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Sample records for big rock point reactor

  1. Application of MARSSIM at the Big Rock Point Restoration Project.

    PubMed

    Brown, Leon E; Parish, David W

    2003-06-01

    Big Rock Point was Michigan's first commercial power reactor and operated for 35 years. It was permanently shut down in August of 1997, and the site is currently being returned to its natural state. Guidance contained in the Multi-Agency Radiation Survey and Site Investigation Manual (MARSSIM) is being applied in preparation for the final status survey. Unlike other commercial power reactors currently undergoing decommissioning, all Big Rock Point structures will be removed prior to the final status survey. A historical site assessment along with characterization surveys formed the basis to designate 1.6 square kilometers (395.9 acres) of the site as non-impacted and the remaining 0.7 square kilometers (184.5 acres) as impacted as defined by MARSSIM. Also, a source term abstraction has been performed using historical waste stream data to identify radionuclides potentially present in site soils, hard-to-detect (HTD) radionuclides and surrogate radionuclides for the HTD radionuclides.

  2. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-07

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  3. Big Bang Day : Physics Rocks

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Is particle physics the new rock 'n' roll? The fundamental questions about the nature of the universe that particle physics hopes to answer have attracted the attention of some very high profile and unusual fans. Alan Alda, Ben Miller, Eddie Izzard, Dara O'Briain and John Barrowman all have interests in this branch of physics. Brian Cox - CERN physicist, and former member of 90's band D:Ream, tracks down some very well known celebrity enthusiasts and takes a light-hearted look at why this subject can appeal to all of us.

  4. Morning Water on the Big Round Rock in the Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livengood, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    There is a little bit of water on the Big Round Rock in the sky. The Rock turns slowly and so it has morning and day and night. The little bit of water sticks to the rocks on the Rock at night, when it is very cold and the water makes ice. When the Sun puts light on it, the water gets hot and goes up in the air. Really, the water is the air. The wind moves the water back the way it came, so the water goes to where the ground is cold and then it sticks to the very cold ground again. Then, the turning Rock slowly carries it back to the morning and it goes over and over like that. This keeps all of the Big Rock's water close to the morning, even though the Big Rock turns all the time. A box on the ground on the Big Rock that is three feet long on each side could catch enough water each month for one drink of water, but a box that is way big could catch a lot more water. We know that the water is there because we can find very little tiny rocks that hit the tiny water bits. Where there is more water, there are not so many of the little tiny rocks and where there is less water, there are more of the little tiny rocks.

  5. Turning points in reactor design

    SciTech Connect

    Beckjord, E.S.

    1995-09-01

    This article provides some historical aspects on nuclear reactor design, beginning with PWR development for Naval Propulsion and the first commercial application at Yankee Rowe. Five turning points in reactor design and some safety problems associated with them are reviewed: (1) stability of Dresden-1, (2) ECCS, (3) PRA, (4) TMI-2, and (5) advanced passive LWR designs. While the emphasis is on the thermal-hydraulic aspects, the discussion is also about reactor systems.

  6. 76 FR 29647 - Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show; Bogue Sound, Morehead City, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show; Bogue Sound... establishing a temporary Safety Zone for the ``Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show,'' an aerial demonstration to be... published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show;...

  7. 76 FR 18672 - Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show; Bogue Sound, Morehead City, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show; Bogue Sound... proposes to establish a temporary Safety Zone for the ``Big Rock Blue Marlin Air Show'', an...

  8. Ripples in Rocks Point to Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera shows the rock nicknamed 'Last Chance,' which lies within the outcrop near the rover's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image provides evidence for a geologic feature known as ripple cross-stratification. At the base of the rock, layers can be seen dipping downward to the right. The bedding that contains these dipping layers is only one to two centimeters (0.4 to 0.8 inches) thick. In the upper right corner of the rock, layers also dip to the right, but exhibit a weak 'concave-up' geometry. These two features -- the thin, cross-stratified bedding combined with the possible concave geometry -- suggest small ripples with sinuous crest lines. Although wind can produce ripples, they rarely have sinuous crest lines and never form steep, dipping layers at this small scale. The most probable explanation for these ripples is that they were formed in the presence of moving water.

    Crossbedding Evidence for Underwater Origin Interpretations of cross-lamination patterns presented as clues to this martian rock's origin under flowing water are marked on images taken by the panoramic camera and microscopic imager on NASA's Opportunity.

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    The red arrows (Figure 1) point to features suggesting cross-lamination within the rock called 'Last Chance' taken at a distance of 4.5 meters (15 feet) during Opportunity's 17th sol (February 10, 2004). The inferred sets of fine layers at angles to each other (cross-laminae) are up to 1.4 centimeters (half an inch) thick. For scale, the distance between two vertical cracks in the rock is about 7 centimeters (2.8 inches). The feature indicated by the middle red arrow suggests a pattern called trough cross-lamination, likely produced when flowing water shaped sinuous ripples in underwater sediment and pushed the ripples to migrate

  9. Classification of Big Point Cloud Data Using Cloud Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Boehm, J.

    2015-08-01

    Point cloud data plays an significant role in various geospatial applications as it conveys plentiful information which can be used for different types of analysis. Semantic analysis, which is an important one of them, aims to label points as different categories. In machine learning, the problem is called classification. In addition, processing point data is becoming more and more challenging due to the growing data volume. In this paper, we address point data classification in a big data context. The popular cluster computing framework Apache Spark is used through the experiments and the promising results suggests a great potential of Apache Spark for large-scale point data processing.

  10. Floods on Big Rock, Collins, and Snake Creeks and Capps, Loyd, and Snell Branches in the vicinity of Lewisburg, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-06-01

    This report describes the extent and severity of the flood potential along selected reaches of Big Rock, Collins, and Snake Creeks and Capps, Loyd, and Snell Branches in the vicinity of Lewisburg, Tennessee.

  11. Recent advances in analysis and prediction of Rock Falls, Rock Slides, and Rock Avalanches using 3D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellan, A.; Carrea, D.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Riquelme, A.; Tomas, R.; Royan, M. J.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Gauvin, N.

    2014-12-01

    The acquisition of dense terrain information using well-established 3D techniques (e.g. LiDAR, photogrammetry) and the use of new mobile platforms (e.g. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) together with the increasingly efficient post-processing workflows for image treatment (e.g. Structure From Motion) are opening up new possibilities for analysing, modeling and predicting rock slope failures. Examples of applications at different scales ranging from the monitoring of small changes at unprecedented level of detail (e.g. sub millimeter-scale deformation under lab-scale conditions) to the detection of slope deformation at regional scale. In this communication we will show the main accomplishments of the Swiss National Foundation project "Characterizing and analysing 3D temporal slope evolution" carried out at Risk Analysis group (Univ. of Lausanne) in close collaboration with the RISKNAT and INTERES groups (Univ. of Barcelona and Univ. of Alicante, respectively). We have recently developed a series of innovative approaches for rock slope analysis using 3D point clouds, some examples include: the development of semi-automatic methodologies for the identification and extraction of rock-slope features such as discontinuities, type of material, rockfalls occurrence and deformation. Moreover, we have been improving our knowledge in progressive rupture characterization thanks to several algorithms, some examples include the computing of 3D deformation, the use of filtering techniques on permanently based TLS, the use of rock slope failure analogies at different scales (laboratory simulations, monitoring at glacier's front, etc.), the modelling of the influence of external forces such as precipitation on the acceleration of the deformation rate, etc. We have also been interested on the analysis of rock slope deformation prior to the occurrence of fragmental rockfalls and the interaction of this deformation with the spatial location of future events. In spite of these recent advances

  12. Rock falls from Glacier Point above Camp Curry, Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Snyder, James B.

    1999-01-01

    A series of rock falls from the north face of Glacier Point above Camp Curry, Yosemite National Park, California, have caused reexamination of the rock-fall hazard because beginning in June, 1999 a system of cracks propagated through a nearby rock mass outlining a future potential rock fall. If the estimated volume of the potential rock fall fails as a single piece, there could be a risk from rock-fall impact and airborne rock debris to cabins in Camp Curry. The role of joint plane orientation and groundwater pressure in the fractured rock mass are discussed in light of the pattern of developing cracks and potential modes of failure.

  13. Sideloading - Ingestion of Large Point Clouds Into the Apache Spark Big Data Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, J.; Liu, K.; Alis, C.

    2016-06-01

    In the geospatial domain we have now reached the point where data volumes we handle have clearly grown beyond the capacity of most desktop computers. This is particularly true in the area of point cloud processing. It is therefore naturally lucrative to explore established big data frameworks for big geospatial data. The very first hurdle is the import of geospatial data into big data frameworks, commonly referred to as data ingestion. Geospatial data is typically encoded in specialised binary file formats, which are not naturally supported by the existing big data frameworks. Instead such file formats are supported by software libraries that are restricted to single CPU execution. We present an approach that allows the use of existing point cloud file format libraries on the Apache Spark big data framework. We demonstrate the ingestion of large volumes of point cloud data into a compute cluster. The approach uses a map function to distribute the data ingestion across the nodes of a cluster. We test the capabilities of the proposed method to load billions of points into a commodity hardware compute cluster and we discuss the implications on scalability and performance. The performance is benchmarked against an existing native Apache Spark data import implementation.

  14. Rock fall dynamics and deposition: an integrated analysis of the 2009 Ahwiyah Point rock fall, Yosemite National Park, USA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valerie L. Zimmer,; Collins, Brian; Greg M. Stock,; Nicholas Sitar,

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed a combination of airborne and terrestrial LiDAR, high-resolution photography, seismic, and acoustic data in order to gain insights into the initiation, dynamics, and talus deposition of a complex rock fall. A large (46 700 m3) rock fall originated from near Ahwiyah Point in eastern Yosemite Valley and fell a total of 730 m to the valley floor on 28 March 2009. Analyses of remote sensing, seismic, and acoustic data were integrated to reconstruct the rock fall, which consisted of (1) the triggering of a 25 400 m3 rock block in an area of intersecting and sometimes highly weathered joint planes, (2) the sliding and subsequent ballistic trajectory of the block from a steeply dipping ledge, (3) dislodging of additional rock from the cliff surface from beneath the rock fall source area, (4) a mid-cliff ledge impact that detached a volume of rock nearly equivalent in volume to the initial block, (5) sliding of the deteriorating rock mass down the remainder of the cliff, and (6) final impact at the base of the cliff that remobilized the existing talus downward and outward and produced an airblast that knocked down hundreds of trees. The depositional geomorphology indicates that the porosity of the fresh talus is significantly lower than that expected for typical blocky talus slopes, likely because the rock debris from this event was pulverized into smaller, more poorly sorted fragments and densified via dynamic compaction when compared to less energetic, fragmental-type rock falls. These results suggest that accumulation of individual rock-fall boulders tends to steepen talus slopes, whereas large, energetic rock falls tend to flatten them. Detachment and impact signals were recorded by seismic and acoustic instruments and highlight the potential use of this type of instrumentation for generalized rock fall monitoring, while LiDAR and photography data were able to quantify the cliff geometry, rock fall volume, source and impact locations, and

  15. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72... Islands. (b) A north-south line drawn through Steinhatchee River Light 21. (c) A line drawn...

  16. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72... Islands. (b) A north-south line drawn through Steinhatchee River Light 21. (c) A line drawn...

  17. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72... Islands. (b) A north-south line drawn through Steinhatchee River Light 21. (c) A line drawn...

  18. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72... Islands. (b) A north-south line drawn through Steinhatchee River Light 21. (c) A line drawn...

  19. 33 CFR 80.760 - Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island, FL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Horeshoe Point, FL to Rock Island... Rock Island, FL. (a) Except inside lines specifically described provided in this section, the 72... Islands. (b) A north-south line drawn through Steinhatchee River Light 21. (c) A line drawn...

  20. End point control of an actinide precipitation reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Muske, K.R.; Palmer, M.J.

    1997-10-01

    The actinide precipitation reactors in the nuclear materials processing facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory are used to remove actinides and other heavy metals from the effluent streams generated during the purification of plutonium. These effluent streams consist of hydrochloric acid solutions, ranging from one to five molar in concentration, in which actinides and other metals are dissolved. The actinides present are plutonium and americium. Typical actinide loadings range from one to five grams per liter. The most prevalent heavy metals are iron, chromium, and nickel that are due to stainless steel. Removal of these metals from solution is accomplished by hydroxide precipitation during the neutralization of the effluent. An end point control algorithm for the semi-batch actinide precipitation reactors at Los Alamos National Laboratory is described. The algorithm is based on an equilibrium solubility model of the chemical species in solution. This model is used to predict the amount of base hydroxide necessary to reach the end point of the actinide precipitation reaction. The model parameters are updated by on-line pH measurements.

  1. Rocks in a Box: A Three-Point Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1981-01-01

    Describes a simulation drilling core activity involving the use of a physical model from which students gather data and solve a three-point problem to determine the strike and dip of a buried stratum. Includes descriptions of model making, data plots, and additional problems involving strike and dip. (DS)

  2. Parallel Processing of Big Point Clouds Using Z-Order Partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alis, C.; Boehm, J.; Liu, K.

    2016-06-01

    As laser scanning technology improves and costs are coming down, the amount of point cloud data being generated can be prohibitively difficult and expensive to process on a single machine. This data explosion is not only limited to point cloud data. Voluminous amounts of high-dimensionality and quickly accumulating data, collectively known as Big Data, such as those generated by social media, Internet of Things devices and commercial transactions, are becoming more prevalent as well. New computing paradigms and frameworks are being developed to efficiently handle the processing of Big Data, many of which utilize a compute cluster composed of several commodity grade machines to process chunks of data in parallel. A central concept in many of these frameworks is data locality. By its nature, Big Data is large enough that the entire dataset would not fit on the memory and hard drives of a single node hence replicating the entire dataset to each worker node is impractical. The data must then be partitioned across worker nodes in a manner that minimises data transfer across the network. This is a challenge for point cloud data because there exist different ways to partition data and they may require data transfer. We propose a partitioning based on Z-order which is a form of locality-sensitive hashing. The Z-order or Morton code is computed by dividing each dimension to form a grid then interleaving the binary representation of each dimension. For example, the Z-order code for the grid square with coordinates (x = 1 = 012, y = 3 = 112) is 10112 = 11. The number of points in each partition is controlled by the number of bits per dimension: the more bits, the fewer the points. The number of bits per dimension also controls the level of detail with more bits yielding finer partitioning. We present this partitioning method by implementing it on Apache Spark and investigating how different parameters affect the accuracy and running time of the k nearest neighbour algorithm

  3. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars in the rock record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Ielpi, Alessandro; Aldinucci, Mauro; Fustic, Milovan

    2016-04-01

    Classical models developed for ancient fluvial point bars are based on the assumption that meander bends invariably increase their radius as meander-bend apices migrate in a direction transverse to the channel-belt axis (i.e., meander bend expansion). However, many modern meandering rivers are also characterized by down-valley migration of the bend apex, a mechanism that takes place without a significant change in meander radius and wavelength. Downstream-migrating fluvial point bars (DMFPB) are the dominant architectural element of these types of meander belts. Yet they are poorly known from ancient fluvial-channel belts, since their disambiguation from expansional point bars often requires fully-3D perspectives. This study aims to review DMFPB deposits spanning in age from Devonian to Holocene, and to discuss their main architectural and sedimentological features from published outcrop, borehole and 3D-seismic datasets. Fluvial successions hosting DMFPB mainly accumulated in low accommodation conditions, where channel belts were affected by different degrees of morphological (e.g., valleys) or tectonic (e.g., axial drainage of shortening basins) confinement. In confined settings, bends migrate downstream along the erosion-resistant valley flanks and little or no floodplain deposits are preserved. Progressive floor aggradation (e.g., valley filling) allow meander belts with DMFPB to decrease their degree of confinement. In less confined settings, meander bends migrate downstream mainly after impinging against older, erosion-resistant channel fill mud. By contrast, tectonic confinement is commonly associated with uplifted alluvial plains that prevented meander-bend expansion, in turn triggering downstream translation. At the scale of individual point bars, translational morphodynamics promote the preservation of downstream-bar deposits, whereas the coarser-grained upstream and central beds are less frequently preserved. However, enhanced preservation of upstream

  4. Reactor physics and safety aspects of various design options of a Russian light water reactor with rock-like fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondarenko, A. V.; Komissarov, O. V.; Kozmenkov, Ya. K.; Matveev, Yu. V.; Orekhov, Yu. I.; Pivovarov, V. A.; Sharapov, V. N.

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents results of analytical studies on weapons grade plutonium incineration in VVER (640) medium size light water reactors using a special composition of rock-like fuel (ROX-fuel) to assure spent fuel long-term storage without its reprocessing. The main goal is to achieve high degree of plutonium incineration in once-through cycle. In this paper we considered two fuel compositions. In both compositions weapons grade plutonium is used as fissile material. Spinel (MgAl 2O 4) is used as the 'preserving' material assuring safe storage of the spent fuel. Besides an inert matrix, the option of rock-like fuel with thorium dioxide was studied. One of principal problems in the realization of the proposed approach is the substantial change of properties of the light water reactor core when passing to the use of the ROX-fuel, in particular: (i) due to the absence of 238U the Doppler effect playing a crucial role in reactor's self-regulation and limiting the consequences of reactivity accidents, decreases significantly, (ii) no fuel breeding on one hand, and the quest to attain the maximum plutonium burnup on the other hand, would result in a drastical change of the fuel assembly power during the lifetime and, as a consequence, the rise in irregularity of the power density of fuel assemblies, (iii) both the control rods worth and dissolved boron worth decrease in view of neutron spectrum hardening brought on by the larger absorption cross-section of plutonium as compared to uranium, (iv) βeff is markedly reduced. All these distinctive features are potentially detrimental to the reactor nuclear safety. The principal objective of this work is that to identify a variant of the fuel composition and the reactor layout, which would permit neutralize the negative effect of the above-mentioned distinctive features.

  5. Seafloor Rocks and Sediments of the Continental Shelf From Monterey Bay to Point Sur, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, Stephen L.; Anima, Roberto J.; Stevenson, Andrew J.; Wong, Florence L.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction Acoustic swath mapping of the greater Monterey Bay area continental shelf from Point Ano Nuevo to Point Sur reveals complex patterns of rock outcrops on the shelf, and coarse sand bodies that occur in distinct depressions on the inner and mid-shelves. This publication portrays the seafloor components in a 36- by 48-inch map sheet at 1:100,000 scale.

  6. High Temperature Gas-Cooled Test Reactor Point Design: Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, James William; Bayless, Paul David; Nelson, Lee Orville; Gougar, Hans David; Strydom, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A point design has been developed for a 200-MW high-temperature gas-cooled test reactor. The point design concept uses standard prismatic blocks and 15.5% enriched uranium oxycarbide fuel. Reactor physics and thermal-hydraulics simulations have been performed to characterize the capabilities of the design. In addition to the technical data, overviews are provided on the technology readiness level, licensing approach, and costs of the test reactor point design.

  7. PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Construction view shows native lava rock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Construction view shows native lava rock surrounding basement excavation and general complexity of planning required to build the PBF. A three-inch low-pressure air line protrudes from wall just below left center. Date: February 21, 1967. Photographer: Larry Page. INEEL negative no. 67-1125 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. Geology of the Arco-Big Southern Butte area, eastern Snake River Plain, and volcanic hazards to the radioactive waste management complex, and other waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Kork, John O.

    1978-01-01

    The Arco-Big Southern Butte area of the eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho, includes a volcanic rift zone and more than 70 Holocene and late Quaternary basalt volcanoes. The Arco volcanic rift zone extends southeast for 50 km from Arco to about 10 km southeast of Big Southern Butte. The rift zone is the locus of extensional faults, graben, fissure basaltic volcanic vents, several rhyolite domes at Big Southern Butte, and a ferrolatite volcano at Cedar Butte. Limited radiometric age data and geological field criteria suggest that all volcanism in the area is younger than 700,000 years; at least 67 separate basaltic eruptions are estimated to have occurred within the last 200,000 years. The average volcanic recurrence interval for the Arco-Big Southern Butte area is approximately one eruption per 3,000 years. Radioactive waste storage and reactor facilities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory may be subject to potential volcanic hazards. The geologic history and inferred past volcanic events in the Arco-Big Southern Butte area provide a basis for assessing the volcanic hazard. It is recommended that a radiometric age-dating study be performed on rocks in cored drill holes to provide a more precise estimate of the eruption recurrence interval for the region surrounding and including the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. It is also recommended that several geophysical monitoring systems (dry tilt and seismic) be installed to provide adequate warning of future volcanic eruptions.

  9. Automatic extraction of discontinuity orientation from rock mass surface 3D point cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianqin; Zhu, Hehua; Li, Xiaojun

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents a new method for extracting discontinuity orientation automatically from rock mass surface 3D point cloud. The proposed method consists of four steps: (1) automatic grouping of discontinuity sets using an improved K-means clustering method, (2) discontinuity segmentation and optimization, (3) discontinuity plane fitting using Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) method, and (4) coordinate transformation of discontinuity plane. The method is first validated by the point cloud of a small piece of a rock slope acquired by photogrammetry. The extracted discontinuity orientations are compared with measured ones in the field. Then it is applied to a publicly available LiDAR data of a road cut rock slope at Rockbench repository. The extracted discontinuity orientations are compared with the method proposed by Riquelme et al. (2014). The results show that the presented method is reliable and of high accuracy, and can meet the engineering needs.

  10. Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Alice

    This science unit is designed for limited- and non-English speaking students in a Chinese bilingual education program. The unit covers rock material, classification, characteristics of types of rocks, and rock cycles. It is written in Chinese and simple English. At the end of the unit there is a list of main terms in both English and Chinese, and…

  11. Measured Sections of Upper Paleozoic to Early Tertiary Rocks, Demarcation Point Quadrangle, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Detterman, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    Introduction Twelve sections of upper Paleozoic to early Tertiary rocks from the Demarcation Point quadrangle and the northern edge of the Table Mountain quadrangle are presented. These measured sections include the type sections for the Joe Creek Member of the Echooka Formation (Section 11), the Bathtub Graywacke and Kongakut Formation (Section 9), and the unnamed early Tertiary rocks (Section 1). The early Tertiary rocks correlate closely with the Moose Channel Formation in the MacKenzie Delta, Candada (Detterman and Spicer, 1981). The sections were measured with a Jacob's staff during the geologic investigations of the Demarcation Point quadrangle in 1969 to 1971. The geologic map is published in generalized form (Detterman, 1974, 1976; Detterman and others, 1975). The sections are at a scale of 1 in to 100 ft, except for section 1, which is at 1 in to 200 ft. The location map shows the year and station number for each station. Fossils collected from these rocks and marked by and asterisk (*) are included in Detterman and others, 1975 (p. 42-45). A double asterisk (**) indicates they are included in the list below. All other fossil indicators mean fossils are present, but not collected.

  12. 78 FR 58570 - Environmental Assessment; Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Big Rock Point

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... PDR, Room O1-F21, One White Flint North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland 20852. FOR FURTHER... County, on the northern shore of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. In a letter dated July 30, 2007 (ADAMS...) requirements in Sec. Sec. 50.47 and 50.54, and Aapendix E of 10 CFR part 50 (76 FR 72560; November 23,...

  13. 78 FR 61401 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Big Rock Point; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ...; telephone: 301-287-0829; email: Pamela.Longmire@nrc.gov . 1.0 Introduction On November 23, 2011 (76 FR 72560... DPR-6 for the BRP facility. The license, issued pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended... structure in place prior to the issuance of the EP Final Rule and, therefore, does not propose any...

  14. Geology of Precambrian rocks and isotope geochemistry of shear zones in the Big Narrows area, northern Front Range, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, Jeffrey T.

    1970-01-01

    Rocks within the Big Narrows and Poudre Park quadrangles located in the northern Front Range of Colorado are Precambrian metasedimentary and metaigneous schists and gneisses and plutonic igneous rocks. These are locally mantled by extensive late Tertiary and Quaternary fluvial gravels. The southern boundary of the Log Cabin batholith lies within the area studied. A detailed chronology of polyphase deformation, metamorphism and plutonism has been established. Early isoclinal folding (F1) was followed by a major period of plastic deformation (F2), sillimanite-microcline grade regional metamorphism, migmatization and synkinematic Boulder Creek granodiorite plutonism (1.7 b.y.). Macroscopic doubly plunging antiformal and synformal structures were developed. P-T conditions at the peak of metamorphism were probably about 670?C and 4.5 Kb. Water pressures may locally have differed from load pressures. The 1.4 b.y. Silver Plume granite plutonism was post kinematic and on the basis of petrographic and field criteria can be divided into three facies. Emplacement was by forcible injection and assimilation. Microscopic and mesoscopic folds which postdate the formation of the characteristic mineral phases during the 1.7 b.y. metamorphism are correlated with the emplacement of the Silver Plume Log Cabin batholith. Extensive retrograde metamorphism was associated with this event. A major period of mylonitization postdates Silver Plume plutonism and produced large E-W and NE trending shear zones. A detailed study of the Rb/Sr isotope geochemistry of the layered mylonites demonstrated that the mylonitization and associated re- crystallization homogenized the Rb87/Sr 86 ratios. Whole-rock dating techniques applied to the layered mylonites indicate a probable age of 1.2 b.y. Petrographic studies suggest that the mylonitization-recrystallization process produced hornfels facies assemblages in the adjacent metasediments. Minor Laramide faulting, mineralization and igneous activity

  15. Kinks in subducted slabs: Petrological evidence points to additional hindrance to the exhumation of UHP rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, T.; Klemd, R.; Scherer, E. E.; Rondenay, S.; Gao, J.

    2012-12-01

    Sudden changes in the dip of subducted oceanic plates have been resolved by seismic imaging [1, 2]. Such kinking often coincides with the seismic disappearance of the low-velocity subducted oceanic crust, i.e., at a depth where eclogitization (dehydration) of the upper oceanic crust is nearly complete and the oceanic crust becomes almost seismically indistinguishable from mantle peridotite. We present petrological evidence for this phenomenon derived from oceanic blueschist- and eclogite-facies rocks from the Chinese Tianshan. The peak-metamorphic conditions of the samples range between 330 and 580°C at 1.5 to 2.3 GPa. Such a wide range of peak conditions for intercalated high- and ultrahigh-pressure rocks has also been reported from other Tianshan localities. These observations suggest that the rocks were derived from different depths within the subduction zone and later juxtaposed during exhumation within the subduction channel. Multi-point Lu-Hf isochrons from four high-pressure rocks yield consistent garnet-growth ages of around ~315 Ma, confirming that the eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Tianshan high-pressure rocks resulted from a single subduction event in the Late Carboniferous. These ages, in conjunction with the ~311 Ma cluster of 40Ar-39Ar and Rb-Sr white mica ages from the same localities imply rapid exhumation. Previously reported peak P-T estimates from UHP metasediments and eclogites all lie on a lower geothermal gradient—and thus on a colder P-T path at the slab-wedge interface—than that defined by the HP eclogites and meta-volcaniclastic rocks studied here. This suggests that the slab-subduction angle steepened sharply at approximately 90 km depth, just between the depths at which the HP and UHP rocks equilibrated. The increase in subduction angle may result from a greater slab pull resulting from eclogitization densification. An additional factor may be an ephemeral weakening of the slab as it undergoes eclogitization reactions [3, 4]. We

  16. Balancing on the Edge: An Approach to Leadership and Resiliency that Combines Rock Climbing with Four Key Touch Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Harold E.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author compares leadership and resiliency with rock climbing. It describes the author's personal experience on a rock climbing adventure with his family and how it required application of similar elements as that of leadership and resiliency. The article contains the following sections: (1) Being Resilient; (2) Points of…

  17. A study of vital rates near a nuclear reactor.

    PubMed

    Lambert, J Y; Cornell, R G

    1980-01-01

    Radiation exposure from the Big Rock Point nuclear reactor in Charlevoix County, Michigan was investigated by studying vital rates for that county and nearby counties in comparison with other matching counties, for periods before and after the reactor began operation. None of the variables studied showed any unusual change in pattern for Charlevoix county after the rector's operation was initiated, but the trend in low-weight births was higher in Charlevoix county than in adjacent counties, whose trends were in turn higher than for the matching counties. However, no other important significant differences were found among those tested statistically, therefore, an examination of these vital rates did not substantiate an association between the proximity of the reactor and the occurrence of pathology. Nevertheless, further study should be conducted to explain the pattern of low-weight births.

  18. Water-quality, phytoplankton, and trophic-status characteristics of Big Base and Little Base lakes, Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Little Rock Air Force Base is the largest C-130 base in the Air Force and is the only C-130 training base in the Department of Defense. Little Rock Air Force Base is located in central Arkansas near the eastern edge of the Ouachita Mountains, near the Mississippi Alluvial Plain, and within the Arkansas Valley Ecoregion. Habitats include upland pine forests, upland deciduous forest, broad-leaved deciduous swamps, and two small freshwater lakes?Big Base Lake and Little Base Lake. Big Base and Little Base Lakes are used primarily for recreational fishing by base personnel and the civilian public. Under normal (rainfall) conditions, Big Base Lake has a surface area of approximately 39 acres while surface area of Little Base Lake is approximately 1 acre. Little Rock Air Force Base personnel are responsible for managing the fishery in these two lakes and since 1999 have started a nutrient enhancement program that involves sporadically adding fertilizer to Big Base Lake. As a means of determining the relations between water quality and primary production, Little Rock Air Force Base personnel have a need for biological (phytoplankton density), chemical (dissolved-oxygen and nutrient concentrations), and physical (water temperature and light transparency) data. To address these monitoring needs, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Little Rock Air Force Base, conducted a study to collect and analyze biological, chemical, and physical data. The U.S. Geological Survey sampled water quality in Big Base Lake and Little Base Lake on nine occasions from July 2003 through June 2004. Because of the difference in size, two sampling sites were established on Big Base Lake, while only one site was established on Little Base Lake. Lake profile data for Big Base Lake indicate that low dissolved- oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnion probably constrain most fish species to the upper 5-6 feet of depth during the summer stratification period. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations in

  19. Automated extraction and analysis of rock discontinuity characteristics from 3D point clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchetti, Matteo; Villa, Alberto; Agliardi, Federico; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2016-04-01

    A reliable characterization of fractured rock masses requires an exhaustive geometrical description of discontinuities, including orientation, spacing, and size. These are required to describe discontinuum rock mass structure, perform Discrete Fracture Network and DEM modelling, or provide input for rock mass classification or equivalent continuum estimate of rock mass properties. Although several advanced methodologies have been developed in the last decades, a complete characterization of discontinuity geometry in practice is still challenging, due to scale-dependent variability of fracture patterns and difficult accessibility to large outcrops. Recent advances in remote survey techniques, such as terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry, allow a fast and accurate acquisition of dense 3D point clouds, which promoted the development of several semi-automatic approaches to extract discontinuity features. Nevertheless, these often need user supervision on algorithm parameters which can be difficult to assess. To overcome this problem, we developed an original Matlab tool, allowing fast, fully automatic extraction and analysis of discontinuity features with no requirements on point cloud accuracy, density and homogeneity. The tool consists of a set of algorithms which: (i) process raw 3D point clouds, (ii) automatically characterize discontinuity sets, (iii) identify individual discontinuity surfaces, and (iv) analyse their spacing and persistence. The tool operates in either a supervised or unsupervised mode, starting from an automatic preliminary exploration data analysis. The identification and geometrical characterization of discontinuity features is divided in steps. First, coplanar surfaces are identified in the whole point cloud using K-Nearest Neighbor and Principal Component Analysis algorithms optimized on point cloud accuracy and specified typical facet size. Then, discontinuity set orientation is calculated using Kernel Density Estimation and

  20. Preliminary Demonstration Reactor Point Design for the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Qualls, A. L.; Betzler, Benjamin R.; Brown, Nicholas R.; Carbajo, Juan; Greenwood, Michael Scott; Hale, Richard Edward; Harrison, Thomas J.; Powers, Jeffrey J.; Robb, Kevin R.; Terrell, Jerry W.

    2015-12-01

    Development of the Fluoride Salt-Cooled High-Temperature Reactor (FHR) Demonstration Reactor (DR) is a necessary intermediate step to enable commercial FHR deployment through disruptive and rapid technology development and demonstration. The FHR DR will utilize known, mature technology to close remaining gaps to commercial viability. Lower risk technologies are included in the initial FHR DR design to ensure that the reactor can be built, licensed, and operated within an acceptable budget and schedule. These technologies include tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) particle fuel, replaceable core structural material, the use of that same material for the primary and intermediate loops, and tube-and-shell heat exchangers. This report provides an update on the development of the FHR DR. At this writing, the core neutronics and thermal hydraulics have been developed and analyzed. The mechanical design details are still under development and are described to their current level of fidelity. It is anticipated that the FHR DR can be operational within 10 years because of the use of low-risk, near-term technology options.

  1. Innovations and enhancements in neutronic analysis of the Big-10 university research and training reactors based on the AGENT code system

    SciTech Connect

    Hursin, M.; Shanjie, X.; Burns, A.; Hopkins, J.; Satvat, N.; Gert, G.; Tsoukalas, L. H.; Jevremovic, T.

    2006-07-01

    Introduction. This paper summarizes salient aspects of the 'virtual' reactor system developed at Purdue Univ. emphasizing efficient neutronic modeling through AGENT (Arbitrary Geometry Neutron Transport) a deterministic neutron transport code. DOE's Big-10 Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) Consortium was launched in 2002 to enhance scholarship activities pertaining to university research and training reactors (URTRs). Existing and next generation URTRs are powerful campus tools for nuclear engineering as well as a number of disciplines that include, but are not limited to, medicine, biology, material science, and food science. Advancing new computational environments for the analysis and configuration of URTRs is an important Big-10 INIE aim. Specifically, Big-10 INIE has pursued development of a 'virtual' reactor, an advanced computational environment to serve as a platform on which to build operations, utilization (research and education), and systemic analysis of URTRs physics. The 'virtual' reactor computational system will integrate computational tools addressing the URTR core and near core physics (transport, dynamics, fuel management and fuel configuration); thermal-hydraulics; beam line, in-core and near-core experiments; instrumentation and controls; confinement/containment and security issues. Such integrated computational environment does not currently exist. The 'virtual' reactor is designed to allow researchers and educators to configure and analyze their systems to optimize experiments, fuel locations for flux shaping, as well as detector selection and configuration. (authors)

  2. Supergene destruction of a hydrothermal replacement alunite deposit at Big Rock Candy Mountain, Utah: Mineralogy, spectroscopic remote sensing, stable-isotope, and argon-age evidences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cunningham, C.G.; Rye, R.O.; Rockwell, B.W.; Kunk, M.J.; Councell, T.B.

    2005-01-01

    Big Rock Candy Mountain is a prominent center of variegated altered volcanic rocks in west-central Utah. It consists of the eroded remnants of a hypogene alunite deposit that, at ???21 Ma, replaced intermediate-composition lava flows. The alunite formed in steam-heated conditions above the upwelling limb of a convection cell that was one of at least six spaced at 3- to 4-km intervals around the margin of a monzonite stock. Big Rock Candy Mountain is horizontally zoned outward from an alunite core to respective kaolinite, dickite, and propylite envelopes. The altered rocks are also vertically zoned from a lower pyrite-propylite assemblage upward through assemblages successively dominated by hypogene alunite, jarosite, and hematite, to a flooded silica cap. This hydrothermal assemblage is undergoing natural destruction in a steep canyon downcut by the Sevier River in Marysvale Canyon. Integrated geological, mineralogical, spectroscopic remote sensing using AVIRIS data, Ar radiometric, and stable isotopic studies trace the hypogene origin and supergene destruction of the deposit and permit distinction of primary (hydrothermal) and secondary (weathering) processes. This destruction has led to the formation of widespread supergene gypsum in cross-cutting fractures and as surficial crusts, and to natrojarosite, that gives the mountain its buff coloration along ridges facing the canyon. A small spring, Lemonade Spring, with a pH of 2.6 and containing Ca, Mg, Si, Al, Fe, Mn, Cl, and SO4, also occurs near the bottom of the canyon. The 40Ar/39 Ar age (21.32??0.07 Ma) of the alunite is similar to that for other replacement alunites at Marysvale. However, the age spectrum contains evidence of a 6.6-Ma thermal event that can be related to the tectonic activity responsible for the uplift that led to the downcutting of Big Rock Candy Mountain by the Sevier River. This ???6.6 Ma event also is present in the age spectrum of supergene natrojarosite forming today, and probably dates

  3. Sensitivity Analysis for Reactor Period Induced by Positive Reactivity Using One-point Adjoint Kinetic Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, G.; Tsuji, M.; Narabayashi, T.

    2014-04-01

    In order to better predict a kinetic behavior of a nuclear fission reactor, an improvement of the delayed neutron parameters is essential. The present paper specifies important nuclear data for a reactor kinetics: Fission yield and decay constant data of 86Ge, some bromine isotopes, 94Rb, 98mY and some iodine isotopes. Their importance is quantified as sensitivities with a help of the adjoint kinetic equation, and it is found that they are dependent on an inserted reactivity (or a reactor period). Moreover, dependence of sensitivities on nuclear data files is also quantified using the latest files. Even though the currently evaluated data are used, there are large differences among different data files from a view point of the delayed neutrons.

  4. Physics and thermal hydraulics design of a small water cooled reactor fuelled with plutonium in rock-like oxide (ROX) form

    SciTech Connect

    Gaultier, M.; Danguy, G.; Perry, A.; Williams, A.; Brushwood, J.; Thompson, A.; Beeley, P. A.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describes the Physics and Thermal Hydraulics areas of a design study for a small water-cooled reactor. The aim was to design a Pressurised Water Reactor (PWR) of maximum power 80 MWt, using a dispersed layout, capable of maximising primary natural circulation flow. The reactor fuel consists of plutonium contained in granular form within a Rock-like Oxide (ROX) pellet structure. (authors)

  5. Stratigraphy of the Cretaceous-Tertiary and Paleocene-Eocene transition rocks of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Schiebout, J.A.; Rigsby, C.A.; Rapp, S.D.; Hartnell, J.A.; Standhardt, B.R.

    1987-05-01

    The marine to terrestrial transition in the Big Bend area falls within the Late Cretaceous Aguja Formation, and, in light of new biostratigraphic data resulting from screening for small vertebrates and magneto-stratigraphic data, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary falls within the Javelina Formation, which includes the first red banding produced by oxidation of overbank fluvial mudstones. No record of a catastrophic event is apparent in the Javelina Formation. The Javelina, Black Peaks, and Hannold Hill Formations and the Big Yellow Sandstone Member of the Canoe Formation record increasing uplift in the region, culminating in uplift and volcanism in the Chisos mountains, the source for upper Canoe Formation sediments. The sequence of changes produced by this trend and by unroofing in source highlands to the west is sufficiently gradual that the Javelina through Black Peaks units are not lithostratigraphically distinct at the formation level and therefore are reduced to member status, and placed, along with the Big Yellow Sandstone Member, within the redefined Tornillo Formation. The Aguja Formation and the Tornillo Formation are united in the Chilicotal Group (new), which spans the deposits from the first significant influxes of terrestrial sediments, formed as the Cretaceous sea retreated, up to the beginning of local volcanism in the Chisos. The volcanic strata of the upper Canoe Formation are reassigned to the Chisos Formation. 46 references.

  6. Geologic Field Notes, Geochemical Analyses, and Field Photographs of Outcrops and Rock Samples from the Big Delta B-1 Quadrangle, East-Central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Day, Warren C.; O'Neill, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Alaska Department of Natural Resources Division of Mining, Land, and Water, has released a geologic map of the Big Delta B-1 quadrangle of east-central Alaska (Day and others, 2007). This companion report presents the major element oxide and trace element geochemical analyses, including those for gold, silver, and base metals, for representative rock units and for grab samples from quartz veins and mineralized zones within the quadrangle. Also included are field station locations, field notes, structural data, and field photographs based primarily on observations by W.C. Day with additions by J.M. O'Neill and B.M. Gamble, all of the U.S. Geological Survey. The data are provided in both Microsoft Excel spread sheet format and as a Microsoft Access database.

  7. Development and analysis of some versions of the fractional-order point reactor kinetics model for a nuclear reactor with slab geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyawahare, Vishwesh A.; Nataraj, P. S. V.

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, we report the development and analysis of some novel versions and approximations of the fractional-order (FO) point reactor kinetics model for a nuclear reactor with slab geometry. A systematic development of the FO Inhour equation, Inverse FO point reactor kinetics model, and fractional-order versions of the constant delayed neutron rate approximation model and prompt jump approximation model is presented for the first time (for both one delayed group and six delayed groups). These models evolve from the FO point reactor kinetics model, which has been derived from the FO Neutron Telegraph Equation for the neutron transport considering the subdiffusive neutron transport. Various observations and the analysis results are reported and the corresponding justifications are addressed using the subdiffusive framework for the neutron transport. The FO Inhour equation is found out to be a pseudo-polynomial with its degree depending on the order of the fractional derivative in the FO model. The inverse FO point reactor kinetics model is derived and used to find the reactivity variation required to achieve exponential and sinusoidal power variation in the core. The situation of sudden insertion of negative reactivity is analyzed using the FO constant delayed neutron rate approximation. Use of FO model for representing the prompt jump in reactor power is advocated on the basis of subdiffusion. Comparison with the respective integer-order models is carried out for the practical data. Also, it has been shown analytically that integer-order models are a special case of FO models when the order of time-derivative is one. Development of these FO models plays a crucial role in reactor theory and operation as it is the first step towards achieving the FO control-oriented model for a nuclear reactor. The results presented here form an important step in the efforts to establish a step-by-step and systematic theory for the FO modeling of a nuclear reactor.

  8. Towards microfluidic reactors for cell-free protein synthesis at the point-of-care

    DOE PAGES

    Timm, Andrea C.; Shankles, Peter G.; Foster, Carmen M.; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-12-22

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is a powerful technology that allows for optimization of protein production without maintenance of a living system. Integrated within micro- and nano-fluidic architectures, CFPS can be optimized for point-of care use. Here, we describe the development of a microfluidic bioreactor designed to facilitate the production of a single-dose of a therapeutic protein, in a small footprint device at the point-of-care. This new design builds on the use of a long, serpentine channel bioreactor and is enhanced by integrating a nanofabricated membrane to allow exchange of materials between parallel reactor and feeder channels. This engineered membrane facilitatesmore » the exchange of metabolites, energy, and inhibitory species, prolonging the CFPS reaction and increasing protein yield. Membrane permeability can be altered by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition to tune the exchange rate of small molecules. This allows for extended reaction times and improved yields. Further, the reaction product and higher molecular weight components of the transcription/translation machinery in the reactor channel can be retained. As a result, we show that the microscale bioreactor design produces higher protein yields than conventional tube-based batch formats, and that product yields can be dramatically improved by facilitating small molecule exchange within the dual-channel bioreactor.« less

  9. Toward Microfluidic Reactors for Cell-Free Protein Synthesis at the Point-of-Care.

    PubMed

    Timm, Andrea C; Shankles, Peter G; Foster, Carmen M; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Retterer, Scott T

    2016-02-10

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is a powerful technology that allows for optimization of protein production without maintenance of a living system. Integrated within micro and nanofluidic architectures, CFPS can be optimized for point-of-care use. Here, the development of a microfluidic bioreactor designed to facilitate the production of a single-dose of a therapeutic protein, in a small footprint device at the point-of-care, is described. This new design builds on the use of a long, serpentine channel bioreactor and is enhanced by integrating a nanofabricated membrane to allow exchange of materials between parallel "reactor" and "feeder" channels. This engineered membrane facilitates the exchange of metabolites, energy, and inhibitory species, and can be altered by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition to tune the exchange rate of small molecules. This allows for extended reaction times and improved yields. Further, the reaction product and higher molecular weight components of the transcription/translation machinery in the reactor channel can be retained. It has been shown that the microscale bioreactor design produces higher protein yields than conventional tube-based batch formats, and that product yields can be dramatically improved by facilitating small molecule exchange within the dual-channel bioreactor. PMID:26690885

  10. Towards microfluidic reactors for cell-free protein synthesis at the point-of-care

    SciTech Connect

    Timm, Andrea C.; Shankles, Peter G.; Foster, Carmen M.; Doktycz, Mitchel John; Retterer, Scott T.

    2015-12-22

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) is a powerful technology that allows for optimization of protein production without maintenance of a living system. Integrated within micro- and nano-fluidic architectures, CFPS can be optimized for point-of care use. Here, we describe the development of a microfluidic bioreactor designed to facilitate the production of a single-dose of a therapeutic protein, in a small footprint device at the point-of-care. This new design builds on the use of a long, serpentine channel bioreactor and is enhanced by integrating a nanofabricated membrane to allow exchange of materials between parallel reactor and feeder channels. This engineered membrane facilitates the exchange of metabolites, energy, and inhibitory species, prolonging the CFPS reaction and increasing protein yield. Membrane permeability can be altered by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and atomic layer deposition to tune the exchange rate of small molecules. This allows for extended reaction times and improved yields. Further, the reaction product and higher molecular weight components of the transcription/translation machinery in the reactor channel can be retained. As a result, we show that the microscale bioreactor design produces higher protein yields than conventional tube-based batch formats, and that product yields can be dramatically improved by facilitating small molecule exchange within the dual-channel bioreactor.

  11. Semi-automatic characterization of fractured rock masses using 3D point clouds: discontinuity orientation, spacing and SMR geomechanical classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riquelme, Adrian; Tomas, Roberto; Abellan, Antonio; Cano, Miguel; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Investigation of fractured rock masses for different geological applications (e.g. fractured reservoir exploitation, rock slope instability, rock engineering, etc.) requires a deep geometric understanding of the discontinuity sets affecting rock exposures. Recent advances in 3D data acquisition using photogrammetric and/or LiDAR techniques currently allow a quick and an accurate characterization of rock mass discontinuities. This contribution presents a methodology for: (a) use of 3D point clouds for the identification and analysis of planar surfaces outcropping in a rocky slope; (b) calculation of the spacing between different discontinuity sets; (c) semi-automatic calculation of the parameters that play a capital role in the Slope Mass Rating geomechanical classification. As for the part a) (discontinuity orientation), our proposal identifies and defines the algebraic equations of the different discontinuity sets of the rock slope surface by applying an analysis based on a neighbouring points coplanarity test. Additionally, the procedure finds principal orientations by Kernel Density Estimation and identifies clusters (Riquelme et al., 2014). As a result of this analysis, each point is classified with a discontinuity set and with an outcrop plane (cluster). Regarding the part b) (discontinuity spacing) our proposal utilises the previously classified point cloud to investigate how different outcropping planes are linked in space. Discontinuity spacing is calculated for each pair of linked clusters within the same discontinuity set, and then spacing values are analysed calculating their statistic values. Finally, as for the part c) the previous results are used to calculate parameters F_1, F2 and F3 of the Slope Mass Rating geomechanical classification. This analysis is carried out for each discontinuity set using their respective orientation extracted in part a). The open access tool SMRTool (Riquelme et al., 2014) is then used to calculate F1 to F3 correction

  12. Optical sensor based on combined GI/DSPI technique for strain monitoring in crucial points of big engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łukaszewski, Dariusz; Sałbut, Leszek; Kujawińska, Małgorzata; Malowany, Krzysztof

    2011-05-01

    The data from a monitored structure/object should be easy acquired, processed and sent to the user, who can assess the health of a structure in short time and schedule necessary maintenance in order to prevent accidences. Systems which provide such information are fundamental for Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). In the paper novel optical sensor designed for in-plane displacement and strain monitoring in crucial points of a big engineering and civil structures is presented. It combines two techniques: Grating Interferometry (GI) and Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry (DSPI). GI requires specimen grating attached to the surface of an object under test. It is the unique technique which may provide the information about fatigue process and increased residual stresses. DSPI works with a rough object surface but due to differential measurements cannot be simply used for long time monitoring but to explore the actual behavior of a structure. The sensor which combines these techniques provides user with wide possibilities concerning functionality, measuring range, object surface and environmental conditions. The crucial issue in implementation of this sensor is the choice of its location(s) at the investigated structure. Therefore it is proposed to be as one of the elements of hierarchical sensors net, which gives complete information about structure state. As the method for supporting the choice of GI/DSPI sensor location we proposed the system based on 3D digital correlation method. The paper presents mechanical and optical sensor design along with laboratory tests of main component such as sensor heads in form of monolithic (plastic) and cavity waveguides. Finally the possible application of proposed sensor in combination with 3D DIC system is presented.

  13. Compliance Monitoring of Underwater Blasting for Rock Removal at Warrior Point, Columbia River Channel Improvement Project, 2009/2010

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Johnson, Gary E.; Woodley, Christa M.; Skalski, J. R.; Seaburg, Adam

    2011-05-10

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District (USACE) conducted the 20-year Columbia River Channel Improvement Project (CRCIP) to deepen the navigation channel between Portland, Oregon, and the Pacific Ocean to allow transit of fully loaded Panamax ships (100 ft wide, 600 to 700 ft long, and draft 45 to 50 ft). In the vicinity of Warrior Point, between river miles (RM) 87 and 88 near St. Helens, Oregon, the USACE conducted underwater blasting and dredging to remove 300,000 yd3 of a basalt rock formation to reach a depth of 44 ft in the Columbia River navigation channel. The purpose of this report is to document methods and results of the compliance monitoring study for the blasting project at Warrior Point in the Columbia River.

  14. A 3D clustering approach for point clouds to detect and quantify changes at a rock glacier front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletti, Natan; Tonini, Marj; Lane, Stuart N.

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS) are extensively used in geomorphology to remotely-sense landforms and surfaces of any type and to derive digital elevation models (DEMs). Modern devices are able to collect many millions of points, so that working on the resulting dataset is often troublesome in terms of computational efforts. Indeed, it is not unusual that raw point clouds are filtered prior to DEM creation, so that only a subset of points is retained and the interpolation process becomes less of a burden. Whilst this procedure is in many cases necessary, it implicates a considerable loss of valuable information. First, and even without eliminating points, the common interpolation of points to a regular grid causes a loss of potentially useful detail. Second, it inevitably causes the transition from 3D information to only 2.5D data where each (x,y) pair must have a unique z-value. Vector-based DEMs (e.g. triangulated irregular networks) partially mitigate these issues, but still require a set of parameters to be set and a considerable burden in terms of calculation and storage. Because of the reasons above, being able to perform geomorphological research directly on point clouds would be profitable. Here, we propose an approach to identify erosion and deposition patterns on a very active rock glacier front in the Swiss Alps to monitor sediment dynamics. The general aim is to set up a semiautomatic method to isolate mass movements using 3D-feature identification directly from LiDAR data. An ultra-long range LiDAR RIEGL VZ-6000 scanner was employed to acquire point clouds during three consecutive summers. In order to isolate single clusters of erosion and deposition we applied the Density-Based Scan Algorithm with Noise (DBSCAN), previously successfully employed by Tonini and Abellan (2014) in a similar case for rockfall detection. DBSCAN requires two input parameters, strongly influencing the number, shape and size of the detected clusters: the minimum number of

  15. Imaging The October 2008 Glacier Point Rock Falls, Yosemite Valley, With High-Resolution Photography and Repeat Terrestrial Laser Scanning (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, G. M.; Bawden, G. W.; Green, J. K.; Bond, S.; Leslar, M.

    2009-12-01

    On October 7 and 8, 2008, two large rock falls occurred from the cliff beneath Glacier Point in eastern Yosemite Valley, damaging cabins in Curry Village and causing minor injuries. Subsequent investigation of these rock falls was aided by high resolution photographs and ground-based terrestrial laser scans (LiDAR) of the Glacier Point area collected one year earlier as part of an imaging feasibility study, and repeated within days after the second rock fall. Analyzing differences between the two data sets quantifies key aspects of the rock falls (e.g., location, surface area, thickness, volume) and clarifies the failure mechanism. LiDAR point cloud datasets contained up to 6.79 million data points, with a range of 1249.7 m to the rock-fall detachment area. We precisely aligned the 2007 pre-rock fall data with the 2008 post-rock fall data and quantified the topographic differences between the two data sets. Our analysis reveals that the failed rock mass consisted of a slab with a maximum length of 63.0 m, a maximum thickness of 7.5 m, and a volume of 5,667 ± 37 m3. Slab failure occurred along a surface-parallel sheeting joint oriented 027°/89° (dip direction/dip angle). These analyses illustrate the utility of terrestrial laser scanning for precisely quantifying rock fall events, and demonstrate the value of obtaining high-resolution baseline imagery against which to compare future rock-fall events.

  16. Uniform Big Bang-Chaotic Big Crunch optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alatas, Bilal

    2011-09-01

    This study proposes methods to improve the convergence of the novel optimization method, Big Bang-Big Crunch (BB-BC). Uniform population method has been used to generate uniformly distributed random points in the Big Bang phase. Chaos has been utilized to rapidly shrink those points to a single representative point via a center of mass in the Big Crunch phase. The proposed algorithm has been named as Uniform Big Bang-Chaotic Big Crunch (UBB-CBC). The performance of the UBB-CBC optimization algorithm demonstrates superiority over the BB-BC optimization for the benchmark functions.

  17. A golden point rule in rock-paper-scissors-lizard-spock game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yibin; Pan, Qiuhui; Wang, Xueting; He, Mingfeng

    2013-06-01

    We study a novel five-species system on two-dimensional lattices when each species have two superior and two inferior partners. Here we simplify the huge parameter space of predation probability to only two parameters. Both of Monte Carlo simulation and Mean Field Theory reveal that two of strategies may die out when the ratio of the two parameters is close to the golden point 0.618, and the remaining three strategies are provided a cyclic dominance system.

  18. Toward a Learning Health-care System - Knowledge Delivery at the Point of Care Empowered by Big Data and NLP.

    PubMed

    Kaggal, Vinod C; Elayavilli, Ravikumar Komandur; Mehrabi, Saeed; Pankratz, Joshua J; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wang, Yanshan; Li, Dingcheng; Rastegar, Majid Mojarad; Murphy, Sean P; Ross, Jason L; Chaudhry, Rajeev; Buntrock, James D; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The concept of optimizing health care by understanding and generating knowledge from previous evidence, ie, the Learning Health-care System (LHS), has gained momentum and now has national prominence. Meanwhile, the rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) enables the data collection required to form the basis for facilitating LHS. A prerequisite for using EHR data within the LHS is an infrastructure that enables access to EHR data longitudinally for health-care analytics and real time for knowledge delivery. Additionally, significant clinical information is embedded in the free text, making natural language processing (NLP) an essential component in implementing an LHS. Herein, we share our institutional implementation of a big data-empowered clinical NLP infrastructure, which not only enables health-care analytics but also has real-time NLP processing capability. The infrastructure has been utilized for multiple institutional projects including the MayoExpertAdvisor, an individualized care recommendation solution for clinical care. We compared the advantages of big data over two other environments. Big data infrastructure significantly outperformed other infrastructure in terms of computing speed, demonstrating its value in making the LHS a possibility in the near future.

  19. Toward a Learning Health-care System - Knowledge Delivery at the Point of Care Empowered by Big Data and NLP.

    PubMed

    Kaggal, Vinod C; Elayavilli, Ravikumar Komandur; Mehrabi, Saeed; Pankratz, Joshua J; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wang, Yanshan; Li, Dingcheng; Rastegar, Majid Mojarad; Murphy, Sean P; Ross, Jason L; Chaudhry, Rajeev; Buntrock, James D; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The concept of optimizing health care by understanding and generating knowledge from previous evidence, ie, the Learning Health-care System (LHS), has gained momentum and now has national prominence. Meanwhile, the rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) enables the data collection required to form the basis for facilitating LHS. A prerequisite for using EHR data within the LHS is an infrastructure that enables access to EHR data longitudinally for health-care analytics and real time for knowledge delivery. Additionally, significant clinical information is embedded in the free text, making natural language processing (NLP) an essential component in implementing an LHS. Herein, we share our institutional implementation of a big data-empowered clinical NLP infrastructure, which not only enables health-care analytics but also has real-time NLP processing capability. The infrastructure has been utilized for multiple institutional projects including the MayoExpertAdvisor, an individualized care recommendation solution for clinical care. We compared the advantages of big data over two other environments. Big data infrastructure significantly outperformed other infrastructure in terms of computing speed, demonstrating its value in making the LHS a possibility in the near future. PMID:27385912

  20. Particles fluidized bed receiver/reactor with a beam-down solar concentrating optics: 30-kWth performance test using a big sun-simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Tatsuya; Gokon, Nobuyuki; Cho, Hyun Seok; Matsubara, Koji; Etori, Tetsuro; Takeuchi, Akane; Yokota, Shin-nosuke; Ito, Sumie

    2016-05-01

    A novel concept of particles fluidized bed receiver/reactor with a beam-down solar concentrating optics was performed using a 30-kWth window type receiver by a big sun-simulator. A fluidized bed of quartz sand particles was created by passing air from the bottom distributor of the receiver, and about 30 kWth of high flux visible light from 19 xenon-arc lamps of the sun-simulator was directly irradiated on the top of the fluidized bed in the receiver through a quartz window. The particle bed temperature at the center position of the fluidized bed went up to a temperature range from 1050 to 1200°C by the visible light irradiation with the average heat flux of about 950 kW/m2, depending on the air flow rate. The output air temperature from the receiver reached 1000 - 1060°C.

  1. Extended Burnup Demonstration Reactor Fuels Program. Annual progress report, April 1983-March 1984. [BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Exarhos, C.A.

    1985-06-20

    The US Department of Energy, Consumers Power Company, Exxon Nuclear Company, and General Public Utilities Nuclear Corporation have participated since 1979 in a cooperative Extended Burnup Demonstration Program. Under the program, standard ENC-fabricated reload fuel in the Big Rock Point and Oyster Creek reactor cores has been irradiated to discharge burnups at or beyond 35,000 MWD/MTU, one to two cycles beyond its originally projected exposure life. The program provides for examination of the fuel at poolside before and after each extended burnup cycle as well as for limited destructive hot cell examination. The 1984 progress report covers work performed under the EBD program between April 1983 and March 1984. Major milestones reached during the period include completion of a hot cell examination on four high burnup rods from Big Rock Point and of a poolside on the Oyster Creek EBD fuel at discharge. The hot cell examination of four rods at burnups to 37.2 GWD/MTU confirmed poolside measurements on the same fuel, showing the urania and gadolinia-bearing fuel rods to be in excellent condition. No major cladding degradation, pellet restructuring, or pellet-clad interaction was found in any of the samples examined. The Oyster Creek fuel, examined at an assembly average exposure of 34.5 GWD/MTU, showed good performance with regard to both diametral creepdown and clad oxide accumulation.

  2. Permafrost and snow monitoring at Rothera Point (Adelaide Island, Maritime Antarctica): Implications for rock weathering in cryotic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmin, Mauro; Worland, M. Roger; Baio, Fabio; Convey, Peter

    2014-11-01

    In February 2009 a new permafrost borehole was installed close to the British Antarctic Survey Station at Rothera Point, Adelaide Island (67.57195°S 68.12068°W). The borehole is situated at 31 m asl on a granodiorite knob with scattered lichen cover. The spatial variability of snow cover and of ground surface temperature (GST) is characterised through the monitoring of snow depth on 5 stakes positioned around the borehole and with thermistors placed at three different rock surfaces (A, B and C). The borehole temperature is measured by 18 thermistors placed at different depths between 0.3 and 30 m. Snow persistence is very variable both spatially and temporally with snow free days per year ranging from 13 and more than 300, and maximum snow depths varying between 0.03 and 1.42 m. This variability is the main cause of high variability in GST, that ranged between - 3.7 and - 1.5 °C. The net effect of the snow cover is a cooling of the surface. Mean annual GST, mean summer GST, and the degree days of thawing and the n-factor of thawing were always much lower at sensor A where snow persistence and depth were greater than in the other sensor locations. At sensor A the potential freeze-thaw events were negligible (0-3) and the thermal stress was at least 40% less than in the other sensor locations. The zero curtain effect at the rock surface occurred only at surface A, favouring chemical weathering over mechanical action. The active layer thickness (ALT) ranged between 0.76 and 1.40 m. ALT was directly proportional to the mean air temperature in summer, and inversely proportional to the maximum snow depth in autumn. ALT temporal variability was greater than reported at other sites at similar latitude in the Northern Hemisphere, or with the similar mean annual air temperature in Maritime Antarctica, because vegetation and a soil organic horizon are absent at the study site. Zero annual amplitude in temperature was observed at about 16 m depth, where the mean annual

  3. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A means is described for co-relating the essential physical requirements of a fission chain reaction in order that practical, compact, and easily controllable reactors can be built. These objects are obtained by employing a composition of fissionsble isotope and moderator in fluid form in which the amount of fissionsble isotcpe present governs the reaction. The size of the reactor is no longer a critical factor, the new criterion being the concentration of the fissionable isotope.

  4. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Szilard, L.

    1963-09-10

    A breeder reactor is described, including a mass of fissionable material that is less than critical with respect to unmoderated neutrons and greater than critical with respect to neutrons of average energies substantially greater than thermal, a coolant selected from sodium or sodium--potassium alloys, a control liquid selected from lead or lead--bismuth alloys, and means for varying the quantity of control liquid in the reactor. (AEC)

  5. REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Roman, W.G.

    1961-06-27

    A pressurized water reactor in which automatic control is achieved by varying the average density of the liquid moderator-cooiant is patented. Density is controlled by the temperature and power level of the reactor ftself. This control can be effected by the use of either plate, pellet, or tubular fuel elements. The fuel elements are disposed between upper and lower coolant plenum chambers and are designed to permit unrestricted coolant flow. The control chamber has an inlet opening communicating with the lower coolant plenum chamber and a restricted vapor vent communicating with the upper coolant plenum chamber. Thus, a variation in temperature of the fuel elements will cause a variation in the average moderator density in the chamber which directly affects the power level of the reactor.

  6. Integrated watershed economic model for non-point source pollution management in Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed, OH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Today, non-point source pollution (NPS) is one of the major sources of water quality impairments globally (UNEP, 2007). In the US, nutrient pollution is the leading cause of water quality issues in lakes and estuaries (USEPA, 2002). The maximum concentration of nutrients in streams is found to be in...

  7. Reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications -- Canam Steel Corporation Point of Rocks, MD case study

    SciTech Connect

    Monfet, J.P.

    1997-12-31

    The reduction of VOC emissions from metal dip coating applications is not an environmental constraint, it is an economic opportunity. This case study shows how the industry can reap economic benefits from VOC reductions while improving air quality. The Canam Steel Corporation plant located in Point of Rocks, MD operates dip tanks for primer application on fabricated steel joists and joist girders. This process is presently subject to a regulation that limits the paint VOC content to 3.5 pounds per gallon of coating less water. As a result of the high paint viscosity associated with that regulation, the paint thickness of the dipped steel is thicker than the customers` specifications. Most of the VOC emissions can therefore be associated with the excess of paint applied to the products rather than to the required thickness of the coating. The higher paint usage rate has more than environmental consequences, it increases the cost of the applied coating. The project is to reduce the paint usage by controlling the viscosity of the coating in the tank. Experimental results as well as actual mass balance calculations show that using a higher VOC content paint would reduce the overall VOC emissions. The author explained the project to the Maryland Department of the Environment (MDE) Air and Radiation Management Administration. First, the MDE agreed to develop a new RACT determination for fabricated steel dipping operations. The new regulation would limit the amount of VOC than can be emitted to dip coat a ton of fabricated steel. Second, the MDE agreed to allow experimentation of the higher VOC content paint as a pilot project for the new regulation. This paper demonstrates the need for a RACT determination specific to fabricated steel dipping operations.

  8. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  9. Heuristic optimization of a continuous flow point-of-use UV-LED disinfection reactor using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Richard M; Jasper, Micah N; Simmons, Otto D; Shatalov, Max; Ducoste, Joel J

    2015-10-15

    Alternative disinfection sources such as ultraviolet light (UV) are being pursued to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, while simultaneously reducing the risk of exposure to carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. UV-LEDs offer a UV disinfecting source that do not contain mercury, have the potential for long lifetimes, are robust, and have a high degree of design flexibility. However, the increased flexibility in design options will add a substantial level of complexity when developing a UV-LED reactor, particularly with regards to reactor shape, size, spatial orientation of light, and germicidal emission wavelength. Anticipating that LEDs are the future of UV disinfection, new methods are needed for designing such reactors. In this research study, the evaluation of a new design paradigm using a point-of-use UV-LED disinfection reactor has been performed. ModeFrontier, a numerical optimization platform, was coupled with COMSOL Multi-physics, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package, to generate an optimized UV-LED continuous flow reactor. Three optimality conditions were considered: 1) single objective analysis minimizing input supply power while achieving at least (2.0) log10 inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 11229; and 2) two multi-objective analyses (one of which maximized the log10 inactivation of E. coli ATCC 11229 and minimized the supply power). All tests were completed at a flow rate of 109 mL/min and 92% UVT (measured at 254 nm). The numerical solution for the first objective was validated experimentally using biodosimetry. The optimal design predictions displayed good agreement with the experimental data and contained several non-intuitive features, particularly with the UV-LED spatial arrangement, where the lights were unevenly populated throughout the reactor. The optimal designs may not have been developed from experienced designers due to the increased degrees of

  10. Heuristic optimization of a continuous flow point-of-use UV-LED disinfection reactor using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Richard M; Jasper, Micah N; Simmons, Otto D; Shatalov, Max; Ducoste, Joel J

    2015-10-15

    Alternative disinfection sources such as ultraviolet light (UV) are being pursued to inactivate pathogenic microorganisms such as Cryptosporidium and Giardia, while simultaneously reducing the risk of exposure to carcinogenic disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water. UV-LEDs offer a UV disinfecting source that do not contain mercury, have the potential for long lifetimes, are robust, and have a high degree of design flexibility. However, the increased flexibility in design options will add a substantial level of complexity when developing a UV-LED reactor, particularly with regards to reactor shape, size, spatial orientation of light, and germicidal emission wavelength. Anticipating that LEDs are the future of UV disinfection, new methods are needed for designing such reactors. In this research study, the evaluation of a new design paradigm using a point-of-use UV-LED disinfection reactor has been performed. ModeFrontier, a numerical optimization platform, was coupled with COMSOL Multi-physics, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software package, to generate an optimized UV-LED continuous flow reactor. Three optimality conditions were considered: 1) single objective analysis minimizing input supply power while achieving at least (2.0) log10 inactivation of Escherichia coli ATCC 11229; and 2) two multi-objective analyses (one of which maximized the log10 inactivation of E. coli ATCC 11229 and minimized the supply power). All tests were completed at a flow rate of 109 mL/min and 92% UVT (measured at 254 nm). The numerical solution for the first objective was validated experimentally using biodosimetry. The optimal design predictions displayed good agreement with the experimental data and contained several non-intuitive features, particularly with the UV-LED spatial arrangement, where the lights were unevenly populated throughout the reactor. The optimal designs may not have been developed from experienced designers due to the increased degrees of

  11. Design and Dynamic Performance of a Small Water Cooled Reactor Fuelled with Plutonium in Rock-Like Oxide (ROX) Form

    SciTech Connect

    Gaultier, M.; Danguy, G.; Ritchie, D.; Williams, A.; Thompson, A.; Brushwood, J.; Beeley, P.A.; Greenlees, L.; Perry, A.

    2006-07-01

    The results of a design study for a small water-cooled reactor with plutonium fuel in a rock like oxide (ROX) form are reported. A summary is given of the five study areas, Physics, Thermal Hydraulics, Materials, Navalisation and Dynamics, and Shielding and Decommissioning. The dynamics simulation for the whole plant is then described in more detail. The physics of the fuel module is studied using the WIMS suite of deterministic codes with selected computations checked with the Monte-Carlo code MONK. Whole core calculations are undertaken with the WIMS/SNAP code. Essential parameters are provided to the other study areas including reactivity feedback coefficients for the Dynamics. The Thermal Hydraulic design aims to remove the required maximum power using pumped flow and also to provide significant power removal using natural circulation. The major components of the primary circuit are sized and flow rates in pumped and natural circulation calculated by hand and by using the TRACPFQ code. This information is also used in the dynamics study. Further details of the Physics and Thermal hydraulics studies will be given at PHYSOR 2006. The materials study is being published elsewhere, but a brief description of the temperature and stress calculations for the fuel pellet performed with the ABACUS finite element code is given. Navalisation and dynamics of the plant are examined. The power requirements for the plant are estimated and a suitable electric propulsion system is proposed and sized. A whole plant model is built using the AcslXtreme computer package in which a block diagram of the system is constructed via a graphical interface and simulations of the system transients are produced. The block diagram for the whole system is described followed by the describing equations for the major blocks representing neutron kinetics, fuel element heat transfer, thermal hydraulics of the primary circuit and of the steam generators. Also included are describing equations for

  12. Application of the Reactor Analysis Support Package LWR set-point analysis guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, R.E.; Sorensen, J.M.; May, R.S.; Doran, K.J.; Trikouros, N.G.; Mozzias, E.S.

    1989-07-01

    Frequently, a situation is encountered in which the technical specification setpoints established by the plant safety analysis are judged to be unacceptable from a plant operational standpoint. This report documents the application of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Reactor Analysis Support Package (RASP) Light Water Reactor (LWR) setpoint analysis guidelines to provide justification for relaxing the high pressure setpoints at the Oyster Creek Nuclear Generation Station. More Specifically, the plant operation's staff determined that it was desirable to provide increased margin for measurement uncertainties in the high pressure instrument and safety valve setpoints. Previous experience had indicated that there was insufficient margin to justify the desired setpoints using conventional deterministic inputs to the safety analysis and plant performance evaluation process. Therefore, it was determined that the RASP LWR setpoint analysis guidelines, which incorporated the use of a statistical combination of uncertainties methodology, would be used to establish an acceptable set of high pressure setpoints. This report documents the results of applying the RASP setpoint analysis guidelines to provide justification for an acceptable set of high pressure setpoints for the Oyster Creek station. 14 refs., 53 figs., 28 tabs.

  13. The Inversion Point of the Isothermal Reactivity Coefficient of the IPEN/MB-01 Reactor - II: Theoretical Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, A. dos; Fuga, R.; Abe, A.Y.

    2005-10-15

    TORT, an S{sub N} three-dimensional transport code, is employed for the analysis of the inversion point of the isothermal reactivity coefficient of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. The analyses are performed in companion NJOY, AMPX-II, and TORT systems considering the data libraries ENDF/B-VI.8, JENDL3.3, and JEF3.0. The analyses reveal that for this peculiar problem, there is a need to convert all the computer codes to DOUBLE-PRECISION as well as to increase to seven the number of digits of the ANISN library generated by XSDRNPM. Contrary to the traditional diffusion theory codes, TORT k{sub eff} results are very sensitive to the number of both fine and broad groups. For instance, the traditional and very well known two- and four-group structure, largely utilized in several diffusion codes, produced simply unacceptable k{sub eff} results. The highest deviation between calculated and experimental values found for the inversion point was -4.48 deg. C. At first glance, there appears to be a significant discrepancy. However, in terms of reactivity coefficient, this discrepancy means a deviation of -0.90 {+-} 0.05 pcm/deg. C, which indicates that the calculational methodology and related nuclear data libraries meet the desired accuracy (-1.0 pcm/deg. C) for the determination of this parameter for thermal reactors.

  14. Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241mile ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Big Creek Hydroelectric System, East & West Transmission Line, 241-mile transmission corridor extending between the Big Creek Hydroelectric System in the Sierra National Forest in Fresno County and the Eagle Rock Substation in Los Angeles, California, Visalia, Tulare County, CA

  15. Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Evans, Robert M.

    1976-10-05

    1. A neutronic reactor having a moderator, coolant tubes traversing the moderator from an inlet end to an outlet end, bodies of material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy disposed within the coolant tubes, and means for circulating water through said coolant tubes characterized by the improved construction wherein the coolant tubes are constructed of aluminum having an outer diameter of 1.729 inches and a wall thickness of 0.059 inch, and the means for circulating a liquid coolant through the tubes includes a source of water at a pressure of approximately 350 pounds per square inch connected to the inlet end of the tubes, and said construction including a pressure reducing orifice disposed at the inlet ends of the tubes reducing the pressure of the water by approximately 150 pounds per square inch.

  16. End points in discharge cleaning on TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor)

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, D.; Dylla, H.F.; Bell, M.G.; Blanchard, W.R.; Bush, C.E.; Gettelfinger, G.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Janos, A.C.; Jobes, F.C.

    1989-07-01

    It has been found necessary to perform a series of first-wall conditioning steps prior to successful high power plasma operation in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). This series begins with glow discharge cleaning (GDC) and is followed by pulse discharge cleaning (PDC). During machine conditioning, the production of impurities is monitored by a Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA). PDC is made in two distinct modes: Taylor discharge cleaning (TDC), where the plasma current is kept low (15--50 kA) and of short duration (50 ms) by means of a relatively high prefill pressure and aggressive PDC, where lower prefill pressure and higher toroidal field result in higher current (200--400 kA) limited by disruptions at q(a) /approx/ 3 at /approx/ 250 ms. At a constant repetition rate of 12 discharges/minute, the production rate of H/sub 2/O, CO, or other impurities has been found to be an unreliable measure of progress in cleaning. However, the ability to produce aggressive PDC with substantial limiter heating, but without the production of x-rays from runaway electrons, is an indication that TDC is no longer necessary after /approx/ 10/sup 5/ pulses. During aggressive PDC, the uncooled limiters are heated by the plasma from the bakeout temperature of 150/degree/C to about 250/degree/C over a period of three to eight hours. This limiter heating is important to enhance the rate at which H/sub 2/O is removed from the graphite limiter. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Accurate 3D point cloud comparison and volumetric change analysis of Terrestrial Laser Scan data in a hard rock coastal cliff environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earlie, C. S.; Masselink, G.; Russell, P.; Shail, R.; Kingston, K.

    2013-12-01

    Our understanding of the evolution of hard rock coastlines is limited due to the episodic nature and ';slow' rate at which changes occur. High-resolution surveying techniques, such as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), have just begun to be adopted as a method of obtaining detailed point cloud data to monitor topographical changes over short periods of time (weeks to months). However, the difficulties involved in comparing consecutive point cloud data sets in a complex three-dimensional plane, such as occlusion due to surface roughness and positioning of data capture point as a result of a consistently changing environment (a beach profile), mean that comparing data sets can lead to errors in the region of 10 - 20 cm. Meshing techniques are often used for point cloud data analysis for simple surfaces, but in surfaces such as rocky cliff faces, this technique has been found to be ineffective. Recession rates of hard rock coastlines in the UK are typically determined using aerial photography or airborne LiDAR data, yet the detail of the important changes occurring to the cliff face and toe are missed using such techniques. In this study we apply an algorithm (M3C2 - Multiscale Model to Model Cloud Comparison), initially developed for analysing fluvial morphological change, that directly compares point to point cloud data using surface normals that are consistent with surface roughness and measure the change that occurs along the normal direction (Lague et al., 2013). The surfaces changes are analysed using a set of user defined scales based on surface roughness and registration error. Once the correct parameters are defined, the volumetric cliff face changes are calculated by integrating the mean distance between the point clouds. The analysis has been undertaken at two hard rock sites identified for their active erosion located on the UK's south west peninsular at Porthleven in south west Cornwall and Godrevy in north Cornwall. Alongside TLS point cloud data, in

  18. Neutron behavior, reactor control, and reactor heat transfer. Volume four

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Volume four covers neutron behavior (neutron absorption, how big are nuclei, neutron slowing down, neutron losses, the self-sustaining reactor), reactor control (what is controlled in a reactor, controlling neutron population, is it easy to control a reactor, range of reactor control, what happens when the fuel burns up, controlling a PWR, controlling a BWR, inherent safety of reactors), and reactor heat transfer (heat generation in a nuclear reactor, how is heat removed from a reactor core, heat transfer rate, heat transfer properties of the reactor coolant).

  19. A study of the effects of exposure on cleanup workers at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident using multiple end points.

    PubMed

    Moore, D H; Tucker, J D; Jones, I M; Langlois, R G; Pleshanov, P; Vorobtsova, I; Jensen, R

    1997-11-01

    Blood samples were collected from 192 exposed workers who participated in the cleanup after the April 26, 1986, nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine. These samples, together with samples from 73 individuals living in Russia but not involved in Chernobyl cleanup activities, were collected during September 1991 to May 1996 and shipped to the U.S. for evaluation by three bioassays: cytogenetic analysis based on chromosome painting, HPRT mutation analysis and glycophorin A (GPA) variant analysis. Univariate statistical analyses of the results of each bioassay (including adjustments for age, smoking status and estimated precision of the bioassay) found greater frequencies of chromosome translocations and HPRT mutant T lymphocytes among the exposed individuals compared to the controls (P < or = 0.01). GPA analyses showed no significant difference for exposed compared to controls for either hemizygous, N/O, or homozygous, N/N, variant cell frequency. Multivariate analysis of variance of the subset of 44 exposed and 14 unexposed individuals with measurements from all three bioassays found elevated frequencies of chromosomal translocations and HPRT mutants, and reduced frequencies for both GPA end points among the exposed persons compared to the controls. However, none of these differences, considered singly or in combination, was statistically significant (although statistical power is low due to small sample sizes). Mean estimated dose, based on cytogenetic response, for those exposed was 9 cGy (range 0 to 51 cGy) and was less than that estimated by physical dosimetry (25 cGy). Correlation between the end points of the bioassays and estimated physical dosimetry was low (r < 0.2); the only significant correlation found was for physical dose estimate and dates worked at Chernobyl (r = 0.4, P < 0.01), with those working soon after the accident receiving greater estimated doses.

  20. How Big Is Too Big?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cibes, Margaret; Greenwood, James

    2016-01-01

    Media Clips appears in every issue of Mathematics Teacher, offering readers contemporary, authentic applications of quantitative reasoning based on print or electronic media. This issue features "How Big is Too Big?" (Margaret Cibes and James Greenwood) in which students are asked to analyze the data and tables provided and answer a…

  1. Real-time PCR array chip with capillary-driven sample loading and reactor sealing for point-of-care applications.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, Naveen; Liu, Hao-Bing; Dai, Chang-Chun; Jiang, Yu; Wang, Hui; Wang, Qinghui; M Hui, Kam; Gong, Hai-Qing

    2009-10-01

    A major challenge for the lab-on-a-chip (LOC) community is to develop point-of-care diagnostic chips that do not use instruments. Such instruments include pumping or liquid handling devices for distribution of patient's nucleic-acid test sample among an array of reactors and microvalves or mechanical parts to seal these reactors. In this paper, we report the development of a primer pair pre-loaded PCR array chip, in which the loading of the PCR mixture into an array of reactors and subsequent sealing of the reactors were realized by a novel capillary-based microfluidics with a manual two-step pipetting operations. The chip is capable of performing simultaneous (parallel) analyses of multiple gene targets and its performance was tested by amplifying twelve different gene targets against cDNA template from human hepatocellular carcinoma using SYBR Green I fluorescent dye. The versatility and reproducibility of the PCR-array chip are demonstrated by real-time PCR amplification of the BNI-1 fragment of SARS cDNA cloned in a plasmid vector. The reactor-to-reactor diffusion of the pre-loaded primer pairs in the chip is investigated to eliminate the possibility of primer cross-contamination. Key technical issues such as PCR mixture loss in gas-permeable PDMS chip layer and bubble generation due to different PDMS-glass bonding methods are investigated.

  2. Thermal-maturity trends within Franciscan rocks near Big Sur, California: Implications for offset along the San Gregorio San Simeon Hosgri fault zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, Michael B.; Laughland, Matthew M.; Shelton, Kevin L.; Sedlock, Richard L.

    1995-09-01

    Conventional neotectonic interpretations place the Lucia and Point Sur subterranes of the Franciscan subduction complex on opposite sides of the San Gregorio San Simeon Hosgri dextral fault system and connect that system through the Sur fault zone. Our reconstructed paleotemperature contours, however, are not offset across the San Simeon segment, so differential displacement between the subterranes after peak heating appears to have been negligible. One explanation is that dextral slip on the faults has totaled only 5 10 km. A second possibility is that a discrete Hosgri San Simeon segment extends offshore of the amalgamated Point Sur and Lucia subterranes and that an en echelon stepover transfers dextral slip eastward to the San Gregorio Palo Colorado segment. In either case, the Sur fault zone appears to play a relatively insignificant role in the late Cenozoic tectonic evolution of central California.

  3. Toward a Learning Health-care System – Knowledge Delivery at the Point of Care Empowered by Big Data and NLP

    PubMed Central

    Kaggal, Vinod C.; Elayavilli, Ravikumar Komandur; Mehrabi, Saeed; Pankratz, Joshua J.; Sohn, Sunghwan; Wang, Yanshan; Li, Dingcheng; Rastegar, Majid Mojarad; Murphy, Sean P.; Ross, Jason L.; Chaudhry, Rajeev; Buntrock, James D.; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    The concept of optimizing health care by understanding and generating knowledge from previous evidence, ie, the Learning Health-care System (LHS), has gained momentum and now has national prominence. Meanwhile, the rapid adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) enables the data collection required to form the basis for facilitating LHS. A prerequisite for using EHR data within the LHS is an infrastructure that enables access to EHR data longitudinally for health-care analytics and real time for knowledge delivery. Additionally, significant clinical information is embedded in the free text, making natural language processing (NLP) an essential component in implementing an LHS. Herein, we share our institutional implementation of a big data-empowered clinical NLP infrastructure, which not only enables health-care analytics but also has real-time NLP processing capability. The infrastructure has been utilized for multiple institutional projects including the MayoExpertAdvisor, an individualized care recommendation solution for clinical care. We compared the advantages of big data over two other environments. Big data infrastructure significantly outperformed other infrastructure in terms of computing speed, demonstrating its value in making the LHS a possibility in the near future. PMID:27385912

  4. Big Surveys, Big Data Centres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schade, D.

    2016-06-01

    Well-designed astronomical surveys are powerful and have consistently been keystones of scientific progress. The Byurakan Surveys using a Schmidt telescope with an objective prism produced a list of about 3000 UV-excess Markarian galaxies but these objects have stimulated an enormous amount of further study and appear in over 16,000 publications. The CFHT Legacy Surveys used a wide-field imager to cover thousands of square degrees and those surveys are mentioned in over 1100 publications since 2002. Both ground and space-based astronomy have been increasing their investments in survey work. Survey instrumentation strives toward fair samples and large sky coverage and therefore strives to produce massive datasets. Thus we are faced with the "big data" problem in astronomy. Survey datasets require specialized approaches to data management. Big data places additional challenging requirements for data management. If the term "big data" is defined as data collections that are too large to move then there are profound implications for the infrastructure that supports big data science. The current model of data centres is obsolete. In the era of big data the central problem is how to create architectures that effectively manage the relationship between data collections, networks, processing capabilities, and software, given the science requirements of the projects that need to be executed. A stand alone data silo cannot support big data science. I'll describe the current efforts of the Canadian community to deal with this situation and our successes and failures. I'll talk about how we are planning in the next decade to try to create a workable and adaptable solution to support big data science.

  5. Deep crescentic features caused by subglacial boulder point pressure on jointed rock; an example from Virkisjökull, SE Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krabbendam, M.; Bradwell, T.; Everest, J.

    2012-04-01

    A variety of subglacially formed, erosional crescentic features (e.g. crescentic gouges, lunate fractures) have been widely reported on deglaciated bedrock surfaces. They are characterised by a conchoidal fracture that dips in the same direction as the palaeo-ice flow direction, and a steeper fracture that faces against the ice flow. They are generally interpreted as being formed by point pressure exerted by large boulders entrained in basal ice. They are significant in that they record palaeo-ice flow even if shallower glacial striae are obliterated by post-glacial weathering [1, 2, 3]. This contribution reports on deep scallop-shaped, crescentic depressions observed on abraded surfaces of roche moutonnées and whalebacks recently (<10yrs) exposed beneath the actively retreating Virkisjökull, an outlet glacier of the Oraefajökull ice cap in southeast Iceland. The substrate comprises hard rhyolitic rock (relatively rare in Iceland compared to more common basalt and hyaloclastite) with polygonal, columnar jointing. The crescentic depressions at Virkisjökull are cut into smoothed, abraded surfaces festooned with abundant glacial striae. Differences with previously reported crescentic features are: • The scallop-shaped depressions are considerably deeper (5-20 cm); • The steep fracture facing ice flow coincides in all cases with a pre-existing joint that cuts the entire whaleback. The steep joints developed thus before the conchoidal fracture, whilst in reported crescentic features they develop after the conchoidal fracture. We suggest the following formation mechanism. A boulder encased in basal ice exerts continuous pressure on its contact point as it moves across the ice-bedrock contact. This sets up a stress field in the bedrock that does not necessarily exceed the intact rock strength (other crescentic features are rare to absent at Virkisjökull). However, as the stress field migrates (with the transported boulder) and encounters a subvertical, pre

  6. Big Dreams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The Keen Johnson Building is symbolic of Eastern Kentucky University's historic role as a School of Opportunity. It is a place that has inspired generations of students, many from disadvantaged backgrounds, to dream big dreams. The construction of the Keen Johnson Building was inspired by a desire to create a student union facility that would not…

  7. Big Opportunities and Big Concerns of Big Data in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yinying

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of the ever-increasing influx of big data, this article examines the opportunities and concerns over big data in education. Specifically, this article first introduces big data, followed by delineating the potential opportunities of using big data in education in two areas: learning analytics and educational policy. Then, the…

  8. The Big Rocks: Priority Management for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Kim

    2008-01-01

    How can a dedicated principal work really, really hard but fail to get significant gains in student achievement? The answer is obvious: by spending too much time on the wrong things and not enough on the right things. The principal's number-one priority is zeroing in on the highest-priority activities for bringing all students to high levels of…

  9. Online stress corrosion crack and fatigue usages factor monitoring and prognostics in light water reactor components: Probabilistic modeling, system identification and data fusion based big data analytics approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mohanty, Subhasish M.; Jagielo, Bryan J.; Iverson, William I.; Bhan, Chi Bum; Soppet, William S.; Majumdar, Saurin M.; Natesan, Ken N.

    2014-12-10

    Nuclear reactors in the United States account for roughly 20% of the nation's total electric energy generation, and maintaining their safety in regards to key component structural integrity is critical not only for long term use of such plants but also for the safety of personnel and the public living around the plant. Early detection of damage signature such as of stress corrosion cracking, thermal-mechanical loading related material degradation in safety-critical components is a necessary requirement for long-term and safe operation of nuclear power plant systems.

  10. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    PubMed

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution. PMID:27441855

  11. The ARIES-III D- sup 3 He tokamak reactor: Design-point determination and parametric studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bathke, C.G.; Werley, K.A.; Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A. ); Santarius, J.F. )

    1991-01-01

    The multi-institutional ARIES study has generated a conceptual design of another tokamak fusion reactor in a series that varies the assumed advances in technology and physics. The ARIES-3 design uses a D-{sup 3}He fuel cycle and requires advances in technology and physics for economical attractiveness. The optimal design was characterized through systems analyses for eventual conceptual engineering design. Results from the systems analysis are summarized, and a comparison with the high-field, D-T fueled ARIES-1 is included. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Control Means for Reactor

    DOEpatents

    Manley, J. H.

    1961-06-27

    An apparatus for controlling a nuclear reactor includes a tank just below the reactor, tubes extending from the tank into the reactor, and a thermally expansible liquid neutron absorbent material in the tank. The liquid in the tank is exposed to a beam of neutrons from the reactor which heats the liquid causing it to expand into the reactor when the neutron flux in the reactor rises above a predetermincd danger point. Boron triamine may be used for this purpose.

  13. Talking Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Dale; Corley, Brenda

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the ways that rocks can be used to enhance children's creativity and their interest in science. Suggests the creation of a dramatic production involving rocks. Includes basic information on sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks. (TW)

  14. 45. March 26, 1935 View of the big slide of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. March 26, 1935 View of the big slide of several hundred cubic yards of rock, spring of 1934. Another slide occurred at this same location on May 26, 1935. - Scotts Bluff Summit Road, Gering, Scotts Bluff County, NE

  15. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Big Sky Carbon Atlas is an online geoportal designed for you to discover, interpret, and access geospatial data and maps relevant to decision support and education on carbon sequestration in the Big Sky Region. In serving as the public face of the Partnership's spatial Data Libraries, the Atlas provides a gateway to geographic information characterizing CO2 sources, potential geologic sinks, terrestrial carbon fluxes, civil and energy infrastructure, energy use, and related themes. In addition to directly serving the BSCSP and its stakeholders, the Atlas feeds regional data to the NatCarb Portal, contributing to a national perspective on carbon sequestration. Established components of the Atlas include a gallery of thematic maps and an interactive map that allows you to: • Navigate and explore regional characterization data through a user-friendly interface • Print your map views or publish them as PDFs • Identify technical references relevant to specific areas of interest • Calculate straight-line or pipeline-constrained distances from point sources of CO2 to potential geologic sink features • Download regional data layers (feature under development) (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  16. Challenges of Big Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-06-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions.

  17. Challenges of Big Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Fang; Liu, Han

    2014-01-01

    Big Data bring new opportunities to modern society and challenges to data scientists. On one hand, Big Data hold great promises for discovering subtle population patterns and heterogeneities that are not possible with small-scale data. On the other hand, the massive sample size and high dimensionality of Big Data introduce unique computational and statistical challenges, including scalability and storage bottleneck, noise accumulation, spurious correlation, incidental endogeneity, and measurement errors. These challenges are distinguished and require new computational and statistical paradigm. This article gives overviews on the salient features of Big Data and how these features impact on paradigm change on statistical and computational methods as well as computing architectures. We also provide various new perspectives on the Big Data analysis and computation. In particular, we emphasize on the viability of the sparsest solution in high-confidence set and point out that exogeneous assumptions in most statistical methods for Big Data can not be validated due to incidental endogeneity. They can lead to wrong statistical inferences and consequently wrong scientific conclusions. PMID:25419469

  18. Single and multi-point ion energy distributions in a VHF+RF commercial plasma reactor measured by novel in-wafer ion energy analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Barton; Funk, Merritt; Chen, Lee; Sundararajan, Radha; Zhao, Jianping

    2012-10-01

    A novel, all silicon, minimally perturbing, non-contaminating, in-wafer, 2 and 3 layer ion energy analyzer described elsewhere in this conference is used to measure ion energy distributions for a variety of realistic processing conditions in a commercial VHF + 13.56 MHZ RF reactor with no modifications to its basic geometry or RF delivery system. Spectra with energies as high 1 keV are measured with resolution on the order of 1%. We show data and discuss the splitting of the high energy peaks due to finite ion sheath crossing time effects and how this splitting scales with frequency, power and pressure. We discuss the origin of the charge exchange peaks. We use the identification of atomic and molecular oxygen ion peaks to estimate the resolution of the diagnostic. The effect of VHF in narrowing ion energy distributions and yielding moderate ion energies will be highlighted. Spectra using a multi-point, 2 layer variant of the ion energy analyzer design were obtained at 4 radial locations for a variety of conditions in argon and oxygen plasmas. These spectra quantify center to edge variations and reveal unique spectral features due to pre-existing modifications to the test reactor's upper counter electrode surface.

  19. Intensification and forecasting of low-pour-point diesel fuel production via modelling reactor and stabilizer column at industrial unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belinskaya, N. S.; Frantsina, E. V.; Ivanchina, E. D.; Popova, N. V.; Zyryanova, I. V.; Averyanova, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    In this work forecast calculation of stabilizer column in the technology of low-pour- point diesel fuel production was modelled. The results of forecast calculation were proved by full-scale experiment at diesel fuel catalytic dewaxing unit. The forecast calculation and full- scale experiment made it possible to determine the ways of mass transfer intensification, as well as to increase the degree of hydrogen sulphide removal in the column, and thereby to decrease corrosiveness of the product stream. It was found out that maintenance of the reflux rate in the range of 80-90 m3/h and injection of additional vapourizing streams, such as stable naphtha from distillation unit (in the volume of 10-22 m3/h) and hydrogen-containing gas (in the volume of 100-300 m3/h), ensure complete elimination of corrosive hydrogen sulphide from the product stream. Reduction of stream corrosive activity due to suggested solutions extends service life of equipment and pipelines at industrial catalytic dewaxing unit.

  20. An isothermal amplification reactor with an integrated isolation membrane for point-of-care detection of infectious diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Changchun; Geva, Eran; Mauk, Michael; Qiu, Xianbo; Abrams, William R.; Malamud, Daniel; Curtis, Kelly; Owen, S. Michele; Bau, Haim H.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, point of care, inexpensive, disposable cassette for the detection of nucleic acids extracted from pathogens was designed, constructed, and tested. The cassette utilizes a single reaction chamber for isothermal amplification of nucleic acids. The chamber is equipped with an integrated, flow-through, Flinders Technology Associates (Whatman FTA®) membrane for the isolation, concentration, and purification of DNA and/or RNA. The nucleic acids captured by the membrane are used directly as templates for amplification without elution, thus simplifying the cassette’s flow control. The FTA membrane also serves another critical role—enabling the removal of inhibitors that dramatically reduce detection sensitivity. Thermal control is provided with a thin film heater external to the cassette. The amplification process was monitored in real time with a portable, compact fluorescent reader. The utility of the integrated, single-chamber cassette was demonstrated by detecting the presence of HIV-1 in oral fluids. The HIV RNA was reverse transcribed and subjected to loop-mediated, isothermal amplification (LAMP). A detection limit of less than 10 HIV particles was demonstrated. The cassette is particularly suitable for resource poor regions, where funds and trained personnel are in short supply. The cassette can be readily modified to detect nucleic acids associated with other pathogens borne in saliva, urine, and other body fluids as well as in water and food. PMID:21455542

  1. Collecting Rocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Rachel M.

    One of a series of general interest publications on science topics, the booklet provides those interested in rock collecting with a nontechnical introduction to the subject. Following a section examining the nature and formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks, the booklet gives suggestions for starting a rock collection and using…

  2. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  3. Rock Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  4. Adobe photoshop quantification (PSQ) rather than point-counting: A rapid and precise method for quantifying rock textural data and porosities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Bo; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Zhe; Shi, Kaibo; Wu, Shuanglin

    2014-08-01

    Commonly used petrological quantification methods are visual estimation, counting, and image analyses. However, in this article, an Adobe Photoshop-based analyzing method (PSQ) is recommended for quantifying the rock textural data and porosities. Adobe Photoshop system provides versatile abilities in selecting an area of interest and the pixel number of a selection could be read and used to calculate its area percentage. Therefore, Adobe Photoshop could be used to rapidly quantify textural components, such as content of grains, cements, and porosities including total porosities and different genetic type porosities. This method was named as Adobe Photoshop Quantification (PSQ). The workflow of the PSQ method was introduced with the oolitic dolomite samples from the Triassic Feixianguan Formation, Northeastern Sichuan Basin, China, for example. And the method was tested by comparing with the Folk's and Shvetsov's "standard" diagrams. In both cases, there is a close agreement between the "standard" percentages and those determined by the PSQ method with really small counting errors and operator errors, small standard deviations and high confidence levels. The porosities quantified by PSQ were evaluated against those determined by the whole rock helium gas expansion method to test the specimen errors. Results have shown that the porosities quantified by the PSQ are well correlated to the porosities determined by the conventional helium gas expansion method. Generally small discrepancies (mostly ranging from -3% to 3%) are caused by microporosities which would cause systematic underestimation of 2% and/or by macroporosities causing underestimation or overestimation in different cases. Adobe Photoshop could be used to quantify rock textural components and porosities. This method has been tested to be precise and accurate. It is time saving compared with usual methods.

  5. Preliminary geologic map of the Big Bear City 7.5' Quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Fred K.; digital preparation by Cossette, Pamela M.

    2004-01-01

    This data set maps and describes the geology of the Big Bear City 7.5' quadrangle, San Bernardino County, California. Created using Environmental Systems Research Institute's ARC/INFO software, the data base consists of the following items: (1) a rock-unit coverage and attribute tables (polygon and arc) containing geologic contacts, units and rock-unit labels as annotation which are also included in a separate annotation coverage, bbc_anno (2) a point coverage containing structural point data and (3) a coverage containing fold axes. In addition, the data set includes the following graphic and text products: (1) A PostScript graphic plot-file containing the geologic map, topography, cultural data, a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram, a Description of Map Units (DMU), an index map, a regional geologic and structure map, and an explanation for point and line symbols; (2) PDF files of the Readme (including the metadata file as an appendix), and a screen graphic of the plot produced by the PostScript plot file. The geologic map describes a geologically complex area on the north side of the San Bernardino Mountains. Bedrock units in the Big Bear City quadrangle are dominated by (1) large Cretaceous granitic bodies ranging in composition from monzogranite to gabbro, (2) metamorphosed sedimentary rocks ranging in age from late Paleozoic to late Proterozoic, and (3) Middle Proterozoic gneiss. These rocks are complexly deformed by normal, reverse, and thrust faults, and in places are tightly folded. The geologic map database contains original U.S. Geological Survey data generated by detailed field observation and by interpretation of aerial photographs. The map data was compiled on base-stable cronoflex copies of the Big Bear City 7.5' topographic map, transferred to a scribe-guide and subsequently digitized. Lines, points, and polygons were edited at the USGS using standard ARC/INFO commands. Digitizing and editing artifacts significant enough to display at a scale of

  6. Five Big Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Debbie

    2012-01-01

    Designing quality continuing professional development (CPD) for those teaching mathematics in primary schools is a challenge. If the CPD is to be built on the scaffold of five big ideas in mathematics, what might be these five big ideas? Might it just be a case of, if you tell me your five big ideas, then I'll tell you mine? Here, there is…

  7. Science Rocks!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Dorothy; Sumrall, Joseph; Chessin, Debby A.

    2010-01-01

    It all began one Monday morning. Raymond could not wait to come to large group. In his hand, he held a chunk of white granite he had found. "Look at my beautiful rock!" he cried. The rock was passed around and examined by each student. "I wonder how rocks are made?" wondered one student. "Where do they come from?" asked another. At this moment, a…

  8. Comparison of lactate sampling sites for rock climbing.

    PubMed

    Fryer, S; Draper, N; Dickson, T; Blackwell, G; Winter, D; Ellis, G

    2011-06-01

    Comparisons of capillary blood lactate concentrations pre and post climb have featured in the protocols of many rock climbing studies, with most researchers obtaining samples from the fingertip. The nature of rock climbing, however, places a comparatively high physiological loading on the foreaand fingertips. Indeed, the fingertips are continually required for gripping and this makes pre-climb sampling at this site problematic. The purpose of our study was to examine differences in capillary blood lactate concentrations from samples taken at the fingertip and first (big) toe in a rock climbing context. 10 participants (9 males and 1 female) completed climbing bouts at 3 different angles (91°, 100° and 110°). Capillary blood samples were taken simultaneously from the fingertip and first toe pre and post climb. A limit of agreement plot revealed all data points to be well within the upper and lower bounds of the 95% population confidence interval. Subsequent regression analysis revealed a strong relationship (R (2)=0.94, y=0.940x + 0.208) between fingertip and first toe capillary blood lactate concentrations. Findings from our study suggest that the toe offers a valid alternative site for capillary blood lactate concentration analysis in a rock climbing context.

  9. The Big Group of People Looking at How to Control Putting the Parts of the Air That Are the Same as What You Breathe Out Into Small Spaces in Rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Stack, Andrew

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Nanoscale Control of Geologic CO2 (NCGC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of NCGC is to build a fundamental understanding of molecular-to-pore-scale processes in fluid-rock systems, and to demonstrate the ability to control critical aspects of flow, transport, and mineralization in porous rock media as applied to the injection and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in subsurface reservoirs.

  10. Rock flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matveyev, S. N.

    1986-01-01

    Rock flows are defined as forms of spontaneous mass movements, commonly found in mountainous countries, which have been studied very little. The article considers formations known as rock rivers, rock flows, boulder flows, boulder stria, gravel flows, rock seas, and rubble seas. It describes their genesis as seen from their morphological characteristics and presents a classification of these forms. This classification is based on the difference in the genesis of the rubbly matter and characterizes these forms of mass movement according to their source, drainage, and deposit areas.

  11. 30 CFR 57.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3203 Rock fixtures. (a) For rock bolts and accessories addressed in... ground support, (1) Selected tension level shall be— (i) At least 50 percent of either the yield point...

  12. 30 CFR 57.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3203 Rock fixtures. (a) For rock bolts and accessories addressed in... ground support, (1) Selected tension level shall be— (i) At least 50 percent of either the yield point...

  13. 30 CFR 57.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3203 Rock fixtures. (a) For rock bolts and accessories addressed in... ground support, (1) Selected tension level shall be— (i) At least 50 percent of either the yield point...

  14. 30 CFR 57.3203 - Rock fixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Support-Surface and Underground § 57.3203 Rock fixtures. (a) For rock bolts and accessories addressed in... ground support, (1) Selected tension level shall be— (i) At least 50 percent of either the yield point...

  15. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Young, G.

    1963-01-01

    This patent covers a power-producing nuclear reactor in which fuel rods of slightly enriched U are moderated by heavy water and cooled by liquid metal. The fuel rods arranged parallel to one another in a circle are contained in a large outer closed-end conduit that extends into a tank containing the heavy water. Liquid metal is introduced into the large conduit by a small inner conduit that extends within the circle of fuel rods to a point near the lower closed end of the outer conduit. (AEC) Production Reactors

  16. 'Tetl' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image, taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit during the rover's trek through the 'Columbia Hills' at 'Gusev Crater,' shows the horizontally layered rock dubbed 'Tetl.' Scientists hope to investigate this rock in more detail, aiming to determine whether the rock's layering is volcanic or sedimentary in origin. If for some reason this particular rock is not favorably positioned for grinding and examination by the toolbox of instruments on the rover's robotic arm, Spirit will be within short reach of another similar rock, dubbed 'Coba.' Spirit took this image on its 264th martian day, or sol (Sept. 29, 2004). This is a false-color composite image generated from the panoramic camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters.

  17. Antigravity and the big crunch/big bang transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Chen, Shih-Hung; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2012-08-01

    We point out a new phenomenon which seems to be generic in 4d effective theories of scalar fields coupled to Einstein gravity, when applied to cosmology. A lift of such theories to a Weyl-invariant extension allows one to define classical evolution through cosmological singularities unambiguously, and hence construct geodesically complete background spacetimes. An attractor mechanism ensures that, at the level of the effective theory, generic solutions undergo a big crunch/big bang transition by contracting to zero size, passing through a brief antigravity phase, shrinking to zero size again, and re-emerging into an expanding normal gravity phase. The result may be useful for the construction of complete bouncing cosmologies like the cyclic model.

  18. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  19. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    27 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in northern Terby Crater. Terby is located along the north edge of Hellas Planitia. The sedimentary rocks might have been deposited in a greater, Hellas-filling sea -- or not. Today, the rocks are partly covered by dark-toned sediment and debris.

    Location near: 27.2oS, 285.3oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  20. Rock Garden

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This false color composite image of the Rock Garden shows the rocks 'Shark' and 'Half Dome' at upper left and middle, respectively. Between these two large rocks is a smaller rock (about 0.20 m wide, 0.10 m high, and 6.33 m from the Lander) that was observed close-up with the Sojourner rover (see PIA00989).

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  1. 'Lutefisk' Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit used its panoramic camera to take this image of a rock called 'Lutefisk' on the rover's 286th martian day (Oct. 22, 2004). The surface of the rock is studded with rounded granules of apparently more-resistant material up to several millimeters (0.1 inch) or more across. The visible portion of Lutefisk is about 25 centimeters (10 inches) across.

  2. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOEpatents

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  3. Dual of big bang and big crunch

    SciTech Connect

    Bak, Dongsu

    2007-01-15

    Starting from the Janus solution and its gauge theory dual, we obtain the dual gauge theory description of the cosmological solution by the procedure of double analytic continuation. The coupling is driven either to zero or to infinity at the big-bang and big-crunch singularities, which are shown to be related by the S-duality symmetry. In the dual Yang-Mills theory description, these are nonsingular as the coupling goes to zero in the N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. The cosmological singularities simply signal the failure of the supergravity description of the full type IIB superstring theory.

  4. The Big Loser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity in which the subject is the identity of the team in the greatest jeopardy of becoming the big loser in a basketball tournament. Explores several facts about the big loser, offering them in a hierarchy appropriate for creating various short- and long-term projects for a high school mathematics class. (ASK)

  5. Implementing Big History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welter, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Contends that world history should be taught as "Big History," a view that includes all space and time beginning with the Big Bang. Discusses five "Cardinal Questions" that serve as a course structure and address the following concepts: perspectives, diversity, change and continuity, interdependence, and causes. (CMK)

  6. Gale Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-439, 1 August 2003

    Gale Crater, located in the Aeolis region near 5.5oS, 222oW, contains a mound of layered sedimentary rock that stands higher than the rim of the crater. This giant mound suggests that the entire crater was not only once filled with sediment, it was also buried beneath sediment. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the eroded remains of the sedimentary rock that once filled Gale Crater. The layers form terraces; wind has eroded the material to form the tapered, pointed yardang ridges seen here. The small circular feature in the lower right quarter of the picture is a mesa that was once a small meteor impact crater that was filled, buried, then exhumed from within the sedimentary rock layers exposed here. This image is illuminated from the left.

  7. Trace-metal and organic constituent concentrations in bed sediment at Big Base and Little Base Lakes, Little Rock Air Force Base, Arkansas—Comparisons to sediment-quality guidelines and indications for timing of exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justus, B.G.; Hays, Phillip D.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2015-09-16

    Regarding highest concentrations and associated timing of exposure, trace metals analyzed in the sediment core seem to indicate three fairly distinct exposure patterns. For 11 trace metals that had the highest concentration measured in the shallowest and most recently deposited sediment, the most likely explanation is recent exposure by anthropogenic activities. Most of the 11 trace metals with highest concentrations in shallow sediment are relatively innocuous; however, arsenic, copper, selenium, and zinc are among the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s 126 priority pollutants. For three trace metals (cadmium, lead, and mercury), for which concentrations were highest in sediments that were 16–20 centimeters down the core, it is likely that a source associated with those contaminants during the period when those sediments were deposited, was reduced or eliminated. The eight remaining trace metals, for which concentrations were highest in sediments that were just below the prereservoir surface, likely had sources that were eliminated soon after lake construction or occurred at relatively high background concentrations in soils in the area around Little Rock Air Force Base.

  8. Big data for health.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled. PMID:26173222

  9. Big data for health.

    PubMed

    Andreu-Perez, Javier; Poon, Carmen C Y; Merrifield, Robert D; Wong, Stephen T C; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in big data in the context of biomedical and health informatics. It outlines the key characteristics of big data and how medical and health informatics, translational bioinformatics, sensor informatics, and imaging informatics will benefit from an integrated approach of piecing together different aspects of personalized information from a diverse range of data sources, both structured and unstructured, covering genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, as well as imaging, clinical diagnosis, and long-term continuous physiological sensing of an individual. It is expected that recent advances in big data will expand our knowledge for testing new hypotheses about disease management from diagnosis to prevention to personalized treatment. The rise of big data, however, also raises challenges in terms of privacy, security, data ownership, data stewardship, and governance. This paper discusses some of the existing activities and future opportunities related to big data for health, outlining some of the key underlying issues that need to be tackled.

  10. Genesis of the big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpher, Ralph A.; Herman, Robert

    The authors of this volume have been intimately connected with the conception of the big bang model since 1947. Following the late George Gamov's ideas in 1942 and more particularly in 1946 that the early universe was an appropriate site for the synthesis of the elements, they became deeply involved in the question of cosmic nucleosynthesis and particularly the synthesis of the light elements. In the course of this work they developed a general relativistic model of the expanding universe with physics folded in, which led in a progressive, logical sequence to our prediction of the existence of a present cosmic background radiation some seventeen years before the observation of such radiation was reported by Penzias and Wilson. In addition, they carried out with James W. Follin, Jr., a detailed study of the physics of what was then considered to be the very early universe, starting a few seconds after the big bang, which still provides a methodology for studies of light element nucleosynthesis. Because of their involvement, they bring a personal perspective to the subject. They present a picture of what is now believed to be the state of knowledge about the evolution of the expanding universe and delineate the story of the development of the big bang model as they have seen and lived it from their own unique vantage point.

  11. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority. PMID:26218867

  12. Big data, big knowledge: big data for personalized healthcare.

    PubMed

    Viceconti, Marco; Hunter, Peter; Hose, Rod

    2015-07-01

    The idea that the purely phenomenological knowledge that we can extract by analyzing large amounts of data can be useful in healthcare seems to contradict the desire of VPH researchers to build detailed mechanistic models for individual patients. But in practice no model is ever entirely phenomenological or entirely mechanistic. We propose in this position paper that big data analytics can be successfully combined with VPH technologies to produce robust and effective in silico medicine solutions. In order to do this, big data technologies must be further developed to cope with some specific requirements that emerge from this application. Such requirements are: working with sensitive data; analytics of complex and heterogeneous data spaces, including nontextual information; distributed data management under security and performance constraints; specialized analytics to integrate bioinformatics and systems biology information with clinical observations at tissue, organ and organisms scales; and specialized analytics to define the "physiological envelope" during the daily life of each patient. These domain-specific requirements suggest a need for targeted funding, in which big data technologies for in silico medicine becomes the research priority.

  13. Big data: survey, technologies, opportunities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nawsher; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio; Inayat, Zakira; Ali, Waleed Kamaleldin Mahmoud; Alam, Muhammad; Shiraz, Muhammad; Gani, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data. PMID:25136682

  14. Big Data: Survey, Technologies, Opportunities, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nawsher; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio; Inayat, Zakira; Mahmoud Ali, Waleed Kamaleldin; Alam, Muhammad; Shiraz, Muhammad; Gani, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data. PMID:25136682

  15. Big data: survey, technologies, opportunities, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nawsher; Yaqoob, Ibrar; Hashem, Ibrahim Abaker Targio; Inayat, Zakira; Ali, Waleed Kamaleldin Mahmoud; Alam, Muhammad; Shiraz, Muhammad; Gani, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Big Data has gained much attention from the academia and the IT industry. In the digital and computing world, information is generated and collected at a rate that rapidly exceeds the boundary range. Currently, over 2 billion people worldwide are connected to the Internet, and over 5 billion individuals own mobile phones. By 2020, 50 billion devices are expected to be connected to the Internet. At this point, predicted data production will be 44 times greater than that in 2009. As information is transferred and shared at light speed on optic fiber and wireless networks, the volume of data and the speed of market growth increase. However, the fast growth rate of such large data generates numerous challenges, such as the rapid growth of data, transfer speed, diverse data, and security. Nonetheless, Big Data is still in its infancy stage, and the domain has not been reviewed in general. Hence, this study comprehensively surveys and classifies the various attributes of Big Data, including its nature, definitions, rapid growth rate, volume, management, analysis, and security. This study also proposes a data life cycle that uses the technologies and terminologies of Big Data. Future research directions in this field are determined based on opportunities and several open issues in Big Data domination. These research directions facilitate the exploration of the domain and the development of optimal techniques to address Big Data.

  16. Lacustrine petroleum source rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fleet, A.J.; Kelts, K.; Talbot, M.

    1988-01-01

    This book is a proceedings volume from a 1985 symposium sponsored by the Geological Society of London and the International Geological Correlation Program Project No. 219 (Comparative lacustrine sedimentology in space and time). That meeting set the tone for subsequent IGCP No. 219 symposia, where sedimentary, petroleum, and structural geologists, as well as geochemists and paleontologists, have grappled with important problems in lake geology. The 1985 meeting on lacustrine source rocks considered the following questions: (1) How can we develop more refined methods for interpreting depositional environments from lake deposits and fossils , (2) What limnologic, sedimentologic, and tectonic conditions are most conducive to the production and accumulation of organic matter in lakes , (3) What diagenetic changes affect organic-rich sediments after deposition , and (4) How can questions 2 and 3 be best evaluated from the stratigraphic record As a group, lakes are extremely productive ecosystems. Marine environments that would be ranked as high productivity systems are only moderately productive by lacustrine standards. Even with energy transfer rates of less than a few percent from the primary producers to the sediment, lacustrine mudrocks can be extremely rich in organic matter. The major limitations of lacustrine source rocks are not lithologic but limitations of scale (both spatial and temporal). How, in the middle of a continent, do you get a hole in the ground that is both big enough and long-lasting enough to generate significant quantities of hydrocarbons

  17. Big Data in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latinović, T. S.; Preradović, D. M.; Barz, C. R.; Latinović, M. T.; Petrica, P. P.; Pop-Vadean, A.

    2016-08-01

    The amount of data at the global level has grown exponentially. Along with this phenomena, we have a need for a new unit of measure like exabyte, zettabyte, and yottabyte as the last unit measures the amount of data. The growth of data gives a situation where the classic systems for the collection, storage, processing, and visualization of data losing the battle with a large amount, speed, and variety of data that is generated continuously. Many of data that is created by the Internet of Things, IoT (cameras, satellites, cars, GPS navigation, etc.). It is our challenge to come up with new technologies and tools for the management and exploitation of these large amounts of data. Big Data is a hot topic in recent years in IT circles. However, Big Data is recognized in the business world, and increasingly in the public administration. This paper proposes an ontology of big data analytics and examines how to enhance business intelligence through big data analytics as a service by presenting a big data analytics services-oriented architecture. This paper also discusses the interrelationship between business intelligence and big data analytics. The proposed approach in this paper might facilitate the research and development of business analytics, big data analytics, and business intelligence as well as intelligent agents.

  18. Nitrogen release from rock and soil under simulated field conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holloway, J.M.; Dahlgren, R.A.; Casey, W.H.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory study was performed to simulate field weathering and nitrogen release from bedrock in a setting where geologic nitrogen has been suspected to be a large local source of nitrate. Two rock types containing nitrogen, slate (1370 mg N kg-1) and greenstone (480 mg N kg-1), were used along with saprolite and BC horizon sand from soils derived from these rock types. The fresh rock and weathered material were used in batch reactors that were leached every 30 days over 6 months to simulate a single wet season. Nitrogen was released from rock and soil materials at rates between 10-20 and 10-19 mo1 N cm-2 s-1. Results from the laboratory dissolution experiments were compared to in situ soil solutions and available mineral nitrogen pools from the BC horizon of both soils. Concentrations of mineral nitrogen (NO3- + NH4+) in soil solutions reached the highest levels at the beginning of the rainy season and progressively decreased with increased leaching. This seasonal pattern was repeated for the available mineral nitrogen pool that was extracted using a KCl solution. Estimates based on these laboratory release rates bracket stream water NO3-N fluxes and changes in the available mineral nitrogen pool over the active leaching period. These results confirm that geologic nitrogen, when present, may be a large and reactive pool that may contribute as a non-point source of nitrate contamination to surface and ground waters. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rock Paintings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  20. Pollack Crater's White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image of White Rock in Pollack crater was taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) on February 3, 2007 at 1750 UTC (12:50 p.m. EST), near 8 degrees south latitude, 25 degrees east longitude. The CRISM image was taken in 544 colors covering 0.36-3.92 micrometers, and shows features as small as 40 meters (132 feet) across. The region covered is roughly 20 kilometers (12 miles) long and 10 kilometers (6 miles) wide at its narrowest point.

    First imaged by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972, the enigmatic group of wind-eroded ridges known as White Rock has been the subject of many subsequent investigations. White Rock is located on the floor of Pollack Crater in the Sinus Sabaeus region of Mars. It measures some 15 by 18 kilometers (9 by 11 miles) and was named for its light-colored appearance. In contrast-enhanced images, the feature's higher albedo or reflectivity compared with the darker material on the floor of the crater makes it appear white. In reality, White Rock has a dull, reddish color more akin to Martian dust. This higher albedo as well as its location in a topographic low suggested to some researchers that White Rock may be an eroded remnant of an ancient lake deposit. As water in a desert lake on Earth evaporates, it leaves behind white-colored salts that it leached or dissolved out of the surrounding terrain. These salt deposits may include carbonates, sulfates, and chlorides.

    In 2001, the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor measured White Rock and found no obvious signature of carbonates or sulfates, or any other indication that White Rock holds evaporite minerals. Instead, it found Martian dust.

    CRISM's challenge was to obtain greater detail of White Rock's mineralogical composition and how it formed. The instrument operates at a different wavelength range than TES, giving it greater sensitivity to carbonate, sulfate and phyllosilicate (clay-like) minerals. It also

  1. The Big Bang Theory

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  2. The Big Bang Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2014-09-30

    The Big Bang is the name of the most respected theory of the creation of the universe. Basically, the theory says that the universe was once smaller and denser and has been expending for eons. One common misconception is that the Big Bang theory says something about the instant that set the expansion into motion, however this isn’t true. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln tells about the Big Bang theory and sketches some speculative ideas about what caused the universe to come into existence.

  3. Geoelectrical Classification of Gypsum Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinea, Ander; Playà, Elisabet; Rivero, Lluís; Himi, Mahjoub; Bosch, Ricard

    2010-12-01

    Gypsum rocks are widely exploited in the world as industrial minerals. The purity of the gypsum rocks (percentage in gypsum mineral in the whole rock) is a critical factor to evaluate the potential exploitability of a gypsum deposit. It is considered than purities higher than 80% in gypsum are required to be economically profitable. Gypsum deposits have been studied with geoelectrical methods; a direct relationship between the electrical resistivity values of the gypsum rocks and its lithological composition has been established, with the presence of lutites being the main controlling factor in the geoelectrical response of the deposit. This phenomenon has been quantified in the present study, by means of a combination of theoretical calculations, laboratory measurements and field data acquisition. Direct modelling has been performed; the data have been inverted to obtain the mean electrical resistivity of the models. The laboratory measurements have been obtained from artificial gypsum-clay mixture pills, and the electrical resistivity has been measured using a simple electrical circuit with direct current power supply. Finally, electrical resistivity tomography data have been acquired in different evaporite Tertiary basins located in North East Spain; the selected gypsum deposits have different gypsum compositions. The geoelectrical response of gypsum rocks has been determined by comparing the resistivity values obtained from theoretical models, laboratory tests and field examples. A geoelectrical classification of gypsum rocks defining three types of gypsum rocks has been elaborated: (a) Pure Gypsum Rocks (>75% of gypsum content), (b) Transitional Gypsum Rocks (75-55%), and (c) Lutites and Gypsum-rich Lutites (<55%). From the economic point of view, the Pure Gypsum Rocks, displaying a resistivity value of >800 ohm.m, can be exploited as industrial rocks. The methodology used could be applied in other geoelectrical rock studies, given that this relationship

  4. The Big Bang Singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Eric

    The big bang theory is a model of the universe which makes the striking prediction that the universe began a finite amount of time in the past at the so called "Big Bang singularity." We explore the physical and mathematical justification of this surprising result. After laying down the framework of the universe as a spacetime manifold, we combine physical observations with global symmetrical assumptions to deduce the FRW cosmological models which predict a big bang singularity. Next we prove a couple theorems due to Stephen Hawking which show that the big bang singularity exists even if one removes the global symmetrical assumptions. Lastly, we investigate the conditions one needs to impose on a spacetime if one wishes to avoid a singularity. The ideas and concepts used here to study spacetimes are similar to those used to study Riemannian manifolds, therefore we compare and contrast the two geometries throughout.

  5. White Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 19 April 2002) The Science 'White Rock' is the unofficial name for this unusual landform which was first observed during the Mariner 9 mission in the early 1970's. As later analysis of additional data sets would show, White Rock is neither white nor dense rock. Its apparent brightness arises from the fact that the material surrounding it is so dark. Images from the Mars Global Surveyor MOC camera revealed dark sand dunes surrounding White Rock and on the floor of the troughs within it. Some of these dunes are just apparent in the THEMIS image. Although there was speculation that the material composing White Rock could be salts from an ancient dry lakebed, spectral data from the MGS TES instrument did not support this claim. Instead, the White Rock deposit may be the erosional remnant of a previously more continuous occurrence of air fall sediments, either volcanic ash or windblown dust. The THEMIS image offers new evidence for the idea that the original deposit covered a larger area. Approximately 10 kilometers to the southeast of the main deposit are some tiny knobs of similarly bright material preserved on the floor of a small crater. Given that the eolian erosion of the main White Rock deposit has produced isolated knobs at its edges, it is reasonable to suspect that the more distant outliers are the remnants of a once continuous deposit that stretched at least to this location. The fact that so little remains of the larger deposit suggests that the material is very easily eroded and simply blows away. The Story Fingers of hard, white rock seem to jut out like icy daggers across a moody Martian surface, but appearances can be deceiving. These bright, jagged features are neither white, nor icy, nor even hard and rocky! So what are they, and why are they so different from the surrounding terrain? Scientists know that you can't always trust what your eyes see alone. You have to use other kinds of science instruments to measure things that our eyes can

  6. Meridiani Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the complex surfaces of some of the light- and intermediate-toned sedimentary rock exposed by erosion in eastern Sinus Meridiani. Similar rocks occur at the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, site, but they are largely covered by windblown sand and granules. The dark feature with a rayed pattern is the product of a meteor impact.

    Location near: 0.8oN, 355.2oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  7. Terby's Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    25 August 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in the crater, Terby. The crater is located on the north rim of Hellas Basin. If one could visit the rocks in Terby, one might learn from them whether they formed in a body of water. It is possible, for example, that Terby was a bay in a larger, Hellas-wide sea.

    Location near: 27.9oS, 285.7oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  8. How Big Are "Martin's Big Words"? Thinking Big about the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Traci

    "Martin's Big Words: The Life of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr." tells of King's childhood determination to use "big words" through biographical information and quotations. In this lesson, students in grades 3 to 5 explore information on Dr. King to think about his "big" words, then they write about their own "big" words and dreams. During the one…

  9. Source rock potential of middle Cretaceous rocks in southwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J. Jr.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-08-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S{sub 1}+S{sub 2}) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% R{sub o}. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% R{sub o}, and at Big Sky, Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% R{sub o}. At both localities, high R{sub o} values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  10. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  11. Big Data in Caenorhabditis elegans: quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Hutter, Harald; Moerman, Donald

    2015-11-01

    A clear definition of what constitutes "Big Data" is difficult to identify, but we find it most useful to define Big Data as a data collection that is complete. By this criterion, researchers on Caenorhabditis elegans have a long history of collecting Big Data, since the organism was selected with the idea of obtaining a complete biological description and understanding of development. The complete wiring diagram of the nervous system, the complete cell lineage, and the complete genome sequence provide a framework to phrase and test hypotheses. Given this history, it might be surprising that the number of "complete" data sets for this organism is actually rather small--not because of lack of effort, but because most types of biological experiments are not currently amenable to complete large-scale data collection. Many are also not inherently limited, so that it becomes difficult to even define completeness. At present, we only have partial data on mutated genes and their phenotypes, gene expression, and protein-protein interaction--important data for many biological questions. Big Data can point toward unexpected correlations, and these unexpected correlations can lead to novel investigations; however, Big Data cannot establish causation. As a result, there is much excitement about Big Data, but there is also a discussion on just what Big Data contributes to solving a biological problem. Because of its relative simplicity, C. elegans is an ideal test bed to explore this issue and at the same time determine what is necessary to build a multicellular organism from a single cell.

  12. Big Data in Caenorhabditis elegans: quo vadis?

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, Harald; Moerman, Donald

    2015-01-01

    A clear definition of what constitutes “Big Data” is difficult to identify, but we find it most useful to define Big Data as a data collection that is complete. By this criterion, researchers on Caenorhabditis elegans have a long history of collecting Big Data, since the organism was selected with the idea of obtaining a complete biological description and understanding of development. The complete wiring diagram of the nervous system, the complete cell lineage, and the complete genome sequence provide a framework to phrase and test hypotheses. Given this history, it might be surprising that the number of “complete” data sets for this organism is actually rather small—not because of lack of effort, but because most types of biological experiments are not currently amenable to complete large-scale data collection. Many are also not inherently limited, so that it becomes difficult to even define completeness. At present, we only have partial data on mutated genes and their phenotypes, gene expression, and protein–protein interaction—important data for many biological questions. Big Data can point toward unexpected correlations, and these unexpected correlations can lead to novel investigations; however, Big Data cannot establish causation. As a result, there is much excitement about Big Data, but there is also a discussion on just what Big Data contributes to solving a biological problem. Because of its relative simplicity, C. elegans is an ideal test bed to explore this issue and at the same time determine what is necessary to build a multicellular organism from a single cell. PMID:26543198

  13. Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Capalbo

    2005-12-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership in Phase I are organized into four areas: (1) Evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks that will be used to determine the location of pilot demonstrations in Phase II; (2) Development of GIS-based reporting framework that links with national networks; (3) Design of an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies, market-based opportunities for carbon management, and an economic/risk assessment framework; (referred to below as the Advanced Concepts component of the Phase I efforts) and (4) Initiation of a comprehensive education and outreach program. As a result of the Phase I activities, the groundwork is in place to provide an assessment of storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that complements the ongoing DOE research agenda in Carbon Sequestration. The geology of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership Region is favorable for the potential sequestration of enormous volume of CO{sub 2}. The United States Geological Survey (USGS 1995) identified 10 geologic provinces and 111 plays in the region. These provinces and plays include both sedimentary rock types characteristic of oil, gas, and coal productions as well as large areas of mafic volcanic rocks. Of the 10 provinces and 111 plays, 1 province and 4 plays are located within Idaho. The remaining 9 provinces and 107 plays are dominated by sedimentary rocks and located in the states of Montana and Wyoming. The potential sequestration capacity of the 9 sedimentary provinces within the region ranges from 25,000 to almost 900,000 million metric tons of CO{sub 2}. Overall every sedimentary formation investigated

  14. Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 November 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcrops of sedimentary rocks in a crater located just north of the Sinus Meridiani region. Perhaps the crater was once the site of a martian lake.

    Location near: 2.9oN, 359.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  15. Thermal Inertia of Rocks and Rock Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Jakosky, B. M.; Mellon, M. T.

    2001-01-01

    The effective thermal inertia of rock populations on Mars and Earth is derived from a model of effective inertia versus rock diameter. Results allow a parameterization of the effective rock inertia versus rock abundance and bulk and fine component inertia. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Big data in biomedicine.

    PubMed

    Costa, Fabricio F

    2014-04-01

    The increasing availability and growth rate of biomedical information, also known as 'big data', provides an opportunity for future personalized medicine programs that will significantly improve patient care. Recent advances in information technology (IT) applied to biomedicine are changing the landscape of privacy and personal information, with patients getting more control of their health information. Conceivably, big data analytics is already impacting health decisions and patient care; however, specific challenges need to be addressed to integrate current discoveries into medical practice. In this article, I will discuss the major breakthroughs achieved in combining omics and clinical health data in terms of their application to personalized medicine. I will also review the challenges associated with using big data in biomedicine and translational science.

  17. Bayesian big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daum, Fred; Huang, Jim

    2011-09-01

    We show that the flow of particles corresponding to Bayes' rule has a number of striking similarities with the big bang, including cosmic inflation and cosmic acceleration. We derive a PDE for this flow using a log-homotopy from the prior probability density to the posteriori probability density. We solve this PDE using the gradient of the solution to Poisson's equation, which is computed using an exact Green's function and the standard Monte Carlo approximation of integrals. The resulting flow is analogous to Coulomb's law in electromagnetics. We have used no physics per se to derive this flow, but rather we have only used Bayes' rule and the definition of normalized probability and a loghomotopy parameter that could be interpreted as time. The details of this big bang resemble very recent theories much more closely than the so-called new inflation models, which postulate enormous inflation immediately after the big bang.

  18. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2013-08-27

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  19. Big Questions: Missing Antimatter

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-12

    Einstein's equation E = mc2 is often said to mean that energy can be converted into matter. More accurately, energy can be converted to matter and antimatter. During the first moments of the Big Bang, the universe was smaller, hotter and energy was everywhere. As the universe expanded and cooled, the energy converted into matter and antimatter. According to our best understanding, these two substances should have been created in equal quantities. However when we look out into the cosmos we see only matter and no antimatter. The absence of antimatter is one of the Big Mysteries of modern physics. In this video, Fermilab's Dr. Don Lincoln explains the problem, although doesn't answer it. The answer, as in all Big Mysteries, is still unknown and one of the leading research topics of contemporary science.

  20. Rock Driller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Thomas M.

    2001-01-01

    The next series of planetary exploration missions require a method of extracting rock and soil core samples. Therefore a prototype ultrasonic core driller (UTCD) was developed to meet the constraints of Small Bodies Exploration and Mars Sample Return Missions. The constraints in the design are size, weight, power, and axial loading. The ultrasonic transducer requires a relatively low axial load, which is one of the reasons this technology was chosen. The ultrasonic generator breadboard section can be contained within the 5x5x3 limits and weighs less than two pounds. Based on results attained the objectives for the first phase were achieved. A number of transducer probes were made and tested. One version only drills, and the other will actually provide a small core from a rock. Because of a more efficient transducer/probe, it will run at very low power (less than 5 Watts) and still drill/core. The prototype generator was built to allow for variation of all the performance-effecting elements of the transducer/probe/end effector, i.e., pulse, duty cycle, frequency, etc. The heart of the circuitry is what will be converted to a surface mounted board for the next phase, after all the parameters have been optimized and the microprocessor feedback can be installed.

  1. Big Crater as Viewed by Pathfinder Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The 'Big Crater' is actually a relatively small Martian crater to the southeast of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. It is 1500 meters (4900 feet) in diameter, or about the same size as Meteor Crater in Arizona. Superimposed on the rim of Big Crater (the central part of the rim as seen here) is a smaller crater nicknamed 'Rimshot Crater.' The distance to this smaller crater, and the nearest portion of the rim of Big Crater, is 2200 meters (7200 feet). To the right of Big Crater, south from the spacecraft, almost lost in the atmospheric dust 'haze,' is the large streamlined mountain nicknamed 'Far Knob.' This mountain is over 450 meters (1480 feet) tall, and is over 30 kilometers (19 miles) from the spacecraft. Another, smaller and closer knob, nicknamed 'Southeast Knob' can be seen as a triangular peak to the left of the flanks of the Big Crater rim. This knob is 21 kilometers (13 miles) southeast from the spacecraft.

    The larger features visible in this scene - Big Crater, Far Knob, and Southeast Knob - were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the 4th of July, 1997, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken over 20 years ago. The scene includes rocky ridges and swales or 'hummocks' of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of South Twin Peak. The largest rock in the nearfield, just left of center in the foreground, nicknamed 'Otter', is about 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) long and 10 meters (33 feet) from the spacecraft.

    This view of Big Crater was produced by combining 6 individual 'Superpan' scenes from the left and right eyes of the IMP camera. Each frame consists of 8 individual frames (left eye) and 7 frames (right eye) taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA

  2. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  3. Uranium in NIMROC standard igneous rock samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, M. W.; Herndon, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for analysis of the uranium in multiple samples of each of six igneous-rock standards (dunite, granite, lujavrite, norite, pyroxenite, and syenite) prepared as geochemical reference standards for elemental and isotopic compositions. Powdered rock samples were examined by measuring delayed neutron emission after irradiation with a flux of the order of 10 to the 13th power neutrons/sq cm per sec in a nuclear reactor. The measurements are shown to compare quite favorably with previous uranium determinations for other standard rock samples.

  4. Water resources in the Big Lost River Basin, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.; Thomas, C.A.; Dyer, K.L.

    1970-01-01

    The Big Lost River basin occupies about 1,400 square miles in south-central Idaho and drains to the Snake River Plain. The economy in the area is based on irrigation agriculture and stockraising. The basin is underlain by a diverse-assemblage of rocks which range, in age from Precambrian to Holocene. The assemblage is divided into five groups on the basis of their hydrologic characteristics. Carbonate rocks, noncarbonate rocks, cemented alluvial deposits, unconsolidated alluvial deposits, and basalt. The principal aquifer is unconsolidated alluvial fill that is several thousand feet thick in the main valley. The carbonate rocks are the major bedrock aquifer. They absorb a significant amount of precipitation and, in places, are very permeable as evidenced by large springs discharging from or near exposures of carbonate rocks. Only the alluvium, carbonate rock and locally the basalt yield significant amounts of water. A total of about 67,000 acres is irrigated with water diverted from the Big Lost River. The annual flow of the river is highly variable and water-supply deficiencies are common. About 1 out of every 2 years is considered a drought year. In the period 1955-68, about 175 irrigation wells were drilled to provide a supplemental water supply to land irrigated from the canal system and to irrigate an additional 8,500 acres of new land. Average. annual precipitation ranged from 8 inches on the valley floor to about 50 inches at some higher elevations during the base period 1944-68. The estimated water yield of the Big Lost River basin averaged 650 cfs (cubic feet per second) for the base period. Of this amount, 150 cfs was transpired by crops, 75 cfs left the basin as streamflow, and 425 cfs left as ground-water flow. A map of precipitation and estimated values of evapotranspiration were used to construct a water-yield map. A distinctive feature of the Big Lost River basin, is the large interchange of water from surface streams into the ground and from the

  5. [Utilization of Big Data in Medicine and Future Outlook].

    PubMed

    Kinosada, Yasutomi; Uematsu, Machiko; Fujiwara, Takuya

    2016-03-01

    "Big data" is a new buzzword. The point is not to be dazzled by the volume of data, but rather to analyze it, and convert it into insights, innovations, and business value. There are also real differences between conventional analytics and big data. In this article, we show some results of big data analysis using open DPC (Diagnosis Procedure Combination) data in areas of the central part of JAPAN: Toyama, Ishikawa, Fukui, Nagano, Gifu, Aichi, Shizuoka, and Mie Prefectures. These 8 prefectures contain 51 medical administration areas called the second medical area. By applying big data analysis techniques such as k-means, hierarchical clustering, and self-organizing maps to DPC data, we can visualize the disease structure and detect similarities or variations among the 51 second medical areas. The combination of a big data analysis technique and open DPC data is a very powerful method to depict real figures on patient distribution in Japan.

  6. [Utilization of Big Data in Medicine and Future Outlook].

    PubMed

    Kinosada, Yasutomi; Uematsu, Machiko; Fujiwara, Takuya

    2016-03-01

    "Big data" is a new buzzword. The point is not to be dazzled by the volume of data, but rather to analyze it, and convert it into insights, innovations, and business value. There are also real differences between conventional analytics and big data. In this article, we show some results of big data analysis using open DPC (Diagnosis Procedure Combination) data in areas of the central part of JAPAN: Toyama, Ishikawa, Fukui, Nagano, Gifu, Aichi, Shizuoka, and Mie Prefectures. These 8 prefectures contain 51 medical administration areas called the second medical area. By applying big data analysis techniques such as k-means, hierarchical clustering, and self-organizing maps to DPC data, we can visualize the disease structure and detect similarities or variations among the 51 second medical areas. The combination of a big data analysis technique and open DPC data is a very powerful method to depict real figures on patient distribution in Japan. PMID:27363223

  7. 6. SEAWARD VIEW OF BOAT LANDING CUT INTO ROCK, ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SEAWARD VIEW OF BOAT LANDING CUT INTO ROCK, ALSO SHOWING CEMENT POURED ATOP TUNNEL. - Mile Rock Tunnel, Under Forty-eighth Avenue from Cabrillo Street to San Francisco Bay at Point Lobos, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Using the Big Six Research Process. The Coconut Crab from Guam and Other Stories: Writing Myths, Fables, and Tall Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, Barbara A.; Culpepper, Susan N.

    1996-01-01

    Using the Big Six research process, students at Live Oak Elementary (Round Rock, TX) supplemented information from traditional print and electronic sources with e-mail exchanges around the world to complete a library research collaborative project culminating in an original folk tale. Describes the Big Six process and how it was applied. (PEN)

  9. Big Rock Candy Mountain Education and Classroom Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Big Rock Candy Mountain, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Education and classroom materials for young children are listed which aim at imposing as little as possible between the child and the act of involvement and which are open ended and have the capacity for extension to many applications. Materials are illustrated: rationales and suggestions for their use are provided; supplier's names and prices are…

  10. Big Rock Candy Mountain; Resources for Our Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanes, Samuel, Ed.; Holdorf, Cia, Ed.

    The material reviewed in this edition is loosely divided into categories--process learning, educational environments, classroom materials, home learning, self discovery, and education and consciousness. As in previous editions of the catalog, education is defined in its broadest sense, so that the material reviewed is suitable for many age groups…

  11. Inference of fitness values and putative appearance time points for evolvable self-replicating molecules from time series of occurrence frequencies in an evolution reactor.

    PubMed

    Aita, Takuyo; Ichihashi, Norikazu; Yomo, Tetsuya

    2016-07-21

    We have established a translation-coupled RNA replication system within a cell-like compartment, and conducted an experimental evolution of the RNA molecules in the system. Then, we obtained a time series of occurrence frequencies of 91 individual genotypes through random sampling and next-generation sequencing. The time series showed a complex clonal interference and a polymorphic population called the "quasispecies". By fitting a deterministic kinetic model of evolvable simple self-replicators to the time series, we estimated the fitness value and "putative appearance time point" for each of the 91 major genotypes identified, where the putative appearance time point is defined as a certain time point at which a certain mutant genotype is supposed to appear in the deterministic kinetic model. As a result, the kinetic model was well fitted and additionally we confirmed that the estimated fitness values for 11 genotypes were considerably close to the experimentally measured ones (Ichihashi et al., 2015). In this sequel paper, with the theoretical basis of the deterministic kinetic model, we present the details of inference of the fitness values and putative appearance time points for the 91 genotypes. It may be possible to apply this methodology to other self-replicating molecules, viruses and bacteria. PMID:27091052

  12. A Sobering Big Idea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wineburg, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Since Susan Adler, Alberta Dougan, and Jesus Garcia like "big ideas," the author offers one to ponder: young people in this country can not read with comprehension. The saddest thing about this crisis is that it is no secret. The 2001 results of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) for reading, published in every major newspaper,…

  13. The Big Sky inside

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Earle; Ward, Tony J.; Vanek, Diana; Marra, Nancy; Hester, Carolyn; Knuth, Randy; Spangler, Todd; Jones, David; Henthorn, Melissa; Hammill, Brock; Smith, Paul; Salisbury, Rob; Reckin, Gene; Boulafentis, Johna

    2009-01-01

    The University of Montana (UM)-Missoula has implemented a problem-based program in which students perform scientific research focused on indoor air pollution. The Air Toxics Under the Big Sky program (Jones et al. 2007; Adams et al. 2008; Ward et al. 2008) provides a community-based framework for understanding the complex relationship between poor…

  14. The Big Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLisle, Rebecca; Hargis, Jace

    2005-01-01

    The Killer Whale, Shamu jumps through hoops and splashes tourists in hopes for the big fish, not because of passion, desire or simply the enjoyment of doing so. What would happen if those fish were obsolete? Would this killer whale be able to find the passion to continue to entertain people? Or would Shamu find other exciting activities to do…

  15. Big-City Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Dan

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to implementing innovative classroom technology programs, urban school districts face significant challenges stemming from their big-city status. These range from large bureaucracies, to scalability, to how to meet the needs of a more diverse group of students. Because of their size, urban districts tend to have greater distance…

  16. A Big Bang Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheider, Walter

    2005-01-01

    The February 2005 issue of The Science Teacher (TST) reminded everyone that by learning how scientists study stars, students gain an understanding of how science measures things that can not be set up in lab, either because they are too big, too far away, or happened in a very distant past. The authors of "How Far are the Stars?" show how the…

  17. Big Enough for Everyone?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coote, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The UK's coalition government wants to build a "Big Society." The Prime Minister says "we are all in this together" and building it is the responsibility of every citizen as well as every government department. The broad vision is welcome, but everything depends on how the vision is translated into policy and practice. The government aims to put…

  18. The big bang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph

    Our universe was born billions of years ago in a hot, violent explosion of elementary particles and radiation - the big bang. What do we know about this ultimate moment of creation, and how do we know it? Drawing upon the latest theories and technology, this new edition of The big bang, is a sweeping, lucid account of the event that set the universe in motion. Joseph Silk begins his story with the first microseconds of the big bang, on through the evolution of stars, galaxies, clusters of galaxies, quasars, and into the distant future of our universe. He also explores the fascinating evidence for the big bang model and recounts the history of cosmological speculation. Revised and updated, this new edition features all the most recent astronomical advances, including: Photos and measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope, Cosmic Background Explorer Satellite (COBE), and Infrared Space Observatory; the latest estimates of the age of the universe; new ideas in string and superstring theory; recent experiments on neutrino detection; new theories about the presence of dark matter in galaxies; new developments in the theory of the formation and evolution of galaxies; the latest ideas about black holes, worm holes, quantum foam, and multiple universes.

  19. Thinking Big, Aiming High

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Viv

    2010-01-01

    What do teachers, providers and policymakers need to do in order to support disabled learners to "think big and aim high"? That was the question put to delegates at NIACE's annual disability conference. Some clear themes emerged, with delegates raising concerns about funding, teacher training, partnership-working and employment for disabled…

  20. The big war over brackets.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, R O

    1994-01-01

    The Third Preparatory Committee Meeting for the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), PrepCom III, was held at UN headquarters in New York on April 4-22, 1994. It was the last big preparatory meeting leading to the ICPD to be held in Cairo, Egypt, in September 1994. The author attended the second week of meetings as the official delegate of the Institute for Social Studies and Action. Debates mostly focused upon reproductive health and rights, sexual health and rights, family planning, contraception, condom use, fertility regulation, pregnancy termination, and safe motherhood. The Vatican and its allies' preoccupation with discussing language which may imply abortion caused sustainable development, population, consumption patterns, internal and international migration, economic strategies, and budgetary allocations to be discussed less extensively than they should have been. The author describes points of controversy, the power of women at the meetings, and afterthoughts on the meetings.

  1. Analysis of Inflatable Rock Bolts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Charlie C.

    2016-01-01

    An inflatable bolt is integrated in the rock mass through the friction and mechanical interlock at the bolt-rock interface. The pullout resistance of the inflatable bolt is determined by the contact stress at the interface. The contact stress is composed of two parts, termed the primary and secondary contact stresses. The former refers to the stress established during bolt installation and the latter is mobilized when the bolt tends to slip in the borehole owing to the roughness of the borehole surface. The existing analysis of the inflatable rock bolt does not appropriately describe the interaction between the bolt and the rock since the influence of the folded tongue of the bolt on the stiffness of the bolt and the elastic rebound of the bolt tube in the end of bolt installation are ignored. The interaction of the inflatable bolt with the rock is thoroughly analysed by taking into account the elastic displacements of the rock mass and the bolt tube during and after bolt installation in this article. The study aims to reveal the influence of the bolt tongue on the contact stress and the different anchoring mechanisms of the bolt in hard and soft rocks. A new solution to the primary contact stress is derived, which is more realistic than the existing one in describing the interaction between the bolt and the rock. The mechanism of the secondary contact stress is also discussed from the point of view of the mechanical behaviour of the asperities on the borehole surface. The analytical solutions are in agreement with both the laboratory and field pullout test results. The analysis reveals that the primary contact stress decreases with the Young's modulus of the rock mass and increases with the borehole diameter and installation pump pressure. The primary contact stress can be easily established in soft and weak rock but is low or zero in hard and strong rock. In soft and weak rock, the primary contact stress is crucially important for the anchorage of the bolt, while

  2. Big Data and Chemical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Harry E.; Williams, Antony J.

    2016-01-01

    The amount of computerized information that organizations collect and process is growing so large that the term Big Data is commonly being used to describe the situation. Accordingly, Big Data is defined by a combination of the Volume, Variety, Velocity, and Veracity of the data being processed. Big Data tools are already having an impact in…

  3. Business and Science - Big Data, Big Picture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, A.

    2013-12-01

    Data Science is more than the creation, manipulation, and transformation of data. It is more than Big Data. The business world seems to have a hold on the term 'data science' and, for now, they define what it means. But business is very different than science. In this talk, I address how large datasets, Big Data, and data science are conceptually different in business and science worlds. I focus on the types of questions each realm asks, the data needed, and the consequences of findings. Gone are the days of datasets being created or collected to serve only one purpose or project. The trick with data reuse is to become familiar enough with a dataset to be able to combine it with other data and extract accurate results. As a Data Curator for the Advanced Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service (ACADIS), my specialty is communication. Our team enables Arctic sciences by ensuring datasets are well documented and can be understood by reusers. Previously, I served as a data community liaison for the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP). Again, my specialty was communicating complex instructions and ideas to a broad audience of data users. Before entering the science world, I was an entrepreneur. I have a bachelor's degree in economics and a master's degree in environmental social science. I am currently pursuing a Ph.D. in Geography. Because my background has embraced both the business and science worlds, I would like to share my perspectives on data, data reuse, data documentation, and the presentation or communication of findings. My experiences show that each can inform and support the other.

  4. Results of new petrologic and remote sensing studies in the Big Bend region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benker, Stevan Christian

    The initial section of this manuscript involves the South Rim Formation, a series of 32.2-32 Ma comenditic quartz trachytic-rhyolitic volcanics and associated intrusives, erupted and was emplaced in Big Bend National Park, Texas. Magmatic parameters have only been interpreted for one of the two diverse petrogenetic suites comprising this formation. Here, new mineralogic data for the South Rim Formation rocks are presented. Magmatic parameters interpreted from these data assist in deciphering lithospheric characteristics during the mid-Tertiary. Results indicate low temperatures (< 750 °C), reduced conditions (generally below the FMQ buffer), and low pressures (≤ 100 MPa) associated with South Rim Formation magmatism with slight conditional differences between the two suites. Newly discovered fayalite microphenocrysts allowed determination of oxygen fugacity values (between -0.14 and -0.25 DeltaFMQ over temperature ranges of 680-700 °C), via mineral equilibria based QUILF95 calculations, for Emory Peak Suite. Petrologic information is correlated with structural evidence from Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent regions to evaluate debated timing of tectonic transition (Laramide compression to Basin and Range extension) and onset of the southern Rio Grande Rift during the mid-Tertiary. The A-type and peralkaline characteristics of the South Rim Formation and other pre-31 Ma magmatism in Trans-Pecos Texas, in addition to evidence implying earlier Rio Grande Rift onset in Colorado and New Mexico, promotes a near-neutral to transtensional setting in Trans-Pecos Texas by 32 Ma. This idea sharply contrasts with interpretations of tectonic compression and arc-related magmatism until 31 Ma as suggested by some authors. However, evidence discussed cannot preclude a pre-36 Ma proposed by other authors. The later section of this manuscript involves research in the Big Bend area using Google Earth. At present there is high interest in using Google Earth in a variety of scientific

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Zinn, W.H.; Anderson, H.L.

    1958-09-16

    Means are presenied for increasing the reproduction ratio of a gaphite- moderated neutronic reactor by diminishing the neutron loss due to absorption or capture by gaseous impurities within the reactor. This means comprised of a fluid-tight casing or envelope completely enclosing the reactor and provided with a valve through which the casing, and thereby the reactor, may be evacuated of atmospheric air.

  6. Big fusion, little fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Frank; ddtuttle

    2016-08-01

    In reply to correspondence from George Scott and Adam Costley about the Physics World focus issue on nuclear energy, and to news of construction delays at ITER, the fusion reactor being built in France.

  7. A Rock Encyclopedia That Includes Rock Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laznicka, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Described is a rock encyclopedia combining rock sample sets and encyclopedic word and picture entries which can be used as a realistic information resource for independent study or as a part of a course. (JT)

  8. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, Ronald J.; Land, John T.; Misvel, Michael C.

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled.

  9. Nuclear reactor reflector

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.; Misvel, M.C.

    1994-06-07

    A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled. 12 figs.

  10. Small turbines, big unknown

    SciTech Connect

    Gipe, P.

    1995-07-01

    While financial markets focus on the wheeling and dealing of the big wind companies, the small wind turbine industry quietly keeps churning out its smaller but effective machines. Some, the micro turbines, are so small they can be carried by hand. Though worldwide sales of small wind turbines fall far short of even one large windpower plant, figures reach $8 million to $10 million annually and could be as much as twice that if batteries and engineering services are included.

  11. DARPA's Big Mechanism program.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Paul R

    2015-07-16

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  12. DARPA's Big Mechanism program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Paul R.

    2015-07-01

    Reductionist science produces causal models of small fragments of complicated systems. Causal models of entire systems can be hard to construct because what is known of them is distributed across a vast amount of literature. The Big Mechanism program aims to have machines read the literature and assemble the causal fragments found in individual papers into huge causal models, automatically. The current domain of the program is cell signalling associated with Ras-driven cancers.

  13. The Next Big Idea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract George S. Eisenbarth will remain in our memories as a brilliant scientist and great collaborator. His quest to discover the cause and prevention of type 1 (autoimmune) diabetes started from building predictive models based on immunogenetic markers. Despite his tremendous contributions to our understanding of the natural history of pre-type 1 diabetes and potential mechanisms, George left us with several big questions to answer before his quest is completed. PMID:23786296

  14. Big Bang Circus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosini, C.

    2011-06-01

    Big Bang Circus is an opera I composed in 2001 and which was premiered at the Venice Biennale Contemporary Music Festival in 2002. A chamber group, four singers and a ringmaster stage the story of the Universe confronting and interweaving two threads: how early man imagined it and how scientists described it. Surprisingly enough fancy, myths and scientific explanations often end up using the same images, metaphors and sometimes even words: a strong tension, a drumskin starting to vibrate, a shout…

  15. Big3. Editorial

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christoph U.; Séroussi, Brigitte; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To provide an editorial introduction into the 2014 IMIA Yearbook of Medical Informatics with an overview of the content, the new publishing scheme, and upcoming 25th anniversary. Methods A brief overview of the 2014 special topic, Big Data - Smart Health Strategies, and an outline of the novel publishing model is provided in conjunction with a call for proposals to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Yearbook. Results ‘Big Data’ has become the latest buzzword in informatics and promise new approaches and interventions that can improve health, well-being, and quality of life. This edition of the Yearbook acknowledges the fact that we just started to explore the opportunities that ‘Big Data’ will bring. However, it will become apparent to the reader that its pervasive nature has invaded all aspects of biomedical informatics – some to a higher degree than others. It was our goal to provide a comprehensive view at the state of ‘Big Data’ today, explore its strengths and weaknesses, as well as its risks, discuss emerging trends, tools, and applications, and stimulate the development of the field through the aggregation of excellent survey papers and working group contributions to the topic. Conclusions For the first time in history will the IMIA Yearbook be published in an open access online format allowing a broader readership especially in resource poor countries. For the first time, thanks to the online format, will the IMIA Yearbook be published twice in the year, with two different tracks of papers. We anticipate that the important role of the IMIA yearbook will further increase with these changes just in time for its 25th anniversary in 2016. PMID:24853037

  16. A big first step.

    PubMed

    Jones, Howard W

    2004-11-01

    The singleton, term gestation, live birth rate per cycle initiated (BESST) endpoint proposed at the beginning of 2004 is a first big step which should be added to by the consideration of multiple pregnancy rates in relation to singleton rates, by recording of fetal reductions and of pregnancies resulting from cryopreserved material. After three or more steps we may have an accurate reporting system which helps patients to distinguish the pros and cons for singleton term delivery. PMID:15479704

  17. Big Data Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Bellazzi, Riccardo; Dagliati, Arianna; Sacchi, Lucia; Segagni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The so-called big data revolution provides substantial opportunities to diabetes management. At least 3 important directions are currently of great interest. First, the integration of different sources of information, from primary and secondary care to administrative information, may allow depicting a novel view of patient’s care processes and of single patient’s behaviors, taking into account the multifaceted nature of chronic care. Second, the availability of novel diabetes technologies, able to gather large amounts of real-time data, requires the implementation of distributed platforms for data analysis and decision support. Finally, the inclusion of geographical and environmental information into such complex IT systems may further increase the capability of interpreting the data gathered and extract new knowledge from them. This article reviews the main concepts and definitions related to big data, it presents some efforts in health care, and discusses the potential role of big data in diabetes care. Finally, as an example, it describes the research efforts carried on in the MOSAIC project, funded by the European Commission. PMID:25910540

  18. Hopi and Anasazi Alignments and Rock Art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Bryan C.

    The interaction of light and shadow on ancestral Puebloan rock art, or rock art demarcating sunrise/set horizon points that align with culturally significant dates, has long been assumed to be evidence of "intentional construct" for marking time or event by the native creator. However, anthropological rock art research requires the scientific control of cultural time, element orientation and placement, structure, and association with other rock art elements. The evaluation of five exemplars challenges the oft-held assumption that "if the interaction occurs, it therefore supports intentional construct" and thereby conveys meaning to the native culture.

  19. Bedrock erosion in the lower Big Wood River channel, southcentral Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Maley, T.S.; Oberlindacher, P. )

    1993-04-01

    The Big Wood River, which is fed from the mountains to the north of the Snake River Plain, cuts through 0.8 m.y. old basalt in an area north and east of Shoshone, Idaho. The basalt channel carved by the Big Wood River exhibits remarkable and unusual bedrock erosional features. Approximately 10,000 years ago, nearby Black Butte shield volcano erupted basaltic lave which rerouted the Big Wood River. At the time the new river channel formed 10,000 years ago, alpine glaciers in the mountains were also beginning to melt. High flows of water from the melting glaciers during the next few thousand years carried large sediment loads and were instrumental in developing the spectacular potholes now found in the channel. Most of the scouring agents are pebbles and cobbles derived from quartzite, granitic, and gneissic rocks. As potholes began to develop, they were closely spaced and generally less than 1 m apart. However, as the potholes enlarged and expanded both horizontally and vertically, they coalesced with one another. The merging process occurred when the walls of two or more adjacent potholes were breached by the outward expansion of each pothole. The deeper of the two potholes captured the pebbles of the adjacent pothole. When pebbles are captured, pothole growth is terminated and the more shallow pothole was gradually cannibalized. All of the features within the channel are overprinted with a strong asymmetry caused by the current-driven pebbles against the upstream side of the features. Consequently, the upstream side of the features tends to be smooth, convex and rounded; whereas, the downstream side tends to be concave with the leading edge of the feature pointing in the downstream direction.

  20. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  1. Micromechanical Modelling of Stress Waves in Rock and Rock Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resende, R.; Lamas, L. N.; Lemos, J. V.; Calçada, R.

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this paper is to simulate the interaction of stress waves and rock fractures in a particle micromechanical model. Stress waves travelling in fractured rock masses are slowed down and attenuated by natural heterogeneities, voids, microcracks and, above all, by faults and fractures. Considerable laboratory and theoretical investigation have uncovered the major aspects of this phenomenon, but models that cover the core mechanisms of the wave propagation in rock masses are necessary to investigate aspects of wave-fracture interaction, which are not completely clear, and in the future simulate full-scale real problems. The micromechanical model is based on the particle discrete element model that reproduces rock through a densely packed non-structured assembly of 2D disks with point contacts. The model of a hard rock core is developed and an irregular rock joint is generated at mid-height. A new contact constitutive model is applied to the particles in the joint walls. Numerical static joint compression tests are performed and a typical hyperbolic stress-displacement curve is obtained. Conditions for good quality wave transmission through non-jointed unorganized particulate media are determined, hybrid static-dynamic boundary conditions are established and plane waves are emitted into the compressed joint. The transmitted and reflected waves are extracted and analysed. Joint dynamic stiffness calculated according to the hypotheses of the Displacement Discontinuity Theory shows to increase with the static joint compression until the joint is completely closed. Still in its early stages of application, this rock micromechanical model enables the joint behaviour under static and dynamic loading to be analysed in detail. Its advantages are the reproduction of the real mechanics of contact creation, evolution and destruction and the possibility of visualizing in detail the joint geometry changes, which is hard to accomplish in the laboratory.

  2. Big Crunch-based omnidirectional light concentrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Hung, Yu-Ju

    2014-12-01

    Omnidirectional light concentration remains an unsolved problem despite such important practical applications as the design of efficient mobile photovoltaic cells. Recently developed optical black hole designs offer partial solutions to this problem. However, even these solutions are not truly omnidirectional since they do not exhibit a horizon, and at large enough incidence angles the light may be trapped into quasi-stationary orbits around such imperfect optical black holes. Here, we propose and realize experimentally another gravity-inspired design of a broadband omnidirectional light concentrator based on the cosmological Big Crunch solutions. By mimicking the Big Crunch spacetime via a corresponding effective optical metric, we make sure that every photon world line terminates in a single point.

  3. How Big is Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurber, Bonnie B.

    2015-08-01

    How Big is Earth celebrates the Year of Light. Using only the sunlight striking the Earth and a wooden dowel, students meet each other and then measure the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes did it over 2,000 years ago. In Cosmos, Carl Sagan shared the process by which Eratosthenes measured the angle of the shadow cast at local noon when sunlight strikes a stick positioned perpendicular to the ground. By comparing his measurement to another made a distance away, Eratosthenes was able to calculate the circumference of the earth. How Big is Earth provides an online learning environment where students do science the same way Eratosthenes did. A notable project in which this was done was The Eratosthenes Project, conducted in 2005 as part of the World Year of Physics; in fact, we will be drawing on the teacher's guide developed by that project.How Big Is Earth? expands on the Eratosthenes project by providing an online learning environment provided by the iCollaboratory, www.icollaboratory.org, where teachers and students from Sweden, China, Nepal, Russia, Morocco, and the United States collaborate, share data, and reflect on their learning of science and astronomy. They are sharing their information and discussing their ideas/brainstorming the solutions in a discussion forum. There is an ongoing database of student measurements and another database to collect data on both teacher and student learning from surveys, discussions, and self-reflection done online.We will share our research about the kinds of learning that takes place only in global collaborations.The entrance address for the iCollaboratory is http://www.icollaboratory.org.

  4. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1961-09-01

    A boiling-water nuclear reactor is described wherein control is effected by varying the moderator-to-fuel ratio in the reactor core. This is accomplished by providing control tubes containing a liquid control moderator in the reactor core and providing means for varying the amount of control moderatcr within the control tubes.

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor in which at least a portion of the moderator is in the form of movable refractory balls is described. In addition to their moderating capacity, these balls may serve as carriers for fissionable material or fertile material, or may serve in a coolant capacity to remove heat from the reactor. A pneumatic system is used to circulate the balls through the reactor.

  6. [Three applications and the challenge of the big data in otology].

    PubMed

    Lei, Guanxiong; Li, Jianan; Shen, Weidong; Yang, Shiming

    2016-03-01

    With the expansion of human practical activities, more and more areas have suffered from big data problems. The emergence of big data requires people to update the research paradigm and develop new technical methods. This review discussed that big data might bring opportunities and challenges in the area of auditory implantation, the deafness genome, and auditory pathophysiology, and pointed out that we needed to find appropriate theories and methods to make this kind of expectation into reality. PMID:27033583

  7. Rocks as poroelastic composites

    SciTech Connect

    Berryman, J G

    1998-04-30

    In Biot's theory of poroelasticity, elastic materials contain connected voids or pores and these pores may be filled with fluids under pressure. The fluid pressure then couples to the mechanical effects of stress or strain applied externally to the solid matrix. Eshelby's formula for the response of a single ellipsoidal elastic inclusion in an elastic whole space to a strain imposed at infinity is a very well-known and important result in elasticity. Having a rigorous generalization of Eshelby's results valid for poroelasticity means that the hard part of Eshelby' work (in computing the elliptic integrals needed to evaluate the fourth-rank tensors for inclusions shaped like spheres, oblate and prolate spheroids, needles and disks) can be carried over from elasticity to poroelasticity - and also thermoelasticity - with only trivial modifications. Effective medium theories for poroelastic composites such as rocks can then be formulated easily by analogy to well-established methods used for elastic composites. An identity analogous to Eshelby's classic result has been derived [Physical Review Letters 79:1142-1145 (1997)] for use in these more complex and more realistic problems in rock mechanics analysis. Descriptions of the application of this result as the starting point for new methods of estimation are presented.

  8. Research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world`s research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted.

  9. CONVECTION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; King, L.D.P.

    1960-03-22

    An homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing convection circulation of the liquid fuel is proposed. The reactor has an internal heat exchanger looated in the same pressure vessel as the critical assembly, thereby eliminating necessity for handling the hot liquid fuel outside the reactor pressure vessel during normal operation. The liquid fuel used in this reactor eliminates the necessity for extensive radiolytic gas rocombination apparatus, and the reactor is resiliently pressurized and, without any movable mechanical apparatus, automatically regulates itself to the condition of criticality during moderate variations in temperature snd pressure and shuts itself down as the pressure exceeds a predetermined safe operating value.

  10. Relevance of Computational Rock Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dvorkin, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The advent of computational rock physics has brought to light the often ignored question: How applicable are controlled-experiment data acquired at one scale to interpreting measurements obtained at a different scale? An answer is not to use a single data point or even a few data points but rather find a trend that links two or more rock properties to each other in a selected rock type. In the physical laboratory, these trends are generated by measuring a significant number of samples. In contrast, in the computational laboratory, these trends are hidden inside a very small digital sample and can be derived by subsampling it. Often, the internal heterogeneity of measurable properties inside a small sample mimics the large-scale heterogeneity, making the tend applicable in a range of scales. Computational rock physics is uniquely tooled for finding such trends: Although it is virtually impossible to subsample a physical sample and consistently conduct the same laboratory experiments on each of the subsamples, it is straightforward to accomplish this task in the computer.

  11. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, L.A. Jr.; Hearn, D.; Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1993-03-02

    A liquid phase process is described for oligomerization of C[sub 4] and C[sub 5] isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C[sub 1] to C[sub 6] alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120 to 300 F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  12. Reactor for exothermic reactions

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.; Hearn, Dennis; Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid phase process for oligomerization of C.sub.4 and C.sub.5 isoolefins or the etherification thereof with C.sub.1 to C.sub.6 alcohols wherein the reactants are contacted in a reactor with a fixed bed acid cation exchange resin catalyst at an LHSV of 5 to 20, pressure of 0 to 400 psig and temperature of 120.degree. to 300.degree. F. Wherein the improvement is the operation of the reactor at a pressure to maintain the reaction mixture at its boiling point whereby at least a portion but less than all of the reaction mixture is vaporized. By operating at the boiling point and allowing a portion of the reaction mixture to vaporize, the exothermic heat of reaction is dissipated by the formation of more boil up and the temperature in the reactor is controlled.

  13. The International Big History Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Michael; Duffy, D'Neil

    2013-01-01

    IBHA, the International Big History Association, was organized in 2010 and "promotes the unified, interdisciplinary study and teaching of history of the Cosmos, Earth, Life, and Humanity." This is the vision that Montessori embraced long before the discoveries of modern science fleshed out the story of the evolving universe. "Big History" is a…

  14. The Big Read: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  15. Think Big, Bigger ... and Smaller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbett, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    One important principle of social psychology, writes Nisbett, is that some big-seeming interventions have little or no effect. This article discusses a number of cases from the field of education that confirm this principle. For example, Head Start seems like a big intervention, but research has indicated that its effects on academic achievement…

  16. Structure and geomorphology of the "big bend" in the Hosgri-San Gregorio fault system, offshore of Big Sur, central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. Y.; Watt, J. T.; Hartwell, S. R.; Kluesner, J. W.; Dartnell, P.

    2015-12-01

    The right-lateral Hosgri-San Gregorio fault system extends mainly offshore for about 400 km along the central California coast and is a major structure in the distributed transform margin of western North America. We recently mapped a poorly known 64-km-long section of the Hosgri fault offshore Big Sur between Ragged Point and Pfieffer Point using high-resolution bathymetry, tightly spaced single-channel seismic-reflection and coincident marine magnetic profiles, and reprocessed industry multichannel seismic-reflection data. Regionally, this part of the Hosgri-San Gregorio fault system has a markedly more westerly trend (by 10° to 15°) than parts farther north and south, and thus represents a transpressional "big bend." Through this "big bend," the fault zone is never more than 6 km from the shoreline and is a primary control on the dramatic coastal geomorphology that includes high coastal cliffs, a narrow (2- to 8-km-wide) continental shelf, a sharp shelfbreak, and a steep (as much as 17°) continental slope incised by submarine canyons and gullies. Depth-converted industry seismic data suggest that the Hosgri fault dips steeply to the northeast and forms the eastern boundary of the asymmetric (deeper to the east) Sur Basin. Structural relief on Franciscan basement across the Hosgri fault is about 2.8 km. Locally, we recognize five discrete "sections" of the Hosgri fault based on fault trend, shallow structure (e.g., disruption of young sediments), seafloor geomorphology, and coincidence with high-amplitude magnetic anomalies sourced by ultramafic rocks in the Franciscan Complex. From south to north, section lengths and trends are as follows: (1) 17 km, 312°; (2) 10 km, 322°; (3)13 km, 317°; (4) 3 km, 329°; (5) 21 km, 318°. Through these sections, the Hosgri surface trace includes several right steps that vary from a few hundred meters to about 1 km wide, none wide enough to provide a barrier to continuous earthquake rupture.

  17. The Rise of Big Data in Neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Faroqi-Shah, Yasmeen

    2016-02-01

    In some fields, Big Data has been instrumental in analyzing, predicting, and influencing human behavior. However, Big Data approaches have so far been less central in speech-language pathology. This article introduces the concept of Big Data and provides examples of Big Data initiatives pertaining to adult neurorehabilitation. It also discusses the potential theoretical and clinical contributions that Big Data can make. The article also recognizes some impediments in building and using Big Data for scientific and clinical inquiry.

  18. Big-bounce genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changhong; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Cheung, Yeuk-Kwan E.

    2014-12-01

    We report on the possibility of using dark matter particle's mass and its interaction cross section as a smoking gun signal of the existence of a big bounce at the early stage in the evolution of our currently observed universe. A model independent study of dark matter production in the pre-bounce contraction and the post-bounce expansion epochs of the bounce universe reveals a new venue for achieving the observed relic abundance of our present universe, in which a significantly smaller amount of dark matter with a smaller cross section—as compared to the prediction of standard cosmology—is produced and the information about the bounce universe evolution is preserved by the out-of-thermal-equilibrium process. Once the value of dark matter mass and interaction cross section are obtained by direct detection in laboratories, this alternative route becomes a signature prediction of the bounce universe scenario.

  19. BIG DATA AND STATISTICS

    PubMed Central

    Rossell, David

    2016-01-01

    Big Data brings unprecedented power to address scientific, economic and societal issues, but also amplifies the possibility of certain pitfalls. These include using purely data-driven approaches that disregard understanding the phenomenon under study, aiming at a dynamically moving target, ignoring critical data collection issues, summarizing or preprocessing the data inadequately and mistaking noise for signal. We review some success stories and illustrate how statistical principles can help obtain more reliable information from data. We also touch upon current challenges that require active methodological research, such as strategies for efficient computation, integration of heterogeneous data, extending the underlying theory to increasingly complex questions and, perhaps most importantly, training a new generation of scientists to develop and deploy these strategies. PMID:27722040

  20. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C.-H.; Lan, C. E.

    1985-01-01

    Wing rock is one type of lateral-directional instabilities at high angles of attack. To predict wing rock characteristics and to design airplanes to avoid wing rock, parameters affecting wing rock characteristics must be known. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model is developed to investigate the main aerodynamic nonlinearities causing wing rock. In the present theory, the Beecham-Titchener asymptotic method is used to derive expressions for the limit-cycle amplitude and frequency of wing rock from nonlinear flight dynamics equations. The resulting expressions are capable of explaining the existence of wing rock for all types of aircraft. Wing rock is developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  1. The Rock Cycle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  2. Rocks and Minerals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides background information on rocks and minerals, including the unique characteristics of each. Teaching activities on rock-hunting and identification, mineral configurations, mystery minerals, and growing crystals are provided. Reproducible worksheets are included for two of the activities. (TW)

  3. Rocks in Our Pockets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Donna; Kuhlman, Wilma

    2005-01-01

    To introduce students to rocks and their characteristics, teacher can begin rock units with the activities described in this article. Students need the ability to make simple observations using their senses and simple tools.

  4. Big bang and big crunch in matrix string theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bedford, J.; Ward, J.; Papageorgakis, C.; Rodriguez-Gomez, D.

    2007-04-15

    Following the holographic description of linear dilaton null cosmologies with a big bang in terms of matrix string theory put forward by Craps, Sethi, and Verlinde, we propose an extended background describing a universe including both big bang and big crunch singularities. This belongs to a class of exact string backgrounds and is perturbative in the string coupling far away from the singularities, both of which can be resolved using matrix string theory. We provide a simple theory capable of describing the complete evolution of this closed universe.

  5. Principles of rock deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, A.

    1987-01-01

    This text focuses on the recent achievements in the analysis of rock deformation. It gives an analytical presentation of the essential structures in terms of kinetic and dynamic interpretation. The physical properties underlying the interpretation of rock structures are exposed in simple terms. Emphasized in the book are: the role of fluids in rock fracturing; the kinematic analysis of magnetic flow structures; the application of crystalline plasticity to the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the large deformation imprinted in many metamorphic rocks.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fraas, A.P.; Mills, C.B.

    1961-11-21

    A neutronic reactor in which neutron moderation is achieved primarily in its reflector is described. The reactor structure consists of a cylindrical central "island" of moderator and a spherical moderating reflector spaced therefrom, thereby providing an annular space. An essentially unmoderated liquid fuel is continuously passed through the annular space and undergoes fission while contained therein. The reactor, because of its small size, is particularly adapted for propulsion uses, including the propulsion of aircraft. (AEC)

  7. Moon base reactor system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chavez, H.; Flores, J.; Nguyen, M.; Carsen, K.

    1989-01-01

    The objective of our reactor design is to supply a lunar-based research facility with 20 MW(e). The fundamental layout of this lunar-based system includes the reactor, power conversion devices, and a radiator. The additional aim of this reactor is a longevity of 12 to 15 years. The reactor is a liquid metal fast breeder that has a breeding ratio very close to 1.0. The geometry of the core is cylindrical. The metallic fuel rods are of beryllium oxide enriched with varying degrees of uranium, with a beryllium core reflector. The liquid metal coolant chosen was natural lithium. After the liquid metal coolant leaves the reactor, it goes directly into the power conversion devices. The power conversion devices are Stirling engines. The heated coolant acts as a hot reservoir to the device. It then enters the radiator to be cooled and reenters the Stirling engine acting as a cold reservoir. The engines' operating fluid is helium, a highly conductive gas. These Stirling engines are hermetically sealed. Although natural lithium produces a lower breeding ratio, it does have a larger temperature range than sodium. It is also corrosive to steel. This is why the container material must be carefully chosen. One option is to use an expensive alloy of cerbium and zirconium. The radiator must be made of a highly conductive material whose melting point temperature is not exceeded in the reactor and whose structural strength can withstand meteor showers.

  8. REACTOR COOLING

    DOEpatents

    Quackenbush, C.F.

    1959-09-29

    A nuclear reactor with provisions for selectively cooling the fuel elements is described. The reactor has a plurality of tubes extending throughout. Cylindrical fuel elements are disposed within the tubes and the coolant flows through the tubes and around the fuel elements. The fuel elements within the central portion of the reactor are provided with roughened surfaces of material. The fuel elements in the end portions of the tubes within the reactor are provlded with low conduction jackets and the fuel elements in the region between the central portion and the end portions are provided with smooth surfaces of high heat conduction material.

  9. Rock and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frith, Simon; McRobbie, Angela

    1978-01-01

    Discusses rock as a form of both sexual expression and control. Describes rock's representations of masculinity and femininity and considers the contradictions involved in the representations. Relates the effects of rock to its form--as music, as commodity, as culture, and as entertainment. (JMF)

  10. My Pet Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  11. 68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. LITTLE ROCK AND PALMDALE IRRIGATION DISTRICT, LITTLE ROCK DAM: STRESS SHEET, SHEET 4; MAY, 1918. Littlerock Water District files. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  12. Database on unstable rock slopes in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppikofer, Thierry; Nordahl, Bo; Bunkholt, Halvor; Nicolaisen, Magnus; Hermanns, Reginald L.; Böhme, Martina; Yugsi Molina, Freddy X.

    2014-05-01

    Several large rockslides have occurred in historic times in Norway causing many casualties. Most of these casualties are due to displacement waves triggered by a rock avalanche and affecting coast lines of entire lakes and fjords. The Geological Survey of Norway performs systematic mapping of unstable rock slopes in Norway and has detected up to now more than 230 unstable slopes with significant postglacial deformation. This systematic mapping aims to detect future rock avalanches before they occur. The registered unstable rock slopes are stored in a database on unstable rock slopes developed and maintained by the Geological Survey of Norway. The main aims of this database are (1) to serve as a national archive for unstable rock slopes in Norway; (2) to serve for data collection and storage during field mapping; (3) to provide decision-makers with hazard zones and other necessary information on unstable rock slopes for land-use planning and mitigation; and (4) to inform the public through an online map service. The database is organized hierarchically with a main point for each unstable rock slope to which several feature classes and tables are linked. This main point feature class includes several general attributes of the unstable rock slopes, such as site name, general and geological descriptions, executed works, recommendations, technical parameters (volume, lithology, mechanism and others), displacement rates, possible consequences, hazard and risk classification and so on. Feature classes and tables linked to the main feature class include the run-out area, the area effected by secondary effects, the hazard and risk classification, subareas and scenarios of an unstable rock slope, field observation points, displacement measurement stations, URL links for further documentation and references. The database on unstable rock slopes in Norway will be publicly consultable through the online map service on www.skrednett.no in 2014. Only publicly relevant parts of

  13. The challenges of big data.

    PubMed

    Mardis, Elaine R

    2016-05-01

    The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest.

  14. Homogeneous and isotropic big rips?

    SciTech Connect

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2005-10-15

    We investigate the way big rips are approached in a fully inhomogeneous description of the space-time geometry. If the pressure and energy densities are connected by a (supernegative) barotropic index, the spatial gradients and the anisotropic expansion decay as the big rip is approached. This behavior is contrasted with the usual big-bang singularities. A similar analysis is performed in the case of sudden (quiescent) singularities and it is argued that the spatial gradients may well be non-negligible in the vicinity of pressure singularities.

  15. Big Data and Ambulatory Care

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Jane Hyatt; Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Big data is heralded as having the potential to revolutionize health care by making large amounts of data available to support care delivery, population health, and patient engagement. Critics argue that big data's transformative potential is inhibited by privacy requirements that restrict health information exchange. However, there are a variety of permissible activities involving use and disclosure of patient information that support care delivery and management. This article presents an overview of the legal framework governing health information, dispels misconceptions about privacy regulations, and highlights how ambulatory care providers in particular can maximize the utility of big data to improve care. PMID:25401945

  16. The challenges of big data

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The largely untapped potential of big data analytics is a feeding frenzy that has been fueled by the production of many next-generation-sequencing-based data sets that are seeking to answer long-held questions about the biology of human diseases. Although these approaches are likely to be a powerful means of revealing new biological insights, there are a number of substantial challenges that currently hamper efforts to harness the power of big data. This Editorial outlines several such challenges as a means of illustrating that the path to big data revelations is paved with perils that the scientific community must overcome to pursue this important quest. PMID:27147249

  17. Big climate data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudelsee, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The Big Data era has begun also in the climate sciences, not only in economics or molecular biology. We measure climate at increasing spatial resolution by means of satellites and look farther back in time at increasing temporal resolution by means of natural archives and proxy data. We use powerful supercomputers to run climate models. The model output of the calculations made for the IPCC's Fifth Assessment Report amounts to ~650 TB. The 'scientific evolution' of grid computing has started, and the 'scientific revolution' of quantum computing is being prepared. This will increase computing power, and data amount, by several orders of magnitude in the future. However, more data does not automatically mean more knowledge. We need statisticians, who are at the core of transforming data into knowledge. Statisticians notably also explore the limits of our knowledge (uncertainties, that is, confidence intervals and P-values). Mudelsee (2014 Climate Time Series Analysis: Classical Statistical and Bootstrap Methods. Second edition. Springer, Cham, xxxii + 454 pp.) coined the term 'optimal estimation'. Consider the hyperspace of climate estimation. It has many, but not infinite, dimensions. It consists of the three subspaces Monte Carlo design, method and measure. The Monte Carlo design describes the data generating process. The method subspace describes the estimation and confidence interval construction. The measure subspace describes how to detect the optimal estimation method for the Monte Carlo experiment. The envisaged large increase in computing power may bring the following idea of optimal climate estimation into existence. Given a data sample, some prior information (e.g. measurement standard errors) and a set of questions (parameters to be estimated), the first task is simple: perform an initial estimation on basis of existing knowledge and experience with such types of estimation problems. The second task requires the computing power: explore the hyperspace to

  18. Reactor antineutrino experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haoqi

    2014-09-01

    Neutrinos are elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics. There are three flavors of neutrinos that oscillate among themselves. Their oscillation can be described by a 3×3 unitary matrix, containing three mixing angles θ12, θ23, θ13, and one CP phase. Both θ12 and θ23 are known from previous experiments. θ13 was unknown just two years ago. The Daya Bay experiment gave the first definitive nonzero value in 2012. An improved measurement of the oscillation amplitude sin 22(θ 13) = 0.090+0.008-0.009 and the first direct measurement of the \\bar ν e mass-squared difference \\vertΔ m2ee\\vert\\big (2.59+0.19-0.20\\big )×10-3 eV2 were obtained recently. The large value of θ13 boosts the next generation of reactor antineutrino experiments designed to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy, such as JUNO and RENO-50.

  19. Phosphine from rocks: mechanically driven phosphate reduction?

    PubMed

    Glindemann, Dietmar; Edwards, Marc; Morgenstern, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Natural rock and mineral samples released trace amounts of phosphine during dissolution in mineral acid. An order of magnitude more phosphine (average 1982 ng PH3 kg rock and maximum 6673 ng PH3/kg rock) is released from pulverized rock samples (basalt, gneiss, granite, clay, quartzitic pebbles, or marble). Phosphine was correlated to hardness and mechanical pulverization energy of the rocks. The yield of PH3 ranged from 0 to 0.01% of the total P content of the dissolved rock. Strong circumstantial evidence was gathered for reduction of phosphate in the rock via mechanochemical or "tribochemical" weathering at quartz and calcite/marble inclusions. Artificial reproduction of this mechanism by rubbing quartz rods coated with apatite-phosphate to the point of visible triboluminescence, led to detection of more than 70 000 ng/kg PH3 in the apatite. This reaction pathway may be considered a mechano-chemical analogue of phosphate reduction from lightning or electrical discharges and may contribute to phosphine production via tectonic forces and processing of rocks.

  20. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1958-04-22

    A nuclear reactor for isotope production is described. This reactor is designed to provide a maximum thermal neutron flux in a region adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the center of the reactor. The core of the reactor is generally centrally located with respect tn a surrounding first reflector, constructed of beryllium. The beryllium reflector is surrounded by a second reflector, constructed of graphite, which, in tune, is surrounded by a conventional thermal shield. Water is circulated through the core and the reflector and functions both as a moderator and a coolant. In order to produce a greatsr maximum thermal neutron flux adjacent to the periphery of the reactor rather than in the core, the reactor is designed so tbat the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the materials in the reflector is approximately twice the ratio of neutron scattering cross section to neutron absorption cross section averaged over all of the material of the core of the reactor.

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.; Johnson, H.W.

    1961-04-01

    BS>A nuclear reactor incorporating fuel rods passing through a moderator and including tubes of a material of higher Thermal conductivity than the fuel in contact with the fuel is described. The tubes extend beyond the active portion of the reactor into contant with a fiuld coolant.

  2. Reactor building

    SciTech Connect

    Hista, J. C.

    1984-09-18

    Reactor building comprising a vessel shaft anchored in a slab which is peripherally locked. This reactor building comprises a confinement enclosure within which are positioned internal structures constituted by an internal structure floor, a vessel shaft, a slab being positioned between the general floor and the internal structure floor, the vesse

  3. Reactivity Transients in Nuclear Research Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-01

    Version 01 AIREMOD-RR is a point kinetics code which can simulate fast transients in nuclear research reactor cores. It can also be used for theoretical reactor dynamics studies. It is used for research reactor kinetic analysis and provides a point neutron kinetic capability. The thermal hydraulic behavior is governed by a one-dimensional heat balance equation. The calculations are restricted to a single equivalent unit cell which consists of fuel, clad and coolant.

  4. My Big Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espinosa, Paul S.

    2002-01-01

    It was June and I was in Yosemite National Park in California, 2,000-feet off the ground. I was climbing El Capitan, a majestic 3,000-foot high, mile-wide granite monolith--one of the most sought after and spectacular rock climbs in the world. After three days of climbing on its sheer face, and having completed the most difficult part of the route, my partner and I were heading down. A thunderstorm lasting all night and into the morning had soaked our tiny perch and all our worldly possessions. We began rappelling down the vertical wall by sliding to the ends of two 50meter ropes tied together and looped through a set of fixed rings bolted into the rock. At the end of the ropes was another rappel station consisting of a set of rings, placed by previous climbers for retreating parties, which we used to anchor ourselves to the rock face. We then pulled the ropes down from the rings above, threaded the ones in front of our noses and started down another rope length. Everything we brought up for our five-day climb to the summit we had to bring back down with us: ropes, climbing gear of every sort, sleeping bags, extra clothes, food, water, and other essentials. All this we either stuffed into a haul bag (an oversized reinforced duffel bag) or slung over our shoulders. The retreat was slow and methodical, akin to a train backing down a mountain, giving me ample time to think. My situation made me think about my work, mostly, about all the projects I have managed, or been involved in managing. As a NASA project manager, I have worked on a number of successful projects. I have also been involved in a number of projects I never saw the end of. I thought about all the projects I transferred off of for other opportunities, projects that were in full stride and ran out of funding, and ones put on the shelf because they would not meet a flight date. Oh yes, I have had many success, to be sure, or I would have burned out years ago. Lessons from both the successful and not

  5. The BigBOSS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna

    2011-01-01

    BigBOSS will obtain observational constraints that will bear on three of the four 'science frontier' questions identified by the Astro2010 Cosmology and Fundamental Phyics Panel of the Decadal Survey: Why is the universe accelerating; what is dark matter and what are the properties of neutrinos? Indeed, the BigBOSS project was recommended for substantial immediate R and D support the PASAG report. The second highest ground-based priority from the Astro2010 Decadal Survey was the creation of a funding line within the NSF to support a 'Mid-Scale Innovations' program, and it used BigBOSS as a 'compelling' example for support. This choice was the result of the Decadal Survey's Program Priorization panels reviewing 29 mid-scale projects and recommending BigBOSS 'very highly'.

  6. Big Spherules near 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This frame from the microscopic imager on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows spherules up to about 5 millimeters (one-fifth of an inch) in diameter. The camera took this image during the 924th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Aug. 30, 2006), when the rover was about 200 meters (650 feet) north of 'Victoria Crater.'

    Opportunity discovered spherules like these, nicknamed 'blueberries,' at its landing site in 'Eagle Crater,' and investigations determined them to be iron-rich concretions that formed inside deposits soaked with groundwater. However, such concretions were much smaller or absent at the ground surface along much of the rover's trek of more than 5 kilometers (3 miles) southward to Victoria. The big ones showed up again when Opportunity got to the ring, or annulus, of material excavated and thrown outward by the impact that created Victoria Crater. Researchers hypothesize that some layer beneath the surface in Victoria's vicinity was once soaked with water long enough to form the concretions, that the crater-forming impact dispersed some material from that layer, and that Opportunity might encounter that layer in place if the rover drives down into the crater.

  7. Big bang nucleosynthesis: Present status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyburt, Richard H.; Fields, Brian D.; Olive, Keith A.; Yeh, Tsung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) describes the production of the lightest nuclides via a dynamic interplay among the four fundamental forces during the first seconds of cosmic time. A brief overview of the essentials of this physics is given, and new calculations presented of light-element abundances through 6Li and 7Li, with updated nuclear reactions and uncertainties including those in the neutron lifetime. Fits are provided for these results as a function of baryon density and of the number of neutrino flavors Nν. Recent developments are reviewed in BBN, particularly new, precision Planck cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements that now probe the baryon density, helium content, and the effective number of degrees of freedom Neff. These measurements allow for a tight test of BBN and cosmology using CMB data alone. Our likelihood analysis convolves the 2015 Planck data chains with our BBN output and observational data. Adding astronomical measurements of light elements strengthens the power of BBN. A new determination of the primordial helium abundance is included in our likelihood analysis. New D/H observations are now more precise than the corresponding theoretical predictions and are consistent with the standard model and the Planck baryon density. Moreover, D/H now provides a tight measurement of Nν when combined with the CMB baryon density and provides a 2 σ upper limit Nν<3.2 . The new precision of the CMB and D/H observations together leaves D/H predictions as the largest source of uncertainties. Future improvement in BBN calculations will therefore rely on improved nuclear cross-section data. In contrast with D/H and 4He, 7Li predictions continue to disagree with observations, perhaps pointing to new physics. This paper concludes with a look at future directions including key nuclear reactions, astronomical observations, and theoretical issues.

  8. Genericness of a big bounce in isotropic loop quantum cosmology.

    PubMed

    Date, Ghanashyam; Hossain, Golam Mortuza

    2005-01-14

    The absence of isotropic singularity in loop quantum cosmology can be understood in an effective classical description as the Universe exhibiting a big bounce. We show that with a scalar matter field, the big bounce is generic in the sense that it is independent of quantization ambiguities and the details of scalar field dynamics. The volume of the Universe at the bounce point is parametrized by a single parameter. It provides a minimum length scale which serves as a cutoff for computations of density perturbations thereby influencing their amplitudes. PMID:15698060

  9. Similar quartz crystallographic textures in rocks of continental earth's crust (by neutron diffraction data): I. Quartz textures in monomineral rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, A. N. Ivankina, T. I.; Ullemeyer, K.; Vasin, R. N.

    2008-09-15

    Quartz crystallographic textures in different rocks have been investigated by neutron diffraction. Various types of crystallographic textures of quartz-bearing mineral associations in monomineral and multiphase rocks from a representative collection of samples have been revealed and classified. Experimental investigations have been performed on special neutron texture diffractometers designed at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics and mounted in the seventh channel of the IBR-2 reactor at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna).

  10. Powering Big Data for Nursing Through Partnership.

    PubMed

    Harper, Ellen M; Parkerson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The Big Data Principles Workgroup (Workgroup) was established with support of the Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society. Building on the Triple Aim challenge, the Workgroup sought to identify Big Data principles, barriers, and challenges to nurse-sensitive data inclusion into Big Data sets. The product of this pioneering partnership Workgroup was the "Guiding Principles for Big Data in Nursing-Using Big Data to Improve the Quality of Care and Outcomes."

  11. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-01

    soil C in the partnership region, and to design a risk/cost effectiveness framework to make comparative assessments of each viable sink, taking into account economic costs, offsetting benefits, scale of sequestration opportunities, spatial and time dimensions, environmental risks, and long term viability. Scientifically sound information on MMV is critical for public acceptance of these technologies. Two key deliverables were completed this quarter--a literature review/database to assess the soil carbon on rangelands, and the draft protocols, contracting options for soil carbon trading. To date, there has been little research on soil carbon on rangelands, and since rangeland constitutes a major land use in the Big Sky region, this is important in achieving a better understanding of terrestrial sinks. The protocols developed for soil carbon trading are unique and provide a key component of the mechanisms that might be used to efficiently sequester GHG and reduce CO{sub 2} concentrations. Progress on other deliverables is noted in the PowerPoint presentations. A series of meetings held during the second quarter have laid the foundations for assessing the issues surrounding the implementation of a market-based setting for soil C credits. These meetings provide a connection to stakeholders in the region and a basis on which to draw for the DOE PEIS hearings. Finally, the education and outreach efforts have resulted in a comprehensive plan and process which serves as a guide for implementing the outreach activities under Phase I. While we are still working on the public website, we have made many presentations to stakeholders and policy makers, connections to other federal and state agencies concerned with GHG emissions, climate change, and efficient and environmentally-friendly energy production. In addition, we have laid plans for integration of our outreach efforts with the students, especially at the tribal colleges and at the universities involved in our partnership

  12. Compact Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Pharis E.

    2007-01-30

    Weyl's Gauge Principle of 1929 has been used to establish Weyl's Quantum Principle (WQP) that requires that the Weyl scale factor should be unity. It has been shown that the WQP requires the following: quantum mechanics must be used to determine system states; the electrostatic potential must be non-singular and quantified; interactions between particles with different electric charges (i.e. electron and proton) do not obey Newton's Third Law at sub-nuclear separations, and nuclear particles may be much different than expected using the standard model. The above WQP requirements lead to a potential fusion reactor wherein deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei. Because the deuterium nuclei are preferentially fused into helium nuclei at temperatures and energies lower than specified by the standard model there is no harmful radiation as a byproduct of this fusion process. Therefore, a reactor using this reaction does not need any shielding to contain such radiation. The energy released from each reaction and the absence of shielding makes the deuterium-plus-deuterium-to-helium (DDH) reactor very compact when compared to other reactors, both fission and fusion types. Moreover, the potential energy output per reactor weight and the absence of harmful radiation makes the DDH reactor an ideal candidate for space power. The logic is summarized by which the WQP requires the above conditions that make the prediction of DDH possible. The details of the DDH reaction will be presented along with the specifics of why the DDH reactor may be made to cause two deuterium nuclei to preferentially fuse to a helium nucleus. The presentation will also indicate the calculations needed to predict the reactor temperature as a function of fuel loading, reactor size, and desired output and will include the progress achieved to date.

  13. Results of new petrologic and remote sensing studies in the Big Bend region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benker, Stevan Christian

    The initial section of this manuscript involves the South Rim Formation, a series of 32.2-32 Ma comenditic quartz trachytic-rhyolitic volcanics and associated intrusives, erupted and was emplaced in Big Bend National Park, Texas. Magmatic parameters have only been interpreted for one of the two diverse petrogenetic suites comprising this formation. Here, new mineralogic data for the South Rim Formation rocks are presented. Magmatic parameters interpreted from these data assist in deciphering lithospheric characteristics during the mid-Tertiary. Results indicate low temperatures (< 750 °C), reduced conditions (generally below the FMQ buffer), and low pressures (≤ 100 MPa) associated with South Rim Formation magmatism with slight conditional differences between the two suites. Newly discovered fayalite microphenocrysts allowed determination of oxygen fugacity values (between -0.14 and -0.25 DeltaFMQ over temperature ranges of 680-700 °C), via mineral equilibria based QUILF95 calculations, for Emory Peak Suite. Petrologic information is correlated with structural evidence from Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent regions to evaluate debated timing of tectonic transition (Laramide compression to Basin and Range extension) and onset of the southern Rio Grande Rift during the mid-Tertiary. The A-type and peralkaline characteristics of the South Rim Formation and other pre-31 Ma magmatism in Trans-Pecos Texas, in addition to evidence implying earlier Rio Grande Rift onset in Colorado and New Mexico, promotes a near-neutral to transtensional setting in Trans-Pecos Texas by 32 Ma. This idea sharply contrasts with interpretations of tectonic compression and arc-related magmatism until 31 Ma as suggested by some authors. However, evidence discussed cannot preclude a pre-36 Ma proposed by other authors. The later section of this manuscript involves research in the Big Bend area using Google Earth. At present there is high interest in using Google Earth in a variety of scientific

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Moore, R.V.; Bowen, J.H.; Dent, K.H.

    1958-12-01

    A heterogeneous, natural uranium fueled, solid moderated, gas cooled reactor is described, in which the fuel elements are in the form of elongated rods and are dlsposed within vertical coolant channels ln the moderator symmetrically arranged as a regular lattice in groups. This reactor employs control rods which operate in vertical channels in the moderator so that each control rod is centered in one of the fuel element groups. The reactor is enclosed in a pressure vessel which ls provided with access holes at the top to facilitate loading and unloadlng of the fuel elements, control rods and control rod driving devices.

  15. The Rock Physics Handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavko, Gary; Mukerji, Tapan; Dvorkin, Jack

    2003-10-01

    The Rock Physics Handbook conveniently brings together the theoretical and empirical relations that form the foundations of rock physics, with particular emphasis on seismic properties. It also includes commonly used models and relations for electrical and dielectric rock properties. Seventy-six articles concisely summarize a wide range of topics, including wave propagation, AVO-AVOZ, effective media, poroelasticity, pore fluid flow and diffusion. The book contains overviews of dispersion mechanisms, fluid substitution, and Vp-Vs relations. Useful empirical results on reservoir rocks and sediments, granular media, tables of mineral data, and an atlas of reservoir rock properties complete the text. This distillation of an otherwise scattered and eclectic mass of knowledge is presented in a form that can be immediately applied to solve real problems. Geophysics professionals, researchers and students as well as petroleum engineers, well log analysts, and environmental geoscientists will value The Rock Physics Handbook as a unique resource.

  16. Numerical analysis of the big bounce in loop quantum cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Laguna, Pablo

    2007-01-15

    Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) homogeneous models with a massless scalar field show that the big-bang singularity can be replaced by a big quantum bounce. To gain further insight on the nature of this bounce, we study the semidiscrete loop quantum gravity Hamiltonian constraint equation from the point of view of numerical analysis. For illustration purposes, we establish a numerical analogy between the quantum bounces and reflections in finite difference discretizations of wave equations triggered by the use of nonuniform grids or, equivalently, reflections found when solving numerically wave equations with varying coefficients. We show that the bounce is closely related to the method for the temporal update of the system and demonstrate that explicit time-updates in general yield bounces. Finally, we present an example of an implicit time-update devoid of bounces and show back-in-time, deterministic evolutions that reach and partially jump over the big-bang singularity.

  17. Opaque rock fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit, B.; Molinaroli, E.; Olsen, J.

    1987-05-01

    The authors describe a new, rare, but petrogenetically significant variety of rock fragments from Holocene detrital sediments. Approximately 50% of the opaque heavy mineral concentrates from Holocene siliciclastic sands are polymineralic-Fe-Ti oxide particles, i.e., they are opaque rock fragments. About 40% to 70% of these rock fragments show intergrowth of hm + il, mt + il, and mt + hm +/- il. Modal analysis of 23,282 opaque particles in 117 polished thin sections of granitic and metamorphic parent rocks and their daughter sands from semi-arid and humid climates show the following relative abundances. The data show that opaque rock fragments are more common in sands from igneous source rocks and that hm + il fragments are more durable. They assume that equilibrium conditions existed in parent rocks during the growth of these paired minerals, and that the Ti/Fe ratio did not change during oxidation of mt to hm. Geothermometric determinations using electron probe microanalysis of opaque rock fragments in sand samples from Lake Erie and the Adriatic Sea suggest that these rock fragments may have equilibrated at approximately 900/sup 0/ and 525/sup 0/C, respectively.

  18. Bounce Rock Dimple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panoramic camera image shows the hole drilled by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's rock abrasion tool into the rock dubbed 'Bounce' on Sol 65 of the rover's journey. The tool drilled about 7 millimeters (0.3 inches) into the rock and generated small piles of 'tailings' or rock dust around the central hole, which is about 4.5 centimeters (1.7 inches) across. The image from sol 66 of the mission was acquired using the panoramic camera's 430 nanometer filter.

  19. Hungry for Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit hazard identification camera shows the rover's perspective just before its first post-egress drive on Mars. On Sunday, the 15th martian day, or sol, of Spirit's journey, engineers drove Spirit approximately 3 meters (10 feet) toward its first rock target, a football-sized, mountain-shaped rock called Adirondack (not pictured). In the foreground of this image are 'Sashimi' and 'Sushi' - two rocks that scientists considered investigating first. Ultimately, these rocks were not chosen because their rough and dusty surfaces are ill-suited for grinding.

  20. Fast reactors and nuclear nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Avrorin, E.N.; Rachkov, V.I.; Chebeskov, A.N.

    2013-07-01

    Problems are discussed with regard to nuclear fuel cycle resistance in fast reactors to nuclear proliferation risk due to the potential for use in military programs of the knowledge, technologies and materials gained from peaceful nuclear power applications. Advantages are addressed for fast reactors in the creation of a more reliable mode of nonproliferation in the closed nuclear fuel cycle in comparison with the existing fully open and partially closed fuel cycles of thermal reactors. Advantages and shortcomings are also discussed from the point of view of nonproliferation from the start with fast reactors using plutonium of thermal reactor spent fuel and enriched uranium fuel to the gradual transition using their own plutonium as fuel. (authors)

  1. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.

    1960-04-01

    A nuclear reactor is described consisting of blocks of graphite arranged in layers, natural uranium bodies disposed in holes in alternate layers of graphite blocks, and coolant tubes disposed in the layers of graphite blocks which do not contain uranium.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1960-09-20

    A nuclear reactor is described comprising fissionable material dispersed in graphite blocks, helium filling the voids of the blocks and the spaces therebetween, and means other than the helium in thermal conductive contact with the graphite for removing heat.

  3. Chemical Reactors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a course, including content, reading list, and presentation on chemical reactors at Cambridge University, England. A brief comparison of chemical engineering education between the United States and England is also given. (JN)

  4. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hurwitz, H. Jr.; Brooks, H.; Mannal, C.; Payne, J.H.; Luebke, E.A.

    1959-03-24

    A reactor of the heterogeneous, liquid cooled type is described. This reactor is comprised of a central region of a plurality of vertically disposed elongated tubes surrounded by a region of moderator material. The central region is comprised of a central core surrounded by a reflector region which is surrounded by a fast neutron absorber region, which in turn is surrounded by a slow neutron absorber region. Liquid sodium is used as the primary coolant and circulates through the core which contains the fuel elements. Control of the reactor is accomplished by varying the ability of the reflector region to reflect neutrons back into the core of the reactor. For this purpose the reflector is comprised of moderator and control elements having varying effects on reactivity, the control elements being arranged and actuated by groups to give regulation, shim, and safety control.

  5. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Miller, H.I.; Smith, R.C.

    1958-01-21

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which use a liquid fuel, such as a solution of uranyl sulfate in ordinary water which acts as the moderator. The reactor is comprised of a spherical vessel having a diameter of about 12 inches substantially surrounded by a reflector of beryllium oxide. Conventionnl control rods and safety rods are operated in slots in the reflector outside the vessel to control the operation of the reactor. An additional means for increasing the safety factor of the reactor by raising the ratio of delayed neutrons to prompt neutrons, is provided and consists of a soluble sulfate salt of beryllium dissolved in the liquid fuel in the proper proportion to obtain the result desired.

  6. REACTOR SHIELD

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Ohlinger, L.E.; Young, G.J.; Weinberg, A.M.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation shield construction is described for a nuclear reactor. The shield is comprised of a plurality of steel plates arranged in parallel spaced relationship within a peripheral shell. Reactor coolant inlet tubes extend at right angles through the plates and baffles are arranged between the plates at right angles thereto and extend between the tubes to create a series of zigzag channels between the plates for the circulation of coolant fluid through the shield. The shield may be divided into two main sections; an inner section adjacent the reactor container and an outer section spaced therefrom. Coolant through the first section may be circulated at a faster rate than coolant circulated through the outer section since the area closest to the reactor container is at a higher temperature and is more radioactive. The two sections may have separate cooling systems to prevent the coolant in the outer section from mixing with the more contaminated coolant in the inner section.

  7. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Sherman, J.; Sharbaugh, J.E.; Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Palladino, N.J.; DeHuff, P.G.

    1962-10-23

    A nuclear reactor incorporating seed and blanket assemblies is designed. Means are provided for obtaining samples of the coolant from the blanket assemblies and for varying the flow of coolant through the blanket assemblies. (AEC)

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR CORE INSTRUMENT

    DOEpatents

    Mims, L.S.

    1961-08-22

    A multi-purpose instrument for measuring neutron flux, coolant flow rate, and coolant temperature in a nuclear reactor is described. The device consists essentially of a hollow thimble containing a heat conducting element protruding from the inner wall, the element containing on its innermost end an amount of fissionsble materinl to function as a heat source when subjected to neutron flux irradiation. Thermocouple type temperature sensing means are placed on the heat conducting element adjacent the fissionable material and at a point spaced therefrom, and at a point on the thimble which is in contact with the coolant fluid. The temperature differentials measured between the thermocouples are determinative of the neutron flux, coolant flow, and temperature being measured. The device may be utilized as a probe or may be incorporated in a reactor core. (AE C)

  9. BIG FROG WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITIONS, TENNESSEE AND GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made of the Big Frog Wilderness Study Area and additions, Tennessee-Georgia. Geochemical sampling found traces of gold, zinc, copper, and arsenic in rocks, stream sediments, and panned concentrates, but not in sufficient quantities to indicate the presence of deposits of these metals. The results of the survey indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral deposits within the study area. The only apparent resources are nonmetallic commodities including rock suitable for construction materials, and small amounts of sand and gravel; however, these commodities are found in abundance outside the study area. A potential may exist for oil and natural gas at great depths, but this cannot be evaluated by the present study.

  10. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-06-30

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop (see attached agenda). The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Vernon, H.C.

    1959-01-13

    A neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, fluid cooled tvpe is described. The reactor is comprised of a pressure vessel containing the moderator and a plurality of vertically disposed channels extending in spaced relationship through the moderator. Fissionable fuel material is placed within the channels in spaced relationship thereto to permit circulation of the coolant fluid. Separate means are provided for cooling the moderator and for circulating a fluid coolant thru the channel elements to cool the fuel material.

  12. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, C.R.

    1962-07-24

    A fluidized bed nuclear reactor and a method of operating such a reactor are described. In the design means are provided for flowing a liquid moderator upwardly through the center of a bed of pellets of a nentron-fissionable material at such a rate as to obtain particulate fluidization while constraining the lower pontion of the bed into a conical shape. A smooth circulation of particles rising in the center and falling at the outside of the bed is thereby established. (AEC)

  13. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Breden, C.R.; Dietrich, J.R.

    1961-06-20

    A water-soluble non-volatile poison may be introduced into a reactor to nullify excess reactivity. The poison is removed by passing a side stream of the water containing the soluble poison to an evaporation chamber. The vapor phase is returned to the reactor to decrease the concentration of soluble poison and the liquid phase is returned to increase the concentration of soluble poison.

  14. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-07-14

    High temperature reactors which are uniquely adapted to serve as the heat source for nuclear pcwered rockets are described. The reactor is comprised essentially of an outer tubular heat resistant casing which provides the main coolant passageway to and away from the reactor core within the casing and in which the working fluid is preferably hydrogen or helium gas which is permitted to vaporize from a liquid storage tank. The reactor core has a generally spherical shape formed entirely of an active material comprised of fissile material and a moderator material which serves as a diluent. The active material is fabricated as a gas permeable porous material and is interlaced in a random manner with very small inter-connecting bores or capillary tubes through which the coolant gas may flow. The entire reactor is divided into successive sections along the direction of the temperature gradient or coolant flow, each section utilizing materials of construction which are most advantageous from a nuclear standpoint and which at the same time can withstand the operating temperature of that particular zone. This design results in a nuclear reactor characterized simultaneously by a minimum critiral size and mass and by the ability to heat a working fluid to an extremely high temperature.

  15. Cosmogenic nuclides in football-sized rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlen, M.; Honda, M.; Imamura, M.; Fruchter, J. S.; Finkel, R. C.; Kohl, C. P.; Arnold, J. R.; Reedy, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    The activity of long- and short-lived isotopes in a series of samples from a vertical column through the center of rock 14321 was measured. Rock 14321 is a 9 kg fragmental rock whose orientation was photographically documented on the lunar surface. Also investigated was a sample from the lower portion of rock 14310, where, in order to study target effects, two different density fractions (mineral separates) were analyzed. A few nuclides in a sample from the comprehensive fines 14259 were measured. This material has been collected largely from the top centimeter of the lunar soil. The study of the deep samples of 14321 and 14310 provided values for the activity of isotopes at points where only effects produced by galactic cosmic rays are significant.

  16. [Big data in official statistics].

    PubMed

    Zwick, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany.

  17. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  18. [Big data in official statistics].

    PubMed

    Zwick, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The concept of "big data" stands to change the face of official statistics over the coming years, having an impact on almost all aspects of data production. The tasks of future statisticians will not necessarily be to produce new data, but rather to identify and make use of existing data to adequately describe social and economic phenomena. Until big data can be used correctly in official statistics, a lot of questions need to be answered and problems solved: the quality of data, data protection, privacy, and the sustainable availability are some of the more pressing issues to be addressed. The essential skills of official statisticians will undoubtedly change, and this implies a number of challenges to be faced by statistical education systems, in universities, and inside the statistical offices. The national statistical offices of the European Union have concluded a concrete strategy for exploring the possibilities of big data for official statistics, by means of the Big Data Roadmap and Action Plan 1.0. This is an important first step and will have a significant influence on implementing the concept of big data inside the statistical offices of Germany. PMID:26077871

  19. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process. PMID:27068058

  20. GEOSS: Addressing Big Data Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativi, S.; Craglia, M.; Ochiai, O.

    2014-12-01

    In the sector of Earth Observation, the explosion of data is due to many factors including: new satellite constellations, the increased capabilities of sensor technologies, social media, crowdsourcing, and the need for multidisciplinary and collaborative research to face Global Changes. In this area, there are many expectations and concerns about Big Data. Vendors have attempted to use this term for their commercial purposes. It is necessary to understand whether Big Data is a radical shift or an incremental change for the existing digital infrastructures. This presentation tries to explore and discuss the impact of Big Data challenges and new capabilities on the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) and particularly on its common digital infrastructure called GCI. GEOSS is a global and flexible network of content providers allowing decision makers to access an extraordinary range of data and information at their desk. The impact of the Big Data dimensionalities (commonly known as 'V' axes: volume, variety, velocity, veracity, visualization) on GEOSS is discussed. The main solutions and experimentation developed by GEOSS along these axes are introduced and analyzed. GEOSS is a pioneering framework for global and multidisciplinary data sharing in the Earth Observation realm; its experience on Big Data is valuable for the many lessons learned.

  1. Fissioning Plasma Core Reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, Dennis; Butler, Carey; West, Nicole; Cole, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Institute for Scientific Research, Inc. (ISR) research program consist of: 1.Study core physics by adapting existing codes: MCNP4C - Monte Carlo code; COMBINE/VENTURE - diffusion theory; SCALE4 - Monte Carlo, with many utility codes. 2. Determine feasibility and study major design parameters: fuel selection, temperature and reflector sizing. 3. Study reactor kinetics: develop QCALC1 to model point kinetics; study dynamic behavior of the power release.

  2. Big Dust Devils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    28 January 2004 Northern Amazonis Planitia is famous for its frequent, large (> 1 km high) dust devils. They occur throughout the spring and summer seasons, and can be detected from orbit, even at the 240 meters (278 yards) per pixel resolution of the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle instruments. This red wide angle image shows a plethora of large dust devils. The arrow points to an example. Shadows cast by the towering columns of swirling dust point away from the direction of sunlight illumination (sun is coming from the left/lower left). This December 2004 scene covers an area more than 125 km (> 78 mi) across and is located near 37oN, 154oW.

  3. Sense Things in the Big Deep Water Bring the Big Deep Water to Computers so People can understand the Deep Water all the Time without getting wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, M.; Heesemann, M.; Scherwath, M.; Owens, D.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Senses help us learn stuff about the world. We put sense things in, over, and under the water to help people understand water, ice, rocks, life and changes over time out there in the big water. Sense things are like our eyes and ears. We can use them to look up and down, right and left all of the time. We can also use them on top of or near the water to see wind and waves. As the water gets deep, we can use our sense things to see many a layer of different water that make up the big water. On the big water we watch ice grow and then go away again. We think our sense things will help us know if this is different from normal, because it could be bad for people soon if it is not normal. Our sense things let us hear big water animals talking low (but sometimes high). We can also see animals that live at the bottom of the big water and we take lots of pictures of them. Lots of the animals we see are soft and small or hard and small, but sometimes the really big ones are seen too. We also use our sense things on the bottom and sometimes feel the ground shaking. Sometimes, we get little pockets of bad smelling air going up, too. In other areas of the bottom, we feel hot hot water coming out of the rock making new rocks and we watch some animals even make houses and food out of the hot hot water that turns to rock as it cools. To take care of the sense things we use and control water cars and smaller water cars that can dive deep in the water away from the bigger water car. We like to put new things in the water and take things out of the water that need to be fixed at least once a year. Sense things are very cool because you can use the sense things with your computer too. We share everything for free on our computers, which your computer talks to and gets pictures and sounds for you. Sharing the facts from the sense things is the best part about having the sense things because we can get many new ideas about understanding the big water from anyone with a computer!

  4. Multiwavelength astronomy and big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    Two major characteristics of modern astronomy are multiwavelength (MW) studies (fromγ-ray to radio) and big data (data acquisition, storage and analysis). Present astronomical databases and archives contain billions of objects observed at various wavelengths, both galactic and extragalactic, and the vast amount of data on them allows new studies and discoveries. Astronomers deal with big numbers. Surveys are the main source for discovery of astronomical objects and accumulation of observational data for further analysis, interpretation, and achieving scientific results. We review the main characteristics of astronomical surveys, compare photographic and digital eras of astronomical studies (including the development of wide-field observations), describe the present state of MW surveys, and discuss the Big Data in astronomy and related topics of Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics. The review includes many numbers and data that can be compared to have a possibly overall understanding on the Universe, cosmic numbers and their relationship to modern computational facilities.

  5. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S. M. Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined. PMID:26229957

  6. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Zachary D; Lee, Skylar Y; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-07-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a "four-headed beast"--it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the "genomical" challenges of the next decade.

  7. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Zachary D.; Lee, Skylar Y.; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H.; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J.; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C.; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a “four-headed beast”—it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the “genomical” challenges of the next decade. PMID:26151137

  8. Big Data Analytics in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ashwin; Thiagarajan, Raghuram; Soroushmehr, S M Reza; Navidi, Fatemeh; Beard, Daniel A; Najarian, Kayvan

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of big data analytics has started to play a pivotal role in the evolution of healthcare practices and research. It has provided tools to accumulate, manage, analyze, and assimilate large volumes of disparate, structured, and unstructured data produced by current healthcare systems. Big data analytics has been recently applied towards aiding the process of care delivery and disease exploration. However, the adoption rate and research development in this space is still hindered by some fundamental problems inherent within the big data paradigm. In this paper, we discuss some of these major challenges with a focus on three upcoming and promising areas of medical research: image, signal, and genomics based analytics. Recent research which targets utilization of large volumes of medical data while combining multimodal data from disparate sources is discussed. Potential areas of research within this field which have the ability to provide meaningful impact on healthcare delivery are also examined.

  9. Big Data: Astronomical or Genomical?

    PubMed

    Stephens, Zachary D; Lee, Skylar Y; Faghri, Faraz; Campbell, Roy H; Zhai, Chengxiang; Efron, Miles J; Iyer, Ravishankar; Schatz, Michael C; Sinha, Saurabh; Robinson, Gene E

    2015-07-01

    Genomics is a Big Data science and is going to get much bigger, very soon, but it is not known whether the needs of genomics will exceed other Big Data domains. Projecting to the year 2025, we compared genomics with three other major generators of Big Data: astronomy, YouTube, and Twitter. Our estimates show that genomics is a "four-headed beast"--it is either on par with or the most demanding of the domains analyzed here in terms of data acquisition, storage, distribution, and analysis. We discuss aspects of new technologies that will need to be developed to rise up and meet the computational challenges that genomics poses for the near future. Now is the time for concerted, community-wide planning for the "genomical" challenges of the next decade. PMID:26151137

  10. Welcome to Rock Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varelas, Maria; Benhart, Jeaneen

    2004-01-01

    At the beginning of the school year, the authors, a first-grade teacher and a teacher educator, worked together to "spice up" the first-grade science curriculum. The teacher had taught the unit Rocks, Sand, and Soil several times, conducting hands-on explorations and using books to help students learn about properties of rocks, but she felt the…

  11. Rock Bites into 'Bounce'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This panoramic camera image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity features the 6.44 millimeter (0.25 inch) deep hole ground into the rock dubbed 'Bounce' by the rover's rock abrasion tool. The tool took 2 hours and 15 minutes to grind the hole on sol 66 of the rover's journey. A combination of limited solar power and the rock's jagged texture led the rock abrasion tool team to set very aggressive grinding parameters to ensure that the end result was a full circle, suitable for a thorough read from the rover's spectrometers.

    Bounce's markedly different appearance (when compared to the rocks that were previously examined in the Eagle Crater outcrop) made it a natural target for rover research. In order to achieve an ideal position from which to grind into the rock, Opportunity moved in very close with its right wheel next to Bounce. In this image, the panoramic camera on the rover's mast is looking down, catching the tip of the solar panel which partially blocks the full circle ground by the rock abrasion tool.

    The outer ring consists of the cuttings from the rock, pushed out by the brushes on the grinding instrument. The dark impression at the top of the outer circle was caused by the instrument's contact mechanism which serves to stabilize it while grinding.

  12. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  13. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  14. Research reactors - an overview

    SciTech Connect

    West, C.D.

    1997-03-01

    A broad overview of different types of research and type reactors is provided in this paper. Reactor designs and operating conditions are briefly described for four reactors. The reactor types described include swimming pool reactors, the High Flux Isotope Reactor, the Mark I TRIGA reactor, and the Advanced Neutron Source reactor. Emphasis in the descriptions is placed on safety-related features of the reactors. 7 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Layered Rocks in Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 June 2004 Exposures of layered, sedimentary rock are common on Mars. From the rock outcrops examined by the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, in Meridiani Planum to the sequence in Gale Crater's central mound that is twice the thickness of of the sedimentary rocks exposed by Arizona's Grand Canyon, Mars presents a world of sediment to study. This unusual example, imaged by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), shows eroded layer outcrops in a crater in Terra Tyrrhena near 15.4oS, 270.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past climates and events. Perhaps someday the story told by the rocks in this image will be known via careful field work. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the left.

  16. [Algorithms, machine intelligence, big data : general considerations].

    PubMed

    Radermacher, F J

    2015-08-01

    We are experiencing astonishing developments in the areas of big data and artificial intelligence. They follow a pattern that we have now been observing for decades: according to Moore's Law,the performance and efficiency in the area of elementary arithmetic operations increases a thousand-fold every 20 years. Although we have not achieved the status where in the singular sense machines have become as "intelligent" as people, machines are becoming increasingly better. The Internet of Things has again helped to massively increase the efficiency of machines. Big data and suitable analytics do the same. If we let these processes simply continue, our civilization may be endangerd in many instances. If the "containment" of these processes succeeds in the context of a reasonable political global governance, a worldwide eco-social market economy, andan economy of green and inclusive markets, many desirable developments that are advantageous for our future may result. Then, at some point in time, the constant need for more and faster innovation may even stop. However, this is anything but certain. We are facing huge challenges.

  17. [Algorithms, machine intelligence, big data : general considerations].

    PubMed

    Radermacher, F J

    2015-08-01

    We are experiencing astonishing developments in the areas of big data and artificial intelligence. They follow a pattern that we have now been observing for decades: according to Moore's Law,the performance and efficiency in the area of elementary arithmetic operations increases a thousand-fold every 20 years. Although we have not achieved the status where in the singular sense machines have become as "intelligent" as people, machines are becoming increasingly better. The Internet of Things has again helped to massively increase the efficiency of machines. Big data and suitable analytics do the same. If we let these processes simply continue, our civilization may be endangerd in many instances. If the "containment" of these processes succeeds in the context of a reasonable political global governance, a worldwide eco-social market economy, andan economy of green and inclusive markets, many desirable developments that are advantageous for our future may result. Then, at some point in time, the constant need for more and faster innovation may even stop. However, this is anything but certain. We are facing huge challenges. PMID:26141245

  18. [Big Data- challenges and risks].

    PubMed

    Krauß, Manuela; Tóth, Tamás; Hanika, Heinrich; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Dinya, Elek

    2015-12-01

    The term "Big Data" is commonly used to describe the growing mass of information being created recently. New conclusions can be drawn and new services can be developed by the connection, processing and analysis of these information. This affects all aspects of life, including health and medicine. The authors review the application areas of Big Data, and present examples from health and other areas. However, there are several preconditions of the effective use of the opportunities: proper infrastructure, well defined regulatory environment with particular emphasis on data protection and privacy. These issues and the current actions for solution are also presented.

  19. [Big Data- challenges and risks].

    PubMed

    Krauß, Manuela; Tóth, Tamás; Hanika, Heinrich; Kozlovszky, Miklós; Dinya, Elek

    2015-12-01

    The term "Big Data" is commonly used to describe the growing mass of information being created recently. New conclusions can be drawn and new services can be developed by the connection, processing and analysis of these information. This affects all aspects of life, including health and medicine. The authors review the application areas of Big Data, and present examples from health and other areas. However, there are several preconditions of the effective use of the opportunities: proper infrastructure, well defined regulatory environment with particular emphasis on data protection and privacy. These issues and the current actions for solution are also presented. PMID:26614539

  20. Little Science to Big Science: Big Scientists to Little Scientists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simonton, Dean Keith

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Hisham B. Ghassib's essay entitled "Where Does Creativity Fit into a Productivist Industrial Model of Knowledge Production?" Professor Ghassib's (2010) essay presents a provocative portrait of how the little science of the Babylonians, Greeks, and Arabs became the Big Science of the modern industrial…

  1. Hydrocarbon maturation in Laramide basins - constraints from evolution of northern Big Horn basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, E.S.; Furlong, K.P.; Surdam, R.C.

    1984-04-01

    Thermal and mechanical models were used to quantify the effects of Laramide uplifts and subsequent synorogenic deposition on the hydrocarbon maturation of Cretaceous source rocks in the Big Horn basin. Laramide deformation and resultant sedimentation has clearly affected hydrocarbon maturation of Cretaceous source rocks. (Thermopolis, Mowry, Frontier, Cody). Modified Lopatin-type reconstructions suggest that a significant region containing Cretaceous source rocks has been within the liquid hydrocarbon window. The earliest onset of hydrocarbon maturation in the northern Big Horn basin was latest Eocene, with some regions still containing immature Cretaceous source rocks as a consequence of Cenozoic erosion, uplift of the Pryor Mountains, and lack of burial. Regional geologic features indicate that the basin formed as a result of flexural compensation of an elastic lithosphere during emplacement of the Beartooth and Pryor Mountains, and possibly the Absaroka volcanics. This was determined by 2-dimensional models which predict sediment thickness caused by tectonic loading and subsequent sedimentation. Flexural rigidities of 10/sup 2/2exclamation-10/sup 22/ newton-meters adequately explain flexural subsidence in the northern Big Horn basin. The present basin configuration also was compared with a theoretical profile based on geologic constraints. Subsidence models for the present basin profile suggest the Paleocene thrusting of the Beartooth block contributes a majority of the tectonic loading and that Cenozoic erosion has drastically affected the resultant sedimentary sequence (Fort Union and Wasatch). These models, along with stratigraphic reconstructions, can be combined to pinpoint areas of potential hydrocarbon maturation within Laramide-type basins.

  2. 10 CFR 50.46a - Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acceptance criteria for reactor coolant system venting... criteria for reactor coolant system venting systems. Each nuclear power reactor must be provided with high point vents for the reactor coolant system, for the reactor vessel head, and for other systems...

  3. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Ohlinger, L.A.; Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.M.; Young, G.J.

    1958-09-01

    This patent relates to neutronic reactors of the heterogeneous water cooled type, and in particular to a fuel element charging and discharging means therefor. In the embodiment illustrated the reactor contains horizontal, parallel coolant tubes in which the fuel elements are disposed. A loading cart containing a magnzine for holding a plurality of fuel elements operates along the face of the reactor at the inlet ends of the coolant tubes. The loading cart is equipped with a ram device for feeding fuel elements from the magazine through the inlot ends of the coolant tubes. Operating along the face adjacent the discharge ends of the tubes there is provided another cart means adapted to receive irradiated fuel elements as they are forced out of the discharge ends of the coolant tubes by the incoming new fuel elements. This cart is equipped with a tank coataining a coolant, such as water, into which the fuel elements fall, and a hydraulically operated plunger to hold the end of the fuel element being discharged. This inveation provides an apparatus whereby the fuel elements may be loaded into the reactor, irradiated therein, and unloaded from the reactor without stopping the fiow of the coolant and without danger to the operating personnel.

  4. POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1957-10-01

    A reactor of the type which preferably uses plutonium as the fuel and a liquid moderator, preferably ordinary water, and which produces steam within the reactor core due to the heat of the chain reaction is described. In the reactor shown the fuel elements are essentially in the form of trays and are ventically stacked in spaced relationship. The water moderator is continuously supplied to the trays to maintain a constant level on the upper surfaces of the fuel element as it is continually evaporated by the heat. The steam passes out through the spaces between the fuel elements and is drawn off at the top of the core. The fuel elements are clad in aluminum to prevent deterioration thereof with consequent contamimation of the water.

  6. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Christy, R.F.

    1958-07-15

    A nuclear reactor of the homogeneous liquid fuel type is described wherein the fissionable isotope is suspended or dissolved in a liquid moderator such as water. The reactor core is comprised essentially of a spherical vessel for containing the reactive composition surrounded by a reflector, preferably of beryllium oxide. The reactive composition may be an ordinary water solution of a soluble salt of uranium, the quantity of fissionable isotope in solution being sufficient to provide a critical mass in the vessel. The liquid fuel is stored in a tank of non-crtttcal geometry below the reactor vessel and outside of the reflector and is passed from the tank to the vessel through a pipe connecting the two by air pressure means. Neutron absorbing control and safety rods are operated within slots in the reflector adjacent to the vessel.

  7. Bioconversion reactor

    DOEpatents

    McCarty, Perry L.; Bachmann, Andre

    1992-01-01

    A bioconversion reactor for the anaerobic fermentation of organic material. The bioconversion reactor comprises a shell enclosing a predetermined volume, an inlet port through which a liquid stream containing organic materials enters the shell, and an outlet port through which the stream exits the shell. A series of vertical and spaced-apart baffles are positioned within the shell to force the stream to flow under and over them as it passes from the inlet to the outlet port. The baffles present a barrier to the microorganisms within the shell causing them to rise and fall within the reactor but to move horizontally at a very slow rate. Treatment detention times of one day or less are possible.

  8. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Fortescue, P.; Nicoll, D.

    1962-04-24

    A control system employed with a high pressure gas cooled reactor in which a control rod is positioned for upward and downward movement into the neutron field from a position beneath the reactor is described. The control rod is positioned by a coupled piston cylinder releasably coupled to a power drive means and the pressurized coolant is directed against the lower side of the piston. The coolant pressure is offset by a higher fiuid pressure applied to the upper surface of the piston and means are provided for releasing the higher pressure on the upper side of the piston so that the pressure of the coolant drives the piston upwardly, forcing the coupled control rod into the ncutron field of the reactor. (AEC)

  9. Catalytic reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, Timothy Mark; Shah, Minish Mahendra; Jibb, Richard John

    2009-03-10

    A catalytic reactor is provided with one or more reaction zones each formed of set(s) of reaction tubes containing a catalyst to promote chemical reaction within a feed stream. The reaction tubes are of helical configuration and are arranged in a substantially coaxial relationship to form a coil-like structure. Heat exchangers and steam generators can be formed by similar tube arrangements. In such manner, the reaction zone(s) and hence, the reactor is compact and the pressure drop through components is minimized. The resultant compact form has improved heat transfer characteristics and is far easier to thermally insulate than prior art compact reactor designs. Various chemical reactions are contemplated within such coil-like structures such that as steam methane reforming followed by water-gas shift. The coil-like structures can be housed within annular chambers of a cylindrical housing that also provide flow paths for various heat exchange fluids to heat and cool components.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-10-14

    A method is presented for loading and unloading rod type fuel elements of a neutronic reactor of the heterogeneous, solld moderator, liquid cooled type. In the embodiment illustrated, the fuel rods are disposed in vertical coolant channels in the reactor core. The fuel rods are loaded and unloaded through the upper openings of the channels which are immersed in the coolant liquid, such as water. Unloading is accomplished by means of a coffer dam assembly having an outer sleeve which is placed in sealing relation around the upper opening. A radiation shield sleeve is disposed in and reciprocable through the coffer dam sleeve. A fuel rod engaging member operates through the axial bore in the radiation shield sleeve to withdraw the fuel rod from its position in the reactor coolant channel into the shield, the shield snd rod then being removed. Loading is accomplished in the reverse procedure.

  11. The Big Bang, Genesis, and Knocking on Heaven's Door

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentry, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Michael Shermer recently upped the ante in the big bang-Genesis controversy by citing Lisa Randall's provocative claim (Science 334, 762 (2011)) that ``it is inconceivable that God could continue to intervene without introducing a material trace of his actions.'' So does Randall's and Shermer's agreement that no such evidence exists disprove God's existence? Not in my view because my 1970s Science, Nature and ARNS publications, and my article in the 1982 AAAS Western Division's Symposium Proceedings, Evolution Confronts Creation, all contain validation of God's existence via discovery of His Fingerprints of Creation and falsification of the big bang and geological evolution. These results came to wide public/scientific attention in my testimony at the 1981 Arkansas creation/evolution trial. There ACLU witness G Brent Dalrymple from the USGS -- and 2005 Medal of Science recipient from President Bush -- admitted I had discovered a tiny mystery (primordial polonium radiohalos) in granite rocks that indicated their almost instant creation. As a follow-up in 1992 and 1995 he sent out SOS letters to the entire AGU membership that the polonium halo evidence for fiat creation still existed and that someone needed to urgently find a naturalistic explanation for them. Is the physics community guilty of a Watergate-type cover-up of this discovery of God's existence and falsification of the big bang? For the answer see www.halos.tv.

  12. Our World: The Rock Cycle

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out how rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts have helped NASA learn more about the rock cycle. Compare igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks found on Earth to three types of ro...

  13. [Sequential extraction experiments applied to study chemical mobility of fluorine in rocks].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Rong; Liang, Han-Dong; Luo, Kun-Li; Feng, Fu-Jian; Tan, Jian-An

    2006-11-01

    Sequential extraction experiments were used to study the chemical mobility of fluorine in rocks. The results show that there are quite big differences in chemical mobility of fluorine in rocks of different types. Fluorine in carbonate rock is very active, in which the proportion of leachable fluorine is generally more than 75%. Fluorine in black rocks of Lower Cambrian is closely related to their different metamorphosed grades, in which fluorine in black carbonaceous slate with higher metamorphosed grade mostly has lower leachability than black shale and black siliceous rock. Generally speaking, the leachable percentage of fluorine is high in phosphorite rocks and low in phyllite. The leachable fluorine in diabase is in direct proportion to its fluorine concentration. There are some differences in chemical mobility of fluorine in stone coal of different ages. Fluorine in stone coal of Silurian has higher leachability than stone coal of Cambrian.

  14. [Sequential extraction experiments applied to study chemical mobility of fluorine in rocks].

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Rong; Liang, Han-Dong; Luo, Kun-Li; Feng, Fu-Jian; Tan, Jian-An

    2006-11-01

    Sequential extraction experiments were used to study the chemical mobility of fluorine in rocks. The results show that there are quite big differences in chemical mobility of fluorine in rocks of different types. Fluorine in carbonate rock is very active, in which the proportion of leachable fluorine is generally more than 75%. Fluorine in black rocks of Lower Cambrian is closely related to their different metamorphosed grades, in which fluorine in black carbonaceous slate with higher metamorphosed grade mostly has lower leachability than black shale and black siliceous rock. Generally speaking, the leachable percentage of fluorine is high in phosphorite rocks and low in phyllite. The leachable fluorine in diabase is in direct proportion to its fluorine concentration. There are some differences in chemical mobility of fluorine in stone coal of different ages. Fluorine in stone coal of Silurian has higher leachability than stone coal of Cambrian. PMID:17326440

  15. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Fermi, E.; Szilard, L.

    1957-09-24

    Reactors of the type employing plates of natural uranium in a moderator are discussed wherein the plates are um-formly disposed in parallel relationship to each other thereby separating the moderator material into distinct and individual layers. Each plate has an uninterrupted sunface area substantially equal to the cross-sectional area of the active portion of the reactor, the particular size of the plates and the volume ratio of moderator to uranium required to sustain a chain reaction being determinable from the known purity of these materials and other characteristics such as the predictable neutron losses due to the formation of radioactive elements of extremely high neutron capture cross section.

  16. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Weinberg, A.W.; Young, G.J.

    1958-04-15

    A nuclear reactor which uses uranium in the form of elongated tubes as fuel elements and liquid as a coolant is described. Elongated tubular uranium bodies are vertically disposed in an efficient neutron slowing agent, such as graphite, for example, to form a lattice structure which is disposed between upper and lower coolant tanks. Fluid coolant tubes extend through the uranium bodies and communicate with the upper and lower tanks and serve to convey the coolant through the uranium body. The reactor is also provided with means for circulating the cooling fluid through the coolant tanks and coolant tubes, suitable neutron and gnmma ray shields, and control means.

  17. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-31

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  18. China: Big Changes Coming Soon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowen, Henry S.

    2011-01-01

    Big changes are ahead for China, probably abrupt ones. The economy has grown so rapidly for many years, over 30 years at an average of nine percent a year, that its size makes it a major player in trade and finance and increasingly in political and military matters. This growth is not only of great importance internationally, it is already having…

  19. True Randomness from Big Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests.

  20. Big6 Turbotools and Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, Melinda

    2005-01-01

    The different tools that are helpful during the Synthesis stage, their role in boosting students abilities in Synthesis and the way in which it can be customized to meet the needs of each group of students are discussed. Big6 TurboTools offers several tools to help complete the task. In Synthesis stage, these same tools along with Turbo Report and…

  1. True Randomness from Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Papakonstantinou, Periklis A.; Woodruff, David P.; Yang, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Generating random bits is a difficult task, which is important for physical systems simulation, cryptography, and many applications that rely on high-quality random bits. Our contribution is to show how to generate provably random bits from uncertain events whose outcomes are routinely recorded in the form of massive data sets. These include scientific data sets, such as in astronomics, genomics, as well as data produced by individuals, such as internet search logs, sensor networks, and social network feeds. We view the generation of such data as the sampling process from a big source, which is a random variable of size at least a few gigabytes. Our view initiates the study of big sources in the randomness extraction literature. Previous approaches for big sources rely on statistical assumptions about the samples. We introduce a general method that provably extracts almost-uniform random bits from big sources and extensively validate it empirically on real data sets. The experimental findings indicate that our method is efficient enough to handle large enough sources, while previous extractor constructions are not efficient enough to be practical. Quality-wise, our method at least matches quantum randomness expanders and classical world empirical extractors as measured by standardized tests. PMID:27666514

  2. The Case for "Big History."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, David

    1991-01-01

    Urges an approach to the teaching of history that takes the largest possible perspective, crossing time as well as space. Discusses the problems and advantages of such an approach. Describes a course on "big" history that begins with time, creation myths, and astronomy, and moves on to paleontology and evolution. (DK)

  3. Big Explosives Experimental Facility - BEEF

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Big Explosives Experimental Facility or BEEF is a ten acre fenced high explosive testing facility that provides data to support stockpile stewardship and other national security programs. At BEEF conventional high explosives experiments are safely conducted providing sophisticated diagnostics such as high speed optics and x-ray radiography.

  4. Fossils of big bang turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, C. H.

    2004-12-01

    A model is proposed connecting turbulence, fossil turbulence, and the big bang origin of the universe. While details are incomplete, the model is consistent with our knowledge of these processes and is supported by observations. Turbulence arises in a hot-big-bang quantum-gravitational-dynamics scenario at Planck scales. Chaotic, eddy-like-motions produce an exothermic Planck particle cascade from 10-35 m at 1032 K to 108 larger, 104 cooler, quark-gluon scales. A Planck-Kerr instability gives high-Reynolds-number (Re 106) turbulent combustion, space-time-energy-entropy and turbulent mixing. Batchelor-Obukhov-Corrsin turbulent-temperature fluctuations are preserved as the first fossil-turbulence by inflation stretching the patterns beyond the horizon ct of causal connection faster than light speed c in time t 10-33 seconds. Fossil-big-bang-temperature-turbulence re-enters the horizon and imprints nucleosynthesis of H-He densities that seed fragmentation by gravity at 1012 s in the low Reynolds number plasma before its transition to gas at t 1013 s and T 3000 K. Multi-scaling coefficients of the cosmic-microwave-background (CMB) temperature anisotropies closely match those for high Reynolds number turbulence, Bershadskii and Sreenivasan 2002, 2003. CMB spectra support the interpretation that big-bang-turbulence-fossils triggered fragmentation of the viscous plasma at supercluster to galaxy mass scales from 1046 to 1042 kg, Gibson 1996, 2000, 2004ab.

  5. 1976 Big Thompson flood, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R. D.; Vandas, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the early evening of July 31, 1976, a large stationary thunderstorm released as much as 7.5 inches of rainfall in about an hour (about 12 inches in a few hours) in the upper reaches of the Big Thompson River drainage. This large amount of rainfall in such a short period of time produced a flash flood that caught residents and tourists by surprise. The immense volume of water that churned down the narrow Big Thompson Canyon scoured the river channel and destroyed everything in its path, including 418 homes, 52 businesses, numerous bridges, paved and unpaved roads, power and telephone lines, and many other structures. The tragedy claimed the lives of 144 people. Scores of other people narrowly escaped with their lives. The Big Thompson flood ranks among the deadliest of Colorado's recorded floods. It is one of several destructive floods in the United States that has shown the necessity of conducting research to determine the causes and effects of floods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducts research and operates a Nationwide streamgage network to help understand and predict the magnitude and likelihood of large streamflow events such as the Big Thompson Flood. Such research and streamgage information are part of an ongoing USGS effort to reduce flood hazards and to increase public awareness.

  6. Space Weathering of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Space weathering discussions have generally centered around soils but exposed rocks will also incur the effects of weathering. On the Moon, rocks make up only a very small percentage of the exposed surface and areas where rocks are exposed, like central peaks, are often among the least space weathered regions we find in remote sensing data. However, our studies of weathered Ap 17 rocks 76015 and 76237 show that significant amounts of weathering products can build up on rock surfaces. Because rocks have much longer surface lifetimes than an individual soil grain, and thus record a longer history of exposure, we can study these products to gain a deeper perspective on the weathering process and better assess the relative impo!1ance of various weathering components on the Moon. In contrast to the lunar case, on small asteroids, like Itokowa, rocks make up a large fraction of the exposed surface. Results from the Hayabusa spacecraft at Itokowa suggest that while the low gravity does not allow for the development of a mature regolith, weathering patinas can and do develop on rock surfaces, in fact, the rocky surfaces were seen to be darker and appear spectrally more weathered than regions with finer materials. To explore how weathering of asteroidal rocks may differ from lunar, a set of ordinary chondrite meteorites (H, L, and LL) which have been subjected to artificial space weathering by nanopulse laser were examined by TEM. NpFe(sup 0) bearing glasses were ubiquitous in both the naturally-weathered lunar and the artificially-weathered meteorite samples.

  7. How do we identify big rivers? And how big is big?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miall, Andrew D.

    2006-04-01

    "Big rivers" are the trunk rivers that carry the water and sediment load from major orogens, or that drain large areas of a continent. Identifying such rivers in the ancient record is a challenge. Some guidance may be provided by tectonic setting and sedimentological evidence, including the scale of architectural elements, and clues from provenance studies, but such data are not infallible guides to river magnitude. The scale of depositional elements is the most obvious clue to channel size, but evidence is typically sparse and inadequate, and may be misleading. For example, thick fining-upward successions may be tectonic cyclothems. Two examples of the analysis of large ancient river systems are discussed here in order to highlight problems of methodology and interpretation. The Hawkesbury Sandstone (Triassic) of the Sydney Basin, Australia, is commonly cited as the deposit of a large river, on the basis of abundant very large-scale crossbedding. An examination of very large outcrops of this unit, including a coastal cliff section 6 km long near Sydney, showed that even with 100% exposure there are ambiguities in the determination of channel scale. It was concluded in this case that the channel dimensions of the Hawkesbury rivers were about half the size of the modern Brahmaputra River. The tectonic setting of a major ancient fluvial system is commonly not a useful clue to river scale. The Hawkesbury Sandstone is a system draining transversely from a cratonic source into a foreland basin, whereas most large rivers in foreland basins flow axially and are derived mainly from the orogenic uplifts (e.g., the large tidally influenced rivers of the Athabasca Oil Sands, Alberta). Epeirogenic tilting of a continent by the dynamic topography process may generate drainages in unexpected directions. For example, analyses of detrital zircons in Upper Paleozoic-Mesozoic nonmarine successions in the SW United States suggests significant derivation from the Appalachian orogen

  8. The BigBoss Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schelgel, D.; Abdalla, F.; Abraham, T.; Ahn, C.; Allende Prieto, C.; Annis, J.; Aubourg, E.; Azzaro, M.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Baugh, C.; Bebek, C.; Becerril, S.; Blanton, M.; Bolton, A.; Bromley, B.; Cahn, R.; Carton, P.-H.; Cervanted-Cota, J.L.; Chu, Y.; Cortes, M.; /APC, Paris /Brookhaven /IRFU, Saclay /Marseille, CPPM /Marseille, CPT /Durham U. / /IEU, Seoul /Fermilab /IAA, Granada /IAC, La Laguna / /IAC, Mexico / / /Madrid, IFT /Marseille, Lab. Astrophys. / / /New York U. /Valencia U.

    2012-06-07

    BigBOSS is a Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a wide-area galaxy and quasar redshift survey over 14,000 square degrees. It has been conditionally accepted by NOAO in response to a call for major new instrumentation and a high-impact science program for the 4-m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak. The BigBOSS instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking 5000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 340 nm to 1060 nm, with a resolution R = {lambda}/{Delta}{lambda} = 3000-4800. Using data from imaging surveys that are already underway, spectroscopic targets are selected that trace the underlying dark matter distribution. In particular, targets include luminous red galaxies (LRGs) up to z = 1.0, extending the BOSS LRG survey in both redshift and survey area. To probe the universe out to even higher redshift, BigBOSS will target bright [OII] emission line galaxies (ELGs) up to z = 1.7. In total, 20 million galaxy redshifts are obtained to measure the BAO feature, trace the matter power spectrum at smaller scales, and detect redshift space distortions. BigBOSS will provide additional constraints on early dark energy and on the curvature of the universe by measuring the Ly-alpha forest in the spectra of over 600,000 2.2 < z < 3.5 quasars. BigBOSS galaxy BAO measurements combined with an analysis of the broadband power, including the Ly-alpha forest in BigBOSS quasar spectra, achieves a FOM of 395 with Planck plus Stage III priors. This FOM is based on conservative assumptions for the analysis of broad band power (k{sub max} = 0.15), and could grow to over 600 if current work allows us to push the analysis to higher wave numbers (k{sub max} = 0.3). BigBOSS will also place constraints on theories of modified gravity and inflation, and will measure the sum of neutrino masses to 0.024 eV accuracy.

  9. Detached rock evaluation device

    DOEpatents

    Hanson, David R.

    1986-01-01

    A rock detachment evaluation device (10) having an energy transducer unit 1) for sensing vibrations imparted to a subject rock (172) for converting the sensed vibrations into electrical signals, a low band pass filter unit (12) for receiving the electrical signal and transmitting only a low frequency segment thereof, a high band pass filter unit (13) for receiving the electrical signals and for transmitting only a high frequency segment thereof, a comparison unit (14) for receiving the low frequency and high frequency signals and for determining the difference in power between the signals, and a display unit (16) for displaying indicia of the difference, which provides a quantitative measure of rock detachment.

  10. Rock Garden Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image mosaic of part of the 'Rock Garden' was taken by the Sojourner rover's left front camera on Sol 71 (September 14). The rock 'Shark' is at left center and 'Half Dome' is at right. Fine-scale textures on the rocks are clearly seen. Broken crust-like material is visible at bottom center.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. Weird 'Endurance' Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a bizarre, lumpy rock dubbed 'Wopmay' on the inner slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists say the rock's unusual texture is unlike any others observed so far at Meridiani Planum. Wopmay measures approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) across. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 195 (Aug. 11, 2004). Opportunity will likely travel to this or a similar rock in coming sols for a closer look at the alien surface.

  12. Continental Basaltic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, G. L.

    2003-12-01

    During the past few decades, geochemical studies of continental basaltic rocks and their petrologic kin have become mainstays of studies of the continental lithosphere. These igneous rocks have taken on such an important role largely because the chemical and isotopic composition of continental basaltic rocks and their mantle (see Chapter 2.05) and crustal xenoliths (see Chapter 3.01) provide the best proxy record available to earth scientists for the chemical and physical evolution of the deep continental lithosphere and underlying mantle, areas that are otherwise resistant to direct study. Keeping this in mind, the primary goal of this chapter is to illustrate how geochemical data can be used both to assess the origin of these rocks and to study the evolution of the continental lithosphere.A complete overview of continental basaltic rocks will not be attempted here, because continental "basalts" come in too wide a range of compositions, and because of the sheer volume of geochemical data available for such rocks worldwide. The scope of the chapter is limited to a discussion of a select group of ultramafic to mafic composition "intraplate" continental igneous rocks consisting primarily of kimberlites, potassic and sodic alkali basalts, and continental flood basalts. Igneous rocks forming at active continental margins, such as convergent or transform plate margins, are important examples of continental magmatism but are not directly discussed here (convergent margin magmas are discussed in Chapters 2.11, 3.11, and 3.18). The geochemistry of intraplate igneous rocks of the ocean basins are covered in Chapters 2.04 and 3.16. Although basaltic magmatism has occurred throughout the Earths history, the majority of the examples presented here are from Mesozoic and Cenozoic volcanic fields due to the more complete preservation of younger continental mafic igneous rocks. While considerable effort has been expended in studying the chemical differentiation of mafic magmas

  13. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services.

  14. Big City Education: Its Challenge to Governance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskew, Laurence D.

    This chapter traces the migration from farms to cities and the later movement from cities to suburbs and discusses the impact of the resulting big city environment on the governance of big city education. The author (1) suggests how local, State, and Federal governments can improve big city education; (2) discusses ways of planning for the future…

  15. A survey of big data research

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hua; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Wang, Chanpaul Jin; Daneshmand, Mahmoud; Wang, Chonggang; Wang, Honggang

    2015-01-01

    Big data create values for business and research, but pose significant challenges in terms of networking, storage, management, analytics and ethics. Multidisciplinary collaborations from engineers, computer scientists, statisticians and social scientists are needed to tackle, discover and understand big data. This survey presents an overview of big data initiatives, technologies and research in industries and academia, and discusses challenges and potential solutions. PMID:26504265

  16. Judging Big Deals: Challenges, Outcomes, and Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glasser, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the results of an analysis of five Big Deal electronic journal packages to which Hofstra University's Axinn Library subscribes. COUNTER usage reports were used to judge the value of each Big Deal. Limitations of usage statistics are also discussed. In the end, the author concludes that four of the five Big Deals are good…

  17. Big Data: Implications for Health System Pharmacy.

    PubMed

    Stokes, Laura B; Rogers, Joseph W; Hertig, John B; Weber, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Big Data refers to datasets that are so large and complex that traditional methods and hardware for collecting, sharing, and analyzing them are not possible. Big Data that is accurate leads to more confident decision making, improved operational efficiency, and reduced costs. The rapid growth of health care information results in Big Data around health services, treatments, and outcomes, and Big Data can be used to analyze the benefit of health system pharmacy services. The goal of this article is to provide a perspective on how Big Data can be applied to health system pharmacy. It will define Big Data, describe the impact of Big Data on population health, review specific implications of Big Data in health system pharmacy, and describe an approach for pharmacy leaders to effectively use Big Data. A few strategies involved in managing Big Data in health system pharmacy include identifying potential opportunities for Big Data, prioritizing those opportunities, protecting privacy concerns, promoting data transparency, and communicating outcomes. As health care information expands in its content and becomes more integrated, Big Data can enhance the development of patient-centered pharmacy services. PMID:27559194

  18. A SWOT Analysis of Big Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadi, Mohammad; Dileepan, Parthasarati; Wheatley, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    This is the decade of data analytics and big data, but not everyone agrees with the definition of big data. Some researchers see it as the future of data analysis, while others consider it as hype and foresee its demise in the near future. No matter how it is defined, big data for the time being is having its glory moment. The most important…

  19. Big Sagebrush Seed Bank Densities Following Wildfires

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Big sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) is a critical shrub to such sagebrush obligate species as sage grouse, (Centocercus urophasianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and pygmy rabbit (Brachylagus idahoensis). Big sagebrush do not sprout after wildfires wildfires and big sagebrush seed is generally sho...

  20. Big Data - Smart Health Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To select best papers published in 2013 in the field of big data and smart health strategies, and summarize outstanding research efforts. Methods A systematic search was performed using two major bibliographic databases for relevant journal papers. The references obtained were reviewed in a two-stage process, starting with a blinded review performed by the two section editors, and followed by a peer review process operated by external reviewers recognized as experts in the field. Results The complete review process selected four best papers, illustrating various aspects of the special theme, among them: (a) using large volumes of unstructured data and, specifically, clinical notes from Electronic Health Records (EHRs) for pharmacovigilance; (b) knowledge discovery via querying large volumes of complex (both structured and unstructured) biological data using big data technologies and relevant tools; (c) methodologies for applying cloud computing and big data technologies in the field of genomics, and (d) system architectures enabling high-performance access to and processing of large datasets extracted from EHRs. Conclusions The potential of big data in biomedicine has been pinpointed in various viewpoint papers and editorials. The review of current scientific literature illustrated a variety of interesting methods and applications in the field, but still the promises exceed the current outcomes. As we are getting closer towards a solid foundation with respect to common understanding of relevant concepts and technical aspects, and the use of standardized technologies and tools, we can anticipate to reach the potential that big data offer for personalized medicine and smart health strategies in the near future. PMID:25123721

  1. Kasner solutions, climbing scalars and big-bang singularity

    SciTech Connect

    Condeescu, Cezar; Dudas, Emilian E-mail: emilian.dudas@cpht.polytechnique.fr

    2013-08-01

    We elaborate on a recently discovered phenomenon where a scalar field close to big-bang is forced to climb a steep potential by its dynamics. We analyze the phenomenon in more general terms by writing the leading order equations of motion near the singularity. We formulate the conditions for climbing to exist in the case of several scalars and after inclusion of higher-derivative corrections and we apply our results to some models of moduli stabilization. We analyze an example with steep stabilizing potential and notice again a related critical behavior: for a potential steepness above a critical value, going backwards towards big-bang, the scalar undergoes wilder oscillations, with the steep potential pushing it back at every passage and not allowing the scalar to escape to infinity. Whereas it was pointed out earlier that there are possible implications of the climbing phase to CMB, we point out here another potential application, to the issue of initial conditions in inflation.

  2. Neutron shielding panels for reactor pressure vessels

    DOEpatents

    Singleton, Norman R.

    2011-11-22

    In a nuclear reactor neutron panels varying in thickness in the circumferential direction are disposed at spaced circumferential locations around the reactor core so that the greatest radial thickness is at the point of highest fluence with lesser thicknesses at adjacent locations where the fluence level is lower. The neutron panels are disposed between the core barrel and the interior of the reactor vessel to maintain radiation exposure to the vessel within acceptable limits.

  3. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  4. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wende, Charles W. J.

    1976-08-17

    A safety rod for a nuclear reactor has an inner end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient and neutron capture cross section approximately equal to those of the adjacent shield, a central portion containing materials of high neutron capture cross section and an outer end portion having a gamma absorption coefficient at least equal to that of the adjacent shield.

  5. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Carleton, John T.

    1977-01-25

    A graphite-moderated nuclear reactor includes channels between blocks of graphite and also includes spacer blocks between adjacent channeled blocks with an axis of extension normal to that of the axis of elongation of the channeled blocks to minimize changes in the physical properties of the graphite as a result of prolonged neutron bombardment.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.; Ohlinger, L.A.; Weinberg, A.M.; Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1959-10-27

    BS>A reactor cooled by water, biphenyl, helium, or other fluid with provision made for replacing the fuel rods with the highest plutonium and fission product content without disassembling the entire core and for promptly cooling the rods after their replacement in order to prevent build-up of heat from fission product activity is described.

  7. Sonochemical Reactors.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation.

  8. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1962-12-25

    A reactor is described comprising a plurality of horizontal trays containing a solution of a fissionable material, the trays being sleeved on a vertical tube which contains a vertically-reciprocable control rod, a gas-tight chamber enclosing the trays, and means for conducting vaporized moderator from the chamber and for replacing vaporized moderator in the trays. (AEC)

  9. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, H.L.

    1958-10-01

    The design of control rods for nuclear reactors are described. In this design the control rod consists essentially of an elongated member constructed in part of a neutron absorbing material and having tube means extending therethrough for conducting a liquid to cool the rod when in use.

  10. Sonochemical Reactors.

    PubMed

    Gogate, Parag R; Patil, Pankaj N

    2016-10-01

    Sonochemical reactors are based on the generation of cavitational events using ultrasound and offer immense potential for the intensification of physical and chemical processing applications. The present work presents a critical analysis of the underlying mechanisms for intensification, available reactor configurations and overview of the different applications exploited successfully, though mostly at laboratory scales. Guidelines have also been presented for optimum selection of the important operating parameters (frequency and intensity of irradiation, temperature and liquid physicochemical properties) as well as the geometric parameters (type of reactor configuration and the number/position of the transducers) so as to maximize the process intensification benefits. The key areas for future work so as to transform the successful technique at laboratory/pilot scale into commercial technology have also been discussed. Overall, it has been established that there is immense potential for sonochemical reactors for process intensification leading to greener processing and economic benefits. Combined efforts from a wide range of disciplines such as material science, physics, chemistry and chemical engineers are required to harness the benefits at commercial scale operation. PMID:27573503

  11. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1960-09-27

    A unit assembly is described for a neutronic reactor comprising a tube and plurality of spaced parallel sandwiches in the tube extending lengthwise thereof, each sandwich including a middle plate having a central opening for plutonium and other openings for fertile material at opposite ends of the plate.

  12. Our World: Lunar Rock

    NASA Video Gallery

    Learn about NASA'€™s Lunar Sample Laboratory Facility at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. See how NASA protects these precious moon rocks brought to Earth by the Apollo astronauts. Explore t...

  13. Writing Rock Music Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Donal

    1980-01-01

    Suggests ways student reviewers of rock music groups can write better reviews. Among the suggestions made are that reviewers occasionally discuss the audience or what makes a particular group unique, support general comment with detail, and avoid ecstatic adjectives. (TJ)

  14. East Candor Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 September 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a thick, massive outcrop of light-toned rock exposed within eastern Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Dark, windblown sand has banked against the lower outcrop slopes. Outcrops such as this in the Valles Marineris chasms have been known since Mariner 9 images were obtained in 1972. However, the debate as to whether these represent sedimentary or igneous rocks has not been settled within the Mars science community. In either case, they have the physical properties of sedimentary rock (that is, they are formed of fine-grained materials), but some igneous rocks made up of volcanic ash may also exhibit these properties. This image is located near 7.8oS, 65.3oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  15. Rock in Its Elements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCluskey, Thomas

    1969-01-01

    A discussion of the following musical elements of rock: rhythm, melody, harmony, and form. A impromptu analysis made at a session of the Youth Music Symposium, July 25, 1969. Remarks transcribed from tape. (Author/AP)

  16. Terby's Layered Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    14 March 2004 Layered rock outcrops are common all across Mars, and the Mars rover, Opportunity, has recently investigated some layered rocks in Meridiani Planum. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rocks in northern Terby Crater, located just north of the giant Hellas Basin near 27.5oS, 285.8oW. Hundreds of layers are exposed in a deposit several kilometers thick within Terby. A history of events that shaped the northern Hellas region is recorded in these rocks, just waiting for a person or robot to investigate. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  17. Broken Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    18 May 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows broken-up blocks of sedimentary rock in western Candor Chasma. There are several locations in western Candor that exhibit this pattern of broken rock. The manner in which these landforms were created is unknown; it is possible that there was a landslide or a meteoritic impact that broke up the materials. One attribute that is known: in some of these cases, it seems that the rock was broken and then buried by later sedimentary rocks, before later being exhumed so that they can be seen from orbit today.

    Location near: 6.9oS, 75.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  18. Layered Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Now that solar conjunction is over so that communication between Earth and Mars is no longer blocked by the Sun, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit is continuing its trek through the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater. Straight ahead, in the foreground of this image, is a horizontally layered rock dubbed 'Tetl,' which scientists hope to investigate. Layering can be either volcanic or sedimentary in origin; researchers aim to determine which of these processes created this rock. If for some reason this particular rock is not favorably positioned for grinding and examination by the toolbox of instruments on the rover's robotic arm, Spirit will be within short reach of another similar rock, dubbed 'Coba,' just to the right, toward the middle of this image. Spirit took this image with its navigation camera on its 263rd martian day, or sol (Sept. 28, 2004).

  19. Ancient Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-469, 31 August 2003

    The terraced area in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an outcropping of ancient, sedimentary rock. It occurs in a crater in western Arabia Terra near 10.8oN, 4.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past environments on Mars. Field work will likely be required to begin to get a good understanding of the nature of the record these rocks contain. Their generally uniform thickness and repeated character suggests that deposition of fine sediment in this crater was episodic, if not cyclic. These rocks might be indicators of an ancient lake, or they might have been deposited from grains settling out of an earlier, thicker, martian atmosphere. This image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the lower left.

  20. Tithonium Chasma's Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-565, 5 December 2003

    Exposures of light-toned, layered, sedimentary rocks are common in the deep troughs of the Valles Marineris system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from western Tithonium Chasma. The banding seen here is an eroded expression of layered rock. Sedimentary rocks can be composed of (1) the detritus of older, eroded and weathered rocks, (2) grains produced by explosive volcanism (tephra, also known as volcanic ash), or (3) minerals that were chemically precipitated out of a body of liquid such as water. These outcrops are located near 4.8oS, 89.7oW. The image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated from the lower left.

  1. Focus on the Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shewell, John

    1994-01-01

    Describes historical accounts of the manipulation and importance of the Earth and its mineral resources. A foldout, "Out of the Rock," provides a collection of activities and information that helps make integration of the aforementioned concepts easy. (ZWH)

  2. Rock Outcrop Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The color image on the lower left shows a rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, looking north, and was acquired on the 4th sol, or martian day, of the rover's mission (Jan. 27, 2004). The yellow box outlines an area detailed in the top left image, which is a monochrome (single filter) image from the rover's panoramic camera. The top image uses solid colors to show several regions on or near the rock outcrop from which spectra were extracted: the dark soil above the outcrop (yellow), the distant horizon surface (aqua), a bright rock in the outcrop (green), a darker rock in the outcrop (red), and a small dark cobblestone (blue). Spectra from these regions are shown in the plot to the right.

  3. [Keeping of bears and big cats in the zoo and circus].

    PubMed

    Rietschel, W

    2002-03-01

    The exhibition of bears and big cats in zoo and circus causes regular criticism, justified and unjustified, by people engaged in the prevention of cruelty to animals. Main points of critique are holding conditions, feeding and health status of the animals. The official veterinarian involved in the supervision often needs the cooperation of a specialised zoo veterinarian. In most cases the clinical examination of bears and big cats requires an immobilisation. This article will enter into some of the most common holding problems and diseases of big carnivores in zoo and circus.

  4. Rock slope stability

    SciTech Connect

    Kliche, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    Whether you're involved in surface mine design, surface mine production, construction, education, or regulation, this is an important new book for your library. It describes the basic rock slope failure modes and methods of analysis--both kinematic and kinetic techniques. Chapters include geotechnical and geomechanical analysis techniques, hydrology, rock slope stabilization techniques, and geotechnical instrumentation and monitoring. Numerous examples, drawings and photos enhance the text.

  5. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  6. Solution of a braneworld big crunch/big bang cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, Paul L.; Turok, Neil; Steinhardt, Paul J.

    2007-11-15

    We solve for the cosmological perturbations in a five-dimensional background consisting of two separating or colliding boundary branes, as an expansion in the collision speed V divided by the speed of light c. Our solution permits a detailed check of the validity of four-dimensional effective theory in the vicinity of the event corresponding to the big crunch/big bang singularity. We show that the four-dimensional description fails at the first nontrivial order in (V/c){sup 2}. At this order, there is nontrivial mixing of the two relevant four-dimensional perturbation modes (the growing and decaying modes) as the boundary branes move from the narrowly separated limit described by Kaluza-Klein theory to the well-separated limit where gravity is confined to the positive-tension brane. We comment on the cosmological significance of the result and compute other quantities of interest in five-dimensional cosmological scenarios.

  7. Big Bang Day : The Great Big Particle Adventure - 3. Origins

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-13

    In this series, comedian and physicist Ben Miller asks the CERN scientists what they hope to find. If the LHC is successful, it will explain the nature of the Universe around us in terms of a few simple ingredients and a few simple rules. But the Universe now was forged in a Big Bang where conditions were very different, and the rules were very different, and those early moments were crucial to determining how things turned out later. At the LHC they can recreate conditions as they were billionths of a second after the Big Bang, before atoms and nuclei existed. They can find out why matter and antimatter didn't mutually annihilate each other to leave behind a Universe of pure, brilliant light. And they can look into the very structure of space and time - the fabric of the Universe

  8. Petrology of metamorphic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Suk, M.

    1983-01-01

    ''Petrology of Metamorphic Rocks'' reviews Central European opinions about the origin and formation of metamorphic rocks and their genetic systems, confronting the works of such distinguished European scientists as Rosenbusch, Becke, Niggli, Sander, Eskola, Barth and others with present-day knowledge and the results of Soviet and American investigations. The initial chapters discuss the processes that give rise to metamorphic rocks, and the main differences between regional metamorphism and other types of alterations, the emphasis being laid on the material characteristic of the processes of metamorphism, metasomatism and ultrametamorphism. Further chapters give a brief characterization of research methods, together with a detailed genetic classification based on the division of primary rocks into igneous rocks, sediments and ore materials. The effects of metamorphic alterations and those of the properties of the primary rocks are analyzed on the basis of examples taken chiefly from the Bohemian Massif, the West Carpathians, other parts of the European Variscides, from the crystalline Scandinavian Shelf in Norway and Finland, and from the Alps. Typical examples are documented by a number of charts, photographs and petrographical - particularly petrochemical - data.

  9. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. Determination of chlorine in silicate rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, L.C.

    1959-01-01

    In a rapid accurate method for the determination of chlorine in silicate rocks, the rock powder is sintered with a sodium carbonate flux containing zinc oxide and magnesium carbonate. The sinter cake is leached with water, the resulting solution is filtered, and the filtrate is acidified with nitric acid. Chlorine is determined by titrating this solution with mercuric nitrate solution using sodium nitroprusside as the indicator. The titration is made in the dark with a beam of light shining through the solution. The end point of the titration is found by visually comparing the intensity of this beam of light with that of a similar beam of light in a reference solution.

  11. Big Data in Medicine is Driving Big Changes

    PubMed Central

    Verspoor, K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarise current research that takes advantage of “Big Data” in health and biomedical informatics applications. Methods Survey of trends in this work, and exploration of literature describing how large-scale structured and unstructured data sources are being used to support applications from clinical decision making and health policy, to drug design and pharmacovigilance, and further to systems biology and genetics. Results The survey highlights ongoing development of powerful new methods for turning that large-scale, and often complex, data into information that provides new insights into human health, in a range of different areas. Consideration of this body of work identifies several important paradigm shifts that are facilitated by Big Data resources and methods: in clinical and translational research, from hypothesis-driven research to data-driven research, and in medicine, from evidence-based practice to practice-based evidence. Conclusions The increasing scale and availability of large quantities of health data require strategies for data management, data linkage, and data integration beyond the limits of many existing information systems, and substantial effort is underway to meet those needs. As our ability to make sense of that data improves, the value of the data will continue to increase. Health systems, genetics and genomics, population and public health; all areas of biomedicine stand to benefit from Big Data and the associated technologies. PMID:25123716

  12. BIG SKY CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Capalbo

    2004-10-31

    The Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership, led by Montana State University, is comprised of research institutions, public entities and private sectors organizations, and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes and the Nez Perce Tribe. Efforts under this Partnership fall into four areas: evaluation of sources and carbon sequestration sinks; development of GIS-based reporting framework; designing an integrated suite of monitoring, measuring, and verification technologies; and initiating a comprehensive education and outreach program. At the first two Partnership meetings the groundwork was put in place to provide an assessment of capture and storage capabilities for CO{sub 2} utilizing the resources found in the Partnership region (both geological and terrestrial sinks), that would complement the ongoing DOE research. During the third quarter, planning efforts are underway for the next Partnership meeting which will showcase the architecture of the GIS framework and initial results for sources and sinks, discuss the methods and analysis underway for assessing geological and terrestrial sequestration potentials. The meeting will conclude with an ASME workshop. The region has a diverse array of geological formations that could provide storage options for carbon in one or more of its three states. Likewise, initial estimates of terrestrial sinks indicate a vast potential for increasing and maintaining soil C on forested, agricultural, and reclaimed lands. Both options include the potential for offsetting economic benefits to industry and society. Steps have been taken to assure that the GIS-based framework is consistent among types of sinks within the Big Sky Partnership area and with the efforts of other western DOE partnerships. Efforts are also being made to find funding to include Wyoming in the coverage areas for both geological and terrestrial sinks and sources. The Partnership recognizes the critical importance of measurement, monitoring, and verification

  13. Big, Dark Dunes Northeast of Syrtis Major

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Big sand dunes! Mars is home to some very large, windblown dunes. The dunes shown here rise to almost 100 meters (275 feet) at their crests. Unlike dunes on Earth, the larger dunes of Mars are composed of dark, rather than light grains. This is probably related to the composition of the sand, since different materials will have different brightnesses. For example, beaches on the island of Oahu in Hawaii are light colored because they consist of ground-up particles of seashells, while beaches in the southern shores of the island of Hawaii (the 'Big Island' in the Hawaiian island chain) are dark because they consist of sand derived from dark lava rock.

    The dunes in this picture taken by the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) are located on the floor of an old, 72 km-(45 mi)-diameter crater located northeast of Syrtis Major. The sand is being blown from the upper right toward the lower left. The surface that the dunes have been travelling across is pitted and cratered. The substrate is also hard and bright--i.e., it is composed of a material of different composition than the sand in the dunes. The dark streaks on the dune surfaces area puzzle...at first glance one might conclude they are the result of holiday visitors with off-road vehicles. However, the streaks more likely result from passing dust devils or wind gusts that disturb the sand surface just enough to leave a streak. The image shown here covers an area approximately 2.6 km (1.6 mi) wide, and is illuminated from the lower right.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  14. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) geological site characterization report, Big Hill Salt Dome

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, R.J.; Ortiz, T.S.; Magorian, T.R.

    1981-09-01

    Geological and geophysical analyses of the Big Hill Salt Dome were performed to determine the suitability of this site for use in the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). Development of 140 million barrels (MMB) of storage capacity in the Big Hill Salt Dome is planned as part of the SPR expansion to achieve 750 MMB of storage capacity. Objectives of the study were to: (1) Acquire, evaluate, and interpret existing data pertinent to geological characterization of the Big Hill Dome; (2) Characterize the surface and near-surface geology and hydrology; (3) Characterize the geology and hydrology of the overlying cap rock; (4) Define the geometry and geology of the dome; (5) Determine the feasibility of locating and constructing 14 10-MMB storage caverns in the south portion of the dome; and (6) Assess the effects of natural hazards on the SPR site. Recommendations are included. (DMC)

  15. Big data and ophthalmic research.

    PubMed

    Clark, Antony; Ng, Jonathon Q; Morlet, Nigel; Semmens, James B

    2016-01-01

    Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, health services utilization, and health outcomes. Furthermore, the quantity of data available for research has increased exponentially in recent times, particularly as e-health initiatives come online in health systems across the globe. We review some big data concepts, the databases and data linkage systems used in eye research-including their advantages and limitations, the types of studies previously undertaken, and the future direction for big data in eye research.

  16. District Bets Big on Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The big clock in Dowan McNair-Lee's 8th grade classroom in the Stuart-Hobson Middle School is silent, but she can hear the minutes ticking away nonetheless. On this day, like any other, the clock is a constant reminder of how little time she has to prepare her students--for spring tests, and for high school and all that lies beyond it. The…

  17. Rock deformation equations and application to the study on slantingly installed disc cutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhao-Huang; Meng, Liang; Sun, Fei

    2014-08-01

    At present the mechanical model of the interaction between a disc cutter and rock mainly concerns indentation experiment, linear cutting experiment and tunnel boring machine (TBM) on-site data. This is not in line with the actual rock-breaking movement of the disc cutter and impedes to some extent the research on the rock-breaking mechanism, wear mechanism and design theory. Therefore, our study focuses on the interaction between the slantingly installed disc cutter and rock, developing a model in accordance with the actual rock-breaking movement. Displacement equations are established through an analysis of the velocity vector at the rock-breaking point of the disc cutter blade; the functional relationship between the displacement parameters at the rock-breaking point and its rectangular coordinates is established through an analysis of micro-displacement vectors at the rock-breaking point, thus leading to the geometric equations of rock deformation caused by the slantingly installed disc cutter. Considering the basically linear relationship between the cutting force of disc cutters and the rock deformation before and after the leap break of rock, we express the constitutive relations of rock deformation as generalized Hooke's law and analyze the effect of the slanting installation angle of disc cutters on the rock-breaking force. This will, as we hope, make groundbreaking contributions to the development of the design theory and installation practice of TBM.

  18. Geochemical and petrographic data for intrusions peripheral to the Big Timber Stock, Crazy Mountains, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2015-01-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation hosts a compositionally diverse array of Eocene plugs, dikes, and sills arrayed around the Eocene Big Timber stock in the Crazy Mountains of south-central Montana. The geochemistry and petrography of the sills have not previously been characterized or interpreted. The purpose of this report is (1) to present available geochemical and petrographic data for several dozen samples of these rocks and (2) to provide a basic interpretive synthesis of these data.

  19. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1959-12-15

    A reactor which is particularly adapted tu serve as a heat source for a nuclear powered alrcraft or rocket is described. The core of this reactor consists of a porous refractory modera;or body which is impregnated with fissionable nuclei. The core is designed so that its surface forms tapered inlet and outlet ducts which are separated by the porous moderator body. In operation a gaseous working fluid is circulated through the inlet ducts to the surface of the moderator, enters and passes through the porous body, and is heated therein. The hot gas emerges into the outlet ducts and is available to provide thrust. The principle advantage is that tremendous quantities of gas can be quickly heated without suffering an excessive pressure drop.

  20. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1958-08-19

    A neuclear reactor is described of the heterogeneous type and employing replaceable tubular fuel elements and heavy water as a coolant and moderator. A pluraltty of fuel tubesa having their axes parallel, extend through a tank type pressure vessel which contatns the liquid moderator. The fuel elements are disposed within the fuel tubes in the reaetive portion of the pressure vessel during normal operation and the fuel tubes have removable plug members at each end to permit charging and discharging of the fuel elements. The fuel elements are cylindrical strands of jacketed fissionable material having helical exterior ribs. A bundle of fuel elements are held within each fuel tube with their longitudinal axes parallel, the ribs serving to space them apart along their lengths. Coolant liquid is circulated through the fuel tubes between the spaced fuel elements. Suitable control rod and monitoring means are provided for controlling the reactor.

  1. REACTOR MONITORING

    DOEpatents

    Bugbee, S.J.; Hanson, V.F.; Babcock, D.F.

    1959-02-01

    A neutron density inonitoring means for reactors is described. According to this invention a tunnel is provided beneath and spaced from the active portion of the reactor and extends beyond the opposite faces of the activc portion. Neutron beam holes are provided between the active portion and the tunnel and open into the tunnel near the middle thereof. A carriage operates back and forth in the tunnel and is adapted to convey a neutron detector, such as an ion chamber, and position it beneath one of the neutron beam holes. This arrangement affords convenient access of neutron density measuring instruments to a location wherein direct measurement of neutron density within the piles can be made and at the same time affords ample protection to operating personnel.

  2. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wade, E.J.

    1958-09-16

    This patent relates to a reflector means for a neutronic reactor. A reflector comprised of a plurality of vertically movable beryllium control members is provided surrounding the sides of the reactor core. An absorber of fast neutrons comprised of natural uramum surrounds the reflector. An absorber of slow neutrons surrounds the absorber of fast neutrons and is formed of a plurality of beryllium blocks having natural uranium members distributcd therethrough. in addition, a movable body is positioned directly below the core and is comprised of a beryllium reflector and an absorbing member attached to the botiom thereof, the absorbing member containing a substance selected from the goup consisting of natural urantum and Th/sup 232/.

  3. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Wade, Elman E.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear reactor including two rotatable plugs and a positive top core holddown structure. The top core holddown structure is divided into two parts: a small core cover, and a large core cover. The small core cover, and the upper internals associated therewith, are attached to the small rotating plug, and the large core cover, with its associated upper internals, is attached to the large rotating plug. By so splitting the core holddown structures, under-the-plug refueling is accomplished without the necessity of enlarging the reactor pressure vessel to provide a storage space for the core holddown structure during refueling. Additionally, the small and large rotating plugs, and their associated core covers, are arranged such that the separation of the two core covers to permit rotation is accomplished without the installation of complex lifting mechanisms.

  4. REACTOR UNLOADING

    DOEpatents

    Leverett, M.C.

    1958-02-18

    This patent is related to gas cooled reactors wherein the fuel elements are disposed in vertical channels extending through the reactor core, the cooling gas passing through the channels from the bottom to the top of the core. The invention is a means for unloading the fuel elements from the core and comprises dump values in the form of flat cars mounted on wheels at the bottom of the core structure which support vertical stacks of fuel elements. When the flat cars are moved, either manually or automatically, for normal unloading purposes, or due to a rapid rise in the reproduction ratio within the core, the fuel elements are permtted to fall by gravity out of the core structure thereby reducing the reproduction ratio or stopping the reaction as desired.

  5. EHR Big Data Deep Phenotyping

    PubMed Central

    Lenert, L.; Lopez-Campos, G.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Given the quickening speed of discovery of variant disease drivers from combined patient genotype and phenotype data, the objective is to provide methodology using big data technology to support the definition of deep phenotypes in medical records. Methods As the vast stores of genomic information increase with next generation sequencing, the importance of deep phenotyping increases. The growth of genomic data and adoption of Electronic Health Records (EHR) in medicine provides a unique opportunity to integrate phenotype and genotype data into medical records. The method by which collections of clinical findings and other health related data are leveraged to form meaningful phenotypes is an active area of research. Longitudinal data stored in EHRs provide a wealth of information that can be used to construct phenotypes of patients. We focus on a practical problem around data integration for deep phenotype identification within EHR data. The use of big data approaches are described that enable scalable markup of EHR events that can be used for semantic and temporal similarity analysis to support the identification of phenotype and genotype relationships. Conclusions Stead and colleagues’ 2005 concept of using light standards to increase the productivity of software systems by riding on the wave of hardware/processing power is described as a harbinger for designing future healthcare systems. The big data solution, using flexible markup, provides a route to improved utilization of processing power for organizing patient records in genotype and phenotype research. PMID:25123744

  6. Big data: the management revolution.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Andrew; Brynjolfsson, Erik

    2012-10-01

    Big data, the authors write, is far more powerful than the analytics of the past. Executives can measure and therefore manage more precisely than ever before. They can make better predictions and smarter decisions. They can target more-effective interventions in areas that so far have been dominated by gut and intuition rather than by data and rigor. The differences between big data and analytics are a matter of volume, velocity, and variety: More data now cross the internet every second than were stored in the entire internet 20 years ago. Nearly real-time information makes it possible for a company to be much more agile than its competitors. And that information can come from social networks, images, sensors, the web, or other unstructured sources. The managerial challenges, however, are very real. Senior decision makers have to learn to ask the right questions and embrace evidence-based decision making. Organizations must hire scientists who can find patterns in very large data sets and translate them into useful business information. IT departments have to work hard to integrate all the relevant internal and external sources of data. The authors offer two success stories to illustrate how companies are using big data: PASSUR Aerospace enables airlines to match their actual and estimated arrival times. Sears Holdings directly analyzes its incoming store data to make promotions much more precise and faster.

  7. Neutronic reactor

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Warren R.

    1978-05-30

    A graphite-moderated, water-cooled nuclear reactor including a plurality of rectangular graphite blocks stacked in abutting relationship in layers, alternate layers having axes which are normal to one another, alternate rows of blocks in alternate layers being provided with a channel extending through the blocks, said channeled blocks being provided with concave sides and having smaller vertical dimensions than adjacent blocks in the same layer, there being nuclear fuel in the channels.

  8. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Koch, L.J.; Rice, R.E. Jr.; Denst, A.A.; Rogers, A.J.; Novick, M.

    1961-12-01

    An active portion assembly for a fast neutron reactor is described wherein physical distortions resulting in adverse changes in the volume-to-mass ratio are minimized. A radially expandable locking device is disposed within a cylindrical tube within each fuel subassembly within the active portion assembly, and clamping devices expandable toward the center of the active portion assembly are disposed around the periphery thereof. (AEC)

  9. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashby, J.W.

    1958-09-16

    ABS>A graphite moderator structure is presented for a nuclear reactor compriscd of an assembly of similarly orientated prismatic graphite blocks arranged on spaced longitudinal axes lying in common planes wherein the planes of the walls of the blocks are positioned so as to be twisted reintive to the planes of said axes so thatthe unlmpeded dtrect paths in direction wholly across the walls of the blocks are limited to the width of the blocks plus spacing between the blocks.

  10. NEUTRONIC REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, J.B.

    1960-01-01

    A reactor is described which comprises a tank, a plurality of coaxial steel sleeves in the tank, a mass of water in the tank, and wire grids in abutting relationship within a plurality of elongated parallel channels within the steel sleeves, the wire being provided with a plurality of bends in the same plane forming adjacent parallel sections between bends, and the sections of adjacent grids being normally disposed relative to each other.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Grebe, J.J.

    1961-01-24

    A core structure for neutronic reactors adapted for the propulsion of aircraft and rockets is offered. The core is designed for cooling by gaseous media, and comprises a plurality of hollow tapered tubular segments of a porous moderating material impregniated with fissionable fuel nested about a common axis. Alternate ends of the segments are joined. In operation a coolant gas passes through the porous structure and is heated.

  12. REACTOR CONTROL

    DOEpatents

    Ruano, W.J.

    1957-12-10

    This patent relates to nuclear reactors of the type which utilize elongited rod type fuel elements immersed in a liquid moderator and shows a design whereby control of the chain reaction is obtained by varying the amount of moderator or reflector material. A central tank for containing liquid moderator and fuel elements immersed therein is disposed within a surrounding outer tank providing an annular space between the two tanks. This annular space is filled with liquid moderator which functions as a reflector to reflect neutrons back into the central reactor tank to increase the reproduction ratio. Means are provided for circulating and cooling the moderator material in both tanks and additional means are provided for controlling separately the volume of moderator in each tank, which latter means may be operated automatically by a neutron density monitoring device. The patent also shows an arrangement for controlling the chain reaction by injecting and varying an amount of poisoning material in the moderator used in the reflector portion of the reactor.

  13. Tipping Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, J.

    2007-12-01

    A climate tipping point, at least as I have used the phrase, refers to a situation in which a changing climate forcing has reached a point such that little additional forcing (or global temperature change) is needed to cause large, relatively rapid, climate change. Present examples include potential loss of all Arctic sea ice and instability of the West Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Tipping points are characterized by ready feedbacks that amplify the effect of forcings. The notion that these may be runaway feedbacks is a misconception. However, present "unrealized" global warming, due to the climate system's thermal inertia, exacerbates the difficulty of avoiding global warming tipping points. I argue that prompt efforts to slow CO2 emissions and absolutely reduce non-CO2 forcings are both essential if we are to avoid tipping points that would be disastrous for humanity and creation, the planet as civilization knows it.

  14. Lander and Mini Matterhorn rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    One of the two forward cameras aboard the Sojourner rover took this image of the Sagan Memorial Station on Sol 26. The angular resolution of the camera is about three milliradians (.018 degrees) per pixel, which is why the image appears grainy. The field of view of each rover camera is about 127 degrees horizontally and 90 degrees vertically.

    Features seen on the lander include (from left to right): the Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorology Package (ASI/MET) mast with windsocks; the low-gain antenna mast, the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on its mast at center; the disc-shaped high-gain antenna at right, and areas of deflated airbags. The dark circle on the lander body is a filtered vent that allowed air to escape during launch, and allowed the lander to repressurize upon landing. The high-gain antenna is pointed at Earth. The large rock Yogi, which Sojourner has approached and studied, as at the far right of the image. Mini Matterhorn is the large rock situated in front of the lander at left.

    The horizontal line at the center of the image is due to differences in light-metering for different portions of the image. The shadow of Sojourner and its antenna are visible at the lower section of the image. The antenna's shadow falls across a light-colored rock.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages and Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  15. Ganges Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    24 May 2004 Mariner 9 images acquired in 1972 first revealed a large, light-toned, layered mound in Ganges Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a higher-resolution view of these rocks than was achieved by Mariner 9 or Viking, and higher than can be obtained by Mars Odyssey or Mars Express. The image, with a resolution of about 3.7 meters (12 feet) per pixel, shows eroded layered rock outcrops in Ganges Chasma. These rocks record a history of events that occurred either in Ganges Chasma, or in the rocks brought to the surface by the opening of Ganges Chasma. Either way, the story they might tell could be as fascinating and unprecedented as the story told by sedimentary rocks investigated this year in Meridiani Planum by the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover ... no one knows. The image is located near 7.3oS, 48.8oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across. The picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

  16. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, David J.; McNamee, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer, a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  17. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOEpatents

    Holcomb, D.J.; McNamee, M.J.

    1985-07-18

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  18. Rock mechanics research awards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, John E.

    The U.S. National Committee for Rock Mechanics, at its June 1983 annual meeting, adopted three actions to enhance the competition and public awareness of its annual awards program for rock mechanics papers. It will issue a call for nominations of outstanding papers; it will request participating societies to announce the names of award winners and the titles of papers, and it will publish an abstract of the winning papers in the proceedings of the annual U.S. Rock Mechanics Symposium in the year following the awards.The competition is open to papers, by U.S residents or students in a U.S. school, published in an English language publication normally available in the United States. The following authors and papers are the 1983 award winners:

  19. Ladon Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    6 June 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rocks exposed by the fluids that carved the Ladon Valles system in the Erythraeum region of Mars. These rocks are so ancient that their sediments were deposited, cemented to form rock, and then eroded by the water (or other liquid) that carved Ladon Valles, so far back in Martian history that such liquids could still flow on the planet's surface.

    Location near: 20.8oS, 30.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  20. West Candor Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposures in western Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Most of west Candor's interior includes exposures of layered rock with very few superimposed impact craters. The rock may be very ancient, but the lack of craters suggests that the erosion of these materials is on-going.

    Location near: 6.3oS, 76.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  1. Faulted Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows some of the layered, sedimentary rock outcrops that occur in a crater located at 8oN, 7oW, in western Arabia Terra. Dark layers and dark sand have enhanced the contrast of this scene. In the upper half of the image, one can see numerous lines that off-set the layers. These lines are faults along which the rocks have broken and moved. The regularity of layer thickness and erosional expression are taken as evidence that the crater in which these rocks occur might once have been a lake. The image covers an area about 1.9 km (1.2 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  2. Eos Chaos Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    11 January 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in Eos Chaos, located near the east end of the Valles Marineris trough system. The outcrops occur in the form of a distinct, circular butte (upper half of image) and a high slope (lower half of image). The rocks might be sedimentary rocks, similar to those found elsewhere exposed in the Valles Marineris system and the chaotic terrain to the east of the region.

    Location near: 12.9oS, 49.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  3. Sedimentary Rock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-348, 2 May 2003

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image acquired in March 2003 shows dozens of repeated layers of sedimentary rock in a western Arabia Terra crater at 8oN, 7oW. Wind has sculpted the layered forms into hills somewhat elongated toward the lower left (southwest). The dark patches at the bottom (south) end of the image are drifts of windblown sand. These sedimentary rocks might indicate that the crater was once the site of a lake--or they may result from deposition by wind in a completely dry, desert environment. Either way, these rocks have something important to say about the geologic history of Mars. The area shown is about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  4. Fuel performance improvement program. Semiannual progress report, April-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Crouthamel, C E; Freshley, M D

    1980-10-01

    Progress on the Fuel Performance Improvement Program's fuel test and demonstration irradiations is reported for the period April-September, 1980. Included are results of out-of-reactor experiments with zircaloy cladding on the iodine assisted stress corrosion cracking mechanism. Preliminary results from the first eight ramp tests performed in the Halden Boiling Water Reactor are reported. The status of demonstration fuel irradiations in the Big Rock Point Reactor is described.

  5. Digital carbonate rock physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenger, Erik H.; Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim; Uribe, David; Osorno, Maria; Duda, Mandy; Steeb, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Modern estimation of rock properties combines imaging with advanced numerical simulations, an approach known as digital rock physics (DRP). In this paper we suggest a specific segmentation procedure of X-ray micro-computed tomography data with two different resolutions in the µm range for two sets of carbonate rock samples. These carbonates were already characterized in detail in a previous laboratory study which we complement with nanoindentation experiments (for local elastic properties). In a first step a non-local mean filter is applied to the raw image data. We then apply different thresholds to identify pores and solid phases. Because of a non-neglectable amount of unresolved microporosity (micritic phase) we also define intermediate threshold values for distinct phases. Based on this segmentation we determine porosity-dependent values for effective P- and S-wave velocities as well as for the intrinsic permeability. For effective velocities we confirm an observed two-phase trend reported in another study using a different carbonate data set. As an upscaling approach we use this two-phase trend as an effective medium approach to estimate the porosity-dependent elastic properties of the micritic phase for the low-resolution images. The porosity measured in the laboratory is then used to predict the effective rock properties from the observed trends for a comparison with experimental data. The two-phase trend can be regarded as an upper bound for elastic properties; the use of the two-phase trend for low-resolution images led to a good estimate for a lower bound of effective elastic properties. Anisotropy is observed for some of the considered subvolumes, but seems to be insignificant for the analysed rocks at the DRP scale. Because of the complexity of carbonates we suggest using DRP as a complementary tool for rock characterization in addition to classical experimental methods.

  6. Turning big bang into big bounce. I. Classical dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Dzierzak, Piotr; Malkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Piechocki, Wlodzimierz

    2009-11-15

    The big bounce (BB) transition within a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model is analyzed in the setting of loop geometry underlying the loop cosmology. We solve the constraint of the theory at the classical level to identify physical phase space and find the Lie algebra of the Dirac observables. We express energy density of matter and geometrical functions in terms of the observables. It is the modification of classical theory by the loop geometry that is responsible for BB. The classical energy scale specific to BB depends on a parameter that should be fixed either by cosmological data or determined theoretically at quantum level, otherwise the energy scale stays unknown.

  7. Big A affair. [Big Ambejackmockamus Falls, Penobscot River, Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Laitin, J.

    1985-02-01

    This article describes the conflict between proponents of a hydroelectric power plant on Maine's Penobscot River and recreation interests. Great Northern Paper Company filed application to build a dam on a wild stretch of the river used by sports fishermen and white-water enthusiasts. Great Northern claimed that it needed to replace 380,000 barrels of oil and to forego the purchase of 36,000 megawatt-hours of electricity annually to improve its competitive edge in the marketplace. The controversy will be a big issue for Maine's Land Use Regulatory Commission. The final decision will hinge on the Commission's perception of the greater public benefit - hydropower or recreation.

  8. Theory of wing rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, C. H.; Lan, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A theory is developed for predicting wing rock characteristics. From available data, it can be concluded that wing rock is triggered by flow asymmetries, developed by negative or weakly positive roll damping, and sustained by nonlinear aerodynamic roll damping. A new nonlinear aerodynamic model that includes all essential aerodynamic nonlinearities is developed. The Beecham-Titchener method is applied to obtain approximate analytic solutions for the amplitude and frequency of the limit cycle based on the three degree-of-freedom equations of motion. An iterative scheme is developed to calculate the average aerodynamic derivatives and dynamic characteristics at limit cycle conditions. Good agreement between theoretical and experimental results is obtained.

  9. Rock blasting environmental impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Agreda, C.

    1995-12-31

    The rock blasting environmental impacts such as: flyrock, ground vibrations, air-blast, and/or noise, dust and fumes are identified and mentioned. Some comments on the correction factors that might be taken into consideration to calculate the initial velocity and the maximum projection of the rock fragments are mentioned as well. The blast fumes causes, its alleviation and protective measures are identified, described and discussed. To mitigate, minimize and/or avoid blast fumes, the AN/FO, Al/AN/FO and S/AN/FO dry blasting agents optimum equations are developed, discussed and recommended.

  10. Diverse Rock Named Squash

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image from the Sojourner rover's right front camera was taken on Sol 27. The Pathfinder lander is seen at middle left. The large rock at right, nicknamed 'Squash', exhibits a diversity of textures. It looks very similar to a conglomerate, a type of rock found on Earth that forms from sedimentary processes.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  11. Rock Outcrops near Hellas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    7 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered rock outcrops in a pitted and eroded region just northeast of Hellas Planitia. The light-toned materials are most likely sedimentary rocks deposited early in martian history (but long after the Hellas Basin formed by a giant asteroid or comet impact). The scene also includes a plethora of large dark-toned, windblown ripples. The image is located near 27.2oS, 280.7oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  12. Layered Rocks In Melas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    20 June 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), image shows exposures of finely-bedded sedimentary rocks in western Melas Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Rocks similar to these occur in neighboring west Candor Chasma, as well. The picture is located near 9.1oS, 74.5oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the left/upper left.

  13. Sedimentary Rocks and Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    25 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows buttes composed of light-toned, sedimentary rock exposed by erosion within a crater occurring immediately west of Schiaparelli Basin near 4.0oS, 347.9oW. Surrounding these buttes is a field of dark sand dunes and lighter-toned, very large windblown ripples. The sedimentary rocks might indicate that the crater interior was once the site of a lake. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  14. Sedimentary Rock Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layers of sedimentary rock in a crater in western Arabia Terra. Layered rock records the history of a place, but an orbiter image alone cannot tell the entire story. These materials record some past episodes of deposition of fine-grained material in an impact crater that is much larger than the image shown here. The picture is located near 3.4oN, 358.7oW, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi.) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left.

  15. Sedimentary Rock Remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    29 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows knobs of remnant, wind-eroded, layered sedimentary rock that once completely covered the floor of a crater located west of the Sinus Meridiani region of Mars. Sedimentary rock outcrops are common throughout the Sinus Meridiani region and its surrounding cratered terrain.

    Location near: 2.2oN, 7.9oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  16. Tipping Point

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe Flash format. Almost weekly, we see ...

  17. Nuclear Reactors. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogerton, John F.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: How Reactors Work; Reactor Design; Research, Teaching, and Materials Testing; Reactors (Research, Teaching and Materials); Production Reactors; Reactors for Electric Power…

  18. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Rowan, William J.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor in which the core components, including fuel-rod assemblies, control-rod assemblies, fertile rod-assemblies, and removable shielding assemblies, are supported by a plurality of separate inlet modular units. These units are referred to as inlet module units to distinguish them from the modules of the upper internals of the reactor. The modular units are supported, each removable independently of the others, in liners in the supporting structure for the lower internals of the reactor. The core assemblies are removably supported in integral receptacles or sockets of the modular units. The liners, units, sockets and assmblies have inlet openings for entry of the fluid. The modular units are each removably mounted in the liners with fluid seals interposed between the opening in the liner and inlet module into which the fluid enters and the upper and lower portion of the liner. Each assembly is similarly mounted in a corresponding receptacle with fluid seals interposed between the openings where the fluid enters and the lower portion of the receptacle or fitting closely in these regions. As fluid flows along each core assembly a pressure drop is produced along the fluid so that the fluid which emerges from each core assembly is at a lower pressure than the fluid which enters the core assembly. However because of the seals interposed in the mountings of the units and assemblies the pressures above and below the units and assemblies are balanced and the units are held in the liners and the assemblies are held in the receptacles by their weights as they have a higher specific gravity than the fluid. The low-pressure spaces between each module and its liner and between each core assembly and its module is vented to the low-pressure regions of the vessel to assure that fluid which leaks through the seals does not accumulate and destroy the hydraulic balance.

  19. Fault Rock Variation as a Function of Host Rock Lithology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagereng, A.; Diener, J.

    2013-12-01

    Fault rocks contain an integrated record of the slip history of a fault, and thereby reflect the deformation processes associated with fault slip. Within the Aus Granulite Terrane, Namibia, a number of Jurassic to Cretaceous age strike-slip faults cross-cut Precambrian high grade metamorphic rocks. These strike-slip faults were active at subgreenschist conditions and occur in a variety of host rock lithologies. Where the host rock contains significant amounts of hydrous minerals, representing granulites that have undergone retrogressive metamorphism, the fault rock is dominated by hydrothermal breccias. In anhydrous, foliated rocks interlayered with minor layers containing hydrous phyllosilicates, the fault rock is a cataclasite partially cemented by jasper and quartz. Where the host rock is an isotropic granitic rock the fault rock is predominantly a fine grained black fault rock. Cataclasites and breccias show evidence for multiple deformation events, whereas the fine grained black fault rocks appear to only record a single slip increment. The strike-slip faults observed all formed in the same general orientation and at a similar time, and it is unlikely that regional stress, strain rate, pressure and temperature varied between the different faults. We therefore conclude that the type of fault rock here depended on the host rock lithology, and that lithology alone accounts for why some faults developed a hydrothermal breccia, some cataclasite, and some a fine grained black fault rock. Consequently, based on the assumption that fault rocks reflect specific slip styles, lithology was also the main control on different fault slip styles in this area at the time of strike-slip fault activity. Whereas fine grained black fault rock is inferred to represent high stress events, hydrothermal breccia is rather related to events involving fluid pressure in excess of the least stress. Jasper-bearing cataclasites may represent faults that experienced dynamic weakening as seen

  20. REACTOR COMPONETN

    DOEpatents

    Creutz, E.C.

    1959-10-27

    A reactor fuel element comprised of a slug of fissionable material disposed in a sheath of corrosion resistantmaterial is described. The sheath is in the form of a tubular container closed at one end and is in tight-fitting engagement with the peripheral sunface of the slug. An inner cap is insented into the open end of the sheath against the slug, which end is then bent around the inner cap and welded thereto. An outer cap is then welded around its peripheny to the bent portion of the container.

  1. NUCLEAR REACTORS

    DOEpatents

    Long, E.; Ashley, J.W.

    1958-12-16

    A graphite moderator structure is described for a gas-cooled nuclear reactor having a vertical orlentation wherein the structure is physically stable with regard to dlmensional changes due to Wigner growth properties of the graphite, and leakage of coolant gas along spaces in the structure is reduced. The structure is comprised of stacks of unlform right prismatic graphite blocks positioned in layers extending in the direction of the lengths of the blocks, the adjacent end faces of the blocks being separated by pairs of tiles. The blocks and tiles have central bores which are in alignment when assembled and are provided with cooperatlng keys and keyways for physical stability.

  2. Particle physics catalysis of thermal big bang nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pospelov, Maxim

    2007-06-01

    We point out that the existence of metastable, tau>10(3) s, negatively charged electroweak-scale particles (X-) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during big bang nucleosynthesis. In particular, we show that the bound states of X- with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10(8) K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of 6Li production, which is 8 orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X- does not lead to large nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of long-lived X- particles (tau>10(5) s) relative to entropy of nX-/s less, approximately <3x10(-17), which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date.

  3. Particle physics catalysis of thermal big bang nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Pospelov, Maxim

    2007-06-01

    We point out that the existence of metastable, tau>10(3) s, negatively charged electroweak-scale particles (X-) alters the predictions for lithium and other primordial elemental abundances for A>4 via the formation of bound states with nuclei during big bang nucleosynthesis. In particular, we show that the bound states of X- with helium, formed at temperatures of about T=10(8) K, lead to the catalytic enhancement of 6Li production, which is 8 orders of magnitude more efficient than the standard channel. In particle physics models where subsequent decay of X- does not lead to large nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis effects, this directly translates to the level of sensitivity to the number density of long-lived X- particles (tau>10(5) s) relative to entropy of nX-/s less, approximately <3x10(-17), which is one of the most stringent probes of electroweak scale remnants known to date. PMID:17677895

  4. Big Machines and Big Science: 80 Years of Accelerators at Stanford

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, Gregory

    2008-12-16

    Longtime SLAC physicist Greg Loew will present a trip through SLAC's origins, highlighting its scientific achievements, and provide a glimpse of the lab's future in 'Big Machines and Big Science: 80 Years of Accelerators at Stanford.'

  5. Big Crater as Viewed by Pathfinder Lander - Anaglyph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The 'Big Crater' is actually a relatively small Martian crater to the southeast of the Mars Pathfinder landing site. It is 1500 meters (4900 feet) in diameter, or about the same size as Meteor Crater in Arizona. Superimposed on the rim of Big Crater (the central part of the rim as seen here) is a smaller crater nicknamed 'Rimshot Crater.' The distance to this smaller crater, and the nearest portion of the rim of Big Crater, is 2200 meters (7200 feet). To the right of Big Crater, south from the spacecraft, almost lost in the atmospheric dust 'haze,' is the large streamlined mountain nicknamed 'Far Knob.' This mountain is over 450 meters (1480 feet) tall, and is over 30 kilometers (19 miles) from the spacecraft. Another, smaller and closer knob, nicknamed 'Southeast Knob' can be seen as a triangular peak to the left of the flanks of the Big Crater rim. This knob is 21 kilometers (13 miles) southeast from the spacecraft.

    The larger features visible in this scene - Big Crater, Far Knob, and Southeast Knob - were discovered on the first panoramas taken by the IMP camera on the 4th of July, 1997, and subsequently identified in Viking Orbiter images taken over 20 years ago. The scene includes rocky ridges and swales or 'hummocks' of flood debris that range from a few tens of meters away from the lander to the distance of South Twin Peak. The largest rock in the nearfield, just left of center in the foreground, nicknamed 'Otter', is about 1.5 meters (4.9 feet) long and 10 meters (33 feet) from the spacecraft.

    This view of Big Crater was produced by combining 6 individual 'Superpan' scenes from the left and right eyes of the IMP camera. Each frame consists of 8 individual frames (left eye) and 7 frames (right eye) taken with different color filters that were enlarged by 500% and then co-added using Adobe Photoshop to produce, in effect, a super-resolution panchromatic frame that is sharper than an individual frame would be.

    The anaglyph view of Big Crater was

  6. 'Scarecrow' Climbs Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Scarecrow, a mobility-testing model for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, easily traverses large rocks in the Mars Yard testing area at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover is in development for launch in 2009. JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, manages the mission for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

  7. Rocking and Rolling Rattlebacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Rod

    2013-01-01

    A rattleback is a well-known physics toy that has a preferred direction of rotation. If it is spun about a vertical axis in the "wrong" direction, it will slow down, start rocking from end to end, and then spin in the opposite (i.e. preferred) direction. Many articles have been written about rattlebacks. Some are highly mathematical and…

  8. Slippery Rock University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  9. The River Rock School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gereaux, Teresa Thomas

    1999-01-01

    In the early 1920s, the small Appalachian community of Damascus, Virginia, used private subscriptions and volunteer labor to build a 15-classroom school made of rocks from a nearby river and chestnut wood from nearby forests. The school building's history, uses for various community activities, and current condition are described. (SV)

  10. Reducing Rock Climbing Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Attarian, Aram

    1998-01-01

    Provides checklists that can be used as risk-management tools to evaluate rock-climbing programs: developing goals, policies, and procedures; inspecting the climbing environment; maintaining and inspecting equipment; protecting participants; and managing staff (hiring, training, retraining, and evaluating) and campers (experience level, needs, and…

  11. A Rock Retrospective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, Terence J.

    1979-01-01

    The author offers an analysis of musical techniques found in the major rock trends of the 1960s. An annotated list of selected readings and a subject-indexed list of selected recordings are appended. This article is part of a theme issue on popular music. (Editor/SJL)

  12. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Zongtao Li, Ying Zheng, Xibin Liu, Yan Dai, Jiting Kang, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  13. Big data: an introduction for librarians.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Modern life produces data at an astounding rate and shows no signs of slowing. This has lead to new advances in data storage and analysis and the concept of "big data," that is, massive data sets that can yield surprising insights when analyzed. This column will briefly describe what big data is and why it is important. It will also briefly explore the possibilities and problems of big data and the implications it has for librarians. A list of big data projects and resources is also included.

  14. Urgent Call for Nursing Big Data.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Connie W

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this panel is to expand internationally a National Action Plan for sharable and comparable nursing data for quality improvement and big data science. There is an urgent need to assure that nursing has sharable and comparable data for quality improvement and big data science. A national collaborative - Nursing Knowledge and Big Data Science includes multi-stakeholder groups focused on a National Action Plan toward implementing and using sharable and comparable nursing big data. Panelists will share accomplishments and future plans with an eye toward international collaboration. This presentation is suitable for any audience attending the NI2016 conference. PMID:27332330

  15. Big data: an introduction for librarians.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Matthew B

    2014-01-01

    Modern life produces data at an astounding rate and shows no signs of slowing. This has lead to new advances in data storage and analysis and the concept of "big data," that is, massive data sets that can yield surprising insights when analyzed. This column will briefly describe what big data is and why it is important. It will also briefly explore the possibilities and problems of big data and the implications it has for librarians. A list of big data projects and resources is also included. PMID:25023020

  16. The LHC's Next Big Mystery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lincoln, Don

    2015-03-01

    When the sun rose over America on July 4, 2012, the world of science had radically changed. The Higgs boson had been discovered. Mind you, the press releases were more cautious than that, with "a new particle consistent with being the Higgs boson" being the carefully constructed phrase of the day. But, make no mistake, champagne corks were popped and backs were slapped. The data had spoken and a party was in order. Even if the observation turned out to be something other than the Higgs boson, the first big discovery from data taken at the Large Hadron Collider had been made.

  17. Big bang nucleosynthesis: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Olive, Keith A.

    2013-07-23

    An update on the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) is presented. With the value of the baryon-tophoton ratio determined to high precision by WMAP, standard BBN is a parameter-free theory. In this context, the theoretical prediction for the abundances of D, {sup 4}He, and {sup 7}Li is discussed and compared to their observational determination. While concordance for D and {sup 4}He is satisfactory, the prediction for {sup 7}Li exceeds the observational determination by a factor of about four. Possible solutions to this problem are discussed.

  18. The faces of Big Science.

    PubMed

    Schatz, Gottfried

    2014-06-01

    Fifty years ago, academic science was a calling with few regulations or financial rewards. Today, it is a huge enterprise confronted by a plethora of bureaucratic and political controls. This change was not triggered by specific events or decisions but reflects the explosive 'knee' in the exponential growth that science has sustained during the past three-and-a-half centuries. Coming to terms with the demands and benefits of 'Big Science' is a major challenge for today's scientific generation. Since its foundation 50 years ago, the European Molecular Biology Organization (EMBO) has been of invaluable help in meeting this challenge.

  19. Fitting ERGMs on big networks.

    PubMed

    An, Weihua

    2016-09-01

    The exponential random graph model (ERGM) has become a valuable tool for modeling social networks. In particular, ERGM provides great flexibility to account for both covariates effects on tie formations and endogenous network formation processes. However, there are both conceptual and computational issues for fitting ERGMs on big networks. This paper describes a framework and a series of methods (based on existent algorithms) to address these issues. It also outlines the advantages and disadvantages of the methods and the conditions to which they are most applicable. Selected methods are illustrated through examples. PMID:27480375

  20. Estimating Rock Strength Parameters from Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) Grinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, B. J.; Bridges, N. T.; Cohen, J.; Hurowitz, J.; Lennon, A.

    2011-03-01

    We have developed an empirical correlation between rock abrasion tool (RAT) grind energy and compressive strength. This correlation can be used to infer the physical properties of rocks ground by the MER rovers on Mars.

  1. The geology and tectonic significance of the Big Creek Gneiss, Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    The Big Creek Gneiss, southern Sierra Madre, southeastern Wyoming, is a heterogeneous suite of upper-amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks intruded by post-metamorphic pegmatitic granite. The metamorphic rocks consist of three individual protolith suites: (1) pre- to syn-1780-Ma supracrustal rocks including clastic metasedimentary rocks, calc-silicate paragneiss, and metavolcanic rocks; (2) a bimodal intrusive suite composed of metagabbro and granodiorite-tonalite gneiss; and (3) a younger bimodal suite composed of garnet-bearing metagabbronorite and coarse-grained granitic gneiss. Zircons U-Pb ages from the Big Creek Gneiss demonstrate that: (1) the average age of detrital zircons in the supracrustal rocks is ~1805 Ma, requiring a significant source of 1805-Ma (or older) detritus during deposition, possibly representing an older phase of arc magmatism; (2) the older bimodal igneous suite crystallized at ~1780 Ma, correlative with arc-derived rocks of the Green Mountain Formation; (3) the younger bimodal igneous suite crystallized at ~1763 Ma, coeval with the extensional(?) Horse Creek anorthosite complex in the Laramie Mountains and Sierra Madre Granite batholith in the southwestern Sierra Madre; (4) Big Creek Gneiss rocks were tectonically buried, metamorphosed, and partially melted at ~1750 Ma, coeval with the accretion of the Green Mountain arc to the Wyoming province along the Cheyenne belt; (5) the posttectonic granite and pegmatite bodies throughout the Big Creek Gneiss crystallized at ~1630 Ma and are correlative with the 'white quartz monzonite' of the south-central Sierra Madre. Geochemical analysis of the ~1780-Ma bimodal plutonic suite demonstrates a clear arc-affinity for the mafic rocks, consistent with a subduction environment origin. The granodioritic rocks of this suite were not derived by fractional crystallization from coeval mafic magmas, but are instead interpreted as melts of lower-crustal mafic material. This combination of mantle

  2. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  3. The Oldest Moon Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M.

    2004-04-01

    Anorthosites, rocks composed almost entirely of plagioclase feldspar, are the oldest rocks on the Moon. They appear to have formed when feldspar crystallized and floated to the top of a global magma ocean that surrounded the Moon soon after it formed. Not all ages determined for anorthosites, however, are as old as we expected--one appeared to be only 4.29 billion years old. While 4.29 billion years sounds very ancient, a magma ocean ought to have solidified well within 100 million years of lunar origin about 4.55 billion years ago. One possibility is that the young ages reflect impact events, not the original time of igneous crystallization. My colleagues Lars Borg (University of New Mexico) and Larry Nyquist and Don Bogard (Johnson Space Center) and I studied an anorthosite (rock 67215) relatively rich in pyroxene, allowing us to determine a precise crystallization age of 4.40 billion years. But even that age might have been affected by the subsequent shock heating event that reset the low-temperature components in this rock about 500 million years after it formed. By examining data for all of the previously dated lunar anorthosites, we were able to show that plagioclase feldspar is more prone to shock damage than are the pyroxenes in these rocks, so we plotted only the pyroxene data for four different anorthosites on a samarium-neodymium isochron diagram. These data fall on a well-defined line indicating a crystallization age for the anorthosites of 4.46 billion years, consistent with very early, widespread melting of the Moon. Other data for 67215 show that it comes from a relatively shallow depth in the crust, giving us clues to the structure of the lunar crust. Studies like this one are filling in the picture of how the initial crust of the Moon formed, which in turn sheds light on the formation of the terrestrial planets.

  4. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced no more than approximately 10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 billion years and 3.5 2.5 billion years, the biggest of which were approximately30-100 times more energetic, comparable to the Orientale impact on the Moon (1x10 (sup 26) joules). To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid

  5. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahnle, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced ~10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 Ga and 3.5 Ga, the biggest of which were ~30-100X more energetic than Chicxulub. To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid under the circumstances). (iv) The surface temperature of dry land is presumed to be the same as the lower atmosphere. A

  6. Environmental Consequences of Big Nasty Impacts on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    The geological record of the Archean Earth is spattered with impact spherules from a dozen or so major cosmic collisions involving Earth and asteroids or comets (Lowe, Byerly 1986, 2015). Extrapolation of the documented deposits suggests that most of these impacts were as big or bigger than the Chicxulub event that famously ended the reign of the thunder lizards. As the Archean impacts were greater, the environmental effects were also greater. The number and magnitude of the impacts is bounded by the lunar record. There are no lunar craters bigger than Chicxulub that date to Earth's mid-to-late Archean. Chance dictates that Earth experienced no more than approximately 10 impacts bigger than Chicxulub between 2.5 billion years and 3.5 billion years, the biggest of which were approximately 30-100 times more energetic, comparable to the Orientale impact on the Moon (1x10 (sup 26) joules). To quantify the thermal consequences of big impacts on old Earth, we model the global flow of energy from the impact into the environment. The model presumes that a significant fraction of the impact energy goes into ejecta that interact with the atmosphere. Much of this energy is initially in rock vapor, melt, and high speed particles. (i) The upper atmosphere is heated by ejecta as they reenter the atmosphere. The mix of hot air, rock vapor, and hot silicates cools by thermal radiation. Rock raindrops fall out as the upper atmosphere cools. (ii) The energy balance of the lower atmosphere is set by radiative exchange with the upper atmosphere and with the surface, and by evaporation of seawater. Susequent cooling is governed by condensation of water vapor. (iii) The oceans are heated by thermal radiation and rock rain and cooled by evaporation. Surface waters become hot and salty; if a deep ocean remains it is relatively cool. Subsequently water vapor condenses to replenish the oceans with hot fresh water (how fresh depending on continental weathering, which might be rather rapid

  7. Cuttability Assessment of Selected Rocks Through Different Brittleness Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dursun, Arif Emre; Gokay, M. Kemal

    2016-04-01

    Prediction of cuttability is a critical issue for successful execution of tunnel or mining excavation projects. Rock cuttability is also used to determine specific energy, which is defined as the work done by the cutting force to excavate a unit volume of yield. Specific energy is a meaningful inverse measure of cutting efficiency, since it simply states how much energy must be expended to excavate a unit volume of rock. Brittleness is a fundamental rock property and applied in drilling and rock excavation. Brittleness is one of the most crucial rock features for rock excavation. For this reason, determination of relations between cuttability and brittleness will help rock engineers. This study aims to estimate the specific energy from different brittleness values of rocks by means of simple and multiple regression analyses. In this study, rock cutting, rock property, and brittleness index tests were carried out on 24 different rock samples with different strength values, including marble, travertine, and tuff, collected from sites around Konya Province, Turkey. Four previously used brittleness concepts were evaluated in this study, denoted as B 1 (ratio of compressive to tensile strength), B 2 (ratio of the difference between compressive and tensile strength to the sum of compressive and tensile strength), B 3 (area under the stress-strain line in relation to compressive and tensile strength), and B 9 = S 20, the percentage of fines (<11.2 mm) formed in an impact test for the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) model as well as B 9p (B 9 as predicted from uniaxial compressive, Brazilian tensile, and point load strengths of rocks using multiple regression analysis). The results suggest that the proposed simple regression-based prediction models including B 3, B 9, and B 9p outperform the other models including B 1 and B 2 and can be used for more accurate and reliable estimation of specific energy.

  8. Estimating rock compressive strength from Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) grinds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, B. J.; Bridges, N. T.; Cohen, J.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Lennon, A.; Paulsen, G.; Zacny, K.

    2013-06-01

    Each Mars Exploration Rover carries a Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) whose intended use was to abrade the outer surfaces of rocks to expose more pristine material. Motor currents drawn by the RAT motors are related to the strength and hardness of rock surfaces undergoing abrasion, and these data can be used to infer more about a target rock's physical properties. However, no calibration of the RAT exists. Here, we attempt to derive an empirical correlation using an assemblage of terrestrial rocks and apply this correlation to data returned by the rover Spirit. The results demonstrate a positive correlation between rock strength and RAT grind energy for rocks with compressive strengths less than about 150 MPa, a category that includes all but the strongest intact rocks. Applying this correlation to rocks abraded by Spirit's RAT, the results indicate a large divide in strength between more competent basaltic rocks encountered in the plains of Gusev crater (Adirondack-class rocks) and the weaker variety of rock types measured in the Columbia Hills. Adirondack-class rocks have estimated compressive strengths in the range of 70-130 MPa and are significantly less strong than fresh terrestrial basalts; this may be indicative of a degree of weathering-induced weakening. Rock types in the Columbia Hills (Wishstone, Watchtower, Clovis, and Peace class) all have compressive strengths <50 MPa and are consistent with impactites or volcanoclastic materials. In general, when considered alongside chemical, spectral, and rock textural data, these inferred compressive strength results help inform our understanding of rock origins and modification history.

  9. Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.L.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Gorevan, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.; Kusack, A.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Ruff, S.W.; Wang, A.; Yen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic or impact in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in Martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Scaling Thomson scattering to big machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bílková, P.; Walsh, M.; Böhm, P.; Bassan, M.; Aftanas, M.; Pánek, R.

    2016-03-01

    Thomson scattering is a widely used diagnostic tool for local measurement of both electron temperature and electron density. It is used for both low and high temperature plasmas and it is a key diagnostic on all fusion devices. The extremely low cross-section of the reaction increases the complexity of the design. Since the early days of fusion, when a simple single point measurement was used, the design moved to a multi-point system with a large number of spatial points, LIDAR system or high repetition Thomson scattering diagnostic which are used nowadays. The initial low electron temperature approximation has been replaced by the full relativistic approach necessary for large devices as well as for ITER with expected higher plasma temperature. Along the way, the different development needs and the issues that exist need to be addressed to ensure that the technique is developed sufficiently to handle challenges of the bigger devices of the future as well as current developments needed for ITER. For large devices, the achievement of the necessary temperature range represents an important task. Both high and low temperatures can be measured, however, a large dynamic range makes the design difficult as size of detector and dynamic range are linked together. Therefore, the requirements of the new devices are extending the boundaries of these parameters. Namely, ITER presents challenges as access is also difficult but big efforts have been made to cope with this. This contribution contains a broad review of Thomson scattering diagnostics used in current devices together with comments on recent progress and speculation regarding future developments needed for future large scale devices.

  11. The Usability of Noise Level from Rock Cutting for the Prediction of Physico-Mechanical Properties of Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delibalta, M. S.; Kahraman, S.; Comakli, R.

    2015-11-01

    Because the indirect tests are easier and cheaper than the direct tests, the prediction of rock properties from the indirect testing methods is important especially for the preliminary investigations. In this study, the predictability of the physico-mechanical rock properties from the noise level measured during cutting rock with diamond saw was investigated. Noise measurement test, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) test, Brazilian tensile strength (BTS) test, point load strength (Is) test, density test, and porosity test were carried out on 54 different rock types in the laboratory. The results were statistically analyzed to derive estimation equations. Strong correlations between the noise level and the mechanical rock properties were found. The relations follow power functions. Increasing rock strength increases the noise level. Density and porosity also correlated strongly with the noise level. The relations follow linear functions. Increasing density increases the noise level while increasing porosity decreases the noise level. The developed equations are valid for the rocks with a compressive strength below 150 MPa. Concluding remark is that the physico-mechanical rock properties can reliably be estimated from the noise level measured during cutting the rock with diamond saw.

  12. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T. (Inventor); Sahimi, Muhammad (Inventor); Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak (Inventor); Harale, Aadesh (Inventor); Park, Byoung-Gi (Inventor); Liu, Paul K. T. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  13. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    DOEpatents

    Tsotsis, Theodore T.; Sahimi, Muhammad; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak; Harale, Aadesh; Park, Byoung-Gi; Liu, Paul K. T.

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  14. Comparative Validity of Brief to Medium-Length Big Five and Big Six Personality Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thalmayer, Amber Gayle; Saucier, Gerard; Eigenhuis, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    A general consensus on the Big Five model of personality attributes has been highly generative for the field of personality psychology. Many important psychological and life outcome correlates with Big Five trait dimensions have been established. But researchers must choose between multiple Big Five inventories when conducting a study and are…

  15. Untapped Potential: Fulfilling the Promise of Big Brothers Big Sisters and the Bigs and Littles They Represent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridgeland, John M.; Moore, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    American children represent a great untapped potential in our country. For many young people, choices are limited and the goal of a productive adulthood is a remote one. This report paints a picture of who these children are, shares their insights and reflections about the barriers they face, and offers ways forward for Big Brothers Big Sisters as…

  16. Field Geologist: An Android App for Measuring Rock Outcroppings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, J.; Chiu, M. T.; Huang, X.; de Lanerolle, T. R.; Morelli, R.; Gourley, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Field geologist is a mobile Android app that measures, plots, and exports strike and data in the field. When the phone is placed on the steepest part of the rock, it automatically detects dip, string, latitude and longitude. It includes a drop-down menu to record the type of rock. The app's initial screen displays a compass with an interior dip/strike symbol that always points toward the dip direction. Tapping the compass stores a data point in the phone's database. The points can be displayed on a Google map and uploaded to a server, from where they can be retrieved in CSV format and imported into a spreadsheet.

  17. The BigBOSS spectrograph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinsky, Patrick; Bebek, Chris; Besuner, Robert; Carton, Pierre-Henri; Edelstein, Jerry; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael E.; Poppett, Claire; Prieto, Eric; Schlegel, David; Sholl, Michael

    2012-09-01

    BigBOSS is a proposed ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with a 14,000 square degree galaxy and quasi-stellar object redshift survey. It consists of a 5,000- fiber-positioner focal plane feeding the spectrographs. The optical fibers are separated into ten 500 fiber slit heads at the entrance of ten identical spectrographs in a thermally insulated room. Each of the ten spectrographs has a spectral resolution (λ/Δλ) between 1500 and 4000 over a wavelength range from 360 - 980 nm. Each spectrograph uses two dichroic beam splitters to separate the spectrograph into three arms. It uses volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings for high efficiency and compactness. Each arm uses a 4096x4096 15 μm pixel charge coupled device (CCD) for the detector. We describe the requirements and current design of the BigBOSS spectrograph. Design trades (e.g. refractive versus reflective) and manufacturability are also discussed.

  18. Evidence of big bang turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Carl H.

    2002-11-01

    Chaotic, eddy-like motions dominated by inertial-vortex forces begin at Planck scales in a hot big-bang-turbulence (BBT) cosmological model where this version of the quantum-gravitational-dynamics epoch produces not only the first space-time-energy of the universe but the first high Reynolds number turbulence and turbulent mixing with Kolmogorov and Batchelor-Obukhov-Corrsin velocity and temperature gradient spectra. Strong-force-freeze-out and inflation produced the first fossil-temperature-turbulence by stretching the fluctuations beyond the horizon scale ct of causal connection for light speed c and time t. Recent Cosmic Background Imager spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature anisotropies at high wavenumbers support the prediction that fossil BBT fluctuation patterns imprinted by nucleosynthesis on light element densities and the associated Sachs-Wolfe temperature fluctuations should not decay by thermal diffusion as expected if the CMB anisotropies were acoustic as commonly assumed. Extended Self Similarity coefficients of the CMB anisotropies exactly match those of high Reynolds number turbulence (Bershadskii and Sreenivasan 2002), supporting the conclusion that fossil big-bang-turbulence seeded nucleosynthesis of light elements and the first hydro-gravitational structure formation.

  19. Astronomical surveys and big data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg M.

    Recent all-sky and large-area astronomical surveys and their catalogued data over the whole range of electromagnetic spectrum, from γ -rays to radio waves, are reviewed, including such as Fermi-GLAST and INTEGRAL in γ -ray, ROSAT, XMM and Chandra in X-ray, GALEX in UV, SDSS and several POSS I and POSS II-based catalogues (APM, MAPS, USNO, GSC) in the optical range, 2MASS in NIR, WISE and AKARI IRC in MIR, IRAS and AKARI FIS in FIR, NVSS and FIRST in radio range, and many others, as well as the most important surveys giving optical images (DSS I and II, SDSS, etc.), proper motions (Tycho, USNO, Gaia), variability (GCVS, NSVS, ASAS, Catalina, Pan-STARRS), and spectroscopic data (FBS, SBS, Case, HQS, HES, SDSS, CALIFA, GAMA). An overall understanding of the coverage along the whole wavelength range and comparisons between various surveys are given: galaxy redshift surveys, QSO/AGN, radio, Galactic structure, and Dark Energy surveys. Astronomy has entered the Big Data era, with Astrophysical Virtual Observatories and Computational Astrophysics playing an important role in using and analyzing big data for new discoveries.

  20. 10. View looking northwest at excavation into serpentine rock. Formwork ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. View looking northwest at excavation into serpentine rock. Formwork at left is for pump room. Partially completed caisson is in foreground. Portion of Point Avisadero visible at right (12/17/42). Photographer unknown. - Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Drydock No. 4, East terminus of Palou Avenue, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Heat transport by fluids during late Cretaceous regional metamorphism in the Big Maria Mountains, southeastern California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoisch, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Big Maria Mountains of SE California preserve evidence of a large-scale fluid flux that accompanied regional metamorphism in late Cretaceous time. Neither magmatism nor radioactive heat sources are adequate to explain the T of metamorphism. Simultaneously crystallizing plutons at different levels within the crust could have contributed to the overall hot fluid flux. A fluid:rock ratio of 17:1 may be calculated given average conditions of 3 kbar, 500oC, an infiltrating fluid of composition XH2O = 1.0, an equilibrium fluid composition of XH2O = 0.97, and 90% wollastonite in the final rock form the reaction quartz + calcite = CO2 + wollastonite. The minimum quantity of fluid of 1.7 rock volume was estimated to pass through the area if the fluid was approximately at granite solidus T at the start. Deep penetrative structures within the crust may have served to channel fluids. -L.C.H.

  2. Geochemical and tectonic uplift controls on rock nitrogen inputs across terrestrial ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morford, Scott L.; Houlton, Benjamin Z.; Dahlgren, Randy A.

    2016-02-01

    Rock contains > 99% of Earth's reactive nitrogen (N), but questions remain over the direct importance of rock N weathering inputs to terrestrial biogeochemical cycling. Here we investigate the factors that regulate rock N abundance and develop a new model for quantifying rock N mobilization fluxes across desert to temperate rainforest ecosystems in California, USA. We analyzed the N content of 968 rock samples from 531 locations and compiled 178 cosmogenically derived denudation estimates from across the region to identify landscapes and ecosystems where rocks account for a significant fraction of terrestrial N inputs. Strong coherence between rock N content and geophysical factors, such as protolith, (i.e. parent rock), grain size, and thermal history, are observed. A spatial model that combines rock geochemistry with lithology and topography demonstrates that average rock N reservoirs range from 0.18 to 1.2 kg N m-3 (80 to 534 mg N kg-1) across the nine geomorphic provinces of California and estimates a rock N denudation flux of 20-92 Gg yr-1 across the entire study area (natural atmospheric inputs ~ 140 Gg yr-1). The model highlights regional differences in rock N mobilization and points to the Coast Ranges, Transverse Ranges, and the Klamath Mountains as regions where rock N could contribute meaningfully to ecosystem N cycling. Contrasting these data to global compilations suggests that our findings are broadly applicable beyond California and that the N abundance and variability in rock are well constrained across most of the Earth system.

  3. Microwave assisted hard rock cutting

    DOEpatents

    Lindroth, David P.; Morrell, Roger J.; Blair, James R.

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus for the sequential fracturing and cutting of subsurface volume of hard rock (102) in the strata (101) of a mining environment (100) by subjecting the volume of rock to a beam (25) of microwave energy to fracture the subsurface volume of rock by differential expansion; and , then bringing the cutting edge (52) of a piece of conventional mining machinery (50) into contact with the fractured rock (102).

  4. Joint Commission on rock properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A joint commission on Rock Properties for Petroleum Engineers (RPPE) has been established by the International Society of Rock Mechanics and the Society of Petroleum Engineers to set up data banks on the properties of sedimentary rocks encountered during drilling. Computer-based data banks of complete rock properties will be organized for sandstones (GRESA), shales (ARSHA) and carbonates (CARCA). The commission hopes to access data sources from members of the commission, private companies and the public domain.

  5. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, H.B.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor of the type speclfically designed for the irradiation of materials is discussed. In this design a central cyllndrical core of moderating material ls surrounded by an active portlon comprlsed of an annular tank contalning fissionable material immersed ln a liquid moderator. The active portion ls ln turn surrounded by a reflector, and a well ls provided in the center of the core to accommodate the materlals to be irradiated. The over-all dimensions of the core ln at least one plane are equal to or greater than twice the effective slowing down length and equal to or less than twlce the effective diffuslon length for neutrons in the core materials.

  6. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.

    1957-09-17

    A reactor of the type having coolant liquid circulated through clad fuel elements geometrically arranged in a solid moderator, such as graphite, is described. The core is enclosed in a pressure vessel and suitable shielding, wherein means is provided for circulating vapor through the core to superheat the same. This is accomplished by drawing off the liquid which has been heated in the core due to the fission of the fuel, passing it to a nozzle within a chamber where it flashes into a vapor, and then passing the vapor through separate tubes extending through the moderator to pick up more heat developed in the core due to the fission of the fuel, thereby producing superheated vapor.

  7. NEUTRONIC REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, F.

    1962-12-18

    A power plant is described comprising a turbine and employing round cylindrical fuel rods formed of BeO and UO/sub 2/ and stacks of hexagonal moderator blocks of BeO provided with passages that loosely receive the fuel rods so that coolant may flow through the passages over the fuels to remove heat. The coolant may be helium or steam and fiows through at least one more heat exchanger for producing vapor from a body of fluid separate from the coolant, which fluid is to drive the turbine for generating electricity. By this arrangement the turbine and directly associated parts are free of particles and radiations emanating from the reactor. (AEC)

  8. On fast reactor kinetics studies

    SciTech Connect

    Seleznev, E. F.; Belov, A. A.; Matveenko, I. P.; Zhukov, A. M.; Raskach, K. F.

    2012-07-01

    The results and the program of fast reactor core time and space kinetics experiments performed and planned to be performed at the IPPE critical facility is presented. The TIMER code was taken as computation support of the experimental work, which allows transient equations to be solved in 3-D geometry with multi-group diffusion approximation. The number of delayed neutron groups varies from 6 to 8. The code implements the solution of both transient neutron transfer problems: a direct one, where neutron flux density and its derivatives, such as reactor power, etc, are determined at each time step, and an inverse one for the point kinetics equation form, where such a parameter as reactivity is determined with a well-known reactor power time variation function. (authors)

  9. Nuclear reactor

    DOEpatents

    Yant, Howard W.; Stinebiser, Karl W.; Anzur, Gregory C.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear reactor, particularly a liquid-metal breeder reactor, whose upper internals include outlet modules for channeling the liquid-metal coolant from selected areas of the outlet of the core vertically to the outlet plenum. The modules are composed of a highly-refractory, high corrosion-resistant alloy, for example, INCONEL-718. Each module is disposed to confine and channel generally vertically the coolant emitted from a subplurality of core-component assemblies. Each module has a grid with openings, each opening disposed to receive the coolant from an assembly of the subplurality. The grid in addition serves as a holdown for the assemblies of the corresponding subplurality preventing their excessive ejection upwardly from the core. In the region directly over the core the outlet modules are of such peripheral form that they nest forming a continuum over the core-component assemblies whose outlet coolant they confine. Each subassembly includes a chimney which confines the coolant emitted by its corresponding subassemblies to generally vertical flow between the outlet of the core and the outlet plenum. Each subplurality of assemblies whose emitted coolant is confined by an outlet module includes assemblies which emit lower-temperature coolant, for example, a control-rod assembly, or fertile assemblies, and assemblies which emit coolant of substantially higher temperature, for example, fuel-rod assemblies. The coolants of different temperatures are mixed in the chimneys reducing the effect of stripping (hot-cold temperature fluctuations) on the remainder of the upper internals which are composed typically of AISI-304 or AISI-316 stainless steel.

  10. Realistic Expectations for Rock Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerback, Mary Elizabeth; Azer, Nazmy

    1991-01-01

    Presents a rock classification scheme for use by beginning students. The scheme is based on rock textures (glassy, crystalline, clastic, and organic framework) and observable structures (vesicles and graded bedding). Discusses problems in other rock classification schemes which may produce confusion, misidentification, and anxiety. (10 references)…

  11. A look at carbonate rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Bowsher, A.I. )

    1994-03-01

    Important ore deposits are found in carbonate rocks, and large volumes of oil and gas are also produced from carbonate rocks on a worldwide basis. Reservoir types and productive capability are most often related to rock type and the facies to which the rock belongs. Broad new understanding of carbonate rocks came with the publication of Classification of Carbonate Rocks-A Symposium (AAPG Memoir 1, 1962). The principal parameters of carbonate rocks are (1) chemical composition, (2) grade size, (3) sorting and packing, (4) identification of grains in the rock, (5) cement, (6) color, (7) alteration of recrystallization, and (8) porosity. Original porosity in carbonate rocks relates to kind and packing of original particles. Secondary porosity is reduced by infilling that usually relates to some particles, or is enhanced because some types of grains are dissolved. Carbonate sediments are organic detritus. The range of solubility of organic detritus is very large. Fossils present in the carbonates are clues as to the source of the detritus in the rock. Additional research is needed in faunal relations of facies and of rock types. Ore recovery, well completion, and EOR are more successful when the parameters of carbonate rocks are extensively studied. A simplified approach to carbonate description is discussed.

  12. 3. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. EASTERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SOUTHEAST END OF THE DAM, AND THE HOLLOW BAYS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. 6. EASTERLY VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SHELTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. EASTERLY VIEW OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE SHELTER HOUSE IN THE BACKGROUND. PHOTO TAKEN FROM THE ACCESS ROAD LEADING TO THE CONTROL HOUSE. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  14. 2. NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. NORTHERLY VIEW OF THE DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION OF BIG DALTON DAM SHOWING THE NORTHWEST END OF THE DAM, THE CONTROL HOUSE, AND SPILLWAY CHUTE. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. Big sagebrush transplanting success in crested wheatgrass stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The conversion of formerly big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentate ssp. wyomingensis)/bunchgrass communities to annual grass dominance, primarily cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), in Wyoming big sagebrush ecosystems has sparked the increasing demand to establish big sagebrush on disturbed rangelands. The e...

  16. 2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Big Creek Road, worm fence and road at trailhead. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Big Creek Road, Between State Route 284 & Big Creek Campground, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  17. Big system: Interactive graphics for the engineer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quenneville, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    The BCS Interactive Graphics System (BIG System) approach to graphics was presented, along with several significant engineering applications. The BIG System precompiler, the graphics support library, and the function requirements of graphics applications are discussed. It was concluded that graphics standardization and a device independent code can be developed to assure maximum graphic terminal transferability.

  18. Efficiency, Corporate Power, and the Bigness Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Walter; Brock, James W.

    1990-01-01

    Concludes that (1) the current infatuation with corporate bigness is void of credible empirical support; (2) disproportionate corporate size and industry concentration are incompatible with and destructive to good economic performance; and (3) structurally oriented antitrust policy must be revitalized to combat the burdens of corporate bigness.…

  19. An embedding for the big bang

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wesson, Paul S.

    1994-01-01

    A cosmological model is given that has good physical properties for the early and late universe but is a hypersurface in a flat five-dimensional manifold. The big bang can therefore be regarded as an effect of a choice of coordinates in a truncated higher-dimensional geometry. Thus the big bang is in some sense a geometrical illusion.

  20. In Search of the Big Bubble

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simoson, Andrew; Wentzky, Bethany

    2011-01-01

    Freely rising air bubbles in water sometimes assume the shape of a spherical cap, a shape also known as the "big bubble". Is it possible to find some objective function involving a combination of a bubble's attributes for which the big bubble is the optimal shape? Following the basic idea of the definite integral, we define a bubble's surface as…

  1. A New Look at Big History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkey, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The article sets out a "big history" which resonates with the priorities of our own time. A globalizing world calls for new spacial scales to underpin what the history curriculum addresses, "big history" calls for new temporal scales, while concern over climate change calls for a new look at subject boundaries. The article…

  2. Soil and rock 'Yogi'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Several possible targets of study for rover Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument are seen in this image, taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) on Sol 2. The smaller rock at left has been dubbed 'Barnacle Bill,' while the larger rock at right, approximately 3-4 meters from the lander, is now nicknamed 'Yogi.' Barnacle Bill is scheduled to be the first object of study for the APXS. Portions of a petal and deflated airbag are also visible at lower right.

    Mars Pathfinder was developed and managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  3. Gale Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    15 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows outcroppings of layered, sedimentary rock in eastern Gale Crater. North-central Gale Crater is the site of a mound that is more than several kilometers thick and largely composed of sedimentary rocks that record a complex history of deposition and erosion. At one time, Gale Crater might have been completely filled and buried beneath the martian surface.

    Location near: 4.9oS, 221.6oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  4. Sedimentary Rock Near Coprates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-420, 13 July 2003

    This mosaic of two Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) narrow angle camera images, one from 2001, the other from 2003, shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock outcrops exposed on the floor of a trough that parallels Coprates Chasma in the Valles Marineris system. Layered rocks form the pages from which the history of a place can be read. It may be many years before the story is read, but or now at least we know where one of the books of martian history is found. This picture is located near 15.2oS, 60.1oW. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  5. Schiaparelli's Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    9 October 2004 Schiaparelli Basin is a large, 470 kilometer (292 miles) impact crater located east of Sinus Meridiani. The basin might once have been the site of a large lake--that is, if the sedimentary rocks exposed on its northwestern floor were deposited in water. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a 1.5 meter per pixel (5 ft per pixel) view of some of the light-toned, finely-bedded sedimentary rocks in northwestern Schiaparelli. The image is located near 1.0oS, 346.0oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  6. Sedimentary Rock Outcrops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    16 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded layered rock outcrops in a crater north of Meridiani Planum near 2.7oN, 359.1oW. The dozens and dozens of sedimentary rock layers of repeated thickness and similar physical properties at this location suggest that they may have been deposited in a lacustrine (lake) setting. The crater in which these layers occur may once have been completely filled and buried, as is the case for many craters in the Sinus Meridiani region. This image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  7. Preliminary geologic map of the Big Costilla Peak area, Taos County, New Mexico, and Costilla County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fridrich, Christopher J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Hudson, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    This map covers the Big Costilla Peak, New Mex.&nash;Colo. quadrangle and adjacent parts of three other 7.5 minute quadrangles: Amalia, New Mex.–Colo., Latir Peak, New Mex., and Comanche Point, New Mex. The study area is in the southwesternmost part of that segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains known as the Culebra Range; the Taos Range segment lies to the southwest of Costilla Creek and its tributary, Comanche Creek. The map area extends over all but the northernmost part of the Big Costilla horst, a late Cenozoic uplift of Proterozoic (1.7-Ga and less than 1.4-Ga) rocks that is largely surrounded by down-faulted middle to late Cenozoic (about 40 Ma to about 1 Ma) rocks exposed at significantly lower elevations. This horst is bounded on the northwest side by the San Pedro horst and Culebra graben, on the northeast and east sides by the Devils Park graben, and on the southwest side by the (about 30 Ma to about 25 Ma) Latir volcanic field. The area of this volcanic field, at the north end of the Taos Range, has undergone significantly greater extension than the area to the north of Costilla Creek. The horsts and grabens discussed above are all peripheral structures on the eastern flank of the San Luis basin, which is the axial part of the (about 26 Ma to present) Rio Grande rift at the latitude of the map. The Raton Basin lies to the east of the Culebra segment of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. This foreland basin formed during, and is related to, the original uplift of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains which was driven by tectonic contraction of the Laramide (about 70 Ma to about 40 Ma) orogeny. Renewed uplift and structural modification of these mountains has occurred during formation of the Rio Grande rift. Surficial deposits in the study area include alluvial, mass-movement, and glacial deposits of middle Pleistocene to Holocene age.

  8. Eroded Sedimentary Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-372, 26 May 2003

    This high resolution Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded, layered sedimentary rock exposures in an unnamed western Arabia Terra crater at 8oN, 7oW. The dark material is windblown sand; much of the erosion of these layers may have also been caused by wind. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left.

  9. Melas Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    17 July 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered, sedimentary rock outcrops in southwestern Melas Chasma, one of the troughs of the vast Valles Marineris system. Sunlight illuminates this scene from the upper left; it is located near 9.8oS, 76.0oW, and covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide.

  10. Iani Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    23 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned sedimentary rocks exposed by erosion in the Iani Chaos region of Mars.

    Location near: 4.2oS, 18.7oW Image width: 1 km (0.6 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Winter

  11. Terby Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    27 December 2003 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows layered sedimentary rock outcrops in Terby Crater, located near 27.7oS, 285.4oW. The layered sediments in Terby are several kilometers thick, attesting to a long history of deposition in this ancient basin. The picture covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  12. Ripples and Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    26 February 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned sedimentary rock outcrops and large dark-toned, windblown ripples in Aram Chaos.

    Location near: 3.0oN, 20.9oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Northern Summer

  13. Soil Rock Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A redesigned version of a soil/rock analyzer developed by Martin Marietta under a Langley Research Center contract is being marketed by Aurora Tech, Inc. Known as the Aurora ATX-100, it has self-contained power, an oscilloscope, a liquid crystal readout, and a multichannel spectrum analyzer. It measures energy emissions to determine what elements in what percentages a sample contains. It is lightweight and may be used for mineral exploration, pollution monitoring, etc.

  14. Accelerators for Subcritical Molten-Salt Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Roland

    2011-08-03

    Accelerator parameters for subcritical reactors have usually been based on using solid nuclear fuel much like that used in all operating critical reactors as well as the thorium burning accelerator-driven energy amplifier proposed by Rubbia et al. An attractive alternative reactor design that used molten salt fuel was experimentally studied at ORNL in the 1960s, where a critical molten salt reactor was successfully operated using enriched U235 or U233 tetrafluoride fuels. These experiments give confidence that an accelerator-driven subcritical molten salt reactor will work better than conventional reactors, having better efficiency due to their higher operating temperature, having the inherent safety of subcritical operation, and having constant purging of volatile radioactive elements to eliminate their accumulation and potential accidental release in dangerous amounts. Moreover, the requirements to drive a molten salt reactor can be considerably relaxed compared to a solid fuel reactor, especially regarding accelerator reliability and spallation neutron targetry, to the point that much of the required technology exists today. It is proposed that Project-X be developed into a prototype commercial machine to produce energy for the world by, for example, burning thorium in India and nuclear waste from conventional reactors in the USA.

  15. Salty Martian Rock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed 'McKittrick' near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed 'Tarmac.' These data were taken by Opportunity's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, which produces a spectrum, or fingerprint, of chemicals in martian rocks and soil. The instrument contains a radioisotope, curium-244, that bombards a designated area with alpha particles and X-rays, causing a cascade of reflective fluorescent X-rays. The energies of these fluorescent X-rays are unique to each atom in the periodic table, allowing scientists to determine a target's chemical composition.

    Both 'Tarmac' and 'McKittrick' are located within the small crater where Opportunity landed. The full spectra are expressed as X-ray intensity (logarithmic scale) versus energy. When comparing two spectra, the relative intensities at a given energy are proportional to the elemental concentrations, however these proportionality factors can be complex. To be precise, scientists extensively calibrate the instrument using well-analyzed geochemical standards.

    Both the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and the rock abrasion tool are located on the rover's instrument deployment device, or arm.

  16. Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J; Westreich, Daniel J; El-Sayed, Abdulrahman M

    2015-01-01

    Big Data has increasingly been promoted as a revolutionary development in the future of science, including epidemiology. However, the definition and implications of Big Data for epidemiology remain unclear. We here provide a working definition of Big Data predicated on the so-called ‘3 Vs’: variety, volume, and velocity. From this definition, we argue that Big Data has evolutionary and revolutionary implications for identifying and intervening on the determinants of population health. We suggest that as more sources of diverse data become publicly available, the ability to combine and refine these data to yield valid answers to epidemiologic questions will be invaluable. We conclude that, while epidemiology as practiced today will continue to be practiced in the Big Data future, a component of our field’s future value lies in integrating subject matter knowledge with increased technical savvy. Our training programs and our visions for future public health interventions should reflect this future. PMID:25756221

  17. The Big bang and the Quantum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay

    2010-06-01

    General relativity predicts that space-time comes to an end and physics comes to a halt at the big-bang. Recent developments in loop quantum cosmology have shown that these predictions cannot be trusted. Quantum geometry effects can resolve singularities, thereby opening new vistas. Examples are: The big bang is replaced by a quantum bounce; the `horizon problem' disappears; immediately after the big bounce, there is a super-inflationary phase with its own phenomenological ramifications; and, in presence of a standard inflation potential, initial conditions are naturally set for a long, slow roll inflation independently of what happens in the pre-big bang branch. As in my talk at the conference, I will first discuss the foundational issues and then the implications of the new Planck scale physics near the Big Bang.

  18. Numerical Homogenization of Jointed Rock Masses Using Wave Propagation Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasmi, Hatem; Hamdi, Essaïeb; Bouden Romdhane, Nejla

    2014-07-01

    Homogenization in fractured rock analyses is essentially based on the calculation of equivalent elastic parameters. In this paper, a new numerical homogenization method that was programmed by means of a MATLAB code, called HLA-Dissim, is presented. The developed approach simulates a discontinuity network of real rock masses based on the International Society of Rock Mechanics (ISRM) scanline field mapping methodology. Then, it evaluates a series of classic joint parameters to characterize density (RQD, specific length of discontinuities). A pulse wave, characterized by its amplitude, central frequency, and duration, is propagated from a source point to a receiver point of the simulated jointed rock mass using a complex recursive method for evaluating the transmission and reflection coefficient for each simulated discontinuity. The seismic parameters, such as delay, velocity, and attenuation, are then calculated. Finally, the equivalent medium model parameters of the rock mass are computed numerically while taking into account the natural discontinuity distribution. This methodology was applied to 17 bench fronts from six aggregate quarries located in Tunisia, Spain, Austria, and Sweden. It allowed characterizing the rock mass discontinuity network, the resulting seismic performance, and the equivalent medium stiffness. The relationship between the equivalent Young's modulus and rock discontinuity parameters was also analyzed. For these different bench fronts, the proposed numerical approach was also compared to several empirical formulas, based on RQD and fracture density values, published in previous research studies, showing its usefulness and efficiency in estimating rapidly the Young's modulus of equivalent medium for wave propagation analysis.

  19. Rock pushing and sampling under rocks on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, H.J.; Liebes, S.; Crouch, D.S.; Clark, L.V.

    1978-01-01

    Viking Lander 2 acquired samples on Mars from beneath two rocks, where living organisms and organic molecules would be protected from ultraviolet radiation. Selection of rocks to be moved was based on scientific and engineering considerations, including rock size, rock shape, burial depth, and location in a sample field. Rock locations and topography were established using the computerized interactive video-stereophotogrammetric system and plotted on vertical profiles and in plan view. Sampler commands were developed and tested on Earth using a full-size lander and surface mock-up. The use of power by the sampler motor correlates with rock movements, which were by plowing, skidding, and rolling. Provenance of the samples was determined by measurements and interpretation of pictures and positions of the sampler arm. Analytical results demonstrate that the samples were, in fact, from beneath the rocks. Results from the Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer of the Molecular Analysis experiment and the Gas Exchange instrument of the Biology experiment indicate that more adsorbed(?) water occurs in samples under rocks than in samples exposed to the sun. This is consistent with terrestrial arid environments, where more moisture occurs in near-surface soil un- der rocks than in surrounding soil because the net heat flow is toward the soil beneath the rock and the rock cap inhibits evaporation. Inorganic analyses show that samples of soil from under the rocks have significantly less iron than soil exposed to the sun. The scientific significance of analyses of samples under the rocks is only partly evaluated, but some facts are clear. Detectable quantities of martian organic molecules were not found in the sample from under a rock by the Molecular Analysis experiment. The Biology experiments did not find definitive evidence for Earth-like living organisms in their sample. Significant amounts of adsorbed water may be present in the martian regolith. The response of the soil

  20. Three dimensional simulation for Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Lee, Moo Yul

    2005-07-01

    3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of caverns located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Big Hill site. State-of-art analyses simulated the current site configuration and considered additional caverns. The addition of 5 caverns to account for a full site and a full dome containing 31 caverns were modeled. Operations including both normal and cavern workover pressures and cavern enlargement due to leaching were modeled to account for as many as 5 future oil drawdowns. Under the modeled conditions, caverns were placed very close to the edge of the salt dome. The web of salt separating the caverns and the web of salt between the caverns and edge of the salt dome were reduced due to leaching. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence and infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified. The analyses included recently derived damage criterion obtained from testing of Big Hill salt cores. The results show that from a structural view point, many additional caverns can be safely added to Big Hill.