomy artist's insight into how visual analysis requires not just our eyes engaged, but our brains: comparing, synthesizing, questioning, evaluating, and wondering. This summer we pilot tested the SBBC curriculum with thirteen 5th- 10th grade teachers modeling a variety of instructional approaches over eight days. Each teacher developed lesson plans

  11. The Astronaut Glove Challenge: Big Innovation from a (Very) Small Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Homer, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Many measurements were taken by test engineers from Hamilton Sundstrand, the prime contractor for the current EVA suit. Because the raw measurements needed to be converted to torques and combined into a final score, it was impossible to keep track of who was ahead in this phase. The final comfort and dexterity test was performed in a depressurized glove box to simulate real on-orbit conditions. Each competitor was required to exercise the glove through a defined set of finger, thumb, and wrist motions without any sign of abrasion or bruising of the competitor's hand. I learned a lot about arm fatigue! This was a pass-fail event, and both of the remaining competitors came through intact. After taking what seemed like an eternity to tally the final scores, the judges announced that I had won the competition. My glove was the only one to have achieved lower finger-bending torques than the Phase VI glove. Looking back, I see three sources of the success of this project that I believe also operate in other programs where small teams have broken new ground in aerospace technologies. These are awareness, failure, and trust. By remaining aware of the big picture, continuously asking myself, "Am I converging on a solution?" and "Am I converging fast enough?" I was able to see that my original design was not going to succeed, leading to the decision to start over. I was also aware that, had I lingered over this choice or taken time to analyze it, I would not have been ready on the first day of competition. Failure forced me to look outside conventional thinking and opened the door to innovation. Choosing to make incremental failures enabled me to rapidly climb the learning curve. Trusting my "gut" feelings-which are really an internalized accumulation of experiences-and my newly acquired skills allowed me to devise new technologies rapidly and complete both gloves just in time. Awareness, failure, and trust are intertwined: failure provides experiences that inform awareness

  12. [Cultivation strategy and path analysis on big brand Chinese medicine for small and medium-sized enterprises].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong-Yan; Yang, Hong-Jun

    2014-03-01

    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are important components in Chinese medicine industry. However, the lack of big brand is becoming an urgent problem which is critical to the survival of SMEs. This article discusses the concept and traits of Chinese medicine of big brand, from clinical, scientific and market value three aspects. Guided by market value, highlighting clinical value, aiming at the scientific value improvement of big brand cultivation, we put forward the key points in cultivation, aiming at obtaining branded Chinese medicine with widely recognized efficacy, good quality control system and mechanism well explained and meanwhile which can bring innovation improvement to theory of Chinese medicine. According to the characters of SMEs, we hold a view that to build multidisciplinary research union could be considered as basic path, and then, from top-level design, skill upgrading and application three stages to probe the implementation strategy.

  13. Narrative health research: exploring big and small stories as analytical tools.

    PubMed

    Sools, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    In qualitative health research many researchers use a narrative approach to study lay health concepts and experiences. In this article, I explore the theoretical linkages between the concepts narrative and health, which are used in a variety of ways. The article builds on previous work that conceptualizes health as a multidimensional, positive, dynamic and morally dilemmatic yet meaningful practice. I compare big and small stories as analytical tools to explore what narrative has to offer to address, nuance and complicate five challenges in narrative health research: (1) the interplay between health and other life issues; (2) the taken-for-granted yet rare character of the experience of good health; (3) coherence or incoherence as norms for good health; (4) temporal issues; (5) health as moral practice. In this article, I do not present research findings per se; rather, I use two interview excerpts for methodological and theoretical reflections. These interview excerpts are derived from a health promotion study in the Netherlands, which was partly based on peer-to-peer interviews. I conclude with a proposal to advance narrative health research by sensitizing researchers to different usages of both narrative and health, and the interrelationship(s) between the two.

  14. Start small, dream big: Experiences of physical activity in public spaces in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; González, Silvia Alejandra; Ríos, Ana Paola; Páez, Diana C; Torres, Andrea; Díaz, María Paula; Pratt, Michael; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2016-08-26

    Multi-sectoral strategies to promote active recreation and physical activity in public spaces are crucial to building a "culture of health". However, studies on the sustainability and scalability of these strategies are limited. This paper identifies the factors related to the sustainability and scaling up of two community-based programs offering physical activity classes in public spaces in Colombia: Bogotá's Recreovía and Colombia's "Healthy Habits and Lifestyles Program-HEVS". Both programs have been sustained for more than 10years, and have benefited 1455 communities. We used a mixed-methods approach including semi-structured interviews, document review and an analysis of data regarding the programs' history, characteristics, funding, capacity building and challenges. Interviews were conducted between May-October 2015. Based on the sustainability frameworks of Shediac-Rizkallah and Bone and Scheirer, we developed categories to independently code each interview. All information was independently analyzed by four of the authors and cross-compared between programs. Findings showed that these programs underwent adaptation processes to address the challenges that threatened their continuation and growth. The primary strategies included flexibility/adaptability, investing in the working conditions and training of instructors, allocating public funds and requesting accountability, diversifying resources, having community support and champions at different levels and positions, and carrying out continuous advocacy to include physical activity in public policies. Recreovía and HEVS illustrate sustainability as an incremental, multi-level process at different levels. Lessons learned for similar initiatives include the importance of individual actions and small events, a willingness to start small while dreaming big, being flexible, and prioritizing the human factor.

  15. Small Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: University of Miami Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Hatoum, Georges F. Patton, Brandon; Takita, Cristiane; Abdel-Wahab, May; LaFave, Kelly; Weed, Donald; Reis, Isildinha M.

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: To describe University of Miami experience in the treatment of small cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Methods and Materials: A total of 12 patients with nonmetastatic small cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated between April 1987 and September 2007. Radiotherapy was the primary local treatment modality for 8 patients. Results: Of the 12 patients, 8 had died after a median follow-up of 13 months. The 4 patients who were alive were followed for a median of 14 months. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the proportion of small cell head-and-neck cancer patients surviving to 1 and 2 years was 63% and 26%, respectively. The percentage of patients remaining disease free at 1 and 2 years was 71% and 44%, respectively. The patients with tonsil/parotid gland cancer had significantly greater disease-specific survival compared with the other patients. The median survival time was 30 months in the tonsil/parotid group compared with 15.2 months in the other group (patients with small cell carcinoma of the sinonasal cavity, nasopharynx, and larynx). A total of 4 patients developed recurrence, 3 of whom had a distant failure component. The treatment modality was not associated with a difference in disease-specific survival. The 1-year disease-specific survival rate was 73% in the radiotherapy or radiotherapy/chemotherapy group compared with 67% in the other group. Conclusion: Radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy is a reasonable alternative to surgery for patients with small cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Patients with tonsillar or parotid small cell carcinomas did better than other sites. More aggressive treatment might be warranted for patients with sinonasal carcinoma. The outcome, however, continues to be suboptimal, and more effective therapy is needed because most patients had a component of local and distant failure.

  16. IEDA: Making Small Data BIG Through Interdisciplinary Partnerships Among Long-tail Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnert, K. A.; Carbotte, S. M.; Arko, R. A.; Ferrini, V. L.; Hsu, L.; Song, L.; Ghiorso, M. S.; Walker, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Big Data world in the Earth Sciences so far exists primarily for disciplines that generate massive volumes of observational or computed data using large-scale, shared instrumentation such as global sensor networks, satellites, or high-performance computing facilities. These data are typically managed and curated by well-supported community data facilities that also provide the tools for exploring the data through visualization or statistical analysis. In many other domains, especially those where data are primarily acquired by individual investigators or small teams (known as 'Long-tail data'), data are poorly shared and integrated, lacking a community-based data infrastructure that ensures persistent access, quality control, standardization, and integration of data, as well as appropriate tools to fully explore and mine the data within the context of broader Earth Science datasets. IEDA (Integrated Earth Data Applications, www.iedadata.org) is a data facility funded by the US NSF to develop and operate data services that support data stewardship throughout the full life cycle of observational data in the solid earth sciences, with a focus on the data management needs of individual researchers. IEDA builds on a strong foundation of mature disciplinary data systems for marine geology and geophysics, geochemistry, and geochronology. These systems have dramatically advanced data resources in those long-tail Earth science domains. IEDA has strengthened these resources by establishing a consolidated, enterprise-grade infrastructure that is shared by the domain-specific data systems, and implementing joint data curation and data publication services that follow community standards. In recent years, other domain-specific data efforts have partnered with IEDA to take advantage of this infrastructure and improve data services to their respective communities with formal data publication, long-term preservation of data holdings, and better sustainability. IEDA hopes to

  17. [Clark's head tent or "small mask"? Value of high oxygen flows administered through a mask].

    PubMed

    Landrieu, J P; Milhaud, A; Brille, P; Hermant, A; Tinturier, F

    1991-01-01

    The measurement of transcutaneous PtcO2 in eight normal adults prove a comparable efficacy of 50 l.min-1 O2 through facial "small mask" (61.5 kPa; 463 mmHg) and 20 l.min-1 O2 through head tent (65.1 kPa; 490 mmHg). First procedure, inexpensive, is very simple to use.

  18. A detector head design for small-animal PET with silicon photomultipliers (SiPM).

    PubMed

    Moehrs, Sascha; Del Guerra, Alberto; Herbert, Deborah J; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2006-03-07

    Small-animal PET systems are now striving for sub-millimetre resolution. Current systems based upon PSPMTs and finely pixellated scintillators can be pushed to higher resolution, but at the expense of other performance parameters and a rapidly escalating cost. Moreover, depth of interaction (DOI) information is usually difficult to assess in such systems, even though this information is highly desirable to reduce the parallax error, which is often the dominant error for such high-resolution systems. In this study we propose a high-resolution detector head for a small-animal PET imaging system with intrinsic DOI information. Instead of a pixellated scintillator, our design is based upon the classic Anger camera principle, i.e. the head is constructed of modular layers each consisting of a continuous slab of scintillator, viewed by a new type of compact silicon photodetector. The photodetector is the recently developed silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) that as well as being very compact has many other attractive properties: high gain at low bias voltage, excellent single-photoelectron resolution and fast timing. A detector head of about 4 x 4 cm2 in area is proposed, constructed from three modular layers of the type described above. We perform a simulation study, using the Monte Carlo simulation package Geant4. The simulation results are used to optimize the geometry of the detector head and characterize its performance. Additionally, hit estimation algorithms are studied to determine the interaction position of annihilation photons correctly over the whole detector surface. The resulting detector has a nearly uniform efficiency for 511 keV photons of approximately 70% and an intrinsic spatial resolution of less than approximately 0.4 mm full width at half maximum (fwhm).

  19. Small Schools in the Big City: Neoliberalism, Bureaucracy and the Sustainability of Small by Design Schools in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitluck, Corrin

    2010-01-01

    Assuming the strength of small by design schools for poor urban students of color to be a settled question, this project attempts to analyze the sustainability of small by design schools in a large, complex urban district. Asking what causes small schools to converge toward or diverge from the small by design model, I analyze three sets of design…

  20. Age-related trends of inhibitory control in Stroop-like big-small task in 3 to 12-year-old children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Yoshifumi; Okuzumi, Hideyuki; Kokubun, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitory control is the ability to suppress competing, dominant, automatic, or prepotent cognitive processing at perceptual, intermediate, and output stages. Inhibitory control is a key cognitive function of typical and atypical child development. This study examined age-related trends of Stroop-like interference in 3 to 12-year-old children and young adults by administration of a computerized Stroop-like big-small task with reduced working memory demand. This task used a set of pictures displaying a big and small circle in black and included the same condition and the opposite condition. In the same condition, each participant was instructed to say "big" when viewing the big circle and to say "small" when viewing the small circle. In the opposite condition, each participant was instructed to say "small" when viewing the big circle and to say "big" when viewing the small circle. The opposite condition required participants to inhibit the prepotent response of saying the same, a familiar response to a perceptual stimulus. The results of this study showed that Stroop-like interference decreased markedly in children in terms of error rates and correct response time. There was no deterioration of performance occurring between the early trials and the late trials in the sessions of the day-night task. Moreover, pretest failure rate was relatively low in this study. The Stroop-like big-small task is a useful tool to assess the development of inhibitory control in young children in that the task is easy to understand and has small working memory demand.

  1. Big physics, small doses: the use of AMS and PET in human microdosing of development drugs.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Graham; Garner, R Colin

    2003-03-01

    The process of early clinical drug development has changed little over the past 20 years despite an up to 40% failure rate associated with inappropriate drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics of candidate molecules. A new method of obtaining human metabolism data known as microdosing has been developed which will permit smarter candidate selection by taking investigational drugs into humans earlier. Microdosing depends on the availability of two ultrasensitive 'big-physics' techniques: positron emission tomography (PET) can provide pharmacodynamic information, whereas accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) provides pharmacokinetic information. Microdosing allows safer human studies as well as reducing the use of animals in preclinical toxicology.

  2. Small Schools in a Big World: Thinking about a Wicked Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Michael; Tinkham, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The position of small rural schools is precarious in much of rural Canada today. What is to be done about small schools in rural communities which are often experiencing population decline and aging, economic restructuring, and the loss of employment and services? We argue this issue is a classic "wicked" policy problem. Small schools…

  3. From Big Data to Small Transportable Products for Decision Support for Floods in Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandl, D.; Frye, S.; Cappelaere, P.; Policelli, F.; Handy, M.; Sohlberg, R. A.; Grossman, R.

    2013-12-01

    During the past four years, a team from NASA, Oklahoma University, University of Maryland and University of Chicago in collaboration with the Namibia Hydrological Services (NHS) has explored ways to provide decision support products for floods. The products include a variety of data including a hydrological model, ground measurements such as river gauges, and earth remote sensing data. This poster or presentation highlights the lessons learned in acquiring, storing, managing big data on the cloud and turning it into relevant products for GEOSS users. Technology that has been explored includes the use of Hadoop/MapReduce and Accumulo to process and manage the large data sets. OpenStreetMap was explored for use in cataloging water boundaries and enabling collaborative mapping of the base water mask and floods. A Flood Dashboard was created to customize displays of various data products. Finally, a higher level Geo-Social Application Processing Interface (API) was developed so that users can discover, generate products dynamically for their specific needs/societal benefit areas and then share them with their Community of Practice over social networks. Results of this experiment have included 100x reduction in size of some flood products, making it possible to distribute these products to mobile platforms and/or bandwidth-limited users.

  4. Linking Big and Small Data Across the Social, Engineering, and Earth Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Levy, M. A.; Downs, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    The challenges of sustainable development cut across the social, health, ecological, engineering, and Earth sciences, across a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, and across the spectrum from basic to applied research and decision making. The rapidly increasing availability of data and information in digital form from a variety of data repositories, networks, and other sources provides new opportunities to link and integrate both traditional data holdings as well as emerging "big data" resources in ways that enable interdisciplinary research and facilitate the use of objective scientific data and information in society. Taking advantage of these opportunities not only requires improved technical and scientific data interoperability across disciplines, scales, and data types, but also concerted efforts to bridge gaps and barriers between key communities, institutions, and networks. Given the long time perspectives required in planning sustainable approaches to development, it is also imperative to address user requirements for long-term data continuity and stewardship by trustworthy repositories. We report here on lessons learned by CIESIN working on a range of sustainable development issues to integrate data across multiple repositories and networks. This includes CIESIN's roles in developing policy-relevant climate and environmental indicators, soil data for African agriculture, and exposure and risk measures for hazards, disease, and conflict, as well as CIESIN's participation in a range of national and international initiatives related both to sustainable development and to open data access, interoperability, and stewardship.

  5. Small is the new big: An overview of newer supraglottic airways for children.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Rakhee

    2015-01-01

    Almost all supraglottic airways (SGAs) are now available in pediatric sizes. The availability of these smaller sizes, especially in the last five years has brought a marked change in the whole approach to airway management in children. SGAs are now used for laparoscopic surgeries, head and neck surgeries, remote anesthesia; and for ventilation during resuscitation. A large number of reports have described the use of SGAs in difficult airway situations, either as a primary or a rescue airway. Despite this expanded usage, there remains little evidence to support its usage in prolonged surgeries and in the intensive care unit. This article presents an overview of the current options available, suitability of one over the other and reviews the published data relating to each device. In this review, the author also addresses some of the general concerns regarding the use of SGAs and explores newer roles of their use in children.

  6. Small is the new big: An overview of newer supraglottic airways for children

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Rakhee

    2015-01-01

    Almost all supraglottic airways (SGAs) are now available in pediatric sizes. The availability of these smaller sizes, especially in the last five years has brought a marked change in the whole approach to airway management in children. SGAs are now used for laparoscopic surgeries, head and neck surgeries, remote anesthesia; and for ventilation during resuscitation. A large number of reports have described the use of SGAs in difficult airway situations, either as a primary or a rescue airway. Despite this expanded usage, there remains little evidence to support its usage in prolonged surgeries and in the intensive care unit. This article presents an overview of the current options available, suitability of one over the other and reviews the published data relating to each device. In this review, the author also addresses some of the general concerns regarding the use of SGAs and explores newer roles of their use in children. PMID:26702197

  7. Big and small numbers: Empirical support for a single, flexible mechanism for numerosity perception.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Rakesh; Bapiraju, S; Melcher, David

    2017-01-01

    The existence of perceptually distinct numerosity ranges has been proposed for small (i.e., subitizing range) and larger numbers based on differences in precision, Weber fractions, and reaction times. This raises the question of whether such dissociations reflect distinct mechanisms operating across the two numerosity ranges. In the present work, we explore the predictions of a single-layer recurrent on-center, off-surround network model of attentional priority that has been applied to object individuation and enumeration. Activity from the network can be used to model various phenomena in the domain of visual number perception based on a single parameter: the strength of inhibition between nodes. Specifically, higher inhibition allows for precise representation of small numerosities, while low inhibition is preferred for high numerosities. The model makes novel predictions, including that enumeration of small numerosities following large numerosities should result in longer reaction times than when a small numerosity trial following small numerosities. Moreover, the model predicts underestimation of number when a display containing a large number of items follows a trial with small numerosities. We behaviorally confirmed these predictions in a series of experiments. This pattern of results is consistent with a single, flexible object individuation system, which can be modeled successfully by dynamic on-center, off-surround network model of the attentional priority (saliency) map.

  8. Small Genetic Circuits and MicroRNAs: Big Players in Polymerase II Transcriptional Control in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Cumbie, Jason S.; Ivanchenko, Maria G.

    2016-01-01

    RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) regulatory cascades involving transcription factors (TFs) and their targets orchestrate the genetic circuitry of every eukaryotic organism. In order to understand how these cascades function, they can be dissected into small genetic networks, each containing just a few Pol II transcribed genes, that generate specific signal-processing outcomes. Small RNA regulatory circuits involve direct regulation of a small RNA by a TF and/or direct regulation of a TF by a small RNA and have been shown to play unique roles in many organisms. Here, we will focus on small RNA regulatory circuits containing Pol II transcribed microRNAs (miRNAs). While the role of miRNA-containing regulatory circuits as modular building blocks for the function of complex networks has long been on the forefront of studies in the animal kingdom, plant studies are poised to take a lead role in this area because of their advantages in probing transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of Pol II genes. The relative simplicity of tissue- and cell-type organization, miRNA targeting, and genomic structure make the Arabidopsis thaliana plant model uniquely amenable for small RNA regulatory circuit studies in a multicellular organism. In this Review, we cover analysis, tools, and validation methods for probing the component interactions in miRNA-containing regulatory circuits. We then review the important roles that plant miRNAs are playing in these circuits and summarize methods for the identification of small genetic circuits that strongly influence plant function. We conclude by noting areas of opportunity where new plant studies are imminently needed. PMID:26869700

  9. Small Genetic Circuits and MicroRNAs: Big Players in Polymerase II Transcriptional Control in Plants.

    PubMed

    Megraw, Molly; Cumbie, Jason S; Ivanchenko, Maria G; Filichkin, Sergei A

    2016-02-01

    RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) regulatory cascades involving transcription factors (TFs) and their targets orchestrate the genetic circuitry of every eukaryotic organism. In order to understand how these cascades function, they can be dissected into small genetic networks, each containing just a few Pol II transcribed genes, that generate specific signal-processing outcomes. Small RNA regulatory circuits involve direct regulation of a small RNA by a TF and/or direct regulation of a TF by a small RNA and have been shown to play unique roles in many organisms. Here, we will focus on small RNA regulatory circuits containing Pol II transcribed microRNAs (miRNAs). While the role of miRNA-containing regulatory circuits as modular building blocks for the function of complex networks has long been on the forefront of studies in the animal kingdom, plant studies are poised to take a lead role in this area because of their advantages in probing transcriptional and posttranscriptional control of Pol II genes. The relative simplicity of tissue- and cell-type organization, miRNA targeting, and genomic structure make the Arabidopsis thaliana plant model uniquely amenable for small RNA regulatory circuit studies in a multicellular organism. In this Review, we cover analysis, tools, and validation methods for probing the component interactions in miRNA-containing regulatory circuits. We then review the important roles that plant miRNAs are playing in these circuits and summarize methods for the identification of small genetic circuits that strongly influence plant function. We conclude by noting areas of opportunity where new plant studies are imminently needed.

  10. Petit bourgeois health care? The big small-business of private complementary medical practice.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin J; Phillips, David R

    2005-05-01

    Although small business private complementary medicine (CAM) has grown to be a significant provider of health care in many Western societies, there has been relatively little research on the sector in business terms and on its wider socio-economic position and role. Using a combined questionnaire and interview survey, and the concept of small business petit bourgeoisie as a framework, this paper considers the character of therapists and their businesses in England and Wales. The findings suggest that typical of the core characteristics of both the petit bourgeoisie and therapists are the selling of goods with a considerable market viability, at the same time financial insecurity; the modest size of businesses; small amounts of direct employment generation and business owners undertaking everyday 'hands-on' work themselves. Certain of the therapists' and business characteristics depart from the stereotypical image of a small businesses class, such as the high incidence of part-time self-employment and incomes being supplemented often by unrelated waged employment. However, given the acknowledged diversity of the petit bourgeoisie between societies and over time, the framework is arguably appropriate in this context, and private CAM a latest guise. Indeed, just as the petit bourgeoisie have traditionally found market niches either neglected or rejected by bigger business, small business CAM has provided the forms of health care neglected and sometimes rejected by orthodox medicine.

  11. Small RNAs, big impact: small RNA pathways in transposon control and their effect on the host stress response.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Bayly S

    2013-12-01

    Transposons are mobile genetic elements that are a major constituent of most genomes. Organisms regulate transposable element expression, transposition, and insertion site preference, mitigating the genome instability caused by uncontrolled transposition. A recent burst of research has demonstrated the critical role of small non-coding RNAs in regulating transposition in fungi, plants, and animals. While mechanistically distinct, these pathways work through a conserved paradigm. The presence of a transposon is communicated by the presence of its RNA or by its integration into specific genomic loci. These signals are then translated into small non-coding RNAs that guide epigenetic modifications and gene silencing back to the transposon. In addition to being regulated by the host, transposable elements are themselves capable of influencing host gene expression. Transposon expression is responsive to environmental signals, and many transposons are activated by various cellular stresses. TEs can confer local gene regulation by acting as enhancers and can also confer global gene regulation through their non-coding RNAs. Thus, transposable elements can act as stress-responsive regulators that control host gene expression in cis and trans.

  12. Small-pore, big opportunity: searching for novel applications of small-pore zeolites by means of pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Im, J.; Lee, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Pressure-induced structural and chemical changes observed in small-pore zeolite natrolites are especially encouraging in terms of finding appropriate applications as they occur in the industrially-achievable low-pressure regime, i.e., as low as a few kilobars. After identifying the systematics of structural and chemical behaviors of natrolites in relation to the composition of pressure media, we have developed a procedure to exchange and sequestrate both Cs cation and I anion under intermediate pressure and temperature conditions. This result points towards the possibility of designing novel storage means for important radionuclides. Another avenue to utilize the unique pressure-induced chemistry of small-pore zeolite natrolite is to trap nominally non-adsorbable gas molecules via auxetic expansion under pressure. We have recently succeeded in pressure-induced insertion of Xe into silver-natrolite. Intriguingly, Xe adsorption occurs concomitant with charge disproportionation of silver cations to form silver nano-blobs on the surface of natrolite crystals. We will also present here various usages of laboratory-based high-pressure devices and characterization tools, which play important roles to confirm the synchrotron-based high-pressure experiments involving synthesis of new materials.

  13. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) Engine and Stage: How Small Is Big Enough?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2016-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) derives its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core. It generates high thrust and has a specific impulse potential of approximately 900 specific impulse - a 100 percent increase over today's best chemical rockets. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) project, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program, includes five key task activities: (1) Recapture, demonstration, and validation of heritage graphite composite (GC) fuel (selected as the Lead Fuel option); (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Operating Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable Development Strategy. During fiscal year (FY) 2014, a preliminary Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT&E) plan and schedule for NTP development was outlined by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC), Department of Energy (DOE) and industry that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included Ground Technology Demonstration (GTD) tests at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), followed by a Flight Technology Demonstration (FTD) mission. To reduce cost for the GTD tests and FTD mission, small NTR engines, in either the 7.5 or 16.5 kilopound-force thrust class, were considered. Both engine options used GC fuel and a common fuel element (FE) design. The small approximately 7.5 kilopound-force criticality-limited engine produces approximately157 thermal megawatts and its core is configured with parallel rows of hexagonal-shaped FEs and tie tubes (TTs) with a FE to TT ratio of approximately 1:1. The larger approximately 16.5 kilopound-force Small Nuclear Rocket Engine (SNRE), developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at the end of the Rover program, produces approximately 367 thermal megawatts and has a FE to TT ratio of approximately 2:1. Although both engines use a common 35-inch (approximately

  14. Building a lasting partnership - small-scale canola biodiesel experiment may go big

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT) of north central Washington, with assistance from USDA-ARS, hand-planted several rows of spring canola in Omak, Washington on Tribal land. The objective of this small-scale experiment was to determine if canola could be grown in this region to ultimate...

  15. How to Make Big Improvements in the Small PR Shop. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. Keith, Comp.; Hunt, Susan, Ed.

    This guide for small public relations (PR) offices at colleges and universities includes sample job descriptions, information on PR duties and priorities, sample policy statements and operating guidelines, sample publicity materials, questionnaires, and internal forms for organization. Twenty-six tips on time management are provided in an article…

  16. Big concerns with small projects: Evaluating the socio-ecological impacts of small hydropower projects in India.

    PubMed

    Jumani, Suman; Rao, Shishir; Machado, Siddarth; Prakash, Anup

    2017-05-01

    Although Small Hydropower Projects (SHPs) are encouraged as sources of clean and green energy, there is a paucity of research examining their socio-ecological impacts. We assessed the perceived socio-ecological impacts of 4 SHPs within the Western Ghats in India by conducting semi-structured interviews with local respondents. Primary interview data were sequentially validated with secondary data, and respondent perceptions were subsequently compared against the expected baseline of assured impacts. We evaluated the level of awareness about SHPs, their perceived socio-economic impacts, influence on resource access and impacts on human-elephant interactions. The general level of awareness about SHPs was low, and assurances of local electricity and employment generation remained largely unfulfilled. Additionally most respondents faced numerous unanticipated adverse impacts. We found a strong relationship between SHP construction and increasing levels of human-elephant conflict. Based on the disparity between assured and actual social impacts, we suggest that policies regarding SHPs be suitably revised.

  17. Small Integrated Optical Head Device Using a Blue-Violet Laser Diode for Blu-ray Disc System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manoh, Kiyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Takase, Motohiro; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Fujiwara, Satoshi; Ohno, Tsuyoshi; Nishi, Noriaki; Ozawa, Masafumi; Ikeda, Masao; Tojyo, Tsuyoshi; Taniguchi, Tadashi

    2003-02-01

    We report the first integrated optical head device using a blue-violet laser diode (LD), which is a key device for realizing a small and thin Blu-ray Disc drive. While integrating seven optical elements and semiconductor chips into one device by adopting a molded optical element with high transmittance to the blue-violet wavelength, both small aberration and the small device size of 11 mm× 6 mm× 4.1 mm have been realized. We have also improved heat dissipation efficiency from this device to the base unit by adopting a newly developed package. At this time, we have implemented a performance evaluation of this small head device and have confirmed its good read/write performance as well as its adequate tolerances required for the Blu-ray Disc system.

  18. Individuality beyond the Dichotomy of "Small Self and Big Self" in Contemporary Chinese Education: Lessons from Hu Shi and Liang Shuming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Huajun

    2013-01-01

    This article identifies the problem that an instrumentalist mode of thinking dominates China's contemporary education practice and suggests that the dichotomy between the "small self and big self," a notion that has been present throughout modern Chinese history, exacerbates this instrumentalism. It parallels the loss of China's…

  19. Study on clear stereo image pair acquisition method for small objects with big vertical size in SLM vision system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuezong; Jin, Yan; Wang, Lika; Geng, Benliang

    2016-05-01

    Microscopic vision system with stereo light microscope (SLM) has been applied to surface profile measurement. If the vertical size of a small object exceeds the range of depth, its images will contain clear and fuzzy image regions. Hence, in order to obtain clear stereo images, we propose a microscopic sequence image fusion method which is suitable for SLM vision system. First, a solution to capture and align image sequence is designed, which outputs an aligning stereo images. Second, we decompose stereo image sequence by wavelet analysis theory, and obtain a series of high and low frequency coefficients with different resolutions. Then fused stereo images are output based on the high and low frequency coefficient fusion rules proposed in this article. The results show that Δw1 (Δw2 ) and ΔZ of stereo images in a sequence have linear relationship. Hence, a procedure for image alignment is necessary before image fusion. In contrast with other image fusion methods, our method can output clear fused stereo images with better performance, which is suitable for SLM vision system, and very helpful for avoiding image fuzzy caused by big vertical size of small objects.

  20. Small molecules, big roles -- the chemical manipulation of stem cell fate and somatic cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Wenlin; Laurent, Timothy; Ding, Sheng

    2012-12-01

    Despite the great potential of stem cells for basic research and clinical applications, obstacles - such as their scarce availability and difficulty in controlling their fate - need to be addressed to fully realize their potential. Recent achievements of cellular reprogramming have enabled the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or other lineage-committed cells from more accessible and abundant somatic cell types by defined genetic factors. However, serious concerns remain about the efficiency and safety of current genetic approaches to cell reprogramming and traditional culture systems that are used for stem cell maintenance. As a complementary approach, small molecules that target specific signaling pathways, epigenetic processes and other cellular processes offer powerful tools for manipulating cell fate to a desired outcome. A growing number of small molecules have been identified to maintain the self-renewal potential of stem cells, to induce lineage differentiation and to facilitate reprogramming by increasing the efficiency of reprogramming or by replacing genetic reprogramming factors. Furthermore, mechanistic investigations of the effects of these chemicals also provide new biological insights. Here, we examine recent achievements in the maintenance of stem cells, including pluripotent and lineage-specific stem cells, and in the control of cell fate conversions, including iPSC reprogramming, conversion of primed to naïve pluripotency, and transdifferentiation, with an emphasis on manipulation with small molecules.

  1. Big roles for small RNAs in polyploidy, hybrid vigor, and hybrid incompatibility.

    PubMed

    Ng, Danny W-K; Lu, Jie; Chen, Z Jeffrey

    2012-04-01

    Small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and trans-acting siRNAs (ta-siRNAs), mediate gene expression and epigenetic regulation. While siRNAs are highly diverged, miRNAs and ta-siRNAs are generally conserved but many are differentially expressed between related species and in interspecific hybrids and allopolyploids. On one hand, combination of diverged maternal and paternal siRNAs in the same nucleus may exert cis-acting and trans-acting effects on transposable elements (TEs) and TE-associated genes, leading to genomic instability and endosperm and embryo failures, constituting a bottleneck for the evolution of hybrids and polyploids. On the other hand, cis and trans-acting small RNAs induce quantitative and qualitative changes in epigenetic regulation, leading to morphological variation and hybrid vigor in F1 hybrids and stable allopolyploids as well as transgressive phenotypes in the progeny, increasing a potential for adaptive evolution.

  2. Small-molecule inhibition of STAT3 in radioresistant head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Uddalak; Eckols, T. Kris; Xu, Xuejun; Kasembeli, Moses M.; Chen, Yunyun; Adachi, Makoto; Song, Yongcheng; Mo, Qianxing; Lai, Stephen Y.; Tweardy, David J.

    2016-01-01

    While STAT3 has been validated as a target for treatment of many cancers, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a STAT3 inhibitor is yet to enter the clinic. We used the scaffold of C188, a small-molecule STAT3 inhibitor previously identified by us, in a hit-to-lead program to identify C188-9. C188-9 binds to STAT3 with high affinity and represents a substantial improvement over C188 in its ability to inhibit STAT3 binding to its pY-peptide ligand, to inhibit cytokine-stimulated pSTAT3, to reduce constitutive pSTAT3 activity in multiple HNSCC cell lines, and to inhibit anchorage dependent and independent growth of these cells. In addition, treatment of nude mice bearing xenografts of UM-SCC-17B, a radioresistant HNSCC line, with C188-9, but not C188, prevented tumor xenograft growth. C188-9 treatment modulated many STAT3-regulated genes involved in oncogenesis and radioresistance, as well as radioresistance genes regulated by STAT1, due to its potent activity against STAT1, in addition to STAT3. C188-9 was well tolerated in mice, showed good oral bioavailability, and was concentrated in tumors. Thus, C188-9, either alone or in combination with radiotherapy, has potential for use in treating HNSCC tumors that demonstrate increased STAT3 and/or STAT1 activation. PMID:27027445

  3. Multiple Small Diameter Drillings Increase Femoral Neck Stability Compared with Single Large Diameter Femoral Head Core Decompression Technique for Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head.

    PubMed

    Brown, Philip J; Mannava, Sandeep; Seyler, Thorsten M; Plate, Johannes F; Van Sikes, Charles; Stitzel, Joel D; Lang, Jason E

    2016-10-26

    Femoral head core decompression is an efficacious joint-preserving procedure for treatment of early stage avascular necrosis. However, postoperative fractures have been described which may be related to the decompression technique used. Femoral head decompressions were performed on 12 matched human cadaveric femora comparing large 8mm single bore versus multiple 3mm small drilling techniques. Ultimate failure strength of the femora was tested using a servo-hydraulic material testing system. Ultimate load to failure was compared between the different decompression techniques using two paired ANCOVA linear regression models. Prior to biomechanical testing and after the intervention, volumetric bone mineral density was determined using quantitative computed tomography to account for variation between cadaveric samples and to assess the amount of bone disruption by the core decompression. Core decompression, using the small diameter bore and multiple drilling technique, withstood significantly greater load prior to failure compared with the single large bore technique after adjustment for bone mineral density (p< 0.05). The 8mm single bore technique removed a significantly larger volume of bone compared to the 3mm multiple drilling technique (p< 0.001). However, total fracture energy was similar between the two core decompression techniques. When considering core decompression for the treatment of early stage avascular necrosis, the multiple small bore technique removed less bone volume, thereby potentially leading to higher load to failure.

  4. The Great Celestial Numbers - The Infinitely Big and The Infinitely Small

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodorani, M.

    2009-11-01

    This book is a travel that brings the reader to penetrate dimensionally the infinitely small and the infinitely large in the Universe, ranging from quarks to galaxies, and to compare these extreme numbers with the numbers that people encounters in normal life here on Earth. Several numerical examples are illustrated all over the text in a sort of scientific orienteering that describes dimensionally the realms of space, time and energy. The last part of the book shows how all spatial and temporal dimensions disappear when the mechanism of quantum entanglement is considered.

  5. Big Science, Small-Budget Space Experiment Package Aka MISSE-5: A Hardware And Software Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krasowski, Michael; Greer, Lawrence; Flatico, Joseph; Jenkins, Phillip; Spina, Dan

    2007-01-01

    Conducting space experiments with small budgets is a fact of life for many design groups with low-visibility science programs. One major consequence is that specialized space grade electronic components are often too costly to incorporate into the design. Radiation mitigation now becomes more complex as a result of being restricted to the use of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts. Unique hardware and software design techniques are required to succeed in producing a viable instrument suited for use in space. This paper highlights some of the design challenges and associated solutions encountered in the production of a highly capable, low cost space experiment package.

  6. Post-translational Modifications in Heart Failure: Small Changes, Big Impact.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ahyoung; Oh, Jae Gyun; Gorski, Przemek A; Hajjar, Roger J; Kho, Changwon

    2016-04-01

    Heart failure is a complex disease process with various aetiologies and is a significant cause of morbidity and death world-wide. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) alter protein structure and provide functional diversity in terms of physiological functions of the heart. In addition, alterations in protein PTMs have been implicated in human disease pathogenesis. Small ubiquitin-like modifier mediated modification (SUMOylation) pathway was found to play essential roles in cardiac development and function. Abnormal SUMOylation has emerged as a new feature of heart failure pathology. In this review, we will highlight the importance of SUMOylation as a regulatory mechanism of SERCA2a function, and its therapeutic potential for the treatment of heart failure.

  7. MicroRNA: a small molecule with a big biological impact.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaofeng; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant achievements in biological science in the last decade is the discovery of RNA interference (RNAi), a process within living cells that regulates gene expression at post-transcriptional levels. Historically, this process was described by other more generic names, such as co-suppression and post transcriptional gene silencing. Only after the molecular mechanism underlying these apparently unrelated processes was fully understood did it become apparent that they all described the RNAi phenomenon. In 2006, Dr. Andrew Fire and Dr. Craig C. Mello were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work on RNAi interference. RNAi is an RNA-dependent gene silencing process that is controlled by the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) and is initiated by two types of small RNA molecules - microRNA (miRNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA). However, the function of microRNA appears to be far beyond RNAi alone, including direct interaction with the gene promoter and epigenetic regulation of the DNA methylation and histone modification. By regulating gene expression, miRNAs are likely to be involved in diverse biological activities, such as tumorigenesis, immune response, insulin secretion, neurotransmitter synthesis, and circadian rhythm, to name a few. MicroRNAs are 21-23 nucleotide single stranded RNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells. The first miRNA, lin-4, was characterized in C. elegans in the early 1990s [1]. In the early years, the progress on microRNA research was slow and experienced substantial growing pains. The short length and uniqueness of each microRNA rendered many conventional hybridization based methods ineffective; very small RNAs are difficult to reliably amplify or label without introducing bias. In addition, hybridization-based methods for microRNA profiling relied on probes designed to detect known microRNAs or known microRNA species previously identified by sequencing or homology search. Recent evidence of

  8. Big Software for SmallSats: Adapting cFS to CubeSat Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan P.; Crum, Gary Alex; Sheikh, Salman; Marshall, James

    2015-01-01

    Expanding capabilities and mission objectives for SmallSats and CubeSats is driving the need for reliable, reusable, and robust flight software. While missions are becoming more complicated and the scientific goals more ambitious, the level of acceptable risk has decreased. Design challenges are further compounded by budget and schedule constraints that have not kept pace. NASA's Core Flight Software System (cFS) is an open source solution which enables teams to build flagship satellite level flight software within a CubeSat schedule and budget. NASA originally developed cFS to reduce mission and schedule risk for flagship satellite missions by increasing code reuse and reliability. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which launched in 2009, was the first of a growing list of Class B rated missions to use cFS.

  9. Big Effect of Small Nanoparticles: A Shift in Paradigm for Polymer Nanocomposites

    DOE PAGES

    Cheng, Shiwang; Xie, Shi-Jie; Carrillo, Jan-Michael Y.; ...

    2017-01-04

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are important materials that are widely used in many current technologies and potentially have broader applications in the future due to their excellent property of tunability, light weight and low cost. But, expanding the limits in property enhancement remains a fundamental scientific challenge. We demonstrate that well-dispersed, small (diameter ~1.8 nm) nanoparticles with attractive interactions lead to unexpectedly large and qualitatively new changes in PNC structural dynamics in comparison to conventional composites based on particles of diameter ~10-50 nm. At the same time, the zero-shear viscosity at high temperatures remains comparable to that of the neat polymer,more » thereby retaining good processibility and resolving a major challenge in PNC applications. These results suggest that the nanoparticle mobility and relatively short lifetimes of nanoparticlepolymer associations open qualitatively new horizons in tunability of macroscopic properties in nanocomposites with high potential for the development of new functional materials.« less

  10. Managing Astronomy Research Data: Case Studies of Big and Small Research Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Astronomy data management refers to all actions taken upon data over the course of the entire research process. It includes activities involving the collection, organization, analysis, release, storage, archiving, preservation, and curation of research data. Astronomers have cultivated data management tools, infrastructures, and local practices to ensure the use and future reuse of their data. However, new sky surveys will soon amass petabytes of data requiring new data management strategies.The goal of this dissertation, to be completed in 2015, is to identify and understand data management practices and the infrastructure and expertise required to support best practices. This will benefit the astronomy community in efforts toward an integrated scholarly communication framework.This dissertation employs qualitative, social science research methods (including interviews, observations, and document analysis) to conduct case studies of data management practices, covering the entire data lifecycle, amongst three populations: Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) collaboration team members; Individual and small-group users of SDSS data; and Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) collaboration team members. I have been observing the collection, release, and archiving of data by the SDSS collaboration, the data practices of individuals and small groups using SDSS data in journal articles, and the LSST collaboration's planning and building of infrastructure to produce data.Preliminary results demonstrate that current data management practices in astronomy are complex, situational, and heterogeneous. Astronomers often have different management repertoires for working on sky surveys and for their own data collections, varying their data practices as they move between projects. The multitude of practices complicates coordinated efforts to maintain data.While astronomy expertise proves critical to managing astronomy data in the short, medium, and long term, the larger astronomy

  11. Big cat, small cat: reconstructing body size evolution in living and extinct Felidae.

    PubMed

    Cuff, A R; Randau, M; Head, J; Hutchinson, J R; Pierce, S E; Goswami, A

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of body mass is a fundamental topic in evolutionary biology, because it is closely linked to manifold life history and ecological traits and is readily estimable for many extinct taxa. In this study, we examine patterns of body mass evolution in Felidae (Placentalia, Carnivora) to assess the effects of phylogeny, mode of evolution, and the relationship between body mass and prey choice in this charismatic mammalian clade. Our data set includes 39 extant and 26 extinct taxa, with published body mass data supplemented by estimates based on condylobasal length. These data were run through 'SURFACE' and 'bayou' to test for patterns of body mass evolution and convergence between taxa. Body masses of felids are significantly different among prey choice groupings (small, mixed and large). We find that body mass evolution in cats is strongly influenced by phylogeny, but different patterns emerged depending on inclusion of extinct taxa and assumptions about branch lengths. A single Ornstein-Uhlenbeck optimum best explains the distribution of body masses when first-occurrence data were used for the fossil taxa. However, when mean occurrence dates or last known occurrence dates were used, two selective optima for felid body mass were recovered in most analyses: a small optimum around 5 kg and a large one around 100 kg. Across living and extinct cats, we infer repeated evolutionary convergences towards both of these optima, but, likely due to biased extinction of large taxa, our results shift to supporting a Brownian motion model when only extant taxa are included in analyses.

  12. Small change, big difference: Sea surface temperature distributions for tropical coral reef ecosystems, 1950-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lough, J. M.

    2012-09-01

    Changes in tropical sea surface temperature (SST) are examined over the period 1950-2011 during which global average temperature warmed by 0.4°C. Average tropical SST is warming about 70% of the global average rate. Spatially, significant warming between the two time periods, 1950-1980 and 1981-2011, has occurred across 65% of the tropical oceans. Coral reef ecosystems occupy 10% of the tropical oceans, typically in regions of warmer (+1.8°C) and less variable SST (80% of months within 3.3°C range) compared to non-reef areas (80% of months within 7.0°C range). SST is a primary controlling factor of coral reef distribution and coral reef organisms have already shown their sensitivity to the relatively small amount of warming observed so far through, for example, more frequent coral bleaching events and outbreaks of coral disease. Experimental evidence is also emerging of possible thermal thresholds in the range 30°C-32°C for some physiological processes of coral reef organisms. Relatively small changes in SST have already resulted in quite large differences in SST distribution with a maximum ‘hot spot’ of change in the near-equatorial Indo-Pacific which encompasses both the Indo-Pacific warm pools and the center of coral reef biodiversity. Identification of this hot spot of SST change is not new but this study highlights its significance with respect to tropical coral reef ecosystems. Given the modest amount of warming to date, changes in SST distribution are of particular concern for coral reefs given additional local anthropogenic stresses on many reefs and ongoing ocean acidification likely to increasingly compromise coral reef processes.

  13. Big Data: Big Confusion? Big Challenges?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    12th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium 12th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium Big Data: Big Confusion? Big Challenges? Mary Maureen...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE MAY 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Big ...Data: Big Confusion? Big Challenges? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK

  14. miRNAs: small genes with big potential in metazoan phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Tarver, James E; Sperling, Erik A; Nailor, Audrey; Heimberg, Alysha M; Robinson, Jeffrey M; King, Benjamin L; Pisani, Davide; Donoghue, Philip C J; Peterson, Kevin J

    2013-11-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are a key component of gene regulatory networks and have been implicated in the regulation of virtually every biological process found in multicellular eukaryotes. What makes them interesting from a phylogenetic perspective is the high conservation of primary sequence between taxa, their accrual in metazoan genomes through evolutionary time, and the rarity of secondary loss in most metazoan taxa. Despite these properties, the use of miRNAs as phylogenetic markers has not yet been discussed within a clear conceptual framework. Here we highlight five properties of miRNAs that underlie their utility in phylogenetics: 1) The processes of miRNA biogenesis enable the identification of novel miRNAs without prior knowledge of sequence; 2) The continuous addition of miRNA families to metazoan genomes through evolutionary time; 3) The low level of secondary gene loss in most metazoan taxa; 4) The low substitution rate in the mature miRNA sequence; and 5) The small probability of convergent evolution of two miRNAs. Phylogenetic analyses using both Bayesian and parsimony methods on a eumetazoan miRNA data set highlight the potential of miRNAs to become an invaluable new tool, especially when used as an additional line of evidence, to resolve previously intractable nodes within the tree of life.

  15. Sample preparation for mass spectrometry imaging: small mistakes can lead to big consequences.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Richard J A

    2012-08-30

    Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) enables the direct analysis of molecules from the surface of a wide variety of samples, allowing the multiplex measurement of both abundance and distribution of small molecules, lipids, peptides and proteins. As the technology has been refined an increasing number of ionization methods and mass analyzers has been used that enable increased spatial and spectral resolution measurements to be made at an increased speed. Alongside the instrumentation improvements there has been optimization of sample preparation procedures that allow the highest quality data to be obtained, reproducibly, from an ever increasing diversity of samples. This review will consider the development and standardization of sample preparation methods applicable to MSI, describing the stages and procedures undertaken from the instance of sample collection, through storage, preparation and on through final processing prior to analysis. Recent technical advancements will be highlighted and areas where further experimentation and optimization may well be required will be described. All aspects of the sample preparation pipeline will be considered in detail, with examples from the literature used to emphasize why rigorous sample preparation for MSI is vital to achieve the most accurate, reproducible and validated MSI data possible.

  16. Microcredit in West Africa: how small loans make a big impact on poverty.

    PubMed

    Gbezo, B E

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the impact of microfinancing schemes in West Africa and the role of the International Labor Organization (ILO) in their development. Microfinancing or microcredit schemes are meant to create the kind of jobs that can keep households severely hit by the economic crisis afloat. They affect not only the financial, but also the agricultural, crafts, financing of social economy, and social protection sectors of the society. Thus, they contribute to improved access to basic social, health and family planning services and to drinking water. The challenge then, is for institutes to adopt microfinancing and to reach out to more than 100 million families in the region. To realize this, nongovernmental organizations are setting up as veritable microfinancing institutions, which are able to realize the resulting benefits so as to be economically viable. In the context of its role in the development of microfinancing schemes, ILO manages a portfolio of technical cooperation and research projects aimed at identifying and removing constraints in the access to credit, savings, insurance, and other financial services through its Social Finance Unit. In addition, ILO is promoting women's entrepreneurship through the International Small Enterprise Programme and the International Programme on More and Better Jobs for Women.

  17. Hypersonic acoustic excitations in binary colloidal crystals: big versus small hard sphere control.

    PubMed

    Tommaseo, G; Petekidis, G; Steffen, W; Fytas, G; Schofield, A B; Stefanou, N

    2007-01-07

    The phononic band structure of two binary colloidal crystals, at hypersonic frequencies, is studied by means of Brillouin light scattering and analyzed in conjunction with corresponding dispersion diagrams of the single colloidal crystals of the constituent particles. Besides the acoustic band of the average medium, the authors' results show the existence of narrow bands originating from resonant multipole modes of the individual particles as well as Bragg-type modes due to the (short-range) periodicity. Strong interaction, leading to the occurrence of hybridization gaps, is observed between the acoustic band and the band of quadrupole modes of the particles that occupy the largest fractional volume of the mixed crystal; the effective radius is either that of the large (in the symmetric NaCl-type crystalline phase) or the small (in the asymmetric NaZn(13)-type crystalline phase) particles. The possibility to reveal a universal behavior of the phononic band structure for different single and binary colloidal crystalline suspensions, by representing in the dispersion diagrams reduced quantities using an appropriate length scale, is discussed.

  18. SMPDB 2.0: big improvements to the Small Molecule Pathway Database.

    PubMed

    Jewison, Timothy; Su, Yilu; Disfany, Fatemeh Miri; Liang, Yongjie; Knox, Craig; Maciejewski, Adam; Poelzer, Jenna; Huynh, Jessica; Zhou, You; Arndt, David; Djoumbou, Yannick; Liu, Yifeng; Deng, Lu; Guo, An Chi; Han, Beomsoo; Pon, Allison; Wilson, Michael; Rafatnia, Shahrzad; Liu, Philip; Wishart, David S

    2014-01-01

    The Small Molecule Pathway Database (SMPDB, http://www.smpdb.ca) is a comprehensive, colorful, fully searchable and highly interactive database for visualizing human metabolic, drug action, drug metabolism, physiological activity and metabolic disease pathways. SMPDB contains >600 pathways with nearly 75% of its pathways not found in any other database. All SMPDB pathway diagrams are extensively hyperlinked and include detailed information on the relevant tissues, organs, organelles, subcellular compartments, protein cofactors, protein locations, metabolite locations, chemical structures and protein quaternary structures. Since its last release in 2010, SMPDB has undergone substantial upgrades and significant expansion. In particular, the total number of pathways in SMPDB has grown by >70%. Additionally, every previously entered pathway has been completely redrawn, standardized, corrected, updated and enhanced with additional molecular or cellular information. Many SMPDB pathways now include transporter proteins as well as much more physiological, tissue, target organ and reaction compartment data. Thanks to the development of a standardized pathway drawing tool (called PathWhiz) all SMPDB pathways are now much more easily drawn and far more rapidly updated. PathWhiz has also allowed all SMPDB pathways to be saved in a BioPAX format. Significant improvements to SMPDB's visualization interface now make the browsing, selection, recoloring and zooming of pathways far easier and far more intuitive. Because of its utility and breadth of coverage, SMPDB is now integrated into several other databases including HMDB and DrugBank.

  19. Delaying the Employer Mandate: Small Change in the Short Term, Big Cost in the Long Run.

    PubMed

    Price, Carter C; Saltzman, Evan

    2013-01-01

    In July 2013, the Obama administration announced a one-year delay in enforcement of the Affordable Care Act's (ACA) penalty on large employers that do not offer affordable health insurance coverage. To help policymakers understand the implications of this decision, RAND analysts employed the COMPARE microsimulation model to gauge the impact of the one-year delay of the so-called employer mandate. They found that the delay will not have a large impact on insurance coverage: Because relatively few firms and employees are affected, only 300,000 fewer people, or 0.2% of the population, will have access to insurance from their employer, and nearly all of these will get insurance from another source. However, a one-year delay in implementation of the mandate will result in $11 billion dollars less in federal inflows from employer penalties for that year. A full repeal of the employer mandate would cause revenue to fall by $149 billion over the next ten years (10% of the ACA's spending offsets), providing substantially less money to pay for other components of the law. The bottom line: The one-year delay in the employer mandate will have relatively few consequences, primarily resulting in a relatively small one-year drop in revenue; however, a complete elimination of the mandate would have a large cumulative net cost, potentially removing a nontrivial revenue source that in turn funds the coverage provisions in the ACA.

  20. Big Fish in Small Ponds: Massive Stars in the Low-mass Clusters of M83

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D.; Chandar, R.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kim, Hwihyun; Krumholz, Mark R.; Lee, J. C.; McElwee, Sean; O'Connell, R. W.; Whitmore, B.

    2014-09-01

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages <= 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the uIMF in M83 is consistent with a universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the lap103 M ⊙ clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  1. Big Fish in Small Ponds: massive stars in the low-mass clusters of M83

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, J. E.; Calzetti, D.; McElwee, Sean; Chandar, R.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Kennicutt, R. C.; Kim, Hwihyun; Krumholz, Mark R.; Lee, J. C.; Whitmore, B.; O'Connell, R. W. E-mail: callzetti@astro.umass.edu

    2014-09-20

    We have used multi-wavelength Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 data of the starbursting spiral galaxy M83 in order to measure variations in the upper end of the stellar initial mass function (uIMF) using the production rate of ionizing photons in unresolved clusters with ages ≤ 8 Myr. As in earlier papers on M51 and NGC 4214, the uIMF in M83 is consistent with a universal IMF, and stochastic sampling of the stellar populations in the ∼<10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} clusters are responsible for any deviations in this universality. The ensemble cluster population, as well as individual clusters, also imply that the most massive star in a cluster does not depend on the cluster mass. In fact, we have found that these small clusters seem to have an over-abundance of ionizing photons when compared to an expected universal or truncated IMF. This also suggests that the presence of massive stars in these clusters does not affect the star formation in a destructive way.

  2. Big Software for SmallSats: Adapting CFS to CubeSat Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cudmore, Alan P.; Crum, Gary; Sheikh, Salman; Marshall, James

    2015-01-01

    Expanding capabilities and mission objectives for SmallSats and CubeSats is driving the need for reliable, reusable, and robust flight software. While missions are becoming more complicated and the scientific goals more ambitious, the level of acceptable risk has decreased. Design challenges are further compounded by budget and schedule constraints that have not kept pace. NASA's Core Flight Software System (cFS) is an open source solution which enables teams to build flagship satellite level flight software within a CubeSat schedule and budget. NASA originally developed cFS to reduce mission and schedule risk for flagship satellite missions by increasing code reuse and reliability. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which launched in 2009, was the first of a growing list of Class B rated missions to use cFS. Large parts of cFS are now open source, which has spurred adoption outside of NASA. This paper reports on the experiences of two teams using cFS for current CubeSat missions. The performance overheads of cFS are quantified, and the reusability of code between missions is discussed. The analysis shows that cFS is well suited to use on CubeSats and demonstrates the portability and modularity of cFS code.

  3. Big capabilities in small packages: hyperspectral imaging from a compact platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Matthew; Goldberg, Hannah; Voorhees, Christopher; Illsley, Peter

    2016-09-01

    We present the Compact Holographic Aberration-corrected Platform (CHAP) instrument, designed and developed at Planetary Resources Development Corporation. By combining a dispersive element with the secondary of a telescope, we are able to produce a relatively long focal length with moderate dispersion at the focal plane. This design enables us to build a capable hyperspectral imaging instrument within the size constraints of the Cubesat form-factor. The advantages of our design revolves around its simplicity: there are only two optical elements, producing both a white light and diffracted image. With the use of a replicated grating, we can produce a long focal length hyperspectral imager at a price point far below other spaceflight instruments. The design is scalable for larger platforms and since it has no transmitting optics and only two reflective surfaces could be designed to function at any desired wavelength. Our system will be capable of spectral imaging across the 400 to 900 nm spectral range for use in small body surveys.

  4. Recombinant Interleukin-15 in Treating Patients With Advanced Melanoma, Kidney Cancer, Non-small Cell Lung Cancer, or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-05-05

    Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Head and Neck Carcinoma; Recurrent Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Skin Carcinoma; Stage III Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IIIA Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  5. Transcriptome sequencing uncovers novel long noncoding and small nucleolar RNAs dysregulated in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Angela E.; Ku, Jonjei; Honda, Thomas K.; Yu, Vicky; Kuo, Selena Z.; Zheng, Hao; Xuan, Yinan; Saad, Maarouf A.; Hinton, Andrew; Brumund, Kevin T.; Lin, Jonathan H.; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Ongkeko, Weg M.

    2015-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma persists as one of the most common and deadly malignancies, with early detection and effective treatment still posing formidable challenges. To expand our currently sparse knowledge of the noncoding alterations involved in the disease and identify potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets, we globally profiled the dysregulation of small nucleolar and long noncoding RNAs in head and neck tumors. Using next-generation RNA-sequencing data from 40 pairs of tumor and matched normal tissues, we found 2808 long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) transcripts significantly differentially expressed by a fold change magnitude ≥2. Meanwhile, RNA-sequencing analysis of 31 tumor-normal pairs yielded 33 significantly dysregulated small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNA). In particular, we identified two dramatically down-regulated lncRNAs and one down-regulated snoRNA whose expression levels correlated significantly with overall patient survival, suggesting their functional significance and clinical relevance in head and neck cancer pathogenesis. We confirmed the dysregulation of these noncoding RNAs in head and neck cancer cell lines derived from different anatomic sites, and determined that ectopic expression of the two lncRNAs inhibited key EMT and stem cell genes and reduced cellular proliferation and migration. As a whole, noncoding RNAs are pervasively dysregulated in head and squamous cell carcinoma. The precise molecular roles of the three transcripts identified warrants further characterization, but our data suggest that they are likely to play substantial roles in head and neck cancer pathogenesis and are significantly associated with patient survival. PMID:25904139

  6. Using small data to interpret big data: 311 reports as individual contributions to informal social control in urban neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Daniel Tumminelli

    2016-09-01

    Informal social control is considered a vital component of the well-being of urban communities. Though some argue that the actions that constitute this social process are often said to reflect territoriality, little else is known about how individuals contribute to it. The current study leverages a database of over 600,000 requests for government services received by the city of Boston, MA's 311 system as a way to answer such questions, focusing particularly on reports of issues in the public space arising from incivilities. In order to establish construct validity for the "big data" of the 311 system, they are combined with the "small data" of a survey of 311 users, permitting the simultaneous analysis of objective reporting behaviors with self-report attitudes. The analysis occurs in two parts. First, reporting of incivilities is distinguished behaviorally from reporting public issues arising from natural deterioration, and people are found to specialize in one or the other. Second, the survey is used to test whether the reports are a reflection of territoriality. Reports of incivilities were unique in their association with a desire to enforce local social norms. They were also associated with a second territorial motivation to benefit the community. Implications for future research are discussed.

  7. Introduction to Journal of Structural Geology special issue on "Deformation of the lithosphere. How small structures tell a big story"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sintubin, Manuel; de Bresser, Hans; Drury, Martyn; Prior, David J.; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2015-02-01

    This special issue Deformation of the Lithosphere. How small structures tell a big story is dedicated to Professor Henk Zwart (1924-2012). The theme is inspired by Henk's retirement lecture entitled Mountains must indeed be studied with a microscope (19 February 1988). Henk Zwart was a pioneer in linking microstructural research with the large-scale issues concerning lithospheric rheology and deformation. The famous Zwart's Hen House, representing the nine diagnostic relationships of porphyroblast growth with respect to the timing of deformation, is still a key element in contemporary textbooks on structural geology and microtectonics. This particular insight may not have occurred if it wasn't for a mistake made by the thin-section maker in the Leiden lab of Henk Zwart. By accident a thin section of a Pyrenean metamorphic rock was made, not perpendicular to the lineation - as was the standard procedure in those early days of structural geology - but parallel to the lineation. That mistake and Henk's recognition that the lineation parallel view gave more useful information changed structural geology and microtectonics.

  8. Why small males have big sperm: dimorphic squid sperm linked to alternative mating behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Sperm cells are the target of strong sexual selection that may drive changes in sperm structure and function to maximize fertilisation success. Sperm evolution is regarded to be one of the major consequences of sperm competition in polyandrous species, however it can also be driven by adaptation to the environmental conditions at the site of fertilization. Strong stabilizing selection limits intra-specific variation, and therefore polymorphism, among fertile sperm (eusperm). Here we analyzed reproductive morphology differences among males employing characteristic alternative mating behaviours, and so potentially different conditions of sperm competition and fertilization environment, in the squid Loligo bleekeri. Results Large consort males transfer smaller (average total length = 73 μm) sperm to a female's internal sperm storage location, inside the oviduct; whereas small sneaker males transfer larger (99 μm) sperm to an external location around the seminal receptacle near the mouth. No significant difference in swimming speed was observed between consort and sneaker sperm. Furthermore, sperm precedence in the seminal receptacle was not biased toward longer sperm, suggesting no evidence for large sperm being favoured in competition for space in the sperm storage organ among sneaker males. Conclusions Here we report the first case, in the squid Loligo bleekeri, where distinctly dimorphic eusperm are produced by different sized males that employ alternative mating behaviours. Our results found no evidence that the distinct sperm dimorphism was driven by between- and within-tactic sperm competition. We propose that presence of alternative fertilization environments with distinct characteristics (i.e. internal or external), whether or not in combination with the effects of sperm competition, can drive the disruptive evolution of sperm size. PMID:21831296

  9. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Hodgson, David J; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-01-01

    Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identified to species level. Of these, 70.6% were blue sharks (Prionace glauca), 28.4% short-fin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus), and 1% were other species (including thresher (Alopias vulpinus), hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena), porbeagle (Lamnus nasus), and other Carcharhinidae species (Carcharhinus brachyurus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Galeorhinus galeus). Mean ± SD catch per unit effort of 33.6 ± 10.9 sharks per 1000 hooks was calculated for the shark season and 1.9 ± 3.1 sharks per 1000 hooks were caught in the dolphinfish season. An average of 83.7% of sharks caught (74.7% blue sharks; 93.3% mako sharks) were deemed sexually immature and under the legal minimum landing size, which for species exhibiting k-selected life history traits can result in susceptibility to over exploitation. As these growing fisheries operate along the entire Peruvian coast and may catch millions of sharks per annum, we conclude that their continued expansion, along with ineffective legislative approaches resulting in removal of immature individuals, has the potential to threaten the sustainability of the fishery, its target species, and ecosystem. There is a need for additional monitoring and research to inform novel management strategies for sharks while maintaining fisher livelihoods. PMID:25360274

  10. Big catch, little sharks: Insight into Peruvian small-scale longline fisheries.

    PubMed

    Doherty, Philip D; Alfaro-Shigueto, Joanna; Hodgson, David J; Mangel, Jeffrey C; Witt, Matthew J; Godley, Brendan J

    2014-06-01

    Shark take, driven by vast demand for meat and fins, is increasing. We set out to gain insights into the impact of small-scale longline fisheries in Peru. Onboard observers were used to document catch from 145 longline fishing trips (1668 fishing days) originating from Ilo, southern Peru. Fishing effort is divided into two seasons: targeting dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus; December to February) and sharks (March to November). A total of 16,610 sharks were observed caught, with 11,166 identified to species level. Of these, 70.6% were blue sharks (Prionace glauca), 28.4% short-fin mako sharks (Isurus oxyrinchus), and 1% were other species (including thresher (Alopias vulpinus), hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena), porbeagle (Lamnus nasus), and other Carcharhinidae species (Carcharhinus brachyurus, Carcharhinus falciformis, Galeorhinus galeus). Mean ± SD catch per unit effort of 33.6 ± 10.9 sharks per 1000 hooks was calculated for the shark season and 1.9 ± 3.1 sharks per 1000 hooks were caught in the dolphinfish season. An average of 83.7% of sharks caught (74.7% blue sharks; 93.3% mako sharks) were deemed sexually immature and under the legal minimum landing size, which for species exhibiting k-selected life history traits can result in susceptibility to over exploitation. As these growing fisheries operate along the entire Peruvian coast and may catch millions of sharks per annum, we conclude that their continued expansion, along with ineffective legislative approaches resulting in removal of immature individuals, has the potential to threaten the sustainability of the fishery, its target species, and ecosystem. There is a need for additional monitoring and research to inform novel management strategies for sharks while maintaining fisher livelihoods.

  11. Studying the effects of stereo, head tracking, and field of regard on a small-scale spatial judgment task.

    PubMed

    Ragan, Eric D; Kopper, Regis; Schuchardt, Philip; Bowman, Doug A

    2013-05-01

    Spatial judgments are important for many real-world tasks in engineering and scientific visualization. While existing research provides evidence that higher levels of display and interaction fidelity in virtual reality systems offer advantages for spatial understanding, few investigations have focused on small-scale spatial judgments or employed experimental tasks similar to those used in real-world applications. After an earlier study that considered a broad analysis of various spatial understanding tasks, we present the results of a follow-up study focusing on small-scale spatial judgments. In this research, we independently controlled field of regard, stereoscopy, and head-tracked rendering to study their effects on the performance of a task involving precise spatial inspections of complex 3D structures. Measuring time and errors, we asked participants to distinguish between structural gaps and intersections between components of 3D models designed to be similar to real underground cave systems. The overall results suggest that the addition of the higher fidelity system features support performance improvements in making small-scale spatial judgments. Through analyses of the effects of individual system components, the experiment shows that participants made significantly fewer errors with either an increased field of regard or with the addition of head-tracked rendering. The results also indicate that participants performed significantly faster when the system provided the combination of stereo and head-tracked rendering.

  12. Goals, Big and Small

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walkow, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation explores the interaction of syntax and morphology in the morphological realization of AGREE-relations. I present two case studies of derivational interactions of AGREE-processes where the morphological realization of the later processes are affected by the earlier ones. The two cases studied differ in the way probes and goals…

  13. Small Towns, Big Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Marnie

    1999-01-01

    Although opportunities for externships for teachers in rural areas are limited, rural teachers must seek out work sites in advance or travel to distant sites to gain the practical experience they need to bring back to their classrooms. (JOW)

  14. Big Brains, Small Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Russell

    2008-01-01

    Earlier 20th-century thinkers like Lewis Mumford and Edmund Wilson kept the university and its apparatus at arm's length. Indeed, they often disdained it. They oriented themselves toward an educated public, and, as a result, they developed a straightforward prose and gained a nonprofessional audience. As his reputation grew, Wilson printed up a…

  15. Big Programs from a Small State: Less Commonly Taught Languages Find Their Home in Delaware Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    This article describes three big programs from Delaware where the less commonly taught languages find their home in Delaware elementary schools. Odyssey Charter School, located in Wilmington, is one of the very few Greek-language-focused public schools in the nation. The school began in 2006 as a Greek immersion program that concentrated on the…

  16. When the Big Fish Turns Small: Effects of Participating in Gifted Summer Programs on Academic Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, David Yun; Rinn, Anne N.; Tan, Xiaoyuan

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the presence and prevalence of the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) in summer programs for the gifted, (b) identify group and individual difference variables that help predict those who are more susceptible to the BFLPE, and (c) put the possible BFLPE on academic self-concept in a larger context of…

  17. Sound localization in a small passerine bird: discrimination of azimuth as a function of head orientation and sound frequency.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Brian S; Suthers, Roderick A

    2004-11-01

    Sound localization is critical to communication when signalers are distributed widely in space and when reverberations that accumulate over distance might otherwise degrade temporal patterns in vocalizations. We readdress the accuracy with which a small passerine bird, the eastern towhee, Pipilo erythrophthalmus L., is able to resolve azimuth in the field. We then report results from two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) experiments in which three of four subjects were able to discriminate an estimated speaker separation angle of approximately 7 degrees . Subjects oriented laterally when discriminating azimuth in the 2AFC task and each subject preferred a different head orientation. Side biases occurred as a function of head orientation and, as a consequence, we conducted a second 2AFC experiment in which subjects were required to discriminate between two closely spaced lights. Subjects oriented similarly in this visual task, however, side biases did not occur as a function of head orientation. Despite side biases in the auditory task, performance generally declined when subjects were played tones with frequencies near approximately 3 kHz.

  18. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  19. ‘The Head Carver’: Art Extraordinary and the small spaces of asylum

    PubMed Central

    McGeachan, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses the unique collection of Scottish outsider art, labelled Art Extraordinary, as a window into the often neglected small spaces of asylum care in the early twentieth century. By drawing upon materials from the Art Extraordinary collection and its associated archives, this paper demonstrates the importance of incorporating small and everyday spaces of care – such as gardens, paths, studios and boats – into the broader historical narratives of psychiatric care in Scotland. Examples of experiential memorialization and counterpoints to asylum surveillance culture will be illuminated. The significance of using ‘outsider’ art collections as a valuable source in tracing geographical histories will be highlighted. PMID:27834293

  20. 'The Head Carver': Art Extraordinary and the small spaces of asylum.

    PubMed

    McGeachan, Cheryl

    2017-03-01

    This paper uses the unique collection of Scottish outsider art, labelled Art Extraordinary, as a window into the often neglected small spaces of asylum care in the early twentieth century. By drawing upon materials from the Art Extraordinary collection and its associated archives, this paper demonstrates the importance of incorporating small and everyday spaces of care - such as gardens, paths, studios and boats - into the broader historical narratives of psychiatric care in Scotland. Examples of experiential memorialization and counterpoints to asylum surveillance culture will be illuminated. The significance of using 'outsider' art collections as a valuable source in tracing geographical histories will be highlighted.

  1. Volcanic and magmatic evolution of a small trachytic vent complex, north Burro Mesa, Big Bend National Park, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, Lisa A.; Shanks, Pat

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic rocks exposed on the northern end of Burro Mesa in Big Bend National Park portray the evolution of an Oligocene central volcanic vent complex that produced two generations of welded block and ash deposits associated with 1) initial dome collapse and 2) subsequent central spine collapse. Peripheral to the vent complex, isolated breccia deposit exposures overlie ignimbrites, tephras, and lavas. These blocks are a few meters to several hundred meters long and 30 m high and consist of monolithic angular and welded trachytic lava clasts in finer-grained matrix. Rheomorphic structures in the breccia deposit show ductile deformation and suggest it formed while above the glass transition temperature.

  2. Design and applications of bifunctional small molecules: Why two heads are better than one

    PubMed Central

    Corson, Timothy W.; Aberle, Nicholas; Crews, Craig M.

    2009-01-01

    Induction of protein-protein interactions is a daunting challenge, but recent studies show promise for small molecules that specifically bring two or more protein molecules together for enhanced or novel biological effect. The first such bifunctional molecules were the rapamycin- and FK506-based “Chemical Inducers of Dimerization”, but the field has since expanded with new molecules and new applications in chemical genetics and cell biology. Examples include coumermycin-mediated gyrase B dimerization, proteolysis targeting chimeric molecules (PROTACS), drug hybrids, and strategies for exploiting multivalency in toxin binding and antibody recruitment. This review discusses these and other advances in the design and use of bifunctional small molecules, and potential strategies for future systems. PMID:19112665

  3. Crowd-funded micro-grants for genomics and "big data": an actionable idea connecting small (artisan) science, infrastructure science, and citizen philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Vural; Badr, Kamal F; Dove, Edward S; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2013-04-01

    Biomedical science in the 21(st) century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and "Big Data" created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., "the lone genius" or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21(st) century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists-only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the "bottom one billion"-the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while sharing similar disease

  4. Description of the tadpoles of two endemic frogs: the Phu Luang cascade frog Odorrana aureola (Anura: Ranidae) and the Isan big-headed frog Limnonectes isanensis (Anura: Dicroglossidae) from northeastern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ampai, Natee; Rujirawan, Attapol; Arkajag, Jirachai; Mcleod, David S; Aowphol, Anchalee

    2015-07-07

    We describe the external morphology of the tadpoles of two frogs endemic to Thailand: the Phu Luang cascade frog    (Odorrana aureola) and the Isan big-headed frog (Limnonectes isanensis) from the type localities in the Phu Luang Wildlife Sanctuary, Loei Province, northeastern Thailand. Morphological and genetic characters (16S rRNA) were used to identify specimen and match tadpoles to the adults. Detailed descriptions of external morphology and coloration in life are provided for both species. We provide a brief discussion of the ecology of these tadpoles and a comparison to previously published data from tadpoles of closely related taxa. Additionally, we provide evidence for the utility of larval morphology in resolving the taxonomic puzzles presented by cryptic species complexes.

  5. Markerless rat head motion tracking using structured light for brain PET imaging of unrestrained awake small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, Alan; Staelens, Steven; Stroobants, Sigrid; Verhaeghe, Jeroen

    2017-03-01

    Preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in small animals is generally performed under anesthesia to immobilize the animal during scanning. More recently, for rat brain PET studies, methods to perform scans of unrestrained awake rats are being developed in order to avoid the unwanted effects of anesthesia on the brain response. Here, we investigate the use of a projected structure stereo camera to track the motion of the rat head during the PET scan. The motion information is then used to correct the PET data. The stereo camera calculates a 3D point cloud representation of the scene and the tracking is performed by point cloud matching using the iterative closest point algorithm. The main advantage of the proposed motion tracking is that no intervention, e.g. for marker attachment, is needed. A manually moved microDerenzo phantom experiment and 3 awake rat [18F]FDG experiments were performed to evaluate the proposed tracking method. The tracking accuracy was 0.33 mm rms. After motion correction image reconstruction, the microDerenzo phantom was recovered albeit with some loss of resolution. The reconstructed FWHM of the 2.5 and 3 mm rods increased with 0.94 and 0.51 mm respectively in comparison with the motion-free case. In the rat experiments, the average tracking success rate was 64.7%. The correlation of relative brain regional [18F]FDG uptake between the anesthesia and awake scan reconstructions was increased from on average 0.291 (not significant) before correction to 0.909 (p  <  0.0001) after motion correction. Markerless motion tracking using structured light can be successfully used for tracking of the rat head for motion correction in awake rat PET scans.

  6. Big Atoms for Small Children: Building Atomic Models from Common Materials to Better Visualize and Conceptualize Atomic Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipolla, Laura; Ferrari, Lia A.

    2016-01-01

    A hands-on approach to introduce the chemical elements and the atomic structure to elementary/middle school students is described. The proposed classroom activity presents Bohr models of atoms using common and inexpensive materials, such as nested plastic balls, colored modeling clay, and small-sized pasta (or small plastic beads).

  7. The importance of head growth patterns in predicting the cognitive abilities and literacy skills of small-for-gestational-age children.

    PubMed

    Frisk, Virginia; Amsel, Rhonda; Whyte, Hilary E A

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of head growth compromise beginning in utero and continuing, in some cases, through the first 9 months of life on the cognitive and literacy skills of school-age small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children. Seventy-one SGA children, aged 7 to 9 years (gestational ages, 24-41 weeks) and 16 full-term appropriate-for-gestational-age control children of comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and age at testing completed tests assessing intelligence, receptive language, working memory, problem solving, visual-motor integration, phonological awareness, reading, and spelling. SGA children were subdivided into head-growth pattern groups based on their head circumference at birth and at 9 months postterm. Analyses showed that SGA children with poor prenatal and postnatal head growth had the worst outcomes, followed by those with prenatal brain compromise, but good postnatal head growth. SGA children with preserved head growth in utero as well as good head growth after birth demonstrated the best outcomes, although spelling skills were deficient relative to full-term peers. The Verbal and Full Scale IQ ratings of the SGA children who had experienced brain compromise in utero declined significantly from 5 to 8 years of age. We conclude that mild intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) has a minimal effect on the development of cognitive or academic abilities, providing that brain growth in utero is not affected. IUGR that slows brain growth in utero impairs the acquisition of some cognitive and academic abilities, even when followed by good catch-up head growth after birth, whereas poor brain growth in utero followed by little or no catch-up head growth results in widespread impairments. Findings highlight the limits to brain plasticity and emphasize the importance of optimal prenatal and postnatal brain growth.

  8. How to Make Big Improvements in the Small PR Shop. Samples of Policy Statements, Guidelines, and Forms Collected from Educational Institutions with Small Public Relations Staffs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, R. Keith, Comp.

    Sample policy statements, guidelines, and forms collected from 16 educational institutions with small public relations staffs are presented as a guide to campus relations personnel. The importance of written policies for small public relations staffs is emphasized, and it is proposed that there be a written job description for the public relations…

  9. ‘The big ole gay express’: sexual minority stigma, mobility and health in the small city

    PubMed Central

    Keene, Danya E.; Eldahan, Adam I.; White Hughto, Jaclyn M.; Pachankis, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research has examined how gay and bisexual men experience and navigate the variations in sexual minority stigma that exist across geographic contexts, with implications for their health. We extend this literature on stigma, mobility, and health by considering the unique and understudied setting of the small city. Drawing on semi-structured interviews (n = 29) conducted in two small US cities (New Haven and Hartford), we find that these small cities serve as both destinations and points of departure for gay and bisexual men in the context of stigma. New Haven and Hartford attracted gay and bisexual men from surrounding suburbs where sexual minority stigma was more prevalent and where there were fewer spaces and opportunities for gay life. Conversely, participants noted that these small cities did not contain the same identity affirming communities as urban gay enclaves, thus motivating movement from small cities to larger ones. Our data suggest these forms of mobility may mitigate stigma, but may also produce sexual health risks, thus drawing attention to small cities as uniquely important sites for HIV prevention. Furthermore, our analysis contributes to an understanding of how place, stigma and mobility can intersect to generate spatially distinct experiences of stigmatised identities and related health consequences. PMID:27604293

  10. Crowd-Funded Micro-Grants for Genomics and “Big Data”: An Actionable Idea Connecting Small (Artisan) Science, Infrastructure Science, and Citizen Philanthropy

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Kamal F.; Dove, Edward S.; Endrenyi, Laszlo; Geraci, Christy Jo; Hotez, Peter J.; Milius, Djims; Neves-Pereira, Maria; Pang, Tikki; Rotimi, Charles N.; Sabra, Ramzi; Sarkissian, Christineh N.; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Tims, Hesther; Zgheib, Nathalie K.; Kickbusch, Ilona

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Biomedical science in the 21st century is embedded in, and draws from, a digital commons and “Big Data” created by high-throughput Omics technologies such as genomics. Classic Edisonian metaphors of science and scientists (i.e., “the lone genius” or other narrow definitions of expertise) are ill equipped to harness the vast promises of the 21st century digital commons. Moreover, in medicine and life sciences, experts often under-appreciate the important contributions made by citizen scholars and lead users of innovations to design innovative products and co-create new knowledge. We believe there are a large number of users waiting to be mobilized so as to engage with Big Data as citizen scientists—only if some funding were available. Yet many of these scholars may not meet the meta-criteria used to judge expertise, such as a track record in obtaining large research grants or a traditional academic curriculum vitae. This innovation research article describes a novel idea and action framework: micro-grants, each worth $1000, for genomics and Big Data. Though a relatively small amount at first glance, this far exceeds the annual income of the “bottom one billion”—the 1.4 billion people living below the extreme poverty level defined by the World Bank ($1.25/day). We describe two types of micro-grants. Type 1 micro-grants can be awarded through established funding agencies and philanthropies that create micro-granting programs to fund a broad and highly diverse array of small artisan labs and citizen scholars to connect genomics and Big Data with new models of discovery such as open user innovation. Type 2 micro-grants can be funded by existing or new science observatories and citizen think tanks through crowd-funding mechanisms described herein. Type 2 micro-grants would also facilitate global health diplomacy by co-creating crowd-funded micro-granting programs across nation-states in regions facing political and financial instability, while

  11. Big School, Small School: (Re)Testing Assumptions about High School Size, School Engagement and Mathematics Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Christopher C.; Carolan, Brian V.; Baker-Smith, E. Christine

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In…

  12. Small Businesses Save Big: A Borrower's Guide To Increase the Bottom Line Using Energy Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides a guide for small businesses to find the resources to increase the energy efficiency of their buildings.

  13. Small drains, big problems: the impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches.

    PubMed

    Rippy, Megan A; Stein, Robert; Sanders, Brett F; Davis, Kristen; McLaughlin, Karen; Skinner, John F; Kappeler, John; Grant, Stanley B

    2014-12-16

    Enclosed beaches along urban coastlines are frequent hot spots of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) pollution. In this paper we present field measurements and modeling studies aimed at evaluating the impact of small storm drains on FIB pollution at enclosed beaches in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in Southern California. Our results suggest that small drains have a disproportionate impact on enclosed beach water quality for five reasons: (1) dry weather surface flows (primarily from overirrigation of lawns and ornamental plants) harbor FIB at concentrations exceeding recreational water quality criteria; (2) small drains can trap dry weather runoff during high tide, and then release it in a bolus during the falling tide when drainpipe outlets are exposed; (3) nearshore turbulence is low (turbulent diffusivities approximately 10(-3) m(2) s(-1)), limiting dilution of FIB and other runoff-associated pollutants once they enter the bay; (4) once in the bay, runoff can form buoyant plumes that further limit vertical mixing and dilution; and (5) local winds can force buoyant runoff plumes back against the shoreline, where water depth is minimal and human contact likely. Outdoor water conservation and urban retrofits that minimize the volume of dry and wet weather runoff entering the local storm drain system may be the best option for improving beach water quality in Newport Bay and other urban-impacted enclosed beaches.

  14. How Big Is Too Big?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James

    2016-01-01

    Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…

  15. Small satellites for big science: the challenges of high-density design in the DLR Kompaktsatellit AsteroidFinder/SSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thimo Grundmann, Jan

    The design of small satellites requires a paradigm shift in the thinking of satellite designers as well as mission scientists, payload users, and programme management -in brief, everyone involved. In a conventional approach, spacecraft design evolves in a mostly linear fashion from mission requirements by well-defined procedures through a series of reviews into a design space that is essentially not limited by constraints other than programmatic. The mission defines a pallet of instruments, their needs then shape the spacecraft bus, and the integrated spacecraft is finally mated to a dedicated launch, to be placed into an orbit carefully custom-tailored by mission analysis and continuously trimmed by on-board propulsion. Components are manufactured to spec, one-off plus spares, and painstaking testing has to iron out the many space firsts and compromises made in an arduous and protracted design process. Small satellite design reverses this comfortable line of thinking. It begins with hard, and not just programmatic constraints on most of the essential parameters that define a satellite. Launch as a secondary payload is the choice, not just for budgetary reasons, but due to the lack of viable dedicated launchers. It requires a small stowed envelope and a tightly limited mass budget. This results in limited surface area for solar panels and radiators. Small project volume enables a high flight cadence which makes re-use of designs and components desirable and feasible, in a self-catalyzing cycle. Re-use and constraints force the system perspective on every participant in a quick succession of sometimes diverging but generally converging iterations that lends itself to the Concurrent Engineering approach. There is simply no space left in a small satellite project for boxes to think in. To exploit the technological convergence that has created powerful and miniaturized science instruments and satellite components, the DLR research and development programme has

  16. Chlorine Incorporation in the CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite: Small Concentration, Big Effect.

    PubMed

    Quarti, Claudio; Mosconi, Edoardo; Umari, Paolo; De Angelis, Filippo

    2017-01-03

    The role of chlorine doping in CH3NH3PbI3 represents an important open issue in the use of hybrid perovskites for photovoltaic applications. In particular, even if a positive role of chlorine doping on perovskite film formation and on material morphology has been demonstrated, an inherent positive effect on the electronic and photovoltaic properties cannot be excluded. Here we carried out periodic density functional theory and Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations, going down to ∼1% doping, to investigate the effect of chlorine on CH3NH3PbI3. We found that such a small doping has important effects on the dynamics of the crystalline structure, both with respect to the inorganic framework and with respect to the cation libration motion. Together, we observe a dynamic spatial localization of the valence and conduction states in separated spatial material regions, which takes place in the 10(-1) ps time scale and which could be the key to ease of exciton dissociation and, likely, to small charge recombination in hybrid perovskites. Moreover, such localization is enhanced by chlorine doping, demonstrating an inherent positive role of chlorine doping on the electronic properties of this class of materials.

  17. Making big communities small: using network science to understand the ecological and behavioral requirements for community social capital.

    PubMed

    Neal, Zachary

    2015-06-01

    The concept of social capital is becoming increasingly common in community psychology and elsewhere. However, the multiple conceptual and operational definitions of social capital challenge its utility as a theoretical tool. The goals of this paper are to clarify two forms of social capital (bridging and bonding), explicitly link them to the structural characteristics of small world networks, and explore the behavioral and ecological prerequisites of its formation. First, I use the tools of network science and specifically the concept of small-world networks to clarify what patterns of social relationships are likely to facilitate social capital formation. Second, I use an agent-based model to explore how different ecological characteristics (diversity and segregation) and behavioral tendencies (homophily and proximity) impact communities' potential for developing social capital. The results suggest diverse communities have the greatest potential to develop community social capital, and that segregation moderates the effects that the behavioral tendencies of homophily and proximity have on community social capital. The discussion highlights how these findings provide community-based researchers with both a deeper understanding of the contextual constraints with which they must contend, and a useful tool for targeting their efforts in communities with the greatest need or greatest potential.

  18. On a treatment of the spatial distribution of pressure head in a steep soil layer during a big storm from the viewpoint of its long-term evolution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, M.

    2013-12-01

    A difficulty of predicting runoff characteristics from catchment properties such as geology. topography, soil and vegetation is caused by their heterogeneous spatial distributions. The regularities are derived from a nested structure of developments with different time scales: topography is evolved due to orogenic movement and erosion, soil development is repeated through landslide occurrences, and plants have a life cycle. Revealing the nested structure must be a key for evaluating an effect of catchment properties on the runoff prediction. Our study project 'Prediction of catchment runoff changes based on elucidating a nested structure consisting of the developments of topography, soil and vegetation' challenges a unique simulation for a long-term soil evolution process supported by vegetation roots and an efficient drainage system like natural pipes between the periods of landslide occurrences. In this presentation, I will discuss how we can generally treat the spatial distribution of pressure head in a soil layer on hillslope for a big storm triggering the landslide initiation. Most people may answer this will be dependent on a given storm hyetograph only because of an unsteady process, but here we are considering the meaning of its distribution in a long historical evolution of the soil layer on a steep hillslope in an active tectonic region such as Japan and the West Coast. A quasi-steady state created within a soil layer in response to a given hydraulic condition can give us important information for developing a simulation model for the evolution process of a soil layer.

  19. Big school, small school: (re)testing assumptions about high school size, school engagement and mathematics achievement.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Christopher C; Carolan, Brian V; Baker-Smith, E Christine

    2010-02-01

    In an effort to increase both adolescents' engagement with school and academic achievement, school districts across the United States have created small high schools. However, despite the widespread adoption of size reduction reforms, relatively little is known about the relationship between size, engagement and outcomes in high school. In response, this article employs a composite measure of engagement that combines organizational, sociological, and psychological theories. We use this composite measure with the most recent nationally-representative dataset of tenth graders, Educational Longitudinal Study: 2002, (N = 10,946, 46% female) to better assess a generalizable relationship among school engagement, mathematics achievement and school size with specific focus on cohort size. Findings confirm these measures to be highly related to student engagement. Furthermore, results derived from multilevel regression analysis indicate that, as with school size, moderately sized cohorts or grade-level groups provide the greatest engagement advantage for all students and that there are potentially harmful changes when cohorts grow beyond 400 students. However, it is important to note that each group size affects different students differently, eliminating the ability to prescribe an ideal cohort or school size.

  20. From Vocal Replication to Shared Combinatorial Speech Codes: A Small Step for Evolution, A Big Step for Language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudeyer, Pierre-Yves

    Humans use spoken vocalizations, or their signed equivalent, as a physical support to carry language. This support is highly organized: vocalizations are built with the re-use of a small number of articulatory units, which are themselves discrete elements carved up by each linguistic community in the articulatory continuum. Moreover, the repertoires of these elementary units (the gestures, the phonemes, the morphemes) have a number of structural regularities: for example, while our vocal tract allows physically the production of hundreds of vowels, each language uses most often 5, and never more than 20 of them. Also, certain vowels are very frequent, like /a,e,i,o,u/, and some others are very rare, like /en/. All the speakers of a given linguistic community categorize the speech sounds in the same manner, and share the same repertoire of vocalizations. Speakers of different communities may have very different ways of categorizing sounds (for example, Chinese use tones to distinguish sounds), and repertoires of vocalizations. Such an organized physical support of language is crucial for the existence of language, and thus asking how it may have appeared in the biological and/or cultural history of humans is a fundamental questions. In particular, one can wonder how much the evolution of human speech codes relied on specific evolutionary innovations, and thus how difficult (or not) it was for speech to appear.

  1. Second-Impact Syndrome and a Small Subdural Hematoma: An Uncommon Catastrophic Result of Repetitive Head Injury with a Characteristic Imaging Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Gean, Alisa D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract There have been a handful of previously published cases of athletes who were still symptomatic from a prior head injury, and then suffered a second injury in which a thin, acute subdural hematoma (SDH) with unilateral hemisphere vascular engorgement was demonstrated on CT scan. In those cases, the cause of the brain swelling/dysautoregulation was ascribed to the presence of the acute SDH rather than to the acceleration/deceleration forces that caused the SDH. We believe that the brain swelling is due to “second-impact dysautoregulation,” rather than due to the effect of the SDH on the underlying hemisphere. To support our hypothesis, we present 10 additional cases of acute hemispheric swelling in association with small SDHs in athletes who received a second head injury while still symptomatic from a previous head injury. The clinical history and the unique neuroimaging features of this entity on CT are described and illustrated in detail. The CT findings included an engorged cerebral hemisphere with initial preservation of grey-white matter differentiation, and abnormal mass effect and midline shift that appeared disproportionately greater than the size of the SDH. In addition, the imaging similarities between our patients and those with non-accidental head trauma (shaken-baby syndrome) will be discussed. PMID:20536318

  2. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  3. Job Satisfaction of NAIA Head Coaches at Small Faith-Based Colleges: The Teacher-Coach Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiemsma, Craig L.

    2010-01-01

    The head coaches at smaller colleges usually have other job responsibilities that include teaching, along with the responsibilities of coaching, recruiting, scheduling, and other coaching-related jobs. There is often a dual role involved for these coaches who try to juggle two different jobs that sometimes require different skill sets and involve…

  4. Making a Big School "Small"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Andrew P.

    2006-01-01

    Two years ago, Shorecrest High School in Shoreline, Washington, committed to making each student's sojourn a personalized learning experience, even in a school of 1,500. The teachers at Shorecrest took a closer look at their student population and found out several unmet needs of the significant minority group of students. Among those findings…

  5. Big Books and Small Marvels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Reader Organisation's Get into Reading programme is all about getting people together in groups to engage with serious books. The groups are mixed and the participants sometimes challenging, but the outcomes are often remarkable. Jane Davis, who founded the Reader Organisation and continues to oversee Get into Reading, has witnessed a massive…

  6. Small Things Draw Big Interest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Susan; Smith III, Julian

    2005-01-01

    Although the microscope is a basic tool in both physical and biological sciences, it is notably absent from most elementary school science programs. One reason teachers find it challenging to introduce microscopy at the elementary level is because children can have a hard time connecting the image of an object seen through a microscope with what…

  7. A Small District's Big Innovator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Cashton (Wisconsin) Public Schools Superintendent Brad Saron. Saron has always had a passion for technology. He has brought his personal passion for technology to bear in his job as superintendent of the 584-student Cashton Public Schools. As a principal and then as superintendent, he introduced iPod Touches, iPads, wireless…

  8. Big Pile or Small Pile?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Mario; Quidacciolu, Rossana G.; Soletta, Isabella

    2013-10-01

    The construction of a voltaic pile (battery) is a simple laboratory activity that commemorates the invention of this important device and is of great help in teaching physics. The voltaic pile is often seen as a scientific toy, with the "pile" being constructed from fruit. These toys use some strips of copper and zinc inserted in a piece of fruit to produce a low-intensity electrical current to power a digital device. In a voltaic pile of this type, the zinc acts as an anode while the copper acts as a cathode. The reduction reaction [i.e.,2H+(aq)+2e⇋H2(g)] occurs on the copper (the cathode). The two electrons that are needed for the reduction are taken from the metal (copper), which remains positively charged, while the anode is the zinc, which is oxidized through the reaction Zn∘(m)⇋Zn+2(aq )+2e, and the two electrons remain on the metal, which is negatively charged. If the two pieces of metal are connected by an external conductor, electrons flow from the zinc to the copper. The electromotive force of this system is about 0.76 V, which is the reduction potential of zinc, as can be found in the table of standard reduction potentials.

  9. Small island, big genetic discoveries.

    PubMed

    Lettre, Guillaume; Hirschhorn, Joel N

    2015-11-01

    Three new studies have identified new genes and sequence variants implicated in blood lipids, inflammatory markers, hemoglobin levels and adult height variation in Sardinia. These reports highlight the usefulness of large-scale genotype imputation based on whole-genome sequencing, particularly in isolated populations, in studying the genetics of complex human phenotypes.

  10. Big Pile or Small Pile?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario; Quidacciolu, Rossana G.; Soletta, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    The construction of a voltaic pile (battery) is a simple laboratory activity that commemorates the invention of this important device and is of great help in teaching physics. The voltaic pile is often seen as a scientific toy, with the "pile" being constructed from fruit. These toys use some strips of copper and zinc inserted in a piece…

  11. Contact pair dynamics during folding of two small proteins: Chicken villin head piece and the Alzheimer protein β-amyloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Bagchi, Biman

    2004-01-01

    The folding of an extended protein to its unique native state requires establishment of specific, predetermined, often distant, contacts between amino acid residue pairs. The dynamics of contact pair formation between various hydrophobic residues during folding of two different small proteins, the chicken villin head piece (HP-36) and the Alzheimer protein β-amyloid (βA-40), are investigated by Brownian dynamics (BD) simulations. These two proteins represent two very different classes—HP-36 being globular while βA-40 is nonglobular, stringlike. Hydropathy scale and nonlocal helix propensity of amino acids are used to model the complex interaction potential among the various amino acid residues. The minimalistic model we use here employs a connected backbone chain of atoms of equal size while an amino acid is attached to each backbone atom as an additional atom of differing sizes and interaction parameters, determined by the characteristics of each amino acid. Even for such simple models, we find that the low-energy structures obtained by BD simulations of both the model proteins mimic the native state of the real protein rather well, with a best root-mean-square deviation of 4.5 Å for HP-36. For βA-40 (where a single well-defined structure is not available), the simulated structures resemble the reported ensemble rather well, with the well-known β-bend correctly reproduced. We introduce and calculate a contact pair distance time correlation function, CPij(t), to quantify the dynamical evolution of the pair contact formation between the amino acid residue pairs i and j. The contact pair time correlation function exhibits multistage dynamics, including a two stage fast collapse, followed by a slow (microsecond long) late stage dynamics for several specific pairs. The slow late stage dynamics is in accordance with the findings of Sali et al. [A. Sali, E. Shakhnovich, and M. Karplus, Nature 369, 248 (1994)]. Analysis of the individual trajectories shows that

  12. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  13. Big Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  14. Big bluestem

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big Bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) is a warm season grass native to North America, accounting for 40% of the herbaceous biomass of the tall grass prairie, and a candidate for bioenergy feedstock production. The goal of this study was to measure among and within population genetic variation of natura...

  15. Modelling the Species Distribution of Flat-Headed Cats (Prionailurus planiceps), an Endangered South-East Asian Small Felid

    PubMed Central

    Hearn, Andrew J.; Hesse, Deike; Mohamed, Azlan; Traeholdt, Carl; Cheyne, Susan M.; Sunarto, Sunarto; Jayasilan, Mohd-Azlan; Ross, Joanna; Shapiro, Aurélie C.; Sebastian, Anthony; Dech, Stefan; Breitenmoser, Christine; Sanderson, Jim; Duckworth, J. W.; Hofer, Heribert

    2010-01-01

    Background The flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps) is one of the world's least known, highly threatened felids with a distribution restricted to tropical lowland rainforests in Peninsular Thailand/Malaysia, Borneo and Sumatra. Throughout its geographic range large-scale anthropogenic transformation processes, including the pollution of fresh-water river systems and landscape fragmentation, raise concerns regarding its conservation status. Despite an increasing number of camera-trapping field surveys for carnivores in South-East Asia during the past two decades, few of these studies recorded the flat-headed cat. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we designed a predictive species distribution model using the Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) algorithm to reassess the potential current distribution and conservation status of the flat-headed cat. Eighty-eight independent species occurrence records were gathered from field surveys, literature records, and museum collections. These current and historical records were analysed in relation to bioclimatic variables (WorldClim), altitude (SRTM) and minimum distance to larger water resources (Digital Chart of the World). Distance to water was identified as the key predictor for the occurrence of flat-headed cats (>50% explanation). In addition, we used different land cover maps (GLC2000, GlobCover and SarVision LLC for Borneo), information on protected areas and regional human population density data to extract suitable habitats from the potential distribution predicted by the MaxEnt model. Between 54% and 68% of suitable habitat has already been converted to unsuitable land cover types (e.g. croplands, plantations), and only between 10% and 20% of suitable land cover is categorised as fully protected according to the IUCN criteria. The remaining habitats are highly fragmented and only a few larger forest patches remain. Conclusion/Significance Based on our findings, we recommend that future conservation efforts for

  16. DARPA's Big Mechanism program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Paul R.

    2015-07-01

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  17. DARPA's Big Mechanism program.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul R

    2015-07-16

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  18. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Zachary D; Lee, Skylar Y; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-07-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a "four-headed beast"--it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the "genomical" challenges of the next decade.

  19. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Zachary D.; Lee, Skylar Y.; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H.; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J.; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C.; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a “four-headed beast”—it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the “genomical” challenges of the next decade. PMID:26151137

  20. The size of sebaceous glands in relation to the size of hair follicles on the heads of some small mammals (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia).

    PubMed

    Haffner, M

    1998-04-01

    Many large sebaceous glands have been described, and functions such as scent production suggested, but gland size has seldom been studied in relation to the surface area of their hair follicles. However, investigating this relationship is essential for establishing whether glands produce more sebum than would be required for lubricating associated hair alone. Here, the relationship between sebaceous gland size and the surface area of the associated hair follicles has been studied. Glands on the heads of 20 species from three orders were compared with those associated with fur hairs. In all species, the fur hairs had small hair follicles with small sebaceous glands, as had the mystacial and submandibular hairs of Rodentia. Medium-sized glands and hairs were found in the mystacial and submandibular region in Insectivora, and in the circumoral region in Chiroptera and Rodentia. Large glands and hairs were found on a pad in the corner of the mouth in Rodentia. Although the size of glands was not directly proportional to hair size, some gross trends were noted. Vibrissae had either no or very small sebaceous glands. It is likely that sebum has to be provided from elsewhere to lubricate their surfaces. The glands on the snout of Insectivora and Chiroptera are clearly enlarged and could probably produce more sebum than would be required for grooming vibrissae alone. In Rodentia, vibrissae were surrounded by small hair and glands, and the nearest glands large enough to provide sebum were the glands on the pad in the mouth corner.

  1. Structuring the Curriculum around Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alleman, Janet; Knighton, Barbara; Brophy, Jere

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an inside look at Barbara Knighton's classroom teaching. She uses big ideas to guide her planning and instruction and gives other teachers suggestions for adopting the big idea approach and ways for making the approach easier. This article also represents a "small slice" of a dozen years of collaborative research,…

  2. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    Head lice are parasitic wingless insects. They live on people's heads and feed on their blood. An adult louse ... Children ages 3-11 and their families get head lice most often. Personal hygiene has nothing to ...

  3. Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... Schedules Nutrient Shortfall Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Head Lice Head Lice Condition Family HealthKids and Teens Share Head Lice Table of Contents1. Overview2. Symptoms3. Causes4. Prevention5. ...

  4. Challenges of Big Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-06-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions.

  5. Challenges of Big Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-01-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions. PMID:25419469

  6. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  7. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  8. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  9. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  10. 49 CFR 572.192 - Head assembly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Head assembly. 572.192 Section 572.192... Dummy, Small Adult Female § 572.192 Head assembly. (a) The head assembly consists of the head (180-1000...) of this section, the head assembly shall meet performance requirements specified in paragraph (c)...

  11. Radial head fracture - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Elbow fracture - radial head - aftercare ... to 2 weeks. If you have a small fracture and your bones did not move around much, ... to see a bone doctor (orthopedic surgeon). Some fractures require surgery to: Insert pins and plates to ...

  12. Incidence of Small Lymph Node Metastases With Evidence of Extracapsular Extension: Clinical Implications in Patients With Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ghadjar, Pirus; Simcock, Mathew; Schreiber-Facklam, Heide; Zimmer, Yitzhak; Graeter, Ruth; Evers, Christina; Arnold, Andreas; Wilkens, Ludwig; Aebersold, Daniel M.

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: Small lymph nodes (LN) show evidence of extracapsular extension (ECE) in a significant number of patients. This study was performed to determine the impact of ECE in LN {<=}7 mm as compared with ECE in larger LN. Methods and Materials: All tumor-positive LN of 74 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients with at least one ECE positive LN were analyzed retrospectively for the LN diameter and the extent of ECE. Clinical endpoints were regional relapse-free survival, distant metastasis-free survival, and overall survival. The median follow-up for the surviving patients was 2.1 years (range, 0.3-9.2 years). Results: Forty-four of 74 patients (60%) had at least one ECE positive LN {<=}10 mm. These small ECE positive LN had a median diameter of 7 mm, which was used as a cutoff. Thirty patients (41%) had at least one ECE positive LN {<=}7 mm. In both univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses, the incidence of at least one ECE positive LN {<=}7 mm was a statistically significant prognostic factor for decreased regional relapse-free survival (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.7, p = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-6.4), distant metastasis-free survival (HR: 2.6, p = 0.04, 95% CI: 1.0-6.6), and overall survival (HR: 2.5, p = 0.03, 95% CI: 1.1-5.8). Conclusions: The incidence of small ECE positive LN metastases is a significant prognostic factor in HNSCC patients. Small ECE positive LN may represent more invasive tumor biology and could be used as prognostic markers.

  13. Gefitinib in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Head and Neck Cancer or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-11

    Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer; Insular Thyroid Cancer; Metastatic Parathyroid Cancer; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Parathyroid Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IVA Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Follicular Thyroid Cancer; Stage IVA Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus

  14. Radar detectability studies of slow and small Zodiacal Dust Cloud Particles: I. The case of Arecibo 430 MHz meteor head echo observations

    PubMed Central

    Janches, D.; Plane, J.M.C.; Nesvorný, D.; Feng, W.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Nicolls, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Recent model development of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud (ZDC) model (Nesvorný et al. 2010, 2011b) argue that the incoming flux of meteoric material into the Earth’s upper atmosphere is mostly undetected by radars because they cannot detect small extraterrestrial particles entering the atmosphere at low velocities due to the relatively small production of electrons. In this paper we present a new methodology utilizing meteor head echo radar observations that aims to constrain the ZDC physical model by ground-based measurements. In particular, for this work, we focus on Arecibo 430 MHz observations since this is the most sensitive radar utilized for this type of observations to date. For this, we integrate and employ existing comprehensive models of meteoroid ablation, ionization and radar detection to enable accurate interpretation of radar observations and show that reasonable agreement in the hourly rates is found between model predictions and Arecibo observations when: 1) we invoke the lower limit of the model predicted flux (~16 t/d) and 2) we estimate the ionization probability of ablating metal atoms using laboratory measurements of the ionization cross sections of high speed metal atom beams, resulting in values up to two orders of magnitude lower than the extensively utilized figure reported by Jones (1997) for low speeds meteors. However, even at this lower limit the model over predicts the slow portion of the Arecibo radial velocity distributions by a factor of 3, suggesting the model requires some revision. PMID:27642186

  15. Radar Detectability Studies of Slow and Small Zodiacal Dust Cloud Particles: I. The Case of Arecibo 430 MHz Meteor Head Echo Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janches, D.; Plane, J. M. C.; Nesvorny, D.; Feng, W.; Vokrouhlicky, D.; Nicolls, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent model development of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud (ZDC) model (Nesvorny et al. 2010, 2011b) argue that the incoming flux of meteoric material into the Earth's upper atmosphere is mostly undetected by radars because they cannot detect small extraterrestrial particles entering the atmosphere at low velocities due to the relatively small production of electrons. In this paper we present a new methodology utilizing meteor head echo radar observations that aims to constrain the ZDC physical model by ground-based measurements. In particular, for this work, we focus on Arecibo 430 MHz observations since this is the most sensitive radar utilized for this type of observations to date. For this, we integrate and employ existing comprehensive models of meteoroid ablation, ionization and radar detection to enable accurate interpretation of radar observations and show that reasonable agreement in the hourly rates is found between model predictions and Arecibo observations when: 1) we invoke the lower limit of the model predicted flux (approximately 16 t/d) and 2) we estimate the ionization probability of ablating metal atoms using laboratory measurements of the ionization cross sections of high speed metal atom beams, resulting in values up to two orders of magnitude lower than the extensively utilized figure reported by Jones (1997) for low speeds meteors. However, even at this lower limit the model over predicts the slow portion of the Arecibo radial velocity distributions by a factor of 3, suggesting the model requires some revision.

  16. Radar detectability studies of slow and small Zodiacal Dust Cloud Particles: I. The case of Arecibo 430 MHz meteor head echo observations.

    PubMed

    Janches, D; Plane, J M C; Nesvorný, D; Feng, W; Vokrouhlický, D; Nicolls, M J

    2014-11-20

    Recent model development of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud (ZDC) model (Nesvorný et al. 2010, 2011b) argue that the incoming flux of meteoric material into the Earth's upper atmosphere is mostly undetected by radars because they cannot detect small extraterrestrial particles entering the atmosphere at low velocities due to the relatively small production of electrons. In this paper we present a new methodology utilizing meteor head echo radar observations that aims to constrain the ZDC physical model by ground-based measurements. In particular, for this work, we focus on Arecibo 430 MHz observations since this is the most sensitive radar utilized for this type of observations to date. For this, we integrate and employ existing comprehensive models of meteoroid ablation, ionization and radar detection to enable accurate interpretation of radar observations and show that reasonable agreement in the hourly rates is found between model predictions and Arecibo observations when: 1) we invoke the lower limit of the model predicted flux (~16 t/d) and 2) we estimate the ionization probability of ablating metal atoms using laboratory measurements of the ionization cross sections of high speed metal atom beams, resulting in values up to two orders of magnitude lower than the extensively utilized figure reported by Jones (1997) for low speeds meteors. However, even at this lower limit the model over predicts the slow portion of the Arecibo radial velocity distributions by a factor of 3, suggesting the model requires some revision.

  17. Radar detectability studies of slow and small zodiacal dust cloud particles. I. The case of Arecibo 430 MHz meteor head echo observations

    SciTech Connect

    Janches, D.; Nesvorný, D.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Nicolls, M. J. E-mail: j.m.c.plane@leeds.ac.uk E-mail: davidn@boulder.swri.edu E-mail: Michael.Nicolls@sri.com

    2014-11-20

    Recent model development of the Zodiacal Dust Cloud (ZDC) argues that the incoming flux of meteoric material into the Earth's upper atmosphere is mostly undetected by radars because they cannot detect small extraterrestrial particles entering the atmosphere at low velocities due to the relatively small production of electrons. In this paper, we present a new methodology utilizing meteor head echo radar observations that aims to constrain the ZDC physical model by ground-based measurements. In particular, for this work, we focus on Arecibo 430 MHz observations since this is the most sensitive radar utilized for this type of observations to date. For this, we integrate and employ existing comprehensive models of meteoroid ablation, ionization, and radar detection to enable accurate interpretation of radar observations and show that reasonable agreement in the hourly rates is found between model predictions and Arecibo observations when (1) we invoke the lower limit of the model predicted flux (∼16 t d{sup –1}) and (2) we estimate the ionization probability of ablating metal atoms using laboratory measurements of the ionization cross sections of high-speed metal atom beams, resulting in values up to two orders of magnitude lower than the extensively utilized figure reported by Jones for low-speed meteors. However, even at this lower limit, the model overpredicts the slow portion of the Arecibo radial velocity distributions by a factor of three, suggesting that the model requires some revision.

  18. Naphthalene emissions from moth repellents or toilet deodorant blocks determined using head-space and small-chamber tests.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Lee, Jong-Hyo; Lim, Ho-Jin; Jeong, Woo-Sik

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the emissions of naphthalene and other compounds from several different moth repellents (MRs) and one toilet deodorant block (TDB) currently sold in Korea, using a headspace analysis. The emission factors and emission rates of naphthalene were studied using a small-scale environmental chamber. Paper-type products emitted a higher concentration of the total volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (normalized to the weight of test piece) than ball-type products, which in turn emitted higher concentration than a gel-type product. In contrast, naphthalene was either the most or the second highest abundant compound for the four ball products, whereas for paper and gel products it was not detected or was detected at much lower levels. The abundance of naphthalene ranged between 18.4% and 37.3% for ball products. The results showed that the lower the air changes per hour (ACH) level was, the higher the naphthalene concentrations became. In general, a low ACH level suggests a low ventilation rate. The emission factor for naphthalene was nearly 100 times higher for a ball MR than for a gel or a paper MR. For the ball MR, the lower ACH level resulted in higher emission rate.

  19. Thinking Big

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastens, Kim; Krumhansl, Ruth; Baker, Irene

    2015-01-01

    This article is aimed at teachers already experienced with activities involving small, student-collected data sets and who are now ready to begin working with large, online data sets collected by scientists and engineers. The authors discuss challenges, instructional strategies, and sources of appropriate lesson plans. With guidance, plus online…

  20. Adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 in metastasis of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck and non-small cell lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakurina, G. V.; Kolegova, E. S.; Cheremisina, O. V.; Zavyalov, A. A.; Shishkin, D. A.; Kondakova, I. V.; Choinzonov, E. L.

    2016-08-01

    Progression of tumors and metastasis in particular is one of the main reasons of the high mortality rate among cancer patients. The primary role in developing metastases plays cell locomotion which requires remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Form, dynamics, localization and mechanical properties of the actin cytoskeleton are regulated by a variety of actin-binding proteins, which include the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein 1 (CAP1). The study is devoted to the investigation of CAP1 level depending on the presence or absence of metastases in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The results show the contribution of CAP1 to SCCHN and NSCLC progression. We detected the connection between the tissue protein CAP1 level and the stage of NSCLC and SCCHN disease. Also the levels of the CAP1 protein in tissues of primary tumors and metastases in lung cancer were different. Our data showed that CAP is important in the development of metastases, which suggests further perspectives in the study of this protein for projecting metastasis of NSCLC and SCCHN.

  1. Head MRI

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head; MRI - cranial; NMR - cranial; Cranial MRI; Brain MRI; MRI - brain; MRI - head ... the test, tell your provider if you have: Brain aneurysm clips An artificial heart valves Heart defibrillator ...

  2. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... scalp internal head injuries, which may involve the skull, the blood vessels within the skull, or the brain Fortunately, most childhood falls or ... knock the brain into the side of the skull or tear blood vessels. Some internal head injuries ...

  3. Heads Up

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us HEADS UP Apps Reshaping the Culture Around Concussion in Sports Get HEADS UP on Your Web Site Concussion ... fit, and maintain the right helmet for specific sports. Concussion Laws Learn about Return to Play and other ...

  4. Reviews Book: Nucleus Book: The Wonderful World of Relativity Book: Head Shot Book: Cosmos Close-Up Places to Visit: Physics DemoLab Book: Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang EBook: Shooting Stars Equipment: Victor 70C USB Digital Multimeter Web Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Nucleus: A Trip into the Heart of Matter A coffee-table book for everyone to dip into and learn from The Wonderful World of Relativity A charming, stand-out introduction to relativity The Physics DemoLab, National University of Singapore A treasure trove of physics for hands-on science experiences Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang Perfect to polish up on particle physics for older students Victor 70C USB Digital Multimeter Equipment impresses for usability and value WORTH A LOOK Cosmos Close-Up Weighty tour of the galaxy that would make a good display Shooting Stars Encourage students to try astrophotography with this ebook HANDLE WITH CARE Head Shot: The Science Behind the JKF Assassination Exploration of the science behind the crime fails to impress WEB WATCH App-lied science for education: a selection of free Android apps are reviewed and iPhone app options are listed

  5. Head lice.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Barbara L; Weiner, Leonard B

    2002-09-01

    Head lice infestation is associated with little morbidity but causes a high level of anxiety among parents of school-aged children. This statement attempts to clarify issues of diagnosis and treatment of head lice and makes recommendations for dealing with head lice in the school setting.

  6. Five Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  7. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury, cerebral contusion, cerebral laceration, coma, head trauma, hematoma, impaired consciousness, postconcussion syndrome, skull fracture, skull penetration, stupor, vegetative state Family Health, Infants ...

  8. "Butterfly effect" in CuO/graphene composite nanosheets: a small interfacial adjustment triggers big changes in electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoting; Zhou, Jisheng; Song, Huaihe; Chen, Xiaohong; Fedoseeva, Yu V; Okotrub, A V; Bulusheva, L G

    2014-10-08

    Generally speaking, excellent electrochemical performance of metal oxide/graphene nanosheets (GNSs) composite is attributed to the interfacial interaction (or "synergistic effect") between constituents. However, there are no any direct observations on how the electronic structure is changed and how the properties of Li-ion storage are affected by adjusting the interfacial interaction, despite of limited investigations on the possible nature of binding between GNSs and metal oxide. In this paper, CuO nanosheets/GNSs composites with a little Cu2O (ca. 4 wt %) were utilized as an interesting model to illustrate directly the changes of interfacial nature as well as its deep influence on the electronic structure and Li-ion storage performance of composite. The interfacial adjustment was successfully fulfilled by removal of Cu2O in the composite by NH3·H2O. Formation of Cu-O-C bonds on interfaces both between CuO and GNSs, and Cu2O and GNSs in the original CuO/GNSs composites was detected. The small interfacial alteration by removal of the little Cu2O results in the obvious changes in electronic structure, such as weakening of covalent Cu-O-C interfacial interaction and recovery of π bonds in graphene, and simultaneously leads to variations in electrochemical performance of composites, including a 21% increase of reversible capacity, degradation of cyclic stability and rate-performance, and obvious increase of charge-transfer resistance, which can be called a "butterfly effect" in graphene-based metal oxide composites. These interesting phenomena could be helpful to design not only the high-performance graphene/metal oxide anode materials but also various advanced graphene-based composites used in the other fields such as sensors, catalysis, fuel cells, solar cells, etc.

  9. Big needles, small bodies’—the absence of acupuncture treatment for infants in contemporary Shanghai: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Skjeie, Holgeir; Brekke, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore contemporary practices and clinical recommendations regarding the use of acupuncture for infants by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) practitioners in Shanghai. Design A qualitative study consisting of four field visits between February 2014 and March 2015. Data was collected using participant observation, focus group interview, in-depth interview, textbook page analysis and informant validation. Participants 14 Shanghainese professionals, including interpreters and TCM practitioners, of which seven were acupuncturists. Setting The Longhua Hospital (paediatric, acupuncture and Tui na departments) in southern Shanghai and the campus of the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Results The Longhua Hospital outpatient acupuncture clinic receives 400 consultations on average per day. Children, including patients from the paediatric department, are referred to this clinic. During 3 days of participant observations at this department, we saw two children. No infants. During 3 days at the paediatric department and 1 day at the Tui na department we saw no referrals. Formal interviews and informal conversations with acupuncturists and other TCM professionals revealed that acupuncture was neither routinely practiced nor recommended for infants and small children. Acupuncture was considered potentially painful for this young patient population. Alternative treatment options such as herbal treatments or medical massage were widely available and preferred. Western medical diagnostics and treatment were also used, recommended, and trusted. Conclusions Acupuncture for infants is not a preferred therapeutic method among TCM practitioners working in contemporary Shanghai. Acupuncture on broad indications in infants appears to be a Western practice with little basis in TCM modern-day practice. PMID:26553838

  10. Small role with big impact: miRNAs as communicators in the cross-talk between cancer-associated fibroblasts and cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhanhuai; Tan, Yinuo; Yu, Wei; Zheng, Shu; Zhang, Suzhan; Sun, Lifeng; Ding, Kefeng

    2017-01-01

    Cancer microenvironment is composed of numerous components that can support cancer cell proliferation, promote cancer progression and contribute to cancer treatment resistance. The major components of caner microenvironment are fibroblasts, endothelial cells, immune cells as well as cytokines, chemokines, and extracellular matrix (ECM) all of which surround tumor cells as the core and cross talk with each other. Among them, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role in promoting cancer progression by secreting various pro-inflammatory factors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate protein expression both in cancer cell and normal stromal cells. Changes of miRNAs expression in cancer-associated fibroblasts can be induced both by cancer cells and other stromal cells. This change can arise through direct interaction or by secreted paracrine factors or even by secreted miRNAs. The desregulated miRNAs in cancer-associated fibroblasts then enhance the CAFs phenotype and assist their cancer promotion ability. Explore the regulatory function of miRNAs in the complex communication between cancer cells and cancer microenvironment is important to understand the process of tumor progression and may help to develop new therapeutic strategies. This review provides an updated content of latest research advances about the relevance of miRNAs in the interaction between cancer cells and the CAFs. We will describe miRNAs which are differential expressed by NFs and CAFs, their function in regulating fibroblasts activation as well as miRNAs expressed in CAFs as prognostic factors in cancer stroma in recent studies. We will also discuss miRNA as an important player in CAFs mediated regulation of cancer progression and metastasis, cancer metabolism, cancer stem cell property and chemoresistance. PMID:28367098

  11. The BigBOSS spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinsky, Patrick; Bebek, Chris; Besuner, Robert; Carton, Pierre-Henri; Edelstein, Jerry; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael E.; Poppett, Claire; Prieto, Eric; Schlegel, David; Sholl, Michael

    2012-09-01

    BigBOSS is a proposed ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a 14,000 square degree galaxy and quasi-stellar object redshift survey. It consists of a 5,000- fiber-positioner focal plane feeding the spectrographs. The optical fibers are separated into ten 500 fiber slit heads at the entrance of ten identical spectrographs in a thermally insulated room. Each of the ten spectrographs has a spectral resolution (λ/Δλ) between 1500 and 4000 over a wavelength range from 360 - 980 nm. Each spectrograph uses two dichroic beam splitters to separate the spectrograph into three arms. It uses volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings for high efficiency and compactness. Each arm uses a 4096x4096 15 μm pixel charge coupled device (CCD) for the detector. We describe the requirements and current design of the BigBOSS spectrograph. Design trades (e.g. refractive versus reflective) and manufacturability are also discussed.

  12. The big deal about big data.

    PubMed

    Moore, Keith D; Eyestone, Katherine; Coddington, Dean C

    2013-08-01

    Big data is a concept that is being widely applied in the retail industries as a means to understand customers' purchasing habits and preferences for followup promotional activity. It is characterized by vast amounts of diverse and rapidly multiplying data that are available at or near real-time. Conversations with executives of leading healthcare organizations provide a barometer for understanding where the industry stands in its adoption of big data as a means to meet the critical information requirements of value-based health care.

  13. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Dongsu

    2007-01-15

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory.

  14. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  15. Head Tilt

    MedlinePlus

    ... Throat Emotional Problems Eyes Fever From Insects or Animals Genitals and Urinary Tract Glands & Growth Head Neck & Nervous System Heart Infections Learning Disabilities Obesity Orthopedic Prevention Sexually Transmitted Skin Tobacco ...

  16. Head Noises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Tom

    2000-01-01

    Explains how a toy called "Sound Bites" can be modified to demonstrate the transmission of sound waves. Students can hear music from the toy when they press it against any bone in their heads or shoulders. (WRM)

  17. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... before. Often, the injury is minor because your skull is hard and it protects your brain. But ... injuries can be more severe, such as a skull fracture, concussion, or traumatic brain injury. Head injuries ...

  18. Head lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... make the nits easier to remove. Some dishwashing detergents can help dissolve the "glue" that makes the ... clothes and bed linens in hot water with detergent. This also helps prevent head lice from spreading ...

  19. Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... won't stop crying complains of head and neck pain (younger or nonverbal children may be more fussy) ... vision pupils of unequal size weakness or paralysis neck pain or stiffness seizure If your child is unconscious: ...

  20. Big data for health.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled.

  1. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.

  2. Big Data in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  3. The Big Bang Theory

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  4. The Big Bang Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-09-30

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  5. Big Hopes for a Small Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2004-01-01

    Not long after Dennis Roseleip received a superintendency appointment in his native state of Montana, the district's entire administrative team departed, leaving him to fill three principalships in the opening months of his new post. The sudden vacancies were not a statement on the choice of Roseleip, then 44, to lead the Cut Bank Public Schools…

  6. Sustainable Offices: Small Practices for Big Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    biobased content • Purchase energy efficient and water saving products • Purchase products that do not contain ODS or hazardous substances 6 Green...Act, Executive Orders (EO) 13423 and 13514, and the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR)) – Biobased (Farm and Security and Rural Investment Act...Binders (paper, plastic covered) • Office recycling containers • Office waste receptacles • Plastic desktop accessories • Plastic envelopes

  7. Robotic Landers: Small With Big Benefits

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory are creating a new generation of smart, versatile robotic landers. for exploring the moon, asteroids, and other airless bodies in ou...

  8. When small is better than BIG

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, Hunter; Beard, Matthew C; Wheeler, Lance M; Pietryga, Jeffrey M

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center for Advanced Solar Photophysics (CASP), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge and was awarded “Overall Winner Runner-up and People’s Choice Winner.” As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE: energy. The mission of CASP is to explore and exploit the unique physics of nanostructured materials to boost the efficiency of solar energy conversion through novel light-matter interactions, controlled excited-state dynamics, and engineered carrier-carrier coupling.

  9. String Theory: Big Problem for Small Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahoo, S.

    2009-01-01

    String theory is the most promising candidate theory for a unified description of all the fundamental forces that exist in nature. It provides a mathematical framework that combines quantum theory with Einstein's general theory of relativity. The typical size of a string is of the order of 10[superscript -33] cm, called the Planck length. But due…

  10. Thinking Small in a Big Way.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, John; Rowe, Gladys

    1979-01-01

    Examines the policies and practices developed by Sandia Laboratories Technical Library to acquire, process, announce, and promote the use of the technical reports literature in microfiche format. The use of COM for various internal processing functions is also described. (Author)

  11. Miniature Paintings: Small Size, Big Impact!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Bill

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a miniature painting project that allows students to research a master painter and then replicate the work on a smaller scale. This lesson focuses on the students' ability to learn to identify style, subject matter, themes, and content in painting through the study of historical paintings, and the application of various…

  12. Big School Change in a Small Town.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Jacqueline; Thorson, Gregory; Fluegel, David

    2000-01-01

    A rural Minnesota district with a declining regional population and little public support involved the community in developing a consensus for reforms and creating a common vision and action plan for each school. Innovations were adopted regarding curriculum, scheduling, technology use, and marketing approaches. (MLH)

  13. What's so Big about Being Small?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orgill, MaryKay; Crippen, Kent J.

    2009-01-01

    An interdisciplinary approach to teaching involves leveraging the different perspectives of each discipline to better understand an issue or problem. The most ideal topics for interdisciplinary study are those whose very nature is also interdisciplinary. Nanoscience--which combines biology, chemistry, physics, engineering, and mathematics--is one…

  14. Micrographics--Small World with Big Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College and University Business, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Presents some of the basics to help understand micrographics for higher education institutions including: the history of records management; terminology glossary; examples of use of microfiche in libraries and in medical education; new products; buyers guide; and where to go for more information. (PG)

  15. Small Potatoes for the Big Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumer, Amy

    1978-01-01

    New York's Tuition Assistance Program (TAP) is described with emphasis on its effect or lack of effect on access, urban students, and middle-income parents. Its role within the three major higher education systems in the state--SUNY, CUNY, and the independents--is examined. (LBH)

  16. Thinking big thoughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedral, Vlatko

    2016-08-01

    The short synopsis of The Big Picture by Sean Carroll is that it explores the question of whether science can explain everything in the world, and analyses the emerging reality that such an explanation entails.

  17. The Big Bang Singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  18. Big data need big theory too.

    PubMed

    Coveney, Peter V; Dougherty, Edward R; Highfield, Roger R

    2016-11-13

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their 'depth' and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote 'blind' big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare.This article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'.

  19. Big data need big theory too

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Edward R.; Highfield, Roger R.

    2016-01-01

    The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales. Here, we point out the weaknesses of pure big data approaches with particular focus on biology and medicine, which fail to provide conceptual accounts for the processes to which they are applied. No matter their ‘depth’ and the sophistication of data-driven methods, such as artificial neural nets, in the end they merely fit curves to existing data. Not only do these methods invariably require far larger quantities of data than anticipated by big data aficionados in order to produce statistically reliable results, but they can also fail in circumstances beyond the range of the data used to train them because they are not designed to model the structural characteristics of the underlying system. We argue that it is vital to use theory as a guide to experimental design for maximal efficiency of data collection and to produce reliable predictive models and conceptual knowledge. Rather than continuing to fund, pursue and promote ‘blind’ big data projects with massive budgets, we call for more funding to be allocated to the elucidation of the multiscale and stochastic processes controlling the behaviour of complex systems, including those of life, medicine and healthcare. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling at the physics–chemistry–biology interface’. PMID:27698035

  20. Re-Os Systematics in the Allende CAI: Big AL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1999-03-01

    A sample of coarse-grained Allende CAI, Big Al analyzed using reverse aqua regia, plots on the IIA iron meteorite reference isochron, suggesting a very small time difference between the formation of CAIs, chondrites, and iron.

  1. Magnetic Heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoshima, Tokihiko

    Figure 6.1 shows how rapidly the areal density of hard disk drives (HDD) has been increasing over the past 20 years [1]. Several critical innovations were necessary to bring about such rapid progress in the field of magnetic recording [2]. One of the most significant innovations from the viewpoint of material improvement was the electrodeposition of permalloy (Ni80Fe20), which was introduced by IBM in 1979 as the core material of a thin-film inductive head to increase the magnetic recording density [3]. After the introduction of the magneto-resistive (MR) element as the read head and the electrodeposited permalloy as the write head by IBM in 1991 [4], the rate of increase in the recording density of HDDs jumped from 30% per year to 60% per year. Recently, a giant magneto-resistive (GMR) element has been used for the read element instead of the MR element. The rate of increase in the recording density jumped to over 100% per year in 1999, which is an incredible rate of increase. Since 2002, however, the rate of increase has decreased to 30%; thus, new innovations are required to maintain the rate of increase. In 2004, the practical use of perpendicular magnetic recording instead of longitudinal magnetic recording was announced [5]. This system is a critical innovation for developing high-performance HDD systems with high-recording density. The design of the magnetic recording head was changed because of the change of the recording system.

  2. Big Data in Caenorhabditis elegans: quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Hutter, Harald; Moerman, Donald

    2015-11-05

    A clear definition of what constitutes "Big Data" is difficult to identify, but we find it most useful to define Big Data as a data collection that is complete. By this criterion, researchers on Caenorhabditis elegans have a long history of collecting Big Data, since the organism was selected with the idea of obtaining a complete biological description and understanding of development. The complete wiring diagram of the nervous system, the complete cell lineage, and the complete genome sequence provide a framework to phrase and test hypotheses. Given this history, it might be surprising that the number of "complete" data sets for this organism is actually rather small--not because of lack of effort, but because most types of biological experiments are not currently amenable to complete large-scale data collection. Many are also not inherently limited, so that it becomes difficult to even define completeness. At present, we only have partial data on mutated genes and their phenotypes, gene expression, and protein-protein interaction--important data for many biological questions. Big Data can point toward unexpected correlations, and these unexpected correlations can lead to novel investigations; however, Big Data cannot establish causation. As a result, there is much excitement about Big Data, but there is also a discussion on just what Big Data contributes to solving a biological problem. Because of its relative simplicity, C. elegans is an ideal test bed to explore this issue and at the same time determine what is necessary to build a multicellular organism from a single cell.

  3. Big Science and the Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giudice, Gian Francesco

    2012-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the particle accelerator operating at CERN, is probably the most complex and ambitious scientific project ever accomplished by humanity. The sheer size of the enterprise, in terms of financial and human resources, naturally raises the question whether society should support such costly basic-research programs. I address this question by first reviewing the process that led to the emergence of Big Science and the role of large projects in the development of science and technology. I then compare the methodologies of Small and Big Science, emphasizing their mutual linkage. Finally, after examining the cost of Big Science projects, I highlight several general aspects of their beneficial implications for society.

  4. In-vivo Optical Tomography of Small Scattering Specimens: time-lapse 3D imaging of the head eversion process in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Arranz, Alicia; Dong, Di; Zhu, Shouping; Savakis, Charalambos; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Even though in vivo imaging approaches have witnessed several new and important developments, specimens that exhibit high light scattering properties such as Drosophila melanogaster pupae are still not easily accessible with current optical imaging techniques, obtaining images only from subsurface features. This means that in order to obtain 3D volumetric information these specimens need to be studied either after fixation and a chemical clearing process, through an imaging window - thus perturbing physiological development -, or during early stages of development when the scattering contribution is negligible. In this paper we showcase how Optical Projection Tomography may be used to obtain volumetric images of the head eversion process in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster pupae, both in control and headless mutant specimens. Additionally, we demonstrate the use of Helical Optical Projection Tomography (hOPT) as a tool for high throughput 4D-imaging of several specimens simultaneously. PMID:25471694

  5. In-vivo optical tomography of small scattering specimens: time-lapse 3D imaging of the head eversion process in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Arranz, Alicia; Dong, Di; Zhu, Shouping; Savakis, Charalambos; Tian, Jie; Ripoll, Jorge

    2014-12-04

    Even though in vivo imaging approaches have witnessed several new and important developments, specimens that exhibit high light scattering properties such as Drosophila melanogaster pupae are still not easily accessible with current optical imaging techniques, obtaining images only from subsurface features. This means that in order to obtain 3D volumetric information these specimens need to be studied either after fixation and a chemical clearing process, through an imaging window--thus perturbing physiological development -, or during early stages of development when the scattering contribution is negligible. In this paper we showcase how Optical Projection Tomography may be used to obtain volumetric images of the head eversion process in vivo in Drosophila melanogaster pupae, both in control and headless mutant specimens. Additionally, we demonstrate the use of Helical Optical Projection Tomography (hOPT) as a tool for high throughput 4D-imaging of several specimens simultaneously.

  6. Head injuries.

    PubMed

    Yanko, J

    1984-08-01

    In summary, the broad term "head injury" represents a large variety of more specific injuries. In order to anticipate and plan appropriate patient care, nurses need information regarding the cause of injury, the impact site, and the patient's clinical course in addition to current assessment findings. The nurse must also anticipate sequelae from secondary brain injury due to hypoxia, edema, increased intracranial pressure, changes in regional blood flows, or hypovolemic shock due to internal bleeding in another body system or cavity. The head-injured patient is a complex patient requiring intensive nursing care, observation, and assessment. By incorporating knowledge of the mechanisms of injury into nursing observations and assessments, nurses can provide more effective nursing interventions.

  7. Big Bend sees big environmental push

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2007-10-15

    The 1800 MW Big Bend Power Station is a coal-fired facility in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA owned by Tampa Electric. It has four pulverized coal- fired steam units equipped with FGD scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators. Currently the addition of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems is under consideration. The Unit 4 SCR retrofit was completed in June 2007; the remaining three systems are scheduled for completion by 2010. Boiler draft systems will be modified to a balance draft design to accommodate the increased pressure drop of the new systems. 3-D computer models were developed to determine constructability due to the tight clearance at the site. 1 photo.

  8. Big data bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Greene, Casey S; Tan, Jie; Ung, Matthew; Moore, Jason H; Cheng, Chao

    2014-12-01

    Recent technological advances allow for high throughput profiling of biological systems in a cost-efficient manner. The low cost of data generation is leading us to the "big data" era. The availability of big data provides unprecedented opportunities but also raises new challenges for data mining and analysis. In this review, we introduce key concepts in the analysis of big data, including both "machine learning" algorithms as well as "unsupervised" and "supervised" examples of each. We note packages for the R programming language that are available to perform machine learning analyses. In addition to programming based solutions, we review webservers that allow users with limited or no programming background to perform these analyses on large data compendia.

  9. Big data in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science.

  10. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  11. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-08-27

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  12. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Ovarian Cancer, or Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-01-08

    Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  13. Erlotinib Hydrochloride and Cetuximab in Treating Patients With Advanced Gastrointestinal Cancer, Head and Neck Cancer, Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-28

    Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Carcinoma of the Appendix; Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor; Metastatic Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Anal Cancer; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Recurrent Gastrointestinal Carcinoid Tumor; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Small Intestine Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Small Intestine Adenocarcinoma; Small Intestine Leiomyosarcoma; Small Intestine Lymphoma; Stage IV Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Anal Cancer; Stage IV Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  14. Circulating Tumor DNA in Predicting Outcomes in Patients With Stage IV Head and Neck Cancer or Stage III-IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-19

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IIIB Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer; Untreated Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary

  15. A Big Bang Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  16. The Big Sky inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  17. Big Enough for Everyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coote, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The UK's coalition government wants to build a "Big Society." The Prime Minister says "we are all in this together" and building it is the responsibility of every citizen as well as every government department. The broad vision is welcome, but everything depends on how the vision is translated into policy and practice. The…

  18. The big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    Our universe was born billions of years ago in a hot, violent explosion of elementary particles and radiation - the big bang. What do we know about this ultimate moment of creation, and how do we know it? Drawing upon the latest theories and technology, this new edition of The big bang, is a sweeping, lucid account of the event that set the universe in motion. Joseph Silk begins his story with the first microseconds of the big bang, on through the evolution of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, quasars, and into the distant future of our universe. He also explores the fascinating evidence for the big bang model and recounts the history of cosmological speculation. Revised and updated, this new edition features all the most recent astronomical advances, including: Photos and measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE), and Infrared Space Observatory; the latest estimates of the age of the universe; new ideas in string and superstring theory; recent experiments on neutrino detection; new theories about the presence of dark matter in galaxies; new developments in the theory of the formation and evolution of galaxies; the latest ideas about black holes, worm holes, quantum foam, and multiple universes.

  19. A Sobering Big Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Since Susan Adler, Alberta Dougan, and Jesus Garcia like "big ideas," the author offers one to ponder: young people in this country can not read with comprehension. The saddest thing about this crisis is that it is no secret. The 2001 results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for reading, published in every major…

  20. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  1. MAGNETIC RECORDING HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, L.C.

    1958-06-17

    An electromagetic recording head is described for simultaneous recording of a plurality of signals within a small space on a magnetically semsitized medium. Basically the head structure comprises a non-magnetic centerpiece provided with only first and second groups of spaced cut-out slots respectively on opposite sides of the centerpiece. The two groups of slots are in parallel alignment and the slots of one group are staggered with respect to the slots of the other group so that one slot is not directly opposite another slot. Each slot has a magnet pole piece disposed therein and cooperating with a second pole and coil to provide a magnetic flux gap at the upper end of the slot. As a tape is drawn over the upper end of the centerpiece the individual magnetic circuits are disposed along its width to provide means for simultaneously recording information on separate portions, tracks. of the tape.

  2. Head lice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Head lice can only be diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings, longer hair, and of lower socioeconomic group. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 26 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: benzyl alcohol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, insecticide combinations, isopropyl myristate, ivermectin, lindane, malathion, mechanical removal by combing ("bug busting"), oral trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (co-trimoxazole, TMP-SMX), permethrin, phenothrin, pyrethrum, and spinosad. PMID:21575285

  3. Head lice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Head louse infection is diagnosed by finding live lice, as eggs take 7 days to hatch (but a few may take longer, up to 13 days) and may appear viable for weeks after death of the egg. Infestation may be more likely in school children, with risks increased in children with more siblings or of lower socioeconomic group. Factors such as longer hair make diagnosis and treatment more difficult. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of physically acting treatments for head lice? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found six studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: 1,2-octanediol, dimeticone, herbal and essential oils, and isopropyl myristate. PMID:25587918

  4. Big Data and Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  5. Business and Science - Big Data, Big Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, A.

    2013-12-01

    Data Science is more than the creation, manipulation, and transformation of data. It is more than Big Data. The business world seems to have a hold on the term 'data science' and, for now, they define what it means. But business is very different than science. In this talk, I address how large datasets, Big Data, and data science are conceptually different in business and science worlds. I focus on the types of questions each realm asks, the data needed, and the consequences of findings. Gone are the days of datasets being created or collected to serve only one purpose or project. The trick with data reuse is to become familiar enough with a dataset to be able to combine it with other data and extract accurate results. As a Data Curator for the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS), my specialty is communication. Our team enables Arctic sciences by ensuring datasets are well documented and can be understood by reusers. Previously, I served as a data community liaison for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Again, my specialty was communicating complex instructions and ideas to a broad audience of data users. Before entering the science world, I was an entrepreneur. I have a bachelor's degree in economics and a master's degree in environmental social science. I am currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Geography. Because my background has embraced both the business and science worlds, I would like to share my perspectives on data, data reuse, data documentation, and the presentation or communication of findings. My experiences show that each can inform and support the other.

  6. Comprehensive Small Animal Imaging Strategies on a Clinical 3 T Dedicated Head MR-Scanner; Adapted Methods and Sequence Protocols in CNS Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Deepu R.; Heidemann, Robin M.; Lanz, Titus; Dittmar, Michael S.; Sandner, Beatrice; Beier, Christoph P.; Weidner, Norbert; Greenlee, Mark W.; Schuierer, Gerhard; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Schlachetzki, Felix

    2011-01-01

    Background Small animal models of human diseases are an indispensable aspect of pre-clinical research. Being dynamic, most pathologies demand extensive longitudinal monitoring to understand disease mechanisms, drug efficacy and side effects. These considerations often demand the concomitant development of monitoring systems with sufficient temporal and spatial resolution. Methodology and Results This study attempts to configure and optimize a clinical 3 Tesla magnetic resonance scanner to facilitate imaging of small animal central nervous system pathologies. The hardware of the scanner was complemented by a custom-built, 4-channel phased array coil system. Extensive modification of standard sequence protocols was carried out based on tissue relaxometric calculations. Proton density differences between the gray and white matter of the rodent spinal cord along with transverse relaxation due to magnetic susceptibility differences at the cortex and striatum of both rats and mice demonstrated statistically significant differences. The employed parallel imaging reconstruction algorithms had distinct properties dependent on the sequence type and in the presence of the contrast agent. The attempt to morphologically phenotype a normal healthy rat brain in multiple planes delineated a number of anatomical regions, and all the clinically relevant sequels following acute cerebral ischemia could be adequately characterized. Changes in blood-brain-barrier permeability following ischemia-reperfusion were also apparent at a later time. Typical characteristics of intra-cerebral haemorrhage at acute and chronic stages were also visualized up to one month. Two models of rodent spinal cord injury were adequately characterized and closely mimicked the results of histological studies. In the employed rodent animal handling system a mouse model of glioblastoma was also studied with unequivocal results. Conclusions The implemented customizations including extensive sequence protocol

  7. How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own…

  8. The 1980 Archeological Investigations at the Big Hill Lake, Kansas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    rodents and other mammals such as coyotes, raccoons, bobcats, opossums, etc. The bottomland forests are also represented on a small scale in the Big... forests are adjacent to Big Hill creek and its feeder tributaries. These streams, some intermittent, provide suitable habitation for many groups of...points recovered from the areas near the hearths have suggested Preceramic cultural affiliations and have been identified as Afton , Ellis, Lange

  9. The BIG gene is required for auxin-mediated organ growth in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaola; Lu, Wenwen; Ma, Yurong; Qin, Qianqian; Hou, Suiwen

    2013-04-01

    Control of organ size by cell expansion and cell proliferation is a fundamental process during development, but the importance of BIG in this process is still poorly understood. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a new allele mutant of BIG in Arabidopsis: big-j588. The mutant displayed small aerial organs that were characterized by reduced cell size in the epidermis and short roots with decreased cell numbers. The big-j588 axr1 double and big-j588 arf7 arf19 triple mutants displayed more severe defects in leaf expansion and root elongation than their parents, implying BIG is involved in auxin-dependent organ growth. Genetic analysis suggests that BIG may act synergistically with PIN1 to affect leaf growth. The PIN1 protein level decreased in both the root cells and the tips of leaf pavement cell lobes of big-j588. Further analysis showed that the auxin maxima in the roots and the leaves of big-j588 decreased. Therefore, we concluded that the small leaves and the short roots of big-j588 were associated with reduction of auxin maxima. Overall, our study suggested that BIG is required for Arabidopsis organ growth via auxin action.

  10. Erlotinib and Cetuximab With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Metastatic or Unresectable Kidney, Colorectal, Head and Neck, Pancreatic, or Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-10

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Recurrent Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lip; Stage III Colon Cancer; Stage III Esthesioneuroblastoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Inverted Papilloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Midline Lethal Granuloma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Rectal Cancer; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  11. A holographic big bang?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshordi, N.; Mann, R. B.; Pourhasan, R.

    2015-11-01

    We present a cosmological model in which the Universe emerges out of the collapse of a five-dimensional (5D) star as a spherical three-brane. The initial singularity of the big bang becomes hidden behind a causal horizon. Near scale-invariant primordial curvature perturbations can be induced on the brane via a thermal atmosphere that is in equilibrium with the brane, circumventing the need for a separate inflationary process and providing an important test of the model.

  12. The Next Big Idea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract George S. Eisenbarth will remain in our memories as a brilliant scientist and great collaborator. His quest to discover the cause and prevention of type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes started from building predictive models based on immunogenetic markers. Despite his tremendous contributions to our understanding of the natural history of pre-type 1 diabetes and potential mechanisms, George left us with several big questions to answer before his quest is completed. PMID:23786296

  13. Big3. Editorial

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christoph U.; Séroussi, Brigitte; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To provide an editorial introduction into the 2014 IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics with an overview of the content, the new publishing scheme, and upcoming 25th anniversary. Methods A brief overview of the 2014 special topic, Big Data - Smart Health Strategies, and an outline of the novel publishing model is provided in conjunction with a call for proposals to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Yearbook. Results ‘Big Data’ has become the latest buzzword in informatics and promise new approaches and interventions that can improve health, well-being, and quality of life. This edition of the Yearbook acknowledges the fact that we just started to explore the opportunities that ‘Big Data’ will bring. However, it will become apparent to the reader that its pervasive nature has invaded all aspects of biomedical informatics – some to a higher degree than others. It was our goal to provide a comprehensive view at the state of ‘Big Data’ today, explore its strengths and weaknesses, as well as its risks, discuss emerging trends, tools, and applications, and stimulate the development of the field through the aggregation of excellent survey papers and working group contributions to the topic. Conclusions For the first time in history will the IMIA Yearbook be published in an open access online format allowing a broader readership especially in resource poor countries. For the first time, thanks to the online format, will the IMIA Yearbook be published twice in the year, with two different tracks of papers. We anticipate that the important role of the IMIA yearbook will further increase with these changes just in time for its 25th anniversary in 2016. PMID:24853037

  14. Combined therapeutic use of AdGFPFasL and small molecule inhibitors of ceramide metabolism in prostate and head and neck cancers: a status report.

    PubMed

    Norris, J S; Bielawska, A; Day, T; El-Zawahri, A; ElOjeimy, S; Hannun, Y; Holman, D; Hyer, M; Landon, C; Lowe, S; Dong, J Y; McKillop, J; Norris, K; Obeid, L; Rubinchik, S; Tavassoli, M; Tomlinson, S; Voelkel-Johnson, C; Liu, X

    2006-12-01

    As of January 2005, there were 1020 gene therapy clinical trials ongoing worldwide with 675 or 66.2% devoted to cancer gene therapy. The majority are occurring in the US and Europe (http://www.wiley.co.uk/genetherapy/clinical/). At the present time, to our knowledge there are no trials that employ gene delivery of Fas Ligand (FasL). As an important note, and in contrast to somatic cell therapy trials, there are no reported deaths due to therapeutic vector administration in any cancer gene therapy trial. That said, from our studies and from the published literature, the issue of gene delivery remains the major obstacle to successfully employing gene therapy for cancer treatment. Numerous laboratories are studying this with many different approaches. My co-workers and I have focused on the delivery issue by using various approaches that address tumor targeting and transgene expression. In addition, we are focusing on enhancing tumor cell killing via the bystander effect and through use of small molecules to enhance bystander activity.

  15. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Big Sky Carbon Atlas is an online geoportal designed for you to discover, interpret, and access geospatial data and maps relevant to decision support and education on carbon sequestration in the Big Sky Region. In serving as the public face of the Partnership's spatial Data Libraries, the Atlas provides a gateway to geographic information characterizing CO2 sources, potential geologic sinks, terrestrial carbon fluxes, civil and energy infrastructure, energy use, and related themes. In addition to directly serving the BSCSP and its stakeholders, the Atlas feeds regional data to the NatCarb Portal, contributing to a national perspective on carbon sequestration. Established components of the Atlas include a gallery of thematic maps and an interactive map that allows you to: • Navigate and explore regional characterization data through a user-friendly interface • Print your map views or publish them as PDFs • Identify technical references relevant to specific areas of interest • Calculate straight-line or pipeline-constrained distances from point sources of CO2 to potential geologic sink features • Download regional data layers (feature under development) (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  16. Disaggregating asthma: Big investigation versus big data.

    PubMed

    Belgrave, Danielle; Henderson, John; Simpson, Angela; Buchan, Iain; Bishop, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan

    2017-02-01

    We are facing a major challenge in bridging the gap between identifying subtypes of asthma to understand causal mechanisms and translating this knowledge into personalized prevention and management strategies. In recent years, "big data" has been sold as a panacea for generating hypotheses and driving new frontiers of health care; the idea that the data must and will speak for themselves is fast becoming a new dogma. One of the dangers of ready accessibility of health care data and computational tools for data analysis is that the process of data mining can become uncoupled from the scientific process of clinical interpretation, understanding the provenance of the data, and external validation. Although advances in computational methods can be valuable for using unexpected structure in data to generate hypotheses, there remains a need for testing hypotheses and interpreting results with scientific rigor. We argue for combining data- and hypothesis-driven methods in a careful synergy, and the importance of carefully characterized birth and patient cohorts with genetic, phenotypic, biological, and molecular data in this process cannot be overemphasized. The main challenge on the road ahead is to harness bigger health care data in ways that produce meaningful clinical interpretation and to translate this into better diagnoses and properly personalized prevention and treatment plans. There is a pressing need for cross-disciplinary research with an integrative approach to data science, whereby basic scientists, clinicians, data analysts, and epidemiologists work together to understand the heterogeneity of asthma.

  17. Abnormal Head Position

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause. Can a longstanding head turn lead to any permanent problems? Yes, a significant abnormal head posture could cause permanent ... occipitocervical synostosis and unilateral hearing loss. Are there any ... postures? Yes. Abnormal head postures can usually be improved depending ...

  18. Head injury - first aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... happen from a gunshot to the head. Head injuries include: Concussion , in which the brain is shaken, is the most common type of traumatic brain injury. Scalp wounds. Skull fractures. Head injuries ...

  19. Head circumference (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Head circumference is a measurement of the circumference of the child's head at its largest area (above the eyebrows and ears and around the back of the head). During routine check-ups, the distance is measured ...

  20. Talactoferrin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer or Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-30

    Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Recurrent Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer With Occult Primary; Recurrent Salivary Gland Cancer; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Salivary Gland Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IV Non-small Cell Lung Cancer; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IVA Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Salivary Gland Cancer; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral

  1. A Big Sunbird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güémez, J.; Valiente, R.; Fiolhais, C.; Fiolhais, M.

    2004-05-01

    The drinking bird is a toy that is suitable for demonstrations in the classroom. Since it is able to produce work for long periods, this device resembles a perpetuum mobile, but of course it is not. (With 30 cm3 of water, a drinking bird can operate for three to four days in summer.) The origin of its motion lies on a temperature gradient established between the lower part of the apparatus (the body) and its upper part (the head), by allowing water to evaporate off the head, which is kept wet.

  2. Big Crater as Viewed by Pathfinder Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The 'Big Crater' is actually a relatively small Martian crater to the southeast of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. It is 1500 meters (4900 feet) in diameter, or about the same size as Meteor Crater in Arizona. Superimposed on the rim of Big Crater (the central part of the rim as seen here) is a smaller crater nicknamed 'Rimshot Crater.' The distance to this smaller crater, and the nearest portion of the rim of Big Crater, is 2200 meters (7200 feet). To the right of Big Crater, south from the spacecraft, almost lost in the atmospheric dust 'haze,' is the large streamlined mountain nicknamed 'Far Knob.' This mountain is over 450 meters (1480 feet) tall, and is over 30 kilometers (19 miles) from the spacecraft. Another, smaller and closer knob, nicknamed 'Southeast Knob' can be seen as a triangular peak to the left of the flanks of the Big Crater rim. This knob is 21 kilometers (13 miles) southeast from the spacecraft.

    The larger features visible in this scene - Big Crater, Far Knob, and Southeast Knob - were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the 4th of July, 1997, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken over 20 years ago. The scene includes rocky ridges and swales or 'hummocks' of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of South Twin Peak. The largest rock in the nearfield, just left of center in the foreground, nicknamed 'Otter', is about 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) long and 10 meters (33 feet) from the spacecraft.

    This view of Big Crater was produced by combining 6 individual 'Superpan' scenes from the left and right eyes of the IMP camera. Each frame consists of 8 individual frames (left eye) and 7 frames (right eye) taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA

  3. Heading and head injuries in soccer.

    PubMed

    Kirkendall, D T; Jordan, S E; Garrett, W E

    2001-01-01

    In the world of sports, soccer is unique because of the purposeful use of the unprotected head for controlling and advancing the ball. This skill obviously places the player at risk of head injury and the game does carry some risk. Head injury can be a result of contact of the head with another head (or other body parts), ground, goal post, other unknown objects or even the ball. Such impacts can lead to contusions, fractures, eye injuries, concussions or even, in rare cases, death. Coaches, players, parents and physicians are rightly concerned about the risk of head injury in soccer. Current research shows that selected soccer players have some degree of cognitive dysfunction. It is important to determine the reasons behind such deficits. Purposeful heading has been blamed, but a closer look at the studies that focus on heading has revealed methodological concerns that question the validity of blaming purposeful heading of the ball. The player's history and age (did they play when the ball was leather and could absorb significant amounts of water), alcohol intake, drug intake, learning disabilities, concussion definition and control group use/composition are all factors that cloud the ability to blame purposeful heading. What does seem clear is that a player's history of concussive episodes is a more likely explanation for cognitive deficits. While it is likely that the subconcussive impact of purposeful heading is a doubtful factor in the noted deficits, it is unknown whether multiple subconcussive impacts might have some lingering effects. In addition, it is unknown whether the noted deficits have any affect on daily life. Proper instruction in the technique is critical because if the ball contacts an unprepared head (as in accidental head-ball contacts), the potential for serious injury is possible. To further our understanding of the relationship of heading, head injury and cognitive deficits, we need to: learn more about the actual impact of a ball on the

  4. 'Big Crater' in 360-degree panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crater dubbed 'Big Crater', approximately 2200 meters (7200 feet)away was imaged by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) as part of a 360-degree color panorama, taken over sols 8, 9 and 10. 'Big Crater' is actually a relatively small Martian crater to the southeast of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. It is 1500 meters (4900 feet) in diameter, or about the same size as Meteor Crater in Arizona.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  5. How Big is Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  6. "Big Events" and Networks.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Samuel; Rossi, Diana; Flom, Peter L

    2006-01-01

    Some, but not all, "big events" such as wars, revolutions, socioeconomic transitions, economic collapses, and ecological disasters in recent years seem to lead to large-scale HIV outbreaks (Friedman et al, in press; Hankins et al 2002). This was true of transitions in the USSR, South Africa and Indonesia, for example, but not those in the Philippines or (so far) in Argentina. It has been hypothesized that whether or not HIV outbreaks occur is shaped in part by the nature and extent of changes in the numbers of voluntary or involuntary risk-takers, which itself may be related to the growth of roles such as sex-sellers or drug sellers; the riskiness of the behaviors engaged in by risk-takers; and changes in sexual and injection networks and other "mixing patterns" variables. Each of these potential causal processes, in turn, is shaped by the nature of pre-existing social networks and the patterns and content of normative regulation and communication that happen within these social networks-and on how these social networks and their characteristics are changed by the "big event" in question. We will present ideas about what research is needed to help understand these events and to help guide both indigenous community-based efforts to prevent HIV outbreaks and also to guide those who organize external intervention efforts and aid.

  7. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  8. Encoding of head direction by hippocampal place cells in bats.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Alon; Yartsev, Michael M; Ulanovsky, Nachum

    2014-01-15

    Most theories of navigation rely on the concept of a mental map and compass. Hippocampal place cells are neurons thought to be important for representing the mental map; these neurons become active when the animal traverses a specific location in the environment (the "place field"). Head-direction cells are found outside the hippocampus, and encode the animal's head orientation, thus implementing a neural compass. The prevailing view is that the activity of head-direction cells is not tuned to a single place, while place cells do not encode head direction. However, little work has been done to investigate in detail the possible head-directional tuning of hippocampal place cells across species. Here we addressed this by recording the activity of single neurons in the hippocampus of two evolutionarily distant bat species, Egyptian fruit bat and big brown bat, which crawled randomly in three different open-field arenas. We found that a large fraction of hippocampal neurons, in both bat species, showed conjunctive sensitivity to the animal's spatial position (place field) and to its head direction. We introduced analytical methods to demonstrate that the head-direction tuning was significant even after controlling for the behavioral coupling between position and head direction. Surprisingly, some hippocampal neurons preserved their head direction tuning even outside the neuron's place field, suggesting that "spontaneous" extra-field spikes are not noise, but in fact carry head-direction information. Overall, these findings suggest that bat hippocampal neurons can convey both map information and compass information.

  9. The Rise of Big Data in Neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2016-02-01

    In some fields, Big Data has been instrumental in analyzing, predicting, and influencing human behavior. However, Big Data approaches have so far been less central in speech-language pathology. This article introduces the concept of Big Data and provides examples of Big Data initiatives pertaining to adult neurorehabilitation. It also discusses the potential theoretical and clinical contributions that Big Data can make. The article also recognizes some impediments in building and using Big Data for scientific and clinical inquiry.

  10. 48 CFR 719.271-4 - Heads of contracting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Heads of contracting... DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-4 Heads of contracting activities... is required. The heads of the contracting activities shall be responsible for: (a)...

  11. 48 CFR 719.271-4 - Heads of contracting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heads of contracting... DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-4 Heads of contracting activities... is required. The heads of the contracting activities shall be responsible for: (a)...

  12. 48 CFR 719.271-4 - Heads of contracting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Heads of contracting... DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-4 Heads of contracting activities... is required. The heads of the contracting activities shall be responsible for: (a)...

  13. 48 CFR 719.271-4 - Heads of contracting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Heads of contracting... DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-4 Heads of contracting activities... is required. The heads of the contracting activities shall be responsible for: (a)...

  14. 48 CFR 719.271-4 - Heads of contracting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Heads of contracting... DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS SMALL BUSINESS PROGRAMS Policies 719.271-4 Heads of contracting activities... is required. The heads of the contracting activities shall be responsible for: (a)...

  15. Fixing the Big Bang Theory's Lithium Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    How did our universe come into being? The Big Bang theory is a widely accepted and highly successful cosmological model of the universe, but it does introduce one puzzle: the cosmological lithium problem. Have scientists now found a solution?Too Much LithiumIn the Big Bang theory, the universe expanded rapidly from a very high-density and high-temperature state dominated by radiation. This theory has been validated again and again: the discovery of the cosmic microwave background radiation and observations of the large-scale structure of the universe both beautifully support the Big Bang theory, for instance. But one pesky trouble-spot remains: the abundance of lithium.The arrows show the primary reactions involved in Big Bang nucleosynthesis, and their flux ratios, as predicted by the authors model, are given on the right. Synthesizing primordial elements is complicated! [Hou et al. 2017]According to Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory, primordial nucleosynthesis ran wild during the first half hour of the universes existence. This produced most of the universes helium and small amounts of other light nuclides, including deuterium and lithium.But while predictions match the observed primordial deuterium and helium abundances, Big Bang nucleosynthesis theory overpredicts the abundance of primordial lithium by about a factor of three. This inconsistency is known as the cosmological lithium problem and attempts to resolve it using conventional astrophysics and nuclear physics over the past few decades have not been successful.In a recent publicationled by Suqing Hou (Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) and advisorJianjun He (Institute of Modern Physics National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences), however, a team of scientists has proposed an elegant solution to this problem.Time and temperature evolution of the abundances of primordial light elements during the beginning of the universe. The authors model (dotted lines

  16. Envisioning the Future of 'Big Data' Biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Bui, Alex A T; Darrell Van Horn, John

    2017-03-30

    In our era of digital biomedicine, data take many forms, from "omics" to imaging, mobile health (mHealth), and electronic health records (EHRs). With the availability of more efficient digital collection methods, scientists in many domains now find themselves confronting ever larger sets of data and trying to make sense of it all (1-4). Indeed, data which used to be considered large now seems small as the amount of data now being collected in a single day by an investigator can surpass what might have been generated over his/her career even a decade ago (e.g., (5)). This deluge of biomedical information requires new thinking about how data are generated, managed, and ultimately leveraged to further scientific understanding and for improving healthcare. Responding to this challenge, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) has spearheaded the "Big Data to Knowledge" (BD2K) program (6). Data scientists are being engaged through BD2K to guide biomedical researchers through the thickets of data they are producing. NIH Director, Francis Collins, has noted, "Indeed, we are at a point in history where Big Data should not intimidate, but inspire us. We are in the midst of a revolution that is transforming the way we do biomedical research…we just have to devise creative ways to sift through this mountain of data and make sense of it" (7). The NIH is now taking its first major steps toward realizing biomedical science as an interdisciplinary "big data" science.

  17. BIG DATA AND STATISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Rossell, David

    2016-01-01

    Big Data brings unprecedented power to address scientific, economic and societal issues, but also amplifies the possibility of certain pitfalls. These include using purely data-driven approaches that disregard understanding the phenomenon under study, aiming at a dynamically moving target, ignoring critical data collection issues, summarizing or preprocessing the data inadequately and mistaking noise for signal. We review some success stories and illustrate how statistical principles can help obtain more reliable information from data. We also touch upon current challenges that require active methodological research, such as strategies for efficient computation, integration of heterogeneous data, extending the underlying theory to increasingly complex questions and, perhaps most importantly, training a new generation of scientists to develop and deploy these strategies. PMID:27722040

  18. Big cat genomics.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2005-01-01

    Advances in population and quantitative genomics, aided by the computational algorithms that employ genetic theory and practice, are now being applied to biological questions that surround free-ranging species not traditionally suitable for genetic enquiry. Here we review how applications of molecular genetic tools have been used to describe the natural history, present status, and future disposition of wild cat species. Insight into phylogenetic hierarchy, demographic contractions, geographic population substructure, behavioral ecology, and infectious diseases have revealed strategies for survival and adaptation of these fascinating predators. Conservation, stabilization, and management of the big cats are important areas that derive benefit from the genome resources expanded and applied to highly successful species, imperiled by an expanding human population.

  19. The Last Big Bang

    SciTech Connect

    McGuire, Austin D.; Meade, Roger Allen

    2016-09-13

    As one of the very few people in the world to give the “go/no go” decision to detonate a nuclear device, Austin “Mac” McGuire holds a very special place in the history of both the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the world. As Commander of Joint Task Force Unit 8.1.1, on Christmas Island in the spring and summer of 1962, Mac directed the Los Alamos data collection efforts for twelve of the last atmospheric nuclear detonations conducted by the United States. Since data collection was at the heart of nuclear weapon testing, it fell to Mac to make the ultimate decision to detonate each test device. He calls his experience THE LAST BIG BANG, since these tests, part of Operation Dominic, were characterized by the dramatic displays of the heat, light, and sounds unique to atmospheric nuclear detonations – never, perhaps, to be witnessed again.

  20. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bedford, J.; Ward, J.; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.

    2007-04-15

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe.

  1. Big Bang of Massenergy and Negative Big Bang of Spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2017-01-01

    There is a balance between Big Bang of Massenergy and Negative Big Bang of Spacetime in the universe. Also some scientists considered there is an anti-Big Bang who could produce the antimatter. And the paper supposes there is a structure balance between Einstein field equation and negative Einstein field equation, a balance between massenergy structure and spacetime structure, a balance between an energy of nucleus of the stellar matter and a dark energy of nucleus of the dark matter-dark energy, and a balance between the particle and the wave-a balance system between massenergy (particle) and spacetime (wave). It should explain of the problems of the Big Bang. http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR16/Session/M13.8

  2. Acquisition Reform: Three Big Ideas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-19

    Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Three Acq Reform Big Ideas 5 /19/2015 2 (1) Competing Capability Needs Among Services...to sponsor and users • Not required to be an acquisition expert • Tenure not as important Summary: 3 Big Ideas 5 /19/2015 19 (1) Competing...Acquisition Reform Three Big Ideas The provocative views expressed here are not those of the Department of Defense, DAU, or perhaps even the

  3. Big Data and Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Jane Hyatt; Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Big data is heralded as having the potential to revolutionize health care by making large amounts of data available to support care delivery, population health, and patient engagement. Critics argue that big data's transformative potential is inhibited by privacy requirements that restrict health information exchange. However, there are a variety of permissible activities involving use and disclosure of patient information that support care delivery and management. This article presents an overview of the legal framework governing health information, dispels misconceptions about privacy regulations, and highlights how ambulatory care providers in particular can maximize the utility of big data to improve care. PMID:25401945

  4. The challenges of big data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  5. Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behavior is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.

  6. The "Big Box"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gran, Warren; Krudwig, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The small-schools movement has revolutionized educational concepts, design and construction. By reconfiguring large high schools into smaller learning academies, districts believe they can educate students more effectively. However, planners face numerous challenges in creating or renovating small schools, especially in urban environments where…

  7. Scaling Up the Big Picture. Summary of Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Education and Social Policy, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The research project describes a Providence-based non-profit organization called the Big Picture Company (BP), and its efforts to replicate its small high school design in multiple communities throughout the United States (with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation). It refers implicitly also to BP's ambition (and that of the Gates…

  8. Head CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    Brain CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... conditions: Birth (congenital) defect of the head or brain Brain infection Brain tumor Buildup of fluid inside ...

  9. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes in the ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in men. Using ...

  10. Increased head circumference

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003305.htm Increased head circumference To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Increased head circumference is when the measured distance around the ...

  11. Head injury. Second edition

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, P.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 22 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Radiographic Evaluation; Epidemiology of Head Injury; Emergency Care and Initial Evaluation; Skull Fracture and Traumatic Cerebrospinal Fluid Fistulas; Mild Head Injury; and Injuries of the Cranial Nerves.

  12. Metal atom dynamics in superbulky metallocenes: a comparison of (Cp(BIG))2Sn and (Cp(BIG))2Eu.

    PubMed

    Harder, Sjoerd; Naglav, Dominik; Schwerdtfeger, Peter; Nowik, Israel; Herber, Rolfe H

    2014-02-17

    Cp(BIG)2Sn (Cp(BIG) = (4-n-Bu-C6H4)5cyclopentadienyl), prepared by reaction of 2 equiv of Cp(BIG)Na with SnCl2, crystallized isomorphous to other known metallocenes with this ligand (Ca, Sr, Ba, Sm, Eu, Yb). Similarly, it shows perfect linearity, C-H···C(π) bonding between the Cp(BIG) rings and out-of-plane bending of the aryl substituents toward the metal. Whereas all other Cp(BIG)2M complexes show large disorder in the metal position, the Sn atom in Cp(BIG)2Sn is perfectly ordered. In contrast, (119)Sn and (151)Eu Mößbauer investigations on the corresponding Cp(BIG)2M metallocenes show that Sn(II) is more dynamic and loosely bound than Eu(II). The large displacement factors in the group 2 and especially in the lanthanide(II) metallocenes Cp(BIG)2M can be explained by static metal disorder in a plane parallel to the Cp(BIG) rings. Despite parallel Cp(BIG) rings, these metallocenes have a nonlinear Cpcenter-M-Cpcenter geometry. This is explained by an ionic model in which metal atoms are polarized by the negatively charged Cp rings. The extent of nonlinearity is in line with trends found in M(2+) ion polarizabilities. The range of known calculated dipole polarizabilities at the Douglas-Kroll CCSD(T) level was extended with values (atomic units) for Sn(2+) 15.35, Sm(2+)(4f(6) (7)F) 9.82, Eu(2+)(4f(7) (8)S) 8.99, and Yb(2+)(4f(14) (1)S) 6.55. This polarizability model cannot be applied to predominantly covalently bound Cp(BIG)2Sn, which shows a perfectly ordered structure. The bent geometry of Cp*2Sn should therefore not be explained by metal polarizability but is due to van der Waals Cp*···Cp* attraction and (to some extent) to a small p-character component in the Sn lone pair.

  13. Big Data and Perioperative Nursing.

    PubMed

    Westra, Bonnie L; Peterson, Jessica J

    2016-10-01

    Big data are large volumes of digital data that can be collected from disparate sources and are challenging to analyze. These data are often described with the five "Vs": volume, velocity, variety, veracity, and value. Perioperative nurses contribute to big data through documentation in the electronic health record during routine surgical care, and these data have implications for clinical decision making, administrative decisions, quality improvement, and big data science. This article explores methods to improve the quality of perioperative nursing data and provides examples of how these data can be combined with broader nursing data for quality improvement. We also discuss a national action plan for nursing knowledge and big data science and how perioperative nurses can engage in collaborative actions to transform health care. Standardized perioperative nursing data has the potential to affect care far beyond the original patient.

  14. The BigBOSS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  15. Big Spherules near 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This frame from the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows spherules up to about 5 millimeters (one-fifth of an inch) in diameter. The camera took this image during the 924th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Aug. 30, 2006), when the rover was about 200 meters (650 feet) north of 'Victoria Crater.'

    Opportunity discovered spherules like these, nicknamed 'blueberries,' at its landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' and investigations determined them to be iron-rich concretions that formed inside deposits soaked with groundwater. However, such concretions were much smaller or absent at the ground surface along much of the rover's trek of more than 5 kilometers (3 miles) southward to Victoria. The big ones showed up again when Opportunity got to the ring, or annulus, of material excavated and thrown outward by the impact that created Victoria Crater. Researchers hypothesize that some layer beneath the surface in Victoria's vicinity was once soaked with water long enough to form the concretions, that the crater-forming impact dispersed some material from that layer, and that Opportunity might encounter that layer in place if the rover drives down into the crater.

  16. The Head Start Debates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward, Ed.; Styfco, Sally J., Ed.

    2004-01-01

    The future of Head Start depends on how well people learn from and apply the lessons from its past. That's why everyone involved in early education needs this timely, forward-thinking book from the leader of Head Start. The first book to capture the Head Start debates in all their complexity and diversity, this landmark volume brings together the…

  17. Mania following head injury.

    PubMed

    Yatham, L N; Benbow, J C; Jeffers, A M

    1988-03-01

    A case of mania following head injury in an individual with a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia is reported. It is argued that the head injury is probably causative in his case and suggested that head injury should be considered as one of the aetiological factors in secondary mania.

  18. Head and Neck Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... a person’s risk of head and neck cancer. Marijuana use. Research suggests that people who have used marijuana may be at higher risk for head and ... head and neck cancer include: Avoiding alcohol Discussing marijuana as a risk factor with your doctor and ...

  19. Treating Head Lice

    MedlinePlus

    ... 180 K) En Español On this page: Blood-Sucking Bugs Steps for Safe Use Heading Off Head Lice Head lice. Every parent’s nightmare. A year-round problem, the number of cases seems to peak when ...

  20. Head Start Automation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland Univ., College Park. Univ. Coll.

    The task for the National Data Management Project is to share technological capabilities with the Head Start Community in order to implement improved services for children and families involved in Head Start. Many Head Start programs have incorporated technology into their programs, including word processing, database management systems,…

  1. Head Injury Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fax: 847-378-0600 www.NeurosurgeryToday.org A traumatic brain injury (TBI) is defined as a blow or jolt to the head or a penetrating head injury that disrupts the normal function of the brain. TBI can result when the head suddenly and ...

  2. Controlling graphic objects naturally: use your head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browse, Roger A.; Rodger, James C.; Sewell, Ian; Brooke, Jeffrey

    1997-05-01

    During normal viewing of an object, a human observer will typically make small movements in the position of the head resulting in small parallax-related image changes. The significance of these changes is apparent when viewing a static stereographic display. Since the observer expects modifications in viewing direction that accompany side to side head movements, the lack of such changes in viewing stereographic displays creates the striking illusion that the static display is rotating in a compensatory direction. Using head tracking, we generate the appropriate pairs of images on a stereographic display device in order to maintain a stable virtual stereo object for the viewer. Unnatural, but learnable mappings from input devices such as a mouse or a joystick are typically used to bring about changes in the viewing direction and viewing distance in graphic displays. As an alternative to these techniques, we have extended the use of the monitored head position, resulting in a display system that permits control of graphic objects with subtle head movements. The device permits a zone of small head movements for which there is no rotation or scaling of the virtual object, but only parallax-related images changes as projected to each eye. A slightly exaggerated head movement initiates rotation and/or scaling of the scene that terminates when the head returns to a central viewing position. We are carrying out experiments to test the performance of human subjects in tasks that require head movements to control the rotation of graphic objects. A preliminary study that only examines rotation around a single axis suggests that it may be a very effective and natural technique.

  3. Serving Agriculture's "Big Business"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schake, L. M.

    1970-01-01

    A new dimension and challenge in Extension activities is emerging as some phases of agriculture evolve from small operations to multimillion dollar agribusiness ventures; the beef cattle commercial feedlot industry in the Southwest is a good example. (EB)

  4. Powering Big Data for Nursing Through Partnership.

    PubMed

    Harper, Ellen M; Parkerson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The Big Data Principles Workgroup (Workgroup) was established with support of the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. Building on the Triple Aim challenge, the Workgroup sought to identify Big Data principles, barriers, and challenges to nurse-sensitive data inclusion into Big Data sets. The product of this pioneering partnership Workgroup was the "Guiding Principles for Big Data in Nursing-Using Big Data to Improve the Quality of Care and Outcomes."

  5. [Big data: a revolution that will transform our lives].

    PubMed

    Mayer-Schönberger, Viktor

    2015-08-01

    Big data denotes our capacity to gain insights from (in relative terms!) large amounts of data that we could not have had by just looking at samples. Our difficulty in working with data has shaped our methods in the small data age. As these limitations with respect to data diminish, we will have to rethink and adjust our scientific methods. In return, we will gain a wealth of new insights, perhaps leading towards a new golden era of scientific discovery. Big Data power demands, however, that we also are cognizant of its limitations and the significant dangers of abusing it.

  6. Archaeological Survey and Testing for the Upstream Work. Big Stone Lake-Whetstone River Project Area,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-09-01

    Minnesota River valley between Ortonville and Big Stone City is the beginning point of Glacial River Warren which drained both Lake Agassiz I and...Lake Agassiz II in the terminal and early post-glacial Pleistocene. The valley is very wide and deep for its entire length, reflecting the huge...very small remnant of Glacial Lake Agassiz . Big Stone Lake has very little discharge and the upper Minnesota River is a small stream meandering over a

  7. Optimization of the angle between detector modules in a dual-head cardiac SPECT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Su Jung; Kim, Hyun-Il; Lee, Chae Young; Jo, Woo Jin; Chung, Yong Hyun

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, dedicated cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) systems have been undergoing a profound change in design with multiple detectors and various angles between the modules to improve the sensitivity and the resolution by reducing the distance between the heart and the detector. The performance of a dual-head cardiac SPECT for small-animal imaging was characterized as a function of the angle between two detector heads by using GATE simulations, and simulation data were validated with experimental results. Each detector head consists of 50 × 50 × 6 mm3 NaI(Tl) optically coupled to a Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier (PSPMT) and a low-energy high-resolution parallel-hole collimator (LEHR, septal thickness: 0.2 mm, diameter: 1.9 mm). The distance between the collimator surface and the center of rotation was set as 20, 20, 20, 25, or 31.5 mm for 70°, 80°, 90°, 100°, or 110°, respectively, based on a 40-mm field of view (FOV). A point source and a rat cardiac phantom of Tc-99m in scattering media were simulated. Projection data were acquired for 180 angular views in steps of 2° and were reconstructed by using a filtered back-projection algorithm. Results demonstrated that the angle between the detector heads did not make a big difference in the image quality when scattering media were not presented, but the dual heads in the 80° geometry provided the best spatial resolution in the cardiac phantom study. The peak-to-valley ratio between the myocardial wall and the cavity was measured as 1.87, 11.01, 3.28, 3.40, or 2.46 for 70°, 80°, 90°, 100°, or 110°, respectively. Experiments were performed with a dual-head SPECT in the 80° geometry, and the results agreed well with these from the simulations. In this study, the impact of the angle between dual detector heads on the imaging performance was evaluated, and the optimal angle was derived for a dedicated cardiac SPECT.

  8. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer overview What ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular head and ...

  9. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... find out more. Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Head, Neck and Oral Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  10. What Can Big Data Offer the Pharmacovigilance of Orphan Drugs?

    PubMed

    Price, John

    2016-12-01

    The pharmacovigilance of drugs for orphan diseases presents problems related to the small patient population. Obtaining high-quality information on individual reports of suspected adverse reactions is of particular importance for the pharmacovigilance of orphan drugs. The possibility of mining "big data" to detect suspected adverse reactions is being explored in pharmacovigilance generally but may have limited application to orphan drugs. Sources of big data such as social media may be infrequently used as communication channels by patients with rare disease or their caregivers or by health care providers; any adverse reactions identified are likely to reflect what is already known about the safety of the drug from the network of support that grows up around these patients. Opportunities related to potential future big data sources are discussed.

  11. Considerations on Geospatial Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LIU, Zhen; GUO, Huadong; WANG, Changlin

    2016-11-01

    Geospatial data, as a significant portion of big data, has recently gained the full attention of researchers. However, few researchers focus on the evolution of geospatial data and its scientific research methodologies. When entering into the big data era, fully understanding the changing research paradigm associated with geospatial data will definitely benefit future research on big data. In this paper, we look deep into these issues by examining the components and features of geospatial big data, reviewing relevant scientific research methodologies, and examining the evolving pattern of geospatial data in the scope of the four ‘science paradigms’. This paper proposes that geospatial big data has significantly shifted the scientific research methodology from ‘hypothesis to data’ to ‘data to questions’ and it is important to explore the generality of growing geospatial data ‘from bottom to top’. Particularly, four research areas that mostly reflect data-driven geospatial research are proposed: spatial correlation, spatial analytics, spatial visualization, and scientific knowledge discovery. It is also pointed out that privacy and quality issues of geospatial data may require more attention in the future. Also, some challenges and thoughts are raised for future discussion.

  12. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  13. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  14. [Big data in official statistics].

    PubMed

    Zwick, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany.

  15. Chromaticity measurement using a continuous head-tail kicking technique

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.; Ranjbar, V.H.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2007-06-01

    In the classical head-tail chromaticity measurement technique, a single large kick is applied transversely to the beam. The resulting phase difference between the head and the tail is measured and the chromaticity extracted. In the continuous head-tail kicking technique, a very small transverse kick is applied to the beam and the asymptotic phase difference between the head and the tail is found to be a function of chromaticity. The advantage of this method is that since the tune tracker PLL already supplies the small transverse kicks, no extra modulation is required.

  16. What are Head Cavities? - A History of Studies on Vertebrate Head Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Adachi, Noritaka

    2016-06-01

    Motivated by the discovery of segmental epithelial coeloms, or "head cavities," in elasmobranch embryos toward the end of the 19th century, the debate over the presence of mesodermal segments in the vertebrate head became a central problem in comparative embryology. The classical segmental view assumed only one type of metamerism in the vertebrate head, in which each metamere was thought to contain one head somite and one pharyngeal arch, innervated by a set of cranial nerves serially homologous to dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves. The non-segmental view, on the other hand, rejected the somite-like properties of head cavities. A series of small mesodermal cysts in early Torpedo embryos, which were thought to represent true somite homologs, provided a third possible view on the nature of the vertebrate head. Recent molecular developmental data have shed new light on the vertebrate head problem, explaining that head mesoderm evolved, not by the modification of rostral somites of an amphioxus-like ancestor, but through the polarization of unspecified paraxial mesoderm into head mesoderm anteriorly and trunk somites posteriorly.

  17. Head tracking at large angles from the straight ahead position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, D. L.; Porterfield, J. L.; Hornseth, J. P.; Mcmurry, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    One of the big advantages of a helmet sight in a high performance aircraft is its off-boresight capability in aiming a fire control system. However, tracking data using a target that is moving rapidly and randomly for an extended period of time is missing. This study is intended to provide data in this area that will be of value to engineers in designing head control systems.

  18. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  19. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S. M. Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined. PMID:26229957

  20. Multiwavelength astronomy and big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Two major characteristics of modern astronomy are multiwavelength (MW) studies (fromγ-ray to radio) and big data (data acquisition, storage and analysis). Present astronomical databases and archives contain billions of objects observed at various wavelengths, both galactic and extragalactic, and the vast amount of data on them allows new studies and discoveries. Astronomers deal with big numbers. Surveys are the main source for discovery of astronomical objects and accumulation of observational data for further analysis, interpretation, and achieving scientific results. We review the main characteristics of astronomical surveys, compare photographic and digital eras of astronomical studies (including the development of wide-field observations), describe the present state of MW surveys, and discuss the Big Data in astronomy and related topics of Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics. The review includes many numbers and data that can be compared to have a possibly overall understanding on the Universe, cosmic numbers and their relationship to modern computational facilities.

  1. Heading Tuning in Macaque Area V6

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Reuben H.; Liu, Sheng; DeAngelis, Gregory C.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical areas, such as the dorsal subdivision of the medial superior temporal area (MSTd) and the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), have been shown to integrate visual and vestibular self-motion signals. Area V6 is interconnected with areas MSTd and VIP, allowing for the possibility that V6 also integrates visual and vestibular self-motion cues. An alternative hypothesis in the literature is that V6 does not use these sensory signals to compute heading but instead discounts self-motion signals to represent object motion. However, the responses of V6 neurons to visual and vestibular self-motion cues have never been studied, thus leaving the functional roles of V6 unclear. We used a virtual reality system to examine the 3D heading tuning of macaque V6 neurons in response to optic flow and inertial motion stimuli. We found that the majority of V6 neurons are selective for heading defined by optic flow. However, unlike areas MSTd and VIP, V6 neurons are almost universally unresponsive to inertial motion in the absence of optic flow. We also explored the spatial reference frames of heading signals in V6 by measuring heading tuning for different eye positions, and we found that the visual heading tuning of most V6 cells was eye-centered. Similar to areas MSTd and VIP, the population of V6 neurons was best able to discriminate small variations in heading around forward and backward headings. Our findings support the idea that V6 is involved primarily in processing visual motion signals and does not appear to play a role in visual–vestibular integration for self-motion perception. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT To understand how we successfully navigate our world, it is important to understand which parts of the brain process cues used to perceive our direction of self-motion (i.e., heading). Cortical area V6 has been implicated in heading computations based on human neuroimaging data, but direct measurements of heading selectivity in individual V6 neurons have been lacking. We

  2. [Big Data- challenges and risks].

    PubMed

    Krauß, Manuela; Tóth, Tamás; Hanika, Heinrich; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Dinya, Elek

    2015-12-06

    The term "Big Data" is commonly used to describe the growing mass of information being created recently. New conclusions can be drawn and new services can be developed by the connection, processing and analysis of these information. This affects all aspects of life, including health and medicine. The authors review the application areas of Big Data, and present examples from health and other areas. However, there are several preconditions of the effective use of the opportunities: proper infrastructure, well defined regulatory environment with particular emphasis on data protection and privacy. These issues and the current actions for solution are also presented.

  3. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, A.B.

    1998-09-01

    A bottom head dome assembly is described which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending there through. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending there through, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending there through, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore there through, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. 2 figs.

  4. Bottom head assembly

    DOEpatents

    Fife, Alex Blair

    1998-01-01

    A bottom head dome assembly which includes, in one embodiment, a bottom head dome and a liner configured to be positioned proximate the bottom head dome is described. The bottom head dome has a plurality of openings extending therethrough. The liner also has a plurality of openings extending therethrough, and each liner opening aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening. A seal is formed, such as by welding, between the liner and the bottom head dome to resist entry of water between the liner and the bottom head dome at the edge of the liner. In the one embodiment, a plurality of stub tubes are secured to the liner. Each stub tube has a bore extending therethrough, and each stub tube bore is coaxially aligned with a respective liner opening. A seat portion is formed by each liner opening for receiving a portion of the respective stub tube. The assembly also includes a plurality of support shims positioned between the bottom head dome and the liner for supporting the liner. In one embodiment, each support shim includes a support stub having a bore therethrough, and each support stub bore aligns with a respective bottom head dome opening.

  5. Deposition head for laser

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    1999-01-01

    A deposition head for use as a part of apparatus for forming articles from materials in particulate form in which the materials are melted by a laser beam and deposited at points along a tool path to form an article of the desired shape and dimensions. The deposition head delivers the laser beam and powder to a deposition zone, which is formed at the tip of the deposition head. A controller comprised of a digital computer directs movement of the deposition zone along the tool path and provides control signals to adjust apparatus functions, such as the speed at which the deposition head moves along the tool path.

  6. Why is it so difficult to measure big G?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faller, James

    2015-04-01

    The determination of the Newtonian constant of gravitation, big G, continues to be one of Nature's greatest challenges to the skills and cunning of experimental physicists. The reasons: Big G is small, scientists are human, and error budgets are flawed. In spite of the fact that on the scale of the Universe, big G's effects are so big as to single handedly hold everything together, on the scale of a single research laboratory, big G's effects are so small that they go unnoticed. And, it is this ``smallness'' that makes the determination of this (seemingly unrelated to the rest of physics) fundamental constant so difficult. Furthermore, because they are human, scientists want to get the ``right'' (read previously obtained) answer; and this goal can affect their otherwise good judgment. Finally, error budgets are fundamentally flawed because they cannot make allowances for error sources that have not been thought of. During its nearly 300 year measurement history, the accuracy with which G is known has barely increased by three orders of magnitude; during the past 30 years the progress, measured by agreement rather than claimed accuracy of individual measurements, has been essentially zero. Nevertheless, this Mount Everest of precision measurement continues to provide an experimental challenge upon which metrologists can hone their laboratory skills for generations to come. Finally, this presentation will be understandable and interesting for ``students of all ages.'' In this year of GR100, Einstein will be mentioned more than once, and my hope is that some of you who would not normally ``risk'' attending a talk outside of your own specialty or discipline will consider coming to this one.

  7. Gender Differences in Personality across the Ten Aspects of the Big Five.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Yanna J; Deyoung, Colin G; Hirsh, Jacob B

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates gender differences in personality traits, both at the level of the Big Five and at the sublevel of two aspects within each Big Five domain. Replicating previous findings, women reported higher Big Five Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism scores than men. However, more extensive gender differences were found at the level of the aspects, with significant gender differences appearing in both aspects of every Big Five trait. For Extraversion, Openness, and Conscientiousness, the gender differences were found to diverge at the aspect level, rendering them either small or undetectable at the Big Five level. These findings clarify the nature of gender differences in personality and highlight the utility of measuring personality at the aspect level.

  8. My Big Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    It was June and I was in Yosemite National Park in California, 2,000-feet off the ground. I was climbing El Capitan, a majestic 3,000-foot high, mile-wide granite monolith--one of the most sought after and spectacular rock climbs in the world. After three days of climbing on its sheer face, and having completed the most difficult part of the route, my partner and I were heading down. A thunderstorm lasting all night and into the morning had soaked our tiny perch and all our worldly possessions. We began rappelling down the vertical wall by sliding to the ends of two 50meter ropes tied together and looped through a set of fixed rings bolted into the rock. At the end of the ropes was another rappel station consisting of a set of rings, placed by previous climbers for retreating parties, which we used to anchor ourselves to the rock face. We then pulled the ropes down from the rings above, threaded the ones in front of our noses and started down another rope length. Everything we brought up for our five-day climb to the summit we had to bring back down with us: ropes, climbing gear of every sort, sleeping bags, extra clothes, food, water, and other essentials. All this we either stuffed into a haul bag (an oversized reinforced duffel bag) or slung over our shoulders. The retreat was slow and methodical, akin to a train backing down a mountain, giving me ample time to think. My situation made me think about my work, mostly, about all the projects I have managed, or been involved in managing. As a NASA project manager, I have worked on a number of successful projects. I have also been involved in a number of projects I never saw the end of. I thought about all the projects I transferred off of for other opportunities, projects that were in full stride and ran out of funding, and ones put on the shelf because they would not meet a flight date. Oh yes, I have had many success, to be sure, or I would have burned out years ago. Lessons from both the successful and not

  9. Dropped head syndrome and Systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Rosato, Edoardo; Rossi, Carmelina; Salsano, Felice

    2009-05-01

    The prominent or isolated weakness of cervical extensor muscles is a relatively rare clinical sign. Commonly, this is known as "dropped-head syndrome". This abnormal flexion of the head may occur in a variety of neuromuscular diseases and in a few non-neurological disorders as well. Systemic sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous disorder which affects small arteries, microvessels and connective tissue with the involvement of multiple organs such as lung, heart, kidney and gastrointestinal tract. There is no evidence in literature of association between dropped head syndrome and rheumatic diseases, particularly systemic sclerosis. The case we describe concerns a 74-year-old woman with dropped-head syndrome associated to Systemic sclerosis and pulmonary hypertension in absence of myositis signs.

  10. Vacuum compatible miniature CCD camera head

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.

    2000-01-01

    A charge-coupled device (CCD) camera head which can replace film for digital imaging of visible light, ultraviolet radiation, and soft to penetrating x-rays, such as within a target chamber where laser produced plasmas are studied. The camera head is small, capable of operating both in and out of a vacuum environment, and is versatile. The CCD camera head uses PC boards with an internal heat sink connected to the chassis for heat dissipation, which allows for close(0.04" for example) stacking of the PC boards. Integration of this CCD camera head into existing instrumentation provides a substantial enhancement of diagnostic capabilities for studying high energy density plasmas, for a variety of military industrial, and medical imaging applications.

  11. True Randomness from Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests.

  12. Big6 Turbotools and Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    The different tools that are helpful during the Synthesis stage, their role in boosting students abilities in Synthesis and the way in which it can be customized to meet the needs of each group of students are discussed. Big6 TurboTools offers several tools to help complete the task. In Synthesis stage, these same tools along with Turbo Report and…

  13. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  14. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  15. Chinchilla "big" and "little" gastrins.

    PubMed

    Shinomura, Y; Eng, J; Yalow, R S

    1987-02-27

    Gastrin heptadecapeptides (gastrins I and II which differ in the presence of sulfate on the tyrosine of the latter) have been purified and sequenced from several mammalian species including pig, dog, cat, sheep, cow, human and rat. A 34 amino acid precursor ("big" gastrin), generally accounting for only 5% of total gastrin immunoreactivity, has been purified and sequenced only from the pig, human, dog and goat. Recently we have demonstrated that guinea pig (GP) "little" gastrin is a hexadecapeptide due to a deletion of a glutamic acid in the region 6-9 from its NH2-terminus and that GP "big" gastrin is a 33 amino acid peptide. The chinchilla, like the GP, is a New World hystricomorph. This report describes the extraction and purification of "little" and "big" gastrins from 31 chinchilla antra. Chinchilla "little" gastrin is a hexadecapeptide with a sequence identical to that of the GP and its "big" gastrin is a 33 amino acid peptide with the following sequence: (See text)

  16. 1976 Big Thompson flood, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R. D.; Vandas, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the early evening of July 31, 1976, a large stationary thunderstorm released as much as 7.5 inches of rainfall in about an hour (about 12 inches in a few hours) in the upper reaches of the Big Thompson River drainage. This large amount of rainfall in such a short period of time produced a flash flood that caught residents and tourists by surprise. The immense volume of water that churned down the narrow Big Thompson Canyon scoured the river channel and destroyed everything in its path, including 418 homes, 52 businesses, numerous bridges, paved and unpaved roads, power and telephone lines, and many other structures. The tragedy claimed the lives of 144 people. Scores of other people narrowly escaped with their lives. The Big Thompson flood ranks among the deadliest of Colorado's recorded floods. It is one of several destructive floods in the United States that has shown the necessity of conducting research to determine the causes and effects of floods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research and operates a Nationwide streamgage network to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson Flood. Such research and streamgage information are part of an ongoing USGS effort to reduce flood hazards and to increase public awareness.

  17. The Case for "Big History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  18. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big…

  19. China: Big Changes Coming Soon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowen, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Big changes are ahead for China, probably abrupt ones. The economy has grown so rapidly for many years, over 30 years at an average of nine percent a year, that its size makes it a major player in trade and finance and increasingly in political and military matters. This growth is not only of great importance internationally, it is already having…

  20. True Randomness from Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests. PMID:27666514

  1. True Randomness from Big Data.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A; Woodruff, David P; Yang, Guang

    2016-09-26

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests.

  2. Eddy current analysis of thin film recording heads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenton, D.; Cendes, Z. J.

    1984-03-01

    Due to inherently thin pole tips which enhance the sharpness of read/write pulses, thin-film magnetic recording heads provide a unique potential for increasing disk file capacity. However, the very feature of these heads which makes them attractive in the recording process, namely, their small size, also makes thin-film heads difficult to study experimentally. For this reason, a finite element simulation of the thin-film head has been developed to provide the magnetic field distribution and the resistance/inductance characteristics of these heads under a variety of conditions. A study based on a one-step multipath eddy current procedure is reported. This procedure may be used in thin film heads to compute the variation of magnetic field with respect to frequency. Computations with the IBM 3370 head show that a large phase shift occurs due to eddy currents in the frequency range 1-10 MHz.

  3. Head Start. Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Head Start is a national program that provides comprehensive developmental services for preschool children (ages 3 to 5) from low-income families and social services for their families. Approximately 1,400 community-based nonprofit organizations and school systems develop programs to meet specific needs. Head Start began in 1965 in the Office of…

  4. Woodpeckers and head injury.

    PubMed

    May, P R; Fuster, J M; Newman, P; Hirschman, A

    1976-02-28

    The woodpecker is an experiment in Nature, a model for the investigation of mechanisms of basic importance for head injury and its prevention. A preliminary anatomical study of the woodpecker's head suggests that it may be fruitful to explore impact protective systems which are radically different from those in common use.

  5. The BigBoss Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

    2012-06-07

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  6. A SWOT Analysis of Big Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Dileepan, Parthasarati; Wheatley, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    This is the decade of data analytics and big data, but not everyone agrees with the definition of big data. Some researchers see it as the future of data analysis, while others consider it as hype and foresee its demise in the near future. No matter how it is defined, big data for the time being is having its glory moment. The most important…

  7. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  8. Big sagebrush seed bank densities following wildfires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) is a critical shrub to many wildlife species including sage grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush is killed by wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally short-lived and do not s...

  9. Big Sagebrush Seed Bank Densities Following Wildfires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) is a critical shrub to such sagebrush obligate species as sage grouse, (Centocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush do not sprout after wildfires wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally sho...

  10. Judging Big Deals: Challenges, Outcomes, and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of five Big Deal electronic journal packages to which Hofstra University's Axinn Library subscribes. COUNTER usage reports were used to judge the value of each Big Deal. Limitations of usage statistics are also discussed. In the end, the author concludes that four of the five Big Deals are good deals…

  11. A survey of big data research

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hua; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Chanpaul Jin; Daneshmand, Mahmoud; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Honggang

    2015-01-01

    Big data create values for business and research, but pose significant challenges in terms of networking, storage, management, analytics and ethics. Multidisciplinary collaborations from engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and social scientists are needed to tackle, discover and understand big data. This survey presents an overview of big data initiatives, technologies and research in industries and academia, and discusses challenges and potential solutions. PMID:26504265

  12. The Economics of Big Area Addtiive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Brian; Lloyd, Peter D; Lindahl, John; Lind, Randall F; Love, Lonnie J; Kunc, Vlastimil

    2016-01-01

    Case studies on the economics of Additive Manufacturing (AM) suggest that processing time is the dominant cost in manufacturing. Most additive processes have similar performance metrics: small part sizes, low production rates and expensive feedstocks. Big Area Additive Manufacturing is based on transitioning polymer extrusion technology from a wire to a pellet feedstock. Utilizing pellets significantly increases deposition speed and lowers material cost by utilizing low cost injection molding feedstock. The use of carbon fiber reinforced polymers eliminates the need for a heated chamber, significantly reducing machine power requirements and size constraints. We hypothesize that the increase in productivity coupled with decrease in feedstock and energy costs will enable AM to become more competitive with conventional manufacturing processes for many applications. As a test case, we compare the cost of using traditional fused deposition modeling (FDM) with BAAM for additively manufacturing composite tooling.

  13. The big data challenges of connectomics

    PubMed Central

    Lichtman, Jeff W; Pfister, Hanspeter; Shavit, Nir

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the nervous system is extraordinarily complicated because individual neurons are interconnected to hundreds or even thousands of other cells in networks that can extend over large volumes. Mapping such networks at the level of synaptic connections, a field called connectomics, began in the 1970s with a the study of the small nervous system of a worm and has recently garnered general interest thanks to technical and computational advances that automate the collection of electron-microscopy data and offer the possibility of mapping even large mammalian brains. However, modern connectomics produces ‘big data’, unprecedented quantities of digital information at unprecedented rates, and will require, as with genomics at the time, breakthrough algorithmic and computational solutions. Here we describe some of the key difficulties that may arise and provide suggestions for managing them. PMID:25349911

  14. The big data challenges of connectomics

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtman, Jeff W.; Pfister, Hanspeter; Shavit, Nir

    2014-10-28

    The structure of the nervous system is extraordinarily complicated because individual neurons are interconnected to hundreds or even thousands of other cells in networks that can extend over large volumes. Mapping such networks at the level of synaptic connections, a field called connectomics, began in the 1970s with a the study of the small nervous system of a worm and has recently garnered general interest thanks to technical and computational advances that automate the collection of electron-microscopy data and offer the possibility of mapping even large mammalian brains. However, modern connectomics produces ‘big data’, unprecedented quantities of digital information at unprecedented rates, and will require, as with genomics at the time, breakthrough algorithmic and computational solutions. Here in this paper we describe some of the key difficulties that may arise and provide suggestions for managing them.

  15. The big data challenges of connectomics

    DOE PAGES

    Lichtman, Jeff W.; Pfister, Hanspeter; Shavit, Nir

    2014-10-28

    The structure of the nervous system is extraordinarily complicated because individual neurons are interconnected to hundreds or even thousands of other cells in networks that can extend over large volumes. Mapping such networks at the level of synaptic connections, a field called connectomics, began in the 1970s with a the study of the small nervous system of a worm and has recently garnered general interest thanks to technical and computational advances that automate the collection of electron-microscopy data and offer the possibility of mapping even large mammalian brains. However, modern connectomics produces ‘big data’, unprecedented quantities of digital information atmore » unprecedented rates, and will require, as with genomics at the time, breakthrough algorithmic and computational solutions. Here in this paper we describe some of the key difficulties that may arise and provide suggestions for managing them.« less

  16. Small business innovation, research & development

    SciTech Connect

    Colvin, D.P.

    1995-12-31

    Historically, small businesses have been the innovation engine of the United States (US). The author provides statistical data that indicates that small business is really big business in the U.S. Small businesses are responsible for much of the applied research necessary for new product development. The author examines productivity, academic research and teaming as a cost-effective and time effective way to develop new products and technologies.

  17. The Problem with Big Data: Operating on Smaller Datasets to Bridge the Implementation Gap

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Richard P.; Mushtaq, Faisal; White, Alan D.; Mata-Cervantes, Gabriel; Pike, Tom; Coker, Dalton; Murdoch, Stuart; Hiles, Tim; Smith, Clare; Berridge, David; Hinchliffe, Suzanne; Hall, Geoff; Smye, Stephen; Wilkie, Richard M.; Lodge, J. Peter A.; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Big datasets have the potential to revolutionize public health. However, there is a mismatch between the political and scientific optimism surrounding big data and the public’s perception of its benefit. We suggest a systematic and concerted emphasis on developing models derived from smaller datasets to illustrate to the public how big data can produce tangible benefits in the long term. In order to highlight the immediate value of a small data approach, we produced a proof-of-concept model predicting hospital length of stay. The results demonstrate that existing small datasets can be used to create models that generate a reasonable prediction, facilitating health-care delivery. We propose that greater attention (and funding) needs to be directed toward the utilization of existing information resources in parallel with current efforts to create and exploit “big data.” PMID:27990415

  18. The Problem with Big Data: Operating on Smaller Datasets to Bridge the Implementation Gap.

    PubMed

    Mann, Richard P; Mushtaq, Faisal; White, Alan D; Mata-Cervantes, Gabriel; Pike, Tom; Coker, Dalton; Murdoch, Stuart; Hiles, Tim; Smith, Clare; Berridge, David; Hinchliffe, Suzanne; Hall, Geoff; Smye, Stephen; Wilkie, Richard M; Lodge, J Peter A; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Big datasets have the potential to revolutionize public health. However, there is a mismatch between the political and scientific optimism surrounding big data and the public's perception of its benefit. We suggest a systematic and concerted emphasis on developing models derived from smaller datasets to illustrate to the public how big data can produce tangible benefits in the long term. In order to highlight the immediate value of a small data approach, we produced a proof-of-concept model predicting hospital length of stay. The results demonstrate that existing small datasets can be used to create models that generate a reasonable prediction, facilitating health-care delivery. We propose that greater attention (and funding) needs to be directed toward the utilization of existing information resources in parallel with current efforts to create and exploit "big data."

  19. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  20. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-08-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  1. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-13

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  2. Solution of a braneworld big crunch/big bang cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, Paul L.; Turok, Neil; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2007-11-15

    We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch/big bang singularity. We show that the four-dimensional description fails at the first nontrivial order in (V/c){sup 2}. At this order, there is nontrivial mixing of the two relevant four-dimensional perturbation modes (the growing and decaying modes) as the boundary branes move from the narrowly separated limit described by Kaluza-Klein theory to the well-separated limit where gravity is confined to the positive-tension brane. We comment on the cosmological significance of the result and compute other quantities of interest in five-dimensional cosmological scenarios.

  3. Big Fat Wand: A Pointing Device for Open Space Edutainment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Toru; Namatame, Miki; Kusunoki, Fusako; Terano, Takao

    This paper presents principles, functions, and experiments of a new edutainment tool: Big Fat Wand (BFW). BFW is developed from a conventional laser show device, however, it is modified to a small enough one to be used at an open apace. BFW is connected to a laptop PC, which provides character, symbol images, and/or animations. From experimental results, we conclude that BFW is a good gear for a facilitator to educate and educate hearing-impaired students.

  4. 58. View of the big meadow at the Billings Farm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. View of the big meadow at the Billings Farm & Museum, looking west toward Mount Tom. The view illustrates the relation of the forested hillside lands to the agicultural fields in the valley, and includes the east facade of the mansion, visible as a small gap in the distant trees at center. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  5. 35. View of the big meadow at the Billings Farm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. View of the big meadow at the Billings Farm & Museum, looking west toward Mount Tom (more distant view). The view illustrates the relation of the forested hillside lands to the agricultural fields in the valley, and includes the east facade of the mansion, visible as a small gap in the distant trees at center. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  6. Ulnar head replacement.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  7. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.; Reutzel, E.W.

    1998-08-18

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure. 8 figs.

  8. Maneuvering impact boring head

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W. Thor; Reutzel, Edward W.

    1998-01-01

    An impact boring head may comprise a main body having an internal cavity with a front end and a rear end. A striker having a head end and a tail end is slidably mounted in the internal cavity of the main body so that the striker can be reciprocated between a forward position and an aft position in response to hydraulic pressure. A compressible gas contained in the internal cavity between the head end of the striker and the front end of the internal cavity returns the striker to the aft position upon removal of the hydraulic pressure.

  9. Big data and ophthalmic research.

    PubMed

    Clark, Antony; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel; Semmens, James B

    2016-01-01

    Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, health services utilization, and health outcomes. Furthermore, the quantity of data available for research has increased exponentially in recent times, particularly as e-health initiatives come online in health systems across the globe. We review some big data concepts, the databases and data linkage systems used in eye research-including their advantages and limitations, the types of studies previously undertaken, and the future direction for big data in eye research.

  10. Statistical Inference: The Big Picture.

    PubMed

    Kass, Robert E

    2011-02-01

    Statistics has moved beyond the frequentist-Bayesian controversies of the past. Where does this leave our ability to interpret results? I suggest that a philosophy compatible with statistical practice, labelled here statistical pragmatism, serves as a foundation for inference. Statistical pragmatism is inclusive and emphasizes the assumptions that connect statistical models with observed data. I argue that introductory courses often mis-characterize the process of statistical inference and I propose an alternative "big picture" depiction.

  11. District Bets Big on Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The big clock in Dowan McNair-Lee's 8th grade classroom in the Stuart-Hobson Middle School is silent, but she can hear the minutes ticking away nonetheless. On this day, like any other, the clock is a constant reminder of how little time she has to prepare her students--for spring tests, and for high school and all that lies beyond it. The…

  12. Ultrasound: Head (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... the head and images are recorded on a computer. The black-and-white images show the internal ... the images can be seen clearly on the computer screen. A technician (sonographer) trained in ultrasound imaging ...

  13. Overview of Head Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... appear to be more serious than it is. Did You Know... Because the scalp has many blood ... these symptoms occur, prompt medical attention is essential. Did You Know... The degree of external head injury ...

  14. Head Injuries in Soccer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Karl B.

    1989-01-01

    This article reviews the medical literature on head injuries in soccer and concludes that protective headgear to reduce these injuries may not be as effective as rule changes and other measures, such as padding goal posts. (IAH)

  15. TCGA head Neck

    Cancer.gov

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  16. Genesis of the big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpher, Ralph A.; Herman, Robert

    The authors of this volume have been intimately connected with the conception of the big bang model since 1947. Following the late George Gamov's ideas in 1942 and more particularly in 1946 that the early universe was an appropriate site for the synthesis of the elements, they became deeply involved in the question of cosmic nucleosynthesis and particularly the synthesis of the light elements. In the course of this work they developed a general relativistic model of the expanding universe with physics folded in, which led in a progressive, logical sequence to our prediction of the existence of a present cosmic background radiation some seventeen years before the observation of such radiation was reported by Penzias and Wilson. In addition, they carried out with James W. Follin, Jr., a detailed study of the physics of what was then considered to be the very early universe, starting a few seconds after the big bang, which still provides a methodology for studies of light element nucleosynthesis. Because of their involvement, they bring a personal perspective to the subject. They present a picture of what is now believed to be the state of knowledge about the evolution of the expanding universe and delineate the story of the development of the big bang model as they have seen and lived it from their own unique vantage point.

  17. Big data: the management revolution.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Andrew; Brynjolfsson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    Big data, the authors write, is far more powerful than the analytics of the past. Executives can measure and therefore manage more precisely than ever before. They can make better predictions and smarter decisions. They can target more-effective interventions in areas that so far have been dominated by gut and intuition rather than by data and rigor. The differences between big data and analytics are a matter of volume, velocity, and variety: More data now cross the internet every second than were stored in the entire internet 20 years ago. Nearly real-time information makes it possible for a company to be much more agile than its competitors. And that information can come from social networks, images, sensors, the web, or other unstructured sources. The managerial challenges, however, are very real. Senior decision makers have to learn to ask the right questions and embrace evidence-based decision making. Organizations must hire scientists who can find patterns in very large data sets and translate them into useful business information. IT departments have to work hard to integrate all the relevant internal and external sources of data. The authors offer two success stories to illustrate how companies are using big data: PASSUR Aerospace enables airlines to match their actual and estimated arrival times. Sears Holdings directly analyzes its incoming store data to make promotions much more precise and faster.

  18. EHR Big Data Deep Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Lenert, L.; Lopez-Campos, G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Given the quickening speed of discovery of variant disease drivers from combined patient genotype and phenotype data, the objective is to provide methodology using big data technology to support the definition of deep phenotypes in medical records. Methods As the vast stores of genomic information increase with next generation sequencing, the importance of deep phenotyping increases. The growth of genomic data and adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) in medicine provides a unique opportunity to integrate phenotype and genotype data into medical records. The method by which collections of clinical findings and other health related data are leveraged to form meaningful phenotypes is an active area of research. Longitudinal data stored in EHRs provide a wealth of information that can be used to construct phenotypes of patients. We focus on a practical problem around data integration for deep phenotype identification within EHR data. The use of big data approaches are described that enable scalable markup of EHR events that can be used for semantic and temporal similarity analysis to support the identification of phenotype and genotype relationships. Conclusions Stead and colleagues’ 2005 concept of using light standards to increase the productivity of software systems by riding on the wave of hardware/processing power is described as a harbinger for designing future healthcare systems. The big data solution, using flexible markup, provides a route to improved utilization of processing power for organizing patient records in genotype and phenotype research. PMID:25123744

  19. Spinal metastasis in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of head and neck cancer is relatively low in developed countries and highest in South East Asia. Notwithstanding advances in surgery and radiotherapy over the past several decades, the 5-year survival rate for head and neck cancer has stagnated and remains at 50–55%. This is due, in large part, to both regional and distant disease spread, including spinal metastasis. Spinal metastasis from head and neck cancer is rare, has a poor prognosis and can significantly impede end-stage quality of life; normally only palliative care is given. This study aims to conduct a systematic review of the evidence available on management of spinal metastasis from head and neck cancer and to use such evidence to draw up guiding principles in the management of the distant spread. Methods Systematic review of the electronic literature was conducted regarding the management of spinal metastasis of head and neck malignancies. Results Due to the exceptional rarity of head and neck cancers metastasizing to the spine, there is a paucity of good randomized controlled trials into the management of spinal metastasis. This review produced only 12 case studies/reports and 2 small retrospective cohort studies that lacked appropriate controls. Conclusion Management should aim to improve end-stage quality of life and maintain neurological function. This review has found that radiotherapy +/− medical adjuvant is considered the principle treatment of spinal metastasis of head and neck cancers. There is an absence of a definitive treatment protocol for head and neck cancer spinal metastasis. Our failure to find and cite high-quality scientific evidence only serves to stress the need for good quality research in this area. PMID:22716187

  20. Neuronal chloride and excitability - the big impact of small changes.

    PubMed

    Raimondo, Joseph V; Richards, Blake A; Woodin, Melanie A

    2016-12-16

    Synaptic inhibition is a critical regulator of neuronal excitability, and in the mature brain the majority of synaptic inhibition is mediated by Cl(-)-permeable GABAA receptors. Unlike other physiologically relevant ions, Cl(-) is dynamically regulated, and alterations in the Cl(-) gradient can have significant impact on neuronal excitability. Due to changes in the neuronal Cl(-) concentration, GABAergic transmission can bidirectionally regulate the induction of excitatory synaptic plasticity and gate the closing of the critical period for monocular deprivation in visual cortex. GABAergic circuitry can also provide a powerful restraining mechanism for the spread of excitation, however Cl(-) extrusion mechanisms can become overwhelmed and GABA can paradoxically contribute to pathological excitation such as the propagation of seizure activity.

  1. A small step for science, a big one for commerce.

    PubMed

    Birkett, Liam

    2005-01-01

    The excellent work that is being performed in medical science advances is to be admired and applauded. In each case the quest is for perfection and to bring the task in hand to its final solution. Along the way there are milestones being passed that may be overlooked, as to their particular merits, because the eyes are focused all the time on the ultimate goal. The conference highlights so many areas of interest and endeavour some of which parallel, duplicate, overlap and/or compliment others.

  2. Ethylene and Metal Stress: Small Molecule, Big Impact

    PubMed Central

    Keunen, Els; Schellingen, Kerim; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The phytohormone ethylene is known to mediate a diverse array of signaling processes during abiotic stress in plants. Whereas many reports have demonstrated enhanced ethylene production in metal-exposed plants, the underlying molecular mechanisms are only recently investigated. Increasing evidence supports a role for ethylene in the regulation of plant metal stress responses. Moreover, crosstalk appears to exist between ethylene and the cellular redox balance, nutrients and other phytohormones. This review highlights our current understanding of the key role ethylene plays during responses to metal exposure. Moreover, particular attention is paid to the integration of ethylene within the broad network of plant responses to metal stress. PMID:26870052

  3. Hair diseases: a big problem on a small surface

    PubMed Central

    Wcisło-Dziadecka, Dominika

    2016-01-01

    Civilizational progress initially contributes to the problem of hair loss and then to alopecia as regards both frequency and therapeutic dilemmas. The work presents trichological problems which occur more rarely, i.e. drug-induced, anagen and telogen alopecia, congenital and acquired structural hair disorders, psychic disturbances concerning the hair as well as the hair during menopause. Then, the article briefly describes contagious (infectious) diseases as well as diseases with inflammatory etiology which are accompanied by exfoliation and (frequently) pruritus. Finally, alopecia cicatricans is discussed. Alopecia areata and androgenetic alopecia are omitted herein because they occur more often and will be described in another work. Any disproportions and upset balance concerning correct functioning of mechanisms within the scalp hair system are the evidence of pathologies. PMID:27881935

  4. Big issues, small systems: managing with information in medical research.

    PubMed

    Jones, J; Preston, H

    2000-08-01

    This subject of this article is the design of a database system for handling files related to the work of the Molecular Genetics Department of the International Blood Group Reference Laboratory. It examines specialist information needs identified within this organization and it indicates how the design of the Rhesus Information Tracking System was able to meet current needs. Rapid Applications Development prototyping forms the basis of the investigation, linked to interview, questionnaire, and observation techniques in order to establish requirements for interoperability. In particular, the place of this specialist database within the much broader information strategy of the National Blood Service will be examined. This unique situation is analogous to management activities in broader environments and a number of generic issues are highlighted by the research.

  5. D. melanogaster, mitochondria and neurodegeneration: small model organism, big discoveries.

    PubMed

    Debattisti, Valentina; Scorrano, Luca

    2013-07-01

    In developed countries, increased life expectancy is accompanied by an increased prevalence of age-related disorders like cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. Albeit the molecular mechanisms behind the clinically, pathologically and etiologically heterogeneous forms of neurodegeneration are often unclear, impairment of mitochondrial fusion-fission and dynamics emerged in recent years as a feature of neuronal dysfunction and death, pinpointing the need for animal models to investigate the relationship between mitochondrial shape and neurodegeneration. While research on mammalian models is slowed down by the complexity of the organisms and their genomes, the long latency of the symptoms and by the difficulty to generate and analyze large cohorts, the lower metazoan Drosophila melanogaster overcomes these problems, proving to be a suitable model to study neurodegenerative diseases and mitochondria-shaping proteins. Here we will summarize our current knowledge on the link between mitochondrial shape and models of neurodegeneration in the fruitfly. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Mitochondrial function and dysfunction in neurodegeneration'.

  6. Small Changes to Catalysts; Big Impacts for our Nation

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, Morris; Shaw, Wendy; O'Hagan, Molly

    2013-08-29

    Hydrogen is at the heart of producing ammonia. It's what we need to make the fertilizers that grow our food, and to refine crude oil into fuels that meet clean air standards. But it is produced from non-renewable resources, typically natural gas.

  7. Infantile Accountability: When Big Data Meet Small Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrigley, Terry; Wormwell, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This article examines a government attempt to impose testing of 4-year-olds as a baseline against which to "hold primary schools accountable" for children's subsequent progress. It examines the various forms of baseline testing in this experiment and analyses the misleading claims made for the "predictive validity" of baseline…

  8. "Small Steps, Big Rewards": Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diabetes," an education campaign of the National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) to stem the growing epidemic of diabetes. The program is a beacon of hope to millions of Americans with pre-diabetes (higher than normal blood glucose levels but not yet ...

  9. Exosomes: small vesicles with big roles in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhitong; Zeng, Qinghai; Cao, Ke; Sun, Yifan

    2016-01-01

    Despite improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the prognosis is still poor. Pioneering work has demonstrated a potential role for tumour cell-derived exosomes (TEXs) in HCC. TEXs can mediate immune responses, antigen presentation and intracellular communication by serving as vehicles for the transfer of proteins, viruses, lipids and RNA between cells. An improved understanding of the roles played by exosomes could lead to a powerful new strategy for preventing and treating HCC. In this review, we summarise current understanding on the topic. The literature points to two faces of TEXs in HCC: 1) They can promote invasion, metastasis, immune evasion and modulation and 2) they can act as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, and can be used in anti-cancer drug resistance and immunotherapy in the future. PMID:27463001

  10. Health intervention pilots: thinking big before thinking small.

    PubMed

    Hannay, Emma Jane; Whelan, Fenton

    2015-12-01

    Pilots are a commonly deployed tool to support global health reform efforts. However, many pilots fail to be taken to scale due to critical flaws in pilot design and planning. Deploying pilots, which are not designed to be taken to scale, or not appropriate to answer the fundamental questions of scale, may distract from needed scale efforts or reduce resources available for reform. This article proposes four guidelines for planners to consider when designing a pilot. These guidelines can help ensure a pilot is both successful in achieving its internal targets and successfully implemented at scale.

  11. [Plant sterols, cholesterol precursors and oxysterols: small amounts, big effects].

    PubMed

    Olkkonen, Vesa M; Gylling, Helena; Ikonen, Elina

    2015-01-01

    Noncholesterol sterols are present in the body in very low concentrations compared with cholesterol. Minor structural changes in sterols give them completely individual biological activities. Steroid hormones are the best known example of this. The knowledge of other relatives of cholesterol, particularly plant sterols, cholesterol precursors and oxysterols, their properties, physiological effects, significance in disease processes and diagnostic applications has recently undergone a rapid increase.

  12. Small-scale turbidity currents in a big submarine canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, Jingping; Barry, James P.; Paull, Charles K.

    2013-01-01

    Field measurements of oceanic turbidity currents, especially diluted currents, are extremely rare. We present a dilute turbidity current recorded by instrumented moorings 14.5 km apart at 1300 and 1860 m water depth. The sediment concentration within the flow was 0.017%, accounting for 18 cm/s gravity current speed due to density excess. Tidal currents of ∼30 cm/s during the event provided a "tailwind" that assisted the down-canyon movement of the turbidity current and its sediment plume. High-resolution velocity measurements suggested that the turbidity current was likely the result of a local canyon wall slumping near the 1300 m mooring. Frequent occurrences, in both space and time, of such weak sediment transport events could be an important mechanism to cascade sediment and other particles, and to help sustain the vibrant ecosystems in deep-sea canyons.

  13. A big role for small RNAs in HDL homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Mireille; Moore, Kathryn J.

    2013-01-01

    High-density lipoproteins play a central role in systemic cholesterol homeostasis by stimulating the efflux of excess cellular cholesterol and transporting it to the liver for biliary excretion. HDL has long been touted as the “good cholesterol” because of the strong inverse correlation of plasma HDL cholesterol levels with coronary heart disease. However, the disappointing outcomes of recent clinical trials involving therapeutic elevations of HDL cholesterol have called this moniker into question and revealed our lack of understanding of this complex lipoprotein. At the same time, the discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate HDL biogenesis and function have led to a surge in our understanding of the posttranscriptional mechanisms regulating plasma levels of HDL. Furthermore, HDL has recently been shown to selectively transport miRNAs and thereby facilitate cellular communication by shuttling these potent gene regulators to distal tissues. Finally, that miRNA cargo carried by HDL may be altered during disease states further broadened our perspective of how this lipoprotein can have complex effects on target cells and tissues. The unraveling of how these tiny RNAs govern HDL metabolism and contribute to its actions promises to reveal new therapeutic strategies to optimize cardiovascular health. PMID:23509405

  14. Going Extreme For Small Solutions To Big Environmental Challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bagwell, Christopher E.

    2011-03-31

    This chapter is devoted to the scale, scope, and specific issues confronting the cleanup and long-term disposal of the U.S. nuclear legacy generated during WWII and the Cold War Era. The research reported is aimed at complex microbiological interactions with legacy waste materials generated by past nuclear production activities in the United States. The intended purpose of this research is to identify cost effective solutions to the specific problems (stability) and environmental challenges (fate, transport, exposure) in managing and detoxifying persistent contaminant species. Specifically addressed are high level waste microbiology and bacteria inhabiting plutonium laden soils in the unsaturated subsurface.

  15. Small Technology--Big Impact. Practical Options for Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academy for Educational Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Technology has dramatically changed the world--now almost anyone can "move" at Internet-speed; people who were marginalized are able to find information on acquiring micro-loans to start businesses, and villages previously unconnected to the telecommunications grid now have affordable cell phone access. As technology becomes easier to…

  16. The Career Pathway Model: Small Steps to Big Leaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sass, Sharon A.; Pedersen, Ginger L.; Truman, Grace H.

    2007-01-01

    Palm Beach Community College realigned its curriculum to allow students to seamlessly process through career pathways. Students can start in clock-hour-based instruction and transfer that learning into credit-based associate in science degrees. Along this pathway, students can use exit points to employment with recognized certificates.

  17. Denver Energy Challenge (DEC) Small Grant, Big Impact

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page is about Denver, Colorado's EPA Climate Showcase Community grant. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments & tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective & replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  18. Small Particles, Big Science: The International LBNF/DUNE Project

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-28

    Neutrinos are the most abundant matter particles in the universe, yet very little is known about them. This animation shows how the Department of Energy’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility will power the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment to help scientists understand the role neutrinos play in the universe. DUNE will also look for the birth of neutron stars and black holes by catching neutrinos from exploding stars. More than 800 scientists from 150 institutions in 27 countries are working on the LBNF/DUNE project, including Armenia, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Colombia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USA.

  19. Small Changes to Catalysts; Big Impacts for our Nation

    ScienceCinema

    Bullock, Morris; Shaw, Wendy; O'Hagan, Molly

    2016-07-12

    Hydrogen is at the heart of producing ammonia. It's what we need to make the fertilizers that grow our food, and to refine crude oil into fuels that meet clean air standards. But it is produced from non-renewable resources, typically natural gas.

  20. United we stand: big roles for small RNA gene clusters.

    PubMed

    Felden, Brice; Paillard, Luc

    2017-02-01

    Prokaryotes and eukaryotes evolved relatively similar RNA-based molecular mechanisms to fight potentially deleterious nucleic acids coming from phages, transposons, or viruses. Short RNAs guide effector complexes toward their targets to be silenced or eliminated. These short immunity RNAs are transcribed from clustered loci. Unexpectedly and strikingly, bacterial and eukaryotic immunity RNA clusters share substantial functional and mechanistic resemblances in fighting nucleic acid intruders.

  1. Laser capture microdissection: Big data from small samples

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Soma; Malhotra, Lavina; Dickerson, Ryan; Chaffee, Scott; Sen, Chandan K.; Roy, Sashwati

    2015-01-01

    Any tissue is made up of a heterogeneous mix of spatially distributed cell types. In response to any (patho) physiological cue, responses of each cell type in any given tissue may be unique and cannot be homogenized across cell-types and spatial co-ordinates. For example, in response to myocardial infarction, on one hand myocytes and fibroblasts of the heart tissue respond differently. On the other hand, myocytes in the infarct core respond differently compared to those in the peri-infarct zone. Therefore, isolation of pure targeted cells is an important and essential step for the molecular analysis of cells involved say in the progression of disease. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is powerful to obtain a pure targeted cell subgroup, or even a single cell, quickly and precisely under the microscope, successfully tackling the problem of tissue heterogeneity in molecular analysis. This review presents an overview of LCM technology, the principles, advantages and limitations and its down-stream applications in the fields of proteomics, genomics and transcriptomics. With powerful technologies and appropriate applications, this technique provides unprecedented insights into cell biology from cells grown in their natural tissue habitat as opposed to those cultured in artificial petri dish conditions. PMID:25892148

  2. Sweating the Small Stuff: Answers to Teachers' Big Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachter, Joanne C.

    This survival guide helps elementary school teachers successfully manage their classrooms. Some of the techniques are also appropriate for middle and high school teachers, church school teachers, and preschool teachers. The 24 chapters focus on important classroom management issues, and each chapter includes quick tips for immediate use. A…

  3. A small jab - a big effect: nonspecific immunomodulation by vaccines.

    PubMed

    Benn, Christine S; Netea, Mihai G; Selin, Liisa K; Aaby, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown that, in addition to disease-specific effects, vaccines against infectious diseases have nonspecific effects on the ability of the immune system to handle other pathogens. For instance, in randomized trials tuberculosis and measles vaccines are associated with a substantial reduction in overall child mortality, which cannot be explained by prevention of the target disease. New research suggests that the nonspecific effects of vaccines are related to cross-reactivity of the adaptive immune system with unrelated pathogens, and to training of the innate immune system through epigenetic reprogramming. Hence, epidemiological findings are backed by immunological data. This generates a new understanding of the immune system and about how it can be modulated by vaccines to impact the general resistance to disease.

  4. Drug packaging in 2013: small changes would reap big benefits.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Drug packaging is important both in protecting and informing patients. Some improvements were made in 2013, but many of the products examined by Prescrire still had poor-quality or even dangerous packaging. Problem packaging is a major concern for patients who are more vulnerable to adverse effects, particularly children and pregnant women. Several problems were noted with products intended for self-medication (umbrella brands), oral solutions sold with dosing devices, and injectable drugs. Looking back at 20 years of Red Cards that Prescrire has issued to products with dangerous packaging reveals several improvements, but too many dangers persist. Urgent action needs to be taken by regulatory agencies and drug companies: patient leaflets must be more explicit with regard to adverse effects, especially those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy; accidental ingestion by children must be prevented; and companies must design safer dosing devices. Healthcare professionals and patients must remain vigilant and report all packaging issues to the relevant authorities.

  5. Getting Results: Small Changes, Big Cohorts and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Jacqueline L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an example of constructive alignment in practice. Integrated technology supports were deployed to increase the consistency between learning objectives, activities and assessment and to foster student-centred, higher-order learning processes in the unit. Modifications took place over nine iterations of a second-year Marketing…

  6. Nanostructured thermoelectrics: big efficiency gains from small features.

    PubMed

    Vineis, Christopher J; Shakouri, Ali; Majumdar, Arun; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2010-09-22

    The field of thermoelectrics has progressed enormously and is now growing steadily because of recently demonstrated advances and strong global demand for cost-effective, pollution-free forms of energy conversion. Rapid growth and exciting innovative breakthroughs in the field over the last 10-15 years have occurred in large part due to a new fundamental focus on nanostructured materials. As a result of the greatly increased research activity in this field, a substantial amount of new data--especially related to materials--have been generated. Although this has led to stronger insight and understanding of thermoelectric principles, it has also resulted in misconceptions and misunderstanding about some fundamental issues. This article sets out to summarize and clarify the current understanding in this field; explain the underpinnings of breakthroughs reported in the past decade; and provide a critical review of various concepts and experimental results related to nanostructured thermoelectrics. We believe recent achievements in the field augur great possibilities for thermoelectric power generation and cooling, and discuss future paths forward that build on these exciting nanostructuring concepts.

  7. Nanostructured thermoelectrics : big efficiency gains from small features.

    SciTech Connect

    Vineis, C. J.; Shakouri, A.; Majumdar, A.; Kanatzidis, M. G.; Materials Science Division; Northwestern Univ.; Univ.of California at Santa Cruz; Univ. of California at Berkeley

    2010-01-01

    The field of thermoelectrics has progressed enormously and is now growing steadily because of recently demonstrated advances and strong global demand for cost-effective, pollution-free forms of energy conversion. Rapid growth and exciting innovative breakthroughs in the field over the last 10-15 years have occurred in large part due to a new fundamental focus on nanostructured materials. As a result of the greatly increased research activity in this field, a substantial amount of new data - especially related to materials - have been generated. Although this has led to stronger insight and understanding of thermoelectric principles, it has also resulted in misconceptions and misunderstanding about some fundamental issues. This article sets out to summarize and clarify the current understanding in this field; explain the underpinnings of breakthroughs reported in the past decade; and provide a critical review of various concepts and experimental results related to nanostructured thermoelectrics. We believe recent achievements in the field augur great possibilities for thermoelectric power generation and cooling, and discuss future paths forward that build on these exciting nanostructuring concepts.

  8. Small Particles, Big Science: The International LBNF/DUNE Project

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Neutrinos are the most abundant matter particles in the universe, yet very little is known about them. This animation shows how the Department of Energy’s Long-Baseline Neutrino Facility will power the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment to help scientists understand the role neutrinos play in the universe. DUNE will also look for the birth of neutron stars and black holes by catching neutrinos from exploding stars. More than 800 scientists from 150 institutions in 27 countries are working on the LBNF/DUNE project, including Armenia, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Colombia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Greece, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Madagascar, Mexico, Netherlands, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, USA.

  9. How Small Is Big: Sample Size and Skewness.

    PubMed

    Piovesana, Adina; Senior, Graeme

    2016-09-21

    Sample sizes of 50 have been cited as sufficient to obtain stable means and standard deviations in normative test data. The influence of skewness on this minimum number, however, has not been evaluated. Normative test data with varying levels of skewness were compiled for 12 measures from 7 tests collected as part of ongoing normative studies in Brisbane, Australia. Means and standard deviations were computed from sample sizes of 10 to 100 drawn with replacement from larger samples of 272 to 973 cases. The minimum sample size was determined by the number at which both mean and standard deviation estimates remained within the 90% confidence intervals surrounding the population estimates. Sample sizes of greater than 85 were found to generate stable means and standard deviations regardless of the level of skewness, with smaller samples required in skewed distributions. A formula was derived to compute recommended sample size at differing levels of skewness.

  10. Small Country, Big Business? New Zealand as Education Exporter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Kerstin; Starke, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses New Zealand's role in the global market for tertiary education. The internationalisation and liberalisation of education markets is progressing rapidly in today's globalising world, as reflected by the incorporation of education as a service into the GATS framework. Through the example of New Zealand as a case study for the…

  11. Small Voices, Big Impact: Preparing Students for Learning and Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Jennifer L.; McGarry, Lorraine S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, two teachers from a public school in the United States describe their beliefs about the importance of using student voice as a foundation for increasing student efficacy, recognizing student individuality, and addressing curriculum standards. Sharing examples from their classrooms, the authors illustrate how student voice can help…

  12. A Spectrograph for BigBOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CARTON, Pierre-Henri; Bebek, C.; Cazaux, S.; Ealet, A.; Eppelle, D.; Kneib, J.; Karst, P.; levi, M.; magneville, C.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Schlegel, D.; Yeche, C.

    2012-01-01

    The Big-Boss spectrographs assembly will take in charge the light from the fiber output to the detector, including the optics, gratings, mechanics and cryostats. The 5000 fibers are split in 10 bundles of 500 ones. Each of these channel feed one spectrograph. The full bandwidth from 0.36µm to 1.05µm is split in 3 bands. Each channel is composed with one collimator (doublet lenses), a VPH grating, and a 6 lenses camera. The 500 fiber spectrum are imaged onto a 4kx4k detector thanks to the F/2 camera. Each fiber core is imaged onto 4 pixels. Each channel of the BigBOSS spectrograph will be equipped with a single-CCD camera, resulting in 30 cryostats in total for the instrument. Based on its experience of CCD cameras for projects like EROS and MegaCam, CEA/Saclay has designed small and autonomous cryogenic vessels which integrate cryo-cooling, CCD positioning and slow control interfacing capabilities. The use of a Linear Pulse Tube with its own control unit, both developed by Thales Cryogenics BV, will ensure versatility, reliability and operational flexibility. CCD's will be cooled down to 140K, with stability better than 1K. CCD's will be positioned within 15µm along the optical axis and 50µm in the XY Plan. Slow Control machines will be directly interfaced to an Ethernet network, which will allow them to be operated remotely. The concept of spectrograph leads to a very robust concept without any mechanics (except the shutters). This 30 channels has a impressive compactness with its 3m3 volume. The development of such number of channel will drive to a quasi mass production philosophy.

  13. Measurements of characteristic parameters of extremely small cogged wheels with low module by means of low-coherence interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakula, Anna; Tomczewski, Slawomir; Skalski, Andrzej; Biało, Dionizy; Salbut, Leszek

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents novel application of Low Coherence Interferometry (LCI) in measurements of characteristic parameters as circular pitch, foot diameter, heads diameter, in extremely small cogged wheels (cogged wheel diameter lower than θ=3 mm and module m = 0.15) produced from metal and ceramics. The most interesting issue concerning small diameter cogged wheels occurs during their production. The characteristic parameters of the wheel depend strongly on the manufacturing process and while inspecting small diameter wheels the shrinkage during the cast varies with the slight change of fabrication process. In the paper the LCI interferometric Twyman - Green setup with pigtailed high power light emitting diode, for cogged wheels measurement, is described. Due to its relatively big field of view the whole wheel can be examined in one measurement, without the necessity of numerical stitching. For purposes of small cogged wheel's characteristic parameters measurement the special binarization algorithm was developed and successfully applied. At the end the results of measurement of heads and foot diameters of two cogged wheels obtained by proposed LCI setup are presented and compared with the results obtained by the commercial optical profiler. The results of examination of injection moulds used for fabrication of measured cogged wheels are also presented. Additionally, the value of cogged wheels shrinkage is calculated as a conclusion for obtained results. Proposed method is suitable for complex measurements of small diameter cogged wheels with low module especially when there are no measurements standards for such objects.

  14. Tectonics and sedimentology along the Monkey River and Big Creek, southern Belize, Central America: Modern analog of select Morrow sands

    SciTech Connect

    Gries, J.C.; Full, W.E. )

    1991-08-01

    Big Creek is presently a relatively short river draining the flat coastal plain at the southern edge of the North American plate, south-central Belize. The recent sediments in this river consists of very fine-grained silts and clays derived from the local coastal plain. Offshore from the mouth of the Big Creek are shallow sand bars, channels, and eroding islands consisting of well-sorted, coarse sand comprised dominantly of feldspathic minerals. The location and geometry of these sands suggest that Big Creek was the fluvial source for this material. The sedimentology implication is that the nearshore and offshore parts of Big Creek represent a relatively large drowned deltaic complex, a modern analog of some lower Morrow depositional systems. Coarse feldspathic material found in the Cockscomb basin in the Maya Mountains is transported by the Swasey branch of the Monkey River toward the Big Creek drainage to the coast. However, the Swasey branch is abruptly diverted southward to intersect the present-day Monkey River. Drainage analysis suggests that structural features subsidiary to the Chixoy-Polochic fault zone bounding the North American plate may have diverted flow southward, beheading Big Creek. Field observations have not found any major relief changes which would have drainage analysis support tectonic diversion of the head waters of Big Creek into present-day Monkey River. Similar processes are hypothesized to have occurred during Morrow deposition.

  15. Missouri: Early Head Start Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…

  16. Turning big bang into big bounce. I. Classical dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dzierzak, Piotr; Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz

    2009-11-15

    The big bounce (BB) transition within a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model is analyzed in the setting of loop geometry underlying the loop cosmology. We solve the constraint of the theory at the classical level to identify physical phase space and find the Lie algebra of the Dirac observables. We express energy density of matter and geometrical functions in terms of the observables. It is the modification of classical theory by the loop geometry that is responsible for BB. The classical energy scale specific to BB depends on a parameter that should be fixed either by cosmological data or determined theoretically at quantum level, otherwise the energy scale stays unknown.

  17. Effect of Reversible Inactivation of Superior Colliculus on Head Movements

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Mark M. G.; Bechara, Bernard; Gandhi, Neeraj J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of limitations in the oculomotor range, many gaze shifts must be accomplished using coordinated movements of the eyes and head. Stimulation and recording data have implicated the primate superior colliculus (SC) in the control of these gaze shifts. The precise role of this structure in head movement control, however, is not known. The present study uses reversible inactivation to gain insight into the role of this structure in the control of head movements, including those that accompany gaze shifts and those that occur in the absence of a change in gaze. Forty-five lidocaine injections were made in two monkeys that had been trained on a series of behavioral tasks that dissociate movements of the eyes and head. Reversible inactivation resulted in clear impairments in the animals’ ability to perform gaze shifts, manifested by increased reaction times, lower peak velocities, and increased durations. In contrast, comparable effects were not found for head movements (with or without gaze shifts) with the exception of a very small increase in reaction times of head movements associated with gaze shifts. Eye-head coordination was clearly affected by the injections with gaze onset occurring relatively later with respect to head onset. Following the injections, the head contributed slightly more to the gaze shift. These results suggest that head movements (with and without gaze shifts) can be controlled by pathways that do not involve SC. PMID:18305088

  18. Big Machines and Big Science: 80 Years of Accelerators at Stanford

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, Gregory

    2008-12-16

    Longtime SLAC physicist Greg Loew will present a trip through SLAC's origins, highlighting its scientific achievements, and provide a glimpse of the lab's future in 'Big Machines and Big Science: 80 Years of Accelerators at Stanford.'

  19. Open Space Box: communication to support Big Data in orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Atif F.; Straub, Jeremy

    2015-05-01

    Communication to and from a small spacecraft can be at an extremely slow Baud rate, means both sending and receiving any communication will take some time. Extract, Transform and Load tools designed to transmit and receive data needs to have a flexible protocol. The Open Space Box model provides this base for smaller spacecraft to provide users data in a fashion that is pervasive within satellites as well as the ground stations. It also autonomically distinguishes data streams and disseminates relevant information to the related end users. Streaming Data can also be considered the generation of Big Data. At a ground station, the receiving of data can create the problem of Big Data and its management. Messages are sent in batch mode and communications are done using MapReduce.

  20. Big data: an introduction for librarians.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Modern life produces data at an astounding rate and shows no signs of slowing. This has lead to new advances in data storage and analysis and the concept of "big data," that is, massive data sets that can yield surprising insights when analyzed. This column will briefly describe what big data is and why it is important. It will also briefly explore the possibilities and problems of big data and the implications it has for librarians. A list of big data projects and resources is also included.

  1. Medical big data: promise and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-03-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology.

  2. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Zongtao Li, Ying Zheng, Xibin Liu, Yan Dai, Jiting Kang, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  3. Medical big data: promise and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choong Ho; Yoon, Hyung-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The concept of big data, commonly characterized by volume, variety, velocity, and veracity, goes far beyond the data type and includes the aspects of data analysis, such as hypothesis-generating, rather than hypothesis-testing. Big data focuses on temporal stability of the association, rather than on causal relationship and underlying probability distribution assumptions are frequently not required. Medical big data as material to be analyzed has various features that are not only distinct from big data of other disciplines, but also distinct from traditional clinical epidemiology. Big data technology has many areas of application in healthcare, such as predictive modeling and clinical decision support, disease or safety surveillance, public health, and research. Big data analytics frequently exploits analytic methods developed in data mining, including classification, clustering, and regression. Medical big data analyses are complicated by many technical issues, such as missing values, curse of dimensionality, and bias control, and share the inherent limitations of observation study, namely the inability to test causality resulting from residual confounding and reverse causation. Recently, propensity score analysis and instrumental variable analysis have been introduced to overcome these limitations, and they have accomplished a great deal. Many challenges, such as the absence of evidence of practical benefits of big data, methodological issues including legal and ethical issues, and clinical integration and utility issues, must be overcome to realize the promise of medical big data as the fuel of a continuous learning healthcare system that will improve patient outcome and reduce waste in areas including nephrology. PMID:28392994

  4. The LHC's Next Big Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-03-01

    When the sun rose over America on July 4, 2012, the world of science had radically changed. The Higgs boson had been discovered. Mind you, the press releases were more cautious than that, with "a new particle consistent with being the Higgs boson" being the carefully constructed phrase of the day. But, make no mistake, champagne corks were popped and backs were slapped. The data had spoken and a party was in order. Even if the observation turned out to be something other than the Higgs boson, the first big discovery from data taken at the Large Hadron Collider had been made.

  5. The faces of Big Science.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Gottfried

    2014-06-01

    Fifty years ago, academic science was a calling with few regulations or financial rewards. Today, it is a huge enterprise confronted by a plethora of bureaucratic and political controls. This change was not triggered by specific events or decisions but reflects the explosive 'knee' in the exponential growth that science has sustained during the past three-and-a-half centuries. Coming to terms with the demands and benefits of 'Big Science' is a major challenge for today's scientific generation. Since its foundation 50 years ago, the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) has been of invaluable help in meeting this challenge.

  6. Big bang nucleosynthesis: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.

    2013-07-23

    An update on the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is presented. With the value of the baryon-tophoton ratio determined to high precision by WMAP, standard BBN is a parameter-free theory. In this context, the theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, {sup 4}He, and {sup 7}Li is discussed and compared to their observational determination. While concordance for D and {sup 4}He is satisfactory, the prediction for {sup 7}Li exceeds the observational determination by a factor of about four. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed.

  7. Head segmentation in vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Kuratani, Shigeru; Schilling, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Classic theories of vertebrate head segmentation clearly exemplify the idealistic nature of comparative embryology prior to the 20th century. Comparative embryology aimed at recognizing the basic, primary structure that is shared by all vertebrates, either as an archetype or an ancestral developmental pattern. Modern evolutionary developmental (Evo-Devo) studies are also based on comparison, and therefore have a tendency to reduce complex embryonic anatomy into overly simplified patterns. Here again, a basic segmental plan for the head has been sought among chordates. We convened a symposium that brought together leading researchers dealing with this problem, in a number of different evolutionary and developmental contexts. Here we give an overview of the outcome and the status of the field in this modern era of Evo-Devo. We emphasize the fact that the head segmentation problem is not fully resolved, and we discuss new directions in the search for hints for a way out of this maze. PMID:20607135

  8. Pediatric head injury.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N

    1998-01-01

    Pediatric head injury is a public health problem that exacts a high price from patients, their families and society alike. While much of the brain damage in head-injured patients occurs at the moment of impact, secondary injuries can be prevented by aggressive medical and surgical intervention. Modern imaging devices have simplified the task of diagnosing intracranial injuries. Recent advances in monitoring technology have made it easier to assess the effectiveness of medical therapy. These include intracranial pressure monitoring devices that are accurate and safe, and jugular bulb monitoring which provides a continuous, qualitative measure of cerebral blood flow. The cornerstones of treatment remain hyperventilation and osmotherapy. Despite maximal treatment, however, the mortality and morbidity associated with pediatric head injury remains high. Reduction of this mortality and morbidity will likely depend upon prevention rather than treatment.

  9. Auditory Compensation for Head Rotation Is Incomplete

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hearing is confronted by a similar problem to vision when the observer moves. The image motion that is created remains ambiguous until the observer knows the velocity of eye and/or head. One way the visual system solves this problem is to use motor commands, proprioception, and vestibular information. These “extraretinal signals” compensate for self-movement, converting image motion into head-centered coordinates, although not always perfectly. We investigated whether the auditory system also transforms coordinates by examining the degree of compensation for head rotation when judging a moving sound. Real-time recordings of head motion were used to change the “movement gain” relating head movement to source movement across a loudspeaker array. We then determined psychophysically the gain that corresponded to a perceptually stationary source. Experiment 1 showed that the gain was small and positive for a wide range of trained head speeds. Hence, listeners perceived a stationary source as moving slightly opposite to the head rotation, in much the same way that observers see stationary visual objects move against a smooth pursuit eye movement. Experiment 2 showed the degree of compensation remained the same for sounds presented at different azimuths, although the precision of performance declined when the sound was eccentric. We discuss two possible explanations for incomplete compensation, one based on differences in the accuracy of signals encoding image motion and self-movement and one concerning statistical optimization that sacrifices accuracy for precision. We then consider the degree to which such explanations can be applied to auditory motion perception in moving listeners. PMID:27841453

  10. Comparative Validity of Brief to Medium-Length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are…

  11. Flexible Heating Head

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert L.; Johnson, Samuel D.; Coultrip, Robert H.; Phillips, W. Morris

    1994-01-01

    United States Air Force is investigating method of repairing aircraft by use of adhesive bonding with induction heating to cure adhesive. Fast-acting and reliable induction heating device that is lightweight, portable, and easy to use needed for such applications. Newly developed flexible heating head lightweight and conforms to complex, curved surfaces. Incorporates principles and circuitry of toroid joining gun described in "Toroid Joining Gun for Fittings and Couplings" (LAR-14278). Concentrates heat in local area through induction heating. Flexible heating head contains tank circuit, connected via cable to source of power.

  12. Holographic Optical Head

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    optical path from HOE to focal point can be made (ie same for both rays. We do this for a thin lens; in reality, the condition is obtained by ray...I2 RADC-TR-90-200 Final Technical Report September 1990 uric FILE COPY HOLOGRAPHIC OPTICAL HEAD Holometrix, Inc. P. Gregory DeBaryshe, Charles S. th...aa w 1. REPOA ATE 3. Reoa"rm AND DAS C September 1990 Final Aug 88 - May 90 4. TME AND hTME s. FUMO NUMBERS HOLOGRAPHIC OPTICAL HEAD C - F30602-88-C

  13. Untapped Potential: Fulfilling the Promise of Big Brothers Big Sisters and the Bigs and Littles They Represent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John M.; Moore, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    American children represent a great untapped potential in our country. For many young people, choices are limited and the goal of a productive adulthood is a remote one. This report paints a picture of who these children are, shares their insights and reflections about the barriers they face, and offers ways forward for Big Brothers Big Sisters as…

  14. Big Challenges and Big Opportunities: The Power of "Big Ideas" to Change Curriculum and the Culture of Teacher Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Mathematical knowledge of pre-service teachers is currently "under the microscope" and the subject of research. This paper proposes a different approach to teacher content knowledge based on the "big ideas" of mathematics and the connections that exist within and between them. It is suggested that these "big ideas"…

  15. M theory model of a big crunch/big bang transition

    SciTech Connect

    Turok, Neil; Perry, Malcolm; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2004-11-15

    We consider a picture in which the transition from a big crunch to a big bang corresponds to the collision of two empty orbifold planes approaching each other at a constant nonrelativistic speed in a locally flat background space-time, a situation relevant to recently proposed cosmological models. We show that p-brane states which wind around the extra dimension propagate smoothly and unambiguously across the orbifold plane collision. In particular we calculate the quantum mechanical production of winding M2-branes extending from one orbifold to the other. We find that the resulting density is finite and that the resulting gravitational backreaction is small. These winding states, which include the string theory graviton, can be propagated smoothly across the transition using a perturbative expansion in the membrane tension, an expansion which from the point of view of string theory is an expansion in inverse powers of {alpha}{sup '}. The conventional description of a crunch based on Einstein general relativity, involving Kasner or mixmaster behavior is misleading, we argue, because general relativity is only the leading order approximation to string theory in an expansion in positive powers of {alpha}{sup '}. In contrast, in the M theory setup we argue that interactions should be well behaved because of the smooth evolution of the fields combined with the fact that the string coupling tends to zero at the crunch. The production of massive Kaluza-Klein states should also be exponentially suppressed for small collision speeds. We contrast this good behavior with that found in previous studies of strings in Lorentzian orbifolds.

  16. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  17. Astronomical surveys and big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ -rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ -ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS), and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  18. Big data in oncologic imaging.

    PubMed

    Regge, Daniele; Mazzetti, Simone; Giannini, Valentina; Bracco, Christian; Stasi, Michele

    2016-09-13

    Cancer is a complex disease and unfortunately understanding how the components of the cancer system work does not help understand the behavior of the system as a whole. In the words of the Greek philosopher Aristotle "the whole is greater than the sum of parts." To date, thanks to improved information technology infrastructures, it is possible to store data from each single cancer patient, including clinical data, medical images, laboratory tests, and pathological and genomic information. Indeed, medical archive storage constitutes approximately one-third of total global storage demand and a large part of the data are in the form of medical images. The opportunity is now to draw insight on the whole to the benefit of each individual patient. In the oncologic patient, big data analysis is at the beginning but several useful applications can be envisaged including development of imaging biomarkers to predict disease outcome, assessing the risk of X-ray dose exposure or of renal damage following the administration of contrast agents, and tracking and optimizing patient workflow. The aim of this review is to present current evidence of how big data derived from medical images may impact on the diagnostic pathway of the oncologic patient.

  19. Reactor vessel lower head integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, A.M.

    1997-02-01

    On March 28, 1979, the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) nuclear power plant underwent a prolonged small break loss-of-coolant accident that resulted in severe damage to the reactor core. Post-accident examinations of the TMI-2 reactor core and lower plenum found that approximately 19,000 kg (19 metric tons) of molten material had relocated onto the lower head of the reactor vessel. Results of the OECD TMI-2 Vessel Investigation Project concluded that a localized hot spot of approximately 1 meter diameter had existed on the lower head. The maximum temperature on the inner surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in this region reached 1100{degrees}C and remained at that temperature for approximately 30 minutes before cooling occurred. Even under the combined loads of high temperature and high primary system pressure, the TMI-2 RPV did not fail. (i.e. The pressure varied from about 8.5 to 15 MPa during the four-hour period following the relocation of melt to the lower plenum.) Analyses of RPV failure under these conditions, using state-of-the-art computer codes, predicted that the RPV should have failed via local or global creep rupture. However, the vessel did not fail; and it has been hypothesized that rapid cooling of the debris and the vessel wall by water that was present in the lower plenum played an important role in maintaining RPV integrity during the accident. Although the exact mechanism(s) of how such cooling occurs is not known, it has been speculated that cooling in a small gap between the RPV wall and the crust, and/or in cracks within the debris itself, could result in sufficient cooling to maintain RPV integrity. Experimental data are needed to provide the basis to better understand these phenomena and improve models of RPV failure in severe accident codes.

  20. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Notes [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to several hundreds light years on each side of the black hole, or about several thousand million million km! More information This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising

  1. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-07-01

    astronomers understand the similarity between small black holes formed from exploded stars and the supermassive black holes at the centres of galaxies. Very powerful jets have been seen from supermassive black holes, but are thought to be less frequent in the smaller microquasar variety. The new discovery suggests that many of them may simply have gone unnoticed so far. The gas-blowing black hole is located 12 million light-years away, in the outskirts of the spiral galaxy NGC 7793 (eso0914b). From the size and expansion velocity of the bubble the astronomers have found that the jet activity must have been ongoing for at least 200 000 years. Note: [1] Astronomers do not have yet any means of measuring the size of the black hole itself. The smallest stellar black hole discovered so far has a radius of about 15 km. An average stellar black hole of about 10 solar masses has a radius of about 30 km, while a "big" stellar black hole may have a radius of up to 300 km. This is still much smaller than the jets, which extend out to 1000 light-years, or about 9000 million million km! More Information: This result appears in a paper published in this week's issue of the journal Nature (A 300 parsec long jet-inflated bubble around a powerful microquasar in the galaxy NGC 7793, by Manfred W. Pakull, Roberto Soria and Christian Motch). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates

  2. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  3. 5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, deck view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  4. 4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Big Creek Road, old bridge on Walnut Bottom Road, elevation view. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  5. Big sagebrush transplanting success in crested wheatgrass stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of formerly big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate ssp. wyomingensis)/bunchgrass communities to annual grass dominance, primarily cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), in Wyoming big sagebrush ecosystems has sparked the increasing demand to establish big sagebrush on disturbed rangelands. The e...

  6. Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Old Big Oak Flat Road at intersection with New Tioga Road. Note gate for road to Tamarack Campground - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  7. View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Old Big Oak Flat Road in Talus Slope. Bridal Veil Falls at center distance. Looking east - Big Oak Flat Road, Between Big Oak Flat Entrance & Merced River, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  8. Sculpting Ceramic Heads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapiro, Maurice

    1983-01-01

    Clay sculpture is difficult to produce because of the requirements of kiln firing. The problems can be overcome by modeling the original manikin head and making a plaster mold, pressing molding slabs of clay into the plaster mold to form the hollow clay armature, and sculpting on the armature. (IS)

  9. MULTIPLE SHAFT TOOL HEAD

    DOEpatents

    Colbert, H.P.

    1962-10-23

    An improved tool head arrangement is designed for the automatic expanding of a plurality of ferruled tubes simultaneously. A plurality of output shafts of a multiple spindle drill head are driven in unison by a hydraulic motor. A plurality of tube expanders are respectively coupled to the shafts through individual power train arrangements. The axial or thrust force required for the rolling operation is provided by a double acting hydraulic cylinder having a hollow through shaft with the shaft cooperating with an internally rotatable splined shaft slidably coupled to a coupling rigidly attached to the respectlve output shaft of the drill head, thereby transmitting rotary motion and axial thrust simultaneously to the tube expander. A hydraulic power unit supplies power to each of the double acting cylinders through respective two-position, four-way valves, under control of respective solenoids for each of the cylinders. The solenoids are in turn selectively controlled by a tool selection control unit which in turn is controlled by signals received from a programmed, coded tape from a tape reader. The number of expanders that are extended in a rolling operation, which may be up to 42 expanders, is determined by a predetermined program of operations depending upon the arrangement of the ferruled tubes to be expanded in the tube bundle. The tape reader also supplies dimensional information to a machine tool servo control unit for imparting selected, horizontal and/or vertical movement to the tool head assembly. (AEC)

  10. Is Head Start Dying?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Ann; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Analysis of problems faced by Head Start and its present status includes a review of its transfer from O.E.O. to H.E.W., its extensions, the Westinghouse Report, and other studies and articles. Decline in public interest and support is noted. (KW)

  11. Reactor pressure vessel vented head

    DOEpatents

    Sawabe, James K.

    1994-01-11

    A head for closing a nuclear reactor pressure vessel shell includes an arcuate dome having an integral head flange which includes a mating surface for sealingly mating with the shell upon assembly therewith. The head flange includes an internal passage extending therethrough with a first port being disposed on the head mating surface. A vent line includes a proximal end disposed in flow communication with the head internal passage, and a distal end disposed in flow communication with the inside of the dome for channeling a fluid therethrough. The vent line is fixedly joined to the dome and is carried therewith when the head is assembled to and disassembled from the shell.

  12. An embedding for the big bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesson, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    A cosmological model is given that has good physical properties for the early and late universe but is a hypersurface in a flat five-dimensional manifold. The big bang can therefore be regarded as an effect of a choice of coordinates in a truncated higher-dimensional geometry. Thus the big bang is in some sense a geometrical illusion.

  13. In Search of the Big Bubble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew; Wentzky, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    Freely rising air bubbles in water sometimes assume the shape of a spherical cap, a shape also known as the "big bubble". Is it possible to find some objective function involving a combination of a bubble's attributes for which the big bubble is the optimal shape? Following the basic idea of the definite integral, we define a bubble's surface as…

  14. Hom-Big Brackets: Theory and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liqiang; Sheng, Yunhe

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we introduce the notion of hom-big brackets, which is a generalization of Kosmann-Schwarzbach's big brackets. We show that it gives rise to a graded hom-Lie algebra. Thus, it is a useful tool to study hom-structures. In particular, we use it to describe hom-Lie bialgebras and hom-Nijenhuis operators.

  15. Big system: Interactive graphics for the engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quenneville, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The BCS Interactive Graphics System (BIG System) approach to graphics was presented, along with several significant engineering applications. The BIG System precompiler, the graphics support library, and the function requirements of graphics applications are discussed. It was concluded that graphics standardization and a device independent code can be developed to assure maximum graphic terminal transferability.

  16. A New Look at Big History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkey, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out a "big history" which resonates with the priorities of our own time. A globalizing world calls for new spacial scales to underpin what the history curriculum addresses, "big history" calls for new temporal scales, while concern over climate change calls for a new look at subject boundaries. The article…

  17. Big Data in Science and Healthcare: A Review of Recent Literature and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Miron-Shatz, T.; Lau, A. Y. S.; Paton, C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives As technology continues to evolve and rise in various industries, such as healthcare, science, education, and gaming, a sophisticated concept known as Big Data is surfacing. The concept of analytics aims to understand data. We set out to portray and discuss perspectives of the evolving use of Big Data in science and healthcare and, to examine some of the opportunities and challenges. Methods A literature review was conducted to highlight the implications associated with the use of Big Data in scientific research and healthcare innovations, both on a large and small scale. Results Scientists and health-care providers may learn from one another when it comes to understanding the value of Big Data and analytics. Small data, derived by patients and consumers, also requires analytics to become actionable. Connectivism provides a framework for the use of Big Data and analytics in the areas of science and healthcare. This theory assists individuals to recognize and synthesize how human connections are driving the increase in data. Despite the volume and velocity of Big Data, it is truly about technology connecting humans and assisting them to construct knowledge in new ways. Concluding Thoughts The concept of Big Data and associated analytics are to be taken seriously when approaching the use of vast volumes of both structured and unstructured data in science and health-care. Future exploration of issues surrounding data privacy, confidentiality, and education are needed. A greater focus on data from social media, the quantified self-movement, and the application of analytics to “small data” would also be useful. PMID:25123717

  18. Big-data-based edge biomarkers: study on dynamical drug sensitivity and resistance in individuals.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Zhang, Wanwei; Yu, Xiangtian; Liu, Xiaoping; Li, Meiyi; Chen, Luonan

    2016-07-01

    Big-data-based edge biomarker is a new concept to characterize disease features based on biomedical big data in a dynamical and network manner, which also provides alternative strategies to indicate disease status in single samples. This article gives a comprehensive review on big-data-based edge biomarkers for complex diseases in an individual patient, which are defined as biomarkers based on network information and high-dimensional data. Specifically, we firstly introduce the sources and structures of biomedical big data accessible in public for edge biomarker and disease study. We show that biomedical big data are typically 'small-sample size in high-dimension space', i.e. small samples but with high dimensions on features (e.g. omics data) for each individual, in contrast to traditional big data in many other fields characterized as 'large-sample size in low-dimension space', i.e. big samples but with low dimensions on features. Then, we demonstrate the concept, model and algorithm for edge biomarkers and further big-data-based edge biomarkers. Dissimilar to conventional biomarkers, edge biomarkers, e.g. module biomarkers in module network rewiring-analysis, are able to predict the disease state by learning differential associations between molecules rather than differential expressions of molecules during disease progression or treatment in individual patients. In particular, in contrast to using the information of the common molecules or edges (i.e.molecule-pairs) across a population in traditional biomarkers including network and edge biomarkers, big-data-based edge biomarkers are specific for each individual and thus can accurately evaluate the disease state by considering the individual heterogeneity. Therefore, the measurement of big data in a high-dimensional space is required not only in the learning process but also in the diagnosing or predicting process of the tested individual. Finally, we provide a case study on analyzing the temporal expression

  19. Ethics and Epistemology in Big Data Research.

    PubMed

    Lipworth, Wendy; Mason, Paul H; Kerridge, Ian; Ioannidis, John P A

    2017-03-20

    Biomedical innovation and translation are increasingly emphasizing research using "big data." The hope is that big data methods will both speed up research and make its results more applicable to "real-world" patients and health services. While big data research has been embraced by scientists, politicians, industry, and the public, numerous ethical, organizational, and technical/methodological concerns have also been raised. With respect to technical and methodological concerns, there is a view that these will be resolved through sophisticated information technologies, predictive algorithms, and data analysis techniques. While such advances will likely go some way towards resolving technical and methodological issues, we believe that the epistemological issues raised by big data research have important ethical implications and raise questions about the very possibility of big data research achieving its goals.

  20. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  1. The "big win" and resistance to extinction when gambling.

    PubMed

    Weatherly, Jeffrey N; Sauter, John M; King, Brent M

    2004-11-01

    One hypothesis for the reason a person might become a pathological gambler is that the individual initially experiences a big win, which creates a fallacious expectation of winning, which may then lead to persistent gambling despite suffering large losses. Although this hypothesis has been around for several decades, only one controlled empirical study has addressed it, and that study reported null results. In the present experiment, the authors tested the "big win" hypothesis by having 4 groups of participants with little to no experience gambling play a computer-simulated slot machine for credits that were exchangeable for cash. One group experienced a large win on the very 1st play. Another experienced a large win on the 5th play. A 3rd group experienced 2 small wins on the 2nd and 5th plays. No other winning outcomes were programmed. The 4th group never experienced a win. The authors observed a significant effect of group. Participants who experienced a large win on the 1st play quit playing the simulation earlier than participants who experienced a large win on the 5th play. These results appear to question the "big win" as an explanation for pathological gambling. They are more consistent with a behavioral theory of gambling behavior. The present study should also promote the use of laboratory-based research to test long-standing hypotheses in the gambling literature.

  2. References for Haplotype Imputation in the Big Data Era.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhi; Xu, Wei; Li, Qiling; Ma, Li; Song, Qing

    2015-11-01

    Imputation is a powerful in silico approach to fill in those missing values in the big datasets. This process requires a reference panel, which is a collection of big data from which the missing information can be extracted and imputed. Haplotype imputation requires ethnicity-matched references; a mismatched reference panel will significantly reduce the quality of imputation. However, currently existing big datasets cover only a small number of ethnicities, there is a lack of ethnicity-matched references for many ethnic populations in the world, which has hampered the data imputation of haplotypes and its downstream applications. To solve this issue, several approaches have been proposed and explored, including the mixed reference panel, the internal reference panel and genotype-converted reference panel. This review article provides the information and comparison between these approaches. Increasing evidence showed that not just one or two genetic elements dictate the gene activity and functions; instead, cis-interactions of multiple elements dictate gene activity. Cis-interactions require the interacting elements to be on the same chromosome molecule, therefore, haplotype analysis is essential for the investigation of cis-interactions among multiple genetic variants at different loci, and appears to be especially important for studying the common diseases. It will be valuable in a wide spectrum of applications from academic research, to clinical diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and pharmaceutical industry.

  3. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury ... not ride on these vehicles. After having a concussion or mild head injury , your child may need ...

  4. CT angiography - head and neck

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007677.htm CT angiography - head and neck To use the sharing features on this page, ... create pictures of the blood vessels in the head and neck. How the Test is Performed You will be ...

  5. Was the Big Bang hot?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, E. L.

    1983-01-01

    Techniques for verifying the spectrum defined by Woody and Richards (WR, 1981), which serves as a base for dust-distorted models of the 3 K background, are discussed. WR detected a sharp deviation from the Planck curve in the 3 K background. The absolute intensity of the background may be determined by the frequency dependence of the dipole anisotropy of the background or the frequency dependence effect in galactic clusters. Both methods involve the Doppler shift; analytical formulae are defined for characterization of the dipole anisotropy. The measurement of the 30-300 GHz spectra of cold galactic dust may reveal the presence of significant amounts of needle-shaped grains, which would in turn support a theory of a cold Big Bang.

  6. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  7. Big Mysteries: The Higgs Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-04-28

    With the discovery of what looks to be the Higgs boson, LHC researchers are turning their attention to the next big question, which is the predicted mass of the newly discovered particles. When the effects of quantum mechanics is taken into account, the mass of the Higgs boson should be incredibly high...perhaps upwards of a quadrillion times higher than what was observed. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains how it is that the theory predicts that the mass is so large and gives at least one possible theoretical idea that might solve the problem. Whether the proposed idea is the answer or not, this question must be answered by experiments at the LHC or today's entire theoretical paradigm could be in jeopardy.

  8. Evidence of the big fix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kawai, Hikaru; Kawana, Kiyoharu

    2014-06-01

    We give an evidence of the Big Fix. The theory of wormholes and multiverse suggests that the parameters of the Standard Model are fixed in such a way that the total entropy at the late stage of the universe is maximized, which we call the maximum entropy principle. In this paper, we discuss how it can be confirmed by the experimental data, and we show that it is indeed true for the Higgs vacuum expectation value vh. We assume that the baryon number is produced by the sphaleron process, and that the current quark masses, the gauge couplings and the Higgs self-coupling are fixed when we vary vh. It turns out that the existence of the atomic nuclei plays a crucial role to maximize the entropy. This is reminiscent of the anthropic principle, however it is required by the fundamental law in our case.

  9. Microsystems - The next big thing

    SciTech Connect

    STINNETT,REGAN W.

    2000-05-11

    Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is a big name for tiny devices that will soon make big changes in everyday life and the workplace. These and other types of Microsystems range in size from a few millimeters to a few microns, much smaller than a human hair. These Microsystems have the capability to enable new ways to solve problems in commercial applications ranging from automotive, aerospace, telecommunications, manufacturing equipment, medical diagnostics to robotics, and in national security applications such as nuclear weapons safety and security, battlefield intelligence, and protection against chemical and biological weapons. This broad range of applications of Microsystems reflects the broad capabilities of future Microsystems to provide the ability to sense, think, act, and communicate, all in a single integrated package. Microsystems have been called the next silicon revolution, but like many revolutions, they incorporate more elements than their predecessors. Microsystems do include MEMS components fabricated from polycrystalline silicon processed using techniques similar to those used in the manufacture of integrated electrical circuits. They also include optoelectronic components made from gallium arsenide and other semiconducting compounds from the III-V groups of the periodic table. Microsystems components are also being made from pure metals and metal alloys using the LIGA process, which utilizes lithography, etching, and casting at the micron scale. Generically, Microsystems are micron scale, integrated systems that have the potential to combine the ability to sense light, heat, pressure, acceleration, vibration, and chemicals with the ability to process the collected data using CMOS circuitry, execute an electrical, mechanical, or photonic response, and communicate either optically or with microwaves.

  10. Drainage areas in the Big Sioux River basin in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Amundson, Frank D.; Koch, Neil C.

    1985-01-01

    The Big Sioux River basin of eastern South Dakota contains an important surface water supply and a sizeable aquifer system of major importance to the economy of South Dakota. The aquifers are complex, consisting of many small aquifers that are hydrologically associated with several large aquifers and the Big Sioux River. The complexity and interrelation of the surface water/groundwater systems has already created management problems. As development continues and increases, the problems will increase in number and complexity. To aid in planning for future development, an accurate determination of drainage areas for all basins, sub-basins, and noncontributing areas in the Big Sioux River basin is needed. All named stream basins, and all unnamed basins > 10 sq mi within the Big Sioux River basin in South Dakota are shown and are listed by stream name. Stream drainage basins in South Dakota were delineated by visual interpretation of contour information shown on U.S. Geological Survey 77-1/2 minute topographic maps. One table lists the drainage areas of major drainage basins in the Big Sioux River basin that do not have a total drainage area value > 10 sq mi. Another shows the drainage area above stream gaging stations in the Big Sioux River basin. (Lantz-PTT)

  11. Yes, Head Start Improves Reading!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Janet J.

    This study evaluated the effect of a Head Start program on children's intelligence and reading achievement test scores over a three year period. Each of 25 Head Start children was paired with a non-Head Start child of the same reace, sex, age, socioeconomic status, date of school entrance, kindergarten experience, promotion record, and type of…

  12. Minnesota: Early Head Start Initiatiive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Minnesota provides supplemental state funding to existing federal Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) grantees to increase their capacity to serve additional infants, toddlers, and pregnant women. The initiative was started in 1997 when the state legislature earmarked $1 million of the general state Head Start supplemental funds for children…

  13. Multilevel groundwater monitoring of hydraulic head and temperature in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho, 2009–10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twining, Brian V.; Fisher, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    During 2009 and 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey’s Idaho National Laboratory Project Office, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, collected quarterly, depth-discrete measurements of fluid pressure and temperature in nine boreholes located in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Each borehole was instrumented with a multilevel monitoring system consisting of a series of valved measurement ports, packer bladders, casing segments, and couplers. Multilevel monitoring at the Idaho National Laboratory has been ongoing since 2006. This report summarizes data collected from three multilevel monitoring wells installed during 2009 and 2010 and presents updates to six multilevel monitoring wells. Hydraulic heads (heads) and groundwater temperatures were monitored from 9 multilevel monitoring wells, including 120 hydraulically isolated depth intervals from 448.0 to 1,377.6 feet below land surface. Quarterly head and temperature profiles reveal unique patterns for vertical examination of the aquifer’s complex basalt and sediment stratigraphy, proximity to aquifer recharge and discharge, and groundwater flow. These features contribute to some of the localized variability even though the general profile shape remained consistent over the period of record. Major inflections in the head profiles almost always coincided with low-permeability sediment layers and occasionally thick sequences of dense basalt. However, the presence of a sediment layer or dense basalt layer was insufficient for identifying the location of a major head change within a borehole without knowing the true areal extent and relative transmissivity of the lithologic unit. Temperature profiles for boreholes completed within the Big Lost Trough indicate linear conductive trends; whereas, temperature profiles for boreholes completed within the axial volcanic high indicate mostly convective heat transfer resulting from the vertical movement of groundwater. Additionally, temperature profiles

  14. String theory and pre-big bang cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasperini, M.; Veneziano, G.

    2016-09-01

    In string theory, the traditional picture of a Universe that emerges from the inflation of a very small and highly curved space-time patch is a possibility, not a necessity: quite different initial conditions are possible, and not necessarily unlikely. In particular, the duality symmetries of string theory suggest scenarios in which the Universe starts inflating from an initial state characterized by very small curvature and interactions. Such a state, being gravitationally unstable, will evolve towards higher curvature and coupling, until string-size effects and loop corrections make the Universe "bounce" into a standard, decreasing-curvature regime. In such a context, the hot big bang of conventional cosmology is replaced by a "hot big bounce" in which the bouncing and heating mechanisms originate from the quantum production of particles in the high-curvature, large-coupling pre-bounce phase. Here we briefly summarize the main features of this inflationary scenario, proposed a quarter century ago. In its simplest version (where it represents an alternative and not a complement to standard slow-roll inflation) it can produce a viable spectrum of density perturbations, together with a tensor component characterized by a "blue" spectral index with a peak in the GHz frequency range. That means, phenomenologically, a very small contribution to a primordial B-mode in the CMB polarization, and the possibility of a large enough stochastic background of gravitational waves to be measurable by present or future gravitational wave detectors.

  15. Medical practice integration: going big in private practice.

    PubMed

    Persley, Kimberly M; Jain, Rajeev

    2012-01-01

    Historically, gastroenterologists entered into solo, small group, or academic practices. The current economic environment and looming regulatory mandates have led to gastroenterologists integrating into large, single-specialty groups to acquire costly practice infrastructure, gain negotiating leverage with health plans, promote high-quality care, and benefit from professional practice management. Individual gastroenterologists must assess whether a large practice will meet their personal goals, financial needs, and professional visions. The decision to integrate into a large practice will also be affected by local practice patterns and regulatory issues. For these and other reasons, gastroenterologists are going big in private practice.

  16. [Big data in medicine and healthcare].

    PubMed

    Rüping, Stefan

    2015-08-01

    Healthcare is one of the business fields with the highest Big Data potential. According to the prevailing definition, Big Data refers to the fact that data today is often too large and heterogeneous and changes too quickly to be stored, processed, and transformed into value by previous technologies. The technological trends drive Big Data: business processes are more and more executed electronically, consumers produce more and more data themselves - e.g. in social networks - and finally ever increasing digitalization. Currently, several new trends towards new data sources and innovative data analysis appear in medicine and healthcare. From the research perspective, omics-research is one clear Big Data topic. In practice, the electronic health records, free open data and the "quantified self" offer new perspectives for data analytics. Regarding analytics, significant advances have been made in the information extraction from text data, which unlocks a lot of data from clinical documentation for analytics purposes. At the same time, medicine and healthcare is lagging behind in the adoption of Big Data approaches. This can be traced to particular problems regarding data complexity and organizational, legal, and ethical challenges. The growing uptake of Big Data in general and first best-practice examples in medicine and healthcare in particular, indicate that innovative solutions will be coming. This paper gives an overview of the potentials of Big Data in medicine and healthcare.

  17. Processing Solutions for Big Data in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillatre, L.; Lepiller, D.

    2016-09-01

    This paper gives a simple introduction to processing solutions applied to massive amounts of data. It proposes a general presentation of the Big Data paradigm. The Hadoop framework, which is considered as the pioneering processing solution for Big Data, is described together with YARN, the integrated Hadoop tool for resource allocation. This paper also presents the main tools for the management of both the storage (NoSQL solutions) and computing capacities (MapReduce parallel processing schema) of a cluster of machines. Finally, more recent processing solutions like Spark are discussed. Big Data frameworks are now able to run complex applications while keeping the programming simple and greatly improving the computing speed.

  18. Big questions, big science: meeting the challenges of global ecology.

    PubMed

    Schimel, David; Keller, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Ecologists are increasingly tackling questions that require significant infrastucture, large experiments, networks of observations, and complex data and computation. Key hypotheses in ecology increasingly require more investment, and larger data sets to be tested than can be collected by a single investigator's or s group of investigator's labs, sustained for longer than a typical grant. Large-scale projects are expensive, so their scientific return on the investment has to justify the opportunity cost-the science foregone because resources were expended on a large project rather than supporting a number of individual projects. In addition, their management must be accountable and efficient in the use of significant resources, requiring the use of formal systems engineering and project management to mitigate risk of failure. Mapping the scientific method into formal project management requires both scientists able to work in the context, and a project implementation team sensitive to the unique requirements of ecology. Sponsoring agencies, under pressure from external and internal forces, experience many pressures that push them towards counterproductive project management but a scientific community aware and experienced in large project science can mitigate these tendencies. For big ecology to result in great science, ecologists must become informed, aware and engaged in the advocacy and governance of large ecological projects.

  19. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-01-04

    The Big Sky Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts during the first performance period fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first Partnership meeting the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Complementary to the efforts on evaluation of sources and sinks is the development of the Big Sky Partnership Carbon Cyberinfrastructure (BSP-CC) and a GIS Road Map for the Partnership. These efforts will put in place a map-based integrated information management system for our Partnership, with transferability to the national carbon sequestration effort. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification technologies to support not only carbon trading but other policies and programs that DOE and other agencies may want to pursue in support of GHG mitigation. The efforts begun in developing and implementing MMV technologies for geological sequestration reflect this concern. Research is also underway to identify and validate best

  20. Habitat use of woodpeckers in the Big Woods of eastern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krementz, David G.; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Luscier, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Woods of eastern Arkansas contain some of the highest densities of woodpeckers recorded within bottomland hardwood forests of the southeastern United States. A better understanding of habitat use patterns by these woodpeckers is a priority for conservationists seeking to maintain these high densities in the Big Woods and the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley as a whole. Hence, we used linear mixed-effects and linear models to estimate the importance of habitat characteristics to woodpecker density in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and the winter of 2007. Northern flicker Colaptes auratus density was negatively related to tree density both for moderate (. 25 cm diameter at breast height) and larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height). Red-headed woodpeckers Melanerpes erythrocephalus also had a negative relationship with density of large (. 61 cm diameter at breast height) trees. Bark disfiguration (an index of tree health) was negatively related to red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus and yellow-bellied sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius densities. No measured habitat variables explained pileated woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus density. Overall, the high densities of woodpeckers observed in our study suggest that the current forest management of the Big Woods of Arkansas is meeting the nesting, roosting, and foraging requirements for these birds.