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  1. Surface ozone levels in the forest and vegetation areas of the Biga Peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sari, Deniz; İncecik, Selahattin; Ozkurt, Nesimi

    2016-11-15

    Spatial and temporal variability of surface ozone in the rural, mountainous and suburban sites of Biga Peninsula, at the northwest of Turkey which is about 300km southwest of Istanbul was investigated using passive samplers and continuous analyzers. A total 10 passive samplers and two continuous analyzers were used between 1.1.2013 and 31.12.2014. OX levels in the study region were examined to understand NOx dependent or independent contribution to ozone. The influences of the meteorological parameters on ozone levels were also examined by wind speed and ambient temperature. The results clearly show that mountainous areas have higher cumulative exposure to ozone than suburban locations. In order to understand the long range transport sources contributing to the high ozone levels in the region backward trajectories were computed using HYSPLIT model and then clustering of trajectories are performed. The results clearly show the characteristics of pollutant transport from north to Biga Peninsula. Additionally, AOT40 (Accumulated hourly O3 concentrations Over a Threshold of 40ppb) cumulative index was calculated using daytime hourly measurements. The results indicate that the ozone values in the study area are much higher than the critical levels for forest and vegetation based on EU Directive 2008/50/EC.

  2. Geochemical, geochronological characterization and tectonic setting of the metamorphic rocks from the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, F.; Tunç, Ä.°. O.; Yiǧitbaş, E.

    2012-04-01

    The Biga Peninsula in the northwest Turkey is one of the world's important natural laboratories to study geochronology due to having complex geology. The Biga Peninsula has different metamorphic basements including Kazdağ Massif, Çamlıca metamorphics, Kemer metamorphics and Karadağ Massif under cover of the Cenozoic volcano-sedimentary association. The Çamlıca metamorphic assemblage are one of the most critical regions for understanding of the geology of northwestern Turkey. The Çamlıca metamorphic association located on the westernmost part of Turkey is mainly composed of the Andıktası formation, the Dedetepe formation and the Salihler formation, from bottom to top. Metasedimentary rocks of the Çamlıca metamorphics have high SiO2 and medium Al2O3 and TiO2 values. The protolith of these metasediments is arkose-subarkose and greywacke. However, whole-rock geochemistry for the HP eclogite/blueschist within the Çamlıca metamorphics suggests that their protolith was basalt with high TiO2 and K2O-Na2O content and Nb/Y ratios. REE pattern and trace element contents of the HP eclogite/blueschist similar to typical MORB based on tectonic discrimination diagrams. The metavolcanic rocks occurring on the lowest part of the Çamlıca metamorphicassociation has andesitic composition with calc-alkaline character. All metavolcanic rocks in this unit cluster within the volcanic arc field. Zircon grains from metavolcanic rocks and HP eclogite/blueschists were dated by LA-ICPMS. Zircon ages of two metavolcanic samples yielded 328.6 ± 3.5 Ma and 343.2 ± 2.6 Ma, respectively. These ages are interpreted as the time of protolith crystallization of metavolcanic rocks. Moreover, zircon ages from HP eclogite/blueschist yielded 338 ± 1.8 Ma (Early Carboniferous) which is interpreted as the age of protolith crystallization of HP eclogite/blueschist. Geochemical and isotopic data indicate that Early Carboniferous Variscan ages within the Sakarya Zone may form the eastern

  3. Inventory Survey of Geodiversity Elements in a Regional Territory: Applied to the Biga Peninsula, Northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedat Çetiner, Ziya; Ertekin, Can; Filiz, Nurdan

    2016-04-01

    Representative geodiversity elements such as minerals, rocks, fossils, landforms, etc are key components in order to obtain data for the pursuit of geo-research. The scientific worth of geodiversity is not only related to how the geosphere works but also is connected with the conservation of earth materials for present and future geo-knowledge and geoscience milieu. Hence, the nonrenewable nature of geodiversity elements in the human time scale is taken into account for the conservation of natural diversity or simply geo-conservation. Geodiversity as an abiotic element ascribes to in situ or ex situ features both of which maintain scientific value and are used by various societies such as in teaching, tourism, etc. Ex situ elements are known as fossils, minerals and rocks found in museum collections on the other hand in situ features are known as geosites for which there are certain sub-categories such as geomorphological (landform), hydrogeological, paleontological, structural, stratigraphic sequence and lithological. Due to the plethora of geological data dispersed among geodiversity elements, the first crucial step is to execute an inventory solid study. The scope of this study is to survey geodiversity features of potential natural sites distributed the entire sectors of the Biga Peninsula of Northwestern Turkey. In the territory, there are 37 natural sites with their own data set. This data describing their boundaries and administrative features were acquired from Directorate General for Preservation of Natural Heritage. Then, site boundaries, regional published geological maps, surface hydrologic and anthropic attributes were overlaid conceiving as a single unit. Before initiating the inventory survey, the criteria scale were established for geoscience value and geo-tourism potential. In these two frames, geodiversity elements were labeled and tabulated by their representativeness, integrity, rarity, scientific knowledge, scenery, interpretative potential and

  4. Morphometric age estimate of the last phase of accelerated uplift in the Kazdag area (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demoulin, A.; Altin, T. Bayer; Beckers, A.

    2013-11-01

    While the Plio-Quaternary uplift of the Kazdag mountain range (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey) is generally acknowledged, little is known about its detailed timing. Partly because of this lack of data, the cause of this uplift phase is also debated, being associated either to back-arc extension in the rear of the Hellenic subduction zone, to transpression along the northern edge of the west-moving Anatolian microplate, or to extension driven by gravitational collapse. Here, we perform a morphometric study of the fluvial landscape at the scale of the Biga Peninsula, coupling the recently developed R/SR analysis of the drainage network with concavity and steepness measures of a set of 29 rivers of all sizes. While the dependence of profile concavity on basin size confirms that the landscape of the peninsula is still in a transient state, the spatial distribution of profile steepness values characterized by higher values for streams flowing down from the Kazdag massif shows that the latter undergoes higher uplift rates than the rest of the peninsula. We obtain a SR value of 0.324 ± 0.035 that, according to the relation established by Demoulin (2012), yields an age range of 0.5-1.3 Ma and a most probable value of 0.8 Ma for the time of the last tectonic perturbation in the region. In agreement with the analysis of knickpoint migration in a subset of rivers, this suggests that a pulse of uplift occurred at that time and, corroborated by sparse published observations in the Bayramiç and Çanakkale depressions, that the peninsula was uplifted as a whole from that time. This uplift pulse might have been caused by transient compressive conditions in the Anatolian plate when the Eratosthenes seamount came to subduct beneath the Cyprus arc around the early-to-mid Pleistocene transition (Schattner, 2010).

  5. Monitoring of Landslides using Repeated Kinematics GPS Observables in Sevketiye Town, Biga Peninsula, Çanakkale, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Akcay, Ozgun; Karaca, Zeki; Erenoglu, Oya; Sengul Uluocak, Ebru; Yucel, Mehmet Ali

    2014-05-01

    Landslide is one of the most important natural events, and is also a result of earth's crust movements. Landslides generally result in the outward and downward movement of slope-forming materials consisting soil, rock, artificial fill and etc. Moreover, possible earthquakes are one of the main reasons of triggering landslides in active areas seismically. There have been many studies based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) observables to compute the three dimensional positioning of established sites, and to model landslides precisely. We can monitor landslide with GPS using continuous data collection or the type of campaign surveying. While continuous data collection provide a millimetre-level of accuracy, the accuracy decreases with the shorter sessions, e.g. campaign surveying, due to possible sources of error. The area, located west of the Çanakkale, has been studied to identify the landslide susceptibility and geology. Çanakkale, NW Turkey, is located on the territory of the Biga Peninsula and the Gallipoli Peninsula. The section of remaining at the west of the line from the Gulf of Edremit to the Gulf of Erdek is called Biga Peninsula, and it covers an area of approximately 10 thousand km². In the Biga Peninsula, the main morphological units are at the western, northern and southern of coastal plains, and on their behind the hills, plateaus and mountainous areas of the inland. But at the middle areas, it is often possible to find the tectonic depressions sandwiched between the masses plateau and mountainous. In general, moving down the slope of a rock, soil or debris can be defined as landslides that are ranks second in terms of caused losses after earthquakes in Turkey. Landslides, harm to urbanization as well as loss of lives and economic losses. Moreover they adversely affects to agricultural, forest areas and the quality of the rivers. For example, the gas pipeline connecting Turkey and Greece, which will provide gas to the Southern Europe passes

  6. Geological and Geomorphological Characterizations of Landslides on the Coast of the Biga Peninsula (Çanakkale, NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erenoglu, Oya; Cuneyt Erenoglu, Ramazan; Akcay, Ozgun

    2015-04-01

    change for the landslide movements in these three regions. Loose conglomerates and sandstones observed in almost all regions are able to easily move under the influence of seasonal rainfall. The precautions to be taken are very important for areas where housing as Ambaroba and Güzelyali. On the other hand, new movements may occur that could cause serious damages in transporting highways Şevketiye, Adatepe and İntepe Landslides. Acknowledgement. This study was supported by The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) (Project no: 112Y336) Keywords: Landslide, Biga Peninsula, Mass Movements, Geology.

  7. Investigation of Plutonic Rocks in Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey, using 3D Normalized Full Gradient of Magnetic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Y. L.; Yiǧitbaş, E.

    2012-04-01

    Airborne magnetic data of Biga Peninsula were investigated by using 3D Normalized Full Gradient (NFG) technique. The NFG procedure is based on the downward continuation of the potential field data and the NFG amplitude is calculated by dividing the Analytic Signal (AS) of downward continued magnetic data by the average of AS. Application of NFG technique usually enhances the anomalies by computing the anomaly to a level close to the source bodies and points to the boundaries of causative bodies. To that end, a MATLAB based code consisting of a series of linked functions was developed and used for analyses. Study area covers an area of 120 km x 180 km and the data were collected with 1-2 km profile intervals and with about 70 m sampling from 625 m above the ground surface by MTA (General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration). 2 km sampling intervals for both north and east directions were used for gridding of the magnetic data. Regional anomalies were approximated by means of element shape functions used in finite element method and then residuals were computed. Prior to the application of 3D NFG, Reduction to the Pole (RTP) transformation was applied to residual data in order to remove the complexity due to the effects of the direction of magnetization and ambient field. RTP transformation process was performed using 55 and 4 degrees for inclination and declination angles, respectively. 3D NFG operation was performed to reduced to pole data for 6 different depth levels (-200, -400, -600, -800, -1000 and -1200 m). Analyzing the resulting anomaly maps of different depth levels together with the geological map (1/500.000) showed that the locations of maximum NFG amplitudes indicate the boundaries of plutonic rocks having high magnetization intensity. Additionally, horizontal and vertical extensions of plutonic rocks were also determined. Keywords: Airborne magnetic data, normalized full gradient, plutonic rocks, Biga Peninsula-Turkey

  8. Early Variscan magmatism along the southern margin of Laurasia: geochemical and geochronological evidence from the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Fırat; Koralay, O. Ersin

    2017-04-01

    Massive, fine-grained metavolcanic rocks of the Çamlıca metamorphic unit exposed in the Biga Peninsula, northwestern Anatolia, have provided new Carboniferous ages and arc-related calc-alkaline petrogenesis constraints, suggesting that the Biga Peninsula was possibly involved in the Variscan orogeny. The metavolcanic rocks are mainly composed of metalava and metatuff and have the composition of andesite. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns from these rocks are fractionated (LaN/YbN 2.2 to 8.9). Europium anomalies are slightly variable (Eu/Eu* = 0.6 to 0.7) and generally negative (average Eu/Eu* = 0.68). The metavolcanic rocks have a distinct negative Nb anomaly and negative Sr, Hf, Ba, and Zr anomalies. These large negative anomalies indicate crustal involvement in their derivation. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show that all metavolcanic rocks formed within a volcanic arc setting. Zircon ages (LA-ICP-MS) of two samples yield 333.5 ± 2.7 and 334.0 ± 4.8 Ma. These ages are interpreted to be the time of protolith crystallization. This volcanic episode in the Biga Peninsula correlates with other Variscan age and style of magmatism and, by association with a collisional event leading to the amalgamation of tectonic units during the Variscan contractional orogenic event. Carboniferous calc-alkaline magmatism in the Sakarya Zone is ascribed to arc-magmatism as a result of northward subduction of Paleo-Tethys under the Laurasian margin. Geochemical and U-Pb zircon data indicate that the Sakarya Zone is strikingly similar to that of the Armorican terranes in central Europe. The Biga Peninsula shows a connection between the Sakarya Zone and the Armorican terranes.

  9. Early Variscan magmatism along the southern margin of Laurasia: geochemical and geochronological evidence from the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Fırat; Koralay, O. Ersin

    2016-05-01

    Massive, fine-grained metavolcanic rocks of the Çamlıca metamorphic unit exposed in the Biga Peninsula, northwestern Anatolia, have provided new Carboniferous ages and arc-related calc-alkaline petrogenesis constraints, suggesting that the Biga Peninsula was possibly involved in the Variscan orogeny. The metavolcanic rocks are mainly composed of metalava and metatuff and have the composition of andesite. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns from these rocks are fractionated (LaN/YbN ~ 2.2 to 8.9). Europium anomalies are slightly variable (Eu/Eu* = 0.6 to 0.7) and generally negative (average Eu/Eu* = 0.68). The metavolcanic rocks have a distinct negative Nb anomaly and negative Sr, Hf, Ba, and Zr anomalies. These large negative anomalies indicate crustal involvement in their derivation. Tectonic discrimination diagrams show that all metavolcanic rocks formed within a volcanic arc setting. Zircon ages (LA-ICP-MS) of two samples yield 333.5 ± 2.7 and 334.0 ± 4.8 Ma. These ages are interpreted to be the time of protolith crystallization. This volcanic episode in the Biga Peninsula correlates with other Variscan age and style of magmatism and, by association with a collisional event leading to the amalgamation of tectonic units during the Variscan contractional orogenic event. Carboniferous calc-alkaline magmatism in the Sakarya Zone is ascribed to arc-magmatism as a result of northward subduction of Paleo-Tethys under the Laurasian margin. Geochemical and U-Pb zircon data indicate that the Sakarya Zone is strikingly similar to that of the Armorican terranes in central Europe. The Biga Peninsula shows a connection between the Sakarya Zone and the Armorican terranes.

  10. Effect of high aluminum concentration in water resources on human health, case study: Biga Peninsula, northwest part of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bakar, Coşkun; Karaman, Handan Işin Ozişik; Baba, Alper; Sengünalp, Fatma

    2010-05-01

    Widespread and intense zones of silicified, propylitic, and argillic alteration exist as outcrop around the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. Most of the springs in the study area surface out from these altered volcanic rocks. The concentrations of aluminum (Al) in these springs ranged from 13.17 to 15.70 ppm in this region. These high levels of Al were found to exceed the maximum allowable limits (0.2 ppm) depicted in national and international standards of drinking water quality. Therefore, the effect of high Al in water resources on human health was evaluated in this research. A total of 273 people aged above 18 years and living in the Kirazli region (whose water supply is from springs emerging from these alteration zones) and in the Ciplak-Halileli region (whose water supply is provided from an alluvium aquifer) were selected as the research group. For this group, a questionnaire was completed that contained questions on descriptive characteristics of humans and a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was administered by the authors using the face-to-face interview technique. A neurological examination was then performed by the neurology specialist as a second-stage investigation. Finally, 10 ml of venous blood samples were obtained from these people as a third-stage analysis to determine the serum Al levels together with vitamin B(12), folic acid, and thyroid-stimulating hormone parameters. The result typically revealed that the MMSE score was less in 31.9% and there was no statistically significant difference between the two regions. However, the result also showed that neuropathy in the history (including a careful past medical history) was significantly higher in the Kirazli region.

  11. An Approach to Geochemical and Protolith Features of the Mesozoic HP/LT Rocks in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Firat; Yiǧitbaş, Erdinç; Onur Tunç, Ä.°Smail

    2010-05-01

    The Biga Peninsula in northwestern Anatolia is a tectonic mosaic comprised of different tectonic units which represented by continental and oceanic assemblages in different origin and ages. High-degree metamorphic rocks occur in the both Çamli ca metamorphics and Çetmi Group. HP eclogite/blueschists are associated with quartz-mica schist within the Çamli ca metamorphics. On the other hand, another HP eclogite/blueschist unit is associated with garnet-mica schist in the Çetmi Group. The host Çamli ca metamorphic rocks record only a single - stage greenschist - facies metamorphism and were juxtaposed with the high - grade metamorphic rocks along ductile - semi-brittle (?) strike - slip faults after the high degree metamorphism and during or after the low-grade metamorphism of the Çamli ca metamorphic unit. Major, trace and rare earth elements (REE) compositions of HP eclogite/blueschist and associated metasedimentary rocks from the Biga Peninsula have been determined to reveal their protolith, source area and tectonic setting. Whole-rock geochemistry for the HP eclogite/blueschist suggests that their protoliths were basalt with high TiO2 and K2O-Na2O content and Nb/Y ratios. Most HP metabasite samples plot in the tholeiitic basalt field. ∑ REE abundances range from 47.55 to 107.4 ppm. Europium anomolies are variable (Eu/Eu*= 0.9-1.1) and generally small negative (average Eu/Eu*=1) which is implying weak plagioclase fractionation. REE pattern and trace element contents similar to typical MORB based on tectonic discrimination diagrams. The relatively high concentrations of CaO and low concentrations of K2O suggest that the protoliths were derived from a depleted source. Metasedimentary rocks coexisting with HP metamorphic rocks have different SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2 values in the both Çamli ca metamorphics and Çetmi Group. Those of the Çamli ca metamorphics have high SiO2 and low Al2O3 and TiO2 values. However, those of the Çetmi Group have low SiO2 and

  12. Fluid processes in the Tesbihdere base-metal-Au deposit: Implications for epithermal mineralization in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozkaya, Gulcan; Banks, David A.; Ozbas, Fatih; Wallington, Jon

    2014-06-01

    Tesbihdere is one of a number of spatially close epithermal Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag-Au deposits hosted by andesites and rhyolites, typical of deposits in the Biga peninsula. Microthermometry of fluid inclusions shows a wide range of temperatures, ˜360-170°C, and salinities, ˜10-0.5 wt.% NaCl, in the different deposits studied. Dilution of a moderately saline magmatic? fluid with meteoric water occurred at constant temperature indicating, the temperature of both fluids was controlled by the geological environment. Boiling was not a major factor, but did occur in very minor amounts. The large range of temperatures within individual samples can only reasonably be explained by variations from near lithostatic to hydrostatic pressure during vein and fracture opening. That this pressure decrease did not produce extensive boiling suggests that vein opening was gradual rather than aggressive, allowing the pressure and temperature decrease to follow a path close to the L-V boiling curve. P-T reconstruction places emplacement of these ore veins at between 300-500 m beneath the surface. Similarities of LA-ICPMS of fluid inclusions from Tesbihdere, Azitepe and Basmakci, supports the conclusion that they were part of the same contemporaneous mineralizing system. The fluids are dominated by Na, with the concentrations of K>Ca>Mg combined equivalent to the concentration of Na. The range of K/Na ratios is not consistent with the fluid inclusion temperatures as the calculated temperatures are significantly higher indicating the fluids were not close to equilibrium with the enclosing rocks. Elevated K concentrations are consistent with acid-sulphate waters in shallow epithermal systems. Ore metals Cu, Zn and Pb are present in significant concentrations ˜500, 300 and 200 ppm respectively and the low Fe/Mn ratios are indicative of a relatively oxidising fluid. The negative δ 34S values of sulphides are consistent with boiling and oxidising redox conditions.

  13. Mineral chemistry, crystallization conditions and geodynamic implications of the Oligo-Miocene granitoids in the Biga Peninsula, Northwest Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aysal, Namık

    2015-06-01

    Widespread plutonic rocks in NW Turkey occur within the southward-younging and overlapping magmatic belts across the Aegean region. Post-collisional magmatism is represented by a series of granitoidic intrusions and volcanic successions. K-Ar and U-Pb LA-ICP-MS zircon dating of the Kazdağ and Yenice plutons yielded ages between 20.5 ± 0.5 Ma and 27.89 ± 0.17 Ma (Late Oligocene-Early Miocene). The granitoid samples are high-K calc-alkaline and metaluminous to slightly peraluminous. The 87Sr/86Sr values for the granitoids, enclaves and leucocratic rocks range between 0.705168 and 0.708357. The initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios calculated for the crystallization ages of ca. 23-27 Ma are between 0.512425 and 0.512614, and the εNd values vary from -3.5 to 0.2. The Nd TDM model ages range between 0.73 and 1.13 Ga. These samples are enriched in LILEs and LREE and depleted in HFSEs with negative Eu anomalies, indicating that the melts were derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle modified by subducted slab-derived melts. Energy constrained-assimilation and fractional crystallization (EC-AFC) modelling indicates that fractional crystallization and crustal assimilation modified the parent magma's composition during its residence in the upper crust. The mineral chemistry of amphiboles, pyroxenes, biotites and feldspars is used to constrain the pressure (P), temperature (T), oxygen fugacity (logƒO2) and water contents (H2Omelt) during the crystallization of the magmas in the studied granitoids. The clinopyroxene temperatures are in the range of 823-910 ± 45 °C. The amphibole temperatures for the studied plutonic rocks are in the range of 707-926 °C (mean = 798 ± 45 °C), and the crystallization depths are estimated to be in the interval of 1.02-10.2 km. The NW Anatolian plutonic rocks can be considered to have been equilibrated at the oxygen fugacities of calcic amphiboles (logƒO2) between -8.99 and -13.96 bars (mean = -12.11 bar) and H2Omelt contents between 1.63% and

  14. Metamorphic evolution of the high-pressure metamorphic rocks from the Kemer area (Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey): Implications for the accretionary continental growth and closure of the Intra-Pontide Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygül, M.; Topuz, G.; Satır, M.

    2009-04-01

    The northwestern part of the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey, corresponds to the so-called Intra-Pontide suture, separating the Rhodope-Strandja zone to the north and Sakarya zone to the south. This suture zone is marked by the exposures of high-pressure metamorphics, oceanic accretionary complexes and ophiolites, which are widely covered by Eocene to Miocene volcanics and volcano-clastics, and crosscut by Eocene to Miocene granites. The Kemer area is one of the key-areas where high-pressure metamorphics and an ophiolitic mélange were widely exposed. This contribution deals with the metamorphic evolution of the Kemer high-pressure rocks, and their implications for the geodynamic evolution. The Kemer high-pressure rocks comprise predominantly micaschist, calcschist, marble and minor metabasite and serpentinite. The micaschists contain mineral assemblages involving garnet, phengite (3,30-3,44 c.p.f.u.), paragonite, epidote, chlorite, albite and titanite, and the metabasites consists of garnet, barrosite, albite, chlorite, epidote, albite and titanite. The equilibrium conditions are poorly constrained as 550 ± 50 °C temperature and >8-10 kbar pressure by Fe-Mg partitioning between garnet and phengite, and phengite-barometry, respectively. Timing of the high-pressure metamorphism is constrained as 84-64 Ma by Rb-Sr phengite-whole rock dating on four samples. Although the obtained age values display a wide scatter, they are consistent with geochronological data from the neighboring high-pressure areas: 86 ± 2 Ma from the Şarköy blueschists (Topuz et al. 2008) and 65-69 Ma from the Çamlıca garnet-micaschists (Okay and Satır, 2000). These data in conjunction with those from the literature suggest that Late Cretaceous represent a time of substantional accretionary continental growth related to the northward subduction of the Intra-Pontide Ocean. The closure of the Intra-Pontide Ocean is constrained between Late Cretaceous and Eocene, because Eocene volcanics and volcano

  15. Seismotectonic Investigation of Biga Peninsula in SW Marmara Region Using Steerable Filter Technique, Potential Field Data and Recent Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgün, Ethem; Albora, A. Muhittin

    2017-07-01

    We examine seismotectonic setting of Biga Peninsula in western Anatolia (Çanakkale region) using the steerable filter technique and recent seismicity. One of the most important issues in geophysics is to observe borders or margins of tectonic/geologic discontinues. For this purpose, we apply this filter technique to gravity anomaly map of Biga Peninsula. We observe undetected/buried faults in Biga Peninsula using the steerable technique where they have never been seen in the geological maps before. These buried faults comply with recent seismicity for this region. Focal mechanisms of past earthquakes (M ≥ 3.5) are in good agreement with fault orientations. This observation shows that we have to take into account these fault locations and consider for preparing future seismic hazard maps. The geometry of fault segments reveals mostly strike-slip faulting regime with NE-SW trending direction of T-axis in the entire study region. According to high-resolution hypocenter relocation of the Biga earthquake sequences in the observation period between 5 January 2005 and 14 November 2015 extends from N to S direction. The stress tensor inversion results indicate a predominant normal stress regime with a NW-SE oriented maximum horizontal compressive stress (S H). According to strong discrepancy of density in the Biga Peninsula is characterized by numerous small segmented secondary faults. These buried or undetected fault locations indicate that these segments are large enough to increase earthquake stress failure towards NW-SE and N-S directions, respectively. Seismotectonic setting of Biga Peninsula is divided into sub-regions by NE-SW trending secondary faults with normal and major strike-slip components. This output is verified by steerable filter and local/regional seismotectonic analysis. We propose a new seismotectonic model for Biga Peninsula and update the orientation of active fault segments. According to our model, North Anatolian Fault Zone cross-cuts the

  16. Petrological and Geodynamic Evolution of Post-Collisional Eocene-Oligocene Magmatic Rocks In The Biga Peninsula, NW Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erenoglu, Oya; Bozcu, Mustafa

    2014-05-01

    The post-collisional Eocene-Oligocene magmatic activity in the Biga Peninsula (NWAnatolia) started in the Middle Eocene and produced widespread volcano-plutonic complexes. Two main magmatic episodes (Eocene and Oligocene) formed the igneous assemblages in the region. We classified 6 different magmatic units based on their lithostratigraphic and chonorostratigraphic properties, determined by 40Ar/39Ar methods (Eocene-Early Oligocene, 42.08±0.09 to 29.02±0.29 Ma). The Eocene sequence is associated with calc-alkaline composition Laledaǧ granodiorite, Beyçayır (andesite, dacite) volcanics and alkaline Kızıldam volcanics (basaltic trachyandesite, trachybasalt). Subsequent, Oligocene volcanism results in calc-alkaline Dededaǧ volcanics (trachydacite to ryholit), Kırcalar volcanics (basalts, basaltic andesites) and calcalkaline/alkaline Harmancık volcanics (basalt to rhyolite). The calcalkaline magmatic suites are in middle, high-K and alkaline suites high-K, shoshonitic chemical composition. Trace and rare earth elements (REE) diagrams show enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE), light rare earth elements (LREE) relative to the high field strength elements (HFSE) and a significant increase in heavy rare earth element consumption (HREE). The enrichment of incompatible elements suggests derivation from a metasomatized mantle source, whereas the troughs in Nb and Ta indicate a subduction influence in the mantle melt sources. Mantle-derived magmas partially were modified by AFC/FC processes for all volcanic sequences. Geochemical features and compositional variations of Eocene volcanic group indicate decreasing amounts of partial melting, whereas Oligocene volcanic group indicate the effects of increasing crustal contamination and/or assimilation. However, crustal contamination and/or assimilation was not an important process in the evolution of Eocene-Oligocene alkaline group. The Eocene-Oligocene post-collisional volcanism in Biga Peninsula displays

  17. Micro-Raman spectroscopy of gem-quality chrysoprase from the Biga-Çanakkale region of Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Ören, Ufuk; Kibici, Yaşar

    2011-11-01

    The commercial quantities of gem-quality dark green chrysoprase are found as the fracture fillings covered with a weathering crust in the silicified serpentinites throughout the border of a metamorphic zone in the Biga-Çanakkale region of Turkey. However, the green-stained opaque quartz materials are also present in the same deposit, but these materials are common and in low-demand according to chrysoprase in terms of gemmological importance. Thus, it is necessary to distinguish these two similar materials from each other non-destructively. In addition, all chrysoprase roughs in this deposit also have alpha-quartz and moganite inclusions. Accordingly, dispersive (visible) confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (DCμRS) allows us to distinguish clearly the chalcedonic-quartz silica phase (fibrous quartz (chalcedony)) from the crystalline-quartz silica phase (fine-grained alpha-quartz) in the case of both quartz inclusions in the chrysoprase material and itself of the green-stained quartz material in the same deposit. This study characterizes the Biga chrysoprase (Turkey) in terms of silica building phases, chemical content, and individual Raman bands, using several destructive and non-destructive analytical techniques. The Raman spectra show that the most characteristic intensive and the widest Raman bands peaked at about 498 and 460 cm -1 can be inferred to ν2 doubly symmetric bending mode of [SiO 4/M] centers. The "M" includes the some cationic substitutions of Si by Fe, Cr, Mn, As, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, and K and Na as well. The second characteristic Raman band peaked at about 206 cm -1 can be inferred to single translational libration mode. The last readable Raman bands peaked at about 139 and 126 cm -1 can be inferred to doubly translational libration modes as well. In addition, the weaker Raman bands peaked at about 1577, 1430, 1303, 1160, 1082, 549, 394, 352, and 259 cm -1 are also present. As a result, the dispersive confocal micro-Raman spectrum of chrysoprase

  18. Scaling Tendency of Geothermal Waters Armutlu Peninsula, Northwestern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ertekin, Can

    2015-04-01

    Prediction of scaling tendencies from geothermal waters is important for taking necessary precautions to prevent or control the scale formation. This study contains scaling tendency of geothermal outlets occurring through Armutlu Peninsula in Northwestern Turkey. The E-W trending region stretches into the Marmara Sea (ca. 117 km E-W by 45 km N-S) and is bounded to the north and the south by North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ). The two branches of NAFZ traversing the peninsula control not only active seismicity but also geothermal discharges of the region. Widespread basement rocks across the peninsula including metamorphic assemblage of granitic and volcanic rocks host geothermal fluids. The two distinctive geothermal discharges (Armutlu and Yalova) take place through lineaments appurtenant to the northern branch of NAFZ. Their discharge temperatures of 65 ° C (Yalova) and 70 ° C (Armutlu) are the highest of the region. According to their water chemical results, scaling tendency were computed by using WATCH for different temperature steps under the assumptions of single-stage adiabatic boiling and equilibrium degassing. To evaluate their scaling tendencies, mean geothermal reservoir temperatures were computed by using chemical geothermometers. Scaling tendencies were plotted for calcite, amorphous silica and quartz minerals for different temperature values including reservoir temperatures. Their scaling behavior reveals that oversaturation with calcite and quartz minerals are rapidly attained for the geothermal fluids (Yalova and Armutlu) at relatively lower temperatures. Regarding amorphous silica, they are completely undersaturated. Besides, Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) and Ryznar Stability Index (RSI) were calculated. Their results depict scale formation due to being positive LSI and less than 6.0 of RSI values.

  19. Seasonal variation of some heavy metal pollution with environmental and microbiological parameters in sub-basin of Kocabas Stream (Biga, Canakkale, Turkey) by ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Yayintaş, Ozlem Tonguç; Yilmaz, Selahattin; Türkoğlu, Muhammet; Colakoğlu, Fatma Arik; Cakir, Fikret

    2007-11-01

    Waste water pollution in industrial areas is one of the most important environmental problems. Heavy metal pollution, especially chromium species in waste water sources from tannery affects our lives. Kocabas Stream is located in south-west Marmara region and Biga town is positioned in the sub basin on the stream. This water source functions as the water for irrigation in agriculture, drinking water for animals and for human use. Thus, this study is of great importance. Waste water pollution can affect all ecosystems and human health by directly or indirectly as in food chain. The concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn and Cr) were pre-analysed by ICP-AES method in water samples taken from sub-basin of Kocabas stream. In the results of these analyses, concentrations of the metals except chromium were founded at the limit value. But the total concentration of the Cr was found at high levels of between 0.0082 +/- 0.0001 and 5.7231 +/- 0.0921 mg l(-1) over the limit value (0.05 mg l(-1); WHO, EPA, TSE 266 and inland water quality classification) at sampling points very close to tannery factories. Also physicochemical and microbiological parameters of Kocabas Stream were determined. The effects of the experimental results on environment were investigated.

  20. Earthquake Swarm in Armutlu Peninsula, Eastern Marmara Region, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Evrim; Çaka, Deniz; Tunç, Berna; Serkan Irmak, T.; Woith, Heiko; Cesca, Simone; Lühr, Birger-Gottfried; Barış, Şerif

    2015-04-01

    The most active fault system of Turkey is North Anatolian Fault Zone and caused two large earthquakes in 1999. These two earthquakes affected the eastern Marmara region destructively. Unbroken part of the North Anatolian Fault Zone crosses north of Armutlu Peninsula on east-west direction. This branch has been also located quite close to Istanbul known as a megacity with its high population, economic and social aspects. A new cluster of microseismic activity occurred in the direct vicinity southeastern of the Yalova Termal area. Activity started on August 2, 2014 with a series of micro events, and then on August 3, 2014 a local magnitude is 4.1 event occurred, more than 1000 in the followed until August 31, 2014. Thus we call this tentatively a swarm-like activity. Therefore, investigation of the micro-earthquake activity of the Armutlu Peninsula has become important to understand the relationship between the occurrence of micro-earthquakes and the tectonic structure of the region. For these reasons, Armutlu Network (ARNET), installed end of 2005 and equipped with currently 27 active seismic stations operating by Kocaeli University Earth and Space Sciences Research Center (ESSRC) and Helmholtz-Zentrum Potsdam Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), is a very dense network tool able to record even micro-earthquakes in this region. In the 30 days period of August 02 to 31, 2014 Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) announced 120 local earthquakes ranging magnitudes between 0.7 and 4.1, but ARNET provided more than 1000 earthquakes for analyzes at the same time period. In this study, earthquakes of the swarm area and vicinity regions determined by ARNET were investigated. The focal mechanism of the August 03, 2014 22:22:42 (GMT) earthquake with local magnitude (Ml) 4.0 is obtained by the moment tensor solution. According to the solution, it discriminates a normal faulting with dextral component. The obtained focal mechanism solution is

  1. A Study on Empirical Site Response at Bodrum Peninsula, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.

    2016-12-01

    The Bodrum Peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of the southwest coast of Turkey. The region is located at the eastern part of the Volcanic Arc and Hellenic Arc-Trench System at the Aegean Sea. It is also surrounded by several offshore Aegean Graben systems. All of those systems have capability of producing large magnitude (M7+) earthquakes. Such tectonic entities pose a great threat to settlements around the region. Enrichment in ground motion arrays is an indispensable tool to investigate ground motion characteristics as well as behavior of shallow site profiles at such seismically active urban regions. Hence, Boğaziçi University Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) Earthquake Engineering Department deployed a strong motion network at the Peninsula in June 2015. Three out of five stations (B1, B2, B3) are on an Alluvium sediment. The rests are on Limestone (B4) and Volcanic rock (B5). Soil profiles of the sites are not currently available. The network recorded more than 100 earthquakes in the last year. In the present study 15 events with magnitudes (Ml) from 3.4-5.4 occurred within 170 km epicentral distances were selected for calculation. PGA variations among stations were compared. B2 and B3 stations show consistently greater PGA values than others. Fundamental resonant frequencies of the sites were estimated by the H/V technique and relative amplifications were calculated by the Standard Spectral Ratio (SSR) technique. Based on fundamental resonant frequencies, B5 station was selected as the reference station for calculation of SSR spectra.Examining the earthquake data it was found out that (1) Predominant frequencies change between 2.0 - 3.7 Hz for soft soils, where it is 6 Hz for the reference site. The lowest frequency was observed at site B2; (2) Relative amplifications are in the range of 3 to 8. Even though B1, B2 and B3 stations rest on similar geological

  2. Determination of heavy metal pollution with environmental physicochemical parameters in waste water of Kocabas Stream (Biga, Canakkale, Turkey) by ICP-AES.

    PubMed

    Yayintas, Ozlem Tonguc; Yilmaz, Selahattin; Turkoglu, Muhammet; Dilgin, Yusuf

    2007-04-01

    Waste water pollution of industrial areas can answer for the serious consequences of one of the most important environmental threats to the future. In this study, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry method (ICP-AES) is proposed to determine heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Zn, Al, Fe, Ni, Co, Mn) and major elements (Ca, Mg) in waste water of Kocabas Stream. The concentration of metals in the waste water samples taken from 9 different stations (St.) in Biga-Kocabas Stream in November 2004 (autumn period) were determined after simple pretreatment of samples by the proposed ICP-AES method. An analysis of a given sample is completed in about 15 min for ICP-AES the method. The results of heavy metals concentrations in waste water were found between 0.00001-77.69610 mg l(-1) by the ICP-AES technique. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr, Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, Co, Mg and Ca 0.00001 (St.3,6,7) - 0.0087 mg l(-1) (St.9), 0.00001 (St.4-7) - 0.0020 mg l(-1) (St.8), 0.00001 (St.1,3-7,9) - 0.0041 mg l(-1) (St.2), 0.0620 (St.2) - 0.2080 mg l(-1) (St.3), 0.0082 (St.6) - 0.2290 mg l(-1) (St.8), 0.3580 (St.2) - 1.7400 mg l(-1) (St.3), 0.2240 (St.1) - 0.6790 mg l(-1) (St.3), 0.0080 (St.1) - 1.5840 mg l(-1) (St.3), 0.0170 (St.3) - 0.0640 mg l(-1) (St.2), 0.0010 (St.1,4,5,8) - 0.0080 mg l(-1) (St.3), 5.0640 (St.9) - 5.2140 mg l(-1) (St.1) and 43.3600 (St.2) - 77.6961 mg l(-1) (St.9), respectively. Also we measured environmental physicochemical parameters such as temperature, salinity, specific conductivity, total dissolved solid (TDS), pH, oxidation and reduction potential (ORP), and dissolved oxygen (DO) in the waste water at sampling stations.

  3. Spatial Analysis of b-value Variability in Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeken, Tekin

    2016-10-01

    Spatial variations of b values were studied by means of 2376 earthquakes with a magnitude completeness of 2.7 in the Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey) during a 15-year period following the destructive earthquake on August 17, 1999 in Kocaeli. The b value of L6 for the entire Armutlu Peninsula represents a large value for a global value, but this analysis suggested that the distribution of b value around the Armutlu Peninsula varied extensively from 1.2 to 2.6. Several pockets of high bvalue reflected changes in the physical properties of the Armutlu Peninsula. The southern part of the peninsula represents a lower b value against the northern part of the peninsula. A high b value was observed around Termal and Armutlu towns where plenty of geothermal springs occur. Seismic tomography studies revealed a low velocity zone beneath the Termal area where the high b value was imaged in this study. A seismic swarm which is considered to be related with geothermal activity also occurred in 2014 at the same place. This observation suggests that it is possible to propose that the high b value in the northern part of the peninsula could be related to hydrothermal/geothermal activity which contributes to lowering the effective stress.

  4. EVALUATING PESTICIDE USE AND SAFETY PRACTICES AMONG FARMWORKERS IN GALLIPOLI PENINSULA, TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Cevizci, Sibel; Babaoglu, Ulken Tunga; Bakar, Coskun

    2015-01-01

    Unsafe pesticide use among farmworkers is a major public health problem in Turkey. This study aimed to investigate pesticide use and safety practices of farmers in a village of Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey. This cross sectional study was conducted with 117 farmers. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and safety practices concerning pesticides. The mean age of participants was 42.8 years, and 38.5% was female participants. Of the total 177 respondents, 77.8% reported that they prepared the chemical mixture at a public fountain, whereas 22.2% prepared it in their houses. Almost half (44.4%) reported that they experienced at least one health problem after pesticide application in the previous one year. Total scores for pesticide safety practices of the subjects, who declared that they experienced at least one health problem after the application in the previous one year, were statistically significantly lower (p < 0.001). Their responses about safe use of pesticides and storage conditions were very striking. Our findings indicated that there is a need to increase health promotion activities through training, and the local administrations should promote safe use of pesticides by farm workers.

  5. The Triassic of the Kocaeli Peninsula (NW Turkey) with emphasis on Anisian conodonts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat Kilic, Ali

    2016-04-01

    In the present structural concept, the Kocaeli Peninsula, as a part of the Istanbul Zone, was in Triassic times part of an Eurasian fragment on the northern edge of the northernmost Tethys branch. The Triassic sequence, exposed in the Kocaeli Peninsula (NW Turkey), represents well dated transgressive and regressive marine deposits. This "Kocaeli Triassic", being regarded as an important Triassic sequence has attracted the attention of a large number of scientists. The Kocaeli Triassic encompasses six formations: The red coloured Scythian Kapaklı Formation is barren and shows regressive features, resembling the underlying Permian facies; The Erikli Formation is the first marine deposition of Scythian age. The Late Scythian Demirciler Formation consists of micritic and dolomitic limestone. The unit shows bioturbation in the clayey limestone-limestone sequence. Covering a karstic surface, the Anisian Ballıkaya Formation consists of dolomite, dolomitic limestone and limestone, follow by the Tepeköy Formation that shows 4 different lithologies. At base, Anisian grey nodular and red nodular limestones equals the nodular limestones of the Kazmalı Formation laterally; The Late Anisian-Ladinian Ammonitico Rosso facies. The upper part consists of Carnian shale with Halobia and grey-green marls. Restricted to the Çerkeşli region, the Çerkeşli Formation consists of a pebbly limestones, as a lateral equivalent of the Tepeköy Formation. The Anisian platform conodonts include new taxa that are described. We also focus on several new ramiforms, adding to the multi-elemental and taxonomic diversities. The revised Anisian conodont biostratigraphy is presented. Key Words: Triassic, Anisian, Conodont, Kocaeli

  6. Indication of a species in an extinction vortex: The ocellated turkey on the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampichler, Christian; Calmé, Sophie; Weissenberger, Holger; Arriaga-Weiss, Stefan Louis

    2010-11-01

    The ocellated turkey Meleagris ocellata (OT) is a large, unmistakable endemic bird of the Yucatan peninsula. The species has suffered a considerable loss of distributional area as well as local abundance between 1980 and 2000 and is classified as endangered according to Mexican norms. We applied Classification Trees and Random Forests in order to determine the factors that most closely explain the observed patterns of distribution and abundance loss, and to develop hypotheses that may guide measures for the protection of the OT. Among the most important predictors of change were variables corresponding to aspects of forest cover and variables on human population and small settlements. OT abundance in 1980, however, was by far the most important predictor for OT abundance change. This is an indication that the OT dynamics are governed by internal rather than by external factors. Medium and low abundances in 1980 inevitably led to a further decrease during the following years, which gives rise to the conclusion that the OT might find itself in an extinction vortex. We suggest the following hypothetical scenario for OT decline: migrant people from other Mexican states colonise forested regions in Yucatan; they establish small settlements; bushmeat hunting is important for their survival; the naïve OT is easy prey; hunting—together with beginning deforestation—reaches a certain level, and local OT abundance falls below a critical threshold; OT continues declining regardless of current social and environmental changes except where there is total protection of both the species and its habitat.

  7. Infections in travellers returning to Turkey from the Arabian peninsula: a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Erdem, H; Ak, O; Elaldi, N; Demirdal, T; Hargreaves, S; Nemli, S A; Cag, Y; Ulug, M; Naz, H; Gunal, O; Sirmatel, F; Sipahi, O R; Alpat, S N; Ertem-Tuncer, G; Sozen, H; Evlice, O; Meric-Koc, M; Dogru, A; Koksaldi-Motor, V; Tekin, R; Ozdemir, D; Ozturk-Engin, D; Savasci, U; Karagoz, E; Cekli, Y; Inan, A

    2016-06-01

    Mass gatherings pooling people from different parts of the world-the largest of which is to Mecca, Saudi Arabia, for Hajj-may impose risks for acquisition and dissemination of infectious diseases. A substantial number of pilgrims to Hajj and Umrah are Turkish citizens (456,000 in 2014) but data are lacking on scale of the problem. We did a retrospective cross-sectional multicenter study in Turkey to explore the range of infections among inpatients who had recently returned from the Arabian Peninsula. Our inclusion criteria were patients who had acquired an infection during their trip to an Arabian Peninsula country, or who became symptomatic within 1 week of their return. The data were collected retrospectively for January 1, 2013 and March 1, 2015. 185 Turkish patients were recruited to the study across 15 referral centers with travel associated infectious diseases after returning from Arabian Peninsula countries (predominantly Saudi Arabia 163 [88.1 %] for religious purposes 162 [87.5 %]). Seventy four (40.0 %) of them were ≥ 65 years old with numerous comorbidities including diabetes (24.3 %) and COPD (14.1 %). The most common clinical diagnosis was respiratory tract infections (169 [91.5 %]), followed by diarrheal diseases (13 [7 %]), and there was one case of MERS-CoV. Patients spent a median of 5 (3-7) days as hospital inpatients and overall mortality was 1.1 %. Returning travellers from the Arabian Peninsula present as inpatients with a broad range of infectious diseases similar to common community acquired infections frequently seen in daily medical practices in Turkey.

  8. Palaeoecological construction from the Oligo-Miocene coal deposits of Gelibolu Peninsula, NW Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirtaş, Ferdi; Koşun, Erdal; Serkan Akkiraz, Mehmet; Bozcu, Mustafa; Koç, Koray

    2015-04-01

    The palynomorph composition of the Upper Oligocene and Miocene coal deposits from Gelibolu peninsula, NW Turkey, was analyzed to determine the palaeoclimate conditions. The samples were collected from two different abandoned coal mines. Also two different palynological assemblages were reported. The first one belongs to the Late Oligocene (Osmancik Formation). The other one is the Miocene (Gazhanedere Formation). The Late Oligocene palynological assemblage consist mainly of Alnus, Myricaceae, Cyrillaceae-Clethraceae, Calamus and Castanea. Riparian vegetation or wetland forest community incorporate high amounts of Alnus, and low percentages of deciduous Salix, Pterocarya and Carya. Calamus, which is a stratigraphical marker for the Late Oligocene of the Thrace Basin, was also recorded in high quantities. The content of the Miocene palynological assemblage is different from the Late Oligocene assemblage, and is mainly made up of Polypodiaceae, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Myricaceae, Oleaceae, Cyrillaceae-Clethraceae and Sapotaceae. Calamus and Alnus totally disappear here. In contrast, open vegetation elements such Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae occur frequently. The palaeoclimate calculations were made by the help of coexistence approach method. The late Oligocene association contains a total of 18 taxa, 11 of which were used for calculating the coexistence intervals. The values obtained 15.6 to 21.1 ° C for annual temperature, 5.0 to 13.3 ° C for winter temperature, 24.7 to 28.1 ° C for summer temperature and, 1096 to 1355 mm annual rainfall. In the Miocene palynological assemblage 23 taxa were identified. The palaeoclimate calculation is based on the 21 taxa. Quantitative data indicate the values for the mean annual temperature 15.6-21.3 ° C, for the winter temperature 5.0 to 13.3 ° C, 24.7- 27.9 ° C for summer temperature and 823-1520 mm for the annual rainfall. The palaeoclimate was warm and contained dry seasons due to lower boundary of annual precipitation

  9. Palaeotethys-related sediments of the Karaburun Peninsula, western Turkey: constraints on provenance and stratigraphy from detrital zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, Kersten; Meinhold, Guido; Güngör, Talip; Berndt, Jasper

    2017-03-01

    Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of 15 Late Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic siliciclastic sandstones from the Karaburun Peninsula in western Turkey determines maximum sedimentation ages, identifies possible source areas, and anchors the study area within the Palaeotethyan realm. Siliciclastic sandstones yielded ages from Triassic to Archean with major input from Palaeozoic to Neoproterozoic sources and very few Mesoproterozoic zircons. The youngest age groups set the new limit of the maximum depositional ages to Late Carboniferous-Early Permian for the Küçükbahçe and Dikendağı formations. Detrital zircons from Triassic sandstones are mainly Neoproterozoic and Palaeozoic in age. Zircons from the Scythian-Anisian Gerence Formation are predominantly Devonian and Carboniferous in age, while also Permian and Triassic zircon grains occur in the Carnian-Rhaetian Güvercinlik Formation. According to the zircon age populations and the data available from possible source regions, the Karaburun siliciclastic sediments, with the exception of two samples from the Dikendağı Formation, record sediment supply from units located at the southern margin of Eurasia during Late Palaeozoic and Early Mesozoic times. This interpretation is in agreement with palaeotectonic reconstructions for the closely related Greek islands of Chios and Inousses. The presence of Devonian accompanied by Carboniferous zircons in some of the Karaburun samples reveals similarities with Karakaya Complex sandstones of the Sakarya Zone in NW Turkey.

  10. A Late Holocene Slip Rate Of The North Anatolian Fault, Hersek Peninsula, Izmit Bay, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozaci, O.; Altunel, E.; Clahan, K.; Yonlu, O.; Sundermann, S. T.; Lettis, W. R.; Turner, J.; Altekruse, J.; Gumus, I.; Lindvall, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    The Hersek Peninsula has been a strategic site for at least the last two millennia as a result of its location. It extends into Izmit Bay and creates a shortcut for the historical Bagdad Road, an important section of the spice route, between Istanbul (Constantinople) and Iznik (Nicaea). It also controls the entrance of Izmit Bay to Izmit (Nicomedia). Civilizations have been investing in this location by building harbors, fortifications, baths, roads, bridges, aqueducts, and temples. The remnants of these historical structures record evidence for past destruction of both anthropogenic and tectonic origin. From an active tectonics point of view, the Hersek Peninsula is a key locality for understanding seismic hazard in the Marmara Region. It is the last place that the North Anatolian fault can be studied on land before it enters the Marmara Sea and it has experienced strong ground shaking most recently during the M7.4 Izmit earthquake in 1999. Paleoseismic trenching as well as archeoseismologic investigations were recently performed on the Hersek Peninsula for regional and site specific seismic hazard characterization. Our paleoseismic trenches north of the Hersek Lagoon provided fault exposures confirming the location of the North Anatolian fault on the peninsula. Detailed mapping of a 6th century A.D. Byzantine aqueduct offset 14 ± 1 meters along the projection of this fault trace revealed a minimum late Holocene slip rate of 13.6 +1/-3.5 mm yr-1. Rapid fan deposition and subsidence on the delta plain across the Hersek Peninsula has resulted in the relatively recent deposition of several meters of relatively young alluvium and nearshore tidal deposits. Nearly 2 km of trench exposures revealed these deposits were continuous and contain only minor evidence of ground shaking in the form of secondary liquefaction deposits and ground fractures. The lack of primary ground surface rupture evidence in these approximately 300-year-old sediments strongly suggests that the

  11. The contribution of Saharan dust in PM(10) concentration levels in Anatolian Peninsula of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kabatas, B; Unal, A; Pierce, R B; Kindap, T; Pozzoli, L

    2014-08-01

    Sahara-originated dust is the most significant natural source of particulate matter; however, this contribution is still unclear in the Eastern Mediterranean especially in Western Turkey, where significant industrial sources and metropolitan areas are located. The Real-time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS) is utilized to explore the possible effects of Saharan dust on high levels of PM10 measured in Turkey. RAQMS model is compared with 118-air quality stations distributed throughout Turkey (81 cities) for April 2008. MODIS aerosol product (MOD04 for Terra and MYD04 for Aqua) is used to see columnar aerosol loading of the atmosphere at 550 nm (Aerosol optical depth (AOD) values found to be between 0.6 and 0.8 during the episode). High-resolution vertical profiles of clouds and aerosols are provided from CALIOP, on board of CALISPO satellite. The results suggest a significant contribution of Sahara dust to high levels of PM10 in Turkey with RAQMS and in situ time series showing similar patterns. The two data sets are found to be in agreement with a correlation of 0.87.

  12. Influence of the Saros Fault on the Periodicity of Earthquake Activity (Gelibolu Peninsula, NW Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İpek Gültekin, Derya; Karakoç, Okan; Şahin, Murat; Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk

    2017-04-01

    Active faults are vital in terms of settlement and socio-economic aspects of a region. For this reason, it is important to determine the characteristics and impact areas of active faults correctly. The Marmara region is a tectonically active region located in the northwestern Anatolia. The northern part of the North Anatolian Fault, which was named the Saros Fault, passes through the westernmost part of this region. The Saros Fault is a 52 km-long and NE-SW-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault. In this study, the seismicity of the Gelibolu Peninsula has been examined in the light of historical records. When considering the historical records, 545, 986, 1354 and 1756 earthquakes led to damage on the settlements close to the Saros Fault. The dates of historical earthquakes were calculated by integration of previously published empirical formulas, year difference between events and velocity of GPS vectors. The acceleration map (PGA MAPS) of the region has been produced by taking into account these earthquake magnitudes, fault geometry and geology of the region, and consequently, it was seen that these maps overlap quite well with the damage records of historical earthquakes. Considering the periodicity of the Saros Fault, which majorly controls the seismicity in the region, it is aimed to find an answer to the question "how does a recent earthquake affect the region?" by the help of historical earthquake records and PGA modelling. In conclusion, our data showed that PGA values are dominant in the northern side of the Gelibolu Peninsula and this region may be affected by a magnitude 7.3 earthquake.

  13. Block volume estimation from the discontinuity spacing measurements of mesozoic limestone quarries, Karaburun Peninsula, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Elci, Hakan; Turk, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Block volumes are generally estimated by analyzing the discontinuity spacing measurements obtained either from the scan lines placed over the rock exposures or the borehole cores. Discontinuity spacing measurements made at the Mesozoic limestone quarries in Karaburun Peninsula were used to estimate the average block volumes that could be produced from them using the suggested methods in the literature. The Block Quality Designation (BQD) ratio method proposed by the authors has been found to have given in the same order of the rock block volume to the volumetric joint count (J(v)) method. Moreover, dimensions of the 2378 blocks produced between the years of 2009 and 2011 in the working quarries have been recorded. Assuming, that each block surfaces is a discontinuity, the mean block volume (V(b)), the mean volumetric joint count (J(vb)) and the mean block shape factor of the blocks are determined and compared with the estimated mean in situ block volumes (V(in)) and volumetric joint count (J(vi)) values estimated from the in situ discontinuity measurements. The established relations are presented as a chart to be used in practice for estimating the mean volume of blocks that can be obtained from a quarry site by analyzing the rock mass discontinuity spacing measurements.

  14. Block Volume Estimation from the Discontinuity Spacing Measurements of Mesozoic Limestone Quarries, Karaburun Peninsula, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Elci, Hakan; Turk, Necdet

    2014-01-01

    Block volumes are generally estimated by analyzing the discontinuity spacing measurements obtained either from the scan lines placed over the rock exposures or the borehole cores. Discontinuity spacing measurements made at the Mesozoic limestone quarries in Karaburun Peninsula were used to estimate the average block volumes that could be produced from them using the suggested methods in the literature. The Block Quality Designation (BQD) ratio method proposed by the authors has been found to have given in the same order of the rock block volume to the volumetric joint count (Jv) method. Moreover, dimensions of the 2378 blocks produced between the years of 2009 and 2011 in the working quarries have been recorded. Assuming, that each block surfaces is a discontinuity, the mean block volume (Vb), the mean volumetric joint count (Jvb) and the mean block shape factor of the blocks are determined and compared with the estimated mean in situ block volumes (Vin) and volumetric joint count (Jvi) values estimated from the in situ discontinuity measurements. The established relations are presented as a chart to be used in practice for estimating the mean volume of blocks that can be obtained from a quarry site by analyzing the rock mass discontinuity spacing measurements. PMID:24696642

  15. Attenuation Characteristics of the Armutlu Peninsula (NW Turkey) Using Coda Q

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Evrim; Çaka, Deniz; Tunç, Berna; Woith, Heiko; Gottfried Lühr, Birger; Barış, Şerif

    2016-04-01

    Attenuation characteristic of seismic waves was determined using coda Q in the frame of MARsite (MARsite has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No 308417). Data from 82 earthquakes recorded in 2013-2014 in the Armutlu Peninsula and its vicinity by 9 ARNET seismic stations were used for processing. The earthquake magnitudes (Ml) and depths vary from 1.5 to 3.7 and 1.2-16.9 km, respectively. Epicentral distances closer than 90 km were selected to ensure better signal-to-noise ratios. Lapse times between 20 seconds and 40 seconds at intervals of 5 seconds were used for the calculation of the coda wave quality factor. The coda windows were filtered at central frequencies of 1.5, 3, 6, 9 and 12 Hz bandpass filter. To obtain reliable results, only data with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 5 and correlation coefficents higher than 0.7 were used. The SEISAN software and one of its subroutines (CODAQ) were used for data processing and analyses. In the whole study area, Qc=(51±4)f^(0.91±0.04) for 20 seconds, Qc=(77±7)f^(0.80±0.04) for 30 seconds and Qc=(112±13)f^(0.72±0.06) for 40 seconds lapse times are obtained for coda wave quality factor. The observed quality factor is dependent on frequency and lapse time. The results indicate that the upper lithosphere is more heterogeneous and seismically more active than the lower lithosphere as expected in the region which is tectonically complex refering to the effects of the North Anatolian Fault Zone. By considering earthquake clusters and recorded stations, the scattering area was drawn. The intersection of the scattered areas for 20 seconds lapse time is covering all stations. Quality factor in 1 Hz and frequency dependent values were calculated separately and for the intersection of all scattered areas. Calculated Qo and n values of the intersection area are 50 and 0.89, respectively. Hence, the Qo and n values

  16. Turkey.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    Focus in this discussion of Turkey is on the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; and relations between the US and Turkey. In 1986, Turkey's population was estimated to be 51.8 million with an annual growth rate of 2.5%. The infant mortality rate is 12.3/1000 with a life expectancy of 62.7 years. Turkey is located partly in Europe and partly in Asia. Since 1950, urban areas have experienced tremendous growth, and squatter dwellings are evident around the cities' edges. About half of Turkey's population live in urban areas. Turkish culture is made up of both the modern and traditional, Ottoman and folkloric, elements. The Republic of Turkey was founded by Mustafa Kemal, subsequently named Ataturk, in 1982 after the collapse of the 600-year-old Ottoman empire. The new republic focused on modernizing and Westernizing the empire's Turkish core -- Anatolia and a small part of Thrace. The 1982 constitution preserves a democratic, secular, parliamentary form of government with a strengthened presidence. It provides for an independent judiciary along with the safeguarding of internationally recognized human rights. The legislative functions are carried out by the unicameral, 450-member GNA. The economy is developing structurally, yet the agricultural sector remains significant and produces cotton, tobacco, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Over half of the labor force are farmers, contributing over 1/5 of the gross domestic product. A significant portion of industry also is involved in processing agricultural products. The period from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s was the longest sustained period of economic growth and development in modern Turkish history, with annual growth rates of nearly 7%. Oil price increases after 1973 and the concomitant European recession slowed Turkish growth and also revealed major structural deficiencies. The economic crisis worsened in 1979 as oil prices doubled again. The Demirel

  17. Seismotectonics of the Armutlu peninsula (Marmara Sea, NW Turkey) from geological field observation and regional moment tensor inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinscher, J.; Krüger, F.; Woith, H.; Lühr, B. G.; Hintersberger, E.; Irmak, T. S.; Baris, S.

    2013-11-01

    The Armutlu peninsula, located in the eastern Marmara Sea, coincides with the western end of the rupture of the 17 August 1999, İzmit MW 7.6 earthquake which is the penultimate event of an apparently westward migrating series of strong and disastrous earthquakes along the NAFZ during the past century. We present new seismotectonic data of this key region in order to evaluate previous seismotectonic models and their implications for seismic hazard assessment in the eastern Marmara Sea. Long term kinematics were investigated by performing paleo strain reconstruction from geological field investigations by morphotectonic and kinematic analysis of exposed brittle faults. Short term kinematics were investigated by inverting for the moment tensor of 13 small to moderate recent earthquakes using surface wave amplitude spectra. Our results confirm previous models interpreting the eastern Marmara Sea Region as an active transtensional pull-apart environment associated with significant NNE-SSW extension and vertical displacement. At the northern peninsula, long term deformation pattern did not change significantly since Pliocene times contradicting regional tectonic models which postulate a newly formed single dextral strike slip fault in the Marmara Sea Region. This area is interpreted as a horsetail splay fault structure associated with a major normal fault segment that we call the Waterfall Fault. Apart from the Waterfall Fault, the stress strain relation appears complex associated with a complicated internal fault geometry, strain partitioning, and reactivation of pre-existing plane structures. At the southern peninsula, recent deformation indicates active pull-apart tectonics constituted by NE-SW trending dextral strike slip faults. Earthquakes generated by stress release along large rupture zones seem to be less probable at the northern, but more probable at the southern peninsula. Additionally, regional seismicity appears predominantly driven by plate boundary

  18. Investigations Of The Source Of Arsenic In Groundwater Around The Ayvacik District (Canakkale-Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, Ozan; Baba, Alper; Aslı Erdin, Nur

    2014-05-01

    The main goal of this study is to investigate the source of arsenic problem in groundwater in the Ayvacik (Çanakkale) district, of Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey. For this purpose, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical measurements were conducted at the selected locations of water sampling. Our field measurement results suggest that the water samples in the region is generally neutral and alkaline chemistry. Electrical conductivity, temperature and Eh values are of (327) - (1126) μS/cm, (17.4) - (28.2) and (-8) - (-62) mv, respectively. As well as this, we carried out laboratory analysis for the collected water samples to further investigate their chemistry in detail. Major ions in groundwater contain Ca and HCO3. High Ca and Mg values are related to Na and K ion-exchange reactions in water. Arsenic types in groundwater are in the form of arsenic acid (H3AsO3) where high concentrations of arsenic values are found in groundwater. These arsenic values exceed The World Health Organization (WHO) and Turkish Standards Institute (TS266 - Water intended for human consumption) limits (10 ppb). Alterations and fracture zones are common in some parts of the Miocene Volcanics in the study area. The circulation of cold water in the underground is closely related to major fractured zones. We think that the source of high arsenic values in the groundwater is connected with alteration zones in this volcanics according to field data and results of chemical analysis. Keywords: Arsenic, Groundwater, WHO, TS266, Ayvacik-Canakkale

  19. Processing the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and the surrounding area by the cellular neural network: application to the southwestern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogan, D.

    2007-04-01

    An image processing technique called the cellular neural network (CNN) approach is used in this study to locate geological features giving rise to gravity anomalies such as faults or the boundary of two geologic zones. CNN is a stochastic image processing technique based on template optimization using the neighborhood relationships of cells. These cells can be characterized by a functional block diagram that is typical of neural network theory. The functionality of CNN is described in its entirety by a number of small matrices (A, B and I) called the cloning template. CNN can also be considered to be a nonlinear convolution of these matrices. This template describes the strength of the nearest neighbor interconnections in the network. The recurrent perceptron learning algorithm (RPLA) is used in optimization of cloning template. The CNN and standard Canny algorithms were first tested on two sets of synthetic gravity data with the aim of checking the reliability of the proposed approach. The CNN method was compared with classical derivative techniques by applying the cross-correlation method (CC) to the same anomaly map as this latter approach can detect some features that are difficult to identify on the Bouguer anomaly maps. This approach was then applied to the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and its surrounding area, in Turkey. Structural features in the area between Bandirma, Biga, Yenice and Gonen in the southwest Marmara region are investigated by applying the CNN and CC to the Bouguer anomaly map. Faults identified by these algorithms are generally in accordance with previously mapped surface faults. These examples show that the geologic boundaries can be detected from Bouguer anomaly maps using the cloning template approach. A visual evaluation of the outputs of the CNN and CC approaches is carried out, and the results are compared with each other. This approach provides quantitative solutions based on just a few assumptions, which makes the method more

  20. NATO and Turkey.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-23

    Turkey, it is useful to relate to Turkey’s history and give some information about the Anatolian Peninsula. According to remains from the Neolithic period ...NO.- RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) -. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED NATO and Turkey Individual Study Project 6. PERFORMING ORG...the integrity and security of NATO area. Since the establishment of NATO, the world has experienced a cold war period of many crises. However, the

  1. Petrochemical features of Miocene volcanism around the Çubukludağ graben and Karaburun peninsula, western Turkey: Implications for crustal melting related silicic volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karacık, Z.; Genç, Ş. C.; Gülmez, F.

    2013-09-01

    Widespread Neogene volcanism, mainly intermediate and rarely mafic and felsic in composition, was controlled by the extensional tectonic regime in western Turkey. The Karaburun and Cumaovası volcanics are the cases for understanding the magma source(s) and petrological processes, producing the extension-related mafic and felsic volcanism. The Karaburun volcanics (KV) are mainly oriented north to south in the Karaburun peninsula and span a wide spectrum from basalt (20 Ma) to rhyolite (16 Ma), and younger trachyte and trachydacites (13 Ma). The products of the subaerial silicic volcanism (the Cumaovası volcanics, CV; 17 Ma) which are represented by cluster of rhyolite domes, related pyroclastics occur within the NE-SW trending Çubukludağ graben, and intermediate and mafic volcanic rocks are lack in this area. The lavas of the Cumaovası volcanics are high silica rhyolites and rare dacites which are calc alkaline, peralumious and enriched significantly in LILE. Extremely low Sr, Ba values, extremely Eu depletions and very low LaN/YbN ratios are typical for the rhyolites of CV, similar to the topaz rhyolites. The Karaburun volcanics, with the exception of the minor alkaline basaltic and trachytic lavas, are mainly calc alkaline and metaluminous intermediate lavas. 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the KV and dacitic samples of CV are close to each other and range from 0.708 to 0.709; while Sr isotopic ratios of the rhyolites are significantly high and variable (0.724-0.786). 143Nd/144Nd ratios of the CV and KV, except for the alkaline samples, are similar for both sequences vary from 0.51230 to 0.51242. Geological, geochemical, isotopic and radiochronologic data reveal that the KV and CV were formed in extensional tectonic setting, but evolved by different petrological processes in different magma chambers. During the Neogene, underplated mafic magma was injected into the crust and hybridized by mantle and crustal derived materials. Geochemical features and trace element

  2. BI-GAS coal-gasification program. Final report, November 1979-August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1983-01-31

    The primary purpose of this report is to cover in detail activities at the BI-GAS Coal-Gasification Pilot Plant from November 1979 through August 1982. During this period Stearns-Roger Incorporated was the prime contractor for the project. Volume 2 contains topical reports which describe the operation of the gasifier and each of the auxiliary process areas as well as heat and material balance data, computer simulation, gasification of Pittsburgh seam coal and materials evaluation.

  3. Importance of hydrogeochemical processes in the coastal wetlands: A case study from Edremit-Dalyan coastal wetland, Balıkesir-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somay, Melis A.

    2016-11-01

    Investigating the hydrogeochemical properties of wetlands allow us to protect them in a sustainable fashion in global scale. Edremit-Dalyan coastal wetland (EDCW) is located in southern part of Biga Peninsula (Mount Ida) which is the most important eco-tourism center in Turkey. Water sampling was done from the hydrologic basin of coastal wetland that consists of a geothermal site, ore deposits area, treatment facility area and olive tree breeding area. EC values of wetland vary between 440 and 2190 μS/cm and water type shows a shift from CaHCO3 to NaClSO4. Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn concentrations exceed the tolerance limits in wetland area probably due to ore deposits around the Edremit Plain. Concentrations of As are high in wetland area exceeding both aquatic life and drinking water As standards of 10 μg/L by as much as 3 times are observed. The dominant As species is As (III). For the living organisms, this situation can be dangerous. Oxygen-18 and deuterium composition of the samples between -7.18 and -6.13‰, and between -42.6 and -34.4‰, respectively in the study area and all the waters are of meteoric origin. Oxygen-18 enrichment can be observed around Derman and coastal zone due to the geothermal activity and evaporation, respectively.

  4. Using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model in the delineation of gold mineralized zones within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au, Balikesir, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumral, Mustafa; Abdelnasser, Amr; Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoglu, Murat

    2016-04-01

    The Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au mineralization that located at the Biga peninsula (W Turkey) developed around the Eybek pluton concentrated at its southern contact. This mineralization that hosted in the hornfels rocks of Karakaya Complex is associated with three main alteration zones; potassic, phyllic and propylitic alterations along the fault controlled margins of the Eybek pluton and quartz stockwork veining as well as brecciation zones. As well as two mineralized zones were occurred in the mine area; hypogene and oxidation/supergene zone. The hypogene zone has differentiated alteration types; high potassic and low phyllic alteration, while the oxidation/supergene zone has high phyllic and propylitic alterations. This work deals with the delineation of gold mineralized zone within this porphyry deposit using the concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model. Five zones of gold were calculated using its power-law C-V relationship that revealed that the main phase of gold mineralization stated at 5.3083 ppm Au concentration. In addition, the C-V log-log plot shows that the highly and moderately Au mineralization zone developed in western part of deposit correlated with oxidation zone related to propylitic alteration. On the other hand, its weakly mineralization zone has a widespread in the hypogene zone related to potassic alteration. This refers to the enrichment of gold and depletion of copper at the oxidation/supergene zone is due to the oxidation/supergene alteration processes that enrich the deposits by the meteoric water. Keywords: Concentration-volume (C-V) fractal model; gold mineralized zone; Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au; Balikesir; NW Turkey.

  5. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements of the hydrothermal alterations within the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposits at Balikesir, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doner, Zeynep; Abdelnasser, Amr; Kiran Yildirim, Demet; Kumral, Mustafa

    2016-04-01

    This work reports the geochemical characteristics and behavior of the rare earth elements (REE) of the hydrothermal alteration of the Tepeoba porphyry Cu-Mo-Au deposit located in the Anatolian tectonic belt at Biga peninsula (Locally Balikesir province), NW Turkey. The Cu-Mo-Au mineralization at this deposit hosted in the hornfels rocks and related to the silicic to intermediate intrusion of Eybek pluton. It locally formed with brecciated zones and quartz vein stockworks, as well as the brittle fracture zones associated with intense hydrothermal alteration. Three main alteration zones with gradual boundaries formed in the mine area in the hornfels rock that represents the host rock, along that contact the Eybek pluton; potassic, propylitic and phyllic alteration zones. The potassic alteration zone that formed at the center having high amount of Cu-sulfide minerals contains biotite, muscovite, and sericite with less amount of K-feldspar and associated with tourmalinization alteration. The propylitic alteration surrounds the potassic alteration having high amount of Mo and Au and contains chlorite, albite, epidote, calcite and pyrite. The phyllic alteration zone also surrounds the potassic alteration containing quartz, sericite and pyrite minerals. Based on the REE characteristics and content and when we correlate the Alteration index (AI) with the light REEs and heavy REEs of each alteration zone, it concluded that the light REEs decrease and heavy REEs increase during the alteration processes. The relationships between K2O index with Eu/Eu* and Sr/Sr* reveals a positive correlation in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones and a negative correlation in the propylitic alteration zone. This refers to the hydrothermal solution which is responsible for the studied porphyry deposits and associated potassic and phyllic alterations has a positive Eu and Sr anomaly as well as these elements were added to the altered rock from the hydrothermal solution. Keywords: Rare

  6. Peninsula Academies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Marilyn E.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Peninsula Academies program developed by the Sequoia (California) Union High School District and 27 local high technology companies to help educationally disadvantaged students break the pattern of low academic achievement, lack of skills, and chronic unemployment. (FL)

  7. Directional solidification of Cu-Pb and Bi-Ga monotectic alloys under normal gravity and during parabolic flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhindaw, B. K.; Stefanescu, D. M.; Singh, A. K.; Curreri, P. A.

    1988-01-01

    Cu-Pb and Bi-Ga monotectic alloys of nominal hypermonotectic compositions were directionally solidified under various furnace translation rates, temperature gradients, and gravity levels. Gravity was varied by solidifying the alloys under ground conditions and in the furnace aboard NASA KC-135 aircraft, flying on parabolic trajectories. High translation rates, high gradients, high gravity levels, and higher density and lower thermal conductivity of the L2 phase favored the formation of fiber composite structure, while the opposite conditions resulted in structures consisting of L2 droplets in alpha matrix. A modified particle engulfment theory as originally enunciated by Ulhmann et al. (1964) is proposed to explain these observations.

  8. Electrical Resistivity Survey for Delineation of the Seawater Intrusion in the Çanakkale Plain, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirci, Alper; Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Kaya, Mehmet Ali

    2013-04-01

    The city of Çanakkale (Dardanelles) is located on the west side of the Biga Peninsula. The Peninsula is delimited by the Strait of Çanakkale, which is the unique water linkage between the Aegean Sea and the Marmara Sea. The study area is covered by quaternary aged sediments. Sarıçay, which originates from the eastern hilly area, accumulates sediment deposits and forms this alluvial basin. Alluvial terrace including sand, gravel and block sized materials is observed towards northeastern part of this basin. There has been six-fold increase in the population and tremendous growth in industrial and environmental activities in Çanakkale city in the last two decades. Thus, there has been necessity of new settlement areas for planned urbanization and the parameters of liquefaction potential and the extent of seawater intrusion should be taken into consideration. To this end, we have carried out Direct Current (DC) electrical resistivity survey on 52 stations to shed light on the thickness of alluvial layers and traces of the seawater intrusion in the Çanakkale plain. We have used maximum half current electrode spacing (AB/2) of 80 m for each station. The acquired apparent resistivity data were processed by using a damped least square inversion algorithm with singular value decomposition (SVD) technique. After obtaining the model parameters (thickness and resistivity) of each resistivity curve, a MATLAB-based visualization algorithm was used for joint representation of the whole resistivity variation of the studied area. The produced psuedo-three dimensional volumetric resistivity distribution images indicated that the western part of investigation area has relatively resistive structures (> 80 ohm.m), which extend to the depth of 3 m. The sudden decrease in resistivity values to downward clearly indicated seawater saturated sediments (0.5-5 ohm.m). On contrary to these low resistivity values observed at the western part of the city, the central and eastern parts are

  9. Initial assessment of public perception and acceptance of Geothermal Energy applications in Çanakkale, NW Turkey.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedat Çetiner, Ziya; Çekiç, Osman; Ertekin, Can; Bakırcı, Mesut

    2016-04-01

    Growing need of energy in global scale has resulted in increasing number of research and development of renewable energy technologies. Turkey, being very rich in the renewable energy resources, has recently paid special attention to accelerate utilization of these resources to reduce the carbon based energy cost. Among these, Geothermal Energy resources in the country, mainly utilized in district heating and balneological applications, has been shifted toward harvesting electric energy in the shed of recent incentives. While these developments are happening at the policy level, the knowledge and the perception of the public is important to shape the future policies and acceptance of such resources in daily life. In light of these developments, the aim of this study is to identify and analyze the public awareness and acceptance mechanisms for the successful deployment of future and ongoing geothermal investments in Çanakkale region of the Biga Peninsula using geological, social and economic constraints in a well-defined questionnaire. The study employed a mixed method to explore the public perception. Mixed method studies involve qualitative and quantitative techniques and intends to explore an issue in-depth. Thus a sequential explanatory design was used to gather the public's perception. Exploratory design involves a qualitative study followed by a design of a quantitative survey and analysis. The researchers, firs, interviewed 24 college students about their knowledge and perceptions of geothermal resources using a semi-structured interview protocol. The protocol comprised of 8 open ended questions. With the help of the literature and the qualitative survey results, an item database with 51 questions were constructed. The initial survey and the items then were sent to 5 experts. Following the expert review, the survey was given its final form and the item numbers were dropped to 34. Then this survey was applied to a group of 100 college students. The survey also

  10. The Rhodope Zone as a primary sediment source of the southern Thrace basin (NE Greece and NW Turkey): evidence from detrital heavy minerals and implications for central-eastern Mediterranean palaeogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, L.; Critelli, S.; Cavazza, W.; Meinhold, G.; von Eynatten, H.; Manetti, P.

    2015-04-01

    Detrital heavy mineral analysis coupled with a regional geological review provide key elements to re-evaluate the distribution of the Rhodope metamorphic zone (SE Europe) in the region and its role in determining the evolution of the Thrace basin. We focus on the Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary successions exposed in the southern Thrace basin margin to determine the dispersal pathways of eroded crustal elements, of both oceanic and continental origins, as well as their different contributions through time. Lithological aspects and tectonic data coupled with geochemistry and geochronology of metamorphic terranes exposed in the area point to a common origin of tectonic units exposed in NW Turkey (Biga Peninsula) with those of NE Greece and SE Bulgaria (Rhodope region). The entire region displays (1) common extensional signatures, consisting of comparable granitoid intrusion ages, and a NE-SW sense of shear (2) matching zircon age populations between the metapelitic and metamafic rocks of the Circum-Rhodope Belt (NE Greece) and those of the Çamlica-Kemer complex and Çetmi mélange exposed in NW Turkey. Detrital heavy mineral abundances from Eocene-Oligocene sandstones of the southern Thrace basin demonstrate the influence of two main sediment sources mostly of ultramafic/ophiolitic and low- to medium-grade metamorphic lithologies, plus a third, volcanic source limited to the late Eocene-Oligocene. Detrital Cr-spinel chemistry is used to understand the origin of the ultramafic material and to discriminate the numerous ultramafic sources exposed in the region. Compositional and stratigraphic data indicate a major influence of the metapelitic source in the eastern part (Gallipoli Peninsula) during the initial stages of sedimentation with increasing contributions from metamafic sources through time. On the other hand, the western and more external part of the southern Thrace margin (Gökçeada, Samothraki and Limnos) displays compositional signatures according to a mixed

  11. Electronic structure of BiGay(-) semiconductor clusters and the special stability of BiGa2- - A gas phase Zintl analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ujjwal; Ulises Reveles, J.; Melko, Joshua J.; Khanna, Shiv N.; Castleman, A. W., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Here we present evidence that the gap between the highest occupied and lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (HOMO-LUMO gap) can be tuned (1.12-1.89 eV) by changing the Ga composition of Bi 3Ga y anionic and neutral clusters, some of which display special stability. Collaboratively, mass spectrometry, photoelectron spectroscopy and computational results show that BiGa2- is a very stable cluster with a large calculated HOMO-LUMO gap of 1.89 eV, and can be viewed as a gas phase Zintl analogue of Sn52-, already synthesized in the solution phase. The stability of BiGa2- is further attributed to the fact that it has 12 valence electrons and possesses a closo structure in agreement with Wade's rules.

  12. Zircon U-Pb and δ18O isotope geochemical signatures of high-temperature metamorphism in the Kazdagi Massif (Northwestern Anatolia, Turkey).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasözbek, Altug; Sengun, Firat; Deniz Dogan Kulahci, Gullu; Schmitt, Axel K.; Zack, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The high-grade succession of the Kazdaǧı massif is one of the well-known in the northwestern Turkey (Biga Peninsula). The Kazdaǧı massif is characterized by, from bottom to top, oceanic-crustal ultramafic rocks, and unconformably overlain by the thick-platform type associations (marble and migmatite) with amphibolites and metagranitoids. These high-grade metamorphic rocks record amphibolite-granulite facies features as mineral assemblages and zircon-isotope trends. To reveal the zircon minerals response to the high-temperature metamorphism along the massif, zircon crystals from the meta-oceanic basement (metagabbro) and metaplatform associations (metagranitoids), are analyzed for trace element, U-Pb isotope, and δ18O. Zircon minerals from the metagabbros are slightly smaller (60-90 μm) displaying very complex internal structures such as secondary events due to diffusion reaction processes as a result of high-grade metamorphism. Both U-Pb SIMS and ICP-MS LA analyses from the metagrabbros are roughly in agreement with core (ca. 78-71 Ma) and rim (65-68 Ma) ages. Zircon δ18O VSMOW results from the metagabbros are mostly diverse 2.65-4.87‰ in different samples, however the consistency of the δ18O values in each sample cores' and rims' likely indicate metamorphic fluids took place as internal origin, therefore zircons only record the high-grade metamorphic fluids. Moreover, zircons from the metagranitoids of the meta-platform yield ca. 60-69 Ma core ages and display similar metamorphism related secondary affects in the CL images. Zircon δ18O values from the metagranitoids are identical from 7.07-9.88‰. These expected close radiometric ages and metamorphic features between metagabbros and metagranitoids due to their similar metamorphic link is also in agreement in terms of the geological frame of the massif. Overall, the geological and analytical results indicate that zircons from the metamagmatic associations of the Kazdaǧı Massif only equilibrated during

  13. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile thermometry in meta-ophiolitic rocks from the Kazdağ Massif, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Fırat; Zack, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    In northwest Turkey, ophiolitic meta-gabbros are exposed on the Kazdağ Massif located in the southern part of the Biga Peninsula. Trace element composition of rutile and Zr-in-rutile temperatures were determined for meta-gabbros from the Kazdağ Massif. The Zr content of all rutiles range from 176 to 428 ppm and rutile grains usually have a homogeneous Zr distribution. The rutile grains from studied samples in the Kazdağ Massif are dominated by subchondritic Nb/Ta (11-19) and Zr/Hf ratios (20-33). Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf show positive correlation, which is probably produced by silicate fractionation. The Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf ratios increase with a decrease in Ta and Hf contents. The core of rutile grains are generally characterized by low Nb/Ta ratios of 17-18 whereas the rims exhibit relatively high Nb/Ta ratios of 19-23. Trace element analyses in rutile suggest that these rutile grains were grown from metamorphic fluids. The P-T conditions of meta-gabbros were estimated by both Fe-Mg exchange and Zr-in-rutile thermometers, as well as by the Grt-Hb-Plg-Q geothermobarometer. The temperature range of 639 to 662 °C calculated at 9 kbar using the Zr-in-rutile thermometer is comparable with temperature estimates of the Fe-Mg exchange thermometer, which records amphibolite-facies metamorphism of intermediate P-T conditions. The P-T conditions of meta-ophiolitic rocks suggest that they occur as a different separate higher-pressure tectonic slice in the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence. Amphibolite-facies metamorphism resulted from northward subduction of the İzmir-Ankara branch of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean under the Sakarya Zone. Metamorphism was followed by internal imbrication of the Kazdağ metamorphic sequence resulting from southerly directed compression during the collision.

  14. Wild turkey

    Treesearch

    William F. Moore; John C. Kilgo; William D. Carlisle; Michael B. Caudell

    2005-01-01

    Wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were once abundant throughout the southeast, but unregulated hunting and habitat destruction greatly reduced populations to a few thousand birds by 1930 (Hust and Dickson 1992). Though intensive restocking efforts beginning in the 1950s, protection from hunting, and reforestation, southeastern turkey populations...

  15. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-06

    This anaglyph of Mexico Yucatan Peninsula was generated from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  16. Bodrum Strong Motion Network, Mugla, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcik, H. A.; Tanircan, G.; Korkmaz, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf of Gökova is located in southwestern Turkey near the Aegean Sea and surrounded by Datça Peninsula to the south, the island of Kos to the west and Bodrum Peninsula to the north. The Bodrum peninsula with a population of one million in summer season is one of the most populated touristic centers of Turkey. This region is also surrounded by numerous active seismic entities such as Ula-Ören Fault Zone, Gökova Graben etc.. and demonstrates high seismic hazard. In the past, many destructive earthquakes have occurred in southwestern Turkey. One of the destructive historical earthquakes is 1493 Kos event (Mw=6.9) caused heavy damage in Bodrum. In the instrumental period seismic activity in the Gökova region includes the Ms>6.0 earthquakes of 23 April 1933 (Ms=6.4), 23 May 1941 (Ms=6.0), 13 December 1941 (Ms=6.5) events. Intense earthquake activity (Mw5+) occurred in Gulf of Gökova in August 2004 and January 2005. Considering the high seismicity and population of this region, a strong ground motion monitoring system stationed in dense settlements in the Bodrum Peninsula: Bodrum, Turgutreis, Yalıkavak, Çiftlik and Ortakent was deployed on June 2015. The network consists of 5 strong motion recorders, has been set up with the aim of monitoring of regional earthquakes, collecting accurate and reliable data for engineering and scientific research purposes, in particular to provide input for future earthquake rapid reporting and early warning implementation projects on urban environments in the Bodrum peninsula and the surrounding areas. In this poster presentation, we briefly introduce the Bodrum Network and discuss our future plans for further developments.

  17. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  18. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Temperate and green in the summer, the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia freezes over completely in the winter. This true-color image of the Kamchatka Peninsula was acquired on December 12, 2001, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The peninsula is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and by the Bering Sea to the east. The ice and snow highlight the stunning valleys and tall peaks of the Sredinnyy Khrebet, which is the volcanic mountain range running down the center of the peninsula. The mountains along the range reach heights of over 3500 meters (11,484 feet). Many of the volcanoes are still active, and ash and volcanic rock has turned the snow a dark gray on the eastern side of the range. The light blue latticework of ridges, valleys, and alluvial fans extending from the center of the range were likely carved out by past and present glaciers and by run-off from spring snowmelt. The small island that extends off of the tip of the peninsula is Ostrov Paramushir (Paramushir Island). Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Peninsula Academies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sequoia Union High School District, Redwood City, CA.

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: The Peninsula Academies program helps educationally disadvantaged youth overcome the handicaps of low academic achievement, lack of skills, and chronic unemployment. This is accomplished by providing a high school curriculum that is clearly related to work, training in specific job skills, emphasis…

  20. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  1. The Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Steven W.; Miller, M.L.; Dumoulin, Julie A.; Nelson, Steven W.; Hamilton, Thomas D.

    1989-01-01

    The Resurrection Peninsula forms the east side of Resurrection Bay (fig. 3). Relief ranges from 437 m (1,434 ft) at the southern end of the peninsula to more than 1,463 m (4,800 ft) opposite the head of the bay. All rock units composing the informally named Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite of Nelson and others (1987) are visible or accessible by boat."Ophiolite" has been a geologic term since 1827 (Coleman, 1977). The term "ophiolite" initially referred to the rock serpentinite; the Greek root "ophi" (meaning snake or serpent) alluded to the greenish, mottled, and shiny appearance of serpentinites. In 1927, Steinmann described a rock association in the Alps, sometimes known as the "Steinmann Trinity', consisting of serpentine, diabase and spilitic lavas, and chert. Recognition of this suite led to the idea that ophiolites represent submarine magmatism that took place early in the development of a eugeosyncline. In the early 1970s the Steinmann Trinity was reconsidered in light of the plate tectonic theory, new petrologic studies, and the recognition of abducted oceanic lithosphere in orogenic belts of the world. In 1972 at a Geological Society of America Penrose Conference (Anonymous, 1972) the term "ophiolite" was defined as a distinctive assemblage of mafic to ultramafic rocks, with no emphasis on their origin. A complete ophiolite should contain, from bottom to top:1) Tectonized ultramafic rocks (more or less serpentinized)2) Gabbro complex containing cumulus textures and commonly cumulus peridotites3) Mafic sheeted-dike complex, grading upward into;4) Submarine pillow lavas of basaltic composition. Common associated rock types include plagiogranite (Na-rich) and an overlying sedimentary section typically dominated by chert.

  2. Merida, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This rare cloud free view of the city of Merida (21.0N, 90.0W) on the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico was taken as an experiment with color infrared film to determine the best applications of this unique film. Color film presents an image as it appears to the eye but color infrared film eliminates haze and better defines vegetation and its vitality by the shade of red or pink. Note that much of the native forests have been cut down for farm lands.

  3. Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Gulf of Aqaba separates the Sinai peninsula from Saudi Arabia in this scene of the Middle East (29.0N, 34.5E) showing the geomorphology and geology of this region including portions of Egypt, Israel, Jordon and Saudi Arabia. A small portion of the Gulf of Suez can be seen on the opposite side of the Sinai peninsula.

  4. Aniakchak Crater, Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Walter R.

    1925-01-01

    The discovery of a gigantic crater northwest of Aniakchak Bay (see fig. 11) closes what had been thought to be a wide gap in the extensive series of volcanoes occurring at irregular intervals for nearly 600 miles along the axial line of the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands. In this belt there are more active and recently active volcanoes than in all the rest of North America. Exclusive of those on the west side of Cook Inlet, which, however, belong to the same group, this belt contains at least 42 active or well-preserved volcanoes and about half as many mountains suspected or reported to be volcanoes. The locations of some of these mountains and the hot springs on the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands are shown on a map prepared by G. A. Waring. Attention has been called to these volcanoes for nearly two centuries, but a record of their activity since the discovery of Alaska is far from being complete, and an adequate description of them as a group has never been written. Owing to their recent activity or unusual scenic beauty, some of the best known of the group are Mounts Katmai, Bogoslof, and Shishaldin, but there are many other beautiful and interesting cones and craters.

  5. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-21

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02665

  6. Sinai peninsula taken by the STS-109 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-02

    STS109-708-024 (1-12 March 2002) --- The astronauts on board the Space Shuttle Columbia took this 70mm picture featuring the Sinai Peninsula and the Dead Sea Rift. The left side of the view is dominated by the great triangle of the Sinai peninsula, which is partly obscured by an unusual cloud mass on this day. The famous Monastery of St. Catherine lies in the very remote, rugged mountains in the southern third of the peninsula (foreground). The Gulf of Aqaba is a finger of the Red Sea bottom center, pointing north to the Dead Sea, the small body of water near the center of the view. According to NASA scientists studying the STS-109 photo collection, the gulf and the Dead Sea are northerly extensions of the same geological rift that resulted in the opening of the Red Sea . The Gulf of Suez appears in the lower left corner. Northwest Saudi Arabia occupies the lower right side of the view, Jordan and Syria the right and top right, and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea the top left. Thin white lines of cloud have formed along the coastal mountains of southern Turkey and stretch across the top of the view near the Earth's limb.

  7. Metamorphic and age constraints on the Alakeçi shear zone: Implications for the extensional exhumation history of the northern Kazdağ Massif, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonev, Nikolay; Beccaletto, Laurent; Robyr, Martin; Monié, Patrick

    2009-12-01

    The Kazdağ Massif exposes an extensional metamorphic dome in the Biga Peninsula of northwest Turkey, bounded on both flanks by detachments and/or shear zones. The northern flank is marked by the extensional Alakeçi shear zone (ASZ), with poorly known P-T-t path. We therefore focus on metamorphic conditions and temporal history of the ASZ to determine its tectono-metamorphic evolution. ASZ mylonites were derived from both the footwall Kazdağ Massif core metamorphic rocks and the hanging wall Çetmi mélange lithologies. The mylonitic fabrics in the ASZ depict a top-to-the NNE shearing, parallel to the NNE-plunging stretching lineation and NNW-dipping mylonitic foliation. This geometry implies normal sense movement i.e. north-side down-dip extensional displacement along this flank of the Kazdağ Massif. The northward transition from ductile to brittle-ductile shear regime through the ASZ shows that the non-coaxial deformation occurred at decreasing temperatures and degree of metamorphism. The paragenesis in equilibrium of the mylonitic gneisses and schists contains quartz + feldspar + muscovite + biotite + garnet ±staurolite, with late retrogressive chlorite after biotite and garnet. Calculated thermo-barometric conditions for ASZ rocks yielded pressures between 6.9 and 5.7 kbar and temperatures between 706 and 587 °C, which constrain the peak metamorphism. The mylonitic rocks supplied isochron 39Ar/ 40Ar mica ages between 26.97 and 24.19 Ma, which we interpret to date the cooling of the mylonites following the P-T decrease across the ASZ. The metamorphic data support the structural record and strengthen the extensional character of the ASZ. The transition from sillimanite-bearing footwall Kazdağ Massif core gneisses in the deeper structural levels to chlorite schists towards the shallow structural levels at the top of the ASZ, is consistent with an extensional exhumation of the metamorphic pile. These data allow us to determine the peak P-T conditions and the

  8. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U

  9. Istanbul, Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This June 16, 2000 image of Istanbul, Turkey show a full 60 by 60 km ASTER scene in the visible and infrared channels. Vegetation appears red, and urban areas blue-green. Bustling Istanbul, with its magnificent historical heritage, has spanned the divide between Europe and Asia for more than 2,500 years. Originally called Byzantium, the city was founded in the 7th century BC on the Golden Horn, an arm of the narrow Bosporus (also spelled Bosphorus) Strait, which connects the Sea of Marmara to the south, with the Black Sea to the north. Constantine I made it his capital of the Eastern Roman Empire in AD 330. As Constantinople, the strategically located city arose as the preeminent cultural, religious, and political center of the Western world. It reached the height of its wealth and glory in the early 5th century. After centuries of decline, the city entered another period of tremendous growth and prosperity when, as Istanbul, it became the capital of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1457. Although Turkey moved its capital to Ankara in 1923, Istanbul remains the nation's largest city with a population of over 8 million, its commercial center, and a major port. Two bridges spanning the Bosporus, and ships in the busy channel can be seen on the enlargement. On the image, the water areas have been replaced with a thermal image: colder waters are displayed in dark blue, warmer areas in light blue. Note the dark lines showing boat wakes, and the cold water entering the Sea of Marmara from deeper waters of the Bosporus.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U

  10. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula was generated entirely from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the demise of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth. The crater's rim is marked by a shallow semicircular depression arcing about an offshore center point in the upper left of the picture. (The arcing depression is just above the blue line, when viewed with the naked eye.) This depression, or trough, only about 3 to 5 meters (10 - 15 feet) deep and about 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide, was likely caused by collapse of limestone caverns preferentially above the crater rim, resulting in an arcing chain of sinkholes. The limestone that covers most of the Yucatan Peninsula post-dates the impact crater. However, the crater pattern apparently controls the subsidence pattern just enough to show through.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The total relief (range of elevations) across this entire image is less than 300 meters (1000 feet).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  11. Anaglyph, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula was generated entirely from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data, and shows a subtle but distinctive indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary extinction, the event 65 million years ago that marked the demise of the dinosaurs as well as the majority of life then on Earth. The crater's rim is marked by a shallow semicircular depression arcing about an offshore center point in the upper left of the picture. (The arcing depression is just above the blue line, when viewed with the naked eye.) This depression, or trough, only about 3 to 5 meters (10 - 15 feet) deep and about 5 kilometers (3 miles) wide, was likely caused by collapse of limestone caverns preferentially above the crater rim, resulting in an arcing chain of sinkholes. The limestone that covers most of the Yucatan Peninsula post-dates the impact crater. However, the crater pattern apparently controls the subsidence pattern just enough to show through.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. Illumination is from the north (top). When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The total relief (range of elevations) across this entire image is less than 300 meters (1000 feet).

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM

  12. Heavy metal deposition in moss samples from east and south Marmara region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Mahmut; Cayir, Akin; Coskun, Munevver; Kilic, Onder

    2011-03-01

    A survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in the east and south Marmara region, Turkey was carried out in September 2004. For this purpose, moss samples (Hypnum cupressiforme) were collected in a systematic network of 125 sites. Concentrations of the elements (Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Fe, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, Mg, Ti, and Zn) in the moss were used as an indication of the level of air pollution in the region. Significant differences in heavy metal concentrations, especially for Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn, were recorded in the moss samples collected around industrialized and heavily populated cities (Istanbul, Bursa, Bandırma, Kocaeli, Biga-Çan) and in an abandoned lead-mining area (Balıkesir-Balya). A map of the spatial distribution of each element in the region was plotted, and enrichment factors were calculated. VARIMAX principal component analysis was applied to the data obtained, and five different components were obtained. The results showed that Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn derived from anthropogenic and industrial sources while other elements came mostly from natural sources.

  13. Antarctic Peninsula and Weddell Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous icebergs are breaking out of the sea ice in the Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic Peninsula. This true-color MODIS image from November 13, 2001, shows several icebergs drifting out of the Weddell Sea. The Antarctic Peninsula (left) reaches out into the Drake Passage, which separates the southern tip of South America from Antarctica. Warmer temperatures have cleared a tiny patch of bare ground at the Peninsula's tip. The predominant ocean current in the area is the Antarctic Circumpolar Current ('circum' meaning 'around'), which is also the 'West Wind Drift.' The current is the largest permanent current in the world, and water is moved eastward by westerly winds. Icebergs leaving the Weddell Sea are likely to be moved north and east by the current. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  14. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-07-05

    This anaglyph, from NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, shows the Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  15. Turkey Country Analysis Brief

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Turkey is well placed to serve as a hub for oil and natural gas supply headed to Europe and other Atlantic markets from Russia, the Caspian region, and the Middle East. Turkey has been a major transit point for oil and is becoming more important as a transit point for natural gas. Growing volumes of Caspian oil are being sent to Black Sea ports such as Novorossisyk, Russia and Supsa, Georgia and then to Western markets by tanker via the Turkish Straits (Bosporus and Dardanelles waterways). Caspian oil and oil from northern Iraq also cross Turkey by pipeline, through the Ceyhan oil terminal on Turkey's Mediterranean coast.

  16. Panoramic Sinai Peninsula, Red Sea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-10-13

    An excellent panoramic view of the entire Sinai Peninsula (29.0N, 34.0E) and the nearby Nile River Delta and eastern Mediterranean coastal region. The Suez Canal, at the top of the scene just to the right of the Delta, connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez on the west side of the Sinai Peninsula and the Gulf of Aqaba is on the west where they both flow into the Red Sea. At upper right, is the Dead Sea, Jordan River and Lake Tiberius.

  17. [The b chromosome polymorphism in Armenian and Turkey populations of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans plorans (Charpentier) (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Eyprepocnemidinae)].

    PubMed

    Dziubenko, V V; Karagian, G I; Chiplak, B; Rubtsov, N B; Bugrov, A G

    2006-01-01

    Karyotype analysis of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans samples derived from Armenian and Turkey populations was performed using C-banding technique. Chromosome polymorphism was associated only with B chromosomes that were revealed in all studied populations. Six new B chromosome morphotypes were described. Four morphotypes were found only in Armenian populations. One morphotype was revealed only in Turkey populations. One B chromosome morphotype was present in Armenian and Turkey populations. B chromosomes derived from Asian populations consisted mostly from C-positive regions. In some of the B chromosomes small C-negative regions were also registered. Morphotypes of the B chromosomes derived from Armenian and Turkey populations drastically differed from the B chromosomes described in the Iberian Peninsula and North African populations. In contrast to the B chromosomes from Armenian and Turkey populations the B chromosomes from Spain populations contained C-positive and C-negative regions alternated in their arms.

  18. Turkey: Thwarted Ambition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    policy makers were dramatic, challenging, and worrying. At a stroke, the strategic center of gravity moved from Germany to Turkey, but the extinction of...with Arab neighbors, and the Sevres- phobia of an assault on Turkey’s territorial integrity were all accusations thrown at the government as these

  19. Adult Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  20. Distance Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruzgar, Nursel Selver

    2004-01-01

    Many countries of the world are using distance education with various ways, by INTERNET, by post and by TV. In this work, development of distance education in Turkey has been presented from the beginning. After discussing types and applications for different levels of distance education in Turkey, the distance education was given in the cultural…

  1. Modern Turkey Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    Traces the history of Turkey from the Cold War to the present and focuses on Turkey's adoption of a capitalist democratic pro-Western state. Delineates the tensions between pro-Western factions and more traditionally minded Turks. Examines Turkish relations with other Islamic countries, the Arab world, and the Third World. (RW)

  2. Educational Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    As a country seeking admission to the European Union, this paper explores educational reforms in Turkey that enhance its possible entry into the European Union and changes still needed for it to be an equal partner. An overview of the school system in Turkey is provided including information on teacher training and preparation, special education…

  3. Petroleum geology of Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M.

    1982-05-01

    Petroleum activities in the Arabian Peninsula show new trends in the 1980s. Petroleum exploration is intensified and huge discoveries are anticipated. A giant Jurassic gas field along the coast of the Arabian Gulf discovered recently tops 150 tcf, the largest single reserve ever. Other giant oil fields in the area are undergoing expansion in development and productivity. Today, the Peninsula, with a total area that surpasses one million square miles, produces and exports more oil and gas and has greater reserves than any other area in the world. The excellent reservoir rocks are located in the Jurassic and Cretaceous formations between the Arabian Shield and the Tethyan Seaway. They represent porous and permeable marine cyclical beds sealed by impervious shales and anhydrites. Reservoir sedimentology was affected by 2 orogenies during late Cretaceous and Pliocene time portrayed by the Cratonic area to the southwest and the orthogeosynclinal area to the northeast. The eastern part was little deformed by these movements.

  4. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  5. Fires in Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Numerous thermal anomalies were detected on the Kamchatka Peninsula in northeastern Russia in late June and early July by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Some of the anomalies (red dots) were fires, but at least one was the result of ongoing volcanic activity at one of the Peninsula's numerous active volcanoes. The erupting volcano, called Sheveluch, can be seen most clearly in the image from July 8, 2002. It is located in the upper right quadrant of the image, and appears as a grayish circular patch amid the surrounding green vegetation. In its center is a red dot indicating that MODIS detected a thermal signature coming from the restless volcano. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  6. Sunglint and Florida Peninsula, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Gulf coast and the Florida peninsula (30.0N, 81.5W) seen in sunglint. The lakes of central Florida are highlighted in reflected light in this scene. The view extends up along the Georgia and South Carolina Coast and clouds cast shadows in the sunglint. The sunglint off the east coast also highlights shears in the Atlantic related to the Gulf Stream. To the south, Andros Island and the Grand Bahama Bank are visible.

  7. Informatics in Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  8. Energy Security and Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, www.asam.org.tr/temp/temp111.doc...Necdet Pamir. “Energy in Security and the Most Recent Lesson: The Russia - Ukraine Gas Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara...Crisis,” Center for Eurasian Strategis Studies ( ASAM ), Ankara, Turkey, April 21, 2008, www.asam.org.tr/temp/temp111.doc (accessed May 21, 2008). 53

  9. Pediatric oncology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kebudi, Rejin

    2012-03-01

    The survival of children with cancer has increased dramatically in the last decades, as a result of advances in diagnosis, treatment and supportive care. Each year in Turkey, 2500-3000 new childhood cancer cases are expected. According to the Turkish Pediatric Oncology Group and Turkish Pediatric Hematology Societies Registry, about 2000 new pediatric cancer cases are reported each year. The population in Turkey is relatively young. One fourth of the population is younger than 15 years of age. According to childhood mortality, cancer is the fourth cause of death (7.2%) after infections, cardiac deaths and accidents. The major cancers in children in Turkey are leukemia (31%), lymphoma (19%), central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms (13%), neuroblastomas (7%), bone tumors (6.1%), soft tissue sarcomas (6%), followed by renal tumors, germ cell tumors, retinoblastoma, carcinomas-epithelial neoplasms, hepatic tumors and others. Lymphomas rank second in frequency as in many developing countries in contrast to West Europe or USA, where CNS neoplasms rank second in frequency. The seven-year survival rate in children with malignancies in Turkey is 65.8%. The history of modern Pediatric Oncology in Turkey dates back to the 1970's. Pediatric Oncology has been accepted as a subspecialty in Turkey since 1983. Pediatric Oncologists are all well trained and dedicated. All costs for the diagnosis and treatment of children with cancer is covered by the government. Education and infrastructure for palliative care needs improvement.

  10. Cryptosporidiosis and turkey viral hepatitis in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Wages, D P; Ficken, M D

    1989-01-01

    Cryptosporidiosis and turkey viral hepatitis were diagnosed in 25-day-old turkeys with increased mortality, enteritis, and stunting. Necropsy lesions included foul-smelling, tan-colored, loose feces in the terminal small intestines and ceca. The small intestines and ceca were congested. Multiple white to gray foci were present in the liver and pancreas. Mortality attributed to these conditions was estimated at 4.9%. Microscopic lesions included necrosis with accumulations of macrophages in the liver and pancreas. Bile-duct hyperplasia was present in the livers. Microscopic intestinal lesions consisted of mild to moderate atrophy of the villi of the distal small intestine (ileo-cecal junction) with infiltration of the lamina propria by mononuclear cells. Cryptosporidia were identified and appeared to be attached to villous epithelial cells of the terminal small intestines. Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts were also confirmed by fluorescent microscopic examination of feces stained auramine O. Reovirus was isolated on chicken embryo liver cells from affected livers.

  11. Zoonoses in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Wernery, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    The human population is rising and will soon reach 9 billion people. In parallel, the demand for animal protein is increasing and with it is the threat of zoonotic diseases. We must therefore be on our guard. The close association of people with animals promotes the opportunity for zoonotic infections and real danger may arise when animals are imported with no health background. Therefore, it is essential to implement strict import controls, and establish efficient quarantine facilities. Many viral, bacterial, and zoonotic diseases have been diagnosed on the Arabian Peninsula, either by isolating the pathogens or through serological surveys. Most of them are briefly discussed in this paper. PMID:25491209

  12. The fate of turkey #88

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Rumble; Todd Mills

    1993-01-01

    On January 9, 1990, 32 turkeys were captured in the Black Hills of South Dakota using the drug alpha-chloralose. One of these turkeys had a unique tag attached to it's wing that indicated it had been trapped previously Let's look back in time and see what made the events in the life of this turkey deviate slightly from "The Events in the Turkey Year...

  13. The Future of Secular Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    AND SUBTITLE The Future of Secular Turkey 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...government in Turkey between the Islamist Refah Party and secular True Path Party has focused Western concern on the future of secular Turkey. The

  14. Transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Haberal, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    The cornerstone events of transplantation history in Turkey are summarized herein. In 1975, we performed the first living-related renal transplant in Turkey. We followed this in 1978 with the first deceased donor kidney transplantation, using an organ supplied by Eurotransplant. In 1979, the law on harvesting, storage, grafting, and transplantation of organs and tissues was enacted; later that year, the first local deceased donor kidney transplantation was performed by our team. In 1988, another groundbreaking event in Turkey was successfully achieved: the first cadaveric liver transplantation. In 1990, the first pediatric living-related segmental liver transplantation in Turkey, the region, and Europe was performed by our team. One month later, an adult-to-adult living-related liver transplantation was successfully performed. In May 1992, we performed the first combined liver-kidney transplantation from a living-related donor, which was the first operation of its kind. To date, we have performed 2,084 kidney and, since 1988, 439 liver transplantations. During 29 years of solid organ transplantation history in Turkey, 20,794 kidney transplants have been performed nationwide in 62 different centers, as well as 6,565 liver, 621 heart, and 168 pancreas transplants. In 2001, the Ministry of Health established the National Coordination Center as an umbrella organization to promote transplantation activities, especially for deceased donor organ procurement. Transplantation activities are accelerating daily throughout the country, but deceased donors are still far below the desired rates.

  15. Klyuchevskaya, Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, CIS

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-05-06

    STS039-77-010 (28 April 1991) --- The Kamchatka Peninsula, USSR. This oblique view of the eastern margin of the Kamchatka Peninsula shows pack-ice along the coast, which is drifting along with local currents and delineates the circulation patterns. Also visible are the Kamchatka River (left of center), and the volcanic complex with the active volcano Klyuchevskaya (Kloo-chevs'-ska-ya), 15,584 feet in elevation. The last reported eruption of the volcano was on April 8, but an ash and steam plume extending to the south can be seen in this photograph, taken almost three weeks later (April 28). On April 29, the crew observed and photographed the volcano again, and it was no longer visibly active. However, the flanks of the mountain are dirty from the ash fall. Just north of the Kamchatka River (to the left, just off frame) is Shiveluch, a volcano which was active in early April. There are more than 100 volcanic edifices recognized on Kamchatka, with 15 classified as active.

  16. Tick survey and detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in tick species from a non-endemic area, South Marmara region, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yesilbag, Kadir; Aydin, Levent; Dincer, Ender; Alpay, Gizem; Girisgin, A Onur; Tuncer, Pelin; Ozkul, Aykut

    2013-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an increasing health concern in Turkey since 2002. There were also some recent human cases from the South Marmara region of Turkey; thus, a tick survey was performed, and possible vector tick species for the CCHF virus were determined in the region. A total of 740 adult ticks were collected from infested livestock from five locations: Çanakkale-Biga, Bursa-Orhaneli, Bursa-Keles, Balıkesir and Bilecik. Total of 11 tick species from the genera Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Dermacentor, Ixodes and Haemaphysalis were identified. Rhipicephalus ticks were dominant in the region; the most frequently observed tick species was R. turanicus, (53.1 %), and only 15.4 % of the identified ticks were H. marginatum. The occurrence of H. rufipes infestation in the region fort he first time. A total of 73 pools of adult ticks were tested with both an antigen-detecting ELISA and RT real-time PCR (RT rt PCR). The presence of the CCHF virus was demonstrated in 9 (12.3 %) of the tested tick pools. Although seven of the tick pools were positive for the CCHF virus with both of the methods, one pool was positive only with RT rt PCR and the other pool was only positive with the ELISA. Positive results were obtained from ticks collected from cattle, sheep and goats from two locations, Bursa-Orhaneli and Bilecik. The CCHF virus was detected in R. turanicus (n = 3), R. bursa (n = 2), H. marginatum (n = 2) and D. marginatus (n = 2) ticks. The results of this study confirm the presence of the CCHF virus and present preliminary data on the vector tick species in the southern Marmara region of Turkey.

  17. [Epidemiological evaluation of a rapidly-prevented tularemia outbreak in Canakkale province, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Tatman Otkun, Müşerref; Akçalı, Alper; Karadenizli, Aynur; Ozbey, Nilgün; Gazel, Deniz; Sener, Alper; Güçlü, Oğuz; Tanrıöver, Arzu; Otkun, Metin

    2011-01-01

    Tularemia is a disease caused by Francisella tularensis and widely seen at northern hemisphere of the world. In Turkey, oropharyngeal infections caused by a less virulent serotype F.tularensis subsp. Holarctica are more prevalent. The aim of this study was to present the results of an epidemiological research performed after the detection of tularemia cases from Biga county of Canakkale province, Turkey, in December 2009. Following the report of two tularemia suspected cases from two villages (Baliklicesme and Sinekci) of Biga, an epidemiological investigation was undertaken to inspect the situation in this area. Water samples, clinical samples as throat swabs, wound swabs and serum samples were collected. Samples were cultured on heart agar supplemented with sheep blood, cysteine and antibiotics. Cultures were incubated at 37°C in 5% CO(2) and followed for 10 days. Suspected colonies were identified by slide agglutination test using F.tularensis antisera. F.tularensis antibodies were investigated by standard tube agglutination method. Positive results obtained with agglutination test were also checked for a probable crossreaction with Brucella antibodies by Rose-Bengal test. Water and wound samples were investigated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT Taqman PCR; Quantica, Techne Inc, UK) with probe and primers specific for ISFtu2 gene. All of the cultures yielded negative results, however eight of 16 water samples, one lymph node aspirate and one throat sample were found positive in F.tularensis TaqMan RT-PCR test. In tube agglutination test positive antibody titers between 1:20-1:1280 were detected in 36 of 115 serum samples. Two cases with antibody titers of 1:1280 and accompanying acute clinical findings, were diagnosed as tularemia and treated accordingly. Lymphatic drainage fluid samples obtained from one of these patients yielded positive result in PCR, however clinical sample could not be obtained from the other patient. The only epidemiological

  18. Orthobunyaviruses, a Common Cause of Infection of Livestock in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Blitvich, Bradley J.; Saiyasombat, Rungrat; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia; Tesh, Robert B.; Calisher, Charles H.; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E.; Farfán-Ale, José A.; Loroño, Rubén E.; Bates, Arturo; Loroño-Pino, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of selected orthobunyaviruses in livestock in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico, a serologic investigation was performed using serum samples from 256 domestic animals (182 horses, 31 sheep, 1 dog, 37 chickens, and 5 turkeys). All serum samples were examined by plaque reduction neutralization test using Cache Valley virus (CVV), Cholul virus (CHLV), South River virus (SOURV), Kairi virus, Maguari virus, and Wyeomyia virus. Of the 182 horses, 60 (33.0%) were seropositive for CHLV, 48 (26.4%) were seropositive for CVV, 1 (0.5%) was seropositive for SOURV, 60 (33.0%) had antibodies to an undetermined orthobunyavirus, and 13 (7.1%) were negative for orthobunyavirus-specific antibody. Of the 31 sheep, 6 (19.3%) were seropositive for CHLV, 3 (9.7%) were seropositive for CVV, 4 (12.9%) were seropositive for SOURV, 16 (51.6%) had antibodies to an undetermined orthobunyavirus, and 2 (6.5%) were negative for orthobunyavirus-specific antibody. The single dog was seropositive for SOURV. Four (11%) chickens had antibodies to an undetermined orthobunyavirus, and 1 (20%) turkey was seropositive for CHLV. These data indicate that orthobunyaviruses commonly infect livestock in the Yucatan Peninsula. PMID:23045250

  19. Arabian peninsula: zone of ferment

    SciTech Connect

    Stookey, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Arabian Peninsula is an area which must be approached in terms of its own values and traditions. The different states, however, present difficulties for even the most well-informed policymaker because the region is not homogeneous. Some of the states are tenuous congeries of tribal and sectarian communities that do not necessarily share the aims of the ruling group. The authors of these six essays consider (1) the economic position of the states, (2) how oil exports affect the economies of the exporting states, (3) how traditional tribal and religious societies react to change, (4) whether their social values are conducive to modernization, and (5) what factors lead to the development of dissent, and how they affect the expression of dissent. Separate abstracts were prepared for two of the essays selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). 23 tables.

  20. Seabirds of the Chukotka Peninsula, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konyukhov, N.B.; Bogoslovskaya, L.S.; Zvonov, B.M.; van Pelt, Thomas I.

    1998-01-01

    We conducted seabird surveys along the entire coast of the Chukotka Peninsula (northwestern Siberia, Russia) from 1983 to 1991. We present the first comprehensive descriptions of the distribution and size of Chukotkan seabird colonies. Thirteen species of seabirds were recorded breeding on the peninsula, with an additional 13 migrant or vagrant species. Our estimate that at least 3 300 000 seabirds breed on the Chukotka Peninsula demonstrates the importance of this region to arctic seabird populations. Colony size and species composition may be determined by availability of adequate breeding sites, access to foraging areas, and variable ice conditions.

  1. Educational Institutions: Terminology. Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    Prepared from interviews with personnel of the Turkish Ministry of National Education, and other educational administrators in that country, this publication provides a guide to the terminology used to name the types of public educational institutions found in Turkey. Private educational institutions, military schools, higher schools attached to…

  2. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  3. Educational Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksit, Necmi

    2007-01-01

    There are a number of reform initiatives underway in Turkey but some of these, which are concerned with curricular and structural changes, have encountered serious difficulties. This paper begins with a brief summary of school effectiveness and school improvement research guiding many educational reforms. It then gives some information about…

  4. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  5. Wind energy and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future.

  6. Educational Institutions: Terminology. Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    Prepared from interviews with personnel of the Turkish Ministry of National Education, and other educational administrators in that country, this publication provides a guide to the terminology used to name the types of public educational institutions found in Turkey. Private educational institutions, military schools, higher schools attached to…

  7. Axiom turkey genotyping array

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Axiom®Turkey Genotyping Array interrogates 643,845 probesets on the array, covering 643,845 SNPs. The array development was led by Dr. Julie Long of the USDA-ARS Beltsville Agricultural Research Center under a public-private partnership with Hendrix Genetics, Aviagen, and Affymetrix. The Turk...

  8. On Turkey Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libbee, Kristin Sheridan; Libbee, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Human relations skills are more widely taught and used, and inevitably misused. This aritcle is intended as a brief self-defense course identifying those who undergo this usually temporary, metamorphosis into "turkeys." It provides a rough categorization of subspecies with their identifying characteristics and a proposal for return to personhood.…

  9. On Turkey Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libbee, Kristin Sheridan; Libbee, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Human relations skills are more widely taught and used, and inevitably misused. This aritcle is intended as a brief self-defense course identifying those who undergo this usually temporary, metamorphosis into "turkeys." It provides a rough categorization of subspecies with their identifying characteristics and a proposal for return to personhood.…

  10. Cloning Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edis, Taner

    1999-01-01

    Defines how political balances and changes in Turkey effect creation-evolution relation. Describes the influences of Bilim Arastirma Vakfi (BAV) on these changes, which are directly targeted to public education, and discusses the content of creationism. Questions why Islamic creationism is a copy of that of the Institute for Creation Research…

  11. Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eres, Figen

    2010-01-01

    The quality and the prevalence of education are the major indicators of the development of a society. It is a kind of human right to every person living in the society to be educated in a sufficient way. The education of the disabled people, a social reality in Turkey, is not sufficiently carried out. This paper aims at the education of the…

  12. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-16

    This shaded relief topographic acquired by NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM image from data collected on February 12, 2000 shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia.

  13. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-03-23

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission SRTM.

  14. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-16

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia as seen by the instrument onboard NASA Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. 3D glasses are necessary to view this image.

  15. Tropical Depression Alex hits Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's TRMM spacecraft observed this view of Tropical Depression Alex on June 27, 2010 at 2214 UTC (6:14 PM EST). Tropical depression Alex was near the western coast of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula. ...

  16. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  17. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  18. Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet). Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations. Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space

  19. Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the broad, flat floodplain of the Amanina River, shown in blue. In background of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills in the upper right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. To emphasize subtle differences in topography, the relief is exaggerated by a factor of 5.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  20. Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are four rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, and Zhilovaya. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in blue. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and

  1. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-01-03

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold "cloud" streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964. Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the "Ring of Fire," a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean. The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas. The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03514

  2. Family practice in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozsahin, Akatli Kursad

    2014-03-01

    The national project 'Transformation in Health' was started in 2005 to provide expert primary care by family physicians, and decrease expenses in Turkey. The number of family physicians was far below the need, so public physicians were promoted to family physician status after a 10-day intensive course. The government declared some satisfactory results, but privately paid family physicians were not accepted into the system. Furthermore, the government stopped paying for their services from private settings. Some family physicians became unemployed as the major payer for all forms of medical care in Turkey denied their services. The process showed it's value in time. Nevertheless, family physicians should be the core of this transformation as family medicine is an academic and a scientific discipline and a primary care-oriented specialty with its own specific educational content, research and base of evidence, which cannot be achieved through standard medical education.

  3. Geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederic H.; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    The boundaries separating the Alaska Peninsula terrane from other terranes are commonly indistinct or poorly defined. A few boundaries have been defined at major faults, although the extensions of these faults are speculative through some areas. The west side of the Alaska Peninsula terrane is overlapped by Tertiary sedimentary and volcanic rocks and Quaternary deposits.

  4. Terrorism in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Rodoplu, Ulkumen; Arnold, Jeffrey; Ersoy, Gurkan

    2003-01-01

    Over the past two decades, terrorism has exacted an enormous toll on the Republic of Turkey, a secular democracy with a 99.8% Muslim population. From 1984 to 2000, an estimated 30,000 to 35,000 Turkish citizens were killed by a nearly continuous stream of terrorism-related events. During this period, the Partiya Karekerren Kurdistan (PKK), a Kurdish separatist group (re-named KADEK in 2002), was responsible for the vast majority of terrorism-related events (and casualties), which disproportionately affected the eastern and southeastern regions of Turkey, in which the PKK has focused its activities. Most terrorist attacks over the past two decades have been bombings or shootings that produced < 10 casualties per event. From 1984 to 2003, 15 terrorist attacks produced > or = 30 casualties (eight shootings, five bombings, and two arsons). The maximum number of casualties produced by any of these events was 93 in the Hotel Madimak arson attack by the Turkish Islamic Movement in 1993. This pattern suggests that terrorist attacks in Turkey rarely required more than local systems of emergency medical response, except in rural areas where Emergency Medical Services (EMS) are routinely provided by regional military resources. The last decade has seen the development of several key systems of local emergency response in Turkey, including the establishment of the medical specialty of Emergency Medicine, the establishment of training programs for EMS providers, the spread of a generic, Turkish hospital emergency plan based on the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System, and the spread of advanced training in trauma care modeled after Advanced Trauma Life Support.

  5. Authoritarianism in Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    stage that the AKP has brought Turkey to is Levitsky and Way’s theory of competitive authoritarianism.7 General background literature on the...suffice to express the political situation. However, it can be generalized that the “center-right” section of the market is crowded by many parties...this are pre- existing. The General Staff and Foreign Ministry traditionally coordinate to determine Turkish foreign policy.92 The actual codification

  6. Nursing in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada.

  7. Greece and Turkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Summer is in full swing in this stunning true-color image of the southeastern European countries and Turkey captured by MODIS on June 29, 2002. Clockwise from left, the mountains of Greece, Albania, Macedonia, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Turkey are swathed in brilliant greens and shades of golden brown; meanwhile (counterclockwise from left) the Ionian, Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black Seas are beautifully blue and green.Running diagonally across the image from the bottom middle to the top right is a gray streak that is caused by the angle of reflection of the sun on the water (called sun glint). The darker areas within this gray swath denote calmer water, and make visible currents that would not otherwise be noticeable.Surprisingly few fires were burning hot enough to be detectable by MODIS when this image was acquired during the height of the summer dry season. A single fire is visible burning in mainland Greece, six are visible in northwestern Turkey, and one burns on the western coast (marked with red outlines). Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  8. [Stranger in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dorhout Mees, E J

    1997-12-20

    The author, a professor of nephrology, reports some impressions of his 7-year stay in Turkey. He worked at the Ege University in Izmir, traditionally one of the most 'western' cities. He and his wife, who gave unpaid assistance to dialysis patients, attempted to integrate into Turkish society as fully as possible. They traversed the country in weekends and holidays and introduced as many Dutch guests as they could to the unique archeological treasures, the magnificent nature and the extremely friendly population. Work at the university focused increasingly on cultivating a critical attitude with regard to the self, society and the trends and commercialization of medicine in Turkey and in the rest of the world. Self-reliance, also, had to be strengthened. Although this contravened the authority-based Turkish educational system, the efforts were clearly appreciated and even stirred enthusiasm in many of the younger people. There is no doubt that a foreign worker is regarded much more favourable in Turkey than in the Netherlands.

  9. Geodiversity assessment of the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torab, Magdy; Farghaly, Enas

    2015-04-01

    The Sinai Peninsula is a triangular plateau lies in NE corner of Egypt, its head in the south at Ras Mohammed and its other sides between the Gulf of Aqaba and Gulf of Suez and the triangle base on the Mediterranean Sea. Sinai Peninsula is the most attractive region from the geological, geomorphological and environmental stand points of view because it displays a variety of simple and complex structural and landforms, (Abu Al-Izz,1971). In general, Sinai Peninsula reflects all geologic column of Egypt. Geomorphologically, Sinai Peninsula comprises many geomorphologic units such as mountains blocks, cliffs, isolated hills, wadies, hogbacks, questas, sand ridges, muddy and marshy lands, lakes and shorelines. This paper aims to define and measure geodiversity assessment index of the Sinai Peninsula as the quantitative variety of geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil features. Some geodiversity indices maps for the above features produced for Sinai Peninsula were based on the methodology presented by (Pereira et al, 2012), it depends upon calculate of some geodiversity elements for overlay grid of the study area, which divided topographic, geological maps of the Sinai Peninsula with scale 1:500000 and satellite image (landsat 8, 27th October 2014, 12 bands, 30m). It divided into 743 squares (10x10 km), and some partial geodiversity indices such as geological, topographical, geomorphological, hydrological and soil indices were calculated by counting the number of each element inside each square, then the overall geodiversity index map produced by calculate the total number of all indices inside each square, the geodiversity index map were classified into some gradual categories by using isolines: very low, low, medium, high and very high.

  10. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  11. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  12. Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On the night of June 4, 2001, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) captured this thermal image of the erupting Shiveluch volcano. Located on Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, Shiveluch rises to an altitude of 2,447 meters (8,028 feet). The active lava dome complex is seen as a bright (hot) area on the summit of the volcano. To the southwest, a second hot area is either a debris avalanche or hot ash deposit. Trailing to the west is a 25-kilometer (15-mile) ash plume, seen as a cold 'cloud' streaming from the summit. At least 60 large eruptions have occurred here during the last 10,000 years; the largest historical eruptions were in 1854 and 1964.

    Because Kamchatka is located along the major aircraft routes between North America/Europe and Asia, this area is constantly monitored for potential ash hazards to aircraft. The area is part of the 'Ring of Fire,' a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean.

    The lower image is the same as the upper, except it has been color-coded: red is hot, light greens to dark green are progressively colder, and gray/black are the coldest areas.

    The image is located at 56.7 degrees north latitude, 161.3 degrees east longitude.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched Dec. 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface.

  13. English Language Teaching Profile: Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English in Turkey is discussed, with attention directed to: (1) education within the educational system, (2) English teachers, (3) teaching materials, (4) English outside the educational system, and (5) British and American support for the teaching of English. Although English is not used as a means of social communication in Turkey,…

  14. Turkey's energy demand and supply

    SciTech Connect

    Balat, M.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

  15. The history of Antarctic Peninsula glaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    As Co-Chief Scientist on DSDP Leg 35 in 1974, Cam Craddock (1930-2006) produced the first useful information on Cenozoic Antarctic Peninsula glaciation - an early middle Miocene (15-17 Ma) apparent glacial onset. Subsequent work, onshore and offshore, has greatly extended our knowledge but that early conclusion stands today. Cenozoic Antarctic Peninsula palaeoclimate as presently known is broadly consistent with global palaeoclimate proxies. Initial glacial onset was within the Eocene-Oligocene boundary interval (although earlier, short-lived glaciations have been proposed, from indirect measurements) and the peninsula probably became deglaciated in the earliest Miocene (ca. 24 Ma). The renewed middle Miocene glaciation probably continued to the present and, for the last 9 Myr at least, has persisted through glacial (orbital) cycles, with grounded ice advance to the shelf edge during maxima. Although orbital cyclicity affected earlier AP palaeoclimate also, the level of glaciation through a complete cycle is uncertain.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait. Recent archaeological and genetic evidence have favored a unique southern coastal route. Under this scenario, the study of the population genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the first step out of Africa, to search for primary genetic links between Africa and Eurasia, is crucial. The haploid and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has been the most used genetic marker to identify and to relate lineages with clear geographic origins, as the African Ls and the Eurasian M and N that have a common root with the Africans L3. Results To assess the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the southern route, we genetically analyzed 553 Saudi Arabs using partial (546) and complete mtDNA (7) sequencing, and compared the lineages obtained with those present in Africa, the Near East, central, east and southeast Asia and Australasia. The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. Conclusion Although there is evidence of Neolithic and more recent expansions in the Arabian Peninsula, mainly detected by (preHV)1 and J1b lineages, the lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences, suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the proposed southern coastal

  17. Mitochondrial DNA structure in the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Abu-Amero, Khaled K; Larruga, José M; Cabrera, Vicente M; González, Ana M

    2008-02-12

    Two potential migratory routes followed by modern humans to colonize Eurasia from Africa have been proposed. These are the two natural passageways that connect both continents: the northern route through the Sinai Peninsula and the southern route across the Bab al Mandab strait. Recent archaeological and genetic evidence have favored a unique southern coastal route. Under this scenario, the study of the population genetic structure of the Arabian Peninsula, the first step out of Africa, to search for primary genetic links between Africa and Eurasia, is crucial. The haploid and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has been the most used genetic marker to identify and to relate lineages with clear geographic origins, as the African Ls and the Eurasian M and N that have a common root with the Africans L3. To assess the role of the Arabian Peninsula in the southern route, we genetically analyzed 553 Saudi Arabs using partial (546) and complete mtDNA (7) sequencing, and compared the lineages obtained with those present in Africa, the Near East, central, east and southeast Asia and Australasia. The results showed that the Arabian Peninsula has received substantial gene flow from Africa (20%), detected by the presence of L, M1 and U6 lineages; that an 18% of the Arabian Peninsula lineages have a clear eastern provenance, mainly represented by U lineages; but also by Indian M lineages and rare M links with Central Asia, Indonesia and even Australia. However, the bulk (62%) of the Arabian lineages has a Northern source. Although there is evidence of Neolithic and more recent expansions in the Arabian Peninsula, mainly detected by (preHV)1 and J1b lineages, the lack of primitive autochthonous M and N sequences, suggests that this area has been more a receptor of human migrations, including historic ones, from Africa, India, Indonesia and even Australia, than a demographic expansion center along the proposed southern coastal route.

  18. Antarctic Peninsula Tidewater Glacier Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettit, E. C.; Scambos, T. A.; Haran, T. M.; Wellner, J. S.; Domack, E. W.; Vernet, M.

    2015-12-01

    The northern Antarctic Peninsula (nAP, north of 66°S) is a north-south trending mountain range extending transverse across the prevailing westerly winds of the Southern Ocean resulting in an extreme west-to-east precipitation gradient. Snowfall on the west side of the AP is one to two orders of magnitude higher than the east side. This gradient drives short, steep, fast-flowing glaciers into narrow fjords on the west side, while longer lower-sloping glaciers flow down the east side into broader fjord valleys. This pattern in ice dynamics affects ice-ocean interaction on timescales of decades to centuries, and shapes the subglacial topography and submarine bathymetry on timescales of glacial cycles. In our study, we calculate ice flux for the western and eastern nAP using a drainage model that incorporates the modern ice surface topography, the RACMO-2 precipitation estimate, and recent estimates of ice thinning. Our results, coupled with observed rates of ice velocity from InSAR (I. Joughin, personal communication) and Landsat 8 -derived flow rates (this study), provide an estimate of ice thickness and fjord depth in grounded-ice areas for the largest outlet glaciers. East-side glaciers either still terminate in or have recently terminated in ice shelves. Sedimentary evidence from the inner fjords of the western glaciers indicates they had ice shelves during LIA time, and may still have transient floating ice tongues (tabular berg calvings are observed). Although direct oceanographic evidence is limited, the high accumulation rate and rapid ice flux implies cold basal ice for the western nAP glaciers and therefore weak subglacial discharge relative to eastern nAP glaciers and or other tidewater fjord systems such as in Alaska. Finally, despite lower accumulation rates on the east side, the large elongate drainage basins result in a greater ice flux funneled through fewer deeper glaciers. Due to the relation between ice flux and erosion, these east-side glaciers

  19. Bioethics regulations in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aydin, E

    1999-10-01

    Although modern technical and scientific developments in medicine are followed closely in Turkey, it cannot be claimed that the same is true in the field of bioethics. Yet, more and more attention is now being paid to bioethics and ethics training in health sciences. In addition, there are also legal regulations in bioethics, some of which are not so new. The objective of these regulations is to provide technical and administrative control. Ethical concerns are rather few. What attracts our attention most in these regulations is the presence of the idea of "consent".

  20. Terrorism Effects on Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-05

    1980’ s many changes took place among these countries; however, there are many indications that the IsB still controls these countries’ intelligence ...for opm Zblkadom vote TERRORISM EFFECTS ON TURKEY BY COLONEL TURAN OLCAY Turkish Army ~Is~RI~~tO S EMHT A’: A~pproved for publ~c 03. RMYWARCOLLG...Distribution is unlimited. 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) S . MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER( S ) Ga. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6b

  1. Presque Isle Peninsula, Erie, Pennsylvania. Volume I. Main Report. Revised.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    PRESQUE ISLE PENINSULA, ERIE , PENNSYLVANIA . Memorandum includimg~nviron- 1.6... Pennsylvania THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY 1. I submit for transmission to Congress my report on Presque Isle Peninsula, Erie , Pennsylvania . It is...advanced engineering and design of the project for beach erosion control for Presque Isle Peninsula at Erie , Pennsylvania . 2. The District and

  2. [Nuclear families in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Unalan, T

    1988-01-01

    This study examines the household or family types in Turkey in 1983, especially nuclear families. Nuclear families constitute 61.6% of all households in Turkey, and the majority of them are in the West and the Central regions. The highest % of nuclear families was found in the Mediterranean regions, and the lowest in the Black Sea region. Among all nuclear families, 87% of them consist of husband, wife and children, whereas 13% of them have only husband and wife. Nuclear families without children are common in urban areas and in the West while nuclear families with children are mostly found in rural areas and in the East and the Black Sea regions. Nuclear families with 3 or more children constitute 32% of all nuclear households in the West. On the other hand, the corresponding % is 73 for the Eastern region. As a result, it is concluded that nuclear families have significant regional and residential differentiations and households with the same formation in a developed and a less developed region should have different social, economic, and cultural characteristics.

  3. Stratigraphic correlation of the Late Cretaceous Simsima Formation United Arab Emirates and Akveren Formation, northwest Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelghany, O.; Abu Saima, M.; Ramazanoglu, S.; Arman, H.

    2015-11-01

    Latest Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian) microfossils are used to correlate the carbonate rocks of the Simsima Formation in the northeastern part of the Arabian Peninsula (Northern Oman Mountains, United Arab Emirates and Oman) with the Akveren Formation in Kandira (northwest Turkey, near Black Sea region). Both formations have characteristically rich planktonic foraminiferal and calcareous nannofossil faunal assemblages that permit the recognition of the Globotruncanella havanensis Zone and Quadrum sissinghii Zone CC22. The palaeontological data is used to build an appropriate palaeoenvironmental model for the latest Cretaceous Aruma Group in the Oman Mountains foreland basin. The study reveals that the Late Cretaceous formations of UAE and Turkey can be divided into an open marine carbonate shelf facies (planktonic foraminifera/calcareous nannofossil biomicrite) and a shallow-marine carbonate facies (rudistids, coralline algal foraminiferal biomicrite).

  4. Prevalence, Distribution, and Host Range of Peste des petits ruminants virus, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Özkul, Aykut; Akca, Yilmaz; Alkan, Feray; Barrett, Thomas; Karaoglu, Taner; Dagalp, Seval Bilge; Anderson, John; Yesilbag, Kadir; Cokcaliskan, Can; Gencay, Ayse; Burgu, Ibrahim

    2002-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV, genus Morbillivirus), which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, has only recently been officially declared to be present in Turkey. We carried out a study to determine the prevalence, distribution, and host range of PPRV in Turkey. A total of 1,607 animals, reared in 18 different locations, were monitored for the presence of antibodies to PPRV and the related virus of large ruminants, Rinderpest virus (RPV). Only two farms had animals that were free of antibody responses to either disease. Prevalence for PPRV infection varied (range 0.87%–82.6%) and was higher in sheep (29.2%) than in goats (20%). The overall antibody responses to PPRV and RPV were 22.4% and 6.28%, respectively. Two PPRVs of lineage 4, which comprises many other PPRVs whose origins are in the Middle East, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia, were isolated from Turkish sheep. PMID:12095439

  5. 27 CFR 9.40 - Leelanau Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Leelanau Peninsula. 9.40 Section 9.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  6. 27 CFR 9.40 - Leelanau Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Leelanau Peninsula. 9.40 Section 9.40 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas §...

  7. The Peninsula Academies. Third Yearly Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Dorothy F.

    The performance of the Peninsula Academies of Electronics and Computer Technology was assessed for the program's third year of operation in two host schools in the Sequoia Union High School District. Data were collected for approximately 190 Academy students and for a comparison group of non-Academy students. Academies students missed fewer days…

  8. Orthobunyavirus antibodies in humans, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Blitvich, Bradley J; Saiyasombat, Rungrat; Talavera-Aguilar, Lourdes G; Garcia-Rejon, Julian E; Farfan-Ale, Jose A; Machain-Williams, Carlos; Loroño-Pino, Maria A

    2012-10-01

    We performed a serologic investigation to determine whether orthobunyaviruses commonly infect humans in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Orthobunyavirus-specific antibodies were detected by plaque reduction neutralization test in 146 (18%) of 823 persons tested. Further studies are needed to determine health risks for humans from this potentially deadly group of viruses.

  9. Earth - Northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This image of northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula was taken from an altitude of about 500,000 kilometers 300,000 miles by NASA’s Galileo spacecraft on December 9, 1992, as it left Earth en route to Jupiter. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00127

  10. A paleomagnetic study of the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poblete, F.; Arriagada, C.; Roperch, P.

    2009-05-01

    In the Paleozoic, South America, South Africa and Antarctica were part of Gondwana. The Weddell Sea began to form at about 146 Ma, after rifting between the Antarctic Peninsula and southernmost South America. Much uncertainty still exists about the geometrical fit and subsequent drift history between Patagonia and Antarctica. Geophysical and geological data which describe the tectonic history are sparsely distributed and often of poor quality. During the last two years we have collected more than 1000 paleomagnetic samples from 70 sites at several localities (King George Island, Robert Island, Yankee Bay, Half Moon Island, Byers Peninsula and Snow Island) from the South Shetland Islands and Anderson Island in the northern tip of Antarctic Peninsula. Our main objective was to provide first-order constraints on latitudinal displacements and the amount of tectonic rotations as an essential test of published tectonic models. Paleomagnetic results were obtained from 50 sites. All samples from sites in volcanic and intrusive rocks have well-defined univectorial magnetizations. Unfortunately, all sites in late Paleozoic sediments have been remagnetized and the magnetizations are often unstable upon thermal demagnetization. Cretaceous and Cenozoic units display very little apparent polar wander. Results from intrusive rocks of expected Jurassic age do not confirm the expected relative rotation betwen the Antarctic Peninsula and East Antarctica. Further radiometric dating are needed to confirm the age of these units.

  11. Turkey's foreign dependence on energy

    SciTech Connect

    Uslu, T.

    2008-07-01

    Turkey becomes more dependent on the external countries in energy production every year. As an average of the period 1994-2002 the total primary energy production has been 27.9 Mtoe, and consumption has been 73.06 Mtoe, so Turkey is dependent on external countries in petroleum, natural gas, and hard coal consumption. The external dependency rate of these fuels has been at levels of 89.3%, 96.6%, and 82%, respectively. In the projections of Turkey for 2020, the primary energy consumption is estimated to be 298 Mtoe, production is estimated to be 70 Mtoe, the ratio of production to consumption will be reduced to 23.5%, and this situation will cause serious risks for sustainable development. In other words, Turkey will have to import 76.5% of the energy that it consumes in the 2020s.

  12. Equine glanders in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arun, S; Neubauer, H; Gürel, A; Ayyildiz, G; Kusçu, B; Yesildere, T; Meyer, H; Hermanns, W

    1999-03-06

    In the course of an epidemiological study of glanders on a number of Turkish islands in the Sea of Marmara, 1128 horses were examined by using the intracutaneous mallein test. Thirty-five (3-1 per cent) developed an increase in rectal temperature and a swelling at the point of injection. Ten of these horses were killed and glanders was confirmed in five cases by the presence of lesions and by the immunohistological demonstration of the causative agent, Burkholderia mallei. Clinical and pathological findings indicated that in all cases the infection was restricted to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity with its parasinus, the nostrils and the upper lips. It was confirmed that equine glanders is endemic in Turkey.

  13. [Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Gürel, Mehmet Salih; Yeşilova, Yavuz; Olgen, M Kirami; Ozbel, Yusuf

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by Leishmania protozoon parasites is a disease which is characterized by long-term nodulo-ulcerative lesions healing spontaneously with scarring. The disease has been well-known in Anatolia for centuries and has different names such as; Urfa boil, Antep boil, year boil, Halep boil, oriental sore and beauty scar. The causative agents are Leishmania tropica and Leishmania tropica/Leishmania infantum in Southeastern Anatolia and East Mediterranean, respectively. CL is a notifiable disease in Turkey and, according to the Ministry of Health official records, 46.003 new cases were reported between 1990 and 2010. Among those cases, 96% of them were reported from the Şanlıurfa, Adana, Osmaniye, Hatay, Diyarbakır, İçel and Kahramanmaraş provinces. Although 45% of cases were notified from Şanlıurfa in the past 20 years, its ratio is currently decreasing while other regions' ratios have been showing an increasing trend. Easier transportation between cities, increased travel migration of the population from rural areas to the peripheral suburbs with inadequate infrastructure and unhealthy housing are thought to be the main factors for spreading the disease from Southeastern Anatolia to other regions of Turkey. Lack of treatment of patients as reservoir hosts because of different reasons and ineffective and inadequate use of insecticides against vector sand flies have also played an important role in spreading the disease. Neglect of this disease by patients and health institutions can also be considered as other factors for the spreading. We believe that, after the strategic plan for leishmaniasis prepared by the Turkish Ministry of Health with the contribution of scientists in 2011 is put into practice, the control of the disease will be more effective.

  14. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Methods Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Results Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Discussion Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large

  15. Wildlife uses and hunting patterns in rural communities of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Santos-Fita, Dídac; Naranjo, Eduardo J; Rangel-Salazar, José Luis

    2012-10-02

    Subsistence hunting is a traditional practice providing food and many other goods for households in the Yucatan Peninsula, southeast Mexico. Economic, demographic, and cultural change in this region drive wildlife habitat loss and local extinctions. Improving our understanding about current practices of wildlife use may support better management strategies for conserving game species and their habitat. We aimed to evaluate if wildlife use remained relevant for the subsistence of rural residents of the Yucatan Peninsula, as well as if local hunting practices were related to environmental, geographical, and cultural factors. Fieldwork was done between March 2010 and March 2011. Information was obtained through conversations, interviews, and participant observation. Record forms allowed recording animals hunted, biomass extracted, distance intervals to hunting sites, habitat types and seasonality of wildlife harvests. Data were analyzed using one-way Analysis of Variance, and Generalized Linear Models. Forty-six terrestrial vertebrate species were used for obtaining food, medicine, tools, adornments, pets, ritual objects, and for sale and mitigating damage. We recorded 968 animals taken in 664 successful hunting events. The Great Curassow, Ocellated Turkey, paca, white-tailed deer, and collared peccary were the top harvested species, providing 80.7% of biomass (10,190 kg). The numbers of animals hunted and biomass extracted declined as hunting distances increased from villages. Average per capita consumption was 4.65 ± 2.7 kg/person/year. Hunting frequencies were similar in forested and agricultural areas. Wildlife use, hunting patterns, and technologies observed in our study sites were similar to those recorded in previous studies for rural Mayan and mestizo communities in the Yucatan Peninsula and other Neotropical sites. The most heavily hunted species were those providing more products and by-products for residents. Large birds such as the Great Curassow and

  16. Statistical Analysis of Iberian Peninsula Megaliths Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. C.

    2009-08-01

    Megalithic monuments have been intensively surveyed and studied from the archaeoastronomical point of view in the past decades. We have orientation measurements for over one thousand megalithic burial monuments in the Iberian Peninsula, from several different periods. These data, however, lack a sound understanding. A way to classify and start to understand such orientations is by means of statistical analysis of the data. A first attempt is done with simple statistical variables and a mere comparison between the different areas. In order to minimise the subjectivity in the process a further more complicated analysis is performed. Some interesting results linking the orientation and the geographical location will be presented. Finally I will present some models comparing the orientation of the megaliths in the Iberian Peninsula with the rising of the sun and the moon at several times of the year.

  17. Detroit and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-06-22

    SL2-05-389 (22 June 1973) --- This scene displays the southeastern part of Michigan's Lower Peninsula and adjacent Ontario, Canada (43.0N, 84.0W). Detroit can be recognized by its radial pattern of development and sediment plumes in the rivers from the massive industrial activity. The area pockmarked by lakes northwest of Detroit essentially outlines the limits of the Defiance Moraine caused by the stagnation and melting of Ice Age glaciers. Photo credit: NASA

  18. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  19. Tectonic map of the Arabian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Glen F.

    1972-01-01

    This tectonic map of the Arabian peninsula, prepared for the Audi Arabian Ministry of Petroleum and Mineral Resource, is the first of a series of peninsular maps that attempt to show regional features. Much recent information resulting from detailed geologic mapping notably within the Arabian craton, from geophysical surveys, both airborne and oceanographic in adjacent seas, from deep exploratory drilling, and from photography from the Gemini and Apollo space programs, has been used in the tectonic evaluation.

  20. Detroit and the Lower Peninsula of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This scene displays the southeastern part of Michigan's Lower Peninsula and adjacent Ontario, Canada (43.0N, 84.0W). Detroit can be recognized by its radial pattern of development and sediment plumes in the rivers from the massive industrial activity. The area pockmarked by lakes northwest of Detroit essentially outlines the limits of the Defiance Moraine caused by the stagnation and melting of Ice Age glaciers.

  1. Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    In this view of the Qatar Peninsula, United Arab Emirates, Persian Gulf, (25.0N, 51.0E) a large oil spill, seen as a large dark toned mass in the water covers much of the surface of the western Persian Gulf. Qatar is one of several of the oil rich United Arab Emirate states. Oil spills and oil pollution of the environment are common occurrances associated with oil tanker loading operations.

  2. Kuwait Oil Fires, Persian Gulf, Qatar Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view up the Persian Gulf from the Qatar Peninsula into southern Iraq (25.5N, 51.0E) shows an excursion of the smoke plumes from the Kuwait oil fires set during the short Persian Gulf War. Smoke from the fires north of Kuwait City, extends across the Persian Gulf while a larger smoke plume from the southern fires heads into southern Saudi Arabia before beginning to spread out and become more diffuse.

  3. Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    defense expenditures of both sides are assessed as follows:4 The South Korean population outnumbers North Korea two to one. This presents difficulties for...99. Kim, Chum-Kon, The Korean War, Seoul, Kwang-Myong Publishing Company Ltd., 1980. The Text of Mutual Defense Treaty between Korea and the USA...AIR WAR COLLEGE RESEARCH REPORT ABSTRACT TITLE: Arms Control in the Korean Peninsula AUTHOR: Kim, Hyon, Colonel, Republic of Korea Air Force - 1

  4. The stability of H/V spectral ratios from noise measurements in Armutlu Peninsula (Turkey)

    SciTech Connect

    Livaoğlu, Hamdullah Irmak, T. Serkan; Caka, Deniz; Yavuz, Evrim; Tunç, B.; Baris, S.; Lühr, B. G.; Woith, H.

    2016-04-18

    The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V) method has been successfully using in order to estimate the fundamental resonance frequency of the sedimentary cover, its thickness and amplification factor since at least 3 decades. There are numerous studies have been carried out on the stability of the H/V spectral ratios. Almost all studies showed that fundamental frequency is stable even measurements are repeated at different times. From this point of view, the results will show us an approach whether the stations are suitable for accurate estimate of earthquake studies and engineering purposes or not. Also we want to see if any effects of the amplification factor changing on the seismograms for Armutlu Seismic Network (ARNET) even though seismic stations are established far away from cultural noise and located on hard rock sites. It has been selected one hour recorded data of all stations during the most stationary times. The amplification and resonant frequency variations of H/V ratio were calculated to investigate temporal stability in time. There is a total harmony in fundamental frequencies values and H/V spectral ratio values in time-lagged periods. Some stations shows secondary minor peaks in high frequency band due to a shallow formation effect or cultural noises around. In the east side of the area ILYS station shows amplitude peak in lower fundamental frequency band from expected. This could compose a high amplification in lower frequencies and so that yield less reliable results in local earthquakes studies. By the experimental results from ambient noise analysis, it could be worked up for relocation of one station.

  5. The stability of H/V spectral ratios from noise measurements in Armutlu Peninsula (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livaoǧlu, Hamdullah; Irmak, T. Serkan; Caka, Deniz; Yavuz, Evrim; Lühr, B. G.; Woith, H.; Tunç, B.; Baris, S.

    2016-04-01

    The horizontal to vertical spectral ratio (H/V) method has been successfully using in order to estimate the fundamental resonance frequency of the sedimentary cover, its thickness and amplification factor since at least 3 decades. There are numerous studies have been carried out on the stability of the H/V spectral ratios. Almost all studies showed that fundamental frequency is stable even measurements are repeated at different times. From this point of view, the results will show us an approach whether the stations are suitable for accurate estimate of earthquake studies and engineering purposes or not. Also we want to see if any effects of the amplification factor changing on the seismograms for Armutlu Seismic Network (ARNET) even though seismic stations are established far away from cultural noise and located on hard rock sites. It has been selected one hour recorded data of all stations during the most stationary times. The amplification and resonant frequency variations of H/V ratio were calculated to investigate temporal stability in time. There is a total harmony in fundamental frequencies values and H/V spectral ratio values in time-lagged periods. Some stations shows secondary minor peaks in high frequency band due to a shallow formation effect or cultural noises around. In the east side of the area ILYS station shows amplitude peak in lower fundamental frequency band from expected. This could compose a high amplification in lower frequencies and so that yield less reliable results in local earthquakes studies. By the experimental results from ambient noise analysis, it could be worked up for relocation of one station.

  6. Natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the granitic region of Kapidag peninsula, Western Anatolia, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kapdan, E; Varinlioglu, A; Karahan, G; Taskin, H; Okka, M; Kiziltas, S; Karahan, S

    2012-07-01

    Naturally occurring radionuclides of terrestrial origin (also called primordial radionuclides) are present in various degrees in all media in the environment. This study represents the reports on the natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the Kapidag granitic region. For this purpose, activities of radionuclides in soil, beach sands and rocks of the region have been investigated to assess the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity. The radium equivalent activities, the absorbed dose rates and the external hazard indexes have been calculated, and also in situ gamma dose rates have been measured in the region. The mean activities of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K with the ranges were determined as 31.1±15.7 (12.1-71.9), 42.5±15.9 (19.7-94.9), 590.3±192.2 (184.7-892.5), in the soil, as 16.5±9.5 (4.9-40.8), 67.1±106.9 (18.5-433.0), 569.2±212.6 (162.0-821.1) in the sand and as 25.4±12.8 (4.8-50.7), 37.8±21.5 (4.5-96.7), and 592.4±285.5 (62.4-1121.6) Bq kg(-1) in the rocks, respectively. It was also observed that the average activities of (137)Cs were ranged 0-27.8 Bq kg(-1) in the soil and 0.6-3.8 Bq kg(-1) in the beach sands. The mean Ra(eq) activities of the rocks, sands and soil were found to be 125.1±59.5, 156.3±157.2 and 137.3±48.8 Bq kg(-1), respectively, lower than the recommended maximum value of 370 Bq kg(-1) with some exceptions. The maximum contributors to the total absorbed gamma dose rates in air were determined as (238)U (45%) for the beach sands, (238)U (40%) for the soil and (40)K (41%) for rocks. The average outdoor gamma dose rates for the soil due to terrestrial and cosmic radiations were found to be 64.6±22.7 and 47.1±9.6 nGy h(-1), respectively, with the total of 111.7±29.5 nGy h(-1) outdoor gamma exposure rate and the annual average effective outdoor gamma dose was calculated as 137±36.2 µSv for the region. The results of the study were discussed with similar studies in close regions and the worldwide averages.

  7. First Dinosaur Tracks from the Arabian Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Schulp, Anne S.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history of Mesozoic terrestrial vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula is virtually unknown. Despite vast exposures of rocky outcrops, only a handful of fossils have yet been described from the region. Here we report a multi-taxon dinosaur track assemblage near Madar village, 47 km north of Sana'a, Republic of Yemen. This represents the first dinosaur tracksite from the Arabian Peninsula, and the only multi-taxon dinosaur ichnosite in the Middle East. Methodology/Findings Measurements were taken directly from trackway impressions, following standard ichnological conventions. The presence of bipedal trackmakers is evidenced by a long series of pes imprints preserving smoothly rounded posterior margins, no evidence of a hallux, bluntly rounded digit tips and digital divarication angles characteristic of ornithopod dinosaurs. Nearby, eleven parallel quadrupedal trackways document a sauropod herd that included large and small individuals traveling together. Based on the morphology of manus impressions along with a narrow-gauged stance, the quadrupedal trackways were made by non-titanosauriform neosauropods. Additional isolated tracks and trackways of sauropod and ornithopod dinosaurs are preserved nearby. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these discoveries present the most evocative window to date into the evolutionary history of dinosaurs of the Arabian Peninsula. Given the limited Mesozoic terrestrial record from the region, this discovery is of both temporal and geographic significance, and massive exposures of similarly-aged outcrops nearby offer great promise for future discoveries. PMID:18493306

  8. Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selim, Sibel

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to investigate life satisfaction and happiness in Turkey. It extends the previous researches on subjective well-being (SWB) for Turkey by considering both happiness and life satisfaction. The previous researches for Turkey are local studies, and their findings cannot be generalized to the population of Turkish society. Given…

  9. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  10. Exhumation of food by turkey vulture

    Treesearch

    Harvey R. Smith; Richard M. DeGraaf; Richard S. Miller

    2002-01-01

    The success of Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura) as forest scavengers is largely due to their highly developed sense of smell (Owre and Nothington 1961). Stager (1964) conducted a set of experiments with ethyl mercaptan which confirmed the ability of Turkey Vultures to locate odors when no visible object was associated with them. Turkey Vultures fly...

  11. An overview of tumorous diseases of turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This overview is primarily aimed at addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  12. Tumorous diseases of turkeys - an update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This update is primarily focused on addressing various aspects of virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys including review of current methods for diagnosis and control of these diseases of turkeys. Virus-induced tumorous diseases of turkeys are caused primarily by retroviruses, namely reticuloend...

  13. Turkey Masquerade. An Idea Worth Trying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wales, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of planning for art projects by first producing sketches and then selecting the best sketch. Illustrates this by describing an activity used with fifth-grade students in which they make cut-paper collage turkeys and turkey disguises. Lists possible turkey disguises. (CMK)

  14. Turkey: Reviews of National Policies for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    The first of three parts of this review of Turkey's educational system and national educational policies, the examiner's report, begins by singling out essential features of modern Turkey that affect the provision of education and to which the system is having to respond. These include Turkey's unique geographic situation, its continuing devotion…

  15. Time's Up, Turkey--Pop-Up Thermometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Richard; Everett, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Meat thermometers can be awkward to use in terms of placement and avoidance of bones. Because of these problems, each year 30 million Thanksgiving turkeys have a built-in thermometer that pops up when the turkey is properly cooked. Turkey timers are an example of how engineering solved a common, everyday problem. The following 5E learning cycle…

  16. Life Satisfaction and Happiness in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selim, Sibel

    2008-01-01

    This research aims to investigate life satisfaction and happiness in Turkey. It extends the previous researches on subjective well-being (SWB) for Turkey by considering both happiness and life satisfaction. The previous researches for Turkey are local studies, and their findings cannot be generalized to the population of Turkish society. Given…

  17. 1. AT PENINSULA, THE CUYAHOGA RIVER MAKES A HAIRPIN TURN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. AT PENINSULA, THE CUYAHOGA RIVER MAKES A HAIRPIN TURN, CARVING OUT A 'PENINSULA' AND THEREBY GIVING THE VILLAGE ITS NAME. hERE, THE REMAINS OF A DAM AND OF THE THOMAS & MOODY FLOUR MILL CAN BE SEEN. THE OHIO AND ERIE CANAL CROSSED THE CUYAHOGA RIVER AT THE PENINSULA AQUEDUCT, WHICH WAS LOCATED A SHORT DISTANCE TO THE NORTH. VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTHWEST TOWARD THE MAIN STREET BRIDGE. - Ohio & Erie Canal, Links Lake Erie at Cleveland & Ohio River at Portsmouth, Peninsula, Summit County, OH

  18. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  19. Survey report: Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kent, M

    1987-06-01

    The 1983 Turkish Population and Health Survey, involving 5398 ever-married women under 50 years of age, revealed that the demand for family planning services in Turkey exceeds current availability. Although almost 3/4 of survey respondents indicated they wanted only 2-3 children, actual fertility rates in the 1978-83 period averaged 4.2 births/woman. The percent of currently married women under 50 years of age using birth control increased from 50% in 1978 to 62% in 1983, but half of this increase was attributable to a greater reliance on withdrawal. Withdrawal was the contraceptive method used by 49% of family planning acceptors in 1983; only 27% reported use of a modern method. Inadequate supplies was the main reason cited for the low use of modern methods, especially in the more rural eastern regions of the country. The prevalence of traditional methods, and an increasing abortion ratio (25.6/100 live births in 1983), indicates a high unmet need for family planning. 78% of the women surveyed in 1983 asserted that they did not want any more children. The 1983 survey also reported an infant mortality rate of 112/1000 live births. Most Turkish women breastfeed their infants for the 1st year of life, but other traditional practices such as reliance on untrained attendants for childbirth and packing earth into the swaddling cloth with the infant have been linked to higher infant mortality. The survey report concluded that improvements in the education and status of women would enhance their acceptance of family planning and contribute to life-styles more promotive of infant survival.

  20. Marine pelagic ecosystems: the west Antarctic Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Ducklow, Hugh W; Baker, Karen; Martinson, Douglas G; Quetin, Langdon B; Ross, Robin M; Smith, Raymond C; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Vernet, Maria; Fraser, William

    2007-01-29

    The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregions, the continental slope, shelf and coastal regions, each with unique ocean dynamics, water mass and biological distributions. The WAP shelf lies within the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone (SIZ) and like other SIZs, the WAP system is very productive, supporting large stocks of marine mammals, birds and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Ecosystem dynamics is dominated by the seasonal and interannual variation in sea ice extent and retreat. The Antarctic Peninsula is one among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, having experienced a 2 degrees C increase in the annual mean temperature and a 6 degrees C rise in the mean winter temperature since 1950. Delivery of heat from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has increased significantly in the past decade, sufficient to drive to a 0.6 degrees C warming of the upper 300 m of shelf water. In the past 50 years and continuing in the twenty-first century, the warm, moist maritime climate of the northern WAP has been migrating south, displacing the once dominant cold, dry continental Antarctic climate and causing multi-level responses in the marine ecosystem. Ecosystem responses to the regional warming include increased heat transport, decreased sea ice extent and duration, local declines in icedependent Adélie penguins, increase in ice-tolerant gentoo and chinstrap penguins, alterations in phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition and changes in krill recruitment, abundance and availability to predators. The climate

  1. Marine pelagic ecosystems: the West Antarctic Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Ducklow, Hugh W; Baker, Karen; Martinson, Douglas G; Quetin, Langdon B; Ross, Robin M; Smith, Raymond C; Stammerjohn, Sharon E; Vernet, Maria; Fraser, William

    2006-01-01

    The marine ecosystem of the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) extends from the Bellingshausen Sea to the northern tip of the peninsula and from the mostly glaciated coast across the continental shelf to the shelf break in the west. The glacially sculpted coastline along the peninsula is highly convoluted and characterized by deep embayments that are often interconnected by channels that facilitate transport of heat and nutrients into the shelf domain. The ecosystem is divided into three subregions, the continental slope, shelf and coastal regions, each with unique ocean dynamics, water mass and biological distributions. The WAP shelf lies within the Antarctic Sea Ice Zone (SIZ) and like other SIZs, the WAP system is very productive, supporting large stocks of marine mammals, birds and the Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Ecosystem dynamics is dominated by the seasonal and interannual variation in sea ice extent and retreat. The Antarctic Peninsula is one among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, having experienced a 2°C increase in the annual mean temperature and a 6°C rise in the mean winter temperature since 1950. Delivery of heat from the Antarctic Circumpolar Current has increased significantly in the past decade, sufficient to drive to a 0.6°C warming of the upper 300 m of shelf water. In the past 50 years and continuing in the twenty-first century, the warm, moist maritime climate of the northern WAP has been migrating south, displacing the once dominant cold, dry continental Antarctic climate and causing multi-level responses in the marine ecosystem. Ecosystem responses to the regional warming include increased heat transport, decreased sea ice extent and duration, local declines in ice-dependent Adélie penguins, increase in ice-tolerant gentoo and chinstrap penguins, alterations in phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition and changes in krill recruitment, abundance and availability to predators. The climate/ecological gradients

  2. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  3. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  4. Examining Distance Education in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIsaac, Marina Stock; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes the distance education program at Anadolu University in Turkey and compares its problems and solutions with similar distance programs in other Asian countries. A brief history is presented, enrollment figures are given, and future directions are described. (Author/LRW)

  5. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  6. Early Childhood Inclusion in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Rakap, Salih; Diken, Ozlem; Tomris, Gozde; Celik, Secil

    2016-01-01

    Inclusion of young children with disabilities into regular preschool classrooms is a common practice that has been implemented for several decades in industrialized nations around the world, and many developing countries including Turkey have been developing and implementing laws, regulation, and services to support inclusion and teaching in…

  7. Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canatan, Duran

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies are a serious health problem in Turkey. There is a 70-year history of thalassemia in Turkey. The first patient with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) was reported in 1941. The first clinical and hematological studies were published by Aksoy in 1958. The overall incidence of β-thalassemia (β-thal) was reported by Çavdar and Arcasoy to be 2.1% in 1971. Important steps such as written regulations, education and prevention campaigns, have been taken to prevent thalassemia in Turkey by the Ministry of Health (MOH), the Turkish National Hemoglobinopathy Council (TNHC) and the Thalassemia Federation of Turkey (TFT) since 2000. A national hemoglobinopathy prevention program was started in provinces with a high prevalence by the MOH in 2003. While the percentage of premarital screening test was 30.0% of all couples in 2003, it reached 86.0% in 2013. While the number of newborn with thalassemias and hemoglobinopathies was 272 in 2002, it had dropped to 25 in 2010. There has been a 90.0% reduction of affected births in the last 10 years.

  8. HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TAIMYR PENINSULA, SIBERIAN ARCTIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula, primarily because of the remoteness of this area. W...

  9. Investigation of Breakwater Stability at Presque Isle Peninsula Erie, Pennsylvania

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    PRESQUE ISLE PENINSULA AD-A208 528 ERIE , PENNSYLVANIA by Peter J. Grace...STABILITY AT PRESQUE ISLE PENINSULA, ERIE . PENNSYLVANIA PART I: INTRODUCTION The Prototype 1. Harbor facilities at Erie , Pennsylvania , are protected...at Presque Isle Beaches, Erie , Pennsylvania ," Technical Report HL-83-15, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Stevens, J.

  10. HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TAIMYR PENINSULA, SIBERIAN ARCTIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula, primarily because of the remoteness of this area. W...

  11. The climatology of dust aerosol over the arabian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaby, A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Dust storms are considered to be a natural hazard over the Arabian Peninsula, since they occur all year round with maximum intensity and frequency in Spring and Summer. The Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4) has been used to study the climatology of atmospheric dust over the Arabian Peninsula from 1999 to 2012. This relatively long simulation period samples the meteorological conditions that determine the climatology of mineral dust aerosols over the Arabian Peninsula. The modeled Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) has been compared against ground-based observations of three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations that are distributed over the Arabian Peninsula and daily space based observations from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), the Moderate resolution Imaging SpectroRadimeter (MODIS) and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). The large scale atmospheric circulation and the land surface response that lead to dust uplifting have been analyzed. While the modeled AOD shows that the dust season extends from March to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in March with AOD equal to 0.4 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.7, the observations show that the dust season extends from April to August with two pronounced maxima, one over the northern Arabian Peninsula in April with AOD equal to 0.5 and one over the southern Arabian Peninsula in July with AOD equal to 0.5. In spring a high pressure dominates the Arabian Peninsula and is responsible for advecting dust from southern and western part of the Arabian Peninsula to northern and eastern part of the Peninsula. Also, fast developed cyclones in northern Arabian Peninsula are responsible for producing strong dust storms over Iraq and Kuwait. However, in summer the main driver of the surface dust emission is the strong northerly wind ("Shamal") that transport dust from the northern Arabian Peninsula toward south parallel to the

  12. STS-42 Earth observation of Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with an electronic still camera (ESC) is of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. Mid-afternoon sun projects long shadows from volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. This flat-topped volcano with the sharp summit crater is Tobachinsky, over 3,085 kilometers high. Its last major eruption was in 1975 and 1976, but it has been very active since the middle of the Sixteenth Century. The shadows cast by the low sunlight brings out the dramatic relief of the volcano as well as the smaller morphologic features. Electronic still photography is a relatively new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality. The digital images from STS-42 were stored on a disk and brought home with the flight crewmembers for processing. ESC was developed by the JSC Man-Systems Division and this mission's application of it is part of a continuing evolutionary development le

  13. STS-42 Earth observation of Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-42 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, with an electronic still camera (ESC) is of Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. Mid-afternoon sun projects long shadows from volcanoes on the Kamchatka Peninsula. This flat-topped volcano with the sharp summit crater is Tobachinsky, over 3,085 kilometers high. Its last major eruption was in 1975 and 1976, but it has been very active since the middle of the Sixteenth Century. The shadows cast by the low sunlight brings out the dramatic relief of the volcano as well as the smaller morphologic features. For example, the small hills in the foreground and behind the central volcano are cinder cones, approximately only 200 meters high. Note the sharp triangular shadow from the conical volcano at right. Electronic still photography is a relatively new technology that enables a camera to electronically capture and digitize an image with resolution approaching film quality. The digital images from STS-42 were stored on a disk

  14. [NDM-1 cases and outbreaks in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Yanık, Keramettin; Güney, Akif Koray; Karadağ, Adil; Eroğlu, Cafer

    2014-10-01

    We are grateful to Hatipoğlu and Turhan [Mikrobiyol Bul 2014; 48(1): 188-9] for their interest in our study published in Mikrobiyol Bul 2013; 47(2): 382-4. As Hatipoğlu and Turhan mentioned in their comment, ertapenem is more sensitive than other carbapenem antibiotics for the identification of New Delhi Metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1) producers among carbapenem-resistant strains being studied. However, its low specificity [Dortet et al. Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014: 249856] makes it equal with other carbepenems. Since all the isolates in our study were not tested for ertapenem susceptibility, we used the susceptibility data for three carbapenems to increase the sensitivity of our study regarding isolate selection. We agree Hatipoğlu and Turhan about the Modified Hodge Test (MHT) and we did not use MHT at all in our study. However we couldn't understand how they came to a conclusion that we used MHT and didn't mention in Material and Methods section. ZnSO4 supplemented MHT which was recommended by the authors [Dortet et al. Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014: 249856] has a sensitivity rate of about 85%. Thus we used molecular methods instead of MHT not to miss any single isolate. Hatipoğlu and Turhan mentioned about previously reported four NDM-1 positive isolates without any international relation in Turkey. However, since this mentioned study [Alp et al. J Hosp Infect 2013; 84(2): 178-80] was published after the appeal, acceptance and publication of our study, eventually we didn't have the opportunity to discuss the data of Alp's report. In the same study authors stated that NDM-1 producing isolates were isolated from pediatric patients and had no connection with patients from Indian peninsula. At the same time Poirel et al. [Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2014; 58(5): 2929-33] reported in their study that NDM-1 producing isolates from pediatric patients had clonal relation with Enterobacter cloacae strains and subject to an outbreak. The evaluation of the previous reports

  15. Karyosystematics and molecular taxonomy of the anomalous blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from the Balkan Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Vishnevskaya, Maria S.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Balkan Peninsula represents one of the hottest biodiversity spots in Europe. However, the invertebrate fauna of this region is still insufficiently investigated, even in respect of such well-studied organisms as Lepidoptera. Here we use a combination of chromosomal, molecular and morphological markers to rearrange the group of so-called anomalous blue butterflies (also known as ‘brown complex’ of the subgenus Agrodiaetus Hübner, [1822] and as the Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) admetus (Esper, 1783) species group) and to reveal its cryptic taxonomic structure. We demonstrate that Polyommatus aroaniensis (Brown, 1976) is not as widespread in the Balkans as was previously thought. In fact, it has a dot-like distribution range restricted to the Peloponnese Peninsula in South Greece. Polyommatus orphicus Kolev, 2005 is not as closely related to the Turkish species Polyommatus dantchenkoi (Lukhtanov & Wiemers, 2003) as was supposed earlier. Instead, it is a Balkan endemic represented by two subspecies: Polyommatus orphicus orphicus (Bulgaria) and Polyommatus orphicus eleniae Coutsis & De Prins, 2005 (Northern Greece). Polyommatus ripartii (Freyer, 1830) is represented in the Balkans by an endemic subspecies Polyommatus ripartii pelopi. The traditionally recognized Polyommatus admetus (Esper, 1783) is shown to be a heterogeneous complex and is divided into Polyommatus admetus sensu stricto (the Balkans and west Turkey) and Polyommatus yeranyani (Dantchenko & Lukhtanov, 2005) (east Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran). Polyommatus nephohiptamenos (Brown & Coutsis, 1978) is confirmed to be a species with a dot-like distribution range in Northern Greece. Finally, from Central Greece (Timfristos and Parnassos mountains) we describe Polyommatus timfristos Lukhtanov, Vishnevskaya & Shapoval, sp. n. which differs by its haploid chromosome number (n=38) from the closely related and morphologically similar Polyommatus aroaniensis (n=47-48) and Polyommatus orphicus (n

  16. Karyosystematics and molecular taxonomy of the anomalous blue butterflies (Lepidoptera, Lycaenidae) from the Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Vishnevskaya, Maria S; Saifitdinova, Alsu F; Lukhtanov, Vladimir A

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Peninsula represents one of the hottest biodiversity spots in Europe. However, the invertebrate fauna of this region is still insufficiently investigated, even in respect of such well-studied organisms as Lepidoptera. Here we use a combination of chromosomal, molecular and morphological markers to rearrange the group of so-called anomalous blue butterflies (also known as 'brown complex' of the subgenus Agrodiaetus Hübner, [1822] and as the Polyommatus (Agrodiaetus) admetus (Esper, 1783) species group) and to reveal its cryptic taxonomic structure. We demonstrate that Polyommatus aroaniensis (Brown, 1976) is not as widespread in the Balkans as was previously thought. In fact, it has a dot-like distribution range restricted to the Peloponnese Peninsula in South Greece. Polyommatus orphicus Kolev, 2005 is not as closely related to the Turkish species Polyommatus dantchenkoi (Lukhtanov & Wiemers, 2003) as was supposed earlier. Instead, it is a Balkan endemic represented by two subspecies: Polyommatus orphicus orphicus (Bulgaria) and Polyommatus orphicus eleniae Coutsis & De Prins, 2005 (Northern Greece). Polyommatus ripartii (Freyer, 1830) is represented in the Balkans by an endemic subspecies Polyommatus ripartii pelopi. The traditionally recognized Polyommatus admetus (Esper, 1783) is shown to be a heterogeneous complex and is divided into Polyommatus admetus sensu stricto (the Balkans and west Turkey) and Polyommatus yeranyani (Dantchenko & Lukhtanov, 2005) (east Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran). Polyommatus nephohiptamenos (Brown & Coutsis, 1978) is confirmed to be a species with a dot-like distribution range in Northern Greece. Finally, from Central Greece (Timfristos and Parnassos mountains) we describe Polyommatus timfristos Lukhtanov, Vishnevskaya & Shapoval, sp. n. which differs by its haploid chromosome number (n=38) from the closely related and morphologically similar Polyommatus aroaniensis (n=47-48) and Polyommatus orphicus (n=41-42). We

  17. Municipal solid waste management strategies in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Turan, N Gamze; Coruh, Semra; Akdemir, Andaç; Ergun, Osman Nuri

    2009-01-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a major environmental problem in Turkey, as in many developing countries. Problems associated with municipal solid waste are difficult to address, but efforts towards more efficient collection and transportation and environmentally acceptable waste disposal continue in Turkey. Although strict regulations on the management of solid waste are in place, primitive disposal methods such as open dumping and discharge into surface water have been used in various parts of Turkey. This study presents a brief history of the legislative trends in Turkey for MSW management. The study also presents the MSW responsibility and management structure together with the present situation of generation, composition, recycling, and treatment. The results show that approximately 25 million ton of MSW are generated annually in Turkey. About 77% of the population receives MSW services. In spite of efforts to change open dumping areas into sanitary landfills and to build modern recycling and composting facilities, Turkey still has over 2000 open dumps.

  18. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

    The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  19. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.

    Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60

  20. Sinai Peninsula, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Sinai Peninsula, located between Africa and Asia, is a result of those two continents pulling apart from each other. Earth's crust is cracking, stretching, and lowering along the two northern branches of the Red Sea, namely the Gulf of Suez, seen here on the west (left), and the Gulf of Aqaba, seen to the east (right). This color-coded shaded relief image shows the triangular nature of the peninsula, with the coast of the Mediterranean Sea forming the northern side of the triangle. The Suez Canal can be seen as the narrow vertical blue line in the upper left connecting the Red Sea to the Mediterranean.

    The peninsula is divided into three distinct parts; the northern region consisting chiefly of sandstone, plains and hills, the central area dominated by the Tih Plateau, and the mountainous southern region where towering peaks abound. Much of the Sinai is deeply dissected by river valleys, or wadis, that eroded during an earlier geologic period and break the surface of the plateau into a series of detached massifs with a few scattered oases.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect 3-D measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (approximately 200-foot

  1. Turkey knockdown in successive flocks.

    PubMed

    Evans, R D; Edson, R K; Watkins, K L; Robertson, J L; Meldrum, J B; Novilla, M N

    2000-01-01

    Turkey knockdown was diagnosed in three of five flocks of hen turkeys on a single farm within a 12-mo period. The age of birds in the flocks affected ranged from 6 wk 2 days to 7 wk 4 days. The attack rate ranged from 0.02% to 0.30% with a case fatality rate in affected birds ranging from 0 to 74%. The diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and histopathologic lesions associated with knockdown. The feed in all flocks contained bacitracin methylene disalicylate and monensin (Coban). Affected birds were recumbent, demonstrated paresis, and were unable to vocalize. Postmortem examination revealed few significant lesions although pallor of the adductor muscles and petechiation in adductor and gastrocnemius muscles were noted. Birds that had been recumbent for extended periods were severely dehydrated. Consistent microscopic lesions included degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration of adductor, gastrocnemius, and abdominal muscles. No lesion in cardiac tissue was noted. Results of our investigation indicated that changes in water consumption, vitamin E status, and brooder to finisher movement correlated with the occurrence of knockdown. Turkey knockdown was defined in 1993 as any condition identified in a turkey flock that has affected the neuromuscular system to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand. This definition was later modified to...neuromuscular or skeletal systems to a degree that a turkey is unable to walk or stand properly. Knockdown may be associated with numerous feed, management, or disease factors alone or in combination. Dosage of monensin, feed restriction/gorging, water restriction, heat stress, copper, mycotoxins, sodium chloride in feed, and sulfa drugs have all been suggested as contributing factors; however, laboratory studies to duplicate this have not been successful. This report presents observations from a single farm at which three of five hen flocks in a single year experienced knockdown. When a flock was reported as

  2. Eruption of Shiveluch Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On March 29, 2007, the Shiveluch Volcano on the Russian Federation's Kamchatka Peninsula erupted. According to the Alaska Volcano Observatory the volcano underwent an explosive eruption between 01:50 and 2:30 UTC, sending an ash cloud skyward roughly 9,750 meters (32,000 feet), based on visual estimates. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying onboard NASA's Aqua satellite took this picture at 02:00 UTC on March 29. The top image shows the volcano and its surroundings. The bottom image shows a close-up view of the volcano at 250 meters per pixel. Satellites often capture images of volcanic ash plumes, but usually as the plumes are blowing away. Plumes have been observed blowing away from Shiveluch before. This image, however, is different. At the time the Aqua satellite passed overhead, the eruption was recent enough (and the air was apparently still enough) that the ash cloud still hovered above the summit. In this image, the bulbous cloud casts its shadow northward over the icy landscape. Volcanic ash eruptions inject particles into Earth's atmosphere. Substantial eruptions of light-reflecting particles can reduce temperatures and even affect atmospheric circulation. Large eruptions impact climate patterns for years. A massive eruption of the Tambora Volcano in Indonesia in 1815, for instance, earned 1816 the nickname 'the year without a summer.' Shiveluch is a stratovolcano--a steep-sloped volcano composed of alternating layers of solidified ash, hardened lava, and volcanic rocks. One of Kamchatka's largest volcanoes, it sports a summit reaching 3,283 meters (10,771 feet). Shiveluch is also one of the peninsula's most active volcanoes, with an estimated 60 substantial eruptions in the past 10,000 years.

  3. Tropospheric ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pavan S.; Bortoli, D.; Salgado, R.; Antón, M.; Costa, M. J.; Silva, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    To study tropospheric ozone variability over the Iberian Peninsula (IP), NASA Langley TOR data have been analyzed for the 1979-2005 period. The maximum tropospheric ozone concentration over the entire IP was found in June (˜41 DU) and a minimum in December (˜29 DU). However the maximum tropospheric ozone concentration was found over West Atlantic Coast (WAC) (˜44 DU), followed by Mediterranean Coast (MC) (˜42 DU), North Atlantic Coast (NAC) (˜41 DU), Central Iberian Peninsula (CIP) (˜40 DU) and Pyrenees Mountain Range (PMR) (˜39 DU) during June-July. The high concentration of tropospheric ozone in July over the Atlantic Ocean near IP is due to the presence of Azores anticyclone and related photochemistry and dynamics, and affects the observed higher tropospheric ozone concentration over WAC zone. Strong seasonal cycle in tropospheric ozone concentration has been observed with large variation over NAC (˜49%), followed by WAC (˜48%) and MC (˜41%) compared to CIP and PMR (˜38%) zones. When the data are compared over the IP for the two periods (1979-1993 and 1997-2005), a systematic increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric ozone concentration has been observed during the second period with respect to the first. These increases are almost 8% to 24% over NAC, 6% to 17% over WAC, 5% to 24% over CIP, 6% to 23% over MC and 13% to 18% over PMR, zones. It has been observed that topography, climatology and population density distribution plays a crucial role in the variability of tropospheric ozone concentration over the IP.

  4. Active margin processes along the Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriet, J. P.; Meissner, R.; Miller, H.; The Grape Team

    1992-01-01

    The Antarctic Peninsula has a remarkable record of active margin processes, which include subduction with progressive ridge-trench collisions, margin segmentation by major fracture zones, rifting in a hybrid back-arc and sheared plate margin context, fore-arc basin development and glacial-marine controlled trench fill processes. Several facets of these active margin processes both of internal (crustal dynamic) and external origin (climate-controlled) have been documented by a geophysical survey during the Antarktis VI/2 cruise of R.V. Polarstem(October-December 1987). Reflection seismic profiles have been shot over the rift basin of Bransfield Strait, over an elongated sediment-filled trough interpreted as a fore-arc basin, over accretional and progradational slopes, over recent and ancient trench environments and over the facing oceanic domain. In this oceanic domain, different fracture zones have highly contrasting morphological and geophysical expressions. The subduction of a fracture zone like Hero F.Z., characterized by a significant relief possibly related to the presence of buoyant (serpentinite) ridges, may have been a factor of subduction termination for the last segment of the Aluk (Drake) plate; it may also have played a role in the separation of a blueschist-bearing fragment (Smith Island) from the base of the accretionary plate margin and in its lift to the surface. The magnetic anomaly pattern of the oceanic slabs facing the northwestern Peninsula margin shows evidence of an intriguing spreading acceleration, which apparently preceded ridge-trench collision. The same anomaly pattern provides a clue to the stratigraphie interpretation of the oceanic sediment cover and of the frontal part of the prograding, now passive margin south of the South Shetland Island Arc. An apparently broken and tilted oceanic plate fragment, squeezed between the South Shetland Trench and Shackleton Fracture Zone, may argue for the role of transpression associated with the

  5. Fowl Cholera Immunization in Turkeys

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John; Dawe, Donald L.; Davis, Richard B.; Foster, John W.; Srivastava, K. K.

    1970-01-01

    Cell fractions of Pastuerella multocida (P-1059) were tested as vaccines against fowl cholera in turkeys. These fractions were culture filtrate, cell wall, and cytoplasm. A second culture filtrate preparation made from cells grown on blood-agar rather than the standard medium was also tested along with a “combination” preparation made by recombination of the cell fractions. Each preparation was tested in three vehicles: saline, alum (0.5%), and Freund Incomplete Adjuvant (50%). The turkeys vaccinated with these preparations were challenged by exposure to an experimental epornitic of fowl cholera. The combination fraction appeared to be the most promising vaccine when compared to the protective action of the commercial bacterin included in the test as a positive control. PMID:5422310

  6. Population model for Alaska Peninsula sea otters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Siniff, D.B.

    1988-12-31

    This study was conducted to provide a basis for assessing risks of oil spills to sea otter populations along the Alaska Peninsula. The principal efforts were devoted to analyzing the available data on population dynamics. Curves characterizing survivorship and reproduction for sea otters were devised and fitted to several data sets. A detailed review was conducted of methods of assessing population dynamics data, and several new techniques (e.g., bootstrapping) were applied to available data. A simplified model for use with Alaska Peninsula sea otter populations was devised and implemented in a 'spreadsheet' format. Various aspects of model development and data on population size in Alaska Peninsula areas were reviewed.

  7. Pediatric malignancies in Bursa, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Günay, U; Meral, A; Sevinir, B

    1996-01-01

    Turkey is among the countries affected by ionizing radiation from the Chernobyl accident of April 26, 1986. The northern part of Turkey, where the city of Bursa is located, is presumed to be more influenced by the nuclear catastrophe. The radioactive elements in the atmosphere have been examined at various intervals after May 1, 1986 and barium-140 and lanthanum-140, fission agents of uranium-235, have been found in the atmosphere. Their exact concentration could not be measured. The aim of this report is to review the pediatric malignancies diagnosed in our institution between 1986 and 1995, with a view on any significant increase in the number of these cases. The patients were divided into three groups: acute leukemia patients (101 cases), lymphomas (44 cases), and solid tumors (31 cases). All three groups showed a tendency to increase after 1986; the increase in leukemia cases between 1986 and 1995 was found to be significantly higher (p < 0.001) when compared with the years before 1986. The increase in lymphoma and solid tumor cases after 1986 was not found to be significant (p > 0.05). We cannot rule out environmental causes other than the effects of the Chernobyl accident, and we feel that more intense epidemiological studies should be carried out on this subject in other areas of Turkey.

  8. Cerebral encephalomalacia in commercial turkeys.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Cummings, T S; Wages, D P

    1993-01-01

    A flock of 9 1/2-week-old commercial tom turkeys experienced high mortality after consuming a complete feed containing an unidentified toxic substance. Initially, turkeys were found dead. Clinically, the birds were calm and still but became hyperexcitable with noise. A small percentage of birds exhibited torticollis, opisthotonos, circling, ataxia, and blindness. Findings at necropsy and upon microscopic examination were bilaterally symmetrical areas of necrosis of the cerebral hemispheres in the area of the neostriatum that were well demarcated from the surrounding normal neuropil. A feeding trial with the suspect feed in twelve 4-week-old turkey hens induced clinical disease and gross and microscopic brain changes similar to those observed in the field case. Analyses for the following substances in the suspect feed were either negative or within acceptable limits: salt, selenium, furazolidone, monensin, amprolium, 3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid, aflatoxin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, ochratoxin, fumonisin, organophosphates, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and carbamates. The toxic component of the feed remains unidentified.

  9. Women and leprosy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakiner, T; Yüksel, A; Soydan, M; Saylan, T; Bahçeci, E

    1993-01-01

    Women in Turkey have many social, cultural and economical problems. Women with leprosy have problems in common with other women as well as those related to physical and social consequences of leprosy. There are 2,414 patients with leprosy in Turkey, registered to Istanbul Leprosy Hospital and 829 of them are females. The mean age and duration of disease of our female leprosy patients are high. Most women with leprosy were born in eastern part of Turkey where prevalence of leprosy is higher and most have moved to western regions. The proportion of women who have some kind of social security is very low. Their economic status is also not good and 79% of patients had stigma about their disease. Three fourths of these cases have been hospitalized some time, for different reasons. Most of them (97.2%) have inactive disease at present. Disability degrees of patients are high. Patients with disability degrees over one constitute 54% of total for eyes, 55% for hands and 51% for feet. High percentage of multibacillary form and long duration of disease, delayed diagnosis, insufficient self-care of patients due to low socio-economic and cultural status and failure of health personnel to control patients periodically may be among the reasons for such high ratios of moderate and severe disabilities. In the light of the data obtained in our study, some measures to alleviate the problems of patients resulting from their socio-economic, cultural and social status have been suggested.

  10. Salmonella Levels in Turkey Neck Skins, Drumstick Bones, and Spleens in Relation to Ground Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yue; Guran, Husnu S; Harrison, Mark A; Hofacre, Charles L; Alali, Walid Q

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine Salmonella levels (presence and numbers) in turkey drumstick bone, spleen, and neck skin samples in relation to Salmonella contamination levels in ground turkey at the flock level. Over a 10-month period, a total of 300 samples of each turkey part (i.e., neck skin, spleen, and drumstick) from 20 flocks were collected at a commercial turkey processing plant after the evisceration step. Turkey flocks included in this study were classified as "targeted" and "nontargeted" based on the company's historical ground turkey contamination data. A flock that originated from a turkey farm that had previously produced one or more flocks with ≥20% Salmonella prevalence in ground turkey was labeled as a targeted flock (n = 13). The remaining seven flocks with <20% prevalence were labeled as nontargeted. All samples collected were tested for Salmonella presence and numbers by using most-probable-number and selective enrichment methods. Further genotypic analysis (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) of the isolates was performed. Ground turkey samples were collected and analyzed for Salmonella levels by the cooperating turkey company. The outside surface of bone and spleen were sterilized prior to Salmonella analysis. The overall Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, drumstick bone, spleen, and ground turkey samples was 42.0, 9.3, 6.7, and 14.5%, respectively. Salmonella prevalence in neck skin, spleen, drumstick bone, and ground turkey from the targeted flocks was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those from nontargeted flocks. There was a significant relationship between Salmonella presence in neck skin (when most probable numbers were ≥2 log) and Salmonella-positive ground turkey lot. Based on our findings, Salmonella was detected internally in drumstick bones and spleens at low levels, whereas Salmonella presence at higher levels in neck skin may indicate a flock with greater potential for Salmonella contamination of ground turkey.

  11. 27 CFR 9.114 - Old Mission Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... They are entitled: (1) Elk Rapids, Mich. (1957); and (2) Traverse City, Mich. (1957). (c) Boundary. The... until it reaches the lighthouse near Old Mission Point at the north side of the Peninsula on the Elk...

  12. Endemic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of the Balkan Peninsula: a review.

    PubMed

    Trakić, Tanja; Valchovski, Hristo; Stojanović, Mirjana

    2016-11-10

    A list of the endemic earthworms of the Balkan Peninsula is presented. Comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution on the Balkan Peninsula and zoogeographical type of all endemics is given. The list comprises 90 species and subspecies, belonging to 11 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The largest number of the Balkan endemic earthworms belongs to a narrow range group (63.3%). Broad range endemic species take part with 36.7%. Our study shows that the degree of endemism on the Balkan Peninsula is extremely high (about 40%) suggesting an important process of autochthonous speciation on the Balkan Peninsula. This appearance is attributable to relative isolation of the mountains compared to the lowlands within the context of paleoenvironmental changes.

  13. 27 CFR 9.114 - Old Mission Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... They are entitled: (1) Elk Rapids, Mich. (1957); and (2) Traverse City, Mich. (1957). (c) Boundary. The... until it reaches the lighthouse near Old Mission Point at the north side of the Peninsula on the...

  14. 27 CFR 9.114 - Old Mission Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... They are entitled: (1) Elk Rapids, Mich. (1957); and (2) Traverse City, Mich. (1957). (c) Boundary. The... until it reaches the lighthouse near Old Mission Point at the north side of the Peninsula on the...

  15. 27 CFR 9.114 - Old Mission Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... They are entitled: (1) Elk Rapids, Mich. (1957); and (2) Traverse City, Mich. (1957). (c) Boundary. The... until it reaches the lighthouse near Old Mission Point at the north side of the Peninsula on the...

  16. 27 CFR 9.114 - Old Mission Peninsula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... They are entitled: (1) Elk Rapids, Mich. (1957); and (2) Traverse City, Mich. (1957). (c) Boundary. The... until it reaches the lighthouse near Old Mission Point at the north side of the Peninsula on the...

  17. A net volume equation for Michigan's Upper and Lower Peninsulas.

    Treesearch

    Gerhard K. Raile; W. Brad Smith; Carol A. Weist

    1982-01-01

    Describes a volume equation for Michigan's Upper and Lower Peninsulas developed as part of the 1981 Michigan Forest Inventory. Equation coefficients are presented by species groupings for both cubic-foot and board-foot volumes for three tree categories.

  18. Timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Treesearch

    Patricia M. Bassett; Daniel D. Oswald

    1961-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1978-79 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  19. Preliminary timber resource statistics for the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Treesearch

    Colin D. MacLean; Janet L. Ohmann; Patricia M. Bassett

    1991-01-01

    This report summarizes a 1989 timber resource inventory of five counties in the Olympic Peninsula region of Washington: Clallam, Grays Harbor, Jefferson, Mason, and Thurston. Detailed tables of forest area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest are presented.

  20. Shaded Relief with Height as Color, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-03-06

    This shaded relief image of Mexico Yucatan Peninsula show a subtle, but unmistakable, indication of the Chicxulub impact crater. Most scientists now agree that this impact was the cause of the Cretatious-Tertiary Extinction.

  1. Management guidelines for Merriam's wild turkeys

    Treesearch

    Richard W. Hoffman; Harley G. Shaw; Mark A. Rumble; Brian F. Wakeling; Cheryl M. Mollohan; Sanford D. Schemnitz; Ron Engel-Wilson; Dan A. Hengel

    1993-01-01

    The Merriam's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) is a bird of the western United States. Early naturalists found it here. This is where its range has been expanded through transplants. This is where it has become a valuable sport hunting and aesthetic resource. This is where it must be managed. To understand Merriam's wild turkey...

  2. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  3. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  4. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  5. Enteric parvovirus infections of chickens and turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chicken and turkey parvoviruses are members of the Parvovirus family. Comparative sequence analysis of their genome structure revealed that they should form a new genus within the vertebrate Parvovirinae subfamily. The first chicken and turkey parvoviruses were identified by electron microscopy duri...

  6. Rights of the Child in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naqvi, Yasmin

    This report to the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention by Turkey and observations regarding violence against girls in Turkey. The report is presented in three major parts. Part 1 asserts that despite the considerable…

  7. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and…

  8. Talking Turkey at the Wildwood Education Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Mike

    1994-01-01

    A vocational education program at the Wildwood Education Center (Hornell, NY) enabled 9th and 10th grade special education students to design, build, and market turkey calls. A module on wildlife management piqued student interest in wildlife calls and turkey hunting and led to the project. The program improved vocational skills and increased…

  9. Issues of Identification of Giftedness in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Füsun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study, giving rise to this article is to highlight factors that play a role in the identification of gifted students through analysis of literature and current issues in Turkey. The article points out differences between what is typically found in literature and what occurs in Turkey. It is based on a review of definitions and…

  10. Citizenship Education in Turkey: Inclusive or Exclusive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ince, Basak

    2012-01-01

    This paper scrutinises citizenship education in Turkey from the foundation of the Turkish Republic (1923) to the present and explores the extent to which it encourages inclusive or exclusive concepts of national identity and citizenship. In Turkey, where there are citizens belonging to ethnic and religious minorities, civic education plays a…

  11. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and…

  12. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  13. Joint Vision for the Korean Peninsula -- Can We Get There?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-11

    for the Alliance of the United States and the Republic of Korea . The joint statement laid out a shared vision for the Korean Peninsula and the...setting the stage for peaceful reunification, elimination of North Korean nuclear weapons programs and promoting human rights in North Korea . North...Korea’s unpredictability not only poses a threat on the Korean Peninsula but to the entire Northeast Asia region. North Korea is a multifaceted

  14. Wildlife of southern forests habitat & management (Chapter 9): Wild Turkey

    Treesearch

    James G. Dickson

    2003-01-01

    A traditional and very important game species of southern forests is the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). The wild turkey is a truly wild creature and inspires an amazing level of admiration and devotion among turkey hunters. Wild turkeys have stout legs that support the heavy bird and are used to scratch for food, and short powerful wings...

  15. Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On June 2, a devastating mudslide in the world-renowned Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula virtually obliterated the natural wonder, forcing the emergency evacuation of visitors and national park personnel. The site, which is the Kamchatka Peninsula's main tourist attraction, consists of some 200 thermal pools created by the area's intense volcanic activity, including about 90 geysers covering an area of four square kilometers (2.5 square miles). It is one of only five sites in the world where the impressive eruptions of steam and boiling-hot water can be found. According to witnesses, a powerful mudslide 1.5 kilometers (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide buried more than two-thirds of the valley beneath tens of meters of snow, dirt, trees and boulders (right image), and created a temporary lake submerging more geysers.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is

  16. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet).

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by

  17. SRTM Anaglyph: Sredinnyy Khrebet, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia is shown in this scene created from a preliminary elevation model derived from the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) on February 12, 2000. Sredinnyy Khrebet, the mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula, is a chain of active volcanic peaks. Pleistocene and recent glaciers have carved the broad valleys and jagged ridges that are common here. The relative youth of the volcanism is revealed by the topography as infilling and smoothing of the otherwise rugged terrain by lava, ash, and pyroclastic flows, particularly surrounding the high peaks in the south central part of the image. Elevations here range from near sea level up to 2,618 meters (8,590 feet).

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by

  18. Neotectonics Of The Hengchun Peninsula, southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P.; Chen, Y.; Liu, C.; Song, K.

    2006-12-01

    The southern tip of Taiwan, the Hengchun Peninsula, has recently emerged as situated in between the collisional accretionary prism and the predecessor of the submarine forearc rise. The east-dipping Hengchun Fault (HCF), located in the middle part of the Hengchun Peninsula and oriented in the direction of NNW, can be clearly identified by the landform contrast between the mountain and the valley in the east and west respectively. This contrast confirms the thrust component of the HCF. In the hanging wall of the HCF, the raised marine terraces are widely distributed in the Hikou area, whose linear scarps coincidentally strike in the NNW, identical to the HCF. The ages of the terraces has been previously presented as 6 ka implying that the marine terraces have been uplifted by the activity of HCF during the past 6 kyr. To the south, we also discover a series of continuous and discrete scarps in the Maanshan area, which are also distributed sub-parallel or parallel to the HCF. We suggest that the scarps are formed by a series of faults, which are ramified from the northern segment of the HCF. Based on the recent GPS measurements, we divide the displacement vector field into parallel and normal to the HCF and suppose that the HCF has recently acted as a left-lateral strike- slip fault. It is obvious that there is a fault bend (from NNW to WNW) located in the immediate south of the Maanshan, which may be the cause to explain the wider fault zone composed a series of faults mentioned above. An active anticline is discovered in the offshore area of Western Hengchun Tableland (WHT) to the west, which is tentatively named as Western Hengchun Tablelend Anticline (WHTA). Within and around the WHT, marine terraces are also widely distributed according to the previous studies. The eastward (range-ward) tilting surface of the tableland itself implies its tectonic origin. Since the WHT is located on the eastern limb of the anticline, the eastward tilting of the WHT may be

  19. 3-D Perspective Kamchatka Peninsula Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions. This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota. SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60- meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x 136 km (84 miles) coast to skyline. Location: 58.3 deg. North lat., 160 deg. East long. Orientation: Easterly view, 2 degrees

  20. Shaded Relief Color Wrapped, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This shaded relief topographic image shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. The data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). On the left side are five rivers, which flow northwest to the Sea of Okhotsk. These rivers are, from the south to north, Tigil, Amanina, Voyampolka, Zhilovaya, and Kakhtana. The broad, flat floodplains of the rivers are shown in yellow. These rivers are important spawning grounds for salmon. In the right side of the image is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the 3spine2 of the peninsula. The cluster of hills to the lower right is a field of small dormant volcanoes. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Each cycle of colors (from red through green back to red) represents an equal amount of elevation difference (400 meters, or 1300 feet)similar to contour lines on a standard topographic map. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. For the shading, a computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. Shaded relief maps are commonly used in applications such as geologic mapping and land use planning.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast

  1. 3-D Perspective View, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This perspective view shows the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula in eastern Russia. The image was generated using the first data collected during the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). In the foreground is the Sea of Okhotsk. Inland from the coast, vegetated floodplains and low relief hills rise toward snow capped peaks. The topographic effects on snow and vegetation distribution are very clear in this near-horizontal view. Forming the skyline is the Sredinnyy Khrebet, the volcanic mountain range that makes up the spine of the peninsula. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists to study how volcanoes form and to understand the hazards posed by future eruptions.

    This image was generated using topographic data from SRTM and an enhanced true-color image from the Landsat 7 satellite. This image contains about 2,400 meters (7,880 feet) of total relief. The topographic expression was enhanced by adding artificial shading as calculated from the SRTM elevation model. The Landsat data was provided by the United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar(SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. To collect the 3-D SRTM data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. SRTM collected three-dimensional measurements of nearly 80 percent of the Earth's surface. SRTM is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense, and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: 33.3 km (20.6 miles) wide x

  2. Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    On June 2, a devastating mudslide in the world-renowned Geyser Valley on the Kamchatka Peninsula virtually obliterated the natural wonder, forcing the emergency evacuation of visitors and national park personnel. The site, which is the Kamchatka Peninsula's main tourist attraction, consists of some 200 thermal pools created by the area's intense volcanic activity, including about 90 geysers covering an area of four square kilometers (2.5 square miles). It is one of only five sites in the world where the impressive eruptions of steam and boiling-hot water can be found. According to witnesses, a powerful mudslide 1.5 kilometers (one mile) long and 200 meters (600 feet) wide buried more than two-thirds of the valley beneath tens of meters of snow, dirt, trees and boulders (right image), and created a temporary lake submerging more geysers.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is

  3. The history of liver transplantation in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Moray, Gökhan; Arslan, Gülnaz; Haberal, Mehmet

    2014-03-01

    Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment for end-stage liver diseases. The first successful liver transplant was performed in the United States by Thomas Starzl in 1967. The first successful solid organ transplant in Turkey was a living-related kidney transplant performed by Dr. Haberal in 1975. After much effort by Dr. Haberal, the Turkish parliament enacted a law about organ transplantation in 1979. After clinical and experimental studies, the first liver transplant in Turkey was performed by Dr. Haberal in 1988. The first successful partial living-donor liver transplant in children in Turkey was performed by the same team on March 15, 1990. On April 24, 1990, the first living-donor liver transplant was performed on a child in Turkey using a left lateral segment by Dr. Haberal and coworkers. On May 16, 1992, Dr. Haberal performed a simultaneous living-donor liver and kidney transplantation to an adult from the same donor. There currently are 30 liver transplantation centers in Turkey. According to data from the Ministry of Health, there presently are 2065 patients in Turkey who are waiting for a liver transplantation. From January 2002 to June 2013, there were 6091 liver transplants performed in Turkey (4020 living-donor [66% ] and 2071 deceased donor liver transplants [34% ]). From January 2011 to June 2013, there were 2514 patients who had liver transplants in Turkey, and 437 patients (17%) died. The number of liver transplants per year in Turkey reached 1000 transplants in 2012 and more than 1150 transplants in 2013 (15.1/million/y). Therefore, Turkey has one of the highest volumes of liver transplantation per population worldwide, with 90% survival within 1 year after transplantation.

  4. Earthquake induced landslide hazard field observatory in the Avcilar peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigarre, Pascal; Coccia, Stella; Theoleyre, Fiona; Ergintav, Semih; Özel, Oguz; Yalçinkaya, Esref; Lenti, Luca; Martino, Salvatore; Gamba, Paolo; Zucca, Francesco; Moro, Marco

    2015-04-01

    Earthquake-triggered landslides have an increasing disastrous impact in seismic regions due to the fast growing urbanization and infrastructures. Just considering disasters from the last fifteen years, among which the 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake, the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, and the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, these events generated tens of thousands of coseismic landslides. Those resulted in amazing death toll and considerable damages, affecting the regional landscape including its hydrological main features. Despite a strong impetus in research during past decades, knowledge on those geohazards is still fragmentary, while databases of high quality observational data are lacking. These phenomena call for further collaborative researches aiming eventually to enhance preparedness and crisis management. The MARSITE project gathers research groups in a comprehensive monitoring activity developed in the Sea of Marmara Region, one of the most densely populated parts of Europe and rated at high seismic risk level since the 1999 Izmit and Duzce devastating earthquakes. Besides the seismic threat, landslides in Turkey and in this region constitute an important source of loss. The 6th Work Package of MARSITE project gathers 9 research groups to study earthquake-induced landslides focusing on two sub-regional areas of high interest among which the Cekmece-Avcilar peninsula, located westwards of Istanbul, as a highly urbanized concentrated landslide prone area, showing high susceptibility to both rainfalls while affected by very significant seismic site effects. A multidisciplinary research program based on pre-existing studies has been designed with objectives and tasks linked to constrain and tackle progressively some challenging issues related to data integration, modeling, monitoring and mapping technologies. Since the start of the project, progress has been marked on several important points as follows. The photogeological interpretation and analysis of ENVISAT-ERS DIn

  5. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula).

    PubMed

    Cavero, R Y; Akerreta, S; Calvo, M I

    2011-01-07

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses in Northern Navarra from an area known both for its high biological diversity and its cultural significance, suggesting the survival of uses lost elsewhere. Collect, analyze and evaluate the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinal plants in Northern Navarra (Iberian Peninsula) with 4243 km(2) and 71,069 inhabitants. We performed semi-structured interviews with 253 informants (mean age 69; 61% women, 39% men) in 120 locations, identified the plant reported and analyzed the results, comparing them with those from other territories. The informants reported data on 174 medicinal plants belonging to 63 botanical families. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 98% of the pharmaceutical uses (1725 use reports). The species with the highest number of cites are Chamaemelum nobile, Sambucus nigra and Verbena officinalis, with a long tradition of use in The Mountain (Navarra). All different plant parts are used; aerial part is exploited more frequently than other plant parts. Most of the listed remedies use a single ingredient, typically soaked in water. Usually, the administration is primarily oral followed by topical applications. The main ailments treated are digestive troubles, wounds and dermatological problems, and respiratory affections. Informants reported 24 new or scarcely cited uses for 23 medicinal plants. For 35% of the species (8) we have not found bibliographical references in the scientific literature and 48% (11) have only one to three references. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Trichinella pseudospiralis in the Iberian peninsula.

    PubMed

    Zamora, M J; Alvarez, M; Olmedo, J; Blanco, M C; Pozio, E

    2015-06-15

    Nematode worms of the genus Trichinella are zoonotic parasites circulating in most continents, including Europe. In Spain, Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi are highly prevalent in wildlife but seldom in domestic pigs. In Portugal, only T. britovi was documented in wild carnivores. In the period 2006-2013 in Spain, 384 (0.0001%) pigs and 1399 (0.20%) wild boars (Sus scrofa) were positive for Trichinella spp. larvae, which were identified as T. spiralis or T. britovi. In 2014, Trichinella pseudospiralis larvae were isolated from a wild boar hunted in the Gerona province, Cataluña region, North-East of Spain, near the border to France. This is the first report of T. pseudospiralis in the Iberian peninsula, which suggests a broad distribution area of this zoonotic nematode in Europe. Since larvae of this Trichinella species do not encapsulate in the host muscles, they can be detected only by artificial digestion of muscle samples. T. pseudospiralis is the only Trichinella species infecting both mammals and birds. Birds can spread this pathogen over great distances including islands triggering new foci of infections in areas previously considered at low risk for this pathogen. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Multimedia and children in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tuncer, A M; Yalçin, S S

    1999-01-01

    Multimedia will be regarded as essential tools for children to create their new world. The effects of television on young children's life have been well studied. Television differs, however, from other media, including the movies, in its pervasive impact on children. Children spend more time watching television than any other activity except sleeping. Overall 31% of children spent at least 4 hours a day watching television during weekday and 71.7% during weekend in Turkey. Television's influence on children is a function of the length of time they spend watching and the cumulative effect of what they see. Television may be a cause as well as a solution for many serious childhood problems. Excessive viewing of television has also been linked to aggressive behavior, violence, childhood obesity. On the other hand, television may act as a socializing agent and as a learning tool if the recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics is learned by pediatricians, parents and broadcasters. The use of home personal computers in urban residence increased from 3.2% in 1993 to 6.5% by January 1998 in Turkey. Around 20% of computer households reported owing a modem. Internet has been using only for 5 years in Turkey. Nearly 40% of computer households also used CD-ROM equipment. The percentage of schools that have a computer laboratory is only 2.64%. On the other hand, multimedia allows students to move away from a uniform education for everyone to assert individual identity, liberalize education and management. It seems likely that, within the next few years, most of the countries with substantial internet infrastructure will use the internet as the major medium for disseminating information, including information on children. To prepare students for such a world demands that educational systems make the best possible use of all knowledge and technologies currently available.

  8. BI-GAS coal-gasification program. Final report, November 1979-August 1982. [Tests G10A; G11, A, B, C, D, E, F, G; G12, A; G12, A; G13; G14, A; G15, A; G16, A, B; G17, A, B, C, D, E, F; G18, A, B; G19 A, B

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1983-01-31

    The primary purpose of this report is to cover in detail activities at the BI-GAS Coal-Gasification Pilot Plant from November 1979 through August 1982. During this period Stearns-Roger Incorporated was the prime contractor for the project. Progress included improvements in the reliability of coal and char feeding systems, maintenance of slag tapping, durability of the char burners and removal of supplemental fuel gas. (Operations had previously been conducted using supplemental gas feed to insure a reducing atmosphere in the gasifier.) Durations of test runs using Montana Rosbud coal were increased, in some cases to over 150 hours without serious equipment problems. The process and equipment modifications which led to these improvements are discussed in the report. In addition, summaries of each gasifier test, major plant modifications and conclusions and recommendations are included. Volume 2 contains topical reports which describe the operation of the gasifier and each of the auxiliary process areas as well as heat and material balance data, computer simulation, gasification of Pittsburgh seam coal and materials evaluation.

  9. Suicide in Batman, southeastern Turkey.

    PubMed

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-08-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was 1.72/1. The suicides most frequently occurred in young females, mean age 20.7. The most frequent method (45%) was hanging. The most frequent stressful life events were health problems and family disruption. High suicide rates among females may be related to negative social status of females living in the region.

  10. [The urbanization rate in Turkey].

    PubMed

    Widy-kwiatkowska, J

    1994-01-01

    Data from the annual statistical report on Turkey for 1990 and the results of research from 1985 and 1990 were utilized and compared with the trends of urbanization observed in the 1969 work of Z. Siemek on Turkey. In 1990, Turkey had about 56.5 million people with an average annual natural growth rate of 2.6% and an unemployment rate of 16%. The rural population made up 41% of the total populace. Urbanization was on the increase, from 47% in 1980, to 55% in 1985, and 59% in 1990. Urbanization in Ankara, because of its location in the center of Turkey, was particularly active in the regions of Anatolia, although it was still isolated in terms of intensified development. Istanbul's The population of Istanbul numbered 6,754,000 people in 1990. It is the major industrial center of the country with about 20% of industrial plants and 17% of the work force in the manufacturing industry. The largest degree of urbanization was demonstrated by Ankara: in 1927 its population numbered only 74,500 people, in 1965 about 902,000 inhabitants, and in 1990 about 2,837,000 people. During the period 1985-90, only 2 out of 73 provinces experienced a decline of the urban population: Kirikkale from 70.4% to 69.7% (because of the dynamic development of the Central region) and Istanbul from 95.4% to 92.4%. During this same period, Kirikkale's urban population, compared with the nation's total urban population, also declined from 0.9% to 0.7% because of immigration of both urban and rural people to other, more attractive provinces. The growth of urban population in the province of Istanbul varied from 1% to 10% during the period and made up 20.3% of the entire urban population. The Central region underwent a large degree of urbanization characterized by industrial-agricultural development. The city of Sivas became a center of communication. In the Central and Kurd regions, urbanization proceeded fast owing to the development of the Black Sea region and the immigration of Kurds from Iraq

  11. Tracheal mucus transport rate in normal turkeys and in turkeys infected with Bordetella avium (Alcaligenes faecalis).

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Edwards, J F; Lay, J C; Tveter, D E

    1986-01-01

    Using the radiopharmaceutical 99mtechnetium-sulfur colloid, the tracheal mucus transport rate (TMTR) was measured in healthy unanesthetized turkeys and in turkeys infected with Bordetella avium. The TMTR of uninfected turkeys was 35.6 +/- 14.4 cm/min. The TMTR of B. avium-infected turkeys was normal on days 0 through 14 postexposure (PE), despite heavy bacterial colonization of the tracheal epithelium. On day 21 PE, the TMTR of B. avium-infected turkeys was significantly depressed (P less than or equal to 0.01) compared with that of control turkeys. Depressed transport was associated with extensive loss of ciliated epithelium from the tracheal mucosa and replacement of the normal mucosa by immature nonciliated epithelium or metaplastic squamous epithelium.

  12. Cenozoic epeirogeny of the Arabian Peninsula from drainage modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. W. P.; Roberts, G. G.; Hoggard, M. J.; White, N. J.

    2014-10-01

    is generally accepted that the Arabian Peninsula has been uplifted by subcrustal processes. Positive residual depth anomalies from oceanic crust in the Red Sea and in the Gulf of Aden suggest that a region surrounding this peninsula is dynamically supported. Admittance calculations, surface wave tomography studies, and receiver function analyses all imply that regional topography is generated and maintained by some combination of mantle convective circulation and lithospheric thickness changes. Despite these significant advances, the spatial and temporal uplift rate history of the Arabian Peninsula is not well known. Here we show that a regional uplift rate history can be obtained by jointly inverting 225 longitudinal river profiles that drain this peninsula. Our strategy assumes that shapes of individual river profiles are controlled by uplift rate history and moderated by erosional processes. We used local measurements of incision rate to calibrate the relevant erosional parameters. In our inverse algorithm, uplift rate is permitted to vary smoothly as a function of space and time but upstream drainage area remains invariant. We also assume that knickzone migration is not lithologically controlled. Implications of these important assumptions have been investigated. Our results suggest that the Arabian Peninsula underwent two phases of asymmetric uplift during the last 20-30 Ma at rates of 0.05-0.1 mm a-1. The southwestern flank of the peninsula has been uplifted by 1.5-2.5 km. Regional stratigraphic constraints, the age and composition of volcanism, paleosol formation, incised peneplains, emergent marine terraces, and thermochronometric measurements corroborate our calculated patterns of uplift. Progressive development of three domal swells along the western margin of the peninsula is consistent with localized upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle.

  13. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  14. Extreme rainfall events in the Sinai Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Marina; Amin, Doaa; Zayed, Islam Sabry Al; Dalu, Giovanni A.

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper Authors discuss results from the first phase of a project carried out in the framework of the Agreement on Scientific Cooperation between the Academy of Scientific Research and Technology of Egypt (ASRT) and the National Research Council of Italy (CNR). As in ancient times, today heavy rainfall, often resulting in flash floods, affects Egypt, not only in the coastal areas along the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, but also in arid and semi-arid areas such as Upper Egypt (Luxor, Aswan, and Assiut) and in the Sinai Peninsula, and their distribution has been modified due to the current climate variability. These episodes, although rare, can be catastrophic in regions characterized by a very low annual total amount of precipitation, with large impacts on lives, infrastructures, properties and last but not least, to the great cultural heritage of the Country. Flash flood episodes in the Sinai Peninsula result from heavy, sudden, and short duration rainfall, influenced also by the peculiar orography and soil conditions of the Region, and represent a risk for the population, infrastructures, properties, and sectors like industry and agriculture. On the other hand, flash floods in Sinai and southern/southeastern Egypt represent a potential source for non-conventional fresh water resources. In particular flash flood water, which usually drains into the Gulf of Suez and the Gulf of Aqaba, can fulfill a non-negligible amount of water demand, and/or recharge shallow groundwater aquifers, and the harvested rainfall can represent a source of water for rain-fed agriculture in the region. A general overview of the Sinai current climate is presented, including a climatology of extreme rainfalls events in the last decades. In addition, few selected heavy rainfall episodes which occurred in the Sinai in recent years have been analyzed and their characteristics and links to larger scale circulation will be discussed. Results of the study provide a better

  15. Ground-water availability on the Kitsap Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Arnold J.; Bolke, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    Unconsolidated deposits on the Kitsap Peninsula, Wash., are of glacial and interglacial origin. These deposits were divided into three units based on lithology and hydraulic properties. Two of the three units are composed of layers of sand and gravel , and silt and clay. The third unit consists of silt and clay and in most places separates the other two units. Water-bearing strata in the upper unit are fairly continuous and average 15 feet in thickness. The lower water-bearing strata are not believed to be as continuous as those in the upper unit, but yield larger quantities of water to wells. The silt-and-clay unit averages 70 feet in thickness, occurs generally near sea level, and is not known to contain major water-bearing deposits. The average annual ground-water recharge to streams on the Kitsap Peninsula was estimated to be 17 times the 1975 annual ground-water pumpage for the peninsula. Some, but an unknown amount, of this water is available for increased withdrawal by wells. Increased withdrawals cause decreased streamflow, declining water levels, and increased seawater contamination. There appears to be no widespread seawater contamination of wells in the study area. Local areas where chloride concentrations from wells exceed 25 milligrams per liter are near the southern part of the Longbranch Peninsula, Horsehead Bay, Point Evans, Sinclair Inlet, Eagle Harbor, Fletcher Bay, the northern end of Bainbridge Island, and the northern tip of the Kitsap Peninsula. (USGS)

  16. Volcanic Facies of the Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation, Iniskin Peninsula to Tuxedni Bay, Alaska Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bull, K. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Jurassic Talkeetna Formation (Jtk), a >1,000-km-long belt of vol­canic facies within the accreted intra-oceanic Talkeetna Arc has been characterized within the Talkeetna Mountains, but on the Alaska Peninsula Jtk facies have not previously been described in detail. Here we describe facies of the Jtk stretching from the Iniskin Peninsula to Tuxedni Bay. On the Iniskin Peninsula, a high concentration and great thickness of mafic to intermediate lavas, associated autobreccias and hyaloclastites, fluidal-clast breccias and possible pillows are suggestive of one or more submarine effusive eruption centers. Also volumetrically significant are non-stratified polymictic volcaniclastic breccia facies. Minor facies include thinly bedded volcaniclastic sandstone to pebble breccia-conglomerate facies, some of which are shard- and pumice-bearing pyroclastic deposits preserved in thinly bedded deposits, indicative of episodes of explosive volcanism and the eruption-fed nature of some of the deposits. North of Chinitna Bay, coherent facies tend to be thin and relatively small in volume. Volcaniclastic facies provide evidence of subaerial-fluvial deposition, and pyroclastic activity. Thinly bedded, laterally continuous beds locally exhibit cross-laminations, channel fills, normal grading and lenticular beds, and contain plant fossils. Within this sequence is a 10-m-thick pumice breccia containing fossilized logs, underlain by a thin, weakly laminated, pumice- and lithic-bearing volcaniclastic siltstone to sandstone. The log-bearing pumice breccia and the lithic-bearing laminated basal unit represent pyroclastic density current (PDC) facies deposited in a subaerial or possibly shallow aqueous environment. Underlying the PDC deposit are several 30-cm-thick maroon and olive green volcaniclastic fine-grained sandstone and siltstone beds containing channel fills, cross-beds and lenticular beds. Marbles exposed in the contact zone between the intrusions of Alaska

  17. Applied andrology in chickens and turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The theories and practices of applied andrology in commercial poultry species (turkey, layer chicken and broiler chicken) are reviewed. Poultry male reproductive biology, including reproductive anatomy and spermatogenesis, is compared with mammalian livestock species. A detailed description of pou...

  18. Impact of the Chernobyl accident on Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, D.E.; Ozluoglu, N.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, we present and discuss measurements of radionuclide concentrations made in Turkey during the Chernobyl event and perform preliminary analyses of the internal and external doses associated with exposure to these materials. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  20. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  1. Turkey: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-26

    self-reliance since the Cold War allows Turkey relatively greater opportunity for an assertive role in foreign policy. The record of U.S.-Turkey...U.S. and Turkish military and diplomatic dealings with a number of different stakeholders, including Russia and Iran; and (3) Turkish efforts to stop...harmonizing their priorities and actions. This may stem partly from differences in how each of the two countries evaluates the other’s importance in

  2. Turkey as an Emerging Energy Hub

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    and to lesser degrees from Azerbaijan, Iran, Algeria and Nigeria. Turkey imports from Russia, Azerbaijan and Iran by pipelines, but from Algeria ...renewable energy sources in Turkey are solar, thermal, wind, geothermal, photovoltaic energy and new programs such as hydrogen energy, and fuel cells.78...percent from Algeria ; and 11 percent from other countries.210 According to estimates, by 2030, Europe’s oil import requirements will be increased by 20

  3. Gulf Cooperation Council: Arabian Gulf Cooperation Continues Defense Forces (Peninsula Shield Force)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-23

    Gulf Cooperation Council: Arabian Gulf Cooperation Continues Defense Forces (Peninsula Shield Force) A Monograph by...... Arabian Gulf Security Studies; Peninsula Shield Force; GCC Joint Military Command; GCC Security, GCC Geopolitics; Gulf Cooperation Council Threats

  4. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  5. Anaglyph with Landsat Overlay, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This 3-D anaglyph shows an area on the western side of the volcanically active Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Red-blue glasses are required to see the 3-D effect. The topographic data are from the first C-band mapping swath of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Images from the optical Landsat satellite are overlain on the SRTM topography data. The meandering channel of the Tigil River is seen along the bottom of the image, at the base of steep cliffs. In the middle left of the image, a terrace indicates recent uplift of the terrain and downcutting by the river. High resolution SRTM topographic data will be used by geologists and hydrologists to study the interplay of tectonic uplift and erosion.

    This anaglyph was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. Each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. The United States Geological Survey's Earth Resources Observations Systems (EROS) Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, provided the Landsat data, which are overlain on the topography.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA

  6. Salt toxicosis in commercial turkeys.

    PubMed

    Wages, D P; Ficken, M D; Cook, M E; Mitchell, J

    1995-01-01

    Salt toxicosis was confirmed in a flock of 20,000 thirteen-week-old tom turkeys experiencing an increase in mortality. Clinical signs included polydipsia, diarrhea, ataxia, incoordination, tremors that progressed to depression, sternal and lateral recumbency accompanied by torticollis, and death. Mortality over a 5-day period was 6.7%. Necropsy lesions included pallor and dehydration of pectoral muscles, hepatic congestion, and fluid-filled small and large intestines. Microscopic lesions consisted of bilaterally symmetrical areas of necrosis within the cerebral hemispheres accompanied by vascular congestion and edema, as well as hyalinization of the glomerular capillary walls of the kidney and eosinophilic granular casts in the renal tubules. Average salt concentration in the feed from affected houses with 8.04%.

  7. Nutrition and gastric cancer in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Suayib

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains to be one of leading causes of cancer deaths despite worldwide decreasing incidence. In Turkey gastric cancer incidence is 9.6/100,000 in men and 5.7/100,000 in females. Gastric cancer is also one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Turkey with a crude death rate of 5.84/100,000 in men, 3.7/100,000 in women. The mean age of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer is 56 years in Turkey. The relatively high rate of gastric cancer in Turkey is mainly due to dietary factors. The traditional food preservation such as salt curing or smoking and lack of refrigeration of food play a significant role in gastric cancer development in the country. There are etiological and epidemiological differences among geographical regions in Turkey. Gastric cancer is seen much more often in the central, northeastern, and eastern part of Turkey. Increased HP pylori infection is also another important reason for increased incidence of gastric cancer in some parts of the country.

  8. Sulfachlorpyrazine residues depletion in turkey edible tissues.

    PubMed

    Łebkowska-Wieruszewska, B I; Kowalski, C J

    2010-08-01

    Sulfachlorpyrazine (SCP) is currently used to treat coccidian infections in turkeys; however, there is no information available about the withdrawal period necessary for the turkey to be safe for human consumption. A high performance liquid chromatography method with ultraviolet-visible light detection was adapted and validated for the determination of SCP in turkey tissues. The procedure is based on isolation of the (SCP sodium) compound from edible turkey tissues (muscles, liver, kidneys, and fat with skin) with satisfactory recovery (72.80 +/- 1.40) and specificity. The residue depletion of SCP in turkeys was conducted after a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight/day had been administrated orally for 3 days. After treatment has been discontinued residue concentrations were detected in tissues on the 7th day. The highest SCP concentrations were measured in muscles. Based on the results presented in this study, it could be assumed that a withdrawal period of 21 days, before medicated turkeys could be slaughtered, would be sufficient to ensure consumer safety.

  9. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-03-30

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00557

  10. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  11. Turkey vulture and California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.; Pendleton, Beth Giron

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  12. Izmit, Turkey 1999 Earthquake Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This image is an interferogram that was created using pairs of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). The images, acquired at two different times, have been combined to measure surface deformation or changes that may have occurred during the time between data acquisition. The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellite (ERS-2) on 13 August 1999 and 17 September 1999 and were combined to produce these image maps of the apparent surface deformation, or changes, during and after the 17 August 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. This magnitude 7.6 earthquake was the largest in 60 years in Turkey and caused extensive damage and loss of life. Each of the color contours of the interferogram represents 28 mm (1.1 inches) of motion towards the satellite, or about 70 mm (2.8 inches) of horizontal motion. White areas are outside the SAR image or water of seas and lakes. The North Anatolian Fault that broke during the Izmit earthquake moved more than 2.5 meters (8.1 feet) to produce the pattern measured by the interferogram. Thin red lines show the locations of fault breaks mapped on the surface. The SAR interferogram shows that the deformation and fault slip extended west of the surface faults, underneath the Gulf of Izmit. Thick black lines mark the fault rupture inferred from the SAR data. Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to estimate the pattern of slip that occurred during the Izmit earthquake. This then used to improve computer models that predict how this deformation transferred stress to other faults and to the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, which extends to the west past the large city of Istanbul. These models show that the Izmit earthquake further increased the already high probability of a major earthquake near Istanbul.

  13. Interactions Between Islamic and Christian Traditions in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-García, A. César; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Pre-Romanesque churches in the Iberian Peninsula include a number of constructions from the fourth-fifth to the eleventh century when the first Romanesque churches appeared in the north of Spain. This period of time coincided with the Muslim invasion of the Peninsula. An important number of churches and mosques were built with prescriptions for the orientation, which possibly included astronomical observations. Investigations show that both groups of monuments reacted by avoiding the areas of theoretical influence of the other religion while trying to obey their own orientation rules.

  14. Turkey origin reovirus-induced immune dysfunction in specific-pathogen free and commercial turkey poults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recently, pathogenesis studies using genetically distinct turkey-origin reoviruses (TRVs) revealed that poults infected with certain TRV isolates had moderate to severe bursal atrophy, suggesting virus-induced immune dysfunction. In order to characterize the effect of TRV infection on the turkey imm...

  15. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  16. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  17. Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

  18. Petrography, palynology and depositional environment of Gelibolu coals, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demirtaş, Ferdi; Bozcu, Mustafa; Koşun, Erdal

    2014-05-01

    Upper Oligocene and Miocene coal samples collected from two outcrops in the Gelibolu Peninsula, NW Turkey were analyzed petrographically and palynologically to determine the depositional environment of the coals. Microscopic studies reveal that the studied coal samples from both locations are characterized by high amount of huminite group macerals, ranging from 46 to 78% (mineral-included basis). The prevailing maceral from this group is gelinite (31-65%), it can be easily seen on all studied samples, indicative of high gelification degree of organic matter. Relatively low amount of liptinite (does not exceed 9%) and inertinite (does not exceed 8%) are also observed in the coals. The mineral matter content is variable but generally high, varying from 5 to 37%, as in other Turkish coals and consists mostly of clay minerals, quartz, calcite and pyrite. The mean reflectance values range from 0.502 to 0.564% suggesting that rank of coal is subbituminous (ASTM). The chemical properties of coal including calorific value, volatile matter and fixed carbon content are also in accordance with rank of coal. Facies indices based on maceral ratios (Tissue Preservation Index vs. Gelification Index and ABC ternary diagrams) were used to interpret to depositional environment of coals. Low tissue preservation index (TPI) and high gelification index (GI) values are observed. These indices indicate that the coals deposited in limnic environment. High pH and strongly reducing conditions inferred from the presence of framboidal pyrite and also evidenced by low TPI values. The palynological assembly of the coals dominated by angiosperm pollen and spore, however, gymnosperms were rarely seen. Herbaceous/sedge plants are common in Miocene coal samples.

  19. 75 FR 16094 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of Application for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; North American Hydro Holdings, LLC; Notice of... 17, 2010, Upper Peninsula Power Company (transferor) and North American Hydro Holdings, LLC.... Jensky, Upper Peninsula Power Company, 700 N Adams Street, Green Bay, WI 54307, phone (920) 433-2900....

  20. NASA Images Topography of Quake-Stricken Eastern Turkey

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-10-25

    On Oct. 23, 2011, a magnitude 7.2 earthquake struck eastern Turkey, near the city of Van, the result of the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates. Turkey is a tectonically active country, experiencing frequent devastating earthquakes.

  1. Pumas and Prepositions: Training Nature Guides in the Yucatan Peninsula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), the 10-week Nature Guide Training Program integrates English immersion with natural history and environmental interpretation to train rural adults as nature guides and conservation leaders. Most graduates have found work as ecotourism guides or in conservation-related activities, and many have provided English…

  2. Blueberry Trials on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula: First Year Report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In June 2009, 9 plants each of three highbush and six half-high blueberry cultivars were planted at test plots on two commercial farms on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula. The purpose of the trials was to determine if domestic blueberry plants could survive and produce crops in Southcentral Alaska. In Octob...

  3. Phosphorus leaching from agricultural soils of the Delmarva Peninsula, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Leaching of phosphorus (P) mobilizes edaphic and applied sources of P and is a primary pathway of concern in agricultural soils of the Delmarva Peninsula, which defines the eastern boundary of the eutrophic Chesapeake Bay. We evaluated P leaching before and after poultry litter application from inta...

  4. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, J. R.; Aguilar, E.; Ashcroft, L.

    2016-09-01

    Drought variability and change was assessed across the Iberian Peninsula over more than 100 years expanding through the twentieth century and the first decade of the twenty-first century. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 Iberian time series were quality controlled and homogenized to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), driven only by precipitation, and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI), based on the difference between the precipitation and the reference evapotranspiration (ET0), were computed at annual and seasonal scale to describe the evolution of droughts across time. The results confirmed that a clear temperature increase has occurred over the entire Iberian Peninsula at the annual and seasonal scale, but no significant changes in precipitation accumulated amounts were found. Similar drought variability was provided by the SPI and SPEI, although the SPEI showed greater drought severity and larger surface area affected by drought than SPI from 1980s to 2010 due to the increase in atmospheric evaporative demand caused by increased temperatures. Moreover, a clear drying trend was found by the SPEI for most of the Iberian Peninsula at annual scale and also for spring and summer, although the SPI did not experience significant changes in drought conditions. From the drying trend identified for most of the Iberian Peninsula along the twentieth century, an increase in drought conditions can also be expected for this region in the twenty-first century according to future climate change projections and scenarios.

  5. 48. Photocopy of photograph (from Reflections, Peninsula Transportation District Commission, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph (from Reflections, Peninsula Transportation District Commission, 1985. Original three CRT buses in 1928. *FOR Photocopy of photograph (from the Charles H. Taylor Memorial Library), photographer unknown. Trolley car No. 315 shown April 25, 1929 at the Trolley Barn. SEE FIELD NOTES - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  6. Crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Yongcheol; Hao, Tian-Yao; Kim, Han-Joon

    2017-02-01

    The three-dimensional subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a three-dimensional velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19,935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North China and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  7. Spruce reproduction dynamics on Alaska's Kenai Peninsula, 1987-2000.

    Treesearch

    Willem W.S. van Hees

    2005-01-01

    During the past 30 years, spruce forests of Alaska’s Kenai Peninsula have undergone dramatic changes resulting from widespread spruce bark beetle(Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) infestation. In 1987 and again in 2000, the Pacific Northwest Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis Program conducted initial and remeasurement inventories...

  8. Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia as seen from STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    View southwestward across the Kamchatka Peninsula. The cluster of volcanoes in the middle distance are active, including Klutchevskaya whose summit reaches 15,580 feet. Changes in volcanic deposits, snow, and ice are being studied by Russian and American Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) investigators. Seasonal changes in sea ice are also of interest, for example, in Kamchatskiy Bay (upper left).

  9. A sketch of language history in the Korean Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Among 7100 languages spoken on Earth, the Koreanic language is the 13th largest, with about 77 million speakers in and around the Korean Peninsula. In comparison to other languages of similar size, however, surprisingly little is known about the evolution of the Koreanic language. This is mainly due to two reasons. The first reason is that the genealogical relationship of the Koreanic to other neighboring languages remains uncertain, and thus inference from the linguistic comparative method provides only provisional evidence. The second reason is that, as the ancestral Koreanic speakers lacked their own writing system until around 500 years ago, there are scant historical materials to peer into the past, except for those preserved in Sinitic characters that we have no straightforward way of interpreting. Here I attempt to overcome these disadvantages and shed some light on the linguistic history of the Korean Peninsula, by analyzing the internal variation of the Koreanic language with methods adopted from evolutionary biology. The preliminary results presented here suggest that the evolutionary history of the Koreanic language is characterized by a weak hierarchical structure, and intensive gene/culture flows within the Korean Peninsula seem to have promoted linguistic homogeneity among the Koreanic variants. Despite the gene/culture flows, however, there are still three detectable linguistic barriers in the Korean Peninsula that appear to have been shaped by geographical features such as mountains, elevated areas, and ocean. I discuss these findings in an inclusive manner to lay the groundwork for future studies.

  10. 46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), (from Alexander Brown's Peninsula's Last Street Cars, Daily Press, January 15, 1956) photographer unknown. The first streetcar (with dignitaries) to make the run from Newport News to a new housing development named Hilton Village in September 1918. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  11. Timberland resources of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, 1987.

    Treesearch

    Willem W.S. van Hees; Frederic R. Larson

    1991-01-01

    The 1987 inventory of the forest resources of the Kenai Peninsula was designed to assess the impact of the spruce beetle (Dendroctonus rufipennis (Kirby)) on the timberland component of the forest resource. Estimates of timberland area, volumes of timber, and growth and mortality of timber were developed. These estimates of timber resource...

  12. Terrestrial Birds and Conservation Priorities in Baja California Peninsula

    Treesearch

    Ricardo Rodriguez-Estrella

    2005-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula has been categorized as an Endemic Bird Area of the world and it is an important wintering area for a number of aquatic, wading and migratory landbird species. It is an important area for conservation of bird diversity in northwestern México. In spite of this importance, only few, scattered studies have been done on the ecology...

  13. Preliminary classification of forest vegetation of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska.

    Treesearch

    K.M. Reynolds

    1990-01-01

    A total of 5,597 photo points was systematically located on 1:60,000-scale high altitude photographs of the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska; photo interpretation was used to classify the vegetation at each grid position. Of the total grid points, 12.3 percent were classified as timberland; 129 photo points within the timberland class were randomly selected for field survey....

  14. Hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis: three cases from the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Velázquez, Jorge; Cárdenas-Marrufo, María; Vado-Solís, Ignacio; Cetina-Cámara, Marco; Cano-Tur, José; Laviada-Molina, Hugo

    2008-01-01

    Three leptospirosis cases with lung involvement are reported from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. All three patients were admitted to the intensive care unit due to acute respiratory failure. Treatment with antibiotics resulted in favorable evolution despite the negative prognosis. Leptospirosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients with fever and lung involvement.

  15. Peninsula Academies Replications: 1985-86 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dayton, Charles; And Others

    The Peninsula Academies is a three-year high school program for at-risk students, designed to provide them with incentives both to graduate and to acquire labor market-relevant skills. An academy combines academic and technical training in a school-within-a-school setting, and is based on school-business partnerships. In the fall of 1985, 10…

  16. Spatial variability of Antarctic Peninsula net surface mass balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, J.; Lachlan-Cope, T. A.; Marshall, G. J.; Morris, E. M.; Mulvaney, R.; Winter, W.

    2002-07-01

    Measurements from ice cores and snow pits collected over the last 50 years are used to examine how net surface mass balance varies across the Antarctic Peninsula to give the first detailed map of mass balance for the region. A total of 211 reliable mass balance measurements were available for the preparation of the map, but some areas were found to be very data sparse. The analysis suggests that the largest values of mass balance are found along the spine of the northern part of the peninsula, where over 2.5 m yr-1 water equivalent (WE) has been measured. A secondary peak of more than 2.0 m yr-1 WE is determined along the mountains of eastern Alexander Island. Precipitation minus evaporation (P-E) fields from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts reanalysis project are compared with our analysis of in situ data. The model fields are found to have peak values of P-E of only half the amounts found from the measurements; the greatest model values are located on the western side of the peninsula. Areas where a high density of in situ data is available, including King George VI Sound and the high south central plateau part of the peninsula, show a high spatial variability of net surface mass balance, suggesting that local orographic features play a major part in dictating the mass balance.

  17. Forest statistics for Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1994.

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt

    1993-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Michigan's Southern Lower Peninsula forests reports 14,429.0 thousand acres of land, of which 3,053.7 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  18. Forest statistics for Michigan's Northern Lower Peninsula Unit, 1993.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry

    1994-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Michigan's Northern Lower Peninsula forests reports 11,345.1 thousand acres of land, of which 7,415.2 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  19. Forest statistics for Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula Unit, 1993.

    Treesearch

    Thomas L. Schmidt

    1993-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Michigan's Eastern Upper Peninsula forests reports 4,989.1 thousand acres of land, of which 3,973.1 thousand acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  20. Forest statistics for Michigan's Western Upper Peninsula Unit, 1993.

    Treesearch

    Earl C. Leatherberry

    1994-01-01

    The fifth inventory of Michigan's Western Upper Peninsula Unit reports 12,329.1 million acres of land, of which 4,836.5 million acres are forested. This bulletin presents statistical highlights and contains detailed tables of forest area, as well as timber volume, growth, removals, mortality, and ownership.

  1. Pumas and Prepositions: Training Nature Guides in the Yucatan Peninsula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    In the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico), the 10-week Nature Guide Training Program integrates English immersion with natural history and environmental interpretation to train rural adults as nature guides and conservation leaders. Most graduates have found work as ecotourism guides or in conservation-related activities, and many have provided English…

  2. Crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Yongcheol; Hao, Tian-Yao; Kim, Han-Joon

    2017-05-01

    The 3-D subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a 3-D velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19 935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  3. The timber resources of the Olympic Peninsula, Washington.

    Treesearch

    C.L. Bolsinger

    1969-01-01

    The fourth inventory of the timber resources of the Olympic Peninsula shows a total of 3,105,000 acres of commercial forest land and 81,464 million board feet (International 114-inch scale) of sawtimber volume. Total timber volume has remained about the same for the past 12 years, and cut and growth currently are nearly in balance.

  4. The United States and Turkey: Redefining a Strategic Partnership

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Century modernizing predecessors in Germany, Italy , and Japan, Kemal (later known as Kemal Ataturk meaning ―father of the Turks‖12) followed a path...values that has defined the first decade of the 21st century . Turkey thrives as a society that successfully blends Islamic and western values. Turkey... century . Turkey thrives as a society that successfully blends Islamic and Western values. Turkey possesses a history that is both Islamic and

  5. Drought variability and change across the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Joan Ramon; Aguilar, Enric

    2015-04-01

    Drought variability and change is assessed in this study across the Iberian Peninsula along the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century using state of the art drought indices: the Sc-PDSI, the SPI and the SPEI. Daily temperature and precipitation data from 24 time-series regularly spread over Iberian Peninsula are quality controlled and also homogenized in a monthly scale to create the Monthly Iberian Temperature and Precipitation Series (MITPS) for the period 1906-2010. The Sc-PDSI, the 12-month SPI and 12-month SPEI are computed on a monthly basis using the newly MITPS dataset to identify dry and wet conditions across time. Precipitation data is only required to compute SPI, but potential evapotranspiration (PET) is also needed to perform the Sc-PDSI and SPEI, which is estimated using the Tornthwaite's method. The analysis conducted in this study confirms that drought conditions are worsening for most of the Iberian Peninsula across time strongly induced by global warming especially during the last three decades. All drought indices have found a drying trend in the Pyrenees, Ebro basin, central Iberia and in the south and south-eastern area while a wetting trend is identified in the western and in the north-western region. Future projections also indicate a clear increase in hydrological drought conditions along the 21st century, thus, water saving and the application of effective water management strategies will be crucial to minimize the impact of hydrological droughts over the Iberian Peninsula into the near future. KEY WORDS: Drought, climate change, Iberian Peninsula, drought indices.

  6. Black Carbon Measurement and Modeling in the Arabian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawad, Faisal Al; Khoder, Mamdouh; Almazroui, Mansour; Alghamdi, Mansour; Lihavainen, Heikki; Hyvarinen, Antti; Henriksson, Svante

    2017-04-01

    Black carbon is an important atmospheric aerosol as an effective factor in public health, changing the global and regional climate, and reducing visibility. Black carbon absorbs light, warms the atmosphere, and modifies cloud droplets and the amount of precipitation. In spite of this significance, knowledge of black carbon over the Arabian Peninsula is hard to find in literature until recently. The total mass of black carbon and wind direction and speeds were measured continuously at Hada Al-Sham, Saudi Arabia for the year 2013. In addition, a state of the art global aerosol - climate model (ECHAM5-HAM) was used to determine black carbon climatology over the Arabian Peninsula. Simulation of the model was carried out for the years eight years (2004 - 2011). The daily mean values of the concentrations of black carbon had a minimum of 15.0 ng/m3 and a maximum of 6372 ng/m3 with a mean of at 1899 ng/m3. The diurnal pattern of black carbon showed higher values overnight, and steady low values during daytimes caused by sea and land breezes. Seasons of black carbon vary over the Arabian Peninsula, and the longest is in the Northern Region where it lasts from July to October. High concentrations of black carbon at Hada Al-Sham was observed with a mean of 1.9 µm/m3, and seasons of black carbon vary widely across the Arabian Peninsula. Assessment of the effects of black carbon over the Arabian Peninsula on the global radiation balance. Initiating a black carbon monitoring network is highly recommended to assess its impacts on health, environment, and climate.

  7. Geology of Seward Peninsula and Saint Lawrence Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.; Dumoulin, Julie A.

    1994-01-01

    Seward Peninsula (Fig. 1) may be divided into two geologic terranes (Fig. 2) on the basis of stratigraphy, structure, and metamorphic history. The Seward terrane, an area 150 by 150 km in the central and eastern peninsula, is dominated by Precambrian(?) and early Paleozoic blueschist-, greenschist-, and amphibolite-facies schist and marble, and intruded by three suites of granitic rocks. The York terrane, roughly 100 by 75 km, occupies western Seward Peninsula and the Bering Straits region; it is composed of Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Mississippian, and possibly older limestone, argillaceous limestone, dolostone, and phyllite, which are cut by a suite of Late Cretaceous tin-bearing granites. The boundary between the Seward and York terranes is poorly exposed but is thought to be a major thrust fault because of its sinuous map trace, a discontinuity in metamorphic grade, and differences in stratigraphy across the boundary (Travis Hudson, oral communication, 1984). The boundary between the Seward terrane and the Yukon-Koyukuk province to the east is complicated by vertical faults (the Kugruk fault Zone of Sainsbury, 1974) and obscured by Cretaceous and Tertiary cover.The Seward Peninsula heretofore was thought to consist largely of rocks of Precambrian age (Sainsbury, 1972, 1974, 1975; Hudson, 1977), Microfossil data, however, indicate that many of the rocks considered to be Precambrian are early Paleozoic in age (Till and others, 1986; Dumoulin and Harris, 1984; Dumoulin and Till, 1985; Till and others, 1983; Wandervoort, 1985). It is likely that Precambrian rocks are a minor part of the stratigraphy of the Seward Peninsula.

  8. 78 FR 55095 - Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Pasta From Italy and Turkey Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... countervailing and antidumping duty orders on certain pasta from Italy and Turkey would be likely to lead to... Pasta from Italy and Turkey: Investigation Nos. 701- TA-365-366 and 731-TA-734-735 (Third...

  9. Effect of coronavirus infection on reproductive performance of turkey hens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Turkey coronavirus (TCoV) infection causes enteritis in turkeys of varying ages with high mortality in young birds. In older birds, field evidence indicates possible involvement of TCoV in egg production drops in turkey hens. However, no experimental studies have been conducted to demonstrate TCoV...

  10. Turkey opens electricity markets as demand grows

    SciTech Connect

    McKeigue, J.; Da Cunha, A.; Severino, D.

    2009-06-15

    Turkey's growing power market has attracted investors and project developers for over a decade, yet their plans have been dashed by unexpected political or financial crises or, worse, obstructed by a lengthy bureaucratic approval process. Now, with a more transparent retail electricity market, government regulators and investors are bullish on Turkey. Is Turkey ready to turn the power on? This report closely examine Turkey's plans to create a power infrastructure capable of providing the reliable electricity supplies necessary for sustained economic growth. It was compiled with on-the-ground research and extensive interview with key industrial and political figures. Today, hard coal and lignite account for 21% of Turkey's electricity generation and gas-fired plants account for 50%. The Alfin Elbistan-B lignite-fired plant has attracted criticism for its lack of desulfurization units and ash dam facilities that have tarnished the industry's image. A 1,100 MW hard-coal fired plant using supercritical technology is under construction. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Altered Biomechanical Properties of Gastrocnemius Tendons of Turkeys Infected with Turkey Arthritis Reovirus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingshan; Mor, Sunil K.; Porter, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Turkey arthritis reovirus (TARV) causes lameness and tenosynovitis in commercial turkeys and is often associated with gastrocnemius tendon rupture by the marketing age. This study was undertaken to characterize the biomechanical properties of tendons from reovirus-infected turkeys. One-week-old turkey poults were orally inoculated with O'Neil strain of TARV and observed for up to 16 weeks of age. Lameness was first observed at 8 weeks of age, which continued at 12 and 16 weeks. At 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks of age, samples were collected from legs. Left intertarsal joint with adjacent gastrocnemius tendon was collected and processed for histological examination. The right gastrocnemius tendon's tensile strength and elasticity modulus were analyzed by stressing each tendon to the point of rupture. At 16 weeks of age, gastrocnemius tendons of TARV-infected turkeys showed significantly reduced (P < 0.05) tensile strength and modulus of elasticity as compared to those of noninfected control turkeys. Gastrocnemius tendons revealed lymphocytic tendinitis/tenosynovitis beginning at 4 weeks of age, continuing through 8 and 12 weeks, and progressing to fibrosis from 12 to 16 weeks of age. We propose that tendon fibrosis is one of the key features contributing to reduction in tensile strength and elasticity of gastrocnemius tendons in TARV-infected turkeys. PMID:28105381

  12. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  13. Monensin toxicity in turkey breeder hens.

    PubMed

    Ficken, M D; Wages, D P; Gonder, E

    1989-01-01

    High mortality in two flocks of 1900 turkey breeder hens accidentally fed 280 g monensin/ton of complete feed is described. Mortality attributed to the poisoning was 76% in flock 1 and 18% in flock 2. Clinically, turkeys were found dead, exhibited respiratory distress with wings extended laterally, had fine tremors, or showed posterior paresis and inability to rise. The most striking finding at necropsy was the almost complete absence of gross lesions. Some turkeys had severely congested lungs; however, many did not. A few birds had pale streaks within the adductor muscles of the legs. Microscopic lesions included myofiber degeneration and necrosis of skeletal and myocardial muscle. Serum phosphorus, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase were markedly elevated, whereas potassium, chloride, and calcium values were lowered.

  14. Human fasciolosis in Van province, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hasan; Gödekmerdan, Ahmet

    2004-10-01

    This investigation was carried out to determine the frequency of the fasciolosis in Erciş, a town in the Van province located in the Eastern Turkey. The study includes 500 asymptomatic subjects (322 males and 178 females) whose ages ranged from 5 to 75 years. In all subjects, stool samples were examined at initiation of the study and one week later to rule out pseudoparasitosis. The methods of flotation (in saturated saline solution) and sedimentation (in formalin-ether solution) were used in examination of the stool samples. Fasciola hepatica eggs were detected in nine (1.8%) out of 500 subjects. In conclusion, our data showed that the prevalence of human fasciolosis was high in our region because watercress consumption was common. We also think that human fasciolosis is more frequent than expected in Turkey. To determine the exact prevalence of the disease, extensive serological investigations should be performed in different regions of Turkey.

  15. One hundred years of radiotherapy in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dincer, M; Kuter, S

    2001-10-01

    The study and practice of radiology in Turkey began in 1897, only 2 years after the discovery of X-rays. A simple X-ray machine was constructed in Istanbul, consisting of a Crookes tube, a Ruhmkorff coil, and a home-made battery. This machine was first used on wounded soldiers, for diagnostic purposes. The first report of X-rays being used therapeutically in Turkey was published in a national journal in 1904. By 1933, the most up-to-date radiotherapy equipment of the time had been installed in every major city in the country. Innovative radiotherapy techniques, such as rotational treatment, were also being tried in 1930s. Today, there are 45 radiotherapy centres in Turkey, and 400 radiation oncologists and 80 medical physicists practise there.

  16. Antigenicity of two turkey astrovirus isolates.

    PubMed

    Tang, Y; Saif, Y M

    2004-12-01

    Astroviruses are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. These viruses cause gastroenteritis in humans and in a variety of animal species, including turkey poults. Only human astroviruses are well characterized antigenically. In the current study, two turkey astrovirus isolates, TAstV1987 and TAstV2001, were antigenically compared using cross-neutralization tests in turkey embryos, as well as cross-reactivity of the two isolates by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The antigenic relatedness values (R) were calculated using the Archetti and Horsfall formula. The R value based on the cross-neutralization tests was 0.56%, which indicates that TAstV1987 and TAstV2001 belong to different serotypes; the R value of the two viruses based on ELISA was 70.7%, which suggests these two viruses share common antigen(s).

  17. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, Dean

    2011-01-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11 -20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre -storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20 -25 cm

  18. Changes in ice dynamics along the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehaus, T.; Braun, M.; Cook, A.; Marinsek, S.

    2016-12-01

    The climatic conditions along the Antarctic Peninsula have undergone considerable changes during the last 50 years. Numerous ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula retreated, started to break-up or disintegrated. The loss of the buttressing effect caused tributary glaciers to accelerate with increasing ice discharge along the Antarctic Peninsula. The aim is to study the reaction of glaciers at the northern Antarctic Peninsula to the changing climatic conditions and the readjustments of tributary glaciers to ice shelf disintegration, as well as to better quantify the ice mass loss and its temporal changes.We analysed time series of various SAR satellite sensors to detect changes in ice flow speed and surface elevation. Intensity feature tracking techniques were applied on data stacks from different SAR satellites over the last 20 years to infer changes in glacier surface velocities. High resolution bi-static TanDEM-X data was used to derive digital elevation models by differential SAR interferometry. In combination with ASTER and SPOT stereo images, changes in surface elevations were determined. Altimeter data from ICESat, CryoSat-2 and NASA operation IceBridge ATM were used for vertical referencing and quality assessment of the digital elevation models. Along the west coast of the northern Antarctic Peninsula an increase in flow speeds by 40% between 1992 and 2014 was observed, whereas glaciers on the east side (north of former Prince-Gustav Ice Shelf) showed a strong deceleration. In total an ice discharge of 17.93±6.22 Gt/a was estimated for 74 glaciers on the Antarctic Peninsula north of 65°S. Most of the former ice shelf tributaries showed similar reactions to ice shelf disintegration. At the Sjögren-Inlet a total ice mass loss of -37.5±8.2 Gt and a contribution to sea level rise of 20.9±5.2 Gt were found in the period 1993-2014. The average surface lowering rate in the period 2012-2014 amounts to -2.2 m/a. At Dinsmoor-Bombardier-Edgeworth glacier

  19. Hurricane Ike Deposits on the Bolivar Peninsula, Galveston Bay, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, C. A.; Wilkinson, M. J.; Eppler, D.

    2011-12-01

    In September 2008, Hurricane Ike made landfall on Galveston Bay, close to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The storm flooded much of the area with a storm surge ranging from 11-20 feet. The Bolivar peninsula, the southeastern coast of Galveston Bay, experienced the brunt of the surge. Several agencies collected excellent imagery baselines before the storm and complementary data a few days afterward that helped define the impacts of the storm. In April of 2011, a team of scientists and astronauts from JSC conducted field mapping exercises along the Bolivar Peninsula, the section of the Galveston Bay coast most impacted by the storm. Astronauts routinely observe and document coastal changes from orbit aboard the International Space Station. As part of their basic Earth Science training, scientists at the Johnson Space Center take astronauts out for field mapping exercises so that they can better recognize and understand features and processes that they will later observe from the International Space Station. Using pre-storm baseline images of the Bolivar Peninsula near Rollover Pass and Gilchrist (NOAA/Google Earth Imagery and USGS aerial imagery and lidar data), the astronauts mapped current coastline positions at defined locations, and related their findings to specific coastal characteristics, including channel, jetties, and other developments. In addition to mapping, we dug trenches along both the Gulf of Mexico coast as well as the Galveston Bay coast of the Bolivar peninsula to determine the depth of the scouring from the storm on the Gulf side, and the amount of deposition of the storm surge deposits on the Bay side of the peninsula. The storm signature was easy to identify by sharp sediment transitions and, in the case of storm deposits, a layer of storm debris (roof shingles, PVC pipes, etc) and black, organic rich layers containing buried sea grasses in areas that were marshes before the storm. The amount of deposition was generally about 20-25 cm; the

  20. Changes in ice dynamics along the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seehaus, Thorsten; Marinsek, Sebastian; Cook, Alison; Van Wessem, Jan-Melchior; Braun, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The climatic conditions along the Antarctic Peninsula have undergone considerable changes during the last 50 years. A period of pronounced air temperature rise, increasing ocean temperatures as well as changes in the precipitation pattern have been reported by various authors. Consequently, the glacial systems showed changes including widespread retreat, surface lowering as well as variations in flow speeds. During the last decades numerous ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula retreated, started to break-up or disintegrated completely. The loss of the buttressing effect caused tributary glaciers to accelerate with increasing ice discharge along the Antarctic Peninsula. Quantification of the mass changes is still subject to considerable errors although numbers derived from the different methods are converging. The aim is to study the reaction of glaciers at the northern Antarctic Peninsula to the changing climatic conditions and the readjustments of tributary glaciers to ice shelf disintegration, as well as to better quantify the ice mass loss and its temporal changes. We analysed time series of various satellite sensors (ERS-1/2 SAR, ENVISAT ASAR, RADARSAT-1, ALOS PALSAR, TerraSAR-X/TanDEM-X, ASTER, Landsat) to detect changes in ice dynamics of 74 glacier basins along the northern Antarctic Peninsula (<65°). Intensity feature tracking techniques were applied on data stacks from different SAR satellites over the last 20 years to infer temporal trends in glacier surface velocities. In combination with ice thickness reconstructions and modeled climatic mass balance fields regional imbalances were calculated. Variations in ice front position were mapped based on optical and SAR satellite data sets. Along the west coast of the northern Antarctic Peninsula an increase in flow speeds by 40% between 1992 and 2014 was observed, whereas glaciers on the east side (north of former Prince-Gustav Ice Shelf) showed a strong deceleration. Nearly all former ice shelf

  1. [Reoccurrence of histomonosis in turkey breeder farm].

    PubMed

    Aka, Johannes; Hauck, Rüdiger; Blankenstein, Petra; Balczulat, Stefanie; Hafez, Hafez Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    Histomonosis is a severe disease caused by the protozoan parasite Histomonas (H.) meleagridis, which can lead to high losses in turkeys. The present report describes the reoccurrence of histomonosis in a turkey breeder farm. The first outbreak occurred in 2005 in 17 weeks old hens, the second in 2009 in 8 weeks old hens. The disease remained restricted in one house and one compartment, respectively. Mortality rose to 26 and 65% respectively within few days in spite of therapy with various compounds. Both flocks had to be euthanized. In both cases H. meleagridis belonging to genotype A was detected. The source of infection remained unclear in both cases.

  2. Development of biotechnology education in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Severcan; Ozan; Haris

    2000-01-01

    For sometime Turkish scientists have been actively involved in biotechnology related research. However, biotechnology educa-tion in Turkey is a relatively recent phenomenon. The subject has not been addressed at the undergraduate level in a serious way until recently. This is evident from the lack of undergraduate degree programmes in biotechnology at Turkish Universities. The Turkish scientific establishment is very much aware of the importance of biotechnology and has identified this subject as one of the priority areas. The Universities are taking positive steps towards enhancing Biotechnology education. This article focuses on the emergence, as well as the problems and prospects of Biotechnology education in Turkey.

  3. Current state of biotechnology in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Munis; Akbarova, Yagut

    2011-09-01

    Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary branch of science that encompasses a wide range of subjects like genetics, virology, microbiology, immunology, engineering to develop vaccines, and so on and plays a vital role in health systems, crop and seed management, yield improvement, agriculture, soil management, ecology, animal farming, cellular process, bio statistics, and so on. This article is about activities in medical and pharmaceutical biotechnology, environmental biotechnology, agricultural biotechnology and nanobiotechnology carried out in Turkey. Turkey has made some progress in biotechnology projects for research and development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Turkey: Enduring Partner or Emerging Foe?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-13

    de Gaulle in the 1960s, Turkey may opt for its own “force de frappe” – a nuclear deterrent – and its own “Realpolitik” with countries such as China...India, and Russia. It could even contemplate leaving, as France under de Gaulle did, the military structure of NATO, while maintaining its...President Obama to treat a Gaullist Turkey as President Kennedy treated de Gaulle in France in the 1960s—demonizing foreign policy and national grandeur as

  5. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings.

    PubMed

    Celebi, N; Ataksor, B; Taskın, H; Bingoldag, N Albayrak

    2015-12-01

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The (222)Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m(-3). The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m(-3); the geometric mean was 57 Bq m(-3) with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3.

  6. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey].

    PubMed

    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yiğit, Ozgen; Katlanır, Eda; Keleş, Bahar

    2012-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated

  7. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  8. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, D J; Lashev, L D; Yanev, S G; Pandova, B

    2007-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin (EFL) and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin (CIP) was investigated in 7-8 month old turkeys (6 birds per sex). EFL was administered intravenously (i.v.) and orally (p.o.) at a dose 10 mg kg(-1) body weight. Blood was taken prior to and at 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h following drug administration. The concentrations of EFL and CIP in blood serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum concentrations versus time were analysed by a noncompartmental analysis. The elimination half-live and the mean residence time of EFL after i.v. injection for the serum were after oral administration 6.64+/-0.90 h, 8.96+/-1.18 h and 6.92+/-0.97 h, 11.91+/-1.87 h, respectively. After single p.o. administration, EFL was absorbed slowly (MAT=2.76+/-0.48 h) with time to reach maximum serum concentrations of 6.33+/-2.54 h. Maximum serum concentrations was 1.23+/-0.30 microg mL(-1). Oral bioavailability for for EFL after oral administration was found to be 69.20+/-1.49%. The ratios C(max)/MIC and AUC(0 --> 24)/MIC were respectively from 161.23+/-5.9 h to 12.90+/-0.5 h for the pharmacodynamic predictor C(max)/MIC, and from 2153.44+/-66.6 h to 137.82+/-4.27 h for AUC(0 --> 24)/MIC, for the different clinically significant microorganisms, whose values for MIC varies from 0.008 microg L(-1) to 0.125 microg mL(-1).

  9. Characterization of turkey pancreatic lipase.

    PubMed

    Sayari, A; Mejdoub, H; Gargouri, Y

    2000-02-01

    Turkey pancreatic lipase (TPL) was purified from delipidated pancreases. Pure TPL (glycerol ester hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) was obtained after ammonium sulfate fractionation, Sephacryl S-200 gel filtration, anion exchange chromatography (DEAE-Sepharose) and size exclusion column using high performance liquid chromatography system (HPLC). The pure lipase, which is not a glycoprotein, was presented as a monomer having a molecular mass of about 45 kDa. The lipase activity was maximal at pH 8.5 and 37 degrees C. TPL hydrolyses the long chains triacylglycerols more efficiently than the short ones. A specific activity of 4300 U/mg was measured on triolein as substrate at 37 degrees C and at pH 8.5 in the presence of colipase and 4 mM NaTDC. This enzyme presents the interfacial activation when using tripropionin as substrate. TPL was inactivated when the enzyme was incubated at 65 degrees C or at pH less than 5. Natural detergent (NaTDC), synthetic detergent (Tween-20) or amphipatic protein (beta-lactoglobulin A) act as potent inhibitors of TPL activity. To restore the lipase activity inhibited by NaTDC, colipase should be added to the hydrolysis system. When lipase is inhibited by synthetic detergent or protein, simultaneous addition of colipase and NaTDC was required to restore the TPL activity. The first 22 N-terminal amino acid residues were sequenced. This sequence was similar to those of mammal's pancreatic lipases. The biochemical properties of pancreatic lipase isolated from bird are similar to those of mammals.

  10. Elective Tracheotomy Practices in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Atalan, Hakan Korkut

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Elective tracheotomy (ET) procedures in intensive care units (ICU) might be different in accordance with countries and ICUs’ features. The aim of the present study was to search the epidemiology of ET procedures in Turkey. Methods A questionnaire which consists of 43 questions was sent by e-mail to 238 ICUs which were officially recognized by The Turkish Ministry of Health. All answers were obtained between August 1, 2015 and August 31, 2015. Results Two hundred and three ICUs (85.3%) participated in this study. 177 (87.2%) and 169 (83.4%) of ICU’s were level III and mixed ICUs respectively. Anesthesiologists were the director of 189 (93.0%) ICUs. Estimated total count of admitted, mechanically ventilated and tracheotomized patients in 2014 were 126282, 80569 (63.8%) and 8989 (7.1%) respectively. Most common indication for ET was prolonged mechanical ventilation (76.9%). The first choice for ET procedure was percutaneous in 162 (79.8%) ICUs. Griggs guide wire dilatational forceps (GWDF) technique was used as the first choice for elective percutaneous tracheotomy (EPT) by 143 (70.4%) ICUs. Most common early EPT complication was bleeding (68.0%) and late EPT complication was stenosis (35.0%). While facilitation of weaning was most important advantage (26.1%), bleeding and tracheal complications were most important disadvantages for EPT (29.1%). Conclusions Most common indications for ET are prolonged MV and coma in Turkish ICUs. EPT is the preferred procedure for ET and GWDF is the most common technique. Bronchoscopy and USG are rarely used as a guide. PMID:27846248

  11. The relative influence of ENSO and SAM on Antarctic Peninsula climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clem, Kyle R.; Renwick, James A.; McGregor, James; Fogt, Ryan L.

    2016-08-01

    Recent warming of the Antarctic Peninsula during austral autumn, winter, and spring has been linked to sea surface temperature (SST) trends in the tropical Pacific and tropical Atlantic, while warming of the northeast Peninsula during summer has been linked to a strengthening of westerly winds traversing the Peninsula associated with a positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Here we demonstrate that circulation changes associated with the SAM dominate interannual temperature variability across the entire Antarctic Peninsula during both summer and autumn, while relationships with tropical Pacific SST variability associated with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are strongest and statistically significant primarily during winter and spring only. We find the ENSO-Peninsula temperature relationship during autumn to be weak on interannual time scales and regional circulation anomalies associated with the SAM more important for interannual temperature variability across the Peninsula during autumn. Consistent with previous studies, western Peninsula temperatures during autumn, winter, and spring are closely tied to changes in the Amundsen Sea Low (ASL) and associated meridional wind anomalies. The interannual variability of ASL depth is most strongly correlated with the SAM index during autumn, while the ENSO relationship is strongest during winter and spring. Investigation of western and northeast Peninsula temperatures separately reveals that interannual variability of northeast Peninsula temperatures is primarily sensitive to zonal wind anomalies crossing the Peninsula and resultant leeside adiabatic warming rather than to meridional wind anomalies, which is closely tied to variability in the zonal portion of the SAM pattern.

  12. QUANTITATIVE PALEOCLIMATE RECONSTRUCTIONS FROM THE MELVILLE PENINSULA, NUNAVUT, CANADA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. K.; Finkelstein, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Arctic regions have heightened sensitivity to climatic changes, however regional scale differences exist in the magnitude and timing of response to climatic changes. Modern and paleoclimate data indicate spatial variability in Arctic climates due to local variations in topography, sea ice persistence, or proximity to the coast. Melville Peninsula in the east-central Canadian Arctic is in a modern transitional climate area, with a relatively continental climate to the west and a more maritime climate to the east. Thus, shifting climates may particularly influence the region, and may have affected Thule migration during the past millennium. The presence of Thule archaeological sites and a transitional climate make the Melville Peninsula an area of high importance for paleoclimate reconstructions. Lake sediment cores from two adjacent lakes in the Sarcpa Lake region in the interior Melville Peninsula (68°33’N and 88°17’W, 220 m a.s.l.) were analyzed for diatom assemblages. Diatoms (microscopic algae) were well preserved in these cores and thus, could be used to track paleoclimatic changes. Unofficially named SP02 and SP04, the lakes are 3 and 2.5 ha, respectively. Chronologies were constructed using 210Pb activity and AMS radiocarbon dates. All dates are presented as calendar years before AD 1950. Diatoms appear in SP02 5,900 yrs BP; coupled with high magnetic susceptibility and lower LOI550 in sediment older than 5,900 yrs BP, the appearance of diatoms at this time confirms earlier suggestions of a persistent ice cap on the Peninsula until 6,500 yrs BP. Diatom assemblages are dominated by Fragilarioid species, particularly Staurosira construens var. venter and Staurosirella pinnata. Peak diatom concentration and LOI550 between 4,200 yrs BP and 2,900 yrs BP may indicate the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) on Melville Peninsula. Timing of the HTM on the Peninsula is similar to that from the Baffin Island region to the east. High ratios of Staurosirella pinnata

  13. Distribution of Radioactive Materials in the Absheron Peninsula, Azerbaijan - 13567

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergraaf, Tjalle T.; Mamedov, Gudrat G.; Ramazanov, Mahammadali A.; Badalov, Vatan H.; Naghiyev, Jalal A.; Mehdiyeva, Afat A.

    2013-07-01

    The Absheron Peninsula forms the extreme Eastern part of Azerbaijan and juts into the Caspian Sea. The region has a long history of oil and gas exploration, transport, and processing and includes a number of abandoned chemical plants that were used in the separation of iodine from formation waters. As a result of lax environmental standards during the Soviet era, the industrial activity has led to serious contamination from oils residues, heavy metals and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). Radiometric surveys performed over a wide range of the Absheron Peninsula showed generally low NORM concentrations. However, radiation levels two to three orders of magnitude above background levels were detected at two abandoned iodine separation plants near the capital city, Baku. These elevated radiation levels are mainly due to Ra-226 and U-238 with lower contributions from Ra-228 and U-235. (authors)

  14. Helminths of brown bears (Ursus arctos) in the Kola Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Bugmyrin, S V; Tirronen, K F; Panchenko, D V; Kopatz, A; Hagen, S B; Eiken, H G; Kuznetsova, A S

    2017-06-01

    We present data on the species composition of helminths in brown bears (Ursus arctos) from the Murmansk Region, Russia. The absence of any information about helminths of brown bear in the region necessitated the conduct of these studies. Samples were collected in 2014 and 2015 in the southern part of the Kola Peninsula from the White Sea coastal habitats. Annually, in the study area, 1-3 bears are legally hunted and biological samples for examination are very difficult to obtain. Therefore, we used fecal samples. We studied 93 feces and identified parasite eggs identified in 43 of them by morphometric criteria. The surveys revealed eggs of the following helminths: Dicrocoelium sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., Anoplocephalidae, Capillariidae, Baylisascaris sp., Strongylida 1, and Strongylida 2. These results represent the first reconnaissance stage, which allowed characterizing the taxonomic diversity and prevalence of parasites of brown bears of the Kola Peninsula.

  15. Korean peninsula: A northeast Asian security concern. Individual study project

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, N.G.

    1993-03-22

    North and South Korea have not responded to the New World Order-that Communism is dead and the Cold War Era is over. When the Berlin Wall collapsed and Germany became one nation, Korea emerged as the only divided country remaining in the world. Today, the Korean Peninsula remains divided by ideology, mutual mistrust of national leadership, the 155-mile DMZ, US military presence, conflicting approaches to national reunification, and the North Korean nuclear issue. Thus, the traditional Cold War animosities and political, economic, military paradigms remain entrenched in a divided Korean peninsula. The US Intelligence Community has identified an extensive nuclear center at Yongbyon, 50 miles north of Pyongyang, North Korea's capital, which appears to be a nuclear reactor and reprocessing site. The threat of a nuclear-armed North Korea is a serious regional security concern that will not be taken lightly by such countries as Japan, China, Russia, South Korea, and the United States.

  16. Historic and instrumental earthquake records of Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Y.

    2012-12-01

    NIMR(National Institute of Meteorological Researches) published historic earthquake catalogs of Korean Peninsula recently. This catalog contains 2161 events recorded at historic documents such as annals of the Jo-seon dynasty and the chronicles of 3 countries. Among those events, 440 earthquakes classified as intensity greater than 5(Korea intensity scale) and 15 earthquakes having intensity between 8 to 10(Korea intensity scale) are interpreted as damaging earthquake. Kyung-Ju earthquake occurred at 779 was the greatest one with M 6.7 and killed 100 people written by historic records. Several records contained the information of damage and casualties from possible Tsunami event. The purpose of making earthquake catalog is to define potential earthquake hazard of Korean Peninsula. As a result of collecting earthquake records for last 2000 years, the Intensity population distribution of historic earthquake marked similar to that of present instrumental earthquake record of KMA bulletin.

  17. Karst features of a glaciated dolomite peninsula, Door County, Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Scot B.; Stieglitz, Ronald D.

    1990-11-01

    A geologic investigation of the northern part of Door Peninsula, Wisconsin for a state funded water quality project revealed that karstification of the Silurian aquifer is more extensive than previously believed. Sinkholes and small insurgent features, solution modified crevices, pavements, caves and springs were inventories and mapped. These features are generally smaller and less densely developed than those in most limestone terranes; however, they are important to the geomorphology and water quality of the peninsula. Continental glaciation has strongly influenced both the distribution and the present surface morphology of the karst features. Ice scour has formed a stepped bedrock topography, contributed to pavement formation and may have removed some preglacial features. Deposition has plugged and masked features in places. In addition, subglacial water circulation, and ice loading and unloading may have influenced karst development.

  18. ENSO-related PM10 variability on the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wie, Jieun; Moon, Byung-Kwon

    2017-10-01

    Particulate matter, defined as particles of less than 10 μm in diameter (PM10), was analyzed over the Korean Peninsula from 2001 to 2015 to examine the influence of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on subseasonal PM10 variability. The PM10 data were obtained from 151 air quality monitoring stations provided by the Korea Environment Corporation (KECO). Lead-lag correlation analysis, which was performed to investigate the connection between NDJF (November-February) NINO3 index and seasonal mean PM10 data, did not yield any statistically significant correlations. However, using five-pentad moving-averaged PM10 data, statistically significant correlations between NDJF NINO3 index and PM10 variability were found in four subseasonal periods, with alternating positive and negative correlations. In the periods during which PM10 levels on the Korean Peninsula were positively (negatively) correlated with the ENSO index, the positive PM10 anomalies are associated with El Niño (La Niña) years, which implies that the occurrence of high-PM10 events could be modulated by the ENSO phase. In addition, this ENSO-related PM10 variation is negatively correlated with ENSO-related precipitation in the Korean Peninsula, indicating that more (less) wet deposition leads to lower (higher) PM10 level. Therefore, we conclude that the ENSO-induced precipitation anomalies over the Korean Peninsula are mainly responsible for ENSO-related PM10 variations. This study will be helpful for further identifying detailed chemistry-climate processes that control PM10 concentrations.

  19. Spatial and temporal variability of periglaciation of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, M.; Serrano, E.; Gómez-Ortiz, A.; González-Amuchastegui, M. J.; Nieuwendam, A.; Palacios, D.; Pérez-Alberti, A.; Pellitero-Ondicol, R.; Ruiz-Fernández, J.; Valcárcel, M.; Vieira, G.; Antoniades, D.

    2016-04-01

    Active periglacial processes are currently marginal in the Iberian Peninsula, spatially limited to the highest mountain ranges. However, a wide variety of periglacial deposits and landforms are distributed in low and mid-altitude environments, which shows evidence of past periods of enhanced periglacial activity. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the present knowledge of past periglacial activity in the Iberian Peninsula. The chronological framework takes four main stages into account: the last glaciation, deglaciation, Holocene and present-day processes. This study focuses on the highest massifs (Pyrenees, Cantabrian Range, NW ranges, Central Range, Iberian Range, Sierra Nevada) as well as other lower elevation environments, namely the central Iberian Meseta. During the last glaciation the periglacial belt extended to much lower altitudes than today, reaching current sea level in the NW corner of the Iberian Peninsula. A wide range of geomorphological landforms and sedimentary records is indicative of very active periglacial processes during that phase, in some cases related to permafrost conditions (i.e., block streams, rock glaciers). Most of the inactive landforms and deposits in low and mid-elevations in Iberia are also related to this phase. The massive deglaciation of the Iberian massifs was caused by a gradual increase in temperatures. The deglaciation phase was only interrupted by a short period with colder conditions (the Younger Dryas) that reactivated periglacial processes in the formerly glaciated cirques of the highest lands, specifically with the widespread development of rock glaciers. During the Holocene, periglacial processes have been only active in the highest ranges, shifting in altitude according to temperature regimes and moisture conditions. The Little Ice Age saw the reactivation of periglacial activity in lower elevations than today. Currently, periglacial processes are only active in elevations exceeding 2500 m in the southern

  20. Fossils from bore holes on the Eastern Shore Peninsula, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Ruth; Gardner, Julia A.; Sohn, I.G.

    1955-01-01

    This report lists Foraminifera, Mollusca, and Ostracoda in five bore holes that penetrated a maximum of 445 feet of section in sediments of Pleistocene and Miocene age, and discusses the paleoecologic and stratigraphic significance of the fossils. It includes the contents of references 6, 16, and 18 of Virginia Division of Geology Mineral Resources Circular No. 2, dealing with the geology and groundwater resources of the Eastern Shore peninsula.

  1. Reconciling genotype with phenotype: Lessons learned on the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif O

    2017-01-01

    On the Arabian Peninsula, where consanguineous/endogamous marriages are customary, hereditary eye disease is often autosomal recessive and genotype-phenotype correlation is typically straightforward. However, this is not always the case. Lessons I have learned in the course of reconciling genotype with phenotype in the region include the following: (1) although autosomal recessive disease is common, autosomal dominant disease still occurs; (2) an individual or family can be affected by more than one genetic eye disease; and (3) phenotype trumps genotype.

  2. Study on Tychini of Balkan Peninsula (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).

    PubMed

    Sabella, Giorgio; Šíma, Adam

    2016-12-01

    Tychus albanicus sp. n. from southern Albania is described and illustrated, and placed in the Tychus monilicornis group. The following new records of Tychus species are given for Balkan Peninsula: Tychus corsicus spissatus Rey, 1888 for Croatia; Tychus cordiger Besuchet, 1969, Tychus monilicornis Reitter, 1880, and Tychus niger Paykull, 1800 for Montenegro, and Tychus caudatus Reitter, 1884 for Albany. Tychus sbordonii Meggiolaro, 1967 is trasferred from the Tychus dalmatinus group to the Tychus monilicornis group.

  3. A first secular variation curve for the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, J. I.; Osete, M. L.; Ruiz-Martínez, V. C.; Fabien, A.; Tarling, D. H.

    2003-04-01

    A palaeomagnetic study has been carried out at 22 archaeological sites in the Iberian Peninsula. These new results together with data from 4 sites previously studied in Iberia and data from neighbouring countries (southern of France and northern Morocco) have been compiled in order to obtain a first Secular Variation Curve for the Iberian Peninsula. Data from France and Morocco were selected from the Archaeomagnetic Database compiled by the Dept. of Geological Sciences, University of Plymouth, UK (D. Tarling). The selection criteria adopted was the following: Dating errors <50 years, number of samples > 5 and α95 < 3^o. A total amount of 54 data points with ages ranging from 200 BC up to 1500 AD have been used to construct the Madrid Preliminary Secular Variation Curve for the Iberian Peninsula, albeit with a gap between the 7th and 10th centuries. Palaeomagnetic directions were corrected to Madrid, using the Via-Pole Conversion method (Noel and Batt, 1990, Geoph. J. Inter, 70, 201--204). A 100 year something window moving in 50 years increments was applied to the data.

  4. Coastal-Change and Glaciological Maps of the Antarctic Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrigno, Jane G.; Williams, Richard S.; Thomson, Janet W.

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, the Glacier Studies Project (GSP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Mapping and Geographic Information Centre (MAGIC) of the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) began a formal cooperative 3-year endeavor to prepare three maps of the Antarctic Peninsula region. The maps will be based on a large variety of cartographic, aerial photograph, satellite image, and ancillary historical datasets archived at each institution. The maps will document dynamic changes on the peninsula during the past 50 years. The three maps are part of a planned 24-map series (I-2600) being published by the USGS in both paper and digital format (see USGS Fact Sheet FS-050-98 at http://pubs.usgs.gov/factsheet/fs50-98/); the maps are of the Trinity Peninsula area (I-2600-A), the Larsen Ice Shelf area (I-2600-B), and the Palmer Land area (I-2600-C). The 1:1,000,000-scale maps will encompass an area 1,800 kilometers (km) long and with an average width of 400 km (range of 200 to 600 km wide); the area is between lats 60? and 76? S. and longs 52? and 80? W. Each of the three maps will include an interpretive booklet that analyzes documented historical changes in the fronts of the ice shelves and termini of the outlet glaciers.

  5. Preliminary assessment of aridity conditions in the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, C.; Corte-Real, J. A.

    2016-06-01

    Aridity is one of the key elements characterizing the climate of a region, having a severe impact on human activities. Aiming at assessing aridity conditions in the Iberian Peninsula, the spatial distribution of the UNEP aridity index is analyzed during the period 1901-2012. Gridded precipitation and potential evapotranspiration datasets are used on a monthly basis. Results show that the southern half of Iberia is particularly vulnerable to water stress and hence to desertification processes. In particular, the UNEP aridity index reveals an increase and northward extension of the semi-arid regime in the Iberian Peninsula between 1901 and 2012. More than 50% of the north and western territory have experienced humid/sub-humid conditions, while the other regions underwent semi-arid settings. Results also reveal that climate was subjected to spatial and temporal variabilities with an overall statistically significant (at a 95% confidence level) trend to aridification in the south-easternmost and central regions. The remaining territory of the Iberian Peninsula does not reveal statistically significant trends.

  6. Severe dust storms over the Arabian Peninsula: Observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    shalaby, ahmed

    2014-05-01

    Dust aerosols and dust storms have tremendous effects on human health and all development activities. Also atmospheric dust plays a major role in the Earth climate system by its interaction with radiation and clouds. Severe dust storms are considered the severest phenomena in the Arabian Peninsula, since they are occurring all the year round with maximum activity and frequency in Summer. The Regional Climate Model (RegCM4) has been used to simulate severe dust storms events in the Arabian Peninsula from 1998 up to 2011. This long period simulation shows a typical pattern and dynamical features of the large-scale severe dust storm in winter seasons and summer seasons. The Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) from the model outputs have been compared against ground--base observations of three AERONET stations (i.e., Kuwait, Mazeria and Solar-Village) and daily space--based observations of MISR, Deepblue and OMI. The dynamical analysis of the large—scale severe dust storms reveal the difference between winter time storms and summer time storm. Winter time storm occurs when the cold air front in the north is coupled with the extension of the Red Sea trough from the south. However, the summer time storm is associated with strong Shamal wind that extend from northern Kuwait to the southern Arabian Peninsula.

  7. Environmental geophysics, offshore Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Kuecher, G.J.; Davies, B.E.

    1995-11-01

    Geophysical studies in shallow waters adjacent to the Bush River Peninsula, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, have delineated the extent of waste disposal sites and established a hydrogeologic framework, which may control contaminant transport offshore. These studies indicate that during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits around the Bush River Peninsula. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal paleochannels greater than 50 ft deep. Some of the paleochannels are also imaged with marine seismic reflection. Conductivity highs measured with the EM-31 are also indicative of paleochannels. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the peninsula. Magnetic, conductivity, and side-scan sonar anomalies outline anthropogenic anomalies in the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, underwater anthropogenic materials do exist in some isolated areas, but large-scale offshore dumping has not occurred in the area studied.

  8. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberian Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Gil, Susan M.; Ford, Jesse; Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Monetti, Matthew; Vlasova, Tamara; Landers, Dixon H.

    2003-01-01

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula. We analyzed heavy metal concentrations in lichen (Cetraria cucullata), moss (Hylocomium splendens), soils, lake sediment, freshwater fish (Salvelinus alpinus, Lota lota, and Coregonus spp.) and collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) from 13 sites between 30 and 300 km from Norilsk. Element concentrations were low in both C. cucullata and H. splendens, although concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, and Pb were significantly higher than those in Arctic Alaska, probably due to natural differences in the geochemical environments. Inorganic surface soils had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Mg than inorganic soils at depth, although a lake sediment core from the eastern Taimyr Peninsula indicated no recent enrichment by atmospherically transported elements. Tissue concentrations of heavy metals in fish and lemming were not elevated relative to other Arctic sites. Our results show that the impact of the Norilsk smelting complex is primarily localized rather than regional, and does not extend northward beyond 100 km.

  9. Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island Bathynellacea (Crustacea, Syncarida) database

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Ana I.; Dorda, Beatriz A.; Rey, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This is the first published database of Bathynellacea. It includes all data of bathynellids (Crustacea, Bathynellacea) collected in the last 64 years (1949 to 2013) on the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Island. The samples come from groundwater (caves, springs, wells and hyporrheic habitat associated rivers) from both sampling campaigns and occasional sampling conducted throughout the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. The dataset lists occurrence data of bathynellids distribution, sampling sites (with localities, county and geographic coordinates), taxonomic information (from family to species level) and sampling sources (collector and sampling dates) for all records. The descriptions of new species and species identifications have been carried out by an expert taxonomist (AIC) with 25 years experience in the bathynellids studies (see references). Many of the sampling sites are type localities of endemic species from Iberian Peninsula. The dataset includes 409 samples record corresponding to two families, 12 genera and 58 species, 42 of them formally described plus 16 taxa unpublished and 47 samples in study. All species known from the study area are included, which nearly sum up a quarter of species of Bathynellacea known in the world (250 species). PMID:24693212

  10. Social Studies Education in Turkey and Islam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonga, Deniz

    2016-01-01

    Religion is one of the important factors that affect the human life. The concept of religion has a significant place within the scope of social studies education. Religion is a concept closely related to citizenship and value educations. As for the studies conducted in the field of social studies in Turkey, there have been few studies on Islam.…

  11. Future of Social Studies Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acikalin, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Social studies education [Sosyal Bilgiler] in Turkey has been defined as an integrated field of study after the curriculum reform over the last decade. This interdisciplinary notion of social studies education is established in the curriculum as a result of modeling NCSS (National Council for the Social Studies) standards. This new social studies…

  12. Fundamentalist Bedfellows: Political Creationism in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Arthur M.

    1999-01-01

    Defines Islamic creationism and anti-evolutionism in Turkey, provides information about political and cultural changes starting from the 1920s, and discusses Islamic movements at this time. Presents examples of politicians' approaches to this issue and points out the effects of Christian creationism and the Institute for Creation Research (ICR) on…

  13. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  14. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  15. Early Childhood Education: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usakli, Hakan

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that early childhood education has paramount significance for the well-being of societies. In this study, the current situation of early childhood education in Turkey is discussed mainly in terms of its perception by the government, the school enrollment rate and the quality of early childhood education programs. The…

  16. Risk and Career Choice: Evidence from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the college major choice decision in a risk and return framework using university entrance exam data from Turkey. Specifically we focus on the choice between majors with low income risk such as education and health and others with riskier income streams. We use a unique dataset that allows us to control for the choice set…

  17. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  18. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  19. Teacher Training on Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2006-01-01

    The important issue of special education services is the special education teachers who have been trained on instruction strategies for children with special needs. Special education teachers have been trained in short term in-service education programs and certificate programs in Turkey until 1983, after 1983 special education teachers are being…

  20. Teacher Training on Special Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavkaytar, Atilla

    2006-01-01

    The important issue of special education services is the special education teacher who have been trained on instruction strategies for children with special needs. Special education teachers have been trained in short term in-service education programs and certificate programs in Turkey until 1983, after 1983 special education teachers are being…

  1. Transition to Family Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

  2. Social Stratification and Consumption Patterns in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Kemal

    2006-01-01

    In this article, by analyzing consumption practices of Turkish households, I attempted to identify whether there are distinctions between different social classes in Turkey. Stated another way, I assessed and explored the impact of socio-economic forces on consumption patterns, taste and lifestyle. In doing so, I tested empirically, two…

  3. Risk and Career Choice: Evidence from Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caner, Asena; Okten, Cagla

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the college major choice decision in a risk and return framework using university entrance exam data from Turkey. Specifically we focus on the choice between majors with low income risk such as education and health and others with riskier income streams. We use a unique dataset that allows us to control for the choice set…

  4. Globalization and English Language Policy in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that globalization has made a considerable impact on multidimensional aspects of human life including the language policies of many countries. This article examines the adjustment of Turkey's language policy in response to the global influence of English at different levels of Turkish national education, including its…

  5. Preschool Education System in Turkey: Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekman, Sevda

    1993-01-01

    Describes Turkey's preschool system and discusses the outcomes of (1) an investigation of the effects of social class and preschool center type on child and staff behaviors; and (2) a project to develop an intervention model for disadvantaged environments, while comparing the impact of educational preschools, custodial preschools, and home care on…

  6. Extensive Quaternary glaciations in eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşilyurt, Serdar; Akçar, Naki; Doǧan, Uǧur; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Schlüchter, Christian

    2016-04-01

    During cold periods in the Quaternary, global ice volume increased and as a result valley glaciers advanced and the vice versa occurred during the warm periods. Quaternary glacier fluctuations had been also recorded in the Turkish mountains. Recently, the chronology of Late Quaternary advances in the northern and western Turkish mountains was reconstructed by surface exposure dating. However, these advances in the eastern Turkey are not dated yet. In this study, we investigated paleoglaciations in Kavuşşahap Mountains, which is located to the south of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. These mountains are one of the extensively glaciated areas in Turkey. Glacial activity is evidenced by more than 20 U-shaped valleys. For instance, one of the prominent and well-preserved glacial landscapes of Turkey is situated in the Narlıca valley system. Lateral and terminal moraines in the valley system indicate more than 10 glacial advances. To build their chronology, 39 erratic carbonaceous boulders were sampled for surface exposure dating with cosmogenic 36Cl. We also reconstructed the ice margin reconstruction of the Narlıca paleoglacier using the accumulation area ratio and area-altitude balance ratio approaches. We estimated an equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of ca. 2900 m above sea level based on the maximum ice extend, which implied ca. 800 m decrease in the ELA during the Late Quaternary in comparison to the lower bound of the modern ELA estimate. The first results of the surface exposure dating will be presented.

  7. Social Stratification and Consumption Patterns in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Kemal

    2006-01-01

    In this article, by analyzing consumption practices of Turkish households, I attempted to identify whether there are distinctions between different social classes in Turkey. Stated another way, I assessed and explored the impact of socio-economic forces on consumption patterns, taste and lifestyle. In doing so, I tested empirically, two…

  8. Primary Education Curriculum Reforms in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinoglu, Orhan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine and evaluate the basic structure of changes in primary educational curricula in Turkey since the establishment of Republic. The study is mainly qualitative and is based on literature and document analyses and teaching curricular reviews. The research findings indicate that primary educational reforms in Turkey…

  9. Re-examination of Turkey red.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Recep; Dolen, Emre

    2007-07-01

    Cotton yarn was dyed in Turkey red using madder through a special method. Amount of the dyestuffs bound to mordanted cotton fibre and the oiling numbers of the cotton yarn was investigated by using TLC (thin layer chromatography) and spectrophotometry. Sn(II) in the bright red cotton yarn was analysed by X-ray diffraction method.

  10. Vocational and Technical Education Reform in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is a country where individual rights and freedom of people are improving. It is known that a free market economy is in its infancy. There is a strong relationship between developed human resources and the production sector. In this sense, vocational and technical education is very important. It cannot be said that the efforts for…

  11. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  12. Transition to Family Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunes, Evrim Didem; Yaman, Hakan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Turkey's primary health care (PHC) system was established in the beginning of the 1960s and provides preventive and curative basic medical services to the population. This article describes the experience of the Turkish health system, as it tries to adapt to the European health system. It describes the current organization of primary…

  13. Clay Corner: Light up a Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiller, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Presents two activities that enable students to work with clay: a tile project and turkey candle-holders. Explains that before students actually create their own projects, they get an opportunity to experience the clay itself. Asserts that the new vocabulary, unusual equipment, and intriguing techniques make ceramics a motivating activity. (CMK)

  14. Myocarditis associated with reovirus in turkey poults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myocarditis associated with reovirus was diagnosed in 17 day-old male turkey poults based on virus isolation, reverse transcript – polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), demonstration of reovirus antigen in the cytoplasm of mononuclear inflammatory cells and myocytes in the heart by immunohistochemistr...

  15. Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Myocarditis associated with Reovirus in Turkey Poults H. L. ShivaprasadA, M. S. FrancaA, P. R. WoolcockA, R. NordhausenB, M. DayC and M. Pantin-JackwoodC California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System, AFresno and BDavis Branches, University of California, Davis, 2789 South Orange Av...

  16. Volcanic and deformation history of the Bodrum resurgent caldera system (southwestern Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulusoy, I.; Cubukcu, E.; Aydar, E.; Labazuy, P.; Gourgaud, A.; Vincent, P. M.

    2004-08-01

    The volcanic rocks of the Bodrum Peninsula, in SW Turkey and NE of the Hellenic Arc, outcrop over an area of 138 km 2. A monzonitic intrusion is exposed in the western part of the peninsula. Upper Miocene volcanism is represented by high-K (HK)-andesitic, andesitic lava flows and pillows, sparse HK-andesitic and dacitic lava domes and associated block-and-ash flows. A HK-andesitic ignimbrite sequence with two stratigraphic units is associated with the collapse of a complex caldera system. Breccias, formed as a result of slumping of the caldera walls are observed inside the caldera. Post-caldera activity is represented by HK-andesitic, HK-basaltic andesitic lava flows, domes and associated block-and-ash flows. Numerous dykes, HK-andesitic and shoshonitic in composition cut all volcanic units. The structure of the Bodrum caldera was investigated using SPOT image, digital elevation model (DEM), aerial photographs as well as field data. The Bodrum caldera is a NE-SW-elongated, semi-elliptical, deeply eroded caldera with dimensions of 18.7×7.7 km. It is partly submerged in the SW part. The complex caldera system can be described in terms of two structural domains. The collapse of the Dagbelen domain is interpreted as a piston type subsidence, while the Karakaya domain represents a piecemeal collapse. Both domains exhibit two separate resurgence events. The elongation of the caldera may be related to pre-existing regional tectonic structures. The caldera is also affected and cut by late stage faults related to regional extensional events. Moreover, pre-caldera volcanism is dispersed and cannot be related to a pre-existing stratovolcano. Bodrum volcanism is therefore interpreted as a complex ignimbritic shield volcano.

  17. Glacial Geomorphic Characteristics of the Antarctic Peninsula Fjords

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellner, J. S.; Munoz, Y. P.; Mead, K. A.; Hardin, L. A.

    2011-12-01

    A distinctive suite of subglacial geomorphic features, representing the grounding of an ice sheet and its subsequent retreat, has been well documented for many parts of the Antarctic continental shelf. Geomorphic features include meltwater channels, drumlins, mega-scale glacial lineations, and gullies cut into the upper slope. Many of these same features occur in more recently deglaciated fjords, but at different scales and in different combinations. We have surveyed twelve fjords on the Antarctic Peninsula, from the Graham Land Coast to Hope Bay as well as on Anvers Island and in the South Shetland Islands. Surveys include multibeam swath bathymetry, CHIRP 3.5 kHz seismic, and sediment cores. Recently, we have reprocessed much of the multibeam data using new software allowing higher-resolution imagery. Unlike on the outer continental shelf of the Antarctic Peninsula, where there is a relatively simple suite of geomorphic features and a uniform retreat history, the fjords on the inner shelf show a complex geomorphic pattern representing somewhat unique glacial retreat histories for each fjord. Several fjords have distinctive grounding zone wedge deposits, and some fjords have such wedges in multiple locations, representing multiple pauses in the retreat history, or a stepped retreat of the ice. Drumlins and mega-scale glacial lineations are present in the fjords, but extend for kms rather than the tens of kms that are typical of the outer shelf. If drumlins are interpreted to indicate acceleration of grounded ice, as they are on the outer shelf, then there must have been multiple zones of acceleration across the flow path of the ice as drumlin sets occur in multiple zones in a single flow path. The inner parts of many fjords along the coast of the peninsula are characterized by features interpreted as erosional meltwater channels, although such features are not common in fjords in the islands off the peninsula, despite the similar scale of the fjords themselves

  18. Study of Tropospheric ozone (TOR) variability over Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Pavan; Bortoli, Daniele; Salgado, Rui; Antón, Manuel; João Costa, Maria; Silva, Ana Maria

    2010-05-01

    To study tropospheric ozone (O3) variability and the increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric O3 concentration over the Iberian Peninsula, NASA Langley Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) data has been analyzed for the 1979-2005 period. The maximum tropospheric O3 amount over the entire Iberian Peninsula was found in June (~41 DU) and a minimum in December (~29 DU). Over North Atlantic Coast (NAC) and Mediterranean Coast (MC) the maximum tropospheric O3 amount was found in July (~41 DU) and June (~42 DU) and the minimum was found in December (~28 DU and ~30 DU, respectively). The West Atlantic Coast (WAC), Pyrenees Mountain Range (PMR) and Central Iberian Peninsula (CIP) have an extended period of maximum tropospheric O3 amount, during June and July over WAC (~44 DU) and PMR (~39 DU), and during May, June and July over CIP (~40 DU). Similarly, WAC, PMR and CIP have an extended period of minimum tropospheric O3 amount, during December and January over WAC (~30 DU) and CIP (~29 DU) and November and December over PMR (~28 DU). The high concentration of ozone in July over the Atlantic Ocean near Iberian Peninsula are due to the presence of Azores anticyclone, extending in ridge through the Cantabrian Sea to the British Isles and West and Central Europe, and related photochemistry and dynamics, has profound effect on the observed higher ozone concentration over WAC zone. Strong seasonal cycle in tropospheric O3 amount has been observed with large variation over NAC (~49%), followed by WAC (~48%) and MC (~41%) compared to CIP and PMR (~38%). When the data are compared over the Iberian Peninsula for the two periods (1979-1993 and 1997-2005), a systematic increase in the number of months with higher tropospheric O3 concentration has been observed during the second period with respect to the first. These increases are almost 8% to 24% over NAC, 6% to 17% over WAC, 5% to 24% over CIP, 6% to 23% over MC and 13% to 18% over PMR. It has been observed that

  19. Toward a phenology network in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalfes, H. N.; Ülgen, H.; Zeydanli, U.; Durak, A. T.

    2012-04-01

    All climate projections indicate that drastic changes are to occur in the Mediterranean Basin and Southwestern Asia. Detailed studies also foresee strong patterns of change in seasonality for most climate fields all across the country, threatening Turkey's rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems already in trouble due to massive land use changes and careless resource extraction projects. It is therefore obvious that climate impact studies can benefit from detailed and continuous monitoring of relationships between climate and natural systems. Recently started efforts to build a phenology network for Turkey will hopefully constitute a component of a more comprehensive ecological observation infrastructure. The Phenology Network of Turkey Project saw its debut as a joint initiative of an academic institution (Istanbul Technical University) and a research NGO (Nature Conservation Center). It has been decided from the very beginning to rely a much as possible on Internet technologies (provided by the National High Performance Computing Center of Turkey). The effort is also inspired by and collaborates with already established networks in general and USA National Phenology Network in particular. Many protocols, instructional materials and Nature's Notebook application has been barrowed from the USA NPN. The project has been designed from the start as a two-faceted effort: an infrastructure to accumulate/provide useful data to climate/ecosystem research communities and a 'citizen science' project to raise nature and climate change awareness among all components of the society in Turkey in general and secondary education teachers and students in particular. It has been opted to start by gathering plant phenological data. A set with 20 plant species has been designed to serve as a countrywide 'calibration set'. It is also anticipated to salvage and extend as much of possible historical animal (especially bird and butterfly) observations.

  20. Decreasing trend of groundwater in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarachi, S.; Moghim, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    In these days the increasing demand for water has created problems for availability of its resources. Some recent issues like population growth, global warming and inefficient methods of water consumption, generated the need to find sources of water other than surface water such as ground water. Excess using of groundwater in most parts of the world causes depletion of ground water in those areas. Scientists are trying to find efficient means to quantify these trends. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) including two satellites launched in March 2002, is making measurements of the Earth's gravity field which is used to display the change of storage of the water on the Earth. GRACE makes it possible to find the trend of the change of storage all over the world.It can show specific areas in the world that have dramatic decreasing trend of water storage. One of these regions that have been considered in this study is Turkey in western Asia, as one of the countries deeply affected by global warming. Turkey is identified as one of the first places where desertification will start in Europe, according to estimates by the UN Environment Program (UNEP). Turkey has 25 underground water tables and they had a decrease in level of 27 meters in the past 25 years (Turkey water report 2009). In this paper the change of the ground water is evaluated by applying the GRACE storage anomalies and the mass conservation equation that concludes the reduction trend in groundwater. The results clarify that decreasing trend of groundwater is more noticeable during recent years, particularly since 2006. Our results show that in recent years the average decrease in ground water level is 2.5 cm per year and the maximum decrease occurred in May 2007 with the value of about 7.9 cm. KEY WORDS: water resources; Ground water; Turkey; GRACE

  1. Homosexuality and police terror in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yuzgun, A

    1993-01-01

    Being a way of sexual living as old as human history, homosexuality occupies an interesting place in the life of the Turkish people of the Republic of Turkey. This has been so since the days of the glorious Ottoman Empire. In the year 1987, instead of investigating the roots of homosexuality, the pressing need has become to present a particular view of homosexuality in Turkey today. To be more specific, there is a need to explain the problems of Turkish homosexuals and suggest certain vital solutions. Our country is constantly endeavoring to become "westernized" and it is claimed that steps are being taken toward that modernization. Despite this fact, homosexuals are confronted with such great problems that it is not difficult to justify those who say that there is no democracy in Turkey. I will try to explain these problems with documentary evidence and without exaggeration. In doing so, I shall make use of new material in my book, published under the title of Homosexuality in Turkey: Yesterday, Today. Beginning in March of 1986, we compiled a list of the attitudes of the police toward gays, involving pressure and cruelty that can be qualified as torture. Despite this situation, instead of being more democratic and humane, in April 1987 the police force employed terror tactics against homosexuals in Istanbul. This was "the straw that broke the camel's back." Soon after this act of oppression, 18 gays, acting on our suggestions, sued the police for the first time. They then submitted a petition to the Attorney-General and later launched a hunger strike in Taksim Square. These represent movements of importance in the political history of Turkey. From now on homosexuals, too, will have the right to speak out in political affairs.

  2. Top cited articles in urology from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    İpekçi, Tümay; Yüksel, Mustafa; Tunçkıran, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    Objective Citation is the name given for a scientific publication in order to be used as a reference by another publication. In this study, we reviewed the most frequently cited publications in urology from Turkey. Although the number of citations is not completely definitive on its own, it shows the importance and effect of the publication. Besides the number of citations directly determines the impact factor of the journals and this factor is generally used in the evaluation of the quality and importance of the journal. Material and methods On March 7–14, 2016, 51 studies with highest number of citations from Turkey are determined from Science Citation Index Expanded database index and the journals in which studies are published, the authors of the publications, their cities and departments, study types, publication date of the studies and the number of citations are recorded. Results The most frequently encountered subjects in the publications that are mostly cited from Turkey are urolithiasis (23.5%), infertility (15.6%), benign prostatic hyperplasia (11.7%), sexual dysfunction (11.7%) and bladder carcinoma/urothelial carcinoma (9.8%). Distribution of 51 publications is as follows: 18 case series, 11 randomized study, 7 non-randomized study, 6 study, 3 review, 3 cross-sectional studies and 3 survey studies. Of all the studies, 68.6% are from Ankara, İstanbul and İzmir and 72.5% of them have originated from the university hospitals. Conclusion It is important to show the most cited Turkish publications in order to show the contribution in the world literature regarding to urology. The most cited publications in Turkey belong to urolithiasis and andrology areas. When the citation analysis publications in urology and different areas both in Turkey and in the world, it is observed that the number of our qualified publications is at acceptable levels. PMID:28270953

  3. The Genome of Turkey Herpesvirus

    PubMed Central

    Afonso, C. L.; Tulman, E. R.; Lu, Z.; Zsak, L.; Rock, D. L.; Kutish, G. F.

    2001-01-01

    Here we present the first complete genomic sequence of Marek's disease virus serotype 3 (MDV3), also known as turkey herpesvirus (HVT). The 159,160-bp genome encodes an estimated 99 putative proteins and resembles alphaherpesviruses in genomic organization and gene content. HVT is very similar to MDV1 and MDV2 within the unique long (UL) and unique short (US) genomic regions, where homologous genes share a high degree of colinearity and their proteins share a high level of amino acid identity. Within the UL region, HVT contains 57 genes with homologues found in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), six genes with homologues found only in MDV, and two genes (HVT068 and HVT070 genes) which are unique to HVT. The HVT US region is 2.2 kb shorter than that of MDV1 (Md5 strain) due to the absence of an MDV093 (SORF4) homologue and to differences at the UL/short repeat (RS) boundary. HVT lacks a homologue of MDV087, a protein encoded at the UL/RS boundary of MDV1 (Md5), and it contains two homologues of MDV096 (glycoprotein E) in the RS. HVT RS are 1,039 bp longer than those in MDV1, and with the exception of an ICP4 gene homologue, the gene content is different from that of MDV1. Six unique genes, including a homologue of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2, are found in the RS. This is the first reported Bcl-2 homologue in an alphaherpesvirus. HVT long repeats (RL) are 7,407 bp shorter than those in MDV1 and do not contain homologues of MDV1 genes with functions involving virulence, oncogenicity, and immune evasion. HVT lacks homologues of MDV1 oncoprotein MEQ, CxC chemokine, oncogenicity-associated phosphoprotein pp24, and conserved domains of phosphoprotein pp38. These significant genomic differences in and adjacent to RS and RL regions likely account for the differences in host range, virulence, and oncogenicity between nonpathogenic HVT and highly pathogenic MDV1. PMID:11134310

  4. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to the...

  5. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to the...

  6. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to the...

  7. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to the...

  8. 46 CFR 7.165 - Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. 7.165 Section... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.165 Kenai Peninsula, AK to Kodiak Island, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Kenai Peninsula at longitude 151°44.0′ W. to East Amatuli Island Light; thence to the...

  9. Is U.S. Forces Korea Still Needed on the Korean Peninsula?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-15

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT IS U.S. FORCES KOREA STILL NEEDED ON THE KOREAN PENINSULA? by Colonel Wayne Stevens United States Army Colonel Jiyul...1. REPORT DATE 15 MAR 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Is U.S. Forces Korea Still Needed on the Korean Peninsula...Wayne Stevens TITLE: Is U.S. Forces Korea Still Needed on the Korean Peninsula? FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 15 March 2006 WORD COUNT

  10. An annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda (Myriapoda) of the Abrau Peninsula, northwestern Caucasus, Russia.

    PubMed

    Korobushkin, Daniil I; Semenyuk, Irina I; Tuf, Ivan H

    2016-01-01

    The Abrau Peninsula is located in northwestern Caucasus between the cities of Novorossiysk and Anapa, Krasnodar Province, Russia. This paper contains an annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda inhabiting the Abrau Peninsula. The fauna of the Abrau Peninsula comprises 17 centipede (4 orders) and 16 millipede (6 orders) species. Henia taurica, hitherto known only from the Crimea, has now been reported from several localities in the studied region. The study also reveals two possibly new millipede species. Statistical analyses showed that habitat preferences of myriapod species within the Abrau Peninsula are caused by species geographic distribution pattern and microbiotope preferences.

  11. An annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda (Myriapoda) of the Abrau Peninsula, northwestern Caucasus, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Semenyuk, Irina I.; Tuf, Ivan H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Abrau Peninsula is located in northwestern Caucasus between the cities of Novorossiysk and Anapa, Krasnodar Province, Russia. This paper contains an annotated checklist of the Chilopoda and Diplopoda inhabiting the Abrau Peninsula. New information The fauna of the Abrau Peninsula comprises 17 centipede (4 orders) and 16 millipede (6 orders) species. Henia taurica, hitherto known only from the Crimea, has now been reported from several localities in the studied region. The study also reveals two possibly new millipede species. Statistical analyses showed that habitat preferences of myriapod species within the Abrau Peninsula are caused by species geographic distribution pattern and microbiotope preferences. PMID:27346949

  12. New U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages from suture zone between Istanbul and Sakarya terranes, northwest Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbayram, Kenan; Okay, Aral; Satır, Muharrem

    2010-05-01

    We provide new isotopic data from the Intra-Pontide Suture Zone, between the Sakarya and Istanbul terranes at the west of Armutlu Peninsula. Istanbul and Sakarya terranes show different geological histories, as reflected in their stratigraphic record, and are juxtaposed along the Intra-Pontide suture. The new U/Pb zircon and Rb/Sr mica ages come from west of Armutlu Peninsula and Almacık Mountains stretching nearly 160 km E-W direction. The Istanbul terrane has a late Proterozoic basement (Chen et al., 2002; 570 Ma) overlain by a sedimentary sequence of Ordovician to Carboniferous age. The Sakarya terrane is characterized by Carboniferous (330-310 Ma) high temperature metamorphism (Okay et al., 2006), Paleozoic granitic plutonism (Topuz et al., 2007) and by the presence of Palaeo-Tethyan subduction-accretion units. The age of metamorphism of the basement gneisses at the west of Armutlu Peninsula and the age of formation of the basement metagabbros of Almacık Mountains were not constrained. The U/Pb formation age of the zircons from a metagabbro give 1325.3 ± 5.3 Ma. This age shows that mafic rocks of the Istanbul terrane basement is older than its felsic rocks (e.g. 570 Ma). Our U/Pb zircon and Rb/Sr biotite geochronological data shows that the basement gneisses of east of Armutlu Peninsula formed at Late Proterozoic (U/Pb zircon age; 500-685 Ma) and reheated at Late Jurrasic (Rb/Sr biotite age; 154.6 ± 2.7 Ma). This data agrees previously presented Mid Mesozoic (Akbayram et al, 2009; 138 Ma) collision between Istanbul and Sakarya Terranes. REFERENCES Akbayram, K., Okay, A.I., Satır, M., Topuz, G., New U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages from northwest Turkey indicate Early Cretaceous continental collision in the western Pontides, EGU General Assembly 2009 Vienna, Austria. Chen, F., Siebel, W., Satır, M., Terzioğlu, N., Saka, K., 2002. Geochronology of the Karadere basement (NW Turkey) and implications for the geological evolution of the İstanbul Zone. Int. J. Earth Sci

  13. Determinants of a quality wild turkey hunting season.

    PubMed

    Wynveen, Christopher J; Cavin, Drew A; Wright, Brett A; Hammitt, William E

    2005-07-01

    According to the National Wild Turkey Federation, there has been a 450% increase in the number of licensed wild turkey hunters since 1973. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research articles focusing specifically on turkey hunting. Most human dimensions of wildlife research have focused on either deer or waterfowl hunting. In this study, dimensions of hunting quality, days a field, and harvest were examined among a sample of 739 Virginia fall turkey hunters. Quality of a hunting season, rather than a specific hunt, was examined. Principal components analysis (PCA) revealed five domains of attributes of a high-quality turkey-hunting season: wildlife interaction, education, being away, social interaction, and hunting skills. The domains of hunting quality revealed by the PCA are similar to domains found previously for spring turkey hunters as well as other types of hunters. Also examined were hunter perceptions of overall hunting quality, the number of days spent hunting turkeys during the fall season, and harvest success. For comparative purposes and agency needs, hunters were segmented into three categories based on days spent hunting: low frequency (1 to 2 days), medium frequency (3 to 4 days), and high frequency (> or =5 days). The influence of these variables to respondents' perceptions of overall quality was examined using a series of regression models. Variables found to be significant predictors of quality were wildlife interaction and harvest success. Hunters who killed a turkey reported a significantly higher quality season than those who did not kill a turkey.

  14. Natural infection of turkeys by infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Portz, Cristiana; Beltrão, Nilzane; Furian, Thales Quedi; Júnior, Alfredo Bianco; Macagnan, Marisa; Griebeler, Josiane; Lima Rosa, Carlos André Veiga; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Driemeier, David; Back, Alberto; Barth Schatzmayr, Ortrud Monika; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2008-09-18

    The infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an important respiratory pathogen of chickens that also infects pheasants and peafowl. Epidemiologically non-related commercial turkey flocks with clinical signs such as tracheitis, swollen sinuses, conjunctivitis and expectoration of bloody mucus were examined for the presence of the virus. Laboratory ILTV detection was performed by virus isolation in embryonated eggs and cell cultures, PCR and sequencing of amplification products, histopathology, indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. One ILTV turkey isolate was also experimentally inoculated into susceptible chickens and turkeys, reproducing a mild respiratory disease. This is the first description of natural infections with ILTV in turkeys.

  15. Association and in silico assignment of sequences from turkey BACs.

    PubMed

    Reed, Kent M; Faile, Gretchen M; Kreuth, Stacy B; Chaves, Lee D; Sullivan, Laura M

    2008-01-01

    Bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) provide an important resource in genetic mapping. An initial set of BACs corresponding to microsatellite markers in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) was isolated from the CHORI-260 turkey BAC library. The selected markers were distributed on both macro- and microchromosomes and included a genetically unlinked marker. End sequences were obtained for a subset of the recovered BACs and compared to the chicken whole genome sequence. Close association of the turkey BAC-end sequences and original marker sequences was generally conserved in the chicken genome. Gene content of the turkey BACs is predicted from the comparative sequence alignments.

  16. Simulating the Permafrost Distribution on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busey, R.; Hinzman, L. D.; Yoshikawa, K.; Liston, G. E.

    2005-12-01

    Permafrost extent has been estimated using an equivalent latitude / elevation model based upon good climate, terrain and soil property data. This research extends a previously developed model to a relatively data sparse region. We are applying the general equivalent attitude model developed for Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed over the much larger area of the Seward Peninsula, Alaska. This region of sub-Arctic Alaska is a proxy for a warmer Arctic due to the broad expanses of tussock tundra, invading shrubs and fragile permafrost with average temperatures just below freezing. The equivalent latitude model combines elevation, slope, and aspect with snow cover, where the snow cover distribution was defined using MicroMet and SnowModel. Source data for the distributed snow model came from meteorological stations across the Seward Peninsula from the National Weather Service, SNOTEL, RAWS, and our own stations. Simulations of permafrost extent will enable us to compare the current distribution to that existing during past climates and estimate the future state of permafrost on the Seward Peninsula. The broadest impacts to the terrestrial arctic regions will result through consequent effects of changing permafrost structure and extent. As the climate differentially warms in summer and winter, the permafrost will become warmer, the active layer (the layer of soil above the permafrost that annually experiences freeze and thaw) will become thicker, the lower boundary of permafrost will become shallower and permafrost extent will decrease in area. These simple structural changes will affect every aspect of the surface water and energy balances. As permafrost extent decreases, there is more infiltration to groundwater. This has significant impacts on large and small scales.

  17. Changing structures and dynamics of western Antarctic Peninsula Ice Shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasser, N. F.; Holt, T. O.; Quincey, D. J.; Fricker, H.; Siegfried, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last three decades, Antarctic Peninsula Ice Shelves have shown a pattern of sustained retreat, often ending in catastrophic and rapid breakup. This study provides a detailed analysis of the structures and dynamics of three western Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves: Bach, Stange and George VI Ice Shelves. Spatial extent and glaciological surface features were mapped for each ice shelf from 1973 to 2010 using optical and radar satellite images to assess their structural evolution, historical dynamics and stability. InSAR and feature-tracking methods were used to assess the recent dynamic configurations of the ice shelves from 1989 to 2010. Repeat ICESat measurements were used to evaluate their vertical changes from 2003 to 2008. On Bach Ice Shelf, the formation of two large fractures near the ice front is linked to widespread thinning (~2 ma-1) and sustained retreat (~360 km2). It looks likely that iceberg calving along these fractures will alter the frontal geometry sufficiently to promote enhanced, irreversible retreat within the next decade. On George VI Ice Shelf, acceleration is observed at both ice fronts; linked to a release of back-stresses through continued ice loss (1995 km2 in total). The most significant changes are recorded at its southern ice front, with ice flow accelerating up to 360% between ca. 1989 and ca. 2010, coupled with widespread rifting and a mean thinning rate of 2.1 ma-1. On Stange Ice Shelf, shear-induced fracturing was observed between two flow units, also linked to widespread thinning (~4.2 ma-1). A semi-quantitative assessment reveals that the southern margin of George VI Ice Shelf is most susceptible to rapid retreat, whilst its northern ice front, Bach Ice Shelf and the northern front of Stange Ice Shelf are more vulnerable than those situated on the east Antarctic Peninsula.

  18. Forest Fire Danger Rating (FFDR) Prediction over the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, B.; Won, M.; Jang, K.; Yoon, S.; Lim, J.

    2016-12-01

    Approximately five hundred forest fires occur and inflict the losses of both life and property each year in Korea during the forest fire seasons in the spring and autumn. Thus, an accurate prediction of forest fire is essential for effective forest fire prevention. The meteorology is one of important factors to predict and understand the fire occurrence as well as its behaviors and spread. In this study, we present the Forest Fire Danger Rating Systems (FFDRS) on the Korean Peninsula based on the Daily Weather Index (DWI) which represents the meteorological characteristics related to forest fire. The thematic maps including temperature, humidity, and wind speed produced from Korea Meteorology Administration (KMA) were applied to the forest fire occurrence probability model by logistic regression to analyze the DWI over the Korean Peninsula. The regional data assimilation and prediction system (RDAPS) and the improved digital forecast model were used to verify the sensitivity of DWI. The result of verification test revealed that the improved digital forecast model dataset showed better agreements with the real-time weather data. The forest fire danger rating index (FFDRI) calculated by the improved digital forecast model dataset showed a good agreement with the real-time weather dataset at the 233 administrative districts (R2=0.854). In addition, FFDRI were compared with observation-based FFDRI at 76 national weather stations. The mean difference was 0.5 at the site-level. The results produced in this study indicate that the improved digital forecast model dataset can be useful to predict the FFDRI in the Korean Peninsula successfully.

  19. Cenozoic evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B. )

    1990-05-01

    Cenozoic evolution of the Antarctic Peninsula continental margin has involved a series of ridge (Aluk Ridge)-trench collisions between the Pacific and Antarctic plates. Subduction occurred episodically between segments of the Pacific plate that are bounded by major fracture zones. The age of ridge-trench collisions decreases from south to north along the margin. The very northern part of the margin, between the Hero and Shackleton fracture zones, has the last surviving Aluk-Antarctic spreading ridge segments and the only remaining trench topography. The sedimentary cover on the northern margin is relatively thin generally less than 1.5 km, thus providing a unique setting in which to examine margin evolution using high resolution seismic methods. Over 5,000 km of high resolution (water gun) seismic profiles were acquired from the Antarctic Peninsula margin during four cruises to the region. The margin is divided into discrete fracture-zone-bounded segments; each segment displays different styles of development. Highly tectonized active margin sequences have been buried beneath a seaward-thickening sediment wedge that represents the passive stage of margin development Ice caps, which have existed in the Antarctic Peninsula region since at least the late Oligocene, have advanced onto the continental shelf on numerous occasions, eroding hundreds of meters into the shelf and depositing a thick sequence of deposits characterized by till tongues and glacial troughs. Glacial erosion has been the main factor responsible for overdeepening of the shelf; isostasy is of secondary importance. As the shelf was lowered by glacial erosion, it was able to accommodate thicker and more unstable marine ice sheets. The shelf also became a vast reservoir for cold, saline shelf water, one of the key ingredients of Antarctic bottom water.

  20. Spatially Explicit Assessment of Agricultural Water Equilibrium in Korea Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. J.; Lim, C. H.; Lee, W. K.

    2016-12-01

    In agriculture, balance between water retention and water use is an issue handled in most region and crops. This study suggested agricultural water equilibrium (AWE) it a new assessing concept for management of agricultural water in spatially explicit. This concept based on the principle of supply and demand, to the usage of agricultural water, it is possible to define virtual water content of crops (VWC) as the demand, and cropland water budget (CWB) as the supply. For the assessing AWE of the Korean Peninsula, quantified by estimating the CWB based on the natural hydrological cycle and the VWC of rice, a key crop in the Korean Peninsula. Among five factors used to assess AWE, four factors except annual precipitation were estimated by using the GEPIC model, and calculated CWB and VWC at past three decade. AWE results over the past 30 years were computed by deducting VWC showing demands in croplands from CWB meaning water supply that result showed highly vertical difference of South and North Korea. When sorting AWE data by major river basin in the Korean Peninsula, most river basins in North Korea also showed very low level. The cause of making latitudinal change in AWE is the differences of VWC and CWB in terms of latitudinal change. Which can be explained by decoupling of agricultural water demand and supply. Identifying relation with AWE, VWC and CWB in concept of elasticity, elasticity of AWE following VWC was appeared as very low relatively and absolutely. And the elasticity of AWE following CWB is very good relatively and good absolutely. When VWC is inelastic, the relative elasticity of CWB tended to become very high. AWE values presented in the study were not absolute, though these values appeared enough in explaining the latitudinal change, demand and supply of agricultural water, and have been meaningful in establishing the concept of AWE.

  1. Clusters of Earthquakes In The Southern of Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posadas, A. M.; Luzón, F.; Vidal, F.

    The southern part of the Iberian Peninsula forms part of the western border of Eurasia- Africa plate boundary. This area is characterized by the occurrence of earthquakes of moderate magnitude (the maximum magnitude ranging from 4.5 to 5.5). From the point of view of seismic activity, this region is the most active one in he Iberian Penin- sula. Until earlier 80, only the National Seismic Network belonging to the National Geographic Institute monitores the activity in the south of Iberian Peninsula. From 1983 to the actuality, the Andalusian Seismic Network belonging to the Andalusian Geophysics Institute and Seismic Disaster Prevention, records the microseismicity of the area. Nowadays, the earthquakes catalogue used belongs to the Andalusian Insti- tute of Geophysics and Seismic Disaster Prevention and it counts on more than 20000 events registered from 1985 to 2001. Today, after 20 years of recording seismic ac- tivity, statistics analysis of the catalogue have sense. In this paper we present a first approach to the clustering properties of the seismicity in the south of the Iberian Penin- sula. The analysis carried out starts with the study of clustering properties (temporal and spatial properties) in the Southern of Iberian Peninsula seismicity to demonstrate, by using the Fractal Dimension of the temporal earthquake distribution and the Mor- ishita Index of the spatial distribution of earthquakes, that this seismicity is charac- terized by a tendency to form earthquake clusters, both spatial and temporal clusters. As an example, five seismogenetic areas of the zone are analyzed (Adra-Berja, Agron, Alboran, Antequera and Loja). This particular study of the series find out the b param- eter from the Gutenberg-Richter's Law (which characterizes the energetic relaxation of events), the p parameter from Omori's Law (that characterizes the temporal relax- ation of aftershocks) and the Fractal Dimension of the spatial distribution of earth- quakes (to find the

  2. Permian Tethyan Fusulinina from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, C.H.; Davydov, V.I.; Bradley, D.

    1997-01-01

    Two samples from a large, allochthonous limestone block in the McHugh Complex of the Chugach terrane on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, contain species of 12 genera of Permian Fusulinina including Abadehella, Kahlerina, Pseudokahlerina?, Nankinella, Codonofusiella, Dunbarula, Parafusulina?, Chusenella, Verbeekina, Pseudodoliolina, Metadoliolina?, Sumatrina?, and Yabeina, as well as several other foraminiferans and one alga. The assemblage of fusulinids is characteristically Tethyan, belonging to the Yabeina archaica zone of early Midian (late Wordian) age. Similar faunas are known from the Pamirs, Transcaucasia, and Japan, as well as from allochthonous terranes in British Columbia, northwestern Washington, and Koryakia in eastern Siberia.

  3. Examining Holocene Stability ofAntarctic Peninsula Ice Shelves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Dominic; Bentley, Michael J.; Roberts, Stephen J.; Smith, James A.; Sugden, David E.; Domack, Eugene W.

    2006-08-01

    Temperatures on the Antarctic Peninsulaare increasing at a rate of 3.4°C per century,more than five times the global mean. At thesame time, the region's ice shelves haveretreated and collapsed, with an area ofmore than 14,000 square kilometers disappearingwithin the past two decades. Ice shelf retreat has followed the southwardmigration of the -9°C mean annual isotherm,referred to as the `climatic limit of ice shelfstability' (Figure 1). Thus, present-day iceshelf retreats on the Antarctic Peninsula havebeen linked to increased atmospheric temperature[Vaughan et al., 2003].

  4. Sinai peninsula taken by the STS-112 crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-10-08

    STS112-702-002 (7-18 October 2002) --- Egypt's triangular Sinai Peninsula lies in the center of this view, photographed from the Space Shuttle Atlantis, with the dark greens of the Nile delta lower right. In this southwesterly view, the Red Sea, with its characteristic parallel coastlines, stretches toward the top. At the bottom of the image, the Suez Canal appears as an irregular line joining the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea (lower left). The Dead Sea in central Israel, with its light blue salt ponds at the south end, appears on the left margin.

  5. Lichens of Izembek National Wildlife Refuge, westernmost Alaska Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S. S.; Talbot, S.L.; Thomson, J.W.; Schofield, W.B.

    2000-01-01

    One hundred eighty-two taxa of lichens including two lichen parasites are reported from Izembek National Wildlife Refuge on the tip of the Alaska Peninsula. Metasphaeria tartarina is new to North America; Scoliciosporum umbrinum is new to Alaska. Wide-ranging, arctic-alpine, and boreal species dominate the lichen flora; a coastal element is moderately represented, while amphi-Beringian species form a minor element. Epigeic lichen abundance is described along a lowland to alpine mesotopographic gradient selected to represent major landscape variation in the refuge. Of six major community types identified, three had significant lichen components.

  6. Metalliferous deposits near Granite Mountain, eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.; Elliott, R.L.

    1969-01-01

    New deposits of lead, zinc, and silver were found in a large altered zone 18 miles long and 2 to 5 miles wide near Quartz Creek west of Granite Mountain in the eastern Seward Peninsula, Alaska. New deposits of molybdenum, bismuth, and silver were found associated with a previously reported occurrence of uranium, copper, lead, and zinc minerals in the upper Peace River drainage northeast of Granite Mountain. Both groups of deposits are associated spatially with felsic plutonic rocks and occur near the western edge of a late Mesozoic province of volcanic plutonic rocks. Both groups of deposits warrant further investigation as possible exploration target areas.

  7. Ectoparasites of hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Girisgin, Ahmet Onur; Senlik, Bayram; Aydin, Levent; Cirak, Veli Y

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehogs are small, nocturnal, spiny-coated animals that have been growing in popularity as exotic pets. However, these animals are host to a wide variety of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites, some of which are of zoonotic character. Thus, because hedgehogs have a potential role to transmit zoonoses including arthropod-borne diseases, we examined them for their ectoparasites. The study was carried out on hedgehogs found dead mainly due to road casualties in the Bursa province of Turkey. The ectoparasites were collected by both insecticide spraying of the body and inspection on a white paper carefully. Totally three species of ticks (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma aegyptium, Haemophysalis parvo) and one flea species (Archeopsylla erinacei) were detected. The prevalence of mixed infestation with both ticks and fleas was 45.5%. Haemaphysalis parva was reported for the first time from hedgehogs (Erinaceus concolor) in Turkey. The occurrence of ectoparasites and their potential role as vectors of certain zoonotic diseases are briefly discussed.

  8. Wild turkey poult survival in southcentral Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hubbard, M.W.; Garner, D.L.; Klaas, E.E.

    1999-01-01

    Poult survival is key to understanding annual change in wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) populations. Survival of eastern wild turkey poults (M. g. silvestris) 0-4 weeks posthatch was studied in southcentral Iowa during 1994-97. Survival estimates of poults were calculated based on biweekly flush counts and daily locations acquired via radiotelemetry. Poult survival averaged 0.52 ?? 0.14% (?? ?? SE) for telemetry counts and 0.40 ?? 0.15 for flush counts. No within-year or across-year differences were detected between estimation techniques. More than 72% (n = 32) of documented poult mortality occurred ???14 days posthatch, and mammalian predation accounted for 92.9% of documented mortality. If mortality agents are not of concern, we suggest biologists conduct 4-week flush counts to obtain poult survival estimates for use in population models and development of harvest recommendations.

  9. Nuclear medicine training and practice in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Zehra; Bozkurt, M Fani; Erbas, Belkıs; Durak, Hatice

    2017-01-31

    Nuclear medicine applications in Turkey started in the early 1950s, grew as an independent medical discipline and finally were recognized by the Ministry of Health in 1973. Later on, the professional organization of nuclear medicine physicians and other related professionals including radiopharmacists and technologists under the Turkish Society of Nuclear Medicine were established in 1975. Recently after completing more than a half century in Turkey, nuclear medicine has proved to be a strong and evolving medical field with more than 600 physicians serving for the changing needs of clinical practice throughout these years. This article describes past and present facts in this field and attempts to provide insights into the future which hopefully will be brighter than before.

  10. A report on syphilis control in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Sven

    1954-01-01

    This report presents the results of a six-month survey of the nature and extent of venereal diseases in Turkey which was undertaken by the author, on behalf of WHO, at the request of the Turkish Government. The first part of the report outlines the present venereal-disease-control system and includes descriptions of the work undertaken by public authorities, hospitals and dispensaries, mobile venereal-disease-control teams, and laboratories; in the second part, the author enumerates certain recommendations for the intensification of the current control programme. These recommendations are particularly concerned with the control of syphilis (since the incidence of other venereal diseases in Turkey is of very secondary importance), and with the expansion, standardization, and co-ordination of serodiagnostic facilities and services. It is suggested that there might be a gradual intensification and reorientation of the present programme. A proposed plan of operations for an eight-year period is described. PMID:13182590

  11. TURKEY-EARTH RESOURCES (MT.ARARAT)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-10-28

    SL3-122-2562 (July-September 1973) --- A near vertical view of the border area of Turkey-Iran?Union of Soviet Socialist Republics as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This picture was taken by one of the Skylab 3 crewmen using a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera. THE PICTURE SHOULD BE HELD WITH THE MASS OF WHITE CLOUDS ON THE RIGHT SIDE. The lake at the top center edge is Ozero (Lake) Sevan in the USSR?s Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. The other body of water is Iran?s Lake Urmia. The major feature in this photograph can be seen in the upper left corner. Mount Ararat is in Turkey only a few miles from Iran and USSR borders. Yerevan, the capital of Armenian SSR, is located north-northwest of Mount Ararat. Photo credit: NASA

  12. The history of psychosurgery in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Zahmacioğlu, Oğuzhan; Dinç, Gülten; Naderi, Sait

    2009-07-01

    The modern age of psychosurgery can be said to have started with Moniz and Lima. Freeman and Watts subsequently revised and popularised the lobotomy procedure. Moniz shared the 1949 Nobel Prize for medicine or physiology for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses, which accelerated the worldwide popularisation of lobotomy, particularly during the years from 1948 to 1953. In Turkey, psychosurgical interventions were first performed in the early 1950s, and were applied in almost 400 cases. These operations gradually ceased after the discovery and worldwide clinic applications of a modern antipsychotic drug named Chlorpromazine in 1950s, paralleling a similar trend in other countries. Our paper reviews the clinical, psychometric and histopathological results of psychosurgery performed in Turkey in the 1950s.

  13. The WHO global alliance against chronic respiratory diseases in Turkey (GARD Turkey).

    PubMed

    Yorgancioğlu, A; Türktaş, H; Kalayci, O; Yardim, N; Buzgan, T; Kocabaş, A; Karlikaya, C; Yildiz, F; Ergün, P; Mungan, D; Kart, L; Göktaş, E; Musaonbaşioğlu, S; Gündoğan, A; Akdağ, R; Akçay, S; Akin, M; Akkurt, I; Altan, P; Altunsu, T; Arpaci, N; Aydin, C; Aydin, S; Aydinli, F; Aytaç, B; Bavbek, S; Biber, C; Bingöl Karakoç, G; Ceyhun, G; Cakir, B; Celik, G; Cetinkaya, T; Ciçek, M E; Coban, S C; Cobanoğlu, N; Com, S; Cöplü, L; Demirkazik, A; Doğan, E; Ekmekçi, E B; Elbir, M; Erdoğan, A; Ergüder, T; Gemicioğlu, B; Gögen, S; Gülbahar, O; Güngör, H; Horzum, E; Içer, Y; Imamecioğlu, A R; Kahraman, N; Kakillioğlu, T; Kalyoncu, F; Karakaya, M; Karakaya, G; Karaodul, G; Kesici, C; Keskinkiliç, B; Kilinç, O; Kirmizitaş, F; Kosdak, M; Köktürk, N; Metintaş, M; Numanoğlu, S C; Gümrükçüoğlu, O F; Onal, Z; Onal, B; Ozacar, R; Ozen, H A; Ozkan, S; Oztürk, F; Polat, H; Saçkesen, C; Selçuk, T; Serin, G; Sönmez, G; Sahin, M; Sahinöz, S; Sahinöz, T; Simşek, B; Tartan, N; Toprak, A; Tugay, T; Tuncer, A; Uçan, E S; Unüvar, N; Yapicikardeşler, B; Yildirim, N; Yol, S; Yüksel, H; Khaltaev, N; Cruz, A; Minelli, E; Bateman, E; Baena Cagnani, C; Dahl, R; Bousquet, J

    2009-01-01

    In order to prevent and control non-communicable diseases (NCDs), the 61st World Health Assembly has endorsed an NCD action plan (WHA resolution 61.14). A package for essential NCDs including chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) has also been developed. The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD) is a new but rapidly developing voluntary alliance that is assisting World Health Organization (WHO) in the task of addressing NCDs at country level. The GARD approach was initiated in 2006. GARD Turkey is the first comprehensive programme developed by a government with all stakeholders of the country. This paper provides a summary of indicators of the prevalence and severity of chronic respiratory diseases in Turkey and the formation of GARD Turkey.

  14. Is nursing a profession in Turkey?

    PubMed

    Celik, Serpil; Kececi, Ayla; Bulduk, Serap

    2011-01-01

    Nursing has been a dynamic process since the existence of humanity on Earth. As a part of this process, whether nursing is an occupation or a profession has been a long-lasting question. There exist different sets of criteria and schemes of classification that are used to define professions. In this article the authors inquire into the professionalism of nursing in Turkey in view of the criteria for nursing professionalism first set by B. K. Miller et al. (1993).

  15. Pathogenesis of avian pneumovirus infection in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Jirjis, F F; Noll, S L; Halvorson, D A; Nagaraja, K V; Shaw, D P

    2002-05-01

    Avian pneumovirus (APV) is the cause of a respiratory disease of turkeys characterized by coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, and swelling of the infraorbital sinuses. Sixty turkey poults were reared in isolation conditions. At 3 weeks of age, serum samples were collected and determined to be free of antibodies against APV, avian influenza, hemorrhagic enteritis, Newcastle disease, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma meleagridis, Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale, and Bordetella avium. When the poults were 4 weeks old, they were inoculated with cell culture-propagated APV (APV/Minnesota/turkey/2a/97) via the conjunctival spaces and nostrils. After inoculation, four poults were euthanatized every 2 days for 14 days, and blood, swabs, and tissues were collected. Clinical signs consisting of nasal discharge, swelling of the infraorbital sinuses, and frothy ocular discharge were evident by 2 days postinoculation (PI) and persisted until day 12 PI. Mild inflammation of the mucosa of the nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses was present between days 2 and 10 PI. Mild inflammatory changes were seen in tracheas of poults euthanatized between days 4 and 10 PI. Antibody to APV was detected by day 7 PI. The virus was detected in tissue preparations and swabs of nasal turbinates and infraorbital sinuses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, virus isolation, and immunohistochemical staining methods between days 2 and 10 PI. Virus was detected in tracheal tissue and swabs between days 2 and 6 PI using the same methods. In this experiment, turkey poults inoculated with tissue culture-propagated APV developed clinical signs similar to those seen in field cases associated with infection with this virus.

  16. The 1994 Economic Crisis in Turkey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    Rodrik (1990) argues that coalition governments during the 1970s were an outcome of a substantial reduction in the popular vote gap between the...coalition governments lasted on average two years ( Rodrik 1990). The volatility in the political environment adversely affected the government’s...25.2% in 1982, the lowest inflation rate in Turkey since 1980 ( Rodrik 1990). Table 1. Main Economic Indicators (% of GNP) Between 1978 - 1983

  17. Assessment of Housing Energy Consumption in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerel Kandemir, Suheyla; Erdem Çerçevik, Ali; Ankara, Huseyin; Ozgur Yayli, M.

    2016-10-01

    In this study, we analyze housing energy consumption in Turkey. The energy consumption is evaluated by using the multivariate techniques such as cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. The number of clusters for housing energy consumption was selected as five years. Finally, cluster and MDS analysis results show that the 2009 and 2010 was the most similar consumption years in housing energy consumption. Finally, this paper present that the usefulness of cluster and MDS analysis for assessment in the energy consumption.

  18. Turkey’s Security Policy and NATO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    of a low chance of military intervention, and a working multi-party system. Because Turkish politicians managed to change the government by election ...PROJECT NO. TASK NO. I WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Indude Socity Cmiication) TURKEY’S SECURITY POLICY AND NATO 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR...ABSTRACT (Cont,,ue an m.voe d nece,• ty and ,denfi by bba nufter) This research provides a study about the changing interaction of a Treaty Organization

  19. Channel stability of Turkey Creek, Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rus, David L.; Soenksen, Philip J.

    1998-01-01

    Channelization on Turkey Creek and its receiving stream, the South Fork Big Nemaha River, has disturbed the equilibrium of Turkey Creek and has led to channel-stability problems, such as degradation and channel widening, which pose a threat to bridges and land adjacent to the stream. As part of a multiagency study, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed channel stability at two bridge sites on upper and middle portions of Turkey Creek by analyzing streambed-elevation data for gradation changes, comparing recent cross-section surveys and historic accounts, identifying bank-failure blocks, and analyzing tree-ring samples. These results were compared to gradation data and trend results for a U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station near the mouth of Turkey Creek from a previous study. Examination of data on streambed elevations reveals that degradation has occurred. The streambed elevation declined 0.5 m at the upper site from 1967-97. The streambed elevation declined by 3.2 m at the middle site from 1948-97 and exposed 2 m of the pilings of the Nebraska Highway 8 bridge. Channel widening could not be verified at the two sites from 1967-97, but a historic account indicates widening at the middle site to be two to three times that of the 1949 channel width. Small bank failures were evident at the upper site and a 4-m-wide bank failure occurred at the middle site in 1987 according to tree ring analyses. Examination of streambed-elevation data from a previous study at the lower site reveals a statistically significant aggrading trend from 1958-93. Further examination of these data suggests minor degradation occurred until 1975, followed by aggradation.

  20. Healthcare Information Technology Infrastructures in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yuksel, M.; Ertürkmen, G. L.; Kabak, Y.; Namli, T.; Yıldız, M. H.; Ay, Y.; Ceyhan, B.; Hülür, Ü.; Öztürk, H.; Atbakan, E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for “Health-Net”), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. Methods The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Results Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients’ Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. Conclusion With the introduction of the “Health Transformation Program” in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality. PMID:24853036

  1. An epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Mason, S J; Maiers, J D

    1984-01-01

    A major epornitic of Mycoplasma gallisepticum occurred in the Monroe, North Carolina, area between January and June of 1983. The outbreak involved 304,000 turkeys of various ages, which were slaughtered in the eradication program at a cost of more than $550,000 to growers and poultry companies. An infected peafowl was the likely source of infection on the first farm. Traffic between farms by growers and company personnel was theorized to be the means of further spread.

  2. U.S.-Turkey Strategic Dialogue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    global  proliferation,  disarmament,  and...weapons   before   they   are   rescinded ;   this   would   allow   Turkey   to   maintain   Ankara’s   highly   regarded...Turkish   participants  underscored  that  Turkey’s   warm  relations  with  Iran,  as  well  as  fears  that

  3. Healthcare information technology infrastructures in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogac, A; Yuksel, M; Ertürkmen, G L; Kabak, Y; Namli, T; Yıldız, M H; Ay, Y; Ceyhan, B; Hülür, U; Oztürk, H; Atbakan, E

    2014-05-22

    The objective of this paper is to describe some of the major healthcare information technology (IT) infrastructures in Turkey, namely, Sağlık-Net (Turkish for "Health-Net"), the Centralized Hospital Appointment System, the Basic Health Statistics Module, the Core Resources Management System, and the e-prescription system of the Social Security Institution. International collaboration projects that are integrated with Sağlık-Net are also briefly summarized. The authors provide a survey of the some of the major healthcare IT infrastructures in Turkey. Sağlık-Net has two main components: the National Health Information System (NHIS) and the Family Medicine Information System (FMIS). The NHIS is a nation-wide infrastructure for sharing patients' Electronic Health Records (EHRs). So far, EHRs of 78.9 million people have been created in the NHIS. Similarly, family medicine is operational in the whole country via FMIS. Centralized Hospital Appointment System enables the citizens to easily make appointments in healthcare providers. Basic Health Statistics Module is used for collecting information about the health status, risks and indicators across the country. Core Resources Management System speeds up the flow of information between the headquarters and Provincial Health Directorates. The e-prescription system is linked with Sağlık-Net and seamlessly integrated with the healthcare provider information systems. Finally, Turkey is involved in several international projects for experience sharing and disseminating national developments. With the introduction of the "Health Transformation Program" in 2003, a number of successful healthcare IT infrastructures have been developed in Turkey. Currently, work is going on to enhance and further improve their functionality.

  4. Chronic toxicity of fumonisins in turkeys.

    PubMed

    Tardieu, D; Bailly, J-D; Skiba, F; Métayer, J-P; Grosjean, F; Guerre, P

    2007-09-01

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins that are found worldwide. They are mainly produced by Fusarium verticillioides during its development on corn. The main toxic effects of these molecules have been well characterized in poultry in the case of acute exposure, but the subclinical and economic effects of chronic exposure are less known. Whereas the latest European recommendations suggest that maximal levels of fumonisins in corn could reach 60 mg/kg and the maximal contamination of poultry feeds could reach 20 mg/kg, no study is available at this level in turkeys. The aim of the present work was thus to characterize the effects of exposure to fumonisins (concentrations of 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg of fumonisin B1 + fumonisin B2/kg of feed) on feed consumption and growth in turkeys over a period of 9 wk. Main biochemical parameters of the liver and alteration of sphingolipid metabolism were investigated in plasma, liver, and kidney. The main results showed no effect on feed consumption and growth in exposed turkeys. Moreover, no effect was observed on the weight of tissues and markers of liver injury. By contrast, a disruption of sphingolipid metabolism was clear at a level of exposure of 10 and 20 mg of fumonisin B1 + fumonisin B2 mg/kg of feed. Both hepatic and kidney concentrations of sphinganine increased gradually throughout the exposure period. These results reveal that disruption of sphingolipid metabolism is an early and sensitive biomarker of fumonisins exposure in turkeys; the consequences on these alterations remain to be established.

  5. Turkey: A Bridge to the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-31

    NAME AND ADDRESS 10 PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJEC. TASK AREA 6 WORK UNIT NUMBERS U.S. Army War College Carlisle Barracks, Pa 17013 Ii. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME...society. 10 During this period Turkey also benefited from foreign assistance. Road building projects provided a transportation network throughout the...exports to the point where both the United 10 States and European producers demanded import protection quotas. Basic industries such as iron and

  6. History of forensic medicine in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Polat; Cem, Uysal

    2009-05-01

    Turkey has a short history of forensic medicine compared to the developed countries. Sultan Mahmud II established the first medical school of the Ottoman Empire named as Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane to provide health services to the army in 1839 [Gok S. Tomorrow, today and yesterday of the forensic medicine. 1st ed. Istanbul: Temel printing office; 1995]. It is also accepted as an important milestone of both medical education and forensic medicine in Turkey [Gok S and Ozen C. History and organization of forensic. 1st ed. Istanbul: Istanbul University Cerrahpasa Medical School Publications; 1982]. The first lecturer of forensic medicine at Mekteb-i Tibbiye-i Sahane was Dr. Charles Ambroise Bernard (C.A.). and he was also the first to perform autopsy in the history of Ottoman Empire [Gok, 1995]. Approximately 40 years after the first forensic medicine lecture in 1879, the Department of Medical Jurisprudence was established as a division of Zabita Tababet-i Adliye (Law Enforcement Office) in Istanbul [Sehsuvaroğlu and Ozen. History and development of forensic medicine in the world and in our country. Mag Istanbul Univ Med Fac 1974;36(60)]. This paper documents the first two cases of autopsies performed in Turkey with the original papers from the National Library.

  7. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  8. Hierarchical structure of Turkey's foreign trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantar, Ersin; Deviren, Bayram; Keskin, Mustafa

    2011-10-01

    We examine the hierarchical structures of Turkey's foreign trade by using real prices of their commodity export and import move together over time. We obtain the topological properties among the countries based on Turkey's foreign trade during the 1996-2010 period by using the concept of hierarchical structure methods (minimal spanning tree, (MST) and hierarchical tree, (HT)). These periods are divided into two subperiods, such as 1996-2002 and 2003-2010, in order to test various time-window and observe the temporal evolution. We perform the bootstrap techniques to investigate a value of the statistical reliability to the links of the MSTs and HTs. We also use a clustering linkage procedure in order to observe the cluster structure much better. From the structural topologies of these trees, we identify different clusters of countries according to their geographical location and economic ties. Our results show that the DE (Germany), UK (United Kingdom), FR (France), IT (Italy) and RU (Russia) are more important within the network, due to a tighter connection with other countries. We have also found that these countries play a significant role for Turkey's foreign trade and have important implications for the design of portfolio and investment strategies.

  9. Rabies emergence among foxes in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Nicholas; Black, Colin; Smith, Jemma; Un, Hikmet; McElhinney, Lorraine M; Aylan, Orhan; Fooks, Anthony R

    2003-04-01

    Sixteen rabies isolates recently collected from mainland Turkey and two isolates held within a British archive were used to form a representative cohort from a range of vectors, and were analyzed to identify potential causes for an increase of rabies within the fox (Vulpes vulpes) population in Turkey. Each isolate was characterized by sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein gene and compared phylogenetically to the cohort, to isolates from neighboring countries and to isolates from continental Europe and Russia. From this analysis the isolates could be divided into three groups associated with geographic location. This included a western group, an eastern group, and one isolate that did not group with any other Turkish isolate. This observation was also found using the heteroduplex mobility assay as an alternative method for typing rabies virus isolates. Further comparison with isolates from neighboring countries suggests that this isolate was related to viruses present in Georgia and could represent a recent import to Turkey from that country. Within the two larger groups, sequence data were obtained from both infected dogs and foxes suggesting that there has been transmission of virus between these two species. The direction of transmission could not be identified by the phylogenetic analysis, although absence of rabies within the fox population in previous years suggests that this could represent a recent spillover from the domestic dog to the fox.

  10. Assessing Poverty and Related Factors in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-01-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US $4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. PMID:17948949

  11. Assessing poverty and related factors in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-10-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US$ 4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary school graduates (42.5%; 38.5% for women and 46.8% for men). The rate for this group was higher in urban than in rural areas. Among poor people, 57.2% were married. The highest poverty rate was among agricultural workers (46.6%) and in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia. Factors related to poverty were crowded households, unemployment, immigration, working for a daily wage in the agricultural and construction sector, low educational status, female sex or married status, lacking social insurance, and living in rural areas or in Eastern and Southeastern Anatolia.

  12. Local magnitude scale for earthquakes in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kılıç, T.; Ottemöller, L.; Havskov, J.; Yanık, K.; Kılıçarslan, Ö.; Alver, F.; Özyazıcıoğlu, M.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the earthquake event data accumulated by the Turkish National Seismic Network between 2007 and 2013, the local magnitude (Richter, Ml) scale is calibrated for Turkey and the close neighborhood. A total of 137 earthquakes (Mw > 3.5) are used for the Ml inversion for the whole country. Three Ml scales, whole country, East, and West Turkey, are developed, and the scales also include the station correction terms. Since the scales for the two parts of the country are very similar, it is concluded that a single Ml scale is suitable for the whole country. Available data indicate the new scale to suffer from saturation beyond magnitude 6.5. For this data set, the horizontal amplitudes are on average larger than vertical amplitudes by a factor of 1.8. The recommendation made is to measure Ml amplitudes on the vertical channels and then add the logarithm scale factor to have a measure of maximum amplitude on the horizontal. The new Ml is compared to Mw from EMSC, and there is almost a 1:1 relationship, indicating that the new scale gives reliable magnitudes for Turkey.

  13. General aspect of pneumoconiosis in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Cimrin, Arif; Erdut, Zeki

    2007-01-01

    During the past 20 years number of definitive occupational diseases has not increased above 1500 case/year according to official statistics in Turkey. Although pneumoconiosis is the most diagnosed occupational disease, incidence of pneumoconiosis is very low. The present paper aims at reaching conclusions on the true dimension of the pneumoconiosis problem by evaluating whole the studies and case presentations related to coal mine dust and crystalline silica exposure within occupational environment. Regarding the results of the workplace-based studies it could be predicted that 20,000 out of 220,000 workers in mining sector could have pneumoconiosis and approximately 5,000 new pneumoconiosis cases might have occurred each year. Case presentations show high-level dust exposures present at the work places. These working conditions might cause acute pneumoconiosis. Poor working conditions exist especially at small and micro scale establishments. In Turkey, infrastructural and superstructural problems on workplace supervision and follow-up, legal processes on workers’ health are complicated. Turkey has to provide healthy working conditions to those small-scale workplaces. Providing relevant assistance with activating people of the developed countries should be on top of the global efforts. PMID:21938215

  14. Lower Carboniferous rugose corals from the Arabian Plate: An insight from the Hakkari area (SE Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denayer, Julien; Hoşgör, Izzet

    2014-01-01

    The Köprülü Formation of the Hakkari area (SE Turkey) is composed of a mixed carbonate-siliciclastic succession of Early Carboniferous age. The lower part of the formation yielded an abundant but poorly diversified coral fauna composed of small non-dissepimented solitary rugose corals, namely Rotiphyllum cf. simulatumFedorowski 2009, Zaphrentites parallela (Carruthers, 1910), cf. Gorizdronia, gen. et sp. indet., Amplexizaphrentis sp. and Amplexizaphrentis zapense sp. nov. and specimens of Caninia cf. cornucopiaeMichelin in Gervais 1840, a dissepimented solitary coral showing a counter septum-related columella. The lower part of the Köprülü Formation is of supposed late Tournaisian age based on micropaleontological data. However, the coral assemblage indicates rather an early Viséan age. The Hakkari corals form a strongly facies-related association ("Cyathaxonia fauna") and are compared to other areas with some difficulties. The most similar, time-equivalent faunal associations is that of the Sinai Peninsula (NE Egypt). Both localities belonged, during Early Carboniferous times, to the Arabian Platform situated along the northern margin of Gondwana. The Gondwana-related Taurides units (Aladağ), North Iran Block and Afghanistan, characterized by a dominant carbonate facies and more diversified coral faunas, formed during these times, the distal parts of the Arabian Platform.

  15. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  16. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  17. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  18. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  19. 46 CFR 7.175 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. 7.175 Section 7.175 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.175 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Nunivak, AK. (a) A line drawn from the northernmost extremity of...

  20. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to the...

  1. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to the...

  2. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to the...

  3. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to the...

  4. 46 CFR 7.170 - Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. 7.170... BOUNDARY LINES Alaska § 7.170 Alaska Peninsula, AK to Aleutian Islands, AK. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Cape Kumlium to the westernmost extremity of Nakchamik Island; thence to the...

  5. Mission and modern citrus species diversity of Baja California Peninsula cases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spring-fed mission oases of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico, hold several species, varieties and unique hybrids of heritage citrus, which may represent valuable genetic resources. Citrus species first arrived to the peninsula with the Jesuit missionaries (1697-1768), and new varieties were...

  6. 75 FR 20991 - Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Upper Peninsula Power Company; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment April 15, 2010. In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal... environmental assessment (EA) regarding Upper Peninsula Power Company's plan to replace the spillway at the Bond...

  7. Digital data for the geologic framework of the Alaska Peninsula, southwest Alaska, and the Alaska Peninsula terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kondratyuk, Tamara; Detterman, Robert L.; DuBois, Gregory D.

    1999-01-01

    These digital databases are the result of the compilation and reinterpretation of published and unpublished 1:250,000- and 1:63,360-scale mapping. The map area covers approximately 62,000 sq km (23,000 sq mi) in land area and encompasses much of 13 1:250,000-scale quadrangles on the Alaska Peninsula in southwestern Alaska. The compilation was done as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's Alaska Mineral Resource Assessment project (AMRAP), whose goal was create and assemble geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and other data in order to perform mineral resource assessments on a quadrangle, regional or statewide basis. The digital data here was created to assist in the completion of a regional mineral resource assessment of the Alaska Peninsula. Mapping on the Alaska Peninsula under AMRAP began in 1977 in the Chignik and Sutwik Island 1:250,000 quadrangles (Detterman and others, 1981). Continued mapping in the Ugashik, bristol bay, and northwestern Karluk quadrangles (Detterman and others, 1987) began in 1979, followed by the Mount Katmai, eastern Naknek, and northwestern Afognak quadrangles (Riehle and others, 1987; Riehle and others, 1993), the Port Moller, Stepovak bay, and Simeonof Island quadrangles (Wilson and others, 1995) beginning in 1983. Work in the Cold bay and False Pass quadrangles (Wilson and others, 1992 [Superceded by Wilson and others 1997, but not incorporated herein]) began in 1986. The reliability of the geologic mapping is variable, based, in part, on the field time spent in each area of the map, the available support, and the quality of the existing base maps. In addition, our developing understanding of the geology of the Alaska Peninsula required revision of earlier maps, such as the Chignik and Sutwik Island quadrangles map (Detterman and others, 1981) to reflect this new knowledge. We have revised the stratigraphic nomenclature (Detterman and others, 1996) and our assignment of unit names to some rocks has been changed. All geologic maps on

  8. Radiological dose in Muria peninsula from SB-LOCA event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunarko; Suud, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Dose assessment for accident condition is performed for Muria Peninsula region using source-term from Three-Mile Island unit 2 SB-LOCA accident. Xe-133, Kr-88, 1-131 and Cs-137 isotopes are considered in the calculation. The effluent is assumed to be released from a 50 m stack. Lagrangian particle dispersion method (LPDM) employing non-Gaussian dispersion coefficient in 3-dimensional mass-consistent wind-field is employed to obtain periodic surface-level concentration which is then time-integrated to obtain spatial distribution of ground-level dose. In 1-hour simulation, segmented plumes with 60 seconds duration with a total of 18.000 particles involved. Simulations using 6-hour worst-case meteorological data from Muria peninsula results in a peak external dose of around 1.668 mSv for low scenario and 6.892 mSv for high scenario in dry condition. In wet condition with 5 mm/hour and 10 mm/hour rain for the whole duration of the simulation provides only minor effect to dose. The peak external dose is below the regulatory limit of 50 mSv for effective skin dose from external gamma exposure.

  9. New evidence of early Neanderthal disappearance in the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Galván, Bertila; Hernández, Cristo M; Mallol, Carolina; Mercier, Norbert; Sistiaga, Ainara; Soler, Vicente

    2014-10-01

    The timing of the end of the Middle Palaeolithic and the disappearance of Neanderthals continue to be strongly debated. Current chronometric evidence from different European sites pushes the end of the Middle Palaeolithic throughout the continent back to around 42 thousand years ago (ka). This has called into question some of the dates from the Iberian Peninsula, previously considered as one of the last refuge zones of the Neanderthals. Evidence of Neanderthal occupation in Iberia after 42 ka is now very scarce and open to debate on chronological and technological grounds. Here we report thermoluminescence (TL) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates from El Salt, a Middle Palaeolithic site in Alicante, Spain, the archaeological sequence of which shows a transition from recurrent to sporadic human occupation culminating in the abandonment of the site. The new dates place this sequence within MIS 3, between ca. 60 and 45 ka. An abrupt sedimentary change towards the top of the sequence suggests a strong aridification episode coinciding with the last Neanderthal occupation of the site. These results are in agreement with current chronometric data from other sites in the Iberian Peninsula and point towards possible breakdown and disappearance of the Neanderthal local population around the time of the Heinrich 5 event. Iberian sites with recent dates (<40 ka) attributed to the Middle Palaeolithic should be revised in the light of these data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Beryllium deposits of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sainsbury, C.L.

    1963-01-01

    Deposits of beryllium ore in the Lost River area of the western Seward Peninsula, Alaska, consist of replacement veins, pipes, and stringer lodes is limestone in a zone about 7 miles long and 2 to 3 miles wide which is faulted and intruded by dikes and stocks. The ores are remarkably alike and typically consist of the following minerals, in percent: fluorite, 45-65; diaspore, 5-10; tourmaline, 0-10; chrysoberyl, 3-10; white mica, 0-5; small amounts of hematite, sulfide minerals, manganese oxide, other beryllium minerals; and traces of minerals not yet identified. The ores generally are cut by late veinlets which are of the same mineralogy as the groundmass ore, or which consist of fluorite, white mica, and euclase. The ores are fine grained, and many of the individual mineral grains, except fluorite, are less than 1 mm in size. The beryllium content of bulk samples of ore ranges from 0.11 to 0.54 percent (0.31 to 1.50 percent BeO). High-grade nodules, composed principally of chrysoberyl, diaspore, fluorite, and mica, contain as much as 6 percent BeO. Geochemical reconnaissance has disclosed other areas of anomalous beryllium in stream sediments elsewhere on the Seward Peninsula, generally around biotite granites that have them associated with tin deposits; additional exploration probably will disclose other deposits.

  11. Indian Summer Monsoon influence on the Arabian Peninsula Summer Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attada, Raju; Prasad Dasari, Hari; Omar, Knio; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    The Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) is as an integral component of the atmospheric global circulation. During summer, the mid-latitude zone of baroclinic waves in the Middle East region are pushed northward under the influence of ISM. We investigate the impact of ISM on the atmospheric circulation over the Arabian Peninsula on interannual time scale. We analyze various atmospheric variables derived from ECMWF reanalysis. We apply a composite analysis to study the circulation variability over the Middle East during extreme monsoon years. The extreme (strong and weak) monsoon years are identified based on All India Precipitation Index during 1979-2015. Our analysis reveals that ISM is a fundamental driver of the summer circulation over the Middle East. More specifically, during extreme monsoons: (i) the lower tropospheric winds are enhanced and dominated by persistent northerlies along with intensified subsidence due to adiabatic warming, (ii) A prominent baroclinic structure in circulation anomalies are observed, (iii) a meridional shift of the upper tropospheric jet stream (subtropical jet) is noticeable during weak monsoon years; this shift favors a strong Rossby wave response and has a consequent impact on summer circulations over the Middle East, (iv) the upper tropospheric wind anomalies show a well organized train of Rossby waves during strong monsoon years, and (v) Intensification of thermal signal during strong monsoon over West Asia has been noticed. We will present these findings and further discuss the monsoon dynamics controlling the summer Arabian Peninsula circulation.

  12. Lateral variations of crustal structure beneath the Indochina Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Youqiang; Hung, Tran D.; Yang, Ting; Xue, Mei; Liu, Kelly H.; Gao, Stephen S.

    2017-08-01

    Crustal thickness (H) and Vp/Vs (κ) measurements obtained by stacking P-to-S receiver functions recorded at 32 broadband seismic stations covering the Indochina Peninsula reveal systematic spatial variations in crustal properties. Mafic bulk crustal composition as indicated by high κ (>1.81) observations is found to exist along major strike-slip faults and the southern part of the Peninsula, where pervasive basaltic magmatism is found and is believed to be the results of lithospheric thinning associated with the indentation of the Indian into the Eurasian plates. In contrast, crust beneath the Khorat Plateau, which occupies the core of the Indochina Block, has relatively large H values with a mean of 36.9 ± 3 km and small κ measurements with an average of 1.74 ± 0.04, which indicates an overall felsic bulk composition. Those observations for the Khorat Plateau are comparable to the undeformed part of the South China Block. The laterally heterogeneous distribution of crustal properties and its correspondence with indentation-related tectonic features suggest that the Indochina lithosphere is extruded as rigid blocks rather than as a viscous flow.

  13. Distribution and characteristic of PAHs in snow of Fildes Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Na, Guangshui; Liu, Chunyang; Wang, Zhen; Ge, Linke; Ma, Xindong; Yao, Ziwei

    2011-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) investigation in different matrices has been reported largely, whereas reports on snow samples were limited. Snow, as the main matrix in the polar region, has an important study meaning. PAHs in snow samples were analyzed to investigate the distribution and contamination status of them in the Antarctic, as well as to provide some references for global migration of PAHs. Snow samples collected in Fildes Peninsula were enriched and separated by solid-phase membrane disks and eluted by methylene dichloride, then quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All types of PAHs were detected except for Benzo(a)pyrene. Principal component analysis method was applied to characterize them. Three factors (Naphthalene, Fluorene and Phenanthrene) accounted for 60.57%, 21.61% and 9.80%, respectively. The results showed that the major PAHs sources maybe the atmospheric transportation, and the combustion of fuel in Fildes Peninsula. The comparison of concentration and types of PAHs between accumulated snow and fresh snow showed that the main compound concentrations in accumulated snow samples were higher than those in fresh ones. The risk assessment indicated that the amount of PAHs in the snow samples would not lead to ecological risk.

  14. The dilemma of development in the Arabian Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Osama, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    With the current of Arab oil revenues it is appropriate to review the experience of the Arab oil producers in social, economic and political development over the last decade. This book, by one of Saudi Arabia's most distinguished academics, concentrates on the six oil producers of the Arabian Peninsula. (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain). The book suggests that in many respects the oil revenues have obstructed serious development because they have made the economies totally dependent on one expendable resource and this has made all the Arabian countries too vulnerable to external pressures and interests. Futhermore, the oil revenues have encouraged fantasy and wishful thinking which have skewed the development process and stimulated pseudo-development. The book makes clear that until the petro-bureaucracy adopts a realistic approach to development there can be no prospect of real development in the Arabian Peninsula. Contents: acknowledgment, preface, introduction, theoretical framework for development administration, development and planning, development of bureaucracy, the appropriate model for development administration, manpower development, the allocation of financial resources for development, conclusion. Bibliography. Index.

  15. Morphotectonic segmentation along the Nicoya Peninsula seismic gap, Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J.; Morrish, S.; Butcher, A.; Ritzinger, B.; Wellington, K.; Lafromboise, E.; Protti, M.; Gardner, T.; Spotila, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica forms a prominent morphologic high along the outer forearc of the erosive southern Middle America convergent margin. This emergent coastal landmass overlies the seismogenic zone and occupies a seismic gap that last ruptured in 1950 with a M7.7 megathrust earthquake. The edges of both the Nicoya seismic gap and the peninsula’s abrupt shorelines correspond with the aftershock limits of the more recent 1992 M7.2 Nicaragua tsunami earthquake to the north, and the 1990 M7.0 Cobano seamount rupture to the south. The coincidence of emergent topography and recent earthquake rupture zones suggests persistence of the Nicoya segment through multiple seismic cycles. Along the Nicoya Peninsula's seaward-facing coastline, net Quaternary uplift is recorded by emergent strandlines, marine terraces, and incised valley-fill alluvium. Ongoing field mapping, surveying, and isotopic dating reveal uplift variations along the Nicoya segment that coincide with three contrasting domains of subducting seafloor offshore (EPR, CNS-1, CNS-2). Uplift rates vary between 0.1-0.2 m/k.y. inboard of older EPR crust along the northern Nicoya coast; 0.2-0.3 m/k.y. inboard of younger CNS-1 crust along the southern Nicoya coast; and 1.0-2.0 m/k.y. inboard of CNS-2 seamounts impacting the peninsula’s southern tip. These results are consistent with geophysical observations that indicate finer scale segmentation of the Nicoya seismogenic zone related to along-strike changes in the characteristics of the subducting plate. Variable upper-plate uplift along the Nicoya segment may reflect differences in subducting-plate roughness, thermal structure, fluid flow, and seismogenic-zone locking (up-dip/down-dip limits). Based on the rapid convergence rate (9 cm/yr) and the frequency of historic seismicity, the recurrence interval for large Nicoya earthquakes is estimated at ~50 years. The most recent event, in 1950, generated >1m of coseismic uplift along the central Nicoya

  16. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  17. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  18. Addressing wild turkey population declines using structured decision making

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Kelly F.; Fuller, Angela K.; Schiavone, Michael V.; Swift, Bryan; Diefenbach, Duane R.; Siemer, William F.; Decker, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    We present a case study from New York, USA, of the use of structured decision making (SDM) to identify fall turkey harvest regulations that best meet stakeholder objectives, in light of recent apparent declines in abundance of wild turkeys in the northeastern United States. We used the SDM framework to incorporate the multiple objectives associated with turkey hunting, stakeholder desires, and region-specific ecological and environmental factors that could influence fall harvest. We identified a set of 4 fall harvest regulations, composed of different season lengths and bag limits, and evaluated their relative achievement of the objectives. We used a stochastic turkey population model, statistical modeling, and expert elicitation to evaluate the consequences of each harvest regulation on each of the objectives. We conducted a statewide mail survey of fall turkey hunters in New York to gather the necessary information to evaluate tradeoffs among multiple objectives associated with hunter satisfaction. The optimal fall harvest regulation was a 2-week season and allowed for the harvest of 1 bird/hunter. This regulation was the most conservative of those evaluated, reflecting the concerns about recent declines in turkey abundance among agency wildlife biologists and the hunting public. Depending on the region of the state, the 2-week, 1-bird regulation was predicted to result in 7–32% more turkeys on the landscape after 5 years. The SDM process provided a transparent framework for setting fall turkey harvest regulations and reduced potential stakeholder conflict by explicitly taking the multiple objectives of different stakeholder groups into account.

  19. Socioscientific Issues in Science Education: The Case of Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topcu, Mustafa Sami; Mugaloglu, Ebru Zeynep; Guven, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the foci and results of studies on socioscientific issues (SSI) conducted in Turkey. Additionally, the study aimed to compare the results of this study with ones conducted internationally. For this aim, a literary review of empirical studies related to SSI conducted in Turkey was carried out. Four criteria…

  20. The Demand for Higher Education in Turkey and Open Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cekerol, Kamil

    2012-01-01

    Failure to meet considerably high demand for higher education in Turkey has always been one of the most significant concerns of Turkish Higher Education System for many years. In this respect, Anadolu University Open Education Faculty has played a significant role in the attempts to overcome this problem in Turkey for the last three decades. In…

  1. Perspectives on medical school library services in Turkey.

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, P W; Blackwelder, M B; Kirkali, M

    1987-01-01

    This paper gives a brief overview of medical education in Turkey and shows the impact of established social, educational, and economic patterns upon current medical library services. Current statistical information is given on the twenty-two medical school libraries in Turkey. Principal problems and chief accomplishments with library services are highlighted and discussed. PMID:3676535

  2. Migration and Psychological Status of Adolescents in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aksel, Seyda; Gun, Zubeyit; Irmak, Turkan Yilmaz; Cengelci, Banu

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of involuntary migration on an adolescent population that had moved with their families to either one of two culturally different locations in Turkey. One of these groups had moved from a village in Eastern Turkey to a nearby town, while the other had moved a considerable distance to a large…

  3. The Efforts on the Eradication of Illitaracy in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, Ahmet Sudi

    The push to eradicate illiteracy in Turkey was started in the early days of the Turkish Republic and has continued to the present, according to this report. The policies followed to increase the level of literacy in Turkey have differed from one time to another, and some of the measures that were taken became subjects of political controversy. The…

  4. Check list of the helminths of equines in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gürler, Ali Tümay; Bölükbaş, Cenk Soner; Açici, Mustafa; Umur, Sinasi

    2010-01-01

    Helminths of equines are one of the most important agents of parasitic diseases. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on helminths of equines in Turkey. In this article, a check list and prevalence rates of helminths of equines in Turkey have been given.

  5. University Students' Perception of Discrimination on Campus in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokce, Asiye Toker

    2013-01-01

    This study explores discrimination on campus in Turkey. The participants were 164 university students from the first, third, and fourth classes of two departments in a university in Turkey. The data was gathered through a questionnaire developed by the author. The results revealed that students were discriminated against because of their clothing…

  6. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  7. New Bythinella (Gastropoda, Bythinellidae) species from western Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yıldırım, Mehmet Zeki; Kebapçı, Ümit; Koca, Seval Bahadır; Yüce, Arzu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bythinella anatolica sp. n., Bythinella istanbulensis sp. n., Bythinella magdalenae sp. n., and Bythinella wilkei sp. n. from western Turkey are described herein. Illustrations of the shell and genitalia of the newly described taxa, together with comparisons with previously known Bythinella taxa and a key to the species from western Turkey, are also provided. PMID:25685028

  8. Quality of Life in Ageing Societies: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arun, Ozgur; Cevik, Aylin Cakiroglu

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare and analyze the quality of life of the elderly in three aging countries: Italy, Portugal, and Turkey. This was done by using data provided by the European Quality of Life Survey completed in 2004. By doing so, we could then operationalize the conditions of the elderly in Turkey who have a rapid aging process…

  9. A Reflective Conversation with Ugur Sak: Gifted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Sak, Ugur

    2015-01-01

    In this reflective conversation, Ugur Sak discusses the current "state of the art" of gifted education in Turkey. He reviews the use of enrichment, discusses acceleration and reviews curricular procedures in Turkey. He responds to questions about the identification of gifted students and discusses the age old debate of talent versus…

  10. The Status and Future of Aerospace Engineering Education in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Francis J.

    There is no aerospace industry in Turkey, and the level of operational activity is low even though the potential for the exploitation of aviation is high. The government of Turkey hopes to establish an aircraft factory in conjunction with a foreign contractor and is aware of the need for aerospace engineering education. This paper describes the…

  11. Age and gender classification of Merriam's turkeys from foot measurements

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Rumble; Todd R. Mills; Brian F. Wakeling; Richard W. Hoffman

    1996-01-01

    Wild turkey sex and age information is needed to define population structure but is difficult to obtain. We classified age and gender of Merriam’s turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) accurately based on measurements of two foot characteristics. Gender of birds was correctly classified 93% of the time from measurements of middle toe pads; correct...

  12. Vocational Education in Turkey: The Past, Changes and the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demirbilek, Muhammet

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the present conditions and emerging issues about the future of vocational teacher education in Turkey. The paper discusses the background and historic legacies that have led to the restructuring of Faculties of Teacher Education in Turkey. The influence of the reforms from the foundation of the Turkish Republic are discussed as…

  13. Literacy in Turkey with Special Reference to Women's State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulusavas, Mualla

    In Turkey today, 93% of all persons between the ages of 6 and 15 attend school, and 89.7% of males and 71.1.% of females over the age of 15 are literate. Turkey's largest adult education programs are public, free, and offered both within and outside the formal educational system by governmental bodies, national institutions, and voluntary…

  14. Sustainable tourism development: the case study of Antalya, Turkey

    Treesearch

    Latif Gurkan Kaya; Richard Smardon

    2001-01-01

    This paper discuss ideas about how tourism can be made base for sustainable tourism development in Antalya, Turkey. The introduction is a general overview of sustainable tourism development in coastal areas. The paper also addresses the role of NGOs in the course of development. Information is given about coastal tourism facilities in Turkey. Finally, sustainable...

  15. An Examination of Articles Published on Preschool Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to examine articles published in Turkey on Preschool Education both in terms of subject and method. Sample of the study based on document analysis in qualitative method consists of seven Turkey-based journals indexed in SSCI (Social Science Citation Index) and 10 journals indexed in Turkish Academic Network and Information Center…

  16. Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae), a new species from south Anatolia, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Göktürk, Ramazan Süleyman; Sümbül, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Cephalaria anamurensis (Caprifoliaceae) is described and illustrated from south Anatolia, Turkey. The species grows on steppe and stony places in Anamur (C4 Mersin province) in south Anatolia. Diagnostic morphological characters from closely similar taxa are discussed. The geographical distribution of the new species and two closely related species in Turkey are mapped. PMID:27489486

  17. Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff: An Empirical Study on Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toker, Boran

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the levels of job satisfaction among academicians in the universities of Turkey and to examine the effects of demographics on levels of satisfaction among them. Design/methodology/approach: A questionnaire-based study was conducted in 648 academicians working in the Universities of Turkey. Data…

  18. Merriam's turkey poult survival in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Chad P. Lehman; Lester D. Flake; Mark A. Rumble; Daniel J. Thompson

    2008-01-01

    We investigated poult survival from hatching to 4 wks of age for Merriam's wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) poults in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated survival from 841 poults reared by 57 radio-marked wild turkeys (n = 52 adult females, n = 5 yearling females). Survival of poults to 4 wks posthatch averaged 33...

  19. University Students' Perception of Discrimination on Campus in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gokce, Asiye Toker

    2013-01-01

    This study explores discrimination on campus in Turkey. The participants were 164 university students from the first, third, and fourth classes of two departments in a university in Turkey. The data was gathered through a questionnaire developed by the author. The results revealed that students were discriminated against because of their clothing…

  20. Stress-induced immunosupression and gangrenous dermatitis in turkeys

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our laboratory has been researching the etiology of turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) for the past 16 years and we have determined that this syndrome is caused by the inability of some fast-growing male turkeys to cope with production stressors. While immunosuppressive viruses have traditionally be...

  1. International Counseling Students in Turkey and Their Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Tahsin; Korkut-Owen, Fidan; Furr, Susan; Parikh, Sejal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions and experiences of international counseling students (ICSs) in university training programs in Turkey. A majority of participants reported they had adjusted positively, but did experience problems related to language, food, and customs. Participants largely also thought that the training in Turkey met their…

  2. The Use of the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in Turkey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oczelik, Durmus Ali; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Use of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (TEO) (B. S. Bloom, 1956) in Turkey is reviewed, highlighting curriculum development, teaching and teacher education, and measurement and evaluation of learning. Developments in TEO use in the United States are followed in Turkey with a gap of 5 to 10 years. (SLD)

  3. Ground roost resource selection for Merriam's wild turkeys

    Treesearch

    Chad P. Lehman; Daniel J. Thompson; Mark A. Rumble

    2010-01-01

    Concealment cover is important for ground-roosting wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) poults immediately following hatch during the vulnerable, preflight stage. We compared concealment cover resources selected at ground roosts to those of nest sites and available resources for Merriam's turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo merriami) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, USA...

  4. Factors Preventing Women's Advancement in Management in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanal, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the reasons why there is relatively very small number of woman administrators in public and private sector in Turkey. We have tried to reveal the factors preventing women's advancement up the organizational ladder. Although there are no legal obstacles against woman administrators in Turkey, such factors as gender…

  5. Implications of Bilingual Development for Specific Language Impairments in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topbas, Seyhun

    2011-01-01

    The potential impact of bilingualism on children's language development has emerged as a crucial concern for Turkey, but so far it has not been addressed from the point of view of language disorders. This short review examines the potential impact of bilingual language development for language impairments in Turkey, with special emphasis on the…

  6. International Counseling Students in Turkey and Their Training Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Tahsin; Korkut-Owen, Fidan; Furr, Susan; Parikh, Sejal

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the perceptions and experiences of international counseling students (ICSs) in university training programs in Turkey. A majority of participants reported they had adjusted positively, but did experience problems related to language, food, and customs. Participants largely also thought that the training in Turkey met their…

  7. Interpreter Training Curriculum in Turkey: The Case of Sakarya University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okuyan, Sibel

    2017-01-01

    In our globalizing and rapidly changing world thanks to the communication technologies, Turkey has a significant strategic position in terms of socio-cultural and economical aspects. Therefore, Turkey has a different commercial and political relationship with many countries comprising various cultures and languages. In order to maintain these…

  8. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  9. Water as Source of Francisella tularensis Infection in Humans, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Selcuk; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Karagöz, Alper; Çelebi, Bekir; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Arikan, Muzaffer; Sahl, Jason W.; Mitchell, Cedar; Rivera, Andrew; Maltinsky, Sara; Keim, Paul; Üstek, Duran; Durmaz, Rıza

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis DNA extractions and isolates from the environment and humans were genetically characterized to elucidate environmental sources that cause human tularemia in Turkey. Extensive genetic diversity consistent with genotypes from human outbreaks was identified in environmental samples and confirmed water as a source of human tularemia in Turkey. PMID:26583383

  10. Infestation of grasses by eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) in Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite the economic importance of eriophyoid mites as agricultural pests, especially of cereal crops, knowledge of the eriophyoid fauna in Turkey remains incomplete. This paper presents the results of a 3-year study on grass-infesting eriophyoid mites in Turkey. The aim of this study was to collect...

  11. Student Retention in Higher Education in Turkey: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ahmet; Cekic, Osman; Boyaci, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate student perceptions of college departure in three state universities in Turkey. Since the beginning of the 1990s, higher Education System in Turkey went through a massification of higher education. The rapid growth brought enrollment and dropout issues in the system. A total of 58 participants were…

  12. Applications and Problems of Computer Assisted Education in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usun, Salih

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey; reviews of the related literature; examines the projects, applications and problems on the Computer Assisted Education (CAE) in Turkey compares with the World; exposes the positive and negative aspects of the projects; a number of the suggestion presents on the effective use of…

  13. English Language Teacher Education in Turkey: Policy vs Academic Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahalingappa, Laura J.; Polat, Nihat

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examines curriculum frameworks in English language teacher education (ELTE) programs in Turkey in light of current second language (L2) teaching standards and research vs Turkey's Higher Education Council (HEC) mandates. It also investigates program directors' perceptions about the current situations of their programs with…

  14. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New Turkey...

  15. 78 FR 77420 - Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Oil Country Tubular Goods From the Republic of Turkey: Preliminary... tubular goods (OCTG) from the Republic of Turkey (Turkey). The period of investigation is January 1, 2012... Turkey and several other countries.\\1\\ The CVD investigation and the AD investigations cover the same...

  16. 9 CFR 381.68 - Maximum inspection rates-New turkey inspection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum inspection rates-New turkey... Procedures § 381.68 Maximum inspection rates—New turkey inspection system. (a) The maximum inspection rates for one inspector New Turkey Inspection (NTI-1 and NTI-1 Modified) and two inspectors New Turkey...

  17. Thickness of the surficial aquifer, Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denver, Judith; Nardi, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    A digital map of the thickness of the surficial unconfined aquifer, including from the land surface and unsaturated zone to the bottom of sediments of geologic units identified as part of the surficial aquifer, was produced to improve understanding of the hydrologic system in the Maryland and Delaware portions of the Delmarva Peninsula. The map is intended to be used in conjunction with other environmental coverages (such land use, wetlands, and soil characteristics) to provide a subsurface hydrogeologic component to studies of nitrate transport that have historically relied on maps of surficial features. It could also be used to study the transport of other water soluble chemicals. The map was made using the best currently available data, which was of varying scales. It was created by overlaying a high resolution land surface and bathymetry digital elevation model (DEM) on a digital representation of the base of the surficial aquifer, part of hydrogeologic framework, as defined by Andreasen and others (2013). Thickness was calculated as the difference between the top of land surface and the bottom of the surficial aquifer sediments, which include sediments from geologic formations of late-Miocene through Quaternary age. Geologic formations with predominantly sandy surficial sediments that comprise the surficial aquifer on the Delmarva Peninsula include the Parsonsburg Sand, Sinepuxent Formation (Fm.), and parts of the Omar Fm. north of Indian River Bay in Delaware, the Columbia Fm., Beaverdam Fm., and Pennsauken Fm. (Ator and others 2005; Owens and Denney, 1986; Mixon, 1985; Bachman and Wilson, 1984). Formations with mixed texture and sandy stratigraphy including the Scotts Corner Fm. and Lynch Heights Fm. in Delaware are also considered part of the surficial aquifer (Ramsey, 1997). Subcropping aquifers and confining beds underlie the surficial aquifer throughout the Peninsula and may increase or limit its thickness, respectively (Andreasen and others, 2013

  18. Translating Norms from Europe to Turkey: Turkey in the Bologna Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onursal-Besgül, Özge

    2017-01-01

    This article focuses on the structural changes Turkish higher education is going through as a result of Turkey's integration into the European educational space. The focus of the article is the process of policy transfer. For this purpose, the article outlines the changes in Turkish higher education comprehensively to explain the dynamics of the…

  19. Liver pathology associated with increased mortality in turkey breeder and meat turkey flocks.

    PubMed

    Popp, Christina; Hauck, Rüdiger; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Lüschow, Dörte; Kershaw, B Olivia; Hoferer, Marc; Hafez, Hafez M

    2014-09-01

    Between 2006 and 2011 a series of disease conditions characterized by raised mortality and liver disorders occurred in turkey breeder flocks and in meat turkey flocks in Germany. The flocks were between 12 and 23 wk of age, and mostly hens were affected. Clinical signs were nonspecific and accompanied by mortality varying between 1% and 7%. Affected birds displayed swollen livers that were marbled with black and red spots and yellowish areas. The pericardium was filled with an amber fluid, and the coronary groove was extensively filled with fat. Spleens were swollen, and a serous fluid that seemed to leak from the liver was present in the body cavity. Histopathological findings in all but one case included fatty degeneration of hepatocytes with parenchymal collapse and associated hemorrhages. Some animals showed cholangitis and hepatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. In three cases with breeders, electron microscopy detected virus particles that were between 23 and 30 nm and similar to parvo- or picornavirus. In addition, picornavirus RNA was detected in the livers of one meat turkey flock. Investigations by PCR for circovirus, polyomavirus parvovirus, and aviadenovirus yielded negative results in all cases, but an aviadenovirus was isolated from livers twice and a reovirus from the intestines once. Supplementation with vitamin E and selenium seemed to improve the situation. The most likely diagnosis is lipidosis, a metabolic disorder with complex etiology, which has rarely been described in turkeys.

  20. Climate variabilities of sea level around the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youn, Yong-Hoon; Oh, Im Sang; Park, Young-Hyang; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2004-08-01

    In order to study the climate variabilities of the sea level around the Korean Peninsula, tidal data observed at local stations in Korea were compared against those obtained using TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) altimetric sea level data. In the course of our study, the amount of sea level rise was estimated using the tidal data from 9 stations selected by an anomaly coherency analysis. The results indicated that the sea level has risen by 0.28 cm yr-1 around the Korean Peninsula over the past two decades. The extent of such a rise is about two times higher than that of the global increase (0.1 0.2 cm yr-1). However, because most global warming effects occurred mainly over mid- and high-latitudes, this level of change appears to be realistic. According to the spectral analysis (at a spectral window of k = 2, k is the number of subdivisions), the decadal band of sea level variability is computed at 30% of the energy. Its spectral peak is found at 12.8 years. In the interannual band, the predominant sea level variability is in the 1.4 1.9-year band, with a sharp peak at 1.6 years. A secondary peak, although marginal, has a period of 2.2 years. Based on our estimates of sea level height from Topex/Poseidon, the quasi-biennial periodicity of 1.6 years is the representative interannual sea level variability in the seas adjacent to Korea. Trends vary greatly according to the geographical location, from a maximum of 1.0 cm yr-1 (the southern sector of the East Sea) to a minimum of 0.17 cm yr-1 (the northern sector of the East Sea). This is fairly consistent with the qualitative description already given with reference to the global map. As an analogue to the pattern seen in Korea, that of the Yellow Sea reveals practically the same trend as that of the adjacent seas (0.56 cm yr-1). However, in the case of TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) data, there is no clear evidence of a linkage between the interannual sea level variability around the Korean Peninsula and ENSO.