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Sample records for bighorn mountains wyoming

  1. Glacial geology of the West Tensleep Drainage Basin, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Burggraf, G.B.

    1980-08-01

    The glacial deposits of the West Tensleep Basin in the Bighorn Mountains of Wyoming are mapped and a relative chromology established. The deposits are correlated with the regional model as defined in the Wind River Mountains. A statistical analysis is performed on the density and weathering characteristics of the surficial boulders to determine their validity as indicators of relative age. (ACR)

  2. Back-thrusting along the western flank of the Bighorn Mountain, Bighorn County,Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Noggle, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    Field evidence of westward back-thrusting, compartmentalized faulting, and tectonically-thinned fault wedges supports a thrust-generated model of uplift for the Bighorn Mountains. Encompassed within the Leavitt Reservoir Quadrangle are structures suggestive of westward basement-involved thrusting antithetic to the main eastward thrust direction of the Bighorn uplift. The mountain-flank region in this area is characterized by reverse-faulted blocks of Precambrian basement which are draped by a deformed Paleozoic cover. A reentrant along the mountain front coincides with an east-west compartmental boundary separating two distinct areas of structural discordance. North of this fault boundary, compression appears to have been accommodated by folding of the hanging wall block. To the south, Precambrian rocks exposed at the mountain-front overlie, and are in fault-contact with a tectonically-thinned, overturned wedge of Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata. Structures i the basinal portion of the Leavitt Reservoir Quadrangle include small-scale folds and a thrust-faulted anticline paralleling the NW-SE trend of the larger mountain-flank structures. Decollement may have occurred parallel to bedding planes within multiple stratigraphic horizons. This deformation probably represents concomitant basinward ramping of the sedimentary sequence in response to westward back-thrusting of Precambrian blocks during the Laramide Orogeny.

  3. Shear wave splitting beneath the Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming: Analyzing the need for models of complex anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, M. A.; Schutt, D.

    2010-12-01

    In this study, we examine complexity in upper mantle anisotropy observed at the high-density Bighorns Mountains broadband array in north-central Wyoming. Preliminary results (Anderson et al., pers. com.) using standard methods show largely variable fast-axis orientations and consistent but unusually small delay times (avg. 0.7 s). At the nearby Billings Array that was emplaced just to the north of the Bighorns in from 1999 to 2001, two layers of anisotropy were found, with the bottom layer striking parallel to but dipping opposite to what passive plate shear of the asthenosphere would predict, and an upper layer consistent with LPO accretion associated with drift of the North American plate during the Mesozoic [Yuan et al., 2008]. The ongoing Bighorns, and past Billings measurements, suggest complex anisotropy exists throughout the region. To characterize this anisotropy, we are forward modeling possible multiple-layer structure and comparing observed SKS to predicted SKS using the Neighborhood Algorithm [Sambridge, 1999] to guide the search through model space, and using the cross-convolution method to measure goodness of fit [Menke and Levin, 2003]. This combination of methods provides for statistical examination of the fit of various complex models, and proves more effective than fitting back-azimuthal variations of splitting times [Yuan et al., 2008].

  4. Crustal structure of the Bighorn Mountains region: Precambrian influence on Laramide shortening and uplift in north-central Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worthington, Lindsay L.; Miller, Kate C.; Erslev, Eric A.; Anderson, Megan L.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Yeck, William L.; Harder, Steven H.; Siddoway, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    The crustal structure of north-central Wyoming records a history of complex lithospheric evolution from Precambrian accretion to Cretaceous-Paleogene Laramide shortening. We present two active source P wave velocity model profiles collected as part of the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment in 2010. Analyses of these velocity models and single-fold reflection data, together with potential field modeling of regional gravity and magnetic signals, constrain crustal structure and thickness of the Bighorn region. We image a west dipping reflection boundary and model a sharp magnetic contact east of the Bighorn Arch that together may delineate a previously undetected Precambrian suture zone. Localized patches of a high-velocity, high-density lower crustal layer (the "7.× layer") occur across the study area but are largely absent beneath the Bighorn Arch culmination. Moho topography is relatively smooth with no large-scale offsets, with depths ranging from ~50 to 37 km, and is largely decoupled from Laramide basement topography. These observations suggest that (1) the edge of the Archean Wyoming craton lies just east of the Bighorn Mountains, approximately 300 km west of previous interpretations, and (2) Laramide deformation localized in an area with thin or absent 7.× layer, due to its relatively weak lower crust, leading to detachment faulting. Our findings show that Precambrian tectonics in northern Wyoming may be more complicated than previously determined and subsequent Laramide deformation may have been critically dependent on laterally heterogeneous crustal structure that can be linked to Precambrian origins.

  5. Influences on Wood Load in Mountain Streams of the Bighorn National Forest, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowakowski, Amy L.; Wohl, Ellen

    2008-10-01

    We documented valley and channel characteristics and wood loads in 19 reaches of forested headwater mountain streams in the Bighorn National Forest of northern Wyoming. Ten of these reaches were in the Upper Tongue River watershed, which has a history of management including timber harvest, tie floating, and road construction. Nine reaches were in the North Rock Creek watershed, which has little history of management activities. We used these data to test hypotheses that (i) valley geometry correlates with wood load, (ii) stream gradient correlates with wood load, and (iii) wood loads are significantly lower in managed watersheds than in otherwise similar unmanaged watersheds. Statistical analyses of the data support the first and third hypotheses. Stream reaches with steeper valley side slopes tend to have higher wood loads, and reaches in managed watersheds tend to have lower wood loads than reaches in unmanaged watersheds. Results do not support the second hypothesis. Shear stress correlated more strongly with wood load than did stream gradient, but statistical models with valley-scale variables had greater explanatory power than statistical models with channel-scale variables. Wood loads in stream reaches within managed watersheds in the Bighorn National Forest tend to be two to three times lower than wood loads in unmanaged watersheds.

  6. Influences on wood load in mountain streams of the Bighorn National Forest, Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Amy L; Wohl, Ellen

    2008-10-01

    We documented valley and channel characteristics and wood loads in 19 reaches of forested headwater mountain streams in the Bighorn National Forest of northern Wyoming. Ten of these reaches were in the Upper Tongue River watershed, which has a history of management including timber harvest, tie floating, and road construction. Nine reaches were in the North Rock Creek watershed, which has little history of management activities. We used these data to test hypotheses that (i) valley geometry correlates with wood load, (ii) stream gradient correlates with wood load, and (iii) wood loads are significantly lower in managed watersheds than in otherwise similar unmanaged watersheds. Statistical analyses of the data support the first and third hypotheses. Stream reaches with steeper valley side slopes tend to have higher wood loads, and reaches in managed watersheds tend to have lower wood loads than reaches in unmanaged watersheds. Results do not support the second hypothesis. Shear stress correlated more strongly with wood load than did stream gradient, but statistical models with valley-scale variables had greater explanatory power than statistical models with channel-scale variables. Wood loads in stream reaches within managed watersheds in the Bighorn National Forest tend to be two to three times lower than wood loads in unmanaged watersheds.

  7. Influences on wood load in mountain streams of the Bighorn National Forest, Wyoming, USA.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Amy L; Wohl, Ellen

    2008-10-01

    We documented valley and channel characteristics and wood loads in 19 reaches of forested headwater mountain streams in the Bighorn National Forest of northern Wyoming. Ten of these reaches were in the Upper Tongue River watershed, which has a history of management including timber harvest, tie floating, and road construction. Nine reaches were in the North Rock Creek watershed, which has little history of management activities. We used these data to test hypotheses that (i) valley geometry correlates with wood load, (ii) stream gradient correlates with wood load, and (iii) wood loads are significantly lower in managed watersheds than in otherwise similar unmanaged watersheds. Statistical analyses of the data support the first and third hypotheses. Stream reaches with steeper valley side slopes tend to have higher wood loads, and reaches in managed watersheds tend to have lower wood loads than reaches in unmanaged watersheds. Results do not support the second hypothesis. Shear stress correlated more strongly with wood load than did stream gradient, but statistical models with valley-scale variables had greater explanatory power than statistical models with channel-scale variables. Wood loads in stream reaches within managed watersheds in the Bighorn National Forest tend to be two to three times lower than wood loads in unmanaged watersheds. PMID:18535855

  8. Laramide thrusting of Bighorn Mountains onto Powder River basin near Buffalo, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Grow, J.A.; Hinrichs, E.N.; Miller, J.J.; Lee, M.W.; Robbins, S.L.

    1988-07-01

    Recent seismic surveys and exploratory drilling by industry for subthrust oil and gas prospects beneath the Bighorn Mountain front along the western edge of the Powder River basin near Buffalo, Wyoming, reveal a basement-involved thrust of considerable magnitude. A deep test for oil and gas, the ARCO 1-4 Kinney Ranch borehole, was drilled 13 km (8 mi) west of Buffalo and penetrated 750 m (2460 ft) of Precambrian granite gneiss before penetrating the thrust and entering 1475 m (4838 ft) of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation and another 2199 m (7214 ft) of Mesozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The Gulf Granite Ridge 1-9-2D borehole, which was drilled 31 km (19 mi) north-northwest of the ARCO borehole and 5 km (3 mi) northwest of Story, Wyoming, penetrated 1768 m (5800 ft) of granite before entering Upper Cretaceous strata. This borehole penetrated a total of 3021 m (9911 ft) of Mesozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. Chevron U.S.A., Inc., supplied to the USGS two very high-quality seismic reflection profiles near the Kinney Ranch and Granite Ridge boreholes. These profiles have been reprocessed by the USGS and integrated with surface geologic mapping, gravity surveys, and other geologic studies by the USGS in progress in the Powder River basin. The seismic profiles near the Kinney Ranch and Granite Ridge boreholes clearly show that sedimentary rocks of the Paleozoic through the Paleocene, which occur beneath the thrust fault, extend more than 11 km (7 mi) west ward from the eastern edge of the basement thrust. The fault plane at the base of the Precambrian granites and gneisses dips 30/degrees/ to the west.

  9. The use of Skylab and LANDSAT in a geohydrological study of the Paleozoic section, west-central Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tomes, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Sites of geologic structures were identified using Skylab and LANDSAT imagery, and their relationships to ground water recharge and discharge were studied. The study area lies along the western slope of the Bighorn Mountains. Runoff flowing from the Precambrian core of the Bighorn Mountains sinks as it flows over outcrops of the Bighorn dolomite. A comparison of photo-geologic maps prepared from Skylab and LANDSAT imagery and a geologic map compiled by Darton (1906) illustrates that photomapping, by itself, cannot supply adequate detail but can supplement reconnaissance mapping. Lineation maps were compiled from LANDSAT and Skylab images and compared to similar maps compiled by other investigators.

  10. Petrology of Tullock Member, Fort Union Formation, Wyoming and Montana: Evidence for early Paleocene uplift of Bighorn Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.L.; Hansley, P.L. )

    1989-09-01

    New petrologic data collected from sandstones in the Paleocene Tullock Member of the Fort Union Formation above the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the Powder River basin (PRB) and from the lowermost Paleocene in the Bighorn basin, Wyoming and Montana, compel reevaluation of the timing of the bighorn uplift, formerly thought to be middle Paleocene. The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary is identified by regionally valid palynological and trace element geochemical criteria. Basin-wide outcrop and subsurface studies of the Tullock Member indicate deposition on a low-gradient alluvial plain extending toward the retreating Cannonball sea. Eastward-flowing, low-sinuosity paleostreams containing small, sandy, stable channels characterized the fluvial systems.

  11. Expression of syndepositional tectonic uplift in Permian Goose Egg formation (Phosphoria equivalent) carbonates and red beds of Sheep Mountain anticline, Bighorn basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, S.P.; Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A.

    1989-03-01

    Based on detailed field observations at Sheep Mountain, a doubly plunging anticline in the northeastern Bighorn basin in Wyoming, there appears to have been active tectonic uplift at this site contemporaneous with Pennsylvanian and Permian sedimentation. The Permian (Leonardian to Guadalupian) Goose Egg Formation at Sheep Mountain consists of 25-60 m of silty red beds (including minor carbonate and evaporite units) capped by 15-30 m of dominantly intertidal carbonates (the Ervay Member). A strong lateral variation of facies normal to the trend of the anticline is found within the red-bed sequence: carbonate beds on the anticline flanks are transitional with a gypsum/anhydrite facies along the crest. Similarly, shales on the anticline limbs grade into sandstones near the fold axis, indicating a paleohigh roughly coincidental with the present-day anticline crest. Ervay deposition (late Guadalupian) was marked by a more extensive uplifted structure in a marginal marine setting. On Sheep Mountain the unit is typified by intertidal fenestral carbonates, whereas outcrops to the east suggest a restricted marine facies and outcrops to the west reflect a more open marine environment. Thin sand lenses present in the Ervay are thought to represent terrigenous sediments blown onto the sometimes emergent bank which were then captured through adhesion and cementation. Anticlinal features similar to Sheep Mountain are common along the eastern margin of the Bighorn basin. When found in the subsurface, these structures are often associated with hydrocarbon production from the Ervay Member. Tectonic uplift contemporaneous with deposition of this unit may explain the localization of the productive fenestral facies on the present-day anticlines.

  12. Aqueous geochemistry of the Thermopolis hydrothermal system, southern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaszuba, John P.; Sims, Kenneth W.W.; Pluda, Allison R.

    2014-06-01

    The Thermopolis hydrothermal system is located in the southern portion of the Bighorn Basin, in and around the town of Thermopolis, Wyoming. It is the largest hydrothermal system in Wyoming outside of Yellowstone National Park. The system includes hot springs, travertine deposits, and thermal wells; published models for the hydrothermal system propose the Owl Creek Mountains as the recharge zone, simple conductive heating at depth, and resurfacing of thermal waters up the Thermopolis Anticline.

  13. Experiment to evaluate feasibility of utilizing Skylab-EREP remote sensing data for tectonic analysis of the Bighorn Mountains region, Wyoming-Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. S-190A color transparencies from SL-2 of the Big Horn basin region provide the best format to date for geologic study of that region; red beds are quite mappable and resistant key beds sharply outlined. An S-190B color frame from SL-3 of the Pryor-Bighorn mountains provides no indication that the Nye-Bowler lineament extends east of East Pryor Mountain. This has important implications regarding the role of this and other lineaments (which also appear to be of restricted length) in the tectonics of the region. Extensions of these lineaments for great distances does not seem warranted on the basis of surface evidence.

  14. Experiment to evaluate feasibility of utilizing Skylab-EREP remote sensing data for tectonic analysis of the Bighorn Mountains region, Wyoming-Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Excellent imagery has been obtained from SL-3 along track 5 across the Bighorn Mountains and track 19 across the northern Black Hills. The red band is by far the best of the four black and white films of S-190A. Excellent detail is visible of topography, structure, resistant lithologies, and culture with good resolution obtainable at high magnification (30X). The infrared bands do not have as good resolution and are grainy at high magnification. They are of use as a complement to the red band particularly for relief enhancement in areas of heavy green grass and forest cover. S-190B high definition black and white is comparable to the red band (S-190A) in detail. Its main advantage is larger initial scale and slightly better resolution. High resolution color transparencies along track 19 allow detailed delineation of cultivated land and strip mining. A group of folds northwest of Billings stand out clearly. Light colored units in northwestern Black Hills and in the badlands can be mapped in great detail.

  15. Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    The Bighorn Basin is one of many structural and sedimentary basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny, a period of crustal instability and compressional tectonics that began in latest Cretaceous time and ended in the Eocene. The basin is nearly 180 mi long, 100 mi wide, and encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. The basin is bounded on the northeast by the Pryor Mountains, on the east by the Bighorn Mountains, and on the south by the Owl Creek Mountains). The north boundary includes a zone of faulting and folding referred to as the Nye-Bowler lineament. The northwest and west margins are formed by the Beartooth Mountains and Absaroka Range, respectively. Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary. In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs in the deeper parts of the basin. It has been suggested by numerous authors that various Cretaceous marine shales are the principal source rock for these accumulations. Numerous studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Rocky Mountain region have led to the general conclusion that these rocks have generated or are capable of generating oil and (or) gas. In recent years, advances in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation have resulted in increased exploration and completion of wells in Cretaceous marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were previously thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters controlling hydrocarbon production from these shale reservoirs include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for selected Upper Cretaceous marine

  16. Geology of the Bighorn Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darton, N.H.

    1906-01-01

    There are extensive, forests in the mountains, which are now included in a Government forest reserve, but their timber is not of great value. Much of the area below timber line contains an abundance of luxuriant grasses and other plants, which afford excellent pasturage for stock, and large herds of sheep and cattle are ranged in the region during the short summer season. Game is moderately abundant, and most of the streams contain large numbers of trout. The region is one of great interest geologically on account of its variety of sedimentary rocks, interesting structure, and remarkably instructive glacial features. The central area, with its high peaks, presents alpine scenery of notable character. Doubtless in the future the region will be extensively visited by tourists, hunters, and geologists.

  17. Evidence for Quaternary tectonism in the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reheis, Marith C.

    1985-05-01

    Irregularities in the reconstructed gradients of latest Pliocene and Quaternary terraces in the northern Bighorn Basin, northwest Wyoming and south-central Montana, suggest that Quaternary movements have occurred on the Frannie anticline, the Nye-Bowler Sage Creek fault zone, and the North Pryor fault. This area has been considered tectonically inactive. The timing of the interpreted movements is derived from age estimates of fluvial deposits determined from numerical ages and altitudes of associated deposits of volcanic ash. South of the Pryor Mountains, the 1.4 Ma Polecat Bench terrace of the Shoshone River rises 6 7 m over the axis of the Frannie anticline; this displacement may be related to folding or faulting since 1.4 Ma. Near the Nye-Bowler Sage Creek and North Pryor faults in the Pryor Mountains, bedrock is 25 and 55 m shallower than depths predicted from the projected 1.4 Ma gradient of the Shoshone River through Pryor Gap. The 2.0 Ma terrace of Rock Creek may have been offset up to 7 m by a splay of the Nye-Bowler fault zone between 2.0 and 0.6 Ma. The downstream divergence of terraces along Rock Creek suggests ongoing uplift of the northern Bighorn Basin, perhaps caused by crustal rebound due to post-Oligocene erosion.

  18. Assessment of Undiscovered Oil and Gas Resources of the Bighorn Basin Province, Wyoming and Montana, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2008-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated a mean of 989 billion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas, a mean of 72 million barrels of undiscovered oil, and a mean of 13 million barrels of undiscovered natural gas liquids in the Bighorn Basin Providence of Wyoming and Montana.

  19. Some aspects of geophagia in Wyoming bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    SciTech Connect

    B. J. Mincher; J. Mionczynski; P. A. Hnilicka; D. R. Ball; T. P. Houghton

    2008-05-01

    Geophagia has been commonly reported for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and other ungulates worldwide. The phenomenon is often attributed to the need to supplement animal diets with minerals available in the soil at mineral lick locations. Sodium is the mineral most frequently cited as being the specific component sought, although this has not been found universally. In this study area, bighorn sheep left normal summer range to make bimonthly 26-km, 2000-m elevation round-trip migrations, the apparent purpose of which was to visit mineral licks on normal winter-range. Lick soil and normal summer range soil were sampled for their available mineral content, and summer range forage was sampled for total mineral content and comparisons were made to determine the specific components sought at the lick by bighorn sheep consuming soil. It was concluded that bighorn sheep were attracted to the lick by a desire for sodium, but that geophagia also supplemented a diet deficient in the trace element selenium.

  20. An ecologic study comparing distribution of Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica between Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep, White Mountain bighorn sheep, and domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    Tomassini, Letizia; Gonzales, Ben; Weiser, Glen C; Sischo, William

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence and phenotypic variability of Pasteurella and Mannheimia isolates from Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis sierrae), White Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), and domestic sheep (Ovis aries) from California, USA, were compared. The White Mountain bighorn sheep population had a recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality, whereas the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep population had no recent history of pneumonia-associated mortality. The domestic sheep flocks were pastured in areas geographically near both populations but were not known to have direct contact with either bighorn sheep population. Oropharyngeal swab samples were collected from healthy domestic and bighorn sheep and cultured to characterize bacterial species, hemolysis, biogroups, and biovariants. Pasteurella trehalosi and Mannheimia haemolytica were detected in all of the study populations, but the relative proportion of each bacterial species differed among sheep populations. Pasteurella trehalosi was more common than M. haemolytica in the bighorn sheep populations, whereas the opposite was true in domestic sheep. Mannheimia haemolytica was separated into 11 biogroups, and P. trehalosi was characterized into two biogroups. Biogroup distributions for M. haemolytica and P. trehalosi differed among the three populations; however, no difference was detected for the distribution of P. trehalosi biogroups between the Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep. The prevalence odds ratios (pOR) for the distribution of M. haemolytica biogroups suggested little difference between White Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep compared with Sierra Nevada bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, although these comparisons had relatively large confidence intervals for the point estimates. Hemolytic activity of the isolates was not different among the sheep populations for M. haemolytica but was different for P. trehalosi. No clear evidence of association was found in the

  1. Bighorn sheep response to road-related disturbances in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, B.J.; Bender, L.C.

    2007-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) use of Sheep Lakes mineral site, Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, USA, has decreased since 1996. Officials were concerned that human disturbance may have been contributing to this decline in use. We evaluated effects of vehicular traffic and other road-related disturbance on bighorn use of Sheep Lakes in the summers of 2002 and 2003. We found that the time and number of attempts required by bighorn to reach Sheep Lakes was positively related to the number of vehicles and people present at Sheep Lakes. Further, the number of bighorn individuals and groups attempting to visit Sheep Lakes were negatively affected by disturbance associated with the site. The number of vehicles recorded the hour before bighorn tried to access Sheep Lakes best predicted an animal's failure to cross Fall River Road and reach Sheep Lakes. We conclude that human and road-related disturbance at Sheep Lakes negatively affected bighorn use of the mineral site. Because Sheep Lakes may be important for bighorn sheep, especially for lamb production and survival, the negative influence of disturbance may compromise health and productivity of the Mummy Range bighorn sheep.

  2. Analysis of sonic well logs applied to erosion estimates in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Kharitonova, N.A.

    1996-05-01

    An improved exponential model of sonic transit time data as a function of depth takes into account the physical range of rock sonic velocities. In this way, the model is more geologically realistic for predicting compaction trends when compared to linear or simple exponential functions that fail at large depth intervals. The improved model is applied to the Bighorn basin of northwestern Wyoming for calculation of erosion amounts. This basin was chosen because of extensive geomorphic research that constrains erosion models and because of the importance of quantifying erosion amounts for basin analysis and hydrocarbon maturation prediction. Thirty-six wells were analyzed using the improved exponential model. Seven of these wells, due to limited data from the Tertiary section, were excluded from the basin erosion analysis. Erosion amounts from the remaining 29 wells ranged from 0 to 5600 ft (1700 m), with an average of 2500 ft (800 m).

  3. Thin-skinned shortening geometries of the South Fork fault: Bighorn basin, Park County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Clarey, T.L. )

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a new interpretation of the South Fork fault in light of thin-skinned thrust theory. Cross sections and seismic data are presented which indicate that the South Fork fault is an allochthonous salient which was emplaced in the Bighorn basin during the early to middle Eocene. All observed structural geometries can be interpreted as developing under a compressional regime, similar to the Wyoming-Utah-Idaho thrust belt. Faults either follow bedding-plane surfaces, cut up section in the direction of tectonic transport or form backthrusts. A single decollement within the Jurassic Gypsum Spring Formation appears to dominate. Tectonic transport was approximately southeast, parallel to tear faults in the allochthonous plate.

  4. Depositional history of Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation, Bighorn basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K.

    1986-08-01

    The Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana records the northeasternmost extent of the widespread and rapid Griesbachian transgression onto the Wyoming shelf. Depositional patterns document a progressive change from sparsely fossiliferous, inner-shelf marine conditions in the southwest and west to restricted, marginal-marine environments to the north and east. Characteristic lithologies include greenish-gray calcareous or dolomitic mudstone and siltstone, very thin to thick beds of gypsum, and thin-bedded, commonly laminated dolomite. A formation thickness of approximately 20 m persists throughout most of the basin but diminishes abruptly near the northern and eastern limits of deposition. The Dinwoody is disconformable on the Ervay Member of the Permian Park City Formation except in the northeasternmost part of the basin, where it locally overlies the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone. Considering the significant time interval involved, physical evidence at the Permian-Triassic boundary is generally limited to an abrupt lithologic change from light-colored shallow marine or intertidal Permian dolomite to greenish-gray Dinwoody siltstone. The Dinwoody grades vertically as well as laterally to the east and north into red beds of the Lower Triassic Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group. The Early Triassic depositional environment in the present-day Bighorn basin was hostile. A sparse molluscan fauna was observed at only one of the 20 sections studied, and no conodonts were recovered from Dinwoody carbonates. Significant amounts of gypsum within the Dinwoody suggest periodic high evaporation from hypersaline waters on a low-energy shallow shelf during intervals of reduced terrigenous sediment supply from the north and east. However, sufficient organic material was present to create reducing conditions, as evidenced by greenish rock color and abundant pyrite.

  5. Fluvial deposits of Yellowstone tephras: Implications for late Cenozoic history of the Bighorn basin area, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Several deposits of tephra derived from eruptions in Yellowstone National Park occur in the northern Bighorn basin area of Wyoming and Montana. These tephra deposits are mixed and interbedded with fluvial gravel and sand deposited by several different rivers. The fluvial tephra deposits are used to calculate stream incision rates, to provide insight into drainage histories and Quaternary tectonics, to infer the timing of alluvial erosion-deposition cycles, and to calibrate rates of soil development. ?? 1992.

  6. Paratuberculosis (Johne's disease) in bighorn sheep and a Rocky Mountain goat in Colorado.

    PubMed

    Williams, E S; Spraker, T R; Schoonveld, G G

    1979-04-01

    Between May, 1972 and February, 1978, six cases of paratuberculosis (Johne's Disease) caused by Mycobacterium paratuberculosis were diagnosed in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and one Rocky Mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) on or near Mt. Evans in Colorado. Diagnosis of paratuberculosis was based on gross and histopathologic examination of the animals and by isolation of M. paratuberculosis from three sheep and the goat. The clinical signs and pathologic changes seen in the bighorn sheep resembled those described in cattle, while the lesions in the goat were similar to those described for domestic sheep and goats.

  7. Eustatic and tectonic control on localization of porosity and permeability, Mid-Permian, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, S.P.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The Goose Egg Formation of the northeastern Bighorn basin was deposited in an arid shoreline (sabkha) environment during a time of global cyclic sea level variations and local tectonic uplift Eustatic sea level lows are represented by terrestrial red beds (seals), whereas highs resulted in the deposition of supratidal to shallow subtidal carbonates (reservoirs). Pennsylvanian and Permian differential uplift along the present basin margin localized a broken chain of barrier islands and shoals during deposition of the Ervay and earlier carbonate members, as recognized in outcrop at Sheep and Little Sheep Mountain anticlines. The Ervay Member on these paleohighs is typified by fenestral dolomite, containing abundant tepees and pisoids. This fabric is interpreted to have folded in the highest intertidal to supratidal sabkha environment which developed on the leeward shores of these islands. The fenestral carbonates grade basinward (westward) into narrow bioclastic grainstone beach deposits and then to open-shelf fossiliferous packstones and wackestone. To the east lie laminated lagoonal micritic limestones and dolomites. Outcrop and core study has shown the fenestral facies to be limited to areas coincident with present-day basin margin anticlines. Not only are these the locations of the most porous facies, but tight Laramide folding of the Goose Egg carbonates resulted in pervasive fracturing and thus very high permeabilities in the same structures. The close association of Laramide folds and productive Permian carbonate horizons in the northeast Bighorn basin could well be characteristic for other yet to be explored structures along the basin-margin trend.

  8. Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

    2009-07-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (≥ 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (≥ 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation. PMID:21564850

  9. Genome-wide cross-amplification of domestic sheep microsatellites in bighorn sheep and mountain goats.

    PubMed

    Poissant, J; Shafer, A B A; Davis, C S; Mainguy, J; Hogg, J T; Côté, S D; Coltman, D W

    2009-07-01

    We tested for cross-species amplification of microsatellite loci located throughout the domestic sheep (Ovis aries) genome in two north American mountain ungulates (bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis, and mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus). We identified 247 new polymorphic markers in bighorn sheep (≥ 3 alleles in one of two study populations) and 149 in mountain goats (≥ 2 alleles in a single study population) using 648 and 576 primer pairs, respectively. Our efforts increased the number of available polymorphic microsatellite markers to 327 for bighorn sheep and 180 for mountain goats. The average distance between successive polymorphic bighorn sheep and mountain goat markers inferred from the Australian domestic sheep genome linkage map (mean ± 1 SD) was 11.9 ± 9.2 and 15.8 ± 13.8 centimorgans, respectively. The development of genomic resources in these wildlife species enables future studies of the genetic architecture of trait variation.

  10. 75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... range and capital investments on the land described in the Public Land Order (PLO) at 55 FR 37878 (1990..., which was published in the Federal Register on January 8, 2010 (76 FR 1076-1077), is hereby modified to... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range...

  11. Middle Jurassic (Bajocian and Bathonian) dinosaur megatracksites, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvale, E.P.; Johnson, G.D.; Mickelson, D.L.; Keller, K.; Furer, L.; Archer, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two previously unknown rare Middle Jurassic dinosaur megatracksites are reported from the Bighorn Basin of northern Wyoming in the Western Interior of the United States. These trace fossils occur in carbonate units once thought to be totally marine in origin, and constitute the two most extensive Middle Jurassic dinosaur tracksites currently known in North America. The youngest of these occurs primarily along a single horizon at or near the top of the "basal member" of the "lower" Sundance Formation, is mid-Bathonian in age, and dates to ??? 167 ma. This discovery necessitates a major change in the paleogeographic reconstructions for Wyoming for this period. The older tracksites occur at multiple horizons within a 1 m interval in the middle part of the Gypsum Spring Formation. This interval is uppermost Bajocian in age and dates to ??? 170 ma. Terrestrial tracks found, to date, have been all bipedal tridactyl dinosaur prints. At least some of these prints can be attributed to the theropods. Possible swim tracks of bipedal dinosaurs are also present in the Gypsum Spring Formation. Digitigrade prints dominate the Sundance trackways, with both plantigrade and digitigrade prints being preserved in the Gypsum Spring trackways. The Sundance track-bearing surface locally covers 7.5 square kilometers in the vicinity of Shell, Wyoming. Other tracks occur apparently on the same horizon approximately 25 kilometers to the west, north of the town of Greybull. The Gypsum Spring megatracksite is locally preserved across the same 25 kilometer east-west expanse, with the Gypsum Spring megatracksite more extensive in a north-south direction with tracks occurring locally across a 100 kilometer extent. Conservative estimates for the trackway density based on regional mapping in the Sundance tracksite discovery area near Shell suggests that over 150, 000 in situ tracks may be preserved per square kilometer in the Sundance Formation in this area. Comparable estimates have not been made

  12. Magnetostratigraphy of the Willwood Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming: new constraints on the location of Paleocene/Eocene boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tauxe, L.; Gee, J.; Gallet, Y.; Pick, T.; Bown, T.

    1994-01-01

    The lower Eocene Willwood Formation in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming preserves a rich and diverse mammalian and floral record. The paleomagnetic behavior of the sequence of floodplain paleosols of varying degrees of maturation ranges from excellent to poor. We present a magnetostratigraphic section for a composite section near Worland, Wyoming, by using a set of strict criteria for interpreting the step-wise alternating field and thermal demagnetization data of 266 samples from 90 sites throughout the composite section. Correlation to the geomagnetic reversal time scale was achieved by combining magnetostratigraphic and biostratigraphic data from this section, from a section in the Clark's Fork Basin in northern Wyoming, and from DSDP Site 550, with the isotopic data determined on a tuff near the top of our section. Our correlation suggests that the Bighorn Basin composite section in the Worland area spans from within Chron C24r to near the top of Chron C24n, or from approximately 55 to 52 Ma. This correlation places the Paleocene/Eocene boundary within the vicinity of the base of the section. Cryptochron C24r.6 of Cande and Kent is tentatively identified some 100 m above the base of the section. The temporal framework provided here enables correlation of the mammalian biostratigraphy of the Bighorn Basin to other continental sequences as well as to marine records. It also provides independent chronological information for the calculation of sediment accumulation rates to constrain soil maturation rates. We exclude an age as young as 53 Ma for the Paleocene/Eocene boundary and support older ages, as recommended in recent time scales. The location of a tuff dated at 52.8 ?? 0.3 Ma at the older boundary C24n.1 is consistent with the age of 52.5 Ma estimated by Cande and Kent and inconsistent with that of 53.7 Ma, from Harland et al. ?? 1994.

  13. Petrophysical Properties of Cody, Mowry, Shell Creek, and Thermopolis Shales, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P. H.

    2013-12-01

    The petrophysical properties of four shale formations are documented from well-log responses in 23 wells in the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming. Depths of the examined shales range from 4,771 to 20,594 ft. The four formations are the Thermopolis Shale (T), the Shell Creek Shale (SC), the Mowry Shale (M), and the lower part of the Cody Shale (C), all of Cretaceous age. These four shales lie within a 4,000-ft, moderately overpressured, gas-rich vertical interval in which the sonic velocity of most rocks is less than that of an interpolated trendline representing a normal increase of velocity with depth. Sonic velocity, resistivity, neutron, caliper, and gamma-ray values were determined from well logs at discrete intervals in each of the four shales in 23 wells. Sonic velocity in all four shales increases with depth to a present-day depth of about 10,000 ft; below this depth, sonic velocity remains relatively unchanged. Velocity (V), resistivity (R), neutron porosity (N), and hole diameter (D) in the four shales vary such that: VM > VC > VSC > VT, RM > RC > RSC > RT, NT > NSC ≈ NC > NM, and DT > DC ≈ DSC > DM. These orderings can be partially understood on the basis of rock compositions. The Mowry Shale is highly siliceous and by inference comparatively low in clay content, resulting in high sonic velocity, high resistivity, low neutron porosity, and minimal borehole enlargement. The Thermopolis Shale, by contrast, is a black fissile shale with very little silt--its high clay content causes low velocity, low resistivity, high neutron response, and results in the greatest borehole enlargement. The properties of the Shell Creek and lower Cody Shales are intermediate to the Mowry and Thermopolis Shales. The sonic velocities of all four shales are less than that of an interpolated trendline that is tied to velocities in shales above and below the interval of moderate overpressure. The reduction in velocity varies among the four shales, such that the amount of offset (O) from

  14. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of precipitation in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, since 1260 A.D

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gray, S.T.; Fastie, C.L.; Jackson, S.T.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2004-01-01

    Cores and cross sections from 79 Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and limber pine (Pinus flexilis) trees at four sites in the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana were used to develop a proxy for annual (June-June) precipitation spanning 1260-1998 A.D. The reconstruction exhibits considerable nonstationarity, and the instrumental era (post-1900) in particular fails to capture the full range of precipitation variability experienced in the past ???750 years. Both single-year and decadal-scale dry events were more severe before 1900. Dry spells in the late thirteenth and sixteenth centuries surpass both magnitude and duration of any droughts in the Bighorn Basin after 1900. Precipitation variability appears to shift to a higher-frequency mode after 1750, with 15-20-yr droughts becoming rare. Comparisons between instrumental and reconstructed values of precipitation and indices of Pacific basin variability reveal that precipitation in the Bighorn Basin generally responds to Pacific forcing in a manner similar to that of the southwestern United States (drier during La Nin??a events), but high country precipitation in areas surrounding the basin displays the opposite response (drier during El Nin??o events). ?? 2004 American Meteorological Society.

  15. Fault terminations, Seminoe Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dominic, J.B.; McConnell, D.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Two basement-involved faults terminate in folds in the Seminoe Mountains. Mesoscopic and macroscopic structures in sedimentary rocks provide clues to the interrelationship of faults and folds in this region, and on the linkage between faulting and folding in general. The Hurt Creek fault trends 320[degree] and has maximum separation of 1.5 km measured at the basement/cover contact. Separation on the fault decreases upsection to zero within the Jurassic Sundance Formation. Unfaulted rock units form an anticline around the fault tip. The complementary syncline is angular with planar limbs and a narrow hinge zone. The syncline axial trace intersects the fault in the footwall at the basement/cover cut-off. Map patterns are interpreted to show thickening of Mesozoic units adjacent to the syncline hinge. In contrast, extensional structures are common in the faulted anticline within the Permian Goose Egg and Triassic Chugwater Formations. A hanging wall splay fault loses separation into the Goose Egg formation which is thinned by 50% at the fault tip. Mesoscopic normal faults are oriented 320--340[degree] and have an average inclination of 75[degree] SW. Megaboudins of Chugwater are present in the footwall of the Hurt Creek fault, immediately adjacent to the fault trace. The Black Canyon fault transported Precambrian-Pennsylvanian rocks over Pennsylvanian Tensleep sandstone. This fault is layer-parallel at the top of the Tensleep and loses separation along strike into an unfaulted syncline in the Goose Egg Formation. Shortening in the pre-Permian units is accommodated by slip on the basement-involved Black Canyon fault. Equivalent shortening in Permian-Cretaceous units occurs on a system of thin-skinned'' thrust faults.

  16. Vitrinite reflectance data for Cretaceous marine shales and coals in the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2012-01-01

    The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 square miles in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected from Cretaceous marine shales and coals in the Bighorn Basin to better characterize the thermal maturity and petroleum potential of these rocks. Ninety-eight samples from Lower Cretaceous and lowermost Upper Cretaceous strata were collected from well cuttings from wells stored at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Core Research Center in Lakewood, Colorado.

  17. Deformational stress fields of Casper Mountain, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Burfod, A.E.; Gable, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Casper Mountain is an east-west-trending Laramide feature located immediately west of the north termination of the Laramie Mountains in central Wyoming. Precambrian rocks are exposed as its core; off-dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata characterize the flanks and ends. The north side is abruptly downthrown along a major east-west fault or faults. A complex of stress fields of Precambrian and younger ages is indicated by high-angle shears and shear zones, steep-dip foliations, and multiple joint systems. One or more of the indicated Precambrian stress fields may be equivalent to that of the Cheyenne belt of the southern Laramie Mountains. In addition, at least two well-developed Laramide stress fields were active during the formation of the mountain structure. The principal maximum compressive stress of each was oriented north-south; the mean compressive axis of one was vertical whereas in the other the minimum compressive axis was vertical. Some structural features of Precambrian age, faulting in particular, appear to have influenced structures of younger ages. Prominent east-northeast-trending, high-angle faults lie approximately parallel to the Precambrian structural grain; they offset structural features of Laramide age and may be of late Laramide and/or post-Laramide age.

  18. 75 FR 28642 - Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, Yuma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... in the Federal Register (74 FR 38667; August 4, 2009). We received 220 responses during the comment... Fish and Wildlife Service Limiting Mountain Lion Predation on Desert Bighorn Sheep on Kofa National... significant impact (FONSI) for the environmental assessment (EA) for limiting mountain lion (Puma...

  19. Enigmatic uppermost Permian-lowermost Triassic stratigraphic relations in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K. )

    1991-06-01

    Eighteen measured sections in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana provide the basis for an analysis of Permian-Triassic stratigraphic relations. This boundary is well defined to the south where gray calcareous siltstones of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody disconformably overlie the Upper Permian Ervay Member of the Park City Formation with little physical evidence of a significant hiatus. The Dinwoody is gradationally overlain by red beds of the Red Peak Formation. The Dinwoody this to zero near the state line. Northward, the erathem boundary is enigmatic because fossils are absent and there is no evidence of an unconformity. Poor and discontinuous exposures contribute to the problem. Up to 20 m of Permian or Triassic rocks or both overlie the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone in the westernmost surface exposures on the eastern flank of the Bighorn basin with physical evidence of an unconformity. East of the exposed Tensleep, Ervay-like carbonates are overlain by about 15 m of Dinwoody-like siltstones interbedded with red beds and thin dolomitic limestone. In both areas, they are overlain by the Red Peak Formation. Thin carbonates within the Dinwoody are silty, coarse algal laminates with associated peloidal micrite. Carbonates north of the Dinwoody termination and above probably Ervay are peloidal algal laminates with fenestral fabric and sparse coated shell fragments with pisoids. These rocks may be Dinwoody equivalents or they may be of younger Permian age than the Ervay. Regardless, revision of stratigraphic nomenclature in this area may bed required.

  20. Comparison of bulk and n-alkane PETM carbon isotope trends from the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baczynski, A. A.; McInerney, F. A.; Kraus, M. J.; Wing, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a period of abrupt, short-term, and large-scale global warming fueled by a large release of isotopically light carbon, is recorded in terrestrial and marine carbonates and organic carbon as a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE). Here we present a composite stable carbon isotope record from n-alkanes and four bulk organic carbon records from individual sections spanning the PETM interval in the Cabin Fork area of the southeastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming. The n-alkane curve shows an abrupt, negative shift in δ13C values, an extended CIE body, and a rapid recovery to pre-PETM δ13C values. While the bulk organic carbon records show similarly abrupt negative shifts in δ13C values, the CIE appears to be compressed as well as smaller in magnitude, and the return to more positive δ13C values is often more gradual. Furthermore, the stratigraphic thickness of the most negative CIE values and the pattern of the recovery phase are not consistent among the four bulk organic carbon records. The discrepancy between the bulk organic matter and n-alkane CIE may arise because of changes in soil organic matter cycling during the PETM. Bulk soil organic matter δ13C values are influenced by degradation and selective preservation whereas n-alkanes are resistant to diagenesis. Variations in sediment accumulation rates across the basin may be responsible for the differences between the four bulk organic carbon δ13C records. Sites with extended CIE bodies likely present more complete isotope records with greater time resolution and less time averaging than those with reduced CIEs. The shape of the high-resolution n-alkane curve presented here is similar to the newest 3He-based timescale for the PETM using data from Walvis Ridge, IODP site 1266 (Murphy et al., 2010). The most significant difference between this revised PETM timescale and previously published age models is the allocation of time within the PETM event. Murphy et

  1. Evaporite replacement within the Permian strata of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and the Delaware Basin, west Texas and New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Ulmer, D.S.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The Park City and Goose Egg Formations of the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming and the Seven Rivers, Yates and Tansill Formations of west Texas and New Mexico contain numerous examples of silicified and calcitized evaporites. Both areas show significant preserved interstitial evaporite, but on outcrop the discrete crystals and nodular evaporites have been extensively replaced. These replacements appear to be a multistage phenomenon. Field and petrographic evidence (matted fabrics in nodules; evaporite inclusions) indicate that silicification involved direct replacement of evaporites and probably occurred during earlier stages of burial. Calcitization, however, appears to be a much later phenomenon and involved precipitation of coarse crystals within evaporite molds. The calcites are typically free of evaporite inclusions. Isotopic analyses of these calcites give a wide range of values from [minus]6.04 to [minus]25.02 [per thousand] [delta][sup 18]O and +6.40 to [minus]25.26 [per thousand] [delta][sup 13]C, reflecting their complex diagenetic histories. In both localities, silicification of evaporites was completed by the end of hydrocarbon migration and emplacement. The extremely broad isotopic range of the calcites indicates that the calcitization occurred during a long period of progressive uplift and increased groundwater circulation associated with mid-Tertiary block faulting. The very light oxygen values within the Bighorn Basin were produced by thermochemical sulfate reduction during deepest burial of the region. Evaporite diagenesis in both the Bighorn and Delaware Basins is an ongoing process that started prior to hydrocarbon migration, continued over millions of years, and has the potential to do significant porosity change.

  2. Bighorn sheep habitat studies, population dynamics, and population modeling in Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area, Wyoming and Montana, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Francis J.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    The bighorn sheep population of the greater Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area (BICA) was extirpated in the 1800s, and then reintroduced in 1973. The herd increased to a peak population of about 211 animals (Kissell and others, 1996), but then declined sharply in 1995 and 1996. Causes for the decline were unknown. Numbers have remained around 100 ± 20 animals since 1998. Previous modeling efforts determined what areas were suitable bighorn sheep habitat (Gudorf and others, 1996). We tried to determine why sheep were not using areas that were modeled as suitable or acceptable habitat, and to evaluate population dynamics of the herd.

  3. Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    Major Paleozoic artesian aquifers in the southeastern Bighorn Basin of Wyoming area, in descending order, the Tensleep Sandstone; the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite, which together form the Madison-Bighorn aquifer; and the Flathead Sandstone. Operating yields commonly are more than 1,000 gallons per minute from flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. The initial test of one well indicated a flow of 14,000 gallons per minute. Wellhead pressures range from less than 50 to more than 400 pounds per square inch. Transmissivities are 500-1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and 90-325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Despite extensive development for irrigation there have been few decreases in pressure. Some decreases in pressure have occurred in wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone. Fractures along linear structural features result in significant secondary permeability and allow upward interformational movement of water that affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces in the Tensleep Sandstone and Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Upward-moving water from the Tensleep and other formations discharges at the land surface as springs along or near these lineations. Water from the aquifers generally contains minimal concentrations of dissolved solids and individual constituents but has excessive hardness. The water is satisfactory for irrigation and other purposes when hardness is not a detrimental factor. Wellhead temperatures range from 11 degrees to 27.5 degrees C, giving a geothermal gradient of about 0.44 degrees C per 100 feet. (USGS)

  4. Burial History, Thermal Maturity, and Oil and Gas Generation History of Source Rocks in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Laura N.R.; Finn, Thomas M.; Lewan, Michael D.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of oil and gas generation were modeled for seven key source-rock units at eight well locations throughout the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana. Also modeled was the timing of cracking to gas of Phosphoria Formation-sourced oil in the Permian Park City Formation reservoirs at two well locations. Within the basin boundary, the Phosphoria is thin and only locally rich in organic carbon; it is thought that the Phosphoria oil produced from Park City and other reservoirs migrated from the Idaho-Wyoming thrust belt. Other petroleum source rocks include the Cretaceous Thermopolis Shale, Mowry Shale, Frontier Formation, Cody Shale, Mesaverde and Meeteetse Formations, and the Tertiary (Paleocene) Fort Union Formation. Locations (wells) selected for burial history reconstructions include three in the deepest parts of the Bighorn Basin (Emblem Bench, Red Point/Husky, and Sellers Draw), three at intermediate depths (Amoco BN 1, Santa Fe Tatman, and McCulloch Peak), and two at relatively shallow locations (Dobie Creek and Doctor Ditch). The thermal maturity of source rocks is greatest in the deep central part of the basin and decreases to the south, east, and north toward the basin margins. The Thermopolis and Mowry Shales are predominantly gas-prone source rocks, containing a mix of Type-III and Type-II kerogens. The Frontier, Cody, Mesaverde, Meeteetse, and Fort Union Formations are gas-prone source rocks containing Type-III kerogen. Modeling results indicate that in the deepest areas, (1) the onset of petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred from early Paleocene through early Eocene time, (2) peak petroleum generation from Cretaceous rocks occurred during Eocene time, and (3) onset of gas generation from the Fort Union Formation occurred during early Eocene time and peak generation occurred from late Eocene to early Miocene time. Only in the deepest part of the basin did the oil generated from the Thermopolis and

  5. Outcrops, Fossils, Geophysical Logs, and Tectonic Interpretations of the Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation and Contiguous Strata in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merewether, E.A.; Cobban, W.A.; Tillman, R.W.

    2010-01-01

    In the Bighorn Basin of north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana, the Frontier Formation of early Late Cretaceous age consists of siliciclastic, bentonitic, and carbonaceous beds that were deposited in marine, brackish-water, and continental environments. Most lithologic units are laterally discontinuous. The Frontier Formation conformably overlies the Mowry Shale and is conformably overlain by the Cody Shale. Molluscan fossils collected from outcrops of these formations and listed in this report are mainly of marine origin and of Cenomanian, Turonian, and Coniacian ages. The lower and thicker part of the Frontier in the Bighorn Basin is of Cenomanian age and laterally equivalent to the Belle Fourche Member of the Frontier in central Wyoming. Near the west edge of the basin, these basal strata are disconformably overlain by middle Turonian beds that are the age equivalent of the Emigrant Gap Member of the Frontier in central Wyoming. The middle Turonian beds are disconformably overlain by lower Coniacian strata. Cenomanian strata along the south and east margins of the basin are disconformably overlain by upper Turonian beds in the upper part of the Frontier, as well as in the lower part of the Cody; these are, in turn, conformably overlain by lower Coniacian strata. Thicknesses and ages of Cenomanian strata in the Bighorn Basin and adjoining regions are evidence of regional differential erosion and the presence of an uplift during the early Turonian centered in northwestern Wyoming, west of the basin, probably associated with a eustatic event. The truncated Cenomanian strata were buried by lower middle Turonian beds during a marine transgression and possibly during regional subsidence and a eustatic rise. An uplift in the late middle Turonian, centered in north-central Wyoming and possibly associated with a eustatic fall, caused the erosion of lower middle Turonian beds in southern and eastern areas of the basin as well as in an adjoining region of north

  6. Artesian pressures and water quality in Paleozoic aquifers in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin, north-central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1986-01-01

    The major Paleozoic artesian aquifers, the aquifers most favorable for continued development, in the Ten Sleep area of the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming are the Tensleep Sandstone, the Madison Limestone and Bighorn Dolomite (Madison-Bighorn aquifer), and the Flathead Sandstone. The minor aquifers include the Goose Egg and Park City Formations (considered in the Ten Sleep area to be the lateral equivalent of the Phosphoria Formation) and the Amsden Formation. Most wells completed in the major and minor aquifers flow at the land surface. Wellhead pressures generally are less than 50 pounds per square inch for the Tensleep Sandstone, 150-250 pounds per square inch for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, and more than 400 pounds per square inch for the Flathead Sandstone. Flowing wells completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and the Flathead Sandstone yield more than 1,000 gallons per minute. The initial test of one well completed in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer indicated a flow rate of 14,000 gallons per minute. Transmissivities range from 500 to 1,900 feet squared per day for the Madison-Bighorn aquifer and from about 90 to 325 feet squared per day for the Tensleep and Flathead Sandstones. Significant secondary permeability from fracturing in the Paleozoic aquifers allows local upward interformational movement of water, and this affects the altitude of the potentiometric surfaces of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Madison-Bighorn aquifer. Water moves upward from the Tensleep and other formations, through the Goose Egg Formation, to discharge at the land surface as springs. Much of the spring flow is diverted for irrigation or is used for rearing fish. Decreases from original well pressures were not apparent in wells completed in the Tensleep Sandstone or in the Madison-Bighorn aquifer in the study area except for a few wells in or near the town of Ten Sleep. Most wells completed in the Flathead Sandstone, which also are open to the Madison-Bighorn aquifer, show a decrease of

  7. Evolutionary relationships of a new genus and three new species of Omomyid primates (Willwood Formation, Lower Eocene, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    Studies of new finds of omomyid primates from the lower Eocene Willwood Formation of northwest Wyoming reveal the presence of a new genus and two new species of anaptomorphines and a new species of omomyine. All were apparently short-lived immigrants into the Bighorn Basin. The new genus and speciesTatmanius szalayi is typified by a diminutive single-rooted p3 and a bilobed-rooted p4 with a crown smaller than ml. These traits were probably derived fromPseudotetonius and parallel similar conditions inTrogolemur andNannopithex. The new speciesArapahovius advena is the first occurrence ofArapahovius outside the Washakie Basin, where it appears to have also been a vagrant species.Steinius annectens, sp. nov., is larger than the olderSteinius vespertinus and strengthens the alliance between this genus and BridgerianOraorays carteri, although which species ofSteinius is closer toOmomys is not yet clear. The available evidence suggests a derivation ofOmomys (Omomyini) fromSteinius and all Washakiini from the anaptomorphineTeilhardina, which would indicate that Omomyinae were at least diphyletic. Preliminary evidence suggests that the geographic distributions of at least some Willwood omomyids correlate with paleosol distributions.

  8. The rise and fall of psoroptic scabies in bighorn sheep in the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Walter M; Weisenberger, Mara E

    2005-07-01

    Between 1978 and 1997, a combination of psoroptic scabies (Psoroptes spp.), mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation, and periodic drought reduced a population of native desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the San Andres Mountains (SAM), New Mexico, from >200 individuals to a single ewe. In 1999, this ewe was captured, ensured to be Psoroptes-free, and released back into the SAM. Eleven radio-collared rams were translocated from the Red Rock Wildlife Area (RRWA) in New Mexico into the SAM range and monitored through 2002 to determine whether Psoroptes spp. mites were still in the environment. None of these sentinel rams acquired scabies during this period, and no additional native sheep were found to be present in the range. In 2002, 51 desert bighorn sheep were translocated into the SAM from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona (n = 20) and the RRWA in New Mexico (n = 31). Twenty-one bighorn sheep have died in the SAM since that time, but Psoroptes spp. mites have not been detected on any of these animals, nor have they been found on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) sampled since 2000. We conclude that psoroptic scabies is no longer present in the San Andres bighorn sheep population and that psoroptic scabies poses a minimal to nonexistent threat to the persistence of this population at this time. PMID:16244062

  9. The rise and fall of psoroptic scabies in bighorn sheep in the San Andres Mountains, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Walter M; Weisenberger, Mara E

    2005-07-01

    Between 1978 and 1997, a combination of psoroptic scabies (Psoroptes spp.), mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation, and periodic drought reduced a population of native desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the San Andres Mountains (SAM), New Mexico, from >200 individuals to a single ewe. In 1999, this ewe was captured, ensured to be Psoroptes-free, and released back into the SAM. Eleven radio-collared rams were translocated from the Red Rock Wildlife Area (RRWA) in New Mexico into the SAM range and monitored through 2002 to determine whether Psoroptes spp. mites were still in the environment. None of these sentinel rams acquired scabies during this period, and no additional native sheep were found to be present in the range. In 2002, 51 desert bighorn sheep were translocated into the SAM from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge in Arizona (n = 20) and the RRWA in New Mexico (n = 31). Twenty-one bighorn sheep have died in the SAM since that time, but Psoroptes spp. mites have not been detected on any of these animals, nor have they been found on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) sampled since 2000. We conclude that psoroptic scabies is no longer present in the San Andres bighorn sheep population and that psoroptic scabies poses a minimal to nonexistent threat to the persistence of this population at this time.

  10. Contagious ecthyma in bighorn sheep and mountain goat in western Canada.

    PubMed

    Samuel, W M; Chalmers, G A; Stelfox, J G; Loewen, A; Thomsen, J J

    1975-01-01

    Contagious ecthyma (CE) is reported in bighorn sheep (Ovis c. canadensis) from several national parks in western Canada and in moutain goat (Oreamnos americanus) from Kootenay National Park, British Columbia. (This is the first report of CE in mountain goat.) Diagnosis was based on clinical signs, histopathology, transmission experiments and the demonstration of a proxvirus with the electron microscope. The infection was transmitted from wild to domestic goat, but not to domestic sheep. Most infections, some of them severe, were found in lambs and kids. Clinical signs of disease were similar to those seen in domestic sheep and goats. General body condition was poor and animals had difficulty feeding normally. All infected herds had prolonged contact with areas where salt was provided artificially (i.e., salt blocks, highways and campgrounds). Fewer infected sheep were observed annually when salt blocks were removed from Jasper National Park.

  11. Structural interpretations based on ERTS-1 imagery, Bighorn Region, Wyoming-Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    Structural analysis is being carried out on bands MSS 5 and 7 of scene 1085-17294. Geologic strucutre is primarily revealed in the topographic relief and drainage. Topographic linears are particularly well developed in the bighorn uplift. Many of these occur along known faults and shear zones in the Precambrian core; several have not been previously mapped. These linears, however, do not continue into the younger rocks of the flanks or do so in a much less marked manner than in the core. Linears are far less abundant in the basin or are manifested only in very subtle tonal contrasts and somewhat straight drainage segments. Some of the linears are aligned along trends previously postulated on the basis of surface mapping to be lineaments. The imagery reveals little or no evidence of strike-slip displacements along these lineaments.

  12. The history of dinosaur footprint discoveries in Wyoming with emphasis on the Bighorn basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvale, E.P.; Mickelson, D.L.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Johnson, G.D.

    2003-01-01

    Dinosaur traces are well known from the western United States in the Colorado Plateau region (Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona). Utah contains the greatest abundance of known and documented dinosaur footprints and trackways. Far less well known, however, is the occurrence and distribution of dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons in Wyoming. Scientific studies over the past 10 years have shown that three of the four Middle and Upper Jurassic formations in northern Wyoming contain dinosaur footprints. Two of the footprint-bearing horizons are located in geologic intervals that were once thought to have been deposited in offshore to nearshore marine settings and represent rare North American examples of Middle Jurassic (Bajocian and Bathonian) dinosaur remains. Some of these new Wyoming sites can be correlated to known dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons or intervals in Utah. Wyoming has a great potential for additional discoveries of new dinosaur footprint-bearing horizons, and further prospecting and study is warranted and will ultimately lead to a much better understanding of the geographic distribution and behavior of the potential footprint-makers. ?? Taylor and Francis Inc.

  13. New Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Bighorn Basin, North-Central Wyoming and South-Central Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The Bighorn Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana (fig. 1). Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary (Fox and Dolton, 1989, 1996a, b; De Bruin, 1993). In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs (Johnson and Finn, 1998; Johnson and others, 1999). The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data to be used in support of the U.S Geological Survey's assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Bighorn Basin. These new data supplement previously published data by Nuccio and Finn (1998), and Yin (1997), and lead to a better understanding and characterization of the thermal maturation and burial history of potential source rocks. Eighty-nine samples of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata (fig. 2) were collected and analyzed - 15 samples were from outcrops around the margins of the basin and 74 samples were well cuttings (fig. 1). Forty-one of the samples were shale, two were carbonaceous shale, and the remainder from coal. All samples were analyzed by vitrinite reflectance to determine levels of thermal maturation. Preparation of samples for reflectance analysis required (1) crushing the larger pieces into 0.25-to 1-mm pieces, (2) casting the pieces with epoxy in pre-cut and drilled plugs, and (3) curing the samples overnight. Subsequently, a four-step grinding and polishing process was implemented that included sanding with progressively finer sandpaper (60 and 600 grit) followed with a two-step polishing process (0.3 and 0.05 micron). Vitrinite reflectance measurements were determined at 500 X magnification using plane-polarized incident white light and a 546-nm monochromatic filter in immersion oil. For samples containing

  14. Environmental impact and magnitude of paleosol carbonate carbon isotope excursions marking five early Eocene hyperthermals in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abels, Hemmo A.; Lauretano, Vittoria; van Yperen, Anna E.; Hopman, Tarek; Zachos, James C.; Lourens, Lucas J.; Gingerich, Philip D.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2016-05-01

    Transient greenhouse warming events in the Paleocene and Eocene were associated with the addition of isotopically light carbon to the exogenic atmosphere-ocean carbon system, leading to substantial environmental and biotic change. The magnitude of an accompanying carbon isotope excursion (CIE) can be used to constrain both the sources and amounts of carbon released during an event and also to correlate marine and terrestrial records with high precision. The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is well documented, but CIE records for the subsequent warming events are still rare, especially from the terrestrial realm.Here, we provide new paleosol carbonate CIE records for two of the smaller hyperthermal events, I1 and I2, as well as two additional records of Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) and H2 in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA. Stratigraphic comparison of this expanded, high-resolution terrestrial carbon isotope history to the deep-sea benthic foraminiferal isotope records from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) sites 1262 and 1263, Walvis Ridge, in the southern Atlantic Ocean corroborates the idea that the Bighorn Basin fluvial sediments record global atmospheric change. The ˜ 34 m thicknesses of the eccentricity-driven hyperthermals in these archives corroborate precession forcing of the ˜ 7 m thick fluvial overbank-avulsion sedimentary cycles. Using bulk-oxide mean-annual-precipitation reconstructions, we find soil moisture contents during the four younger hyperthermals that are similar to or only slightly wetter than the background, in contrast with soil drying observed during the PETM using the same proxy, sediments, and plant fossils.The magnitude of the CIEs in soil carbonate for the four smaller, post-PETM events scale nearly linearly with the equivalent event magnitudes documented in marine records. In contrast, the magnitude of the PETM terrestrial CIE is at least 5 ‰ smaller than expected based on extrapolation of the scaling relationship established

  15. Lower Cody Shale (Niobrara equivalent) in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana: thickness, distribution, and source rock potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    The lower shaly member of the Cody Shale in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana is Coniacian to Santonian in age and is equivalent to the upper part of the Carlile Shale and basal part of the Niobrara Formation in the Powder River Basin to the east. The lower Cody ranges in thickness from 700 to 1,200 feet and underlies much of the central part of the basin. It is composed of gray to black shale, calcareous shale, bentonite, and minor amounts of siltstone and sandstone. Sixty-six samples, collected from well cuttings, from the lower Cody Shale were analyzed using Rock-Eval and total organic carbon analysis to determine the source rock potential. Total organic carbon content averages 2.28 weight percent for the Carlile equivalent interval and reaches a maximum of nearly 5 weight percent. The Niobrara equivalent interval averages about 1.5 weight percent and reaches a maximum of over 3 weight percent, indicating that both intervals are good to excellent source rocks. S2 values from pyrolysis analysis also indicate that both intervals have a good to excellent source rock potential. Plots of hydrogen index versus oxygen index, hydrogen index versus Tmax, and S2/S3 ratios indicate that organic matter contains both Type II and Type III kerogen capable of generating oil and gas. Maps showing the distribution of kerogen types and organic richness for the lower shaly member of the Cody Shale show that it is more organic-rich and more oil-prone in the eastern and southeastern parts of the basin. Thermal maturity based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro) ranges from 0.60–0.80 percent Ro around the margins of the basin, increasing to greater than 2.0 percent Ro in the deepest part of the basin, indicates that the lower Cody is mature to overmature with respect to hydrocarbon generation.

  16. Hydrogeologic features of the alluvial deposits in the Greybull River valley, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, M.E.; Head, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The alluvial aquifer along the Greybull River in Wyoming, consists principally of the Greybull terrace doposits and flood-plain alluvium but also includes Burlington terrace deposits east of Burlington, the McKinnie terrace, and the younger, generally undissected alluvial-fan deposits. Well-log data and 18 surface-resistivity measurements at four localities indicate that the thickness of the alluvial aquifer is as much as 60 feet thick only near Burlington and Otto. The most favorable area for development of ground water from the alluvial aquifer is near Burlington and Otto where relatively large amounts of water can be obtained from the Greybull terrace deposits and the flood-plain alluvium. Elsewhere, the deposits of the alluvial aquifer yield only small amounts of water to wells. (Woodard-USGS)

  17. Evaluation of the rhenium-osmium geochronometer in the Phosphoria petroleum system, Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lillis, Paul G.; Selby, David

    2013-01-01

    Rhenium-osmium (Re-Os) geochronometry is applied to crude oils derived from the Permian Phosphoria Formation of the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming and Montana to determine whether the radiogenic age reflects the timing of petroleum generation, timing of migration, age of the source rock, or the timing of thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR). The oils selected for this study are interpreted to be derived from the Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale and Retort Phosphatic Shale Members of the Phosphoria Formation based on oil-oil and oil-source rock correlations utilizing bulk properties, elemental composition, δ13C and δ34S values, and biomarker distributions. The δ34S values of the oils range from -6.2‰ to +5.7‰, with oils heavier than -2‰ interpreted to be indicative of TSR. The Re and Os isotope data of the Phosphoria oils plot in two general trends: (1) the main trend (n = 15 oils) yielding a Triassic age (239 ± 43 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 0.85 ± 0.42 and a mean square weighted deviation (MSWD) of 1596, and (2) the Torchlight trend (n = 4 oils) yielding a Miocene age (9.24 ± 0.39 Ma) with an initial 187Os/188Os value of 1.88 ± 0.01 and a MSWD of 0.05. The scatter (high MSWD) in the main-trend regression is due, in part, to TSR in reservoirs along the eastern margin of the basin. Excluding oils that have experienced TSR, the regression is significantly improved, yielding an age of 211 ± 21 Ma with a MSWD of 148. This revised age is consistent with some studies that have proposed Late Triassic as the beginning of Phosphoria oil generation and migration, and does not seem to reflect the source rock age (Permian) or the timing of re-migration (Late Cretaceous to Eocene) associated with the Laramide orogeny. The low precision of the revised regression (±21 Ma) is not unexpected for this oil family given the long duration of generation from a large geographic area of mature Phosphoria source rock, and the possible range in the initial 187Os/188Os

  18. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of the Bighorn Mountains Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Preliminary vegetation analysis has been undertaken on MSS scene 1085-17294, Oct. 16, 1973 in the Bighorn region. Forest Service maps showing detailed distribution of dominant forest types have been compared with MSS bands 5 and 7 positive transparencies, enlarged positive prints, and color imagery produced on an Addcol viewer. Patterns on the ERTS imagery match those on the Forest Service maps quite well. A tectonic map ovearlay of MSS band 7 of the Bighorn region reveals a strong concentration of linears in the uplift as compared to basins. Folds in the Bighorn Basin are visible where not covered by post-Paleocene deposits. In regions where far less is known of the geology than in this area, it might be possible to predict the subsurface occurrence of folds and lineaments on the basis of imagery analysis and more confidently explore covered areas for concealed oil structures and mineral deposits.

  19. A Synoptic Study of Fecal-Indicator Bacteria in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins, Wyoming, June-July 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Gamper, Merry E.

    2003-01-01

    A synoptic study of fecal-indicator bacteria was conducted during June and July 2000 in the Wind River, Bighorn River, and Goose Creek Basins in Wyoming as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program for the Yellowstone River Basin. Fecal-coliform concentrations ranged from 2 to 3,000 col/100 mL (colonies per 100 milliliters) for 100 samples, and Escherichia coli concentrations ranged from 1 to 2,800 col/100 mL for 97 samples. Fecal-coliform concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for recreational contact with water in 37.0 percent of the samples. Escherichia coli concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended limit for a single sample for moderate use, full-body recreational contact with water in 38.1 percent of the samples and the recommended limit for infrequent use, full-body recreational contact with water in 24.7 percent of the samples. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by basin. Samples from the Bighorn River Basin had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 340 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 300 col/100 mL. Samples from the Wind River Basin had the lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 50 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 62 col/100 mL. Fecal-indicator-bacteria concentrations varied by land cover. Samples from sites with an urban land cover had the highest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 540 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 420 col/100 mL. Maximum concentrations for fecal coliform of 3,000 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 2,800 col/100 mL were in samples from sites with an agricultural land cover. The lowest median concentrations for fecal coliform of 130 col/100 mL and for Escherichia coli of 67 col/100 mL were for samples from sites with a forested land cover. A strong and positive relation existed between fecal coliform and Escherichia coli

  20. Foreland structure - Beartooth Mountains, Montana and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.M.

    1996-06-01

    Analysis of public drilling records from the AMOCO Beartooth Number 1 and 1 A sidetrack boreholes (SW1/4, SE1/4, Section 19, T.8 S., R.20 E., Carbon County, Montana) continues. Several additional inferences are made about this large foreland structure, and subsequent interpretation of the structural model of the northeast corner of the Beartooth Mountain Block and structural relationship with the Big Horn Basin. The structure is described as a large recumbent to sub-horizontal, synclinal fold with the overturned upper limb out diagonally by the Beartooth Thrust or Thrust Zone and a complex thrust fault zone below the Beartooth Thrust. The single recorded dip angle and direction of the Beartooth Thrust at depth was 19 degrees to the northwest(?). The dipmeter dip angle on the Beartooth Thrust, 19 degrees, validates foreland structural theory of decreasing dip angles at a vertical depth of 8,232 feet (2,509 m), in the Precambrian crystalline basement. The northwest dip direction may be attributable to secondary structural folding. The record of northwest, southeast, and southwest dip of bedding surfaces and faults in sections of the overturned upper limb, in both boreholes, suggests possible, less intense secondary folding, after thrust fault deformation. Given the overall geometry of this large foreland structure, there is little doubt that the average direction of maximum principal stress (sigma 1) was oriented in a northeast - southwest direction.

  1. Spatial variation in total element concentration in soil within the Northern Great Plains coal region, and regional soil chemistry in Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Severson, R.C.; Tidball, R.R.

    1979-01-01

    PART A: To objectively determine the changes in chemical character of an area subjected to mining and reclamation, prior information is needed. This study represents a broadscale inventory of total chemical composition of the surficial materials of the Northern Great Plains coal region (western North and South Dakota, eastern Montana, and northeastern Wyoming); data are given for 41 elements in A and C soil horizons. An unbalanced, nested, analysis-of-variance design was used to quantify variation in total content of elements between glaciated and unglaciated terrains, for four increasingly smaller geographic scales, and to quantify variation due to sample preparation and analysis. From this statistical study, reliable maps on a regional basis (>100 km) were prepared for C, K, and Rb in A and C soil horizons; for N a, Si, Th, D, and Zn in A-horizon soil; and for As, Ca, Ge, and Mg in C-horizon soil. The distribution of variance components for the remaining 29 elements did not permit the construction of reliable maps. Therefore, a baseline value for each of these elements is given as a measure of the total element concentration in the soils of the Northern Great Plains coal region. The baseline is expressed as the 95-percent range in concentration to be expected in samples of natural soils. PART B: A reconnaissance study of total concentrations of 38 elements in samples of soils (0-40 cm deep, composite) from the Bighorn and Wind River Basins of Montana and Wyoming indicates that the geographic variation for most elements occurs locally (5 km or less). However, in the Bighorn Basin, Zn exhibits significant regional variation (between geologic units); and in the Wind River Basin, AI, Cr, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, U, and V exhibit similar variation. For the remaining elements, the lack of regional variation suggests that a single summary statistic can be used to estimate a baseline value that reflects the range in concentration to be expected in samples of soils in each basin

  2. Susceptibility of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and domestic sheep to pneumonia induced by bighorn and domestic livestock strains of Pasteurella haemolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Onderka, D K; Rawluk, S A; Wishart, W D

    1988-01-01

    Bighorn sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of nonhemolytic Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) unique to wild bighorns, with beta-hemolytic P. haemolytica biotype T (10(12) organisms) isolated from clinically normal domestic sheep or intradermally with half a dose of a cattle vaccine containing P. haemolytica biotype A (10(5) organisms). The bighorn strain caused lobar necrotizing bronchopneumonia whereas both domestic livestock strains precipitated fatal septicemia and fibrinous bronchopneumonia. The serotypes given were T3, T4, T15 and A1 and these were recovered from lung lesions and other organs. In three trials, domestic sheep were inoculated intratracheally with suspensions of bighorn sheep pneumonic lungs, and two concentrations of the P. haemolytica bighorn strain (10(4) and 10(12) organisms). One of these sheep was inoculated intrabronchially. The domestic sheep experienced a transient fever and elevated white blood cell counts. After six days, none of the sheep had lung lesions and inoculated organisms could not be recovered. It is suggested that bighorn sheep are very susceptible to P. haemolytica from domestic livestock and should not be allowed in contact with sheep or cattle. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3196974

  3. Cataclastic flow kinematics inferred from magnetic fabrics at the Heart Mountain Detachment, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heij, Gerhard W.

    The Heart Mountain Detachment (HMD) in Wyoming constitutes one of the largest known rock slides (3400 km2) on Earth. This detachment took place along the stratigraphic boundary between the Bighorn Dolomite at the hanging-wall and the Snowy Range Formation at the footwall. The slide resulted in the formation of an up to 3 m-thick carbonate ultracataclasite (CUC) at the base of the slide. The origin of the CUC and the nature of the triggering mechanism responsible for the initiation of the catastrophic movement have long been controversial. The most widely accepted theory is a mid-Eocene eruption in the Absaroka volcanic province that triggered rupture and subsequent detachment of Paleozoic rocks. Rapid sliding was facilitated by basal fluidization generated by thermo-mechanical decomposition of carbonate rocks. Here I present a proof of concept study addressing the question of the consistent magnetic fabrics observed in the CUC, as well as new observations indicating the discovery of mineral grains of volcanic origin within the CUC. Additionally, some constraints are placed on the thermo-chemical conditions operating at the base of this catastrophic landslide. Overall, the CUC displays an average magnetic susceptibility one order of magnitude higher (1803 . -6 [SI]) than the overlying Bighorn Dolomite (148 . -6 [SI]) and underlying Snowy Range Fm (636 . -6 [SI]). Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data, field observations and microstructural analysis suggest that ferromagnetic (s.l) minerals in the CUC originate from the Bighorn Dolomite, the Tertiary volcanics and synkinematic thermal decomposition of pyrite into pyrrhotite and magnetite. Thermomagnetic investigations revealed a Curie temperature of 525°C which suggests that magnetite is the dominant magnetic carrier mineral in the CUC. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy analyses confirm that this magnetite has a relatively low ulvospinel content. Magnetic hysteresis properties point to an average pseudo

  4. Constraints on the duration of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum by orbitally-influenced fluvial sediment records of the northern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meulen, Bas; Abels, Hemmo; Meijer, Niels; Gingerich, Philip; Lourens, Lucas

    2016-04-01

    The addition of major amounts of carbon to the exogenic carbon pool caused rapid climate change and faunal turnover during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) around 56 million years ago. Constraints are still needed on the duration of the onset, main body, and recovery of the event. The Bighorn Basin in Wyoming provides expanded terrestrial sections spanning the PETM and lacking the carbonate dissolution present in many marine records. Here we provide new carbon isotope records for the Polecat Bench and Head of Big Sand Coulee sections, two parallel sites in the northern Bighorn Basin, at unprecedented resolution. Cyclostratigraphic analysis of these fluvial sediment records using descriptive sedimentology and proxy records allows subdivision into intervals dominated by avulsion deposits and intervals dominated by overbank deposits. These sedimentary sequences alternate in a regular fashion and are related to climatic precession. Correlation of the two, 8-km-spaced sections shows that the avulsion-overbank cycles are laterally consistent. The presence of longer-period alternations, related to modulation by the 100-kyr eccentricity cycle, corroborates the precession influence on the sediments. Sedimentary cyclicity is then used to develop a floating precession-scale age model for the PETM carbon isotope excursion (CIE). We find a CIE body encompassing 95 kyrs aligning with marine cyclostratigraphic age models. The duration of the CIE onset is estimated at 5 kyrs, but difficult to determine because sedimentation rates vary at the sub-precession scale. The CIE recovery starts with a 2 to 4 per mille step and lasts 40 or 90 kyrs, depending on what is considered the carbon isotope background state.

  5. Mineral resource potential map of the Bighorn Mountains Wilderness Study Area (CDCA-217), San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matti, Jonathan C.; Cox, Brett F.; Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Obi, Curtis M.; Powell, Robert E.; Hinkle, Margaret E.; Griscom, Andrew; Sabine, Charles; Cwick, Gary J.

    1982-01-01

    Geological, geochemical, and geophysical evidence, together with a review of historical mining and prospecting activities, suggests that most of the Bighorn Mountains Wilderness Study Area has low potential for the discovery of all types of mineral and energy resources-including precious and base metals, building stone and aggregate, fossil fuels, radioactive-mineral resources, and geothermal resources. Low-grade mineralization has been documented in one small area near Rattlesnake Canyon, and this area has low to moderate potential for future small-scale exploration and development of precious and base metals. Thorium and uranium enrichment have been documented in two small areas in the eastern part of the wilderness study area; these two areas have low to moderate potential for future small-scale exploration and development of radioactive-mineral resources.

  6. Impact of fracture stratigraphy on the paleohydrogeology of the Madison limestone in two basement involved folds in the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbier, Mickael; Leprêtre, Rémi; Hamon, Youri; Callot, Jean-Paul; Gasparrini, Marta; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Lacombe, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    River Range and Teton Range, recharge zones located in the south-west of the Bighorn Basin, were remobilized in the early bed-confined and through-going syn-folding veins of the Sheep Mountain Anticline. The former vein set drained only local fluids whose isotopic signature relates to an increase of temperature of the meteoric fluids during their migration, whereas the latter set allowed quick drainage of basinal fluids.

  7. Local facies variability in the Mission Canyon Limestone, west flank, Bighorn Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Vice, M.A.; Utgaard, J.E. )

    1991-06-01

    Comparison of two sections of the Mission Canyon Limestone (Madison Group, Mississippian) located approximately one-half mile (850-900 m) apart and at opposite ends of a single flatiron reveals significant lateral facies variations. The southern section, Dry Fork of Horse Creek, is 83 ft (25 m) thicker than the northern Horse Creek section. This substantial difference in thickness cannot be attributed solely to pre-Amsden erosion and solution collapse: all three members are thicker and more variable lithologically at Dry Fork. The lower (Big Goose) member is composed mostly of cherty, dolomitized lime mudstones at both locations. At Dry Fork, it contains numerous skeletal facies, particularly in the upper part. Skeletal facies are insignificant at Horse Creek. The two upper members are composed mainly of skeletal limestones; however, grain-supported facies are much more abundant at Dry Fork. Dolomitized mudstones predominate in the major breccia at the base of the middle (Little Tongue) member at Horse Creek, and lime mudstones predominate at Dry Fork. Additional breccias occur at other horizons: five at Dry Fork, four at Horse Creek. Conclusions drawn from the initial study of these two outcrops follow: (1) the local extent of grainstones and packstones suggests that the shoals were geographically less extensive than the subtidal muddy bottoms and intertidal-supratidal mud flats. (2) The limited geographic and vertical extent of some breccias suggests evaporiate deposition in localized muddy facies. (3) Conditions favoring dolomitization were limited mainly to the mudstones and occurred during and shortly after deposition of the Big Goose Member.

  8. Evidence for rapid climate change in North America during the latest Paleocene thermal maximum: oxygen isotope compositions of biogenic phosphate from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Henry C.; Clyde, William C.; O'Neil, James R.; Gingerich, Philip D.

    1998-07-01

    Oxygen isotope records of Cenozoic sea water temperatures indicate that a rapid warming event known as the Latest Paleocene Thermal Maximum (LPTM) occurred during the otherwise gradual increase in world temperatures during the Late Paleocene and Early Eocene. Oxygen isotope analysis of the carbonate and phosphate components of hydroxyapatite found in mammalian tooth enamel and body scales of river-dwelling fish from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming were made to investigate corresponding changes in the terrestrial climate. A comparison of carbonate and phosphate isotope data from modern and fossil material indicates that some diagenetic alteration of the fossil material has occurred, although systematically larger intra-tooth ranges in the oxygen isotope composition of carbonate indicate that it is more likely to have been affected than phosphate. Carbonate and phosphate from the ecologically diverse mammals and fishes both record a shift to higher oxygen isotope ratios at the same time and of the same duration as the LPTM. These shifts reflect a change in the isotopic composition of regional precipitation, which in turn provides the first evidence for continental climate change during the LPTM. Assuming the present-day relation between the oxygen isotope composition of precipitation and temperature applies to conditions in the past, and that animal physiology and behavior is relatively invariant over time, the isotopic shift is equivalent to an increase of surface temperature in western North America of several degrees. This result is consistent with the magnitude of high-latitude ocean warming, and provides a basis for relating marine and terrestrial oxygen isotope records to records of terrestrial biotic change.

  9. A debris flow deposit in alluvial, coal-bearing facies, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA: Evidence for catastrophic termination of a mire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, S.B.; Stanton, R.W.; Flores, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    Coal and clastic facies investigations of a Paleocene coal-bearing succession in the Grass Creek coal mine, southwestern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, USA, suggest that disruption of peat accumulation in recurrent mires was caused by the repetitive progradation of crevasse splays and, ultimately, by a catastrophic mass movement. The mass movement, represented by deposits of debris flow, marked the termination of significant peat accumulation in the Grass Creek coal mine area. Megascopic and microscopic analyses of coal beds exposed along the mine highwalls suggest that these deposits developed in low-lying mires, as evidenced primarily by their ash yields and maceral composition. Disruption of peat accumulation in successive mires was caused by incursions of sediment into the mire environments. Termination by crevasse splay progradation is represented by coarsening-upward successions of mudrock and tabular, rooted sandstone, which overlie coal beds in the lower part of the coal-bearing interval. A more rapid process of mire termination by mass movement is exemplified by a debris flow deposit of diamictite, which overlies the uppermost coal bed at the top of the coal-bearing interval. The diamictite consists of a poorly sorted, unstratified mixture of quartzite cobbles and pebbles embedded in a claystone-rich or sandy mudstone matrix. Deposition of the diamictite may have taken place over a matter of weeks, days, or perhaps even hours, by catastrophic flood, thus reflecting an instantaneous process of mire termination. Coarse clastics and mud were transported from the southwest some 20-40 km as a viscous debris flow along stream courses from the ancestral Washakie Range to the Grass Creek area, where the flow overrode a low-lying mire and effectively terminated peat accumulation. ?? 1994.

  10. Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Annual report, September 15, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, T.L.

    1995-07-01

    The principal focus of this project is to evaluate the importance of relative permeability anisotropy with respect to other known geologic and engineering production concepts. This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. The Tensleep Sandstone contains the largest potential reserves within reservoirs which are candidates for EOR processes in the State of Wyoming. Although this formation has produced billions of barrels of oil, in some fields, as little as one in seven barrels of discovered oil is recoverable by current primary and secondary techniques. Because of the great range of {degree}API gravities of the oils produced from the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs, the proposed study concentrates on establishing an understanding of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability within the Tensleep Sandstone. This research is to associate those spatial distributions and anisotropies with the depositional subfacies and zones of diagenetic alteration found within the Tensleep Sandstone. In addition, these studies are being coupled with geochemical modeling and coreflood experiments to investigate the potential for wellbore scaling and formation damage anticipated during EOR processes (e.g., C0{sub 2} flooding). This multidisciplinary project will provide a regional basis for EOR strategies which can be clearly mapped and efficiently applied to the largest potential target reservoir in the State of Wyoming. Additionally, the results of this study have application to all eolian reservoirs through the correlations of relative permeability variation and anisotropy with eolian depositional lithofacies.

  11. Bankfull-channel geometry and discharge curves for the Rocky Mountains Hydrologic Region in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    Regional curves relate bankfull-channel geometry and bankfull discharge to drainage area in regions with similar runoff characteristics and are used to estimate the bankfull discharge and bankfull-channel geometry when the drainage area of a stream is known. One-variable, ordinary least-squares regressions relating bankfull discharge, cross-sectional area, bankfull width, and bankfull mean depth to drainage area were developed from data collected at 35 streamgages in or near Wyoming. Watersheds draining to these streamgages are within the Rocky Mountains Hydrologic Region of Wyoming and neighboring states.

  12. COORDINATING ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE WITH EPIDEMIOLOGY AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS: A WATERBORNE OUTBREAK OF SNOW MOUNTAIN VIRUS IN THE BIG HORN MOUNTAINS OF WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In February 2001, the Wyoming Department of Health received reports of acute gastroenteritis among persons who had recently been on a snowmobiling vacation in the Big Horn Mountains. Initial interviews and laboratory testing suggested that exposure to a calicivirus ...

  13. Water-quality characteristics of quaternary unconsolidated-deposit aquifers and lower tertiary aquifers of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 1999-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Norris, Jody R.; Gamper, Merry E.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Yellowstone River Basin National Water Quality Assessment study, ground-water samples were collected from Quaternary unconsolidated-deposit and lower Tertiary aquifers in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana from 1999 to 2001. Samples from 54 wells were analyzed for physical characteristics, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, radionuclides, pesticide compounds, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to evaluate current water-quality conditions in both aquifers. Water-quality samples indicated that waters generally were suitable for most uses, and that natural conditions, rather than the effects of human activities, were more likely to limit uses of the waters. Waters in both types of aquifers generally were highly mineralized, and total dissolved-solids concentrations frequently exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) of 500 milligrams per liter (mg/L). Because of generally high mineralization, waters from nearly one-half of the samples from Quaternary aquifers and more than one-half of the samples from lower Tertiary aquifers were not classified as fresh (dissolved-solids concentration were not less than 1,000 mg/L). The anions sulfate, fluoride, and chloride were measured in some ground-water samples at concentrations greater than SMCLs. Most waters from the Quaternary aquifers were classified as very hard (hardness greater than 180 mg/L), but hardness varied much more in waters from the lower Tertiary aquifers and ranged from soft (less than 60 mg/L) to very hard (greater than 180 mg/L). Major-ion chemistry varied with dissolved-solids concentrations. In both types of aquifers, the predominant anion changes from bicarbonate to sulfate with increasing dissolved-solids concentrations. Samples from Quaternary aquifers with fresh waters generally were calcium-bicarbonate, calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, and calcium-sodium-sulfate-bicarbonate type waters, whereas

  14. From fold-related fracture population analysis to paleofluid flow reconstruction at basin-scale : a case study in the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, N.; Bellahsen, N.; Lacombe, O.; Emmanuel, L.; Pironon, J.

    2012-04-01

    While fluid flows associated with thin-skinned folded structures have been extensively studied, reconstructions of paleofluid systems associated with thick-skinned tectonics remain scarce. In addition, major thrusts are usually considered as the preferential channels for fluids: investigating the role of diffuse fracture sets as potential drains for fluids has received poor attention. In this work, we tentatively reconstruct the paleofluid system related to the Bighorn basin (Wyoming, USA), a Sevier-Laramide foreland basin affected by large basement uplifts during the Laramide thick-skinned tectonic event. Fracture pattern and related paleofluid flow were studied in selected folds within this basin. For this purpose, Oxygen, Carbon and Strontium isotopic studies were performed on host rocks as well as on pre-folding and on fold-related calcite veins; these studies were combined to fluid inclusion chemical and microthermometric analysis. The results suggest a strong control of fluid chemistry by the tectonic style: our work evidences migration of exotic hydrothermal fluids (temperatures of homogenisation of fluid inclusion reaching 140°C) in basement-cored, thrust-related folds, while in detachment folds, only intra-formational fluids were characterized.At the scale of the entire basin, the open paleofluid system reconstructed in basement-cored folds appears to be consistent, with oxygen isotopic signature ranging from -25‰ to -5‰ PDB. Indeed, the scattering of oxygen isotopic signatures in cemented veins shows different degree of mixing between local basinal fluids and exotic hydrothermal fluids remaining unequilibrated with surrounding limestones. Strontium isotopic analyses suggest that these exotic hydrothermal fluids are a mixing of meteoric fluids and basinal fluids that havemigrated in basement rocks, likely deeper than the basement/cover interface. The timing of the fast upward flow of these fluids through the cover is given by, and related to

  15. New vitrinite reflectance data for the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range and Owl Creek and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, and the Granite Mountains on the south, and Wind River Range on the west. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data collected mainly from Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin to better characterize their thermal maturity and hydrocarbon potential.

  16. Mineral resources of the Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    du Bray, E.A.; Bankey, V.; Hill, R.H.; Ryan, G.S.

    1989-01-01

    The Prospect Mountain Wilderness Study Area is about 20 mi east-southeast of Encampment in Carbon County, Wyoming. This study area is underlain by middle Proterozoic gabbro, granite, and hornblende gneiss, which is locally cut by pegmatite dikes. There are no identified resources and no potential for undiscovered energy resources in this study area. Resource potential for all undiscovered metallic commodities and for industrial mineral is low.

  17. Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, Wyoming. Annual report, October 1, 1994-- September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, T.L.

    1996-03-01

    This research is to provide improved strategies for enhanced oil recovery from the Tensleep Sandstone oil reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Because of the great range of API gravities of the oils produced from these reservoirs, the proposed study concentrates on understanding the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability within the Tensleep Sandstone. This research will associate those spatial distributions and anisotropies with the depositional subfacies and zones of diagenetic alteration found within the sandstone. The associations of the above with pore geometry will link relative permeability with the dimensions of lithofacies and authigenic mineral facies. Hence, the study is to provide criteria for scaling this parameter on a range of scales, from the laboratory to the basin-wide scale of subfacies distribution. Effects of depositional processes and burial diagenesis will be investigated. Image analysis of pore systems will be done to produce algorithms for estimating relative permeability from petrographic analyses of core and well cuttings. In addition, these studies are being coupled with geochemical modeling and coreflood experiments to investigate the potential for wellbore scaling and formation damage anticipated during EOR, eg., CO{sub 2} flooding. This will provide a regional basis for EOR strategies for the largest potential target reservoir in Wyoming; results will have application to all eolian reservoirs through correlations of relative permeability variation and anisotropy with eolian depositional lithofacies.

  18. Surface and subsurface analysis of Sheep Mountain anticline, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, S.

    1988-01-01

    The Sheep Mountain area, in the southwest Wind River Basin, is the up plunge closure of the Derby Dome-Winkleman Dome producing trend of an echelon folds which comprise the first line of folding down the northeast flank of the Wind River Mountains. The structural style exposed in the Palozoic reservoir rocks of Sheep Mountain may serve as a model for the other structural features in the Wind River Basin. As in the case of the Derby Dome and Winkleman Dome, Sheep Mountain is typically asymmetric to the southwest. Local east-directed thrusts exposed in the core of the anticline place Pennsylvania over Permian age rocks. A major change in the trend of the anticlinal crest within Sheep Mountain, suggests development of separate left-stepping en echelon closures at depth. The northwest end of Sheep Mountain also forms a left-stepping en echelon pattern with Derby Dome. The northwest plunge of Sheep Mountain is facilitated by compartmentalization across an east-northeast trending, high angle fault. North of this fault, Mesozoic rocks are thrust to the southwest along a low angle, northeast-dipping out of the basin thrust, which obscures the en echelon bypass with Derby Dome. Sheep Mountain is transected at the southeast end by the east-northeast trending Spring Creek fault which has possible left lateral offset. South of the Spring Creek Fault, the southwest vergent Beaver Creek thrust places Precambrian to Missisippian rocks over Cretaceous rocks, and may represent the fault which controls the entire fold trend at depth.

  19. Development of Archean crust in the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, C. D.; Koesterer, M. E.; Koesterer, M. E.; Koesterer, M. E.; Koesterer, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Wind River Mountains are a NW-SE trending range composed almost entirely of high-grade Archean gneiss and granites which were thrust to the west over Phanerozoic sediments during the Laramide orogeny. Late Archean granites make up over 50% of the exposed crust and dominates the southern half of the range, while older orthogneisses and magnatites form most of the northen half of the range. Locally these gneisses contain enclaves of supracrustal rocks, which appear to be the oldest preserved rocks in the range. Detailed work in the Medina Mountain area of the central Wind River Mountains and reconnaissance work throughout much of the northern part of the range has allowed definition of the sequence of events which marked crustal development in this area. The sequence of events are described.

  20. Mummy cave: prehistoric record from rocky mountains of wyoming.

    PubMed

    Wedel, W R; Husted, W M; Moss, J H

    1968-04-12

    Archeological materials from 8.5 meters of deposits in a stratified rock shelter in the Absaroka Mountains near Yellowstone National Park provide a projectile point sequence and cultutral record beginning more than 9000 years ago, and include evidence of human occupation durnig the Altithermal period. PMID:17740426

  1. Dismembered Archean ophiolite in the SE. Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Ophiolitic rocks occur as wall rocks of the 2.7 Ga Louis Lake batholith near Atlantic City, Wyoming. All of the Archean rocks are strongly deformed and metamorphosed to a greenschist and amphibolite facies, but relict structures and textures are commonly preserved. These include the following, from west to east: (1) metadiabase with rare coarse-grained metagabbro; (2) ultramafic rocks and metagabbro; (3) amphibolite, locally pillowed, overlain(.) by pelitic schist, banded iron formation, and quartzite; and (4) pillow lavas, massive sills or flows, and minor metasedimentary rocks. Slice 1 locally contains parallel dike margins and rare metagabbro screens; these features suggest that it may represent a sheeted dike complex. Slice 2 locally contains ultramafic rocks having relict cumulus textures and igneous layering, corresponding to the cumulus portion of an ophiolite. The pillow lavas of slice 4 and possibly slice 3 are interpreted as comprising the extrusive portion of the ophiolite. The immobile trace element chemistry (Ti, V, Zr, Y, Cr, Ni) of slice 1 and 4 is very similar and supports a cogenetic origin, whereas pillow lavas of slice 3 are somewhat distinct. The metadiabases and lavas of slices 1 and 4 are similar to modern mid-ocean ridge basalt, whereas lavas of slice 3 are more similar to island-arc tholeiites. Rare high-Ti basaltic komatiites occur in slices 1 and 4, but have very distinct trace element chemistry and probably represent later off-axis dikes. The ophiolitic rocks are interpreted to represent the remains of Archean oceanic crust.

  2. Low-BTU gas in the Rocky Mountain region - Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Tremain, C.M. ); Broadhead, R.E. ); Chidsey, T.C. Jr. ); Doelger, M. ); Morgan, C.D. )

    1993-08-01

    There are over 100 reservoirs in Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, and Utah that produce or could produce low-BTU (heating value less than 900 BTU/ft[sup 3]) gas. Reservoirs range in age from Devonian to Cretaceous; reservoir lithologies include both carbonates and sandstones. Frequently, the low-BTU gas (CO[sub 2], N[sub 2], and He) is a byproduct of normal hydrocarbon production. CO[sub 2]-rich gas occurs in southwest to east-central Utah, in the southeastern Paradox basin (Utah and Colorado), in the North Park basin (Colorado), in southeast Colorado and northeast New Mexico, and in the Green River and Wind River basins (Wyoming). Five fields produce nearly pure (98%) CO[sub 2]. The 1990 annual CO[sub 2] production from these fields was North and South McCallum (Colorado), 1.7 bcf; McElmo (Colorado), 205 bcf; Sheep Mountain (Colorado), 70.7 bcf; and Bravo Dome (New Mexico), 119.7 bcf. Big Piney-LaBarge (Wyoming) produced 120 bcf of CO[sub 2] (at a concentration of 65%) in 1990. Most of the CO[sub 2] is used in enhanced oil recovery. Nitrogen-rich gas is found in the southern Green River basin (Utah and Wyoming), east flank of the San Rafael uplift (Utah), northern Paradox basin (Utah), Uncompahgre uplift (Utah and Colorado), Douglas Creek arch (Colorado), Hugoton embayment (Colorado), Las Animas arch (Colorado), Permian basin (New Mexico), and Four Corners platform (New Mexico). Helium is sometimes associated with the nitrogen and in concentrations of up to 8% in New Mexico and Colorado, 2.8% in Utah, and 1% in Wyoming.

  3. Interpretation of aircraft multispectral scanner images for mapping of alteration with uranium mineralization, Copper Mountain, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conel, J. E.

    1983-01-01

    NS-001 multispectral scanner data (0.45-2.35 micron) combined as principal components were utilized to map distributions of surface oxidation/weathering in Precambrian granitic rocks at Copper Mountain, Wyoming. Intense oxidation is found over granitic outcrops in partly exhumed pediments along the southern margin of the Owl Creek uplift, and along paleodrainages higher in the range. Supergene(?) uranium mineralization in the granites is localized beneath remnant Tertiary sediments covering portions of the pediments. The patterns of mineralization and oxidation are in agreement, but the genetic connections between the two remain in doubt.

  4. Observed Changes in Mountain Hydrology Following a Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in the Snowy Range of Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, A. L.; Miller, S. N.; Paige, G. B.; Kelleners, T.; Ohara, N.; Hayes, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    A mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Snowy Range Mountains of Wyoming peaked in 2008 coinciding with changes in climate. The combination of the two effects have potentially changed hydrologic response in mountain watersheds. Shorter snowmelt duration and an earlier onset of snowmelt are hypothesized to occur as results of both mountain pine beetle epidemics and global climate change, while beetle effects likely point to increased total flows, baseflows, and peak flows. We used statistical analysis to identify changes in hydrologic response over the past four decades by comparing hydrograph components from 2012-2014 water years to hydrograph components from the 1960's-1980's water years using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) including a precipitation covariate. The 2012-2014 group was found to be associated with (1) shorter snowmelt duration, (2) earlier onset of snowmelt, and (3) increased baseflows. No differences in total discharge, snowmelt discharge, stormflow discharge, peak discharge, or day of peak discharge were detected. Pearson's correlation coefficients between watershed and runoff characteristics for six mountain watersheds were calculated for the 2013 and 2014 water years. Watershed characteristics include percent green conifers, percent red phase conifers, and percent grey phase conifers derived from a Random Forest land classification map. For the 2013 water year, watershed area expressed as percent red phase conifer was found to be significantly correlated to watershed discharge expressed as percent baseflow with a Pearson's Correlation Coefficient of +0.95 (alpha level = 0.05). The positive correlation between red phase conifer and baseflow may be considered corroborating evidence of a mountain pine beetle induced change on mountain hydrology detected in the ANOVA/ANCOVA analysis. No significant correlations between beetle phase and either snowmelt duration or onset of snowmelt were detected.

  5. Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources: Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Chapter A in Geologic framework for the national assessment of carbon dioxide storage resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Covault, Jacob A.; Buursink, Mark L.; Craddock, William H.; Merrill, Matthew D.; Blondes, Madalyn S.; Gosai, Mayur A.; Freeman, P.A.; Warwick, Peter D.; Corum, Margo D.

    2012-01-01

    This report identifies and contains geologic descriptions of twelve storage assessment units (SAUs) in six separate packages of sedimentary rocks within the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana and focuses on the particular characteristics, specified in the methodology, that influence the potential CO2 storage resource in those SAUs. Specific descriptions of the SAU boundaries as well as their sealing and reservoir units are included. Properties for each SAU such as depth to top, gross thickness, net porous thickness, porosity, permeability, groundwater quality, and structural reservoir traps are provided to illustrate geologic factors critical to the assessment. Although assessment results are not contained in this report, the geologic information included here will be employed, as specified in the methodology of earlier work, to calculate a statistical Monte Carlo-based distribution of potential storage space in the various SAUs. Figures in this report show SAU boundaries and cell maps of well penetrations through the sealing unit into the top of the storage formation. Wells sharing the same well borehole are treated as a single penetration. Cell maps show the number of penetrating wells within one square mile and are derived from interpretations of incompletely attributed well data, a digital compilation that is known not to include all drilling. The USGS does not expect to know the location of all wells and cannot guarantee the amount of drilling through specific formations in any given cell shown on cell maps.

  6. Reconnaissance geology and geochronology of the Precambrian of the Granite Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterman, Zell E.; Hildreth, Robert A.

    1978-01-01

    The Precambrian of the western part of the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, contains a metamorphic complex of gneisses, schists, and amphibolites that were derived through amphibolite-grade metamorphism from a sedimentary-volcanic sequence perhaps similar to that exposed in the southeastern Wind River Mountains. Whole-rock Rb-Sr dating places the time of metamorphism at 2,860?80 million years. A high initial 87Sr/ 86 S r ratio of 0.7048 suggests that either the protoliths or the source terrane of the sedimentary component is several hundred million years older than the time of metamorphism. Following an interval of 300:t100 million years for which the geologic record is lacking or still undeciphered, the metamorphic complex was intruded by a batholith and satellite bodies of medium- to coarse-grained, generally massive biotite granite and related pegmatite and aplite. The main body of granite is dated at 2,550?60 million years by the Rb-Sr method. Limited data suggest that diabase dikes were emplaced and nephrite veins were formed only shortly after intrusion of the granite. Emplacement of the granite at about 2,550 million years ago appears to be related to a major period of regional granitic plutonism in the Precambrian of southern and western Wyoming. Granites, in the strict sense, that are dated between 2,450 and 2,600 million years occur in the Teton Range, the Sierra Madre, the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Laramie Range. This episode of granitic plutonism occured some 50 to 100 million years later than the major tonalitic to granitic plutonism in the Superior province of northern Minnesota and adjacent Ontario-the nearest exposed Precambrian W terrane that is analogous to the Wyoming province. Initial 87Sr / 86Sr ratios of some of the Wyoming granites are higher than expected if the rocks had been derived from juvenile magmas and it is likely that older crustal rocks were involved to some degree in the generation of these granites. Slightly to highly disturbed

  7. Paleomagnetism of the Wyoming Craton: A Pre-Laurentian Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilian, T.; Chamberlain, K.; Mitchell, R. N.; Evans, D. A.; Bleeker, W.; Lecheminant, A. N.

    2010-12-01

    The Archean Wyoming craton is mostly buried beneath Phanerozoic sediments in the Rocky Mountains of the west central United States. Exposures of the craton are entirely in thrust-bounded Laramide uplifts and contain numerous swarms of Neoarchean-Proterozoic mafic dikes. U-Pb ages from these dikes include ~2685 Ma from a dike in the Owl Creek Mountains (Frost et al., 2006) as well as another in the Bald Mountain region of the Bighorn Mountains (this study), ~2170 Ma from the Wind River Mountain quartz diorite (Harlan et al., 2003), ~2110 Ma from a dike in the Granite Mountains (Bowers and Chamberlain, 2006), ~2010 Ma from a Kennedy dike in the Laramie Range (Cox et al., 2000), and ~780 Ma for dikes in the Beartooth and Teton Mountains (Harlan et al., 1997). These possible age ranges of magmatic events will allow a detailed comparison with other cratons, especially Superior and Slave. Prior to the assembly of Laurentia, Wyoming may have been connected with Slave in supercraton Sclavia (Bleeker, 2003; Frost et al., 2007), or alternatively, Wyoming may have been attached to the present southern margin of Superior in the supercraton Superia, as judged by similarities of the thrice-glaciated Huronian and Snowy Pass sedimentary successions (Roscoe and Card, 1993). Paleomagnetic results will be presented from over 150 dikes in the Wyoming craton. All dikes were from the basement uplifts of the Beartooth Mountains, Bighorn Mountains, Owl Creek Mountains, Granite Mountains, Ferris Mountains and Laramie Range. Dikes range in widths from 1 to >100 meters, and trends vary across all orientations. Stable remanence is observed in majority of sites with at least 8 different directions from the various uplifts. Structural corrections are applied when necessary to restore shallowly dipping Cambrian strata to horizontal. The paleomagnetic study is being integrated with precise U-Pb geochronology of dikes that bear stable remanence directions. Results will eventually allow a

  8. Reconnaissance and economic geology of Copper Mountain metamorphic complex, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hausel, W.D.

    1983-08-01

    The Copper Mountain metamorphic complex lies within a westerly trending belt of Precambrian exposures known as the Owl Creek Mountains uplift. The metamorphic complex at Copper Mountain is part of a larger complex known as the Owl Creek Mountains greenstone belt. Until more detailed mapping and petrographic studies can be completed, the Copper Mountain area is best referred to as a complex, even though it has some characteristics of a greestone belt. At least three episodes of Precambrian deformation have affected the supracrustals, and two have disturbed the granites. The final Precambrian deformation event was preceded by a weak thermal event expressed by retrogressive metamorphism and restricted metasomatic alteration. During this event, a second phase of pegmatization was accompanied by hydrothermal solutions. During the Laramide orogeny, Copper Mountain was again modified by deformation. Laramide deformation produced complex gravity faults and keystone grabens. Uranium deposits were formed following major Laramide deformation. The genesis of these deposits is attributable to either the leaching of granites or the leaching of overlying tuffaceous sediments during the Tertiary. Production of metals and industrial minerals has been limited, although some gold, copper, silver, tungsten, beryl, feldspar, and lithium ore have been shipped from Copper Mountain. A large amount of uranium was produced from the Copper Mountain district in the 1950s.

  9. Streamflow statistics for unregulated and regulated conditions for selected locations on the Upper Yellowstone and Bighorn Rivers, Montana and Wyoming, 1928-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, Katherine J.

    2014-01-01

    Major floods in 1996 and 1997 intensified public debate about the effects of human activities on the Yellowstone River. In 1999, the Yellowstone River Conservation District Council was formed to address conservation issues on the river. The Yellowstone River Conservation District Council partnered with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to carry out a cumulative effects study on the main stem of the Yellowstone River. The cumulative effects study is intended to provide a basis for future management decisions within the watershed. Streamflow statistics, such as flow-frequency data calculated for unregulated and regulated streamflow conditions, are a necessary component of the cumulative effects study. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Yellowstone River Conservation District Council and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, calculated low-flow frequency data and general monthly and annual statistics for unregulated and regulated streamflow conditions for the Upper Yellowstone and Bighorn Rivers for the 1928–2002 study period; these data are presented in this report. Unregulated streamflow represents flow conditions during the 1928–2002 study period if there had been no water-resources development in the Yellowstone River Basin. Regulated streamflow represents estimates of flow conditions during the 1928–2002 study period if the level of water-resources development existing in 2002 was in place during the entire study period.

  10. Mineral resources of the Raymond Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Lincoln county, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, K.; Evans, J.P.; Hill, R.H.; Bankey, V.; Lane, E.

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports on the Raymond Mountain Wilderness Study Area which encompasses most of the Sublette Range of western Lincoln County, Wyo. The study area consists of upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks that form part of the Idaho-Wyoming-Utah overthrust belt. There are no identified mineral or energy resources in the wilderness study area. The study area has moderate energy resource potential for oil and gas. Mineral resource potential for vanadium and phosphate is low because the Phosphoria Formation is deeply buried beneath the wilderness study area and contains unweathered units having low P{sub 2}O{sub 5} values. The mineral resource potential for coal, other metals, including uranium, high-purity limestone or dolostone, and geothermal energy is low.

  11. Economic geology of the Copper Mountain Supracrustal Belt, Owl Creek Mountains, Fremont County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hausel, W.D.; Graff, P.J.; Albert, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Archean stratigraphy and associated mineral deposits at Copper Mountain were investigated to determine if this supracrustal belt has potential commercial mineral deposits. It was concluded Copper Mountain lacks the stratigraphic and structural character of a classical greenstone belt, exhibits higher metamorphic grade, and may be better classified as a high-grade terrain. However, potential is noted for stratiform Au associated with iron formation, stratiform W associated with gneiss, and Cu-Au mineralization in strike veins. 63 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs. (ACR)

  12. Hydrology of area 54, Northern Great Plains, and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Daddow, P.D.; Craig, G.S.; ,

    1983-01-01

    A nationwide need for information characterizing hydrologic conditions in mined and potential mine areas has become paramount with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. This report, one in a series covering the coal provinces nationwide, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The summation of the topical discussions provides a description of the hydrology of the area. Area 54, in north-central Colorado and south-central Wyoming, is 1 of 20 hydrologic reporting areas of the Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces. Part of the Southern Rocky Mountains and Wyoming Basin physiographic provinces, the 8,380-square-mile area is one of contrasting geology, topography, and climate. This results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The major streams, the North Platte, Laramie, and Medicine Bow Rivers, and their principal tributaries, all head in granitic mountains and flow into and through sedimentary basins between the mountain ranges. Relief averages 2,000 to 3,000 feet. Precipitation in the mountains may exceed 40 inches annually, much of it during the winter, which produces deep snowpacks. Snowmelt in spring and summer provides most streamflow. Precipitation in the basins averages 10 to 16 inches annually, insufficient for sustained streamflow; thus, streams originating in the basins are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are least. These concentrations increase as streams flow through sedimentary basins. The increases are mainly natural, but some may be due to irrigation in and adjacent to the flood plains. In the North Platte River, dissolved-solids concentrations are usually less than 300 milligrams per liter; in the Laramie and the Medicine Bow Rivers, the concentrations may average 500 to 850 milligrams per liter. However

  13. A dataset of magnetic susceptibility, metalization, and alteration for samples from the Stinkingwater Mining District, Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. Measurements were performed on splits from 3 m (10 ft) sections of pulverized core. The measurements constitute a useful dataset because the same samples were studied to identify their alteration state and have been subjected to chemical analysis. Tables of the data are included in this report.

  14. Proterozoic metamorphism and uplift history of the north-central Laramie Mountains, Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patel, S.C.; Frost, B.R.; Chamberlain, K.R.; Snyder, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    The Laramie Mountains of south-eastern Wyoming contain two metamorphic domains that are separated by the 1.76 Ga. Laramie Peak shear zone (LPSZ). South of the LPSZ lies the Palmer Canyon block, where apatite U-Pb ages are c. 1745 Ma and the rocks have undergone Proterozoic kyanite-grade Barrovian metamorphism. In contrast, in the Laramie Peak block, north of the shear zone, the U-Pb apatite ages are 2.4-2.1 Ga, the granitic rocks are unmetamorphosed and supracrustal rocks record only low-T amphibolite facies metamorphism that is Archean in age. Peak mineral assemblages in the Palmer Canyon block include (a) quartz-biotite-plagioclase-garnet-staurolite-kyanite in the pelitic schists; (b) quartz-biotite-plagioclase-low-Ca amphiboles-kyanite in Mg-Al-rich schists, and locally (c) hornblende-plagioclase-garnet in amphibolites. All rock types show abundant textural evidence of decompression and retrograde re-equilibration. Notable among the texturally late minerals are cordierite and sapphirine, which occur in coronas around kyanite in Mg-Al-rich schists. Thermobarometry from texturally early and late assemblages for samples from different areas within the Palmer Canyon block define decompression from > 7 kbar to < 3 kbar. The high-pressure regional metamorphism is interpreted to be a response to thrusting associated with the Medicine Bow orogeny at c. 1.78-1.76 Ga. At this time, the north-central Laramie Range was tectonically thickened by as much as 12 km. This crustal thickening extended for more than 60 km north of the Cheyenne belt in southern Wyoming. Late in the orogenic cycle, rocks of the Palmer Canyon block were uplifted and unroofed as the result of transpression along the Laramie Peak shear zone to produce the widespread decompression textures. The Proterozoic tectonic history of the central Laramie Range is similar to exhumation that accompanied late-orogenic oblique convergence in many Phanerozoic orogenic belts.

  15. Buried soils of Late Quaternary moraines of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Dahms, D.E. . Geography Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Buried soils occur on kettle floors of four Pinedale moraine catenas of the western Wind River Mountains of Wyoming. Radiocarbon ages from bulk samples of Ab horizons indicate the soils were buried during the mid-Holocene. Soils on kettle floors have silty A and Bw horizons that overlie buried A and B horizons that also formed in silt-rich sediments. Crests and backslope soils also have A and Bw horizons of sandy loam formed over 2BCb and 2Cb horizons of stony coarse loamy sand. Recent data show the silty textures of the A and B horizons are due to eolian silt and clay from the Green River Basin just west of the mountains. The buried soils appear to represent alternate periods of erosion and deposition on the moraines during the Holocene. The original soils developed on higher slopes of the moraines were eroded during the mid-Holocene and the 2BC and 2C horizons exposed at the surface. Eroded soil sediments were transported downslope onto the kettle floors. Following erosion, silt-rich eolian sediments accumulated on all surfaces and mixed with the BC and C horizons (the mixed loess of Shroba and Birkeland). The present surface soils developed within this silt-rich material. Stone lines often occur at the Bw-2BCb/2Cb boundary, and mark the depth to which the earlier soils were eroded. Thus, soil profiles at the four localities result from two periods of soil formation, interrupted by an interval of erosion during the mid-Holocene. Moraines of this study are adjacent to the Fremont Lake type area for the Pinedale glaciation of the Rocky Mountains. Buried soils in kettles of the moraines indicates the soil characteristics of the Pinedale type region are not necessarily due to continuous post-Pinedale development, but may result from more than one episode of soil formation.

  16. Tectonic evolution of Hanna Basin, Wyoming: Laramide block rotation in the Rocky Mountain foreland

    SciTech Connect

    LeFebre, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    From late Early Cretaceous through late Early Eocene time the Hanna Basin area of south-central Wyoming developed in response to regional and local tectonic forces. Subsidence history, flexural modeling, depositional setting and history, coal moisture content of Tertiary coal and fission-track thermochronology document the evolutionary history of this small ({approx}2600 km{sup 2}), deep ({approx}16 km offset on the Precambrian basement) intermontane basin. The present geologic configuration of Hanna Basin is the result of five evolutionary phases: (1) initial regional subsidence ({approx}119 Ma) as part of the expanding foredeep in front of the Sevier Orogenic belt, (2) breakup of this foredeep into discrete depocenters and nascent uplifts began between 88.5 Ma and 97.5 Ma (locally, uplift of the Sweetwater Arch and downwarp of the Hanna trough are most important), (3) breakup of the Hanna trough and development of the Hanna Basin by basement block rotation facilitated by sediment loading (began at 68-70 Ma and continued through {approx}52 Ma), (4) late Early Eocene - early Middle Eocene uplift of Shirley Mountains area and final destruction of the old Hanna trough (final movement on the Shirley Thrust) and (5) post Early Eocene sedimentary fill of about 2.4 km and its subsequent erosion prior to {approx}29 Ma.

  17. Dismembered Archaean ophiolite in the southeastern Wind River Mountains, Wyoming: Remains of Archaean oceanic crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, G. D.

    1986-01-01

    Archean mafic and ultramafic rocks occur in the southeastern Wind River Mountains near Atlantic City, Wyoming and are interpreted to represent a dismembered ophiolite suite. The ophiolitic rocks occur in a thin belt intruded by the 2.6 Ga Louis Lake Batholith on the northwest. On the southeast they are in fault contact with the Miners Delight Formation comprised primarily of metagraywackes with minor calc-alkaline volcanics. The ophiolitic and associated metasedimentry rocks (Goldman Meadows Formation) have been multiply deformed and metamorphosed. The most prominant structures are a pronounced steeply plunging stretching lineation and steeply dipping foliation. These structural data indicate that the ophiolitic and associated metasedimentary rocks have been deformed by simple shear. The ophiolitic rocks are interpreted as the remains of Archean oceanic crust, probably formed at either a mid-ocean ridge or back-arc basin. All the units of a complete ophiolite are present except for upper mantle periodotities. The absence of upper mantle rocks may be the result of detactment within the crust, rather than within the upper mantle, during emplacement. This could have been the result of a steeper geothermal gradient in the Archean oceanic lithosphere, or may have resulted from a thicker oceanic crust in the Archean.

  18. Catastrophic emplacement of giant landslides aided by thermal decomposition: Heart Mountain, Wyoming.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Thomas; Smith, Steven; Anders, Mark; Di Toro, Giulio; Nielsen, Stefan; Cavallo, Andrea; Beard, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    The Heart Mountain landslide of northwest Wyoming is the largest known sub-aerial landslide on Earth. During its emplacement more than 2,000 km3 of Paleozoic sedimentary and Eocene volcanic rocks slid >45 km on a basal detachment surface dipping 2° , leading to 100 years of debate regarding the emplacement mechanisms. Recently, emplacement by catastrophic sliding has been favored, but experimental evidence in support of this is lacking. Here we show in friction experiments on carbonate rocks taken from the landslide that at slip velocities of several meters per second CO2starts to degas due to thermal decomposition induced by flash heating after only a few hundred microns of slip. This is associated with the formation of vesicular degassing rims in dolomite clasts and a crystalline calcite cement that closely resemble microstructures in the basal slip zone of the natural landslide. Our experimental results are consistent with an emplacement mechanism whereby catastrophic slip was aided by carbonate decomposition and release of CO2, allowing the huge upper plate rock mass to slide over a 'cushion' of pressurized material.

  19. Catastrophic emplacement of giant landslides aided by thermal decomposition: Heart Mountain, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Thomas M.; Smith, Steven A. F.; Anders, Mark H.; Di Toro, Giulio; Nielsen, Stefan; Cavallo, Andrea; Beard, Andrew D.

    2015-02-01

    The Heart Mountain landslide of northwest Wyoming is the largest known sub-aerial landslide on Earth. During its emplacement more than 2000km3 of Paleozoic sedimentary and Eocene volcanic rocks slid > 45 km on a basal detachment surface dipping 2°, leading to 100 yr of debate regarding the emplacement mechanisms. Recently, emplacement by catastrophic sliding has been favored, but experimental evidence in support of this is lacking. Here we show in friction experiments on carbonate rocks taken from the landslide that at slip velocities of several meters per second CO2 starts to degas due to thermal decomposition induced by flash heating after only a few hundred microns of slip. This is associated with the formation of vesicular degassing rims in dolomite clasts and a crystalline calcite cement that closely resemble microstructures in the basal slip zone of the natural landslide. Our experimental results are consistent with an emplacement mechanism whereby catastrophic slip was aided by carbonate decomposition and release of CO2, allowing the huge upper plate rock mass to slide over a "cushion" of pressurized material.

  20. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Infection with Population-Limiting Respiratory Disease in Free-Ranging Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quali...

  1. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  2. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection with population-limiting respiratory disease in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P; Herndon, David R; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Weiser, Glen C; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-02-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P < 0.001]). Similarly, a very strong association was observed between the presence of one or more M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P < 0.001]). M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease. PMID:18057131

  3. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae Infection with Population-Limiting Respiratory Disease in Free-Ranging Rocky Mountain Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis)▿

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P.; Herndon, David R.; Rurangirwa, Fred R.; Weiser, Glen C.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-01-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P < 0.001]). Similarly, a very strong association was observed between the presence of one or more M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P < 0.001]). M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease. PMID:18057131

  4. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection with population-limiting respiratory disease in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P; Herndon, David R; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Weiser, Glen C; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-02-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P < 0.001]). Similarly, a very strong association was observed between the presence of one or more M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P < 0.001]). M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease.

  5. Hydrology of area 53, Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountain coal provinces, Colorado, Wyoming, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driver, N.E.; Norris, J.M.; Kuhn, Gerhard; ,

    1984-01-01

    Hydrologic information and analysis are needed to aid in decisions to lease Federally owned coal and for the preparation of the necessary Environmental Assessments and Impact Study Reports. This need has become even more critical with the enactment of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (Public Law 95-87). This report, one in a series of nationwide coal province reports, presents information thematically by describing single hydrologic topics through the use of brief texts and accompanying maps, graphs, or other illustrations. The report broadly characterizes the hydrology of Area 53 in northwestern Colorado, south-central Wyoming, and northeastern Utah. The report area, located primarily in the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateau physiographic provinces, consists of 14,650 square miles of diverse geology, topography, and climate. This diversity results in contrasting hydrologic characteristics. The two major rivers, the Yampa and the White Rivers, originate in humid granitic and basaltic mountains, then flow over sedimentary rocks underlying semiarid basins to their respective confluences with the Green River. Altitudes range from 4,800 to greater than 12,000 feet above sea level. Annual precipitation in the mountains, as much as 60 inches, is generally in the form of snow. Snowmelt produces most streamflow. Precipitation in the lower altitude sedimentary basins, ranging from 8 to 16 inches, is generally insufficient to sustain streamflow; therefore, most streams originating in the basins (where most of the streams in coal-mining areas originate) are ephemeral. Streamflow quality is best in the mountains where dissolved-solids concentrations generally are small. As streams flow across the sedimentary basins, mineral dissolution from the sedimentary rocks and irrigation water with high mineral content increase the dissolved-solids concentrations in a downstream direction. Due to the semiarid climate of the basins, soils are not adequately leached

  6. Vitrinite Reflectance Data for the Wind River Basin, Central Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Roberts, Laura N.R.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 mi2 in central Wyoming. The basin boundaries are defined by fault-bounded Laramide uplifts that surround it, including the Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains to the north, Wind River Range to the west, Granite Mountains to the south, and Casper Arch to the east. The purpose of this report is to present new vitrinite reflectance data to be used in support of the U.S Geological Survey assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Wind River Basin. One hundred and nineteen samples were collected from Jurassic through Tertiary rocks, mostly coal-bearing strata, in an effort to better understand and characterize the thermal maturation and burial history of potential source rocks.

  7. Clastic dikes of Heart Mountain fault breccia, northwestern Wyoming, and their significance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, W.G.

    1979-01-01

    Structural features in northwestern Wyoming indicate that the Heart Mountain fault movement was an extremely rapid, cataclysmic event that created a large volume of carbonate fault breccia derived entirely from the lower part of the upper plate. After fault movement had ceased, much of the carbonate fault breccia, here called calcibreccia, lay loose on the resulting surface of tectonic denudation. Before this unconsolidated calcibreccia could be removed by erosion, it was buried beneath a cover of Tertiary volcanic rocks: the Wapiti Formation, composed of volcanic breccia, poorly sorted volcanic breccia mudflows, and lava flows, and clearly shown in many places by inter lensing and intermixing of the calcibreccia with basal volcanic rocks. As the weight of volcanic overburden increased, the unstable water-saturated calcibreccia became mobile and semifluid and was injected upward as dikes into the overlying volcanic rocks and to a lesser extent into rocks of the upper plate. In some places the lowermost part of the volcanic overburden appears to have flowed with the calcibreccia to form dike like bodies of mixed volcanic rock and calcibreccia. One calcibreccia dike even contains carbonized wood, presumably incorporated into unconsolidated calcibreccia on the surface of tectonic denudation and covered by volcanic rocks before moving upward with the dike. Angular xenoliths of Precambrian rocks, enclosed in another calcibreccia dike and in an adjoining dikelike mass of volcanic rock as well, are believed to have been torn from the walls of a vent and incorporated into the basal part of the Wapiti Formation overlying the clastic carbonate rock on the fault surface. Subsequently, some of these xenoliths were incorporated into the calcibreccia during the process of dike intrusion. Throughout the Heart Mountain fault area, the basal part of the upper-plate blocks or masses are brecciated, irrespective of the size of the blocks, more intensely at the base and in places

  8. Geologic structure and altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation, northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peter, Kathy D.; Kyllonen, David P.; Mills, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Beginning in 1981, a 3-yr project was conducted to determine the availability and quality of groundwater in the sedimentary bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. The project was limited to three bedrock units in order of increasing age: the Cretaceous Inyan kara Group, Permian and Pennsylvanian Minnelusa Formation, and Mississippian Madison (or Pahasapa) Limestone. This map shows the altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation in the northern Black Hills, and shows the configuration of the structural features in the northern part of the Black Hills and the eastern part of the Bear Lodge Mountains. In general, the Minnelusa Formation dips away from the Black Hills uplift, either to the northeast and the Williston Basin or, south of the Bear Lodge Mountains, to the southwest and the Powder River basin, which is outside the map area. In the map area, the upper beds of the Minnelusa Formation are an aquifer and the lower beds are a confining or semi-confining unit. The upper part of the Minnelusa Formation has a greater percentage of coarse-grained sandstone beds than the lower part. Furthermore, solution and removal of anhydrite, brecciation, and solution of cement binding the sandstone grains may have increased the permeability of the upper part of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills. Wells completed in the upper part of the Minnelusa have yields that exceed 100 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min. Flowing wells have been completed in the Minnelusa aquifer in most of the study area in South Dakota and in about the northern one-half of Crook County, Wyoming. (Lantz-PTT)

  9. Response of bighorn sheep to clear-cut logging and prescribed burning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Hardin, P.J.; Flinders, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    Prescribed burning and timber harvesting have been used to restore and maintain Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (avis canadensis) ranges. Intensive study of a bighorn sheep herd in northeastern Utah indicated a need for range improvements. To evaluate the effectiveness of clear-cut logging and prescribed burning, we documented sheep responses to these treatments. Although bighorn sheep exhibited strong fidelity to pre-treatment areas (P>0.05), they significantly altered use patterns to include logged and burned areas (P<0.001). Treated habitats experienced 148% increases in bighorn sheep activity, whereas use in untreated areas declined by 45%. Bighorn sheep responded more favorably to logged units than to burned areas. We conclude that carefully planned clear-cut logging and range burning may be effective to enhance and expand bighorn sheep populations.

  10. Survey of glaciers in the northern Rocky Mountains of Montana and Wyoming; Size response to climatic fluctuations 1950-1996

    SciTech Connect

    Chatelain, E.E.

    1997-09-01

    An aerial survey of Northern Rocky Mountain glaciers in Montana and Wyoming was conducted in late summer of 1996. The Flathead, Swan, Mission, and Beartooth Mountains of Montana were covered, as well as the Teton and Wind River Ranges of Wyoming. Present extent of glaciers in this study were compared to limits on recent USGS 15 and 7.5 topographic maps, and also from selected personal photos. Large cirque and hanging glaciers of the Flathead and Wind River Ranges did not display significant decrease in size or change in terminus position. Cirque glaciers in the Swan, Mission, Beartooth and Teton Ranges were markedly smaller in size; with separation of the ice body, growth of the terminus lake, or cover of the ice terminus with rockfalls. A study of annual snowfall, snowdepths, precipitation, and mean temperatures for selected stations in the Northern Rocky Mountains indicates no extreme variations in temperature or precipitation between 1950-1996, but several years of low snowfall and warmer temperatures in the 1980`s appear to have been sufficient to diminish many of the smaller cirque glaciers, many to the point of extinction. The disappearance of small cirque glaciers may indicate a greater sensitivity to overall climatic warming than the more dramatic fluctuations of larger glaciers in the same region.

  11. Data Quality Analysis for the Bighorn Arch Seismic Array Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, N. J.; Yang, Z.; Yeck, W. L.; Sheehan, A. F.

    2010-12-01

    We analyze background noise to assess the difference in station noise levels of different types of seismic sensors and the effects of deployed site locations, and to identify local noise sources, using the data from the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE). Project BASE is an EarthScope Flexible Array (FA) project and includes the deployment of 38 broadband seismometers (Guralp CMG3T), 173 short-period seismometers (L22 and CMG40T-1s), and 1850 high-frequency geophones with Reftek RT125 “Texans” in northern Wyoming, providing continuous dataset of various seismic sensor types and site locations in different geologic setups (basins and mountains). We carry out our analysis through a recently developed approach of using probability density function (PDF) to display the distribution of seismic power spectral density (PSD) [McNamara and Buland, 2004]. This new approach bypasses the tedious pre-screening for transient signals (earthquakes, mass recentering, calibration pulses, etc.) which is required by the traditional PSD analysis. Using the program PQLX, we were able to correlate specific noise sources—mine blasts, teleseisms, passing cars, etc—with features seen on PDF plots. We analyzed eight months of continuous BASE project broadband and short period data for this study. The power spectral density plots suggest that, of the 3 different instrument types used in the BASE project, the broadband CMG3T stations have the lowest background noise in the period range of 0.1-1 s while the short-period L22 stations have the highest background noise. As expected, stations located in the Bighorn Mountain Range are closer to the Low Noise Model [Peterson, 1993] than those located in the adjacent Bighorn Basin and Powder River Basin, particularly in the 0.1-1 s period range. This is mainly attributed to proximity to bedrock, though increased distance from cultural noise also contributes. At longer periods (1-100 s), the noise level of broadband instruments is lower

  12. Large uraniferous springs and associated uranium minerals, Shirley Mountains, Carbon County, Wyoming -- A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.D.

    1963-01-01

    Ten springs along the southeast flank of the Shirley Mountains, Carbon County, Wyoming, have water containing from 12 to 27 parts per billion uranium, have a total estimated flow of 3 million gallons of clear fresh water per day, and have a combined annual output that may be as much as 166 pounds of uranium. These springs emerge from Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Triassic rocks on the east flank of a faulted anticlinal fold. In the vicinity of several springs, metatyuyamunite occurs locally in crystalline calcite veins averaging 3 feet in width but reaching a maximum of 24 feet. The veins are as much as several hundred feet long-and cut vertically through sandstones of Pennsylvanian age overlying the Madison Limestone (Mississippian). This limestone is believed to be the source of the calcite. A 3-foot channel sample cross one calcite vein contains 0.089 percent uranium. Lesser amounts of uranium were obtained from other channel samples. Selected samples contain from 0.39 to 2.2 percent uranium and from 0.25 to 0.86 percent vanadium. Three possible sources of the uranium are: (1) Precambrian rocks, (2) Paleozoic rocks, (3) Pliocene(?) tuffaceous strata that were deposited unconformably across older .rocks in both the graphically high and low parts of the area, but were subsequently removed by erosion except for a few small remnants, one of which contains carnotite. There is apparently a close genetic relation between the uraniferous springs and uranium mineralization in the calcite veins. Data from this locality illustrate how uraniferous ground water can be used as a guide in the exploration for areas where uranium deposits may occur. Also demonstrated is the fact that significant quantities of uranium are present in water of some large flowing springs.

  13. Application of imaging geodesy to assess kinematics of the Medicine Wheel Landslide, Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Held, B. M.; Gomez, F.; Corley, J.

    2012-12-01

    Radar interferometry provides a means of imaging spatially varying kinematics of slow mass movements, such as earthflows. These observations provide critical constraints for understanding earth flow mechanics when considered with topography and meteorological forcings. This study focuses the Medicine Wheel Landslide located on the western side of the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. The mass movement is 1km by 1km and is on a 7 degree slope and consists of multiple rotational slumps within the larger mass which is detaching along the Mowry and Thermopolis Shales. The slide regularly damages the highway that intersects it. Preliminary results of a combination of satellite-based and ground-based radar interferometry document variations in the rates of done-slope movement. Satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) analysis utilized L-band data acquired by the ALOS PALSAR system. Resulting interferograms indicated that the Medicine Wheel Slide is active even during the summer months moving up to 7.5cm from July to October 2011. This movement corresponds with record amounts of snowfall during the 2010-2011 winter. Ground based interferometric radar (GBIR) was chosen for this application due to millimeter scale sensitivity to motion, and its ability to perform observations from the same point. GBIR observation point was chosen to maximize line-of-site sensitivity to motion and to provide a more complete view of the entire slide surface. In addition, ground truth measurements of displacement are provided by a network of 20 monuments measured using rapid static GPS, acquired during the same observation campaign as the GBIR imaging. Seasonal amounts of movement derived from radar interferometry and ground-truthed by GPS, can then be compared meteorological data to determine if the relationship shown for 2011 persists.

  14. The Heart Mountain fault: Implications for the dynamics of decollement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melosh, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    The Hart Mountain docollement in Northwestern Wyoming originally comprised a plate of rock up to 750m thick and 1300 sq kilometers in area. This plate moved rapidly down a slope no steeper than 2 deg. during Early Eocene time, transporting some blocks at least 50m from their original positions. Sliding occurred just before a volcanic erruption and was probably accompanied by seismic events. The initial movement was along a bedding plane fault in the Bighorn Dolomite, 2 to 3 meters above its contact with the Grove Creek member of the Snowy Range formation. The major pecularity of this fault is that it lies in the strong, cliff-forming Bighorn Dolomite, rather than in the weaker underlying shales. The dynamics of decollement are discussed.

  15. Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, T.L.

    1996-04-26

    Work in conjunction with Marathon Oil Company in the Oregon Basin field utilizing Formation MicroImager and Formation MicroScanner logs has been completed. Tensleep outcrops on the western side of the Bighorn Basin are not of the quality necessary to do detailed study of stratification. This made the use of borehole imaging logs, in which stratification can be recognized, particularly attractive for the western side of the Bighorn Basin. The borehole imaging logs were used to determine the dip angle and dip direction of stratification as well as to distinguish different lithologies. It is also possible to recognize erosional bounding surfaces and classify them according to a process-oriented hierarchy. Foreset and bounding surface orientation data was utilized to create bedform reconstructions in order to simulate the distribution of flow-units bounded by erosional surfaces. The bedform reconstructions indicate that the bedforms on the western side of the basin are somewhat different from those on the eastern side of the Bighorn Basin. A report has been submitted to Marathon Oil Company, the principal cost-share subcontractor. Marine dolomitic units initially identified and correlated in the Bighorn Basin have been correlated into the Wind River Basin. Gross and net sand maps have been produced for the entire upper Tensleep in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins, as well as for each of the eolian units identified in the study. These maps indicate an overall thickening of the Tensleep to the west and south. This thickening is a result of both greater subsidence to the west and south and greater differential erosion to the north and east. An article documenting the North Oregon Basin field study will appear in the Gulf Coast Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Foundation Conference volume entitled {open_quotes}Stratigraphic Analysis Utilizing Advanced Geophysical, Wireline and Borehole Technology for Petroleum Exploration and Production{close_quotes}.

  16. Airborne radioactivity survey of the Aspen Mountain area, Sweetwater county, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meuschke, J.L.; Moxham, R.M.

    1953-01-01

    The accompanying map shows the results of an airborne radioactivity survey covering 700 square miles in the Aspen Mountain area, Sweetwater county, Wyoming. The survey was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, October 22, 1952, as part of a cooperative program with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. The survey was made with scintillation-detection equipment mounted in a Douglas DC-3 aircraft. Parallel traverse lines, spaced at quarter-mile intervals, were flown approximately 500 feet above the ground. Aerial photographs were used for pilot guidance, and the flight path of the aircraft was recorded by a gyro-stabilized, continuous-strip-film camera. The distance of the aircraft from the ground was measured with a continuously recording radio altimeter. At 500 feet above the ground, the width of the zone from which anomalous radioactivity is measured varies with the intensity of radiation of the source and, for strong sources, the width would be as much as 1,400 feet. Quarter-mile spacing of the flight paths of the aircraft should be adequate to detect anomalies from strong sources of radioactivity. However, small areas of considerable radioactivity midway between flight paths may not be noted. The approximate location of each radioactivity anomaly is shown on the accompanying map. The plotted position of an anomaly may be in error by as much as a quarter of a mile owing to errors in the available base maps up to several square miles in which it is impossible to find and plot recognizable landmarks. The radioactivity anomaly that is recorded by airborne measurements at 500 feet above the ground can be caused by: 1. A moderately large area in which the rocks and soils are slightly more radioactive than the rocks and soils of the surrounding area. 2. A smaller area in which the rocks and soils are considerably more radioactive than rocks and soils in the surrounding area. 3. A very small area in which to rocks and soils are much more radioactive than the rocks and soils

  17. COORDINATING SYSTEMS-BASED ENVIRONMENTAL PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE WITH EPIDEMIOLOGY AND LABORATORY ANALYSIS: A WATERBORNE OUTBREAK OF NORWALK-LIKE VIRUS IN THE BIG HORN MOUNTAINS OF WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In February 2001, the Wyoming Department of Health received reports of cases of gastroenteritis among persons who had been snowmobiling in the Big Horn Mountains. Laboratory testing suggested that exposure to a Norwalk-like virus was responsible for the illness.
    ...

  18. Basin-margin depositional environments of the Fort Union and Wasatch Formations (Tertiary) in the Buffalo-Lake De Smet area, Johnson County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Obernyer, Stanley L.

    1979-01-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations along the east flank of the Bighorn Mountains in the Buffalo-Lake De Smet area, Wyoming, consist of continental alluvial fan, braided stream, and poorly drained alluvial plain deposits. The Fort Union conformably overlies the Cretaceous Lance Formation, which is marine in its lower units and nonmarine in its upper part. The formations dip steeply along the western margin of the study area and are nearly horizontal in the central and eastern portions. This structural configuration permits the reconstruction of depositional environments as an aid to understanding: (1) the evolution of the Bighorn uplift and its effects on the depositional patterns marginal to the uplift during Paleocene and Eocene time and (2) the changing depositional environments basinward from the margin of the uplift during a relatively small period of time in the Eocene.

  19. Remote continental aerosol characteristics in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Ezra J. T.

    The Rocky Mountains of Colorado and Wyoming enjoy some of the cleanest air in the United States, with few local sources of particulate matter or its precursors apart from fire emissions, windblown dust, and biogenic emissions. However, anthropogenic influences are also present with sources as diverse as the populated Front Range, large isolated power plants, agricultural emissions, and more recently emissions from increased oil and gas exploration and production. While long-term data exist on the bulk composition of background fine particulate matter at remote sites in the region, few long-term observations exist of aerosol size distributions, number concentrations and size resolved composition, although these characteristics are closely tied to important water resource issues through the potential aerosol impacts on clouds and precipitation. Recent modeling work suggests sensitivity of precipitation-producing systems to the availability of aerosols capable of serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN); however, model inputs for these aerosols are not well constrained due to the scarcity of data. In this work I present aerosol number and volume concentrations, size distributions, chemical composition and hygroscopicity measurements from long-term field campaigns. I also explore the volatility of organic material from biomass burning and the potential impacts on aerosol loading. Relevant aerosol observations were obtained in several long-term field studies: the Rocky Mountain Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur study (RoMANS, Colorado), the Grand Tetons Reactive Nitrogen Deposition Study (GrandTReNDS, Wyoming) and as part of the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics & Nitrogen project (BEACHON, Colorado). Average number concentrations (0.04 < Dp < 20 mum) measured during the field studies ranged between 1000 -- 2000 cm-3 during the summer months and decreased to 200 -- 500 cm-3 during the winter. These seasonal changes in aerosol

  20. Epidemic pasteurellosis in a bighorn sheep population coinciding with the appearance of a domestic sheep.

    PubMed

    George, Janet L; Martin, Daniel J; Lukacs, Paul M; Miller, Michael W

    2008-04-01

    A pneumonia epidemic reduced bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) survival and recruitment during 1997-2000 in a population comprised of three interconnected wintering herds (Kenosha Mountains, Sugarloaf Mountain, Twin Eagles) that inhabited the Kenosha and Tarryall Mountain ranges in central Colorado, USA. The onset of this epidemic coincided temporally and spatially with the appearance of a single domestic sheep (Ovis aires) on the Sugarloaf Mountain herd's winter range in December 1997. Although only bighorns in the Sugarloaf Mountain herd were affected in 1997-98, cases also occurred during 1998-99 in the other two wintering herds, likely after the epidemic spread via established seasonal movements of male bighorns. In all, we located 86 bighorn carcasses during 1997-2000. Three species of Pasteurella were isolated in various combinations from affected lung tissues from 20 bighorn carcasses where tissues were available and suitable for diagnostic evaluation; with one exception, beta-hemolytic mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica (primarily reported as biogroup 1(G) or 1(alphaG)) was isolated from lung tissues of cases evaluated during winter 1997-98. The epidemic dramatically lowered adult bighorn monthly survival in all three herds; a model that included an acute epidemic effect, differing between sexes and with vaccination status, that diminished linearly over the next 12 mo best represented field data. In addition to the direct mortality associated with epidemics in these three herds, lamb recruitment in years following the pneumonia epidemic also was depressed as compared to years prior to the epidemic. Based on observations presented here, pasteurellosis epidemics in free-ranging bighorn sheep can arise through incursion of domestic sheep onto native ranges, and thus minimizing contact between domestic and bighorn sheep appears to be a logical principle for bighorn sheep conservation.

  1. Geological and geochemical investigations of uranium occurrences in the Arrastre Lake area of the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; Houston, R.S.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Hopkins, D.M.; Ficklin, W.H.

    1977-01-01

    Metasedimentary rocks of Precambrian X age in and near the Snowy Range wilderness study area of southeastern Wyoming are lithologically and chronologically similar to those on the north shore of Lake Huron in Canada. The rocks in Canada contain major deposits of uranium in quartz-pebble conglomerates near the base of the metasedimentary sequence. Similar conglomerates in the Deep Lake Formation in the Medicine Bow Mountains of southeastern Wyoming are slightly radioactive and may contain deposits of uranium and other valuable heavy metals. During the summer of 1976, a geological and geochemical pilot study was conducted in the vicinity of Arrastre Lake in the Medicine Bow Mountains to determine the most effective exploration methods for evaluating the uranium potential of the Snowy Range wilderness study area. The area around Arrastre Lake was selected because of the presence of a radioactive lens within a quartz-pebble conglomerate of the Deep Lake Formation. The results of the survey indicate possible uranium mineralization in the subsurface rocks of this formation. The radon content of the dilute waters of the area is much higher than can be accounted for by the uranium content of the surface rocks. Two sources for the high content of the radon are possible. In either case, the high values of radon obtained in this study are a positive indication of uranium mineralization in the subsurface rocks. The determination of the radon content of water samples is the recommended geochemical technique for uranium exploration in the area. The determination of uranium in water and in organic-rich bog material is also recommended.

  2. Subsurface stratigraphic cross sections of cretaceous and lower tertiary rocks in the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming: Chapter 9 in Petroleum systems and geologic assessment of oil and gas resources in the Wind River Basin Province, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    The stratigraphic cross sections presented in this report were constructed as part of a project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey to characterize and evaluate the undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Wind River Basin (WRB) in central Wyoming. The primary purpose of the cross sections is to show the stratigraphic framework and facies relations of Cretaceous and lower Tertiary rocks in this large, intermontane structural and sedimentary basin, which formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny (Late Cretaceous through early Eocene time). The WRB is nearly 200 miles (mi) long, 70 mi wide, and encompasses about 7,400 square miles (mi2) (fig. 1). The basin is structurally bounded by the Owl Creek and Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east, the Granite Mountains on the south, and the Wind River Range on the west.

  3. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range. PMID:19395736

  4. Transmission of lungworms (Muellerius capillaris) from domestic goats to bighorn sheep on common pasture.

    PubMed

    Foreyt, William J; Jenkins, E J; Appleyard, G D

    2009-04-01

    Four domestic goats (Capra hircus) that were passing first-stage dorsal-spined larvae of Muellerius capillaris were copastured on a 0.82-ha pasture for 11 mo from May 2003 to April 2004 with seven Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that were not passing dorsal-spined larvae. During the 11-mo experiment, two bighorn sheep died from pneumonia caused by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica biotype A, serotype 2. The remaining five bighorn sheep and the four domestic goats remained healthy throughout the experiment. Muellerius larvae were detected from all domestic goats on a monthly basis throughout the experiment and were first detected from all five surviving bighorn sheep approximately 5 mo after the copasturing began. Once the bighorn sheep began passing Muellerius larvae, larvae were detected in low numbers from all bighorn sheep every month thereafter for the 6 mo the goats were still in the enclosure and continued to pass larvae for more than 3 yr after the goats were removed from the experiment. Six bighorn sheep in two similar enclosures that did not contain goats did not pass Muellerius larvae before, during, or after the experimental period. Results of this experiment indicate that M. capillaris from domestic goats is capable of infecting bighorn sheep when animals are copastured together on a common range.

  5. Multidisciplinary study of Wyoming test sites. [hydrology, biology, geology, lithology, geothermal, and land use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.; Agard, S. S.; Downing, K. G.; Earle, J. L.; Froman, N. L.; Gordon, R.; Kolm, K. E.; Tomes, B.; Vietti, J.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Investigation of a variety of applications of EREP photographic data demonstrated that EREP S-190 data offer a unique combination of synoptic coverage and image detail. The broad coverage is ideal for regional geologic mapping and tectonic analysis while the detail is adequate for mapping of crops, mines, urban areas, and other relatively small features. The investigative team at the University of Wyoming has applied the EREP S-190 data to: (1) analysis of photolinear elements of the Powder River Basin, southern Montana, and the Wind River Mountains; (2) drainage analysis of the Powder River Basin and Beartooth Mountains; (3) lithologic and geologic mapping in the Powder River Basin, Black Hills, Green River Basin, Bighorn Basin and Southern Bighorn Mountains; (4) location of possible mineralization in the Absaroka Range; and (5) land use mapping near Riverton and Gillette. All of these applications were successful to some degree. Image enhancement procedures were useful in some efforts requiring distinction of small objects or subtle contrasts.

  6. Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Uranium-thorium-lead systematics of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Stuckless, J.S.; Nkomo, I.T.; Butt, K.A.

    1986-01-01

    Isotopic analyses of apparently unaltered whole-rock samples of a granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., yield a lead-lead isochron age of 2730 {plus minus} 35 Ma, which is somewhat older than the age obtained by the rubidium-strontium whole-rock method. Thorium-lead data for the same samples deviate markedly from an isochronal relation; however, calculated initial {sup 208}Pb/{sup 204}Pb ratios correlate with whole-rock {delta}{sup 18}O values and lead to the conclusion that the {sup 232}Th-{sup 208}Pb data are not colinear because of an originally heterogeneous granitic magma. Relationships in the {sup 207}Pb/{sup 235}U-{sup 206}Pb/{sup 238}U system show that uranium was mobilized during early Laramide time or shortly before, such that most surface and shallow drill-core samples lost 60-80 percent of their uranium, and some fractured, deeper drill-core samples gained from 50 to 10,000 percent uranium. Fission-track maps show that much uranium is located along edges and cleavages of biotite and magnetic where it is readily accessible to oxidizing ground water. Furthermore, qualitative comparisons of uranium distribution in samples with excess radiogenic lead and in samples with approximately equilibrium amounts of uranium and lead suggest that the latter contain more uranium in these readily accessible sites. Unlike other granites that have uranium distributions and isotopic systematics similar to those observed in this study, the granite of the Owl Creek Mountains is not associated with economic uranium deposits.

  7. Chemical and isotopic studies of granitic Archean rocks, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming: Geochronology of an Archean granite, Owl Creek Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hedge, C.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Rubidium-strontium analyses of whole-rock samples of an Archean granite from the Owl Creek Mountains, Wyo., indicate an intrusive age of 2640 {plus minus} 125 Ma. Muscovite-bearing samples give results suggesting that these samples were altered about 2300 Ma. This event may have caused extensive strontium loss from the rocks as potassium feldspar was altered to muscovite. Alteration was highly localized in nature as evidence by unaffected rubidium-strontium mineral ages in the Owl Creek Mountains area. Furthermore, the event probably involved a small volume of fluid relative to the volume of rock because whole-rock {delta}{sup 18}O values of altered rocks are not distinct from those of unaltered rocks. In contrast to the rubidium-strontium whole-rock system, zircons from the granite have been so severely affected by the alteration event, and possibly by a late-Precambrian uplift event, that the zircon system yields little usable age information. The average initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr (0.7033 {plus minus} 0.0042) calculated from the isochron intercept varies significantly. Calculated initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios for nine apparently unaltered samples yield a range of 0.7025 to 0.7047. These calculated initial ratios correlate positively with whole-rock {delta}{sup 18}O values; and, therefore, the granite was probably derived from an isotopically heterogeneous source. The highest initial {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio is lower than the lowest reported for the metamorphic rocks intruded by the granite as it would have existed at 2640 Ma. Thus, the metamorphic sequence, at its current level of exposure, can represent no more than a part of the protolith for the granite.

  8. Big George to Carter Mountain 115-kV transmission line project, Park and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to rebuild, operate, and maintain a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Big George and Carter Mountain Substations in northwest Wyoming (Park and Hot Springs Counties). This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The existing Big George to Carter Mountain 69-kV transmission line was constructed in 1941 by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, with 1/0 copper conductor on wood-pole H-frame structures without an overhead ground wire. The line should be replaced because of the deteriorated condition of the wood-pole H-frame structures. Because the line lacks an overhead ground wire, it is subject to numerous outages caused by lightning. The line will be 54 years old in 1995, which is the target date for line replacement. The normal service life of a wood-pole line is 45 years. Under the No Action Alternative, no new transmission lines would be built in the project area. The existing 69-kV transmission line would continue to operate with routine maintenance, with no provisions made for replacement.

  9. Tongue River in Wyoming: a baseline fisheries assessment, Monarch to the state line

    SciTech Connect

    Wesche, T.A.; Johnson, L.S.

    1981-04-01

    A baseline study of fish populations was conducted in northeastern Wyoming's Tongue River and Goose Creek as part of a research project on the ecological effects of a large surface coal mine near Sheridan, Wyoming. The study area is a transition zone between the cold-water, torrential habitat in the Bighorn Mountains and the warm-water, quiet-zone habitat of the lower Tongue River. Fauna of the study area form one of the most diverse fisheries in Wyoming and include brown and rainbow trout, sauger, smallmouth bass, and black bullhead. Diversity generally increases in a downstream direction. Sauger and northern pike are extending their ranges from Montana into Wyoming to spawn; sauger in the study area are very fast-growing, probably due to the abundance of forage species. Studies should continue on the effect of the new Tongue River channel at the Big Horn Mine site in order to determine if recolonization is occurring. Spawning movements of sauger and northern pike in the Tongue River should be followed so that the effects of future mining along the Tongue River may be evaluated.

  10. Structural relationship of the Beartooth Mountains and Big Horn basin in south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.M. )

    1991-06-01

    Geologic structure along the Beartooth Mountain front and adjacent Big Horn basin in south-central Montana and northwestern Wyoming has been the subject of considerable debate for many years. Directional drilling by Amoco Production Company, located on the northeast corner of the Beartooth block, indicates three things. (1) Western Big Horn basin Paleozoic and Mesozoic sections recumbently folded 2 mi (3.2 km) under the northeast corner of the Beartooth block, measured horizontally from the surface exposure of the Beartooth fault. (2) The main Beartooth fault dips 19{degrees} northwest at a depth of 8,300 to 8,400 ft (2,530 to 2,560 km), 1 mi (1.6 km) from the surface exposure of the main Beartooth fault. (3) The main Beartooth fault appears to be a component of a complex fault system which horizontally displaces and faults-out formations in both the Paleozoic and Mesozoic section on the upper limb of the recumbent fold. In addition to the drilling data, interior Beartooth Mountain faults, with dominant northeast and east-west structural orientation, show reactivation of left-lateral movement, intersecting the Beartooth front and offsetting Paleozoic and Mesozoic sections 1-2 mi (1.6-3.2 km) horizontally. Reactivation of some of these faults seems to coincide with the intrusion of Tertiary (Eocene ) igneous bodies along some of the same structural trends. Beartooth front fold orientation and fault movement correlated with a reexamination of internal block fault systems lend additional weight to the argument of horizontal compression as a major factor in late Laramide formation of geologic structure along the northeast face of the Beartooth Mountains.

  11. Uranium-lead isotope systematics and apparent ages of zircons and other minerals in precambrian granitic rocks, Granite Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Stuckless, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    Zircon suites from the two main types of granite in the Granite Mountains, Wyoming, yielded concordia-intercept ages of 2,640??20 m.y. for a red, foliated granite (granite of Long Creek Mountain) and 2,595??40 m.y. for the much larger mass of the granite of Lankin Dome. These ages are statistically distinct (40??20 m.y. difference) and are consistent with observed chemical and textural differences. The lower intercepts of the zircon chords of 50??40 and 100+ 75 m.y. for the granite of Long Creek Mountain and granite of Lankin Dome, respectively, are not consistent with reasonable continuous diffusion lead-loss curves but do correspond well with the known (Laramide) time of uplift of the rocks. Epidote, zircon, and apatite from silicified and epidotized zones in the granites all record at least one postcrystallization disturbance in addition to the Laramide event and do not define a unique age of silicification and epidotization. The lower limit of ???2,500 m.y. provided by the least disturbed epidote, however, suggests that these rocks were probably formed by deuteric processes shortly after emplacement of the granite of the Lankin Dome. The earlier of the two disturbances that affected the minerals of the silicified-epidotized rock can be bracketed between 1,350 and 2,240 m.y. ago and is probably the same event that lowered mineral K-Ar and ages in the region. Zircon suites from both types of granite show well-defined linear correlations among U content, common-Pb content, and degree of discordance. One of the zircon suites has an extremely high common-Pb content (up to 180 ppm) and exhibits a component of radiogenic-Pb loss that is apparently unrelated to radiation damage. ?? 1978 Springer-Verlag.

  12. Experiment to evaluate feasibility of utilizing Skylab-EREP remote sensing data for tectonic analysis of the Bighorn Mountains region, Wyoming-Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Analysis of SL-3, S-190A, and S-190B color frames indicates two sets of linears obliquely cutting across the east-west trending Owl Creek-Bridger uplifts. A northwest set of faults and folds has been mapped previously but the imagery indicates some changes and addition of detail can be made. A less pronounced east-northeast set of linear alignments (drainage segments, lithologic contacts, possible faults) extends into the southeast part of the Big Horn Basin.

  13. 75 FR 57061 - Public Land Order No. 7748; Extension of Public Land Order No. 6797; Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Act of 1976, 43 U.S.C. 1714, it is ordered as follows: Public Land Order No. 6797 (55 FR 37878 (1990... necessary to continue the protection of the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Winter Range in Fremont County... continue the protection of the Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Winter Range. The withdrawal extended by...

  14. The effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and southern Wyoming, USA-a critical review.

    PubMed

    Burns, Douglas A

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Mountains of Colorado and southern Wyoming receive atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition that ranges from 2 to 7 kg ha(-1) yr(-1), and some previous research indicates pronounced ecosystem effects at the highest rates of deposition. This paper provides a critical review of previously published studies on the effects of atmospheric N deposition in the region. Plant community changes have been demonstrated through N fertilization studies, however, N limitation is still widely reported in alpine tundra and subalpine forests of the Front Range, and sensitivity to changes in snow cover alone indicate the importance of climate sensitivity in these ecosystems. Retention of N in atmospheric wet deposition is <50% in some watersheds east of the Continental Divide, which reflects low biomass and a short growing season relative to the timing and N load in deposition. Regional upward temporal trends in surface water NO(3)(-) concentrations have not been demonstrated, and future trend analyses must consider the role of climate as well as N deposition. Relatively high rates of atmospheric N deposition east of the Divide may have altered nutrient limitation of phytoplankton, species composition of diatoms, and amphibian populations, but most of these effects have been inconclusive to date, and additional studies are needed to confirm hypothesized cause and effect relations. Projected future population growth and energy use in Colorado and the west increase the likelihood that the subtle effects of atmospheric N deposition now evident in the Front Range will become more pronounced and widespread in the future. PMID:14568725

  15. Evidence for the presence of two supracrustal sequences in the central Wind River Mountain, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Koesterer, M.E.; Frost, C.D.; Frost, B.R.

    1985-01-01

    Supracrustal rocks, although volumetrically minor, are found throughout the Archean basement of the central and northern Wind River Mountains. Detailed mapping in the Medina Mountain area suggests that at least two discrete sedimentation events are preserved. The older sequence occurs as melanosomes in a multiple deformed migmatitic gneiss. Rock types include mafic rocks (metavolcanics.), calc-silicates, iron formation and rare pelites. Although retrogression is widespread, small patches with granulite mineralogies are found preserved. The younger supracrustal sequence consists of banded amphibolites, calc-silicates, semipelitic and pelitic gneiss. These rocks form synformal structures that are up to 4 km in length. The coherent nature of these rocks and the lack of the aforementioned porphyritic dikes strongly suggests that this sequence, the Medina Mountain. Supracrustals (MMS) is considerably younger than the supracrustal rocks found in the migmatites. The authors propose that the MMS were not subjected to the high grade granulite metamorphism evidenced in the migmatites because the MMS are dominantly in amphibolite facies and are only locally upgraded to granulite facies. Sr and Nd isotopic data provide constraints on the timing of the deposition and metamorphism of the younger sequence. A Nd crustal residence age for the MMS gives 3.4 Ga, an older limit for the age of the unit. A Rb-Sr isochron of 2.7 Ga for the Bridger Batholith, a granitoid deformed in the waning stages of the second metamorphism, places a younger age limit on the last Archean metamorphism to affect the central Wind River Mountains.

  16. Multidisciplinary study on Wyoming test sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.; Borgman, L. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ten EREP data passes over the Wyoming test site provided excellent S190A and S190B coverage and some useful S192 imagery. These data were employed in an evaluation of the EREP imaging sensors in several earth resources applications. Boysen Reservoir and Hyattsville were test areas for band to band comparison of the S190 and S192 sensors and for evaluation of the image data for geologic mapping. Contrast measurements were made from the S192 image data for typical sequence of sedimentary rocks. Histograms compiled from these measurements show that near infrared S192 bands provide the greatest amount of contrast between geologic units. Comparison was also made between LANDSAT imagery and S190B and aerial photography for regional land use mapping. The S190B photography was found far superior to the color composite LANDSAT imagery and was almost as effective as the 1:120,000 scale aerial photography. A map of linear elements prepared from LANDSAT and EREP imagery of the southwestern Bighorn Mountains provided an important aid in defining the relationship between fracture and ground water movement through the Madison aquifer.

  17. Multifractal magnetic susceptibility distribution models of hydrothermally altered rocks in the Needle Creek Igneous Center of the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility was measured for 700 samples of drill core from thirteen drill holes in the porphyry copper-molybdenum deposit of the Stinkingwater mining district in the Absaroka Mountains, Wyoming. The magnetic susceptibility measurements, chemical analyses, and alteration class provided a database for study of magnetic susceptibility in these altered rocks. The distribution of the magnetic susceptibilities for all samples is multi-modal, with overlapping peaked distributions for samples in the propylitic and phyllic alteration class, a tail of higher susceptibilities for potassic alteration, and an approximately uniform distribution over a narrow range at the highest susceptibilities for unaltered rocks. Samples from all alteration and mineralization classes show susceptibilities across a wide range of values. Samples with secondary (supergene) alteration due to oxidation or enrichment show lower susceptibilities than primary (hypogene) alteration rock. Observed magnetic susceptibility variations and the monolithological character of the host rock suggest that the variations are due to varying degrees of alteration of blocks of rock between fractures that conducted hydrothermal fluids. Alteration of rock from the fractures inward progressively reduces the bulk magnetic susceptibility of the rock. The model introduced in this paper consists of a simulation of the fracture pattern and a simulation of the alteration of the rock between fractures. A multifractal model generated from multiplicative cascades with unequal ratios produces distributions statistically similar to the observed distributions. The reduction in susceptibility in the altered rocks was modelled as a diffusion process operating on the fracture distribution support. The average magnetic susceptibility was then computed for each block. For the purpose of comparing the model results with observation, the simulated magnetic susceptibilities were then averaged over the same interval as the

  18. Heart Mountain, Wyoming, detachment lineations: are they in microbreccia or in volcanic tuff?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, W.G.; Nelson, W.H.; Tokarski, A.K.; Piekarska, E.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of tectonic denudation followed by deposition of lower middle Eocene Wapiti Formation volcanic rocks on the exposed Heart Mountain detachment has been challenged by Hauge. His "extending allochthon' interpretation requires that the Wapiti Formation be fault emplaced and that lineations in a volcanic tuff overlying the fault north of Jim Smith Peak be fault striae in "microbreccia'. Our re-examination of the field evidence in minute detail indicates that these lineations were produced by flowage of volcanic rocks on a thin layer of air-fall tuff. The evidence indicates that this tuff was deposited on the detachment surface during the brief interval that the denuded surface was exposed. -from Authors

  19. Geologic map and coal stratigraphy of the Doty Mountain quadrangle, eastern Washakie basin, Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hettinger, R.D.; Honey, J.G.

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a geologic map of the Doty Mountain 7.5-minute quadrangle, located along the eastern flank of the Washakie Basin, Wyo. Geologic formations and individual coal beds were mapped at a scale of 1:24,000; surface stratigraphic sections were measured and described; and well logs were examined to determine coal correlations and thicknesses in the subsurface. Detailed measured sections are provided for the type sections of the Red Rim Member of the Upper Cretaceous Lance Formation and China Butte and Overland Members of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. The data set was collected as part of a larger effort to acquire data on Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary coal-bearing rocks in the eastern Washakie Basin and southeastern Great Divide Basin. Regions in the eastern Washakie Basin and southeastern Great Divide Basin have potential for coal development and were considered previously for coal leasing by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management.

  20. Pathogen exposure patterns among sympatric populations of bighorn sheep, mule deer and cattle.

    PubMed

    Singer, R S; Jessup, D A; Gardner, I A; Boyce, W M

    1997-04-01

    We sampled sympatric bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis, n = 31), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, n = 38), and domestic cattle (n = 26) in the San Bernadino Mountains of southern California (USA) for the presence of Psoroptes spp. mites and for serologic evidence of exposure to bluetongue virus (BTV) and Babesia spp. From 1991 through 1994, Psoroptes spp. infestations were found on 12 (44%) of 27 bighorn sheep. No mites were found on mule deer or cattle. The BTV serum antibody prevalence in a cohort of 26 cattle ranged from 17 to 89%. There was no evidence of exposure to BTV in the bighorn sheep or mule deer. The cumulative serum antibody prevalence of Babesia spp. during the study was 35% in 26 bighorn sheep and 85% in 20 mule deer, while antibodies were not detected in a cohort of cattle when they were sampled in May (n = 23) and December (n = 22) of 1992. Based on these results, we concluded that infestation with Psoroptes spp. and exposure to BTV was limited to bighorn sheep and cattle, respectively. In contrast, Babesia spp. infections appeared to be common in both mule deer and bighorn sheep while there was no evidence of exposure in cattle.

  1. Neogene tectonics and geomorphology of the eastern Uinta Mountains in Utah, Colorado, and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, W.R

    1986-01-01

    A recent reevaluation of the Bishop Conglomerate in the eastern part of the Uinta Mountains of Utah and Colorado helps clarify how the conglomerate relates to the Browns Park Formation and, in turn, how both formations relate to Tertiary tectonic activity and late Tertiary and Quaternary drainage adjustments. Field relations indicate divergent geomorphic histories for the two formations, yet over broad areas they are nearly coextensive and, as will be shown, the Browns Park locally rests directly on the Bishop. Some of the conglomerate beneath the Browns Park Formation surely is Bishop, but a hiatus is indicated between the two formations. Sears, moreover, showed that the Bishop is stratigraphically below the Browns Park and, hence, is older. The Browns Park is now well dated as largely Miocene; the Bishop is Oligocene. In their type areas the Bishop and the Browns Park are separated by great topographic discontinuity, the Bishop capping high mesas and the Browns Park filling deep adjacent valleys. Because of its wide geographic extent and relatively uniform character, the Bishop is an excellent datum for use in reconstruction tectonic and geomorphic event in the Uinta region.

  2. The High Variability of Hydrologic Response in Mountain Watersheds: Snowy Range, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Three adjacent mountain streams that coalesce to form a single river have been monitored with a nested watershed design comprised of ten runoff stations for the past three years. Some of the stations are co-located on previous monitoring sites that allow for an extended period of record. Stage-discharge relationships have been built with high degrees of confidence at each station, and stream isotope data have been taken to better determine sources of water and fractionation of precipitation into runoff components. In addition to runoff observations we have multiple weather stations and use geophysical methods to investigate the subsurface and better characterize potential flow pathways and remote sensing and field methods to characterize the watersheds. From these data we have observed a high degree in variability in runoff characteristics among these sites, including significant differences in annual runoff, proportion of baseflow, rainfall/runoff efficiency, and hydrologic regime. Analyses of nested runoff data reveal longitudinal and seasonal changes in surface and subsurface flow, which allow us to identify the timing and location of groundwater contributions and channel transmission to regional aquifers. Differences among the watershed responses are augmented by precipitation, and we identify stream reaches that change from effluent to influent depending on timing and magnitude of runoff. We explored physical interpretations for the observed variability, including management, beetle impacts, and subsurface characteristics as inferred from geophysical data.

  3. Ecotypic variation in recruitment of reintroduced bighorn sheep: implications for translocation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiedmann, Brett P.; Sargeant, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    European settlement led to extirpation of native Audubon's bighorn sheep (formerly Ovis canadensis auduboni) from North Dakota during the early 20th century. The North Dakota Game and Fish Department subsequently introduced California bighorn sheep (formerly O. c. californiana) that were indigenous to the Williams Lake region of British Columbia, Canada, and Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (O. c. canadensis) that were indigenous to the Sun River region of Montana. Although California bighorn sheep are no longer recognized as a distinct subspecies, they are smaller and adapted to a milder climate than either the native bighorn sheep of North Dakota or introduced bighorn sheep from Montana. Because reintroductions still play a key role in the management of bighorn sheep and because local adaptation may have substantial demographic consequences, we evaluated causes of variation in recruitment of bighorn sheep reintroduced in North Dakota. During 2006–2011, Montana stock recruited 0.54 juveniles/adult female (n = 113), whereas British Columbia stock recruited 0.24 juveniles/adult female (n = 562). Our most plausible mixed-effects logistic regression model (53% of model weight) attributed variation in recruitment to differences between source populations (odds ratio = 4.5; 90% CI = 1.5, 15.3). Greater recruitment of Montana stock (fitted mean = 0.56 juveniles/adult female; 90% CI = 0.41, 0.70) contributed to a net gain in abundance (r = 0.15), whereas abundance of British Columbia stock declined (fitted mean = 0.24 juveniles/adult female; 90% CI = 0.09, 0.41; r = − 0.04). Translocations have been the primary tool used to augment and restore populations of wild sheep but often have failed to achieve objectives. Our results show that ecotypic differences among source stocks may have long-term implications for recruitment and demographic performance of reintroduced populations.

  4. Drill-hole data, drill-site geology, and geochemical data from the study of Precambrian uraniferous conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of southeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.; Schmidt, T.G.; Inlow, D.; Flurkey, A.J.; Kratochvil, A.L.; Coolidge, C.M.; Sever, C.K.; Quimby, W.F.

    1981-02-01

    This volume is presented as a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential of Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 3: Uranium Assessment for Precambrian Pebble Conglomerates in Southeastern Wyoming. Volume 1 summarized the geologic setting and geologic and geochemical characteristics of uranium-bearing conglomerates in Precambrian metasedimentary rocks of southeastern Wyoming. Volume 3 is a geostatistical resource estimate of U and Th in quartz-pebble conglomerates. This volume contains supporting geochemical data, lithologic logs from 48 drill holes in Precambrian rocks of the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre, and drill site geologic maps and cross-sections from most of the holes.

  5. Cataclastic flow kinematics inferred from magnetic fabrics at the Heart Mountain Detachment, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heij, G. W.; Ferre, E. C.; Friedman, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Heart Mountain Detachment (HMD) constitutes one of the largest known rock slides (3400 km2) on Earth. This detachment occurred along the stratigraphic boundary between the Big Horn Dolomite at the hanging-wall and the Snowy Range Formation at the footwall. The bedding plane contact between these two carbonate formations dipped >2 deg. at the time of slide. The slide resulted in the formation of an up to 3 m-thick carbonate ultracataclasite (CUC) at the base of the slide. The origin of the CUC and the nature of the triggering mechanism responsible for the initiation of the catastrophic movement have long been a subject of controversy. Absoroka volcanics could have provided the trigger for the catastrophic slide. Here we present a proof of concept study addressing the question of the consistent magnetic fabrics observed in the CUC as well as new observations indicating presence of volcanic solid material within the CUC. The magnetic susceptibility (Klf) ranges narrowly from 1062. [10]^(-6) to 1115 . [10]^(-6) [SI]. Thermomagnetic investigations revealed a Curie temperature of 525C which suggests that magnetite is most likely the dominant magnetic carrier mineral. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy analyses confirm that this magnetite has a relatively low Ti content. The CUC magnetic hysteresis properties point to an average pseudo-single domain magnetic grain size or, alternatively, a mixture of single domain and multi-domain grains. The average degree of magnetic anisotropy (P' = 1.062) is relatively high and is consistent with a magnetostatic origin for the AMS. The shape parameter T is mostly oblate (average T=0.175). The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) directional data is surprisingly consistent within each specimen and between specimens collected within a few tens of meters of each other with an overall NNE-SSW. The consistency of this magnetic fabric suggests that cataclastic flow corresponded to a dominantly simple shear regime. Generally

  6. Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. First quarterly technical progress report, September 15, 1993--December 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, T.L.

    1993-12-14

    This multidisciplinary study is designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal is to be accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, depositional, and diagenetic frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts are aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focuses on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization in terms of changes in relative permeability, wettability, and pore structure, and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work will establish new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in a change in relative permeability and wellbore scale damage. This task will be accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends on the scale of a field; and chemical modeling of the reservoir and experimental systems in order to scale-up the experiments to reservoir conditions.

  7. Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Final technical report, September 15, 1993--October 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, T.L.

    1996-10-01

    This multidisciplinary study was designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal was accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, and depositional regional frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts were aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focused on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work establishes new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in wellbore scale damage. This task was accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends the at field scale; and chemical modeling of both the experimental and reservoir systems.

  8. Petroleum exploration in Absaroka basin of northwestern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Sundell, K.A.

    1986-08-01

    A new, virtually unexplored petroleum province with large potential resources can be defined in northwestern Wyoming. Structurally, the Absaroka basin is bounded on the north by the Beartooth uplift, to the west by the Gallatin and Washakie uplifts, to the south by the Washakie and Owl Creek uplifts, and to the east by the Cody arch. The Cody arch connects the southern Beartooth uplift with the northwesternmost Owl Creek uplift and separates the Bighorn basin to the east from the Absaroka basin to the west. The eastern flank of the cody arch is bounded by a major west-dipping thrust fault. The western flank is locally a subhorizontal shelf but overall gently dips to the west-southwest into deeper parts of the Absaroka basin. In contrast to most petroleum basins, the Absaroka basin is topographically a rugged mountain range, created by erosion of a thick sequence of Eocene volcanic rocks that fill the center of the basin and lap onto the adjacent uplifts. Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks that have produced several billion barrels of oil from the adjacent Bighorn and Wind River basins are probably present within the Absaroka basin and should have similar production capabilities. The Absaroka basin may have greater potential than adjacent basins because the volcanics provide additional traps and reservoirs. Domes in Mesozoic and Paleozoic rocks beneath the volcanics and stratigraphic traps at the angular unconformity between the volcanics and underlying reservoirs are primary exploration targets. Unique geologic, geophysical, permitting, access, and drilling problems are encountered in all aspects of exploration.

  9. Preliminary report on the geology and gold mineralization of the South Pass granite-greenstone terrain, Wind River Mountains, western Wyoming (US)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausel, W. D.

    1986-01-01

    The South Pass granite-greenstone terrain lies near the southern tip of the Wind River Mountains of western Wyoming. This Archean supracrustal pile has been Wyoming's most prolific source of gold and iron ore. From 1962 to 1983, more than 90 million tons of iron ore were recovered from oxide-facies banded iron formation, and an estimated 325,000 ounces of gold were mined from metagreywacke-hosted shears and associated placers. Precambrian rocks at South Pass are unconformably overlain by Paleozoic sediments along the northeast flank, and a Tertiary pediment buries Archean supracrustals on the west and south. To the northwest, the supracrustals terminate against granodiorite of the Louis Lake batholith; to the east, the supracrustals terminate against granite of the Granite Mountains batholith. The Louis Lake granodiorite is approximately 2,630 + or - 20 m.y. old, and the Granite Mountains granite averages 2,600 m.y. old. The geometry of the greenstone belt is best expressed as a synform that has been modified by complex faulting and folding. Metamorphism is amphibolite grade surrounding a small island of greenschist facies rocks. The younger of the Archean supracrustal successions is the Miners Delight Formation. This unit yielded a Rb-Sr isochron of 2,800 m.y. A sample of galena from the Snowbird Mine within the Miners Delight Formation yielded a model age averaging 2,750 m.y. The Snowbird mineralization appears to be syngenetic and is hosted by metavolcanics of calc-alkaline affinity. Discussion follows.

  10. Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range, Owl Creek, and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, the Granite Mountains on the south, and the Wind River Range on the west. Important conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Mississippian through Tertiary. It has been suggested that various Upper Cretaceous marine shales are the principal hydrocarbon source rocks for many of these accumulations. Numerous source rock studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales throughout the Rocky Mountain region have led to the conclusion that these rocks have generated, or are capable of generating, oil and (or) gas. With recent advances and success in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation there has been an increase in exploration and completion of wells in these marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were traditionally thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters that control hydrocarbon production from shales include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a structural cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin.

  11. Local Extinction and Unintentional Rewilding of Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a Desert Island

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ∼500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ∼1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct. PMID:24646515

  12. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilder, Benjamin T.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Epps, Clinton W.; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Mead, Jim I.; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ~500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476–1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ~1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct.

  13. Local extinction and unintentional rewilding of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) on a desert island.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Benjamin T; Betancourt, Julio L; Epps, Clinton W; Crowhurst, Rachel S; Mead, Jim I; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2014-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) were not known to live on Tiburón Island, the largest island in the Gulf of California and Mexico, prior to the surprisingly successful introduction of 20 individuals as a conservation measure in 1975. Today, a stable island population of ∼500 sheep supports limited big game hunting and restocking of depleted areas on the Mexican mainland. We discovered fossil dung morphologically similar to that of bighorn sheep in a dung mat deposit from Mojet Cave, in the mountains of Tiburón Island. To determine the origin of this cave deposit we compared pellet shape to fecal pellets of other large mammals, and extracted DNA to sequence mitochondrial DNA fragments at the 12S ribosomal RNA and control regions. The fossil dung was 14C-dated to 1476-1632 calendar years before present and was confirmed as bighorn sheep by morphological and ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. 12S sequences closely or exactly matched known bighorn sheep sequences; control region sequences exactly matched a haplotype described in desert bighorn sheep populations in southwest Arizona and southern California and showed subtle differentiation from the extant Tiburón population. Native desert bighorn sheep previously colonized this land-bridge island, most likely during the Pleistocene, when lower sea levels connected Tiburón to the mainland. They were extirpated sometime in the last ∼1500 years, probably due to inherent dynamics of isolated populations, prolonged drought, and (or) human overkill. The reintroduced population is vulnerable to similar extinction risks. The discovery presented here refutes conventional wisdom that bighorn sheep are not native to Tiburón Island, and establishes its recent introduction as an example of unintentional rewilding, defined here as the introduction of a species without knowledge that it was once native and has since gone locally extinct. PMID:24646515

  14. Determination of critical habitat for the endangered Nelson's bighorn sheep in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, J.C.; Douglas, C.L.; Hallum, C.R.; Krausman, P.R.; Ramey, R.R.

    2004-01-01

    The United States Fish and Wildlife Service's (USFWS) designation of critical habitat for the endangered Nelson's bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) in the Peninsular Ranges of southern California has been controversial because of an absence of a quantitative, repeatable scientific approach to the designation of critical habitat. We used 12,411 locations of Nelson's bighorn sheep collected from 1984-1998 to evaluate habitat use within 398 km2 of the USFWS-designated critical habitat in the northern Santa Rosa Mountains, Riverside County, California. We developed a multiple logistic regression model to evaluate and predict the probability of bighorn use versus non-use of native landscapes. Habitat predictor variables included elevation, slope, ruggedness, slope aspect, proximity to water, and distance from minimum expanses of escape habitat. We used Earth Resources Data Analysis System Geographic Information System (ERDAS-GIS) software to view, retrieve, and format predictor values for input to the Statistical Analysis Systems (SAS) software. To adequately account for habitat landscape diversity, we carried out an unsupervised classification at the outset of data inquiry using a maximum-likelihood clustering scheme implemented in ERDAS. We used the strata resulting from the unsupervised classification in a stratified random sampling scheme to minimize data loads required for model development. Based on 5 predictor variables, the habitat model correctly classified >96% of observed bighorn sheep locations. Proximity to perennial water was the best predictor variable. Ninety-seven percent of the observations were within 3 km of perennial water. Exercising the model over the northern Santa Rosa Mountain study area provided probabilities of bighorn use at a 30 x 30-m2 pixel level. Within the 398 km 2 of USFWS-designated critical habitat, only 34% had a graded probability of bighorn use to non-use ranging from ???1:1 to 6,044:1. The remaining 66% of the study area

  15. Geology and description of thorium and rare-earth deposits in the southern Bear Lodge Mountains, northeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staatz, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Bear Lodge Mountains are a small northerly trending range approximately 16 km northwest of the Black Hills in the northeast corner of Wyoming. Thorium and rare-earth deposits occur over an area of 16 km 2 in the southern part of these mountains. These deposits occur in the core of the Bear Lodge dome in a large multiple intrusive body made up principally of trachyte and phonolite. Two types of deposits are recognized: disseminated deposits and veins. The disseminated deposits are made up of altered igneous rocks cut by numerous crisscrossing veinlets. The disseminated deposits contain thorium and rare-earth minerals in a matrix consisting principally of potassium feldspar, quartz, and iron and manganese oxides. Total rare-earth content of these deposits is about 27 times that of the thorium content. The general size and shape of the disseminated deposits were outlined by making a radiometric map using a scintillation counter of the entire Bear Lodge core, an area of approximately 30 km 2 . The most favorable part of this area, which was outlined by the 40 countJs (count-per-second) isograd on the radiometric map, was sampled in detail. A total of 341 samples were taken over an area of 10.6 km 2 and analyzed for as many as 60 elements. Rare earths and thorium are the principal commodities of interest in these deposits. Total rare-earth content of these samples ranged from 47 to 27,145 ppm (parts per million), and the thorium content from 9.3 to 990 ppm. The amount of total rare earths of individual samples shows little correlation with that of thorium. Contour maps were constructed using the analytical data for total rare earths, thorium, uranium, and potassium. The total rare-earth and thorium maps can be used to define the size of the deposits based on what cut-off grade may be needed during mining. The size is large as the 2,000 ppm total rare-earth isograd encloses several areas that total 3.22 km 2 in size, and the 200 ppm thorium isograd encloses several

  16. Use of dye tracing in water-resources investigations in Wyoming, 1967-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, J.F.; Rankl, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    During 1967-94, the U.S. Geological Survey made numerous applications of dye tracing for water-resources investigations in Wyoming. Many of the dye tests were done in cooperation with other agencies. Results of all applications, including some previously unpublished, are described. A chronology of past applications in Wyoming and a discussion of potential future applications are included. Time-of-travel and dispersion measurements were made in a 113-mile reach of the Wind/Bighorn River below Boysen Dam; a 117-mile reach of the Green River upstream from Fontenelle Reservoir and a 70-mile reach downstream; parts of four tributaries to the Green (East Fork River, 39 miles; Big Sandy River, 112 miles; Horse Creek, 14 miles; and Blacks Fork, 14 miles); a 75-mile reach of the Little Snake River along the Wyoming-Colorado State line; and a 95-mile reach of the North Platte River downstream from Casper. Reaeration measurements were made during one of the time-of-travel measurements in the North Platte River. Sixty-eight dye-dilution measurements of stream discharge were made at 22 different sites. These included 17 measurements for verifying the stage-discharge relations for streamflow-gaging stations on North and South Brush Creeks near Saratoga, and total of 29 discharge measurements at 12 new stations at remote sites on steep, rough mountain streams crossing limestone outcrops in northeastern Wyoming. The largest discharge measured by dye tracing was 2,300 cubic feet per second. In karst terrane, four losing streams-North Fork Powder River, North Fork Crazy Woman Creek, Little Tongue River, and Smith Creek-were dye-tested. In the Middle Popo Agie River, a sinking stream in Sinks Canyon State Park, a dye test verified the connection of the sink (Sinks of Lander Cave) to the rise, where flow in the stream resumes.

  17. Detecting short-term responses to weekend recreation activity: desert bighorn sheep avoidance of hiking trails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longshore, Kathleen; Lowrey, Chris; Thompson, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    To study potential effects of recreation activity on habitat use of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), we placed Global Positioning System collars on 10 female bighorn sheep within the Wonderland of Rocks–Queen Mountain region of Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), California, USA, from 2002 to 2004. Recreation use was highest from March to April and during weekends throughout the year. Daily use of recreation trails was highest during midday. By comparing habitat use (slope, ruggedness, distance to water, and distance to recreation trails) of female bighorn sheep on weekdays versus weekends, we were able to detect short-term shifts in behavior in response to recreation. In a logistic regression of bighorn sheep locations versus random locations for March and April, female locations at midday (1200 hours) were significantly more distant from recreation trails on weekends compared with weekdays. Our results indicate that within this region of JOTR, moderate to high levels of human recreation activity may temporarily exclude bighorn females from their preferred habitat. However, the relative proximity of females to recreation trails during the weekdays before and after such habitat shifts indicates that these anthropogenic impacts were short-lived. Our results have implications for management of wildlife on public lands where the co-existence of wildlife and recreational use is a major goal.

  18. Behavioural and physiological response of trout to winter habitat in tailwaters in Wyoming, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annear, Thomas C.; Hubert, Wayne; Simpkins, Darin; Hebdon, Lance

    2002-03-01

    Fisheries managers have often suggested that survival of trout during the winter is a major factor affecting population densities in many stream ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains. In Wyoming, trout population reductions from fall to spring in excess of 90% have been documented in some reservoir tailwaters. Though biologists have surmised that these reductions were the result of either mortality or emigration from some river sections, the specific mechanisms have not been defined and the factors leading to the trout loss are unknown. This is a review of four studies that were conducted or funded between 1991 and 1998 by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department to understand the extent of overwinter losses, identify some of the mechanisms leading to those conditions and develop management strategies to help avoid those impacts. Winter studies were conducted on tailwater fisheries in the Green, North Platte, Bighorn and Shoshone rivers to document trout population dynamics, assess physical habitat availability, evaluate trout movement and habitat selection, and understand the relationships between food availability and bioenergetic relationships. Results indicate that winter trout losses are extreme in some years, that trout movement and habitat selection are affected by supercooled flows, and that mortality is probably not directly due to starvation. The combination of physiological impairment with frequently altered habitat availability probably leads to indirect mortality from predators and other factors.

  19. Behavioural and physiological response of trout to winter habitat in tailwaters in Wyoming, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Annear, T.C.; Hubert, W.; Simpkins, D.; Hebdon, L.

    2002-01-01

    Fisheries managers have often suggested that survival of trout during the winter is a major factor affecting population densities in many stream ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains. In Wyoming, trout population reductions from fall to spring in excess of 90% have been documented in some reservoir tailwaters. Though biologists have surmised that these reductions were the result of either mortality or emigration from some river sections, the specific mechanisms have not been defined and the factors leading to the trout loss are unknown. This is a review of four studies that were conducted or funded between 1991 and 1998 by the Wyoming Game and Fish Department to understand the extent of overwinter losses, identify some of the mechanisms leading to those conditions and develop management strategies to help avoid those impacts. Winter studies were conducted on tailwater fisheries in the Green, North Platte, Bighorn and Shoshone rivers to document trout population dynamics, assess physical habitat availability, evaluate trout movement and habitat selection, and understand the relationships between food availability and bioenergetic relationships. Results indicate that winter trout losses are extreme in some years, that trout movement and habitat selection are affected by supercooled flows, and that mortality is probably not directly due to starvation. The combination of physiological impairment with frequently altered habitat availability probably leads to indirect mortality from predators and other factors. Copyright ?? 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Oblique convergence during northeast-southwest Laramide compression along the east-west Owl Creek and Casper Mountain arches, central Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Molzer, P.C.; Erslev, E.A.

    1995-09-01

    Understanding the diversity of structural trends in the Laramide foreland of the conterminous Unite States is important to understanding the location, geometry, and fracturing of hydrocarbon reservoirs. East-west basement-cored arches in central Wyoming are oblique to the average northwesterly trend of foreland faults and folds. Tectonic models predict that these arches formed by one of the following mechanisms: north-south-directed thrust faulting; sinistral strike-slip thrust faulting. In the eastern Owl Creek Mountains, average slip directions give by slickenline directions trend from N37{degrees}E to N57{degrees}E. Geometric analysis of conjugate faults and stress inversion of minor fault data indicate nearly horizontal compression trending between N48{degrees}E and N65{degrees}E. In the east-west Casper Mountain structure, more limited minor fault data are consistent with the northeast-southwest compression seen in the eastern Owl Creek arch and indicate an additional stage of extension by normal faulting. The northeast-southwest compression documented by minor fault data indicate nearly horizontal compression trending between N48{degrees}E and N65{degrees}E. In the east-west Casper Mountain structure, more limited minor fault data are consistent with the northeast-southwest compression seen in the eastern Owl Creek arch and indicate an additional stage of extension by normal faulting. The northwest-southwest compression documented by minor faults suggests oblique thrusting with a component of sinistral strike-slip on the underlying east-west-striking Owl Creek and Casper Mountain thrusts. In this area of the Laramide foreland, east-west arches probably formed during a single stage of oblique slip on thrust ramps connecting northwest-trending arch culminations. This conclusion indicates that trap geometries and reservoir characteristics of foreland hydrocarbon accumulations are dependent on their obliquity to the regional stress field.

  1. Paleoecology of Early eocene strata near Buffalo, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Durkin, T.V.; Rich, F.J.

    1986-08-01

    Palynological investigation has helped illustrate the paleoecology of a vertical section of strata from the Wasatch Formation between the Healy and Walters coal burns near Buffalo, Wyoming. Numerous silicified logs and stumps of cypress and sequoia have been preserved at the site and drew initial attention to it. Flood-basin deposits enclose the trees and include sandstones, siltstones, shale, and coal beds that accumulated as channel, levee, crevasse-splay, and swamp/marsh sediments. Detrital sediments were probably derived from the Bighorn Mountains and accumulated as they were carried into the Powder River basin fluvial system. One hundred five polynomorph taxa have been distinguished, as well as 10 types of fungal spores. Platycarya, Tilia, Sparganium, and Platanus pollen indicate an early Eocene age for the strata. Other pollen, as well as the genera of trees and megafossil remains from a clinker bed several miles from the study area, reinforce the interpretation of a warm-temperature or subtropical climate at the time of deposition. The megafossil assemblage includes pinnae of the aquatic fern Marsilea, never before described from the fossil record. Variations in the species composition of the polynomorph assemblages show that several plant communities existed in succession at the site. These varied from pond or marsh types to mature forests.

  2. Preliminary digital model of ground-water flow in the Madison Group, Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota, North Dakota, and Nebraska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Konikow, L.F.

    1976-01-01

    A digital simulation model was used to analyze regional ground-water flow in the Madison Group aquifer in the Powder River Basin in Montana and Wyoming and adjacent areas. Most recharge to the aquifer originates in or near the outcrop areas of the Madison in the Bighorn Mountains and Black Hills, and most discharge occurs through springs and wells. Flow through the aquifer in the modeled areas was approximately 200 cubic feet per second. The aquifer can probably sustain increased ground-water withdrawals of up to several tens of cubic feet per second, but these withdrawals probably would significantly lower the potentiometric surface in the Madison aquifer in a large part of the basin. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Hummocky cross-stratification vs. swaly cross-stratification sequences in south-central Wyoming, Mesa Verde sandstone and Haystack Mountains formation outcrops

    SciTech Connect

    Tillman, R.W.

    1989-03-01

    Progradational shoreline sandstones, showing evidence of combined flow (waves and currents), and distributary-channel sandstones were deposited in Cretaceous (Campanian) time as part of a wave-dominated delta of the upper part of the Haystack Mountains Formation in the Rawlins, Wyoming, area. Depositional processes, water depths, and flow directions were interpreted utilizing physical structures and trace-fossil assemblages in two progradational inner-shelf to upper shoreface sequences. The uppermost formal member of the Haystack Mountains, the Hatfield Sandstone Member, where it crops out northeast of Rawlins, is a shoreline deposit. A typical suite of well-developed shoreface trace fossils is recognized, the upper units including Ophiomorpha, Asterosoma, Rosselia, and Teichichnus. Hummocky Cross-stratification (HCS) and swaley cross-stratification (SCS) are abundant in two of the upper members of the Haystack Mountains Formation. HCS and SCS, where they occur in the same sequence, differ in form (synform, antiform); grain size (<125 /mu/, />=/ 125 /mu/); bed thickness (0.1-1 m, 0.5-4 m); amalgamation (uncommon to common, very common); stratigraphic position (below SCS, above HCS and below foreshore); and environments of deposition (inner shelf and lower shoreface, middle and upper shoreface). In SCS, antiforms are essentially absent (<5%) and horizontal laminae are rare (<10%), In HCS, antiforms usually occur in amounts greater than 20% by volume. Within a single bed of SCS, synforms usually occur almost to the exclusion of antiforms. The thickness of individual lamina sets is highly variable and is strongly dependent on the lateral dimensions (up to 3 m) of individual HCS or SCS.

  4. Wind-Snow Interactions and Treeline Advance in the Medicine Bow Mountains, Wyoming: A Coupled Examination Using Dendroecology and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, G.; Crawford, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Research suggests that broad-scale increases in temperature facilitated an abrupt initiation of upper treeline advance beginning in the 1950s at climatic treelines throughout a large portion of the southern and central Rocky Mountains. Despite this regional trend, patterns of finer scale variability often imply the likely influence of both wind-snow interactions and temperature on driving regeneration dynamics in these climatically-sensitive ecotones. This is particularly true for mountain ranges subject to consistently strong winds, such as the Medicine Bow Mountains of southeast Wyoming. A rich history of treeline work exists for this area, yet questions remain regarding how influential wind and snowpack variability are in governing climate-vegetation interactions within upper treeline ecotones and whether this varies according to the level of wind exposure. Here we present a coupled examination using dendroecology and remote sensing to test the hypothesis that sufficient snow cover is required in order for the ecological manifestation of increasing temperatures to appear at upper treeline; namely treeline advance. We used dendroecological methods to reconstruct the history of colonization on the two highest peaks in the range (Medicine Bow Peak Massif and Kannaday Peak). We sampled a total of six sites by placing nested-belt transects on two south-facing and one north-facing site for each peak. To gauge the influence of wind-snow interactions at each site, we analyzed remotely-sensed images. We selected three sets of LANDSAT images for each mountain peak based on years with maximum, minimum, and mean snowfall conditions to capture the entire range of variability. Results demonstrate that snow cover can be a critical modifier of treeline advance, especially on wind-exposed slopes and on mountain peaks with a relatively dry hydroclimatology, where a protective snow layer is only evident during high snow years. Overall, this research suggests that the role of wind

  5. Discharge forecasts in mountain basins based on satellite snow cover mapping. [Dinwoody Creek Basin, Wyoming and the Dischma Basin, Switzerland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinec, J.; Rango, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A snow runoff model developed for European mountain basins was used with LANDSAT imagery and air temperature data to simulate runoff in the Rocky Mountains under conditions of large elevation range and moderate cloud cover (cloud cover of 40% or less during LANDSAT passes 70% of the time during a snowmelt season). Favorable results were obtained for basins with area not exceeding serval hundred square kilometers and with a significant component of subsurface runoff.

  6. An assessment of low flows in streams in northeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armentrout, G.W.; Wilson, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    Low flows were assessed and summarized in the following basins in northeastern Wyoming: Little Bighorn, Tongue, Powder, Little Missouri, Belle Fourche, Cheyenne, and Niobrara River, and about 200 river miles of the North Platte River and its tributaries. Only existing data from streamflow stations and miscellaneous observation sites during the period, 1930-80, were used. Data for a few stations in Montana and South Dakota were used in the analysis. Data were available for 56 perennial streams, 38 intermittent streams, and 34 ephemeral streams. The distribution of minimum observed flows of record at all stations and sites and the 7-day, 10-year low flows at mountain stations and main-stem plains stations are shown on a map. Seven day low flows were determined by fitting the log Pearsons Type III distribution to the data; results are tabulated only for the stations with at least 10 years of record that included at least one major drought. Most streams that originate in the foothills and plains have no flow during part of every year, and are typical of much of the study area. For stations on these streams , the frequency of the annual maximum number of consecutive days of no flow was determined, as an indicator of the likelihood of extended periods of no flow or drought. For estimates at ungaged sites on streams in the Bighorn Mountains only, a simple regression of 7-day, 10-year low flow on drainage area has a standard error of 64%, based on 19 stations with drainage areas of 2 to 200 sq mi. The 7-day, 10-year low flow in main-stem streams can be interpolated from graphs of 7-day, 10-year low flow versus distance along the main channel. Additional studies of low flow are needed. The data base, particularly synoptic baseflow information, needs considerable expansion. Also, the use of storage-analysis procedures should be considered as a means of assessing the availability of water in streams that otherwise are fully appropriated or that are ephemeral. (Author 's

  7. Late Paleocene high Laramide ranges in northeast Wyoming: Oxygen isotope study of ancient river water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Majie; Dettman, David L.

    2009-08-01

    The distribution and initial timing of the establishment of high surface elevations in the Rocky Mountains during the Early Cenozoic remain controversial despite the importance of these data in testing tectonic models for this region. We track the timing and distribution of high elevation in the Rocky Mountains during the Late Cretaceous-Early Eocene by examining annual and seasonal δ18O values of the ancient river water, which are calculated from the δ18O values of well-preserved freshwater bivalve shells. In the Powder River basin of the eastern Laramide province, the δ18O values of the ancient river water vary between - 23.0‰ and - 8.0‰ SMOW in both seasonal and annual records in the Late Paleocene-Early Eocene. The large variation suggests that the ancient rivers were fed yearly or seasonally by snowmelt from highlands of 4.5 ± 1.3 km. This can be explained by the existence of the Bighorn Mountains and Black Hills with a drainage pattern similar to the present in northeast Wyoming. The δ18O values of ancient river water along the front of the Sevier thrust belt generally follow a trend from lower values in north, - 14.2 ± 1.4‰ in the Early Paleocene Crazy Mountains basin, to higher values in south, - 11.1 ± 0.8‰ in the Late Paleocene Bighorn basin, and - 7.1 ± 1.6‰ in the Early Eocene Washakie basin. The variations within each basin are relatively small. These rivers most likely rise in the Sevier thrust belt, and may reflect highland elevation of 1-2 km. The δ18O values in the Alberta foreland and Williston basin are very low (- 20.5‰) in the Late Cretaceous, indicating the rivers were fed by snowmelt from the Canadian Rocky Mountains of 4.3 ± 1.0 km high. The attainment of high elevation in the eastern Laramide province prior to the western province could be explained by southwestward progression of back-thrusts soled into an earlier east-directed master detachment, which may be formed by the westward rollback of subducted shallow slab.

  8. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and southern Wyoming - A review and new analysis of past study results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.

    2003-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain region of Colorado and southern Wyoming receives as much as 7kgha-1yr-1 of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, an amount that may have caused changes in aquatic and terrestrial life in otherwise pristine ecosystems. Results from published studies indicate a long-term increase in the rate of atmospheric N deposition during the 20th century, but data from the National Atmospheric Deposition Program and Clean Air Status and Trends Network show no region-wide increase during the past 2 decades. Nitrogen loads in atmospheric wet deposition have increased since the mid-1980s, however, at three high elevation (>3000m) sites east of the Continental Divide in the Front Range. Much of this increase is the result of increased ammonium (NH4+) concentrations in wet deposition. This suggests an increase in contributions from agricultural areas or from vehicles east of the Rocky Mountains and is consistent with the results of previous studies that have suggested a significant eastern source for atmospheric N deposition to the Front Range. The four sites with the highest NH4+ concentrations in wet deposition were among the six easternmost NADP sites, which is also consistent with a source to the east of the Rockies. This analysis found an increase in N loads in wet deposition at Niwot Ridge of only 0.013kgha-1yr-1, more than an order of magnitude less than previously reported for this site. This lower rate of increase results from application of the non-parametric Seasonal Kendall trend test to mean monthly data, which failed a test for normality, in contrast to linear regression, which was applied to mean annual data in a previous study. Current upward trends in population growth and energy use in Colorado and throughout the west suggest a need for continued monitoring of atmospheric deposition of N, and may reveal more widespread trends in N deposition in the future.

  9. Influence of tectonic terranes adjacent to Precambrian Wyoming province of petroleum source and reservoir rock stratigraphy in northern Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Tonnsen, J.J.

    1984-07-01

    The perimeter of the Archean Precambrian Wyoming province can be generally defined. A Proterozoic suture belt separates the province from the Archean Superior province to the east. The western margin of the Precambrian rocks lies under the western Overthrust belt, but the Precambrian province extends at least as far west as southwest Montana and southeast Idaho. The province is bounded on the north and south by more regionally extensive Proterozoic mobile belts. In the northern belt, Archean rocks have been remobilized by Proterozoic tectonic events, but the southern belt does not appear to contain rocks as old as Archean. The tectonic response of these Precambrian terranes to cratonic and continental margin vertical and horizontal forces has exerted a profound influence on Phanerozoic sedimentation and stratigraphic facies distributions. Petroleum source rock and reservoir rock stratigraphy of the Northern Rocky Mountain region has been correlated with this structural history. In particular, the Devonian, Permian, and Jurassic sedimentation patterns can be shown to have been influenced by articulation among the different terranes comprising the ancient substructure. Depositional patterns in the Chester-Morrow carbonate and clastic sequence in the Central Montana trough are also related to this substructure. Further, a correlation between these tectonic terranes and the localization of regional hydrocarbon accumulations has been observed and has been useful in basin analyses for exploration planning.

  10. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  11. Demography, not inheritance, drives phenotypic change in hunted bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Traill, Lochran W.; Schindler, Susanne; Coulson, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Selective harvest, such as trophy hunting, can shift the distribution of a quantitative character such as body size. If the targeted character is heritable, then there will be an evolutionary response to selection, and where the trait is not, then any response will be plastic or demographic. Identifying the relative contributions of these different mechanisms is a major challenge in wildlife conservation. New mathematical approaches can provide insight not previously available. Here we develop a size- and age-based two-sex integral projection model based on individual-based data from a long-term study of hunted bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) at Ram Mountain, Canada. We simulate the effect of trophy hunting on body size and find that the inheritance of body mass is weak and that any perceived decline in body mass of the bighorn population is largely attributable to demographic change and environmental factors. To our knowledge, this work provides the first use of two-sex integral projection models to investigate the potential eco-evolutionary consequences of selective harvest. PMID:25114219

  12. Heat flow studies in Wyoming: 1979 to 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Decker, E.R.; Buelow, K.L.; Ruscetta, C.A.

    1982-05-01

    Heat flow values and updated maps of flux in Wyoming, northern Colorado, and southern Montana are presented. It is concluded that most of the heat flow values in the Wyoming Basin-Southern Rocky Mountains region in Southern Wyoming are low or normal, excluding the Saratoga Valley; that the regional flux in the Owl Creek Mountains area is above normal; and that the Meadow Creek Basin area is in a zone of high flux. (MJF)

  13. Cross folding in southern Bighorn basin

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbels, T.L.

    1986-08-01

    Analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery coupled with surface structural investigations of well-exposed folds in the southern Bighorn basin have revealed two northwest-trending folds that have been refolded. The eastern boundary of the Owl Creek Mountains is characterized by a well-defined alignment of folds that extend north-northwest from the Owl Creek thrust front. Bridger monocline, Wildhorse Butte anticline, and Red Hole anticline lie along this trend. Initial Laramide folding, probably during latest Cretaceous time, resulted in a single, continuous, north-northwest-trending anticline with a southwestward vergence. This anticline was progressively unfolded from south to north as the Owl Creek Range was thrust southward over the Wind River basin in earliest Eocene time; scissors-like vertical motion along this flexure rotated the axial surface of the early formed Bridger anticline, resulting in a monocline with a reversed vergence (northeastward). Formation of the Thermopolis/East Warm Springs anticline parallel to the north flank of the range accompanied thrusting and effectively refolded the northern end of the Wildhorse Butte anticline along an east-west axis. Faulting of the oversteepened south limb of the Red Hole cross fold was contemporaneous with folding. Cross-cutting fold axes in this area and the Mud Creek area to the west are best explained by a counterclockwise change in stress direction during the latest phase of the Laramide orogeny. Vertical movement along the eastern side of the Owl Creek Range results from differential motion in the hanging wall of the crystalline thrust sheet.

  14. Haemophilus somnus (Histophilus somni) in bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Respiratory disease and poor lamb recruitment have been identified as limiting factors for bighorn-sheep populations. Haemophilus somnus (recently reclassified as Histophilus somni) is associated with respiratory disease in American bison, domestic sheep, and cattle. It is also harbored in their reproductive tracts and has been associated with reproductive failure in domestic sheep and cattle. Therefore, reproductive tract and lung samples from bighorn sheep were evaluated for the presence of this organism. Organisms identified as H. somnus were isolated from 6 of 62 vaginal but none of 12 preputial swab samples. Antigen specific to H. somnus was detected by immunohistochemical study in 4 of 12 formalin-fixed lung tissue samples of bighorn sheep that died with evidence of pneumonia. Notably, H. somnus was found in alveolar debris in areas of inflammation. The 6 vaginal isolates and 2 H. somnus isolates previously cultured from pneumonic lungs of bighorn sheep were compared with 3 representative isolates from domestic sheep and 2 from cattle. The profiles of major outer membrane proteins and antigens for all of the isolates were predominantly similar, although differences that may be associated with the host–parasite relationship and virulence were detected. The DNA restriction fragment length profiles of the bighorn-sheep isolates had similarities not shared with the other isolates, suggesting distinct phylogenetic lines. All of the isolates had similar antimicrobial profiles, but the isolates from the bighorn sheep produced less pigment than those from the domestic livestock, and growth of the former was not enhanced by CO2. Wildlife biologists and diagnosticians should be aware of the potential of these organisms to cause disease in bighorn sheep and of growth characteristics that may hinder laboratory detection. PMID:16548330

  15. Granitoid formation is ineffective in isotopically homogenizing continental crust: Evidence from archean rocks of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, C.D. ); Hulsebosch, T.P. ); Chamberlain, K.R.; Frost, B.R. )

    1992-01-01

    The Archean core of the Laramide Wind River uplift records evidence of at least three major granitoid-forming episodes. The oldest, the Dry Creek gneiss (DCG), was emplaced by 2.8 Ga and occupies the northeastern part of the range. Mafic, pelitic and ultramafic inclusions occur in the DCG. Elsewhere in the Wind River Mountains there is evidence for crustal components as old as 3.8 Ga. The Bridger batholith (BB), intruded at 2.67 Ga, is found in the west-central Wind River Mountains. The Wind River batholith (WRB) refers to the youngest Late Archean granodiorites and granites which are found throughout the range and includes granitoids previously name the Louis Lake, Bears Ears, Popo Agie, and Middle Mountain intrusions. Although granitoids of the Wind River batholith have been dated at 2.63 and 2.55 Ga, they are considered together here because there is a complete gradation in rock type and because definite intrusive contacts are scarce. The DCG, BB, and WRB each span the metaluminous/peraluminous boundary and are indistinguishable on Harker diagrams. Each has variable trace element and isotopic characteristics which do not correlate with silica content. Although the isotopic characteristics of these granitoids may be explained by mixing of variable amounts of preexisting continental crust and contemporary depleted mantle, this hypothesis is difficult to reconcile with the evolved nature of even those samples with the most mantle-like isotopic signatures. The authors suggest that each of these granitoid batholiths was formed primarily by remelting of pre-existing heterogeneous continental crust, and that the granite-forming process was not effective in obliterating these trace element and isotopic heterogeneities. Isotopic homogeneity in granitoid batholiths may reflect the isotopic homogeneity of their sources rather than an effective magmatic mixing process.

  16. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems alongthe Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study from 2002 through 2003 through its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to determine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses at sites ranging from minimally to highly developed; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting aquatic communities at these sites; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin.

  17. Ultramafic xenoliths from the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana, USA: Evidence for multiple metasomatic events in the lithospheric mantle beneath the Wyoming craton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Downes, H.; Macdonald, R.; Upton, B.G.J.; Cox, K.G.; Bodinier, J.-L.; Mason, P.R.D.; James, D.; Hill, P.G.; Hearn, B.C.

    2004-01-01

    Ultramafic xenoliths in Eocene minettes of the Bearpaw Mountains volcanic field (Montana, USA), derived from the lower lithosphere of the Wyoming craton, can be divided based on textural criteria into tectonite and cumulate groups. The tectonites consist of strongly depleted spinel lherzolites, harzbugites and dunites. Although their mineralogical compositions are generally similar to those of spinel peridotites in off-craton settings, some contain pyroxenes and spinels that have unusually low Al2O3 contents more akin to those found in cratonic spinel peridotites. Furthermore, the tectonite peridotites have whole-rock major element compositions that tend to be significantly more depleted than non-cratonic mantle spinel peridotites (high MgO, low CaO, Al2O3 and TiO2) and resemble those of cratonic mantle. These compositions could have been generated by up to 30% partial melting of an undepleted mantle source. Petrographic evidence suggests that the mantle beneath the Wyoming craton was re-enriched in three ways: (1) by silicate melts that formed mica websterite and clinopyroxenite veins; (2) by growth of phlogopite from K-rich hydrous fluids; (3) by interaction with aqueous fluids to form orthopyroxene porphyroblasts and orthopyroxenite veins. In contrast to their depleted major element compositions, the tectonite peridotites are mostly light rare earth element (LREE)-enriched and show enrichment in fluid-mobile elements such as Cs, Rb, U and Pb on mantle-normalized diagrams. Lack of enrichment in high field strength elements (HFSE; e.g. Nb, Ta, Zr and Hf) suggests that the tectonite peridotites have been metasomatized by a subduction-related fluid. Clinopyroxenes from the tectonite peridotites have distinct U-shaped REE patterns with strong LREE enrichment. They have 143Nd/144Nd values that range from 0??5121 (close to the host minette values) to 0??5107, similar to those of xenoliths from the nearby Highwood Mountains. Foliated mica websterites also have low 143Nd

  18. Ground-water resources of Sheridan County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowry, Marlin E.; Cummings, T. Ray

    1966-01-01

    Sheridan County is in the north-central part of Wyoming and is an area of about 2,500 square miles. The western part of the county is in the Bighorn Mountains, and the eastern part is in the Powder River structural basin. Principal streams are the Powder and Tongue Rivers, which are part of the Yellowstone River system. The climate is semiarid, and the mean annual precipitation at Sheridan is about 16 inches. Rocks of Precambrian age are exposed in the central part of the Bighorn Mountains, and successively younger rocks are exposed eastward. Rocks of Tertiary age, which are the most widespread, are exposed throughout a large part of the Powder River structural basin. Deposits of Quaternary age underlie the flood plains and terraces along the larger streams, particularly in the western part of the basin. Aquifers of pre-Tertiary age are exposed in the western part of the county, but they dip steeply and are deeply buried just a few miles east of their outcrop. Aquifers that might yield large supplies of water include the Bighorn Dolomite, Madison Limestone, Amsden Formation, and Tensleep Sandstone. The Flathead Sandstone, Sundance Formation, Morrison Formation, Cloverly Formation,. Newcastle Sandstone, Frontier Formation, Parkman Sandstone, Bearpaw Shale, .and Lance Formation may yield small or, under favorable conditions, moderate supplies of water. Few wells tap aquifers of pre-Tertiary age, and these are restricted to the outcrop area. The meager data available indicate that the water from the Lance Formation, Bearpaw Shale, Parkman Sandstone, Tensleep Sandstone and Amsden Formation, and Flathead Standstone is of suitable quality for domestic or stock purposes, and that water from the Tensleep Sandstone and Amsden Formation and the Flathead Sandstone is of good quality for irrigation. Samples could not be obtained from other aquifers of pre-Tertiary age; so the quality of water in these aquifers could not be determined. Adequate supplies of ground water for

  19. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  20. Controls on the deposition and preservation of the Cretaceous Mowry Shale and Frontier Formation and equivalents, Rocky Mountain region, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2013-01-01

    Regional variations in thickness and facies of clastic sediments are controlled by geographic location within a foreland basin. Preservation of facies is dependent on the original accommodation space available during deposition and ultimately by tectonic modification of the foreland in its postthrusting stages. The preservation of facies within the foreland basin and during the modification stage affects the kinds of hydrocarbon reservoirs that are present. This is the case for the Cretaceous Mowry Shale and Frontier Formation and equivalent strata in the Rocky Mountain region of Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming. Biostratigraphically constrained isopach maps of three intervals within these formations provide a control on eustatic variations in sea level, which allow depositional patterns across dip and along strike to be interpreted in terms of relationship to thrust progression and depositional topography. The most highly subsiding parts of the Rocky Mountain foreland basin, near the fold and thrust belt to the west, typically contain a low number of coarse-grained sandstone channels but limited sandstone reservoirs. However, where subsidence is greater than sediment supply, the foredeep contains stacked deltaic sandstones, coal, and preserved transgressive marine shales in mainly conformable successions. The main exploration play in this area is currently coalbed gas, but the enhanced coal thickness combined with a Mowry marine shale source rock indicates that a low-permeability, basin-centered play may exist somewhere along strike in a deep part of the basin. In the slower subsiding parts of the foreland basin, marginal marine and fluvial sandstones are amalgamated and compartmentalized by unconformities, providing conditions for the development of stratigraphic and combination traps, especially in areas of repeated reactivation. Areas of medium accommodation in the most distal parts of the foreland contain isolated marginal marine shoreface and deltaic sandstones

  1. Development of the archean crust in the medina mountain area, wind river range, wyoming (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koesterer, M.E.; Frost, C.D.; Frost, B.R.; Hulsebosch, T.P.; Bridgwater, D.; Worl, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for an extensive Archean crustal history in the Wind River Range is preserved in the Medina Mountain area in the west-central part of the range. The oldest rocks in the area are metasedimentary, mafic, and ultramafic blocks in a migmatite host. The supracrustal rocks of the Medina Mountain area (MMS) are folded into the migmatites, and include semi-pelitic and pelitic gneisses, and mafic rocks of probable volcanic origin. Mafic dikes intrude the older migmatites but not the MMS, suggesting that the MMS are distinctly younger than the supracrustal rocks in the migmatites. The migmatites and the MMS were engulfed by the late Archean granite of the Bridger, Louis Lake, and Bears Ears batholiths, which constitutes the dominant rock of the Wind River Range. Isotopic data available for the area include Nd crustal residence ages from the MMS which indicate that continental crust existed in the area at or before 3.4 Ga, but the age of the older supracrustal sequence is not yet known. The upper age of the MMS is limited by a 2.7 Ga RbSr age of the Bridger batholith, which was emplaced during the waning stages of the last regional metamorphism. The post-tectonic Louis Lake and Bears Ears batholiths have ages of 2.6 and 2.5 Ga, respectively (Stuckless et al., 1985). At least three metamorphic events are recorded in the area: (1) an early regional granulite event (M1) that affected only the older inclusions within the migmatites, (2) a second regional amphibolite event (M2) that locally reached granulite facies conditions, and (3) a restricted, contact granulite facies event (M3) caused by the intrusion of charnockitic melts associated with the late Archean plutons. Results from cation exchange geobarometers and geothermometers yield unreasonablu low pressures and temperatures, suggesting resetting during the long late Archean thermal evenn. ?? 1987.

  2. Results of Phase 2 postburn drilling, coring, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, R.L.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1991-02-01

    The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute`s Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed during the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. A detailed description of Phase 1 results was presented in a separate report (Lindblom et al. 1990). Phase 2, completed during the summer of 1990, was designed to complete the seven objectives; more specifically, to further define the areal extent and location of the cavities, to evaluate the outflow channels for both modules, and to further characterize the structural geology in the ELW module area.

  3. Results of Phase 2 postburn drilling, coring, and logging: Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Test, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, R.L.; Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.

    1991-02-01

    The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) site consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in Western Research Institute's Annual Project Plan for 1989 (Western Research Institute 1989). The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed during the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. A detailed description of Phase 1 results was presented in a separate report (Lindblom et al. 1990). Phase 2, completed during the summer of 1990, was designed to complete the seven objectives; more specifically, to further define the areal extent and location of the cavities, to evaluate the outflow channels for both modules, and to further characterize the structural geology in the ELW module area.

  4. Spectral stratigraphy: multispectral remote sensing as a stratigraphic tool, Wind River/Big Horn basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, H.R.; Paylor, E.D.

    1987-05-01

    Stratigraphic and structural analyses of the Wind River and Big Horn basins areas of central Wyoming are in progress. One result has been the development of a new approach to stratigraphic and structural analysis that uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral image data to remotely characterize the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata. New multispectral systems that have only been available since 1982 are used with topographic data to map upper paleozoic and Mesozoic strata exposed on the southern margin of the Bighorn Mountains. Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data together with topographic data are used to map lithologic contacts, measure dip and strike, and develop a stratigraphic column that is correlated with conventional surface and subsurface sections. Aircraft-acquired Airborne Imaging Spectrometer and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data add mineralogical information to the TM column, including the stratigraphic distribution of quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and gypsum. Results illustrate an approach that has general applicability in other geologic investigations that could benefit from remotely acquired information about areal variations in attitude, sequence, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the Earth's surface. Application of their methods elsewhere is limited primarily by availability of multispectral and topographic data and quality of bedrock exposures.

  5. Results of Phase 1 postburn drilling and coring, Rocky Mountain 1 Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblom, S.R.; Covell, J.R.; Oliver, R.L.

    1990-09-01

    The Rocky Mountain 1 (RM1) Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) test consisted of two different module configurations: the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) and elongated linked well (ELW) configurations. The postburn coring of the RM1 UCG site was designed in two phases to fulfill seven objectives outlined in the Western Research Institute's (WRI) annual project plan for 1988--1989. The seven objectives were to (1) delineate the areal extent of the cavities, (2) identify the extent of roof collapse, (3) obtain samples of all major cavity rock types, (4) characterize outflow channels and cavity stratigraphy, (5) characterize the area near CRIP points and ignition points, (6) further define the structural geology of the site, and (7) identify the vertical positioning of the horizontal process wells within the coal seam. Phase 1 of the coring was completed in the summer of 1989 and served to partially accomplish all seven objectives. In relation to the seven objectives, WRI determined that (1) the ELW cavity extends farther to the west and the CRIP cavity was located 5--10 feet farther to the south than anticipated; (2) roof collapse was contained within unit A in both modules; (3) samples of all major rock types were recovered; (4) insufficient data were obtained to characterize the outflow channels, but cavity stratigraphy was well defined; (5) bore holes near the CRIP points and ignition point did not exhibit characteristics significantly different from other bore holes in the cavities; (6) a fault zone was detected between VIW=1 and VIW-2 that stepped down to the east; and (7) PW-1 was only 7--12 feet below the top of the coal seam in the eastern part of the ELW module area; and CIW-1 was located 18--20 feet below the top of the coal seam in the CRIP module area. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Provenance of the Tullock member of the Fort Union formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: Evidence for early Paleocene Laramide uplift

    SciTech Connect

    Hansley, P.L.; Brown, J.L. )

    1993-01-01

    A petrologic and provenance study of the lower Paleocene Tullock Member of the Fort Union Formation in the Powder River Basin (PRB) indicates that Laramide uplifts to the west and south of the PRB were emergent and shedding detritus by early Paleocene time. This conclusion is based largely on the presence of abundant first-cycle carbonate clasts in the northwestern PRB and metamorphic and igneous clasts and labile heavy-mineral grains in the Tullock throughout the basin. The proximity and composition of the north end of the Bighorn uplift strongly suggest that is was the source for carbonate, igneous, and metamorphic rock fragments in northwestern Tullock outcrops. Lack of conglomeratic material in northwestern outcrops, however, indicates that the Bighorn uplift was not yet well developed and perhaps the Pryor Mountains uplift farther to the west was contributing some detritus. In the southern PRB, abundant labile heavy minerals and igneous rock fragments in the Tullock indicate that other uplifts to the west and south (i.e. Granite Mountains, Washakie, Owl Creek, and Laramie uplifts) had also started to rise by early Paleocene time. Paleocurrent directions show that Tullock streams flowed generally east-northeast across a gently sloping alluvial plain toward the retreating Cannonball sea, suggesting that the Black Hills were not yet emergent and, as a result, the basin had not fully developed. Our conclusions are supported by recent fission-track, palynological, and sedimentological studies that indicate that Laramide-style forland deformation in southwestern Montana began in late Cenomanian to Turonian time and migrated through central Wyoming to the Colorado Front Range by late Maastrichtian time. 37 refs., 8 figs., 3 tab.

  7. The effects of atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado and southern Wyoming -- a synthesis and critical assessment of published results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burns, Douglas A.

    2002-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain region of Colorado and southern Wyoming receives as much as 7 kilograms per hectare per year ((kg/ha)/yr) of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition, an amount that may have caused changes in aquatic and terrestrial life in otherwise pristine ecosystems. The Rocky Mountain National Park, in its role of protecting air-quality related values under provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, has provided support for this synthesis and critical assessment of published literature on the effects of atmospheric N deposition. Results from published studies indicate a long-term increase in the rate of atmospheric N deposition during the 20th century, but no region-wide increase during the past 2 decades, although the rate of atmospheric N deposition has increased at three sites east of the Continental Divide in the Front Range region since the mid-1980s. Much of the increase in atmospheric N deposition at all three sites has resulted from an increase in the ammonium concentrations of wet deposition; this suggests an increase in contributions from agricultural areas or from vehicle traffic east of the Rocky Mountains. Lakes at two study sites in the Front Range (Loch Vale and Green Lakes Valley) had NO3- concentrations of 30 to 40 micromoles per liter (?mol/L) during early spring snowmelt and remained at 5 to 10 ?mol/L during summer. Retention of N in atmospheric wet deposition in some sub-catchments of these lakes was less than 50 percent, which reflects an advanced stage of N saturation. Nitrate concentrations in surface waters west of the Continental Divide were lower -- often less than 10 ?mol/L during snowmelt and less than 2 ?mol/L during summer -- than surface waters east of the Divide, except in areas such as the Mt. Zirkel Wilderness that receive elevated amounts of atmospheric N deposition of 4 to 5 (kg/ha)/yr. Atmospheric N deposition in the Front Range east of the Divide may have altered the composition of alpine tundra-plant communities

  8. National uranium resource evaluation: Sheridan Quadrangle, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Damp, J N; Jennings, M D

    1982-04-01

    The Sheridan Quadrangle of north-central Wyoming was evaluated for uranium favorability according to specific criteria of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Procedures consisted of geologic and radiometric surveys; rock, water, and sediment sampling; studying well logs; and reviewing the literature. Five favorable environments were identified. These include portions of Eocene Wasatch and Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Powder River Basin and Lower Cretaceous Pryor sandstones of the Bighorn Basin. Unfavorable environments include all Precambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Permian, Triassic, and Middle Jurassic rocks; the Cretaceous Thermopolis, Mowry, Cody, Meeteetse, and Bearpaw Formations; the Upper Jurassic Sundance and Morrison, the Cretaceous Frontier, Meseverde, Lance, and the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Willwood Formations of the Bighorn Basin; the Wasatch Formation of the Powder River Basin, excluding two favorable areas and all Oligocene and Miocene rocks. Remaining rocks are unevaluated.

  9. Restoration of bighorn sheep metapopulations in and near 15 national parks: Conservation of a severely fragmented species; Volume I, Planning, problem definition, findings, and restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Francis J.; Gudorf, Michelle A.

    1999-01-01

    This report details the 7-year restoration of bighorn sheep to all currently suitable historic habitats in the national parks of the former Rocky Mountain Region (now the Intermountain and Midwest regions of the National Park Service). The purpose of the first phase of the restoration during 1991-93 was to conduct research and population surveys and to formulate the restoration plans. The purpose of the second phase of the initiative during 1994-97 was to conduct GIS-based habitat and biological assessments of prospective restoration sites, write restoration plans, and restore and monitor the released bighorn sheep.

  10. Mountain Goats (Oreamnos americanum) at the livestock/wildlife interface: A susceptible species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) were first introduced into the East Humboldt and Ruby Mountains of Elko County, Nevada in the 1960’s. These contiguous mountain ranges are also home to introduced Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and native mule deer and are surrounded by both public and private rang...

  11. Workforce: Wyoming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    From 2002 to 2012, the economy in Wyoming and the nation will continue generating jobs for workers at all levels of education and training, but there will be an increasing demand for employees with at least some postsecondary education, preferably a bachelor's degree. Nationwide, during a decade that will witness large numbers of baby boomers…

  12. Proterozoic evolution of the western margin of the Wyoming craton: Implications for the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the northern Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, D.A.; Mueller, P.A.; Mogk, D.W.; Wooden, J.L.; Vogl, J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Defining the extent and age of basement provinces west of the exposed western margin of the Archean Wyoming craton has been elusive because of thick sedimentary cover and voluminous Cretaceous-Tertiary magmatism. U-Pb zircon geochronological data from small exposures of pre-Belt supergroup basement along the western side of the Wyoming craton, in southwestern Montana, reveal crystallization ages ranging from ???2.4 to ???1.8 Ga. Rock-forming events in the area as young as ???1.6 Ga are also indicated by isotopic (Nd, Pb, Sr) signatures and xenocrystic zircon populations in Cretaceous-Eocene granitoids. Most of this lithosphere is primitive, gives ages ???1.7-1.86 Ga, and occurs in a zone that extends west to the Neoproterozoic rifted margin of Laurentia. These data suggest that the basement west of the exposed Archean Wyoming craton contains accreted juvenile Paleoproterozoic arc-like terranes, along with a possible mafic underplate of similar age. This area is largely under the Mesoproterozoic Belt basin and intruded by the Idaho batholith. We refer to this Paleoproterozoic crust herein as the Selway terrane. The Selway terrane has been more easily reactivated and much more fertile for magma production and mineralization than the thick lithosphere of the Wyoming craton, and is of prime importance for evaluating Neoproterozoic continental reconstructions. ?? 2006 NRC Canada.

  13. Holocene Vegetation and Climate History of the Northern Bighorn Basin, Southern Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyford, Mark E.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2002-09-01

    Records of Holocene vegetation and climate change at low elevations (<2000 m) are rare in the central Rocky Mountain region. We developed a record of Holocene vegetation and climate change from 55 14C-dated woodrat middens at two low-elevation sites (1275 to 1590 m), currently vegetated by Juniperus osteosperma woodlands, in the northern Bighorn Basin. Macrofossil and pollen analyses show that the early Holocene was cooler than today, with warming and drying in the middle Holocene. During the Holocene, boreal ( Juniperus communis, J. horizontalis) and montane species ( J. scopulorum) were replaced by a Great Basin species ( J. osteosperma). J. osteosperma colonized the east side of the Pryor Mountains 4700 14C yr B.P. Downward movement of lower treeline indicates wetter conditions between 4400 and 2700 14C yr B.P. Increased aridity after 2700 14C yr B.P. initiated expansion of J. osteosperma from the east to west side of the Pryor Mountains.

  14. Map Showing Principal Coal Beds and Bedrock Geology of the Ucross-Arvada Area, Central Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    The Ucross-Arvada area is part of the Powder River Basin, a large, north-trending structural depression between the Black Hills on the east and the Bighorn Mountains on the west. Almost all of the study area is within Sheridan and Johnson Counties, Wyoming. Most of the Ucross-Arvada area lies within the outcrop of the Wasatch Formation of Eocene age; the extreme northeast corner falls within the outcrop of the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation of Paleocene age. Within the Powder River Basin, both the Wasatch Formation and the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation contain significant coal resources. The map includes locations and elevations of coal beds at 1:50,000 scale for an area that includes ten 7½-minute quadrangles covering some 500 square miles. The Wasatch Formation coal beds shown (in descending order) are Monument Peak, Walters (also called Ulm 1), Healy (also called Ulm 2), Truman, Felix, and Arvada. The Fort Union Formation coal beds shown (in descending order) are Roland (of Baker, 1929) and Smith.

  15. Uranium assessment for the Precambrian pebble conglomerates in southeastern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Borgman, L.E.; Sever, C.; Quimby, W.F.; Andrew, M.E.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Houston, R.S.

    1981-03-01

    This volume is a geostatistical resource estimate of uranium and thorium in quartz-pebble conglomerates, and is a companion to Volume 1: The Geology and Uranium Potential to Precambrian Conglomerates in the Medicine Bow Mountains and Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming; and to Volume 2: Drill-Hole Data, Drill-Site Geology, and Geochemical Data from the Study of Precambrian Uraniferous Conglomerates of the Medicine Bow Mountains and the Sierra Madre of Southeastern Wyoming.

  16. Distinguishing major lithologic types in rocks of precambrian age in central Wyoming using multilevel sensing, with a chapter on possible economic significance of iron formation discovered by use of aircraft images in the Granite Mountains of Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Information obtained by remote sensing from three altitude levels: ERTS-1 (565 miles), U-2 (60,000 feet), and C-130 aircraft (15,000 feet) illustrates the possible application of multilevel sensing in mineral exploration. Distinction can be made between rocks of greenstone belts and rocks of granite-granite gneiss areas by using ERTS-1 imagery in portions of the Precambrian of central Wyoming. Study of low altitude color and color infrared photographs of the mafic terrain revealed the presence of metasedimentary rocks with distinct layers that were interpreted as amphibolite by photogeologic techniques. Some of the amphibolite layers were found to be iron formation when examined in the field. To our knowledge this occurrence of iron formation has not been previously reported in the literature.

  17. Techniques for capturing bighorn sheep lambs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Joshua B.; Walsh, Daniel P.; Goldstein, Elise J.; Parsons, Zachary D.; Karsch, Rebekah C.; Stiver, Julie R.; Cain, James W.; Raedeke, Kenneth J.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    Low lamb recruitment is a major challenge facing managers attempting to mitigate the decline of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and investigations into the underlying mechanisms are limited because of the inability to readily capture and monitor bighorn sheep lambs. We evaluated 4 capture techniques for bighorn sheep lambs: 1) hand-capture of lambs from radiocollared adult females fitted with vaginal implant transmitters (VITs), 2) hand-capture of lambs of intensively monitored radiocollared adult females, 3) helicopter net-gunning, and 4) hand-capture of lambs from helicopters. During 2010–2012, we successfully captured 90% of lambs from females that retained VITs to ≤1 day of parturition, although we noted differences in capture rates between an area of high road density in the Black Hills (92–100%) of South Dakota, USA, and less accessible areas of New Mexico (71%), USA. Retention of VITs was 78% with pre-partum expulsion the main cause of failure. We were less likely to capture lambs from females that expelled VITs ≥1 day of parturition (range = 80–83%) or females that were collared without VITs (range = 60–78%). We used helicopter net-gunning at several sites in 1999, 2001–2002, and 2011, and it proved a useful technique; however, at one site, attempts to capture lambs led to lamb predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). We attempted helicopter hand-captures at one site in 1999, and they also were successful in certain circumstances and avoided risk of physical trauma from net-gunning; however, application was limited. In areas of low accessibility or if personnel lack the ability to monitor females and/or VITs for extended periods, helicopter capture may provide a viable option for lamb capture.

  18. Managers' summary - ecological studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, F.J.; Schoenecker, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ecological Studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997 provides a synthesis of key findings of landscape-scale, interdisciplinary studies of the effects of wild horses and native ungulates on a rugged, mountain ecosystem. This is perhaps the most comprehensive study of a wild horse herd conducted. This was a complex study and one involving a truly interagency approach. Six agencies either provided input to research priority setting, funding, or both. The agencies included the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, and U.S. Forest Service. The major research direction and effort came from the U.S. Geological Survey and Natural Resources Ecology Lab, Colorado State University with Montana State University and the University of Kentucky also participating. Ungulate monitoring was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Bureau of Land Management, Billings Field Office and the Montana Fish and Wildlife Parks, with funding by Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Many other individuals and groups were involved and deserve credit. The report printing was made possible with funds from the Bureau of Land Management, Wild Horse and Burro Program, Washington Office. This report was prepared by the Information Management Project, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey.

  19. Whole-genome resequencing uncovers molecular signatures of natural and sexual selection in wild bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Marty; Luikart, Gordon; Bunch, Rowan; Dewey, Sarah; Edwards, William; McWilliam, Sean; Stephenson, John; Allendorf, Fred W; Hogg, John T; Kijas, James

    2015-11-01

    The identification of genes influencing fitness is central to our understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation and how it shapes phenotypic variation in wild populations. Here, we used whole-genome resequencing of wild Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to >50-fold coverage to identify 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genomic regions bearing signatures of directional selection (i.e. selective sweeps). A comparison of SNP diversity between the X chromosome and the autosomes indicated that bighorn males had a dramatically reduced long-term effective population size compared to females. This probably reflects a long history of intense sexual selection mediated by male-male competition for mates. Selective sweep scans based on heterozygosity and nucleotide diversity revealed evidence for a selective sweep shared across multiple populations at RXFP2, a gene that strongly affects horn size in domestic ungulates. The massive horns carried by bighorn rams appear to have evolved in part via strong positive selection at RXFP2. We identified evidence for selection within individual populations at genes affecting early body growth and cellular response to hypoxia; however, these must be interpreted more cautiously as genetic drift is strong within local populations and may have caused false positives. These results represent a rare example of strong genomic signatures of selection identified at genes with known function in wild populations of a nonmodel species. Our results also showcase the value of reference genome assemblies from agricultural or model species for studies of the genomic basis of adaptation in closely related wild taxa.

  20. Whole-genome resequencing uncovers molecular signatures of natural and sexual selection in wild bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Kardos, Marty; Luikart, Gordon; Bunch, Rowan; Dewey, Sarah; Edwards, William; McWilliam, Sean; Stephenson, John; Allendorf, Fred W; Hogg, John T; Kijas, James

    2015-11-01

    The identification of genes influencing fitness is central to our understanding of the genetic basis of adaptation and how it shapes phenotypic variation in wild populations. Here, we used whole-genome resequencing of wild Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to >50-fold coverage to identify 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genomic regions bearing signatures of directional selection (i.e. selective sweeps). A comparison of SNP diversity between the X chromosome and the autosomes indicated that bighorn males had a dramatically reduced long-term effective population size compared to females. This probably reflects a long history of intense sexual selection mediated by male-male competition for mates. Selective sweep scans based on heterozygosity and nucleotide diversity revealed evidence for a selective sweep shared across multiple populations at RXFP2, a gene that strongly affects horn size in domestic ungulates. The massive horns carried by bighorn rams appear to have evolved in part via strong positive selection at RXFP2. We identified evidence for selection within individual populations at genes affecting early body growth and cellular response to hypoxia; however, these must be interpreted more cautiously as genetic drift is strong within local populations and may have caused false positives. These results represent a rare example of strong genomic signatures of selection identified at genes with known function in wild populations of a nonmodel species. Our results also showcase the value of reference genome assemblies from agricultural or model species for studies of the genomic basis of adaptation in closely related wild taxa. PMID:26454263

  1. The impact of seasonality and elevation on dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations in a northeastern Wyoming watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, C.; Bettigole, C.; Raymond, P. A.; Glick, H.; Seegmiller, L.; Oliver, C.; Khadka, A.; Routh, D.

    2014-12-01

    Quantification of river and stream contributions to global carbon emission budgets using field-based measurements is key to understanding how freshwater streams act as conduits between terrestrial and atmospheric carbon pools. In order to better characterize drivers of this process, this study quantifies: a) emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from a semi-arid, high plains riverine system with montaine headwaters in order to establish baseline data for the watershed; b) the impact of stream order, seasonality and elevation on dissolved gas concentrations to better understand the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of dissolved carbon gases. To achieve the latter objective, we conducted field surveys in first and second order streams in the Clear Creek drainage of the Powder River Basin watershed. We took direct measurements of stream gases using headspace sampling at thirty sites along an elevation gradient ranging from 1,203-3,346 meters. We also intensely monitored five transects throughout the descending limb of spring runoff (June 8th-August 12th) to investigate how temperature and discharge volume impact greenhouse gas concentrations. Clear Creek, located in northeastern Wyoming, is approximately 118.4 km long with a drainage area of 2,968 km2. The creek flows east out of Bighorn National Forest where it turns northeast to converge with the Powder River about ten miles before the Montana border. The stream straddles the Middle Rockies and Northwestern Great Plains ecoregions and experiences an abrupt shift in soil type, riparian vegetation, underlying geology and stream geometry as the stream exits the mountains and enters the agricultural alluvial floodplain. These site specific biological and physical changes along the elevation gradient affect dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations.

  2. Coal-bed methane in Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming: Resources, reserves, and production

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, S.N. ); DeBruin, R.H. ); Tremain, C.M. ); Whitehead, N.H. III )

    1993-08-01

    Coal-bed methane reserves of 10 tcf, in-place resources up to 250 tcf, and dramatically increased production rates from Cretaceous and Tertiary formations affirm the importance of the Rocky Mountain gas province well into the 21st century. These resources have been calculated for the individual states and basins using a variety of criteria and methods and the resource numbers are not necessarily comparable. The Book Cliffs, Emery, Wastach Plateau, Kaiparowits Plateau, and Sego coal fields in Utah contain a coal-bed methane resource of 10.4 tcf. The Book Cliffs and Emery coal fields contain 8.3 tcf or 80% of this resource. The San Juan basin, New Mexico and Colorado, has 10 tcf (reserves), 40 tcf (resources) in the Fruitland Formation, and 28 tcf (resources) in the Menefee Formation. The Raton basin, Colorado and New Mexico, has 10.2 tcf of resources in the Raton and Vermejo Formations. The Piceance and Sand Wash basins in Colorado have estimated resources of more than 96 tcf. The Powder River, Green River, Hams Fork, Wind River, Hanna, Rock Creek, and Bighorn coal fields in Wyoming have resources of 54.4 tcf. The Powder River, Wind River, Green River, and Hams Fork coal fields contain 87% of this resource. In August, 1992, coal-bed methane production accounted for 49% of all gas produced from the San Juan basin (New Mexico) and 30% of all New Mexico production. For 1991, coal-bed methane production in Colorado from the San Juan and Piceance basins was 16% of all Colorado gas production.

  3. Prevalence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in desert bighorn sheep in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Justice-Allen, Anne E.; Luedtke, Clint J.; Overstreet, Matthew; Cain, James W.; Stephenson, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the potential for an epizootic of pneumonia to result from either natural immigration or translocation, we compared the seroprevalence to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in several populations of desert bighorn sheep in Arizona. We collected blood samples and nasal or oropharyngeal swabs from 124 desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) from 6 populations in Arizona in 2009 and 2010. M. ovipneumoniae organisms were detected by PCR in 22%, whereas antibodies to M. ovipneumoniae were detected in 47% of tested bighorn sheep. Mycoplasma antibodies were not found in 2 of 6 populations, indicating some bighorn sheep populations in Arizona are naïve to this bacterium. In contrast, others had seroprevalence rates up to 80%. We were able to compare seroprevalence rates and titers over time in 9 individuals (7 individuals included in the 124 bighorn sheep sampled in 2009 and 2010, and 2 individuals originally captured in 2006). Antibody titers persisted for 12 months in individuals from the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (n = 7) while antibody titers appeared to decline in the Kanab Creek population (n = 2). M. ovipneumoniae is present or has been present in several, but not all, populations of bighorn sheep in Arizona. The results demonstrate the importance of routine health testing for future translocation efforts to reduce disease risk for naive populations.

  4. Experiment to Evaluate the Feasibility of Utilizing Skylab-EREP Remote Sensing Data for Tectonic Analysis Through a Study of the Big Horn Mountain Region, Wyoming, South Dakota and Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator); Caldwell, J.; Lehman, D.; Palmer, S.; Pan, K. L.; Swenson, A.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. S190B imagery was the best single product from which fairly detailed structural and some lithologic mapping could be accomplished in the Big Horn basin, the Owl Creek Mountains, and the northern Big Horn Mountains. The Nye-Bowler lineament could not be extended east of its presently mapped location although a linear (fault or monocline) was noted that may be part of the lineament, but north of postulated extensions. Much more structure was discernible in the Big Horn basin than could be seen on LANDSAT-1 imagery; RB-57 color IR photography, in turn, revealed additional folds and faults. A number of linears, several of which could be identified as faults and one a monocline, cut obliquely the east-west trending Owl Creek uplift. The heavy forest cover of the Black Hills makes direct lithologic delineation impossible. However, drainage and linear overlays revealed differences in pattern between the areas of exposed Precambrian crystalline core and the flanking Paleozoic rocks. S192 data, even precision corrected segments, were not of much use.

  5. Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP): a continental perspective on early Paleogene hyperthermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyde, W. C.; Gingerich, P. D.; Wing, S. L.; Röhl, U.; Westerhold, T.; Bowen, G.; Johnson, K.; Baczynski, A. A.; Diefendorf, A.; McInerney, F.; Schnurrenberger, D.; Noren, A.; Brady, K.

    2013-11-01

    During the summer of 2011, the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP) recovered over 900 m of overlapping core from 3 different sites in late Paleocene to early Eocene fluvial deposits of northwestern Wyoming. BBCP cores are being used to develop high-resolution proxy records of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2) hyperthermal events. These events are short-term, large magnitude global warming events associated with extreme perturbations to the earth's carbon cycle. Although the PETM and ETM2 occurred ~55-52 million years ago, they are analogous in many ways to modern anthropogenic changes to the carbon cycle. By applying various sedimentological, geochemical, and palynological methods to the cores, we hope to better understand what caused these events, study the biogeochemical and ecological feedbacks that operated during them, and reveal precisely how they impacted continental environments. Core recovery was >98% in all holes and most drilling was carried out without fluid additives, showing that continuous coring of continental smectitic deposits like these can be achieved with minimal risk of contamination to molecular biomarkers. Cores were processed in the Bremen Core Repository where the science team convened for 17 days to carry out data collection and sampling protocols similar to IODP projects. Initial results show that the weathered horizon extends to as much as ~30 m below the surface and variations in magnetic susceptibility within the cores record an interplay between grain size and pedogenesis. Previous investigations of outcrops near the BBCP drill sites allow detailed evaluation of the effects of weathering on common proxy methods. Studies of lithofacies, organic geochemistry, stable isotope geochemistry, calibrated XRF core scanning, paleomagnetics, and palynology are underway and will represent the highest resolution and most integrated proxy records of the PETM from a continental setting yet known. An

  6. Wyoming Strategic Plan, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Wyoming's colleges offer much more than academic and occupational technical degrees and certificates. In 2000, 27,703 Wyoming citizens, age 25 years and older, did not have a high school diploma. For this 12.14% of Wyoming's population, the Adult Basic Education (ABE) program at each of the colleges is designed to equip these adults with the…

  7. Irregularly shaped otoliths from saugers prevent back-calculation of length at previous ages in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krueger, K.L.; Hubert, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    We collected otoliths from saugers Stizostedion canadense in Boysen Reservoir, Bighorn Reservoir, and the Bighorn River in Wyoming to evaluate age and growth. All otoliths in our samples (264 fish) were irregularly shaped, and the irregularities became more pronounced with increasing age of the fish. Age estimates with irregular otoliths were possible, but back-calculation of length at previous ages was not possible as a result of radically inconsistent lengths of radii. It should not be assumed that otoliths can be used for back calculation of length at age among all stocks of sauger. The assumption of regular otolith formation within a stock should be tested before obtaining samples of otoliths for age and growth assessment.

  8. Mineral resources of the Pryor Mountain, Burnt Timber Canyon, and Big Horn Tack-On Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon County, Montana, and Big Horn County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, C.G.; Toth, M.I.; Kulik, D.M.; Esparza, L.E.; Schmauch, S.W.; Benham, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines conducted investigations to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources and to appraise the identified resources of the Pryor Mountain, Burnt Timber Canyon, and Big Horn Tack-On Wilderness Study Areas. The mineral resource potential for uranium and vanadium is high or moderate in parts of the Pryor Mountain study area, high in part of the Burnt Timber Canyon study area, and moderate in the entire Big Horn Tack-On study area. The southern part of the Pryor Mountain study area has moderate mineral resource potential for bentonite. All three study areas have low mineral and energy resource potential for all metals (other than uranium and vanadium), oil and gas, geothermal sources, and limestone. There is no mineral resource potential for sand and gravel in the study areas. The study areas have no identified resources.

  9. Digital Archives - Thomas M. Bown's Bighorn Basin Maps: The Suite of Forty-Four Office Master Copies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Kevin C.

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM is a digitally scanned suite of master 'locality' maps produced by Dr. Thomas M. Bown. The maps are archived in the US Geological Survey Field Records. The maps feature annual compilations of newly established fossil (nineteen 7.5 degree maps) of central basin data collections. This master suite of forty-four maps represents a considerably broader geographic range within the basin. Additionally, three field seasons of data were compiled into the master suite of maps after the final editing of the Professional Paper. These maps are the culmination of Dr. Bown's Bighorn Basin research as a vertebrate paleontologist for the USGS. Data include Yale, Wyoming, Duke, Michigan and USGS localities. Practical topographic features are also indicated, such as jeep=trail access, new reservoirs, rerouted roadbeds, measured sections, fossil reconnaissance evaluations (G=good, NG=no good and H=hideous), faults, palcosol stages, and occasionally 'camp' vernacular for locality names.

  10. Low-Temperature Thermochronology of Laramide Ranges in Montana and Wyoming Provides Information on Exhumation and Tectonics Associated with Flat-Slab Subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenta, M.; Carrapa, B.; DeCelles, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Timing of exhumation of Laramide basement uplifts can be used as a proxy for tectonic processes associated with thick-skinned deformation resulting from flat-slab subduction. Despite its significance, the timing and pattern of Laramide deformation remains poorly constrained in Montana. Thermochronological data from Wyoming indicate exhumation of Laramide ranges during the late Cretaceous and Paleogene. Whereas a few data exist for the Bearthooth Range in Montana; the exhumation history of most of the Montana ranges remains unexplored preventing testing of current tectonic models. We report apatite fission track thermochronologic (AFT) data from modern river sands derived from Laramide ranges, bedrock basement samples, and synorogenic conglomerate clasts to determine the regional exhumation history of the Beartooth, Gravelly, Tobacco Root, Ruby, the Highland Mountains, and the Wind River Range. AFT permits reconstruction of thermal histories and rates of erosion of the upper few kilometers of the crust. In particular detrital AFT of river sands provides information on regional exhumation of the drainage area. AFT detrital ages derived from the southern end of the Beartooth Range are dominated by a 60-80 Ma signal, consistent with ages reported for bedrock basement samples in the Beartooth Range. A Cenozoic synorogenic conglomerate clast was obtained from the Highland Mountains, AFT results show a 69.56 +/- 5.45 Ma cooling age. In the Wind River Range, Wyoming AFT data from a Cenozoic synorogenic conglomerate clast from the Wind River Formation indicates a 59.32 +/- 4.83 Ma cooling age. This age is consistent with AFT ages from Gannett Peak indicating rapid cooling at ~60 Ma and ~50 Ma (Fan and Carrapa, 2014). Overall, samples from the easternmost ranges, the Beartooth and Bighorn, clearly preserve a Cretaceous signal; samples from Wind River Range and the rest of southwest Montana mainly record a Cenozoic signal. This suggests deeper and younger exhumation to the

  11. Climatic and floral change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the Bighorn Basin (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wing, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is an interval of global warming lasting ~150 ka that occurred at the start of the Eocene, ~55.8 Ma. Globally, temperature rose 4-8 °C in association with carbon cycle changes attributed to the release of >5,000 Pg of C into the ocean-atmosphere system. Fossil plants from the PETM in the Bighorn Basin, northwestern Wyoming, show that latest Paleocene forests contained palms, deciduous taxodiaceous conifers, and a variety of deciduous and evergreen angiosperms, many belonging to lineages with north temperate distributions. Mean annual temperature (MAT) for the latest Paleocene inferred from leaf margin analysis is ~18 °C. Early and mid-PETM floras have a completely different composition. They lack conifers and broad-leaved deciduous taxa with north temperate distributions, and are dominated by palms, legumes, and other angiosperm taxa with living relatives in the dry tropical forests of Central and South America. Leaf margin analysis gives an MAT of ~23 °C. Floras of this type are known from a stratigraphic interval ~30 m thick that also produces geochemical and mammalian faunal indicators of the PETM. Floras from late PETM or earliest post-PETM time are composed largely of species that had been present in the latest Paleocene, with a few new species that are common in the early Eocene. The inferred MAT is ~18 °C. Leaf size data suggest that the PETM was drier than the immediately preceding and following times. Floral data from the Bighorn Basin indicate that the magnitude of temperature change in this mid-latitude continental interior was similar to that inferred for the surface ocean. Evidence for dryness or seasonal dryness during the PETM has been observed in sections in northern Spain as well as in Wyoming, raising the possibility of widespread water stress in the middle northern latitudes. Change in floral composition during the PETM is consistent with regional extinction in mid-latitude populations of plants

  12. Fission-track thermochronology of the Wind River Range and other basement-cored uplifts in the Rocky Mountain foreland

    SciTech Connect

    Cerveny, P.F. III.

    1990-01-01

    Fission-track analysis of apatites from basement rocks of the Laramide foreland provides information about the timing, magnitude, and apparent rate of uplift of the mountain ranges in this area. One hundred thirty-five samples were collected from various mountain ranges in the Wyoming and northern Colorado foreland, with special emphasis on the Wind River Range. Apatite ages from the flanks of the range indicate that uplift may have initiated in the Wind Rivers by about 85 Ma, but was definitely occurring by 75 Ma. Weaker evidence suggests that uplift had commenced by 100 Ma. Data from Green River Lakes and Fremont Peak in the northern part of the range indicate that uplift/cooling was occurring around 62 Ma, and was most rapid between 60 and 57 Ma. Apparent uplift rates vary from 94 m/m.y. to 246 m/m.y. in this section of the Wind Rivers. Samples from a drill hole in the central Wind Rivers have apatite ages ranging from 37 Ma to 86 Ma, confirm the rapid uplift event at 60 Ma, and suggest a significant cooling event at approximately 42 Ma involving nearly 2 km of the rock column. Ages from the Medicine Bow and bighorn ranges suggest possible uplift as early as 100 Ma. Evidence confirm that uplift was definitely occurring by 75 Ma throughout the foreland, and continued through at least 58 Ma. Data from the Beartooth Range, Park Range, and Laramie Range suggest a rapid uplift/cooling event at about 62 Ma. Data collected from Precambrian/Cambrian boundary localities throughout Wyoming indicate that the basement surface was largely within a zone of partial track annealing prior to the Laramide orogeny, and has been uplifted no more than about 5-6 km relative to the present day surface.

  13. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery of Wyoming and its application to evaluation of Wyoming's natural resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the Wyoming investigation during the first six months include: (1) successful segregation of Precambrian metasedimentary/metavolcanic rocks from igneous rocks; (2) discovery of iron formation within the metasedimentary sequence; (3) mapping of previously unreported tectonic elements of major significance; (4) successful mapping of large scale fractures of the Wind River Mountains; (5) sucessful distinction of some metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary lithologies by color-additive viewing of ERTS images; (6) mapping and interpretation of glacial features in western Wyoming; and (7) development of techniques for mapping small urban areas.

  14. Mineral resources of the Bobcat Draw Badlands Wilderness Study Area, Bir Horn and Washakie Counties, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.B.; Carlson, R.R.; Kulik, D.M.; Lundby, W.

    1989-01-01

    The Bobcat Draw Wilderness Study Area is in the Bighorn Basin about 45 mi west of Worland, Wyoming, and is underlain by early Tertiary sedimentary rocks. No resources were identified in this study area, which lacks mines or prospects, but is mostly under lease for oil and gas. This study area has a high potential for oil and gas and for subeconomic resources of coal and a moderate potential for a deep-seated geothermal energy resource. The resource potential for oil shale and metals, including uranium, is low.

  15. Reported Historic Asbestos Mines, Historic Asbestos Prospects, and Natural Asbestos Occurrences in the Rocky Mountain States of the United States (Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, and Wyoming)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2007-01-01

    This map and its accompanying dataset provide information for 48 natural asbestos occurrences in the Rocky Mountain States of the United States (U.S.), using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos occurrences and their geological characteristics in the Rocky Mountain States. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map reported natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., which thus far includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos occurrences within the Eastern U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/) and the Central U.S. (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on natural occurrences of asbestos in the U.S.

  16. 75 FR 5074 - Wyoming Interstate Company, Ltd.; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Diamond Mountain Compressor Station Project January 25, 2010. The... assessment (EA) for the Diamond Mountain Compressor Station Project proposed by Wyoming Interstate Company... maintain the Diamond Mountain Compressor Station in Uintah County, Utah. The EA assesses the...

  17. Quantifying landscape ruggedness for animal habitat analysis: A case study using bighorn sheep in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sappington, J.M.; Longshore, K.M.; Thompson, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    Terrain ruggedness is often an important variable in wildlife habitat models. Most methods used to quantify ruggedness are indices derived from measures of slope and, as a result, are strongly correlated with slope. Using a Geographic Information System, we developed a vector ruggedness measure (VRM) of terrain based on a geomorphological method for measuring vector dispersion that is less correlated with slope. We examined the relationship of VRM to slope and to 2 commonly used indices of ruggedness in 3 physiographically different mountain ranges within the Mojave Desert of the southwestern United States. We used VRM, slope, distance to water, and springtime bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) adult female locations to model sheep habitat in the 3 ranges. Using logistic regression, we determined that the importance of ruggedness in habitat selection remained consistent across mountain ranges, whereas the relative importance of slope varied according to the characteristic physiography of each range. Our results indicate that the VRM quantifies local variation in terrain more independently of slope than other methods tested, and that VRM and slope distinguish 2 different components of bighorn sheep habitat.

  18. Sedimentologic and stratigraphic framework of the upper part of the Fort Union Formation, western Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, J.N.; Flores, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the stratigraphy and interpret the environments of deposition in the upper part of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Of all the lithofacies present within the study area, sandstone is the most dominant and makes up most of the upper part of the Fort Union Formation along the western edge of the Powder River basin, Wyoming. This sandstone lithofacies occurs in three forms: 1) pink conglomeratic sandstone, 2) coarse-grained sandstone, and 3) fine-grained sandstone. The pink conglomeratic sandstone lithofacies forms a series of Stacked channel bodies in which the clasts are as much as 1 3/4 in. in diameter. The coarse-grained sandstone lithofacies is laterally equivalent to the pink conglomeratic sandstone sequence, but contains smaller clasts; it is arranged en echelon (offset) to the north. The fine-grained sandstone lithofacies, limited to the northern part of the study area, is not as laterally continuous as the pink conglomeratic sandstone lithofacies to the south. Basal lag conglomerate underlies both the conglomeratic sandstone and coarse-grained sandstone lithofacies, but not the fine-grained sandstone. The presence of a fine-grained sandstone lithofacies lateral to the conglomeratic sandstone and coarse-grained sandstone lithofacies suggests the presence of a coarse-grained braided and meandering fluvial system coeval with a fine-grained meandering fluvial system.. The meandering fluvial systems drained the alluvial plain flanking the Bighorn Mountains on the west and the Casper arch on the southwest, and flowed north-northeastward within the Powder River basin.

  19. Holocene vegetation and climate history of the northern Bighorn Basin, southern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyford, M.E.; Betancourt, J.L.; Jackson, S.T.

    2002-01-01

    Records of Holocene vegetation and climate change at low elevations (<2000 m) are rare in the central Rocky Mountain region. We developed a record of Holocene vegetation and climate change from 55 14C-dated woodrat middens at two low-elevation sites (1275 to 1590 m, currently vegetated by Juniperus osteosperma woodlands, in the northern Bighorn Basin. Macrofossil and pollen analyses show that the early Holocene was cooler than today, with warming and drying in the middle Holocene. During the Holocene, boreal (Juniperus communis, J. horizontalis) and montane species (J. scopulorum) were replaced by a Great Basin species (J. osteosperma). J. osteosperma colonized the east side of the Pryor Mountains 4700 14C yr B.P. Downward movement of lower treeline indicates wetter conditions between 4400 and 2700 14C yr B.P. Increased aridity after 2700 14C yr B.P. initiated expansion of J. osteosperma from the east to west side of the Pryor Mountains. ?? 2002 University of Washington.

  20. MHC class II DR allelic diversity in bighorn sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that decreased diversity and/or unique polymorphisms in MHC class II alleles of bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are responsible for lower titer of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin, in comparison to domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries). To test this hypothesis, DRA...

  1. Mapping a Mystery: The Battle of Little Bighorn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Jean West; Schamel, Wynell Burroughs

    1990-01-01

    Recounts the events of the Battle of Little Bighorn through U.S. cavalry reports, interviews given by Indian warriors present at the battle, and maps (tracings) made of the battle. Gives teaching suggestions for map analysis and includes a map with instructions and a reading list. (GG)

  2. Rocky Mountain Regional Guide (covering forest service programs that affect the states of Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Wyoming (east of the continental divide))

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Regional Guide proposes the future multiple-use management of the National Forests and National Grasslands in the Rocky Mountain Region. It also provides integrated direction for the National Forest System, and coordination with Research, and State and Private Forestry so these organizational units can accomplish their missions. The management of the National Forest System includes the administration of National Forests and National Grasslands and management within the principles of multiple-use and sustained-yield. Research includes planning and coordinating research programs to learn how we can best use and protect the plant, animal, soil, water, and aesthetic resources of nonagricultural rural lands. State and Private Forestry includes coordinating and providing leadership for intergovernmental resource programs; and coordinating and providing technical and financial assistance to improve and protect tribal, State, privately-owned forest resources, and urban and community forestry. In doing this the Forest Service bears a host of legal and ethical responsibilities. This Regional Guide reflects the responsibilities entrusted to the Forest Service.

  3. Southwestward weakening of Wyoming lithosphere during the Laramide orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Min; Fan, Majie; Moucha, Robert

    2016-08-01

    The mechanism of Laramide deformation in the central Rocky Mountains remains enigmatic. It is generally agreed that the deformation resulted from low-angle subduction of the Farallon plate beneath the North American plate during the latest Cretaceous-early Eocene; however, recent studies have suggested the importance of slab removal or slab rollback in causing this deformation. Here we infer Wyoming lithosphere structure and surface deformation pattern by conducting 2-D flexural subsidence modeling in order to provide constraints on the mechanism of Laramide deformation. We assume that Wyoming lithosphere behaved as an infinite elastic plate subject to tectonic loading of mountain ranges and conduct 2-D flexural subsidence modeling to major Laramide basins to document lithospheric stiffness and mountain load height. Our results show that the stiffness of Wyoming lithosphere varied slightly in each basin during the ~30 Myr duration of the Laramide deformation and decreased from northeastern Wyoming (Te = 32-46 km) to southwestern Wyoming (Te = 6-9 km). Our results also imply that the increase of equivalent load height of major Laramide ranges accelerated during the early Eocene. We propose that the bending stresses induced by the topographic load of the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt combined with crust-mantle decoupling initiated by the overthickened Sevier hinterland and the end loads due to the low-angle subduction at the western edge of the thick Wyoming craton have caused the southwestward decrease of lithospheric stiffness in Wyoming. Moreover, we attribute the accelerated load height gain during the early Eocene to both dynamic and isostatic effects associated with slab rollback.

  4. Lower Eocene alluvial paleosols (Willwood Formation, Northwest Wyoming, U.S.A.) and their significance for paleoecology, paleoclimatology, and basin analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The lower Eocene Willwood Formation of northwest Wyoming is a 700 m thick accumulation of alluvial floodplain and channel mudstones and sandstones, nearly all of which show paleopedogenic modifications. Pedogenesis of Willwood sandstones is indicated by taproot and vertebrate and invertebrate bioturbation, early local cementation by calcium carbonate, and thin illuviation cutans on clastic grains. Pedogenesis in Willwood mudstones is indicated by plant bioturbation, insect and other invertebrate burrow casts and lebensspuren; free iron, aluminum, and manganese mobilization, including hydromorphic gleying; sesquioxide and calcareous glaebule formation in lower parts of the solum; presence of clay-rich and organic carbon-rich zones; and well differentiated epipedons and albic and spodic horizons. Probable A horizons are also locally well developed. Occurrence of variegated paleosol units in thick floodplain mudstone deposits and their association with thin, lenticular, and unconnected fluvial sandstones in the Willwood Formation of the central and southeast Bighorn Basin suggest that these soils formed during times of rapid sediment accumulation. The tabular geometry and lateral persistence of soil units as well as the absence of catenization indicate that Willwood floodplains were broad and essentially featureless. All Willwood paleosols were developed on alluvial parent materials and are complex in that B horizons of younger paleosols were commonly superimposed upon and mask properties of suspected A and B horizons of the next older paleosols. The soils appear to be wet varieties of the Spodosol and Entisol groups (aquods and ferrods, and aquents, respectively), though thick, superposed and less mottled red, purple, and yellow paleosols resemble some ultisols. Most Willwood paleosols resemble warm temperate to subtropical alluvial soils that form today under alternating wet and dry conditions and (or) fluctuating water tables. The up-section decrease in frequency

  5. Contribution to CCN Workshop report from University of Wyoming group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, D. C.; Politovich, M. K.

    1981-01-01

    The group's CCN counter is described. It is a static, horizontal, parallel plate thermal gradient diffusion chamber. Examples of the application of the CCN are presented and include the CCN spectra measured during the winter of 1978-79 near Elk Mountain, Wyoming. Comparisons of droplet concentrations derived from upwind CCN spectra are covered.

  6. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:24507886

  7. A spatial risk assessment of bighorn sheep extirpation by grazing domestic sheep on public lands.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Tim E; Coggins, Victor L; McCarthy, Clinton; O'Brien, Chans S; O'Brien, Joshua M; Schommer, Timothy J

    2014-04-01

    Bighorn sheep currently occupy just 30% of their historic distribution, and persist in populations less than 5% as abundant overall as their early 19th century counterparts. Present-day recovery of bighorn sheep populations is in large part limited by periodic outbreaks of respiratory disease, which can be transmitted to bighorn sheep via contact with domestic sheep grazing in their vicinity. In order to assess the viability of bighorn sheep populations on the Payette National Forest (PNF) under several alternative proposals for domestic sheep grazing, we developed a series of interlinked models. Using telemetry and habitat data, we characterized herd home ranges and foray movements of bighorn sheep from their home ranges. Combining foray model movement estimates with known domestic sheep grazing areas (allotments), a Risk of Contact Model estimated bighorn sheep contact rates with domestic sheep allotments. Finally, we used demographic and epidemiologic data to construct population and disease transmission models (Disease Model), which we used to estimate bighorn sheep persistence under each alternative grazing scenario. Depending on the probability of disease transmission following interspecies contact, extirpation probabilities for the seven bighorn sheep herds examined here ranged from 20% to 100%. The Disease Model allowed us to assess the probabilities that varied domestic sheep management scenarios would support persistent populations of free-ranging bighorn sheep.

  8. Wyoming Kids Count in Wyoming Factbook, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Children's Action Alliance, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. Following an overview of key indicators and data sources, the factbook documents trends by county for 20 indicators, including the following: (1) poverty and population; (2) welfare reform; (3) certified day care facilities; (4) births; (5) infant deaths;…

  9. Ichnofossils of the alluvial Willwood Formation (lower Eocene), Bighorn Basin, northwest Wyoming, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The ichnofossil assemblage of the lower Eocene Willwood Formation consists of at least nine distinct endichnia that are preserved in full relief. Four forms (three ichnogenera and four ichnospecies) are new and represent fodinichnia and domichnia of oligochaete worms, an insect or spider, an unknown vertebrate (probably a mammal), and domichnia of an unidentified organism. Other potential trace makers of the ichnofauna include insects, mollusks, and decapods. In contrast to an Egyptian Oligocene fluvial ichnofauna produced largely by animals that burrowed in stream channel deposits, the Willwood assemblage is principally of flood-plain origin. Though the ichnofauna occurs in a variety of paleosol types, most of the fossils are restricted in distribution to specific sediment and soil types and, within paleosols, to specific identifiable horizons. This attribute will make them valuable indiced of paleoenvironment once they are better known in other ancient alluvial sequences. The environment suggested by the Willwood trace fossils (damp, but not wet soils with fluctuating water tables) is consistent with the warm temperate to subtropical (possibly monsoonal) conditions that are interpreted for the Willwood Formation by independent evidence of body fossils and paleopedology. ?? 1983.

  10. Hydrogeologic features of the alluvial deposits in the Owl Creek Valley, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, M.E.; Head, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    The alluvial acquifer principally of the flood-plain alluvium and part of the Arapahoe Ranch terrace deposits and consists subordinately of alluvial-fan deposits. Thickness of the alluvial aquifer is generally 20 to 40 feet. Dissolved-solids concentration of water in the alluvial aquifer ranges from about 500 to more than 3,000 milligrams per liter. The most favorable areas for groundwater development are the flood-plain alluvium and part of the Arapahoe Ranch terrace deposits; however, in much of these units, the water contains more than 2,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. Measurements of specific conductance of the flow of Owl Creek indicate a progressive increase in the down stream direction and range between 15 and 355 micromhos per centimeter at 25C per mile. The increases are due to return flow of irrigation water, inflow from tributaries, and inflow from groundwater. Conspicuous terraces in Owl Creek Valley included an unnamed terrace at 500 feet above Owl Creek, the Embar Ranch terrace 160 to 120 feet above the creek, and the Arapahoe Ranch terrace 50 to 20 feet above the creek. (USGS)

  11. Paleohydrologic change across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Bighorn Basin, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baczynski, A. A.; McInerney, F. A.; Wing, S. L.; Kraus, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    One of the uncertainties in accurately predicting future climate change involves how the hydrologic cycle will respond to increasing pCO2 and temperature. Quantifying the relationship between carbon cycle perturbations and the hydrologic cycle in the geologic past is crucial to understanding and accurately modeling how anthropogenic carbon emissions will affect future changes in the hydrologic cycle. Records of paleohydrologic response to global warming in the geologic past are rare, particularly for continental interiors, where climate model projections of precipitation are highly uncertain. Here we examine hydrogen isotope ratios of leaf waxes as a tool for reconstructing paleohydrologic change in the continental interior of North America across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), an abrupt, transient episode of extreme global warming ~56 Ma. New hydrogen isotope measurements of leaf-wax n-alkanes from the southeastern Bighorn Basin, Wyoming record two positive shifts during the PETM. n-Alkane δD values first shift to more positive values just after the onset of the carbon isotope excursion and then again higher up in the body of the carbon isotope excursion, with a return to slightly more negative δD values in between. Paleobotanical, paleopedologic, and isotope data from the same field area have suggested that the Bighorn Basin may have experienced a drier or more seasonally dry climate during the PETM. Mean annual precipitation estimates based on paleosol major oxides, soil wetness assessed using the soil morphology index, and an aridity proxy based on differences in δ18O values of tooth enamel in aridity-sensitive and aridity-insensitive mammals each independently suggest a potential two-phase drying within the PETM interval. Similarly, the hydrogen isotope record could reflect two periods of drying, with a return to slightly wetter conditions in between. However, leaf-wax hydrogen isotope ratios reflect not only source water hydrogen isotope

  12. Einstein in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Ian

    1996-01-01

    Describes "Einstein's Adventurarium," a science center housed in an empty shopping mall in Gillette, Wyoming, created through school, business, and city-county government partnership. Describes how interactive exhibits allow exploration of life sciences, physics, and paleontology. (KDFB)

  13. Wyoming Snowmelt 2013

    NASA Video Gallery

    Images from NASA/USGS Landsat satellites show the snow cover in Wyoming's Fremont Lake Basin throughout 2013. NASA scientists have used Landsat data from 1972-2013 to determine that the snow is mel...

  14. Bitter bonanza in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, D.

    1980-12-01

    Mineral and energy-related exploration, such as the drilling activity in the Overthrust Belt for petroleum, has made Wyoming a leading energy supplier in the U.S. The energy boom has had many unfortunate effects on the state's environment. Environmental degradation caused by exploration and production in Wyoming includes loss of habitat, poaching of wildlife, water pollution from oil dumping and erosion, and impacts from squatter's camps.

  15. Ecological Status of Wyoming Streams, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.; Hargett, Eric G.; Wright, Peter R.; Zumberge, Jeremy R.

    2007-01-01

    The ecological status of perennial streams in Wyoming was determined and compared with the status of perennial streams throughout 12 States in the western United States, using data collected as part of the Western Pilot Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP-West). Results for Wyoming are compared and contrasted in the context of the entire EMAP-West study area (west-wide) and climatic regions (based on aggregated ecoregions) within Wyoming. In Wyoming, ecological status, estimated as the proportion of the perennial stream length in least disturbed, most disturbed, and intermediate disturbance condition, based on ecological indicators of vertebrate and invertebrate assemblages was similar, in many cases, to the status of those assemblages determined for EMAP-West. Ecological status based on chemical and physical habitat stressors also was similar in Wyoming to west-wide proportions in many cases. Riparian disturbance was one of the most common physical stressors west-wide and in Wyoming. The estimates of riparian disturbance indicated about 90 percent of the stream length in the xeric climatic region in Wyoming was rated most disturbed, compared to about 30 percent rated most disturbed in the mountain climatic region in Wyoming. Results from analyses using a macroinvertebrate multi-metric index (MMI) and macroinvertebrate ratio of observed to expected taxa (O/E) developed specifically for the west-wide EMAP study were compared to results using a macroinvertebrate MMI and O/E developed for Wyoming. Proportions of perennial stream length in various condition categories determined from macroinvertebrate MMIs often were similar in Wyoming to proportions observed west-wide. Differences were larger, but not extreme, between west-wide and Wyoming O/E models. An aquatic life use support decision matrix developed for interpreting the Wyoming MMI and O/E model data indicated about one-half of the stream length statewide achieves the State's narrative aquatic

  16. Geochemical and Isotopic Constraints on the Source of Groundwater to Lower Kane Cave, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, M. C.; Bennett, P. C.; Engel, A. S.

    2003-12-01

    Most karst features occur due to the dissolution of limestone by carbonic acid charged phreatic or meteoric water. However, an important subset of caves forms when anaerobic groundwater transports hydrogen sulfide into an oxidizing environment, resulting in speleogenesis via sulfuric rather than carbonic acid. The actively forming Lower Kane Cave in the Mississippian Madison Limestone of the Bighorn Basin near Lovell, Wyoming, is an accessible example of this alternative method of cave development. Located along the fold axis of the Little Sheep Mountain anticline of the Bighorn Basin, this system hosts a diverse range of microbial organisms, including acid-producing and sulfide and sulfate utilizing species, whose role in speleogenesis is currently under investigation. Water samples were collected from cave springs, nearby springs, freshwater wells and produced water from oil wells in the local area. Samples were analyzed for major and trace elements, stable isotopes and Sr isotopes by multi-collector ICP-MS, as well as dissolved gas and organic acid analyses. These data were used to examine the regional flow of groundwater to the cave and potential oil-field sources of hydrogen sulfide. The Madison Aquifer in this area is characterized by relatively fresh water, and in the cave vicinity is the source of municipal water supplies for the towns of Cowley and Greybull. The Madison water samples collected in the area are Ca-HCO3 to Mg-SO4 type, with relatively little Na and Cl. Overall the cave water chemistries are characterized as Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 waters; Ca = 70 ppm, Mg = 25 ppm, HCO3 = 205 ppm and SO4 = 110 ppm. However, when compared to other Madison water samples, the waters of Lower Kane Cave are slightly higher in TDS (around 400 ppm), significantly warmer (22£ C versus between 6-12£ C), and contain much higher dissolved sulfide (up to 2ppm). Additionally, Sr isotope signatures for the cave waters are significantly more radiogenic than that of other Madison

  17. Tectonically induced climate and its control on the distribution of depositional systems in a continental foreland basin, Cloverly and Lakota Formations (Lower Cretaceous) of Wyoming, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, William S.; Suttner, Lee J.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2007-12-01

    that existed 300 to 1000 km east of the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt. Proximal to the Sevier fold-and-thrust belt, the A-interval of the Cloverly Formation and upper Ephraim Formation of the Gannett Group are typified by deposits of intermittent to ephemeral rivers and their associated floodplains. In the middle part (B-interval) of the Cloverly Formation, intermittent to ephemeral alluvial systems expand to 600 km into the basin. The upper part (C-interval) of the Cloverly Formation is characterized by playa deposits in the Bighorn and Wind River Basins and intermittent to ephemeral alluvial deposits along the front of the ancestral Sevier Mountains. Deposits of perennial to intermittent alluvial systems in the C-interval of the Cloverly and Lakota Formations are restricted to the Black Hills region, almost 900 km to the east of the Sevier Mountains. The change in the areal distribution of depositional systems through time within this continental foreland basin may be attributed to the development of a rain shadow associated with the uplift of the Sevier Mountains in the Early Cretaceous.

  18. Uranium in the Mayoworth area, Johnson County, Wyoming - a preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.D.

    1954-01-01

    The uranium mineral, metatyuyamunite, occurs in the basal limestone of the Sundance formation of late Jurassic age along the east flank of the Bighorn Mountains, about 2 miles southwest of the abandoned Mayoworth post office. This occurrence is of particular interest because it is the first uranium mineralization reported from a marine limestone in Wyoming. The discovery uranium claims were filed in July 1953, by J.S. Masek, Dan Oglesby, and Jack Emery of Casper, Wyo. Subsequent reconnaissance investigations have been made by private individuals and geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission. The metatyuyamunite is concentrated in a hard gray oolitic limestone that forms the basal bed of the Sundance formation. A selected sample of limestone from a fresh face in the northernmost deposit known at the time of the field examination contained 0.70 percent equivalent uranium and 0.71 percent uranium. Eight samples of the limestone taken at the sample place by the Atomic Energy Commission contained from 0.007 to 0.22 percent uranium. A chip sample from the weathered outcrop at the top of this limestone half a mile to the southeast contained 0.17 percent equivalent uranium and 0.030 percent uranium. A dinosaur bone from the middle part of the Morrison formation contained 0.044 percent equivalent uranium and 0.004 percent uranium. metatyuyamunite forms a conspicuous yellow coating along fracture planes cutting the oolitic limestone and has also replaced many of the oolites within the solid limestone and has also replaced many of the oolites within the solid limestone even where fractures are not present. Many radioactive spots in the basal limestone of the Sundance formation were examined in a reconnaissance fashion along the outcrop for a distance of half a mile south of the initial discovery. Samples were taken for analysis only at the northern and southern margins of this interval. Outcrops farther north and south were not studied. There are

  19. Mortality during epizootics in bighorn sheep: effects of initial population size and cause.

    PubMed

    Cassaigne G, Ivonne; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Guasco O, José A

    2010-07-01

    One of the most severe threats to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations is disease. With the objective of projecting possible epizootic consequences to bighorn sheep population dynamics, we examined 23 epizootic mortality episodes from presumably known causes that occurred in the United States and Canada from 1942 to 2005. These outbreaks were correlated with population size using regression models. Epizootic origins were documented by considering contact with a "new" pathogen for the bighorn sheep population or pneumonic processes, presumably triggered by stress. We suggest mortality rates are negatively related to population size in a logarithmic function, and offer a model to estimate the percentage of disease-related mortalities for a given population size of bighorn sheep. From a disease dynamics perspective, we suggest a minimum population of 188 bighorn sheep would be required to insure long-term persistence in the presence of epizootic disease.

  20. Geology of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana, with reference to subsurface disposal of radioactive wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beikman, Helen M.

    1962-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is a structural and topographic basin occupying an area of about 20,000 square miles in northeastern Wyoming arid southeastern Montana. The Basin is about 230 miles long in a northwest-southeast direction and is about 100 miles wide. It is bounded on three sides by mountains in which rocks of Precambrian age are exposed. The Basin is asymmetrical with a steep west limb adjacent to the Bighorn Mountains and a gentle east limb adjacent to the Black Hills. Sedimentary rocks within the Basin have a maximum thickness of about 18,000 feet and rocks of every geologic period are represented. Paleozoic rocks are about 2,500 feet thick and consist of marine bonate rocks and sandstone; Mesozoic rocks are about 9,500 feet thick and consist of both marine and nonmarine siltstone and sandstone; and Cenozoic rocks are from 4,000 to 6,000 feet thick and consist of coal-bearing sandstone and shale. Radioactive waste could be stored in the pore space of permeable sandstone or in shale where space could be developed. Many such rock units that could be used for storing radioactive wastes are present within the Powder River Basin. Permeable sandstone beds that may be possible reservoirs for storage of radioactive waste are present throughout the Powder River Basin. These include sandstone beds in the Flathead Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Deadwood Formation, the Tensleep Sandstone and equivalent strata in the Minnelusa Formation and the Sundance Formation in rocks of pre-Cretaceous age. However, most of the possible sandstone reservoirs are in rocks of Cretaceous age and include sandstone beds in the Fall River, Lakota, Newcastle, Frontier, Cody, and Mesaverde Formations. Problems of containment of waste such as clogging of pore space and chemical incompatibility would have to be solved before a particular sandstone unit could be selected for waste disposal. Several thick sequences of impermeable shale such as those in the Skull Creek, Mowry, Frontier

  1. GROS VENTRE WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simons, Frank S.; Bieniewski, Carl L.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Gros Ventre Wilderness study area in the Gros Ventre Mountains of northwestern Wyoming was carried out. The area was found to have demonstrated phosphate resources in areas of substantiated phosphate resource potential. A probable oil and gas resource potential in the southwestern part of the study area was also identified. Oil and gas may occur in various possible reservoir rocks beneath the Cache Creek thrust fault, which is believed to extend beneath this part of the study area. There is little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources in the area.

  2. Ground-water resources and geology of northern and central Johnson County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitcomb, Harold A.; Cummings, T. Ray; McCullough, Richard A.

    1966-01-01

    Northern and central Johnson County, Wyo., is an area of about 2,600 square miles that lies principally in the western part of the Powder River structural basin but also includes the east flank of the Bighorn Mountains. Sedimentary rocks exposed range in age from Cambrian to Recent and have an average total thickness of about 16,000 feet. Igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age crop out in the Bighorn Mountains. Rocks of pre-Tertiary age, exposed on the flanks and in the foothills of the Bighorns, dip steeply eastward and lie at great depth in the Powder River basin. The rest of the project area is underlain by a thick sequence of interbedded sandstone, siltstone, and shale of Paleocene and Eocene age. Owing to the regional structure, most aquifers in Johnson County contain water under artesian pressure. The Madison Limestone had not been tapped for water in Johnson County at the time of the present investigation (1963), but several wells in eastern Big Horn and Washakie Counties, on the west flank of the Bighorn Mountains, reportedly have flows ranging from 1,100 to 2,800 gallons per minute. Comparable yields can probably be obtained from the Madison in Johnson County in those areas where the limestone is fractured or cavernous. The Tensleep Sandstone reportedly yields 600 gallons per minute to a pumped irrigation well near its outcrop in the southwestern part of the project area. Several flowing wells tap the formation on the west flank of the Bighorn Mountains. The Madison Limestone and the Tensleep Sandstone have limited potential as sources of water because they can be developed economically only in a narrow band paralleling the Bighorn Mountain front in the southwestern part of the project area. Overlying the Tensleep Sandstone is about 6,000 feet of shale, siltstone, and fine-grained sandstone that, with a few exceptions, normally yields only small quantities of water to wells. The Cloverly Formation and the Newcastle Sandstone may yield moderate

  3. Use of DNA analysis of Pasteurella haemolytica biotype T isolates to monitor transmission in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, M D; Ward, A C; Hunter, D L; Wesley, I V

    1993-01-01

    Pneumonia has been identified as a major cause of poor lamb survival in indigenous herds of Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis) in central Idaho. Pasteurella haemolytica was isolated from five adult Rocky Mountain bighorn ewes captured from a free-ranging herd in central Idaho. The lambs from two of these ewes delivered by cesarean section were free of P. haemolytica until 40 days of age and after repeated contact with their dams. The lambs subsequently developed signs of pneumonia, and P. haemolytica was isolated from nasal, pharyngeal, and transtracheal wash samples from each lamb. All P. haemolytica biotype T isolates from the ewes and lambs, as well as those from a 9-month-old lamb of the same herd from which samples for culture were obtained 2 years earlier, were subjected to HaeIII restriction enzyme analysis (REA) and ribotyping. Two ribotypes and seven REA patterns were visually distinguishable by these procedures. Similarity coefficients (SAB) of 0.09 to 0.95 were calculated for the seven REA patterns. The REA patterns of the isolates from the lambs were identical (SAB = 1.0). The isolates from the lambs also had SAB values of 1.0, which was indicative of identity with one of the seven isolates cultured from the ewes at the time of capture and with the organism isolated from the 9-month-old lamb. These procedures have the discriminatory capabilities necessary to monitor the transmission of specific strains of bacteria within and between animal populations. Images PMID:8385150

  4. Energy Development Opportunities for Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    The Wyoming Business Council, representing the state’s interests, is participating in a collaborative evaluation of energy development opportunities with the NGNP Industry Alliance (an industry consortium), the University of Wyoming, and the US Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory. Three important energy-related goals are being pursued by the State of Wyoming: Ensuring continued reliable and affordable sources of energy for Wyoming’s industries and people Restructuring the coal economy in Wyoming Restructuring the natural gas economy in Wyoming

  5. Northwest corner of Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A near vertical view of the snow-covered northwest corner of Wyoming (43.5N, 109.5W), as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. A small portion of Montana and Idaho is in this photograph, also. The dark area is Yellowstone National Park. The largest body of water is Yellowstone Lake. The elongated range in the eastern part of the picture is the Big Horn Moutains. The Wind River Range is at the bottom center. The Grand Teton National Park area is almost straight south of Yellowstone Lake. Approximately 30 per cent of the State of Wyoming can be seen in this photograph.

  6. Spatio-temporal dynamics of pneumonia in bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cassirer, E. Frances; Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia R.; Cross, Paul C.; Dobson, Andrew P.; Potter, Kathleen A.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Bighorn sheep mortality related to pneumonia is a primary factor limiting population recovery across western North America, but management has been constrained by an incomplete understanding of the disease. We analysed patterns of pneumonia-caused mortality over 14 years in 16 interconnected bighorn sheep populations to gain insights into underlying disease processes. 2. We observed four age-structured classes of annual pneumonia mortality patterns: all-age, lamb-only, secondary all-age and adult-only. Although there was considerable variability within classes, overall they differed in persistence within and impact on populations. Years with pneumonia-induced mortality occurring simultaneously across age classes (i.e. all-age) appeared to be a consequence of pathogen invasion into a naïve population and resulted in immediate population declines. Subsequently, low recruitment due to frequent high mortality outbreaks in lambs, probably due to association with chronically infected ewes, posed a significant obstacle to population recovery. Secondary all-age events occurred in previously exposed populations when outbreaks in lambs were followed by lower rates of pneumonia-induced mortality in adults. Infrequent pneumonia events restricted to adults were usually of short duration with low mortality. 3. Acute pneumonia-induced mortality in adults was concentrated in fall and early winter around the breeding season when rams are more mobile and the sexes commingle. In contrast, mortality restricted to lambs peaked in summer when ewes and lambs were concentrated in nursery groups. 4. We detected weak synchrony in adult pneumonia between adjacent populations, but found no evidence for landscape-scale extrinsic variables as drivers of disease. 5. We demonstrate that there was a >60% probability of a disease event each year following pneumonia invasion into bighorn sheep populations. Healthy years also occurred periodically, and understanding the factors driving these

  7. Wyoming Indians, Unit II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming Indians provides concepts, activities, Indian stories, and resources for elementary school students. Indian values and contributions are summarized. Concepts include the incorrectness of the term "Indian," the Indians' democratic society and sophisticated culture, historical events, and conflicts with whites over the land.…

  8. Wyoming Government, Unit VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming government presents concepts, activities, and stories for elementary school students. Concepts stress that the functions of government are determined according to the demands, needs, and traditions of the people; each part of government has a special function; as citizens, we should be loyal to the underlying concepts of our…

  9. Evaluation of experimental genetic management in reintroduced bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Zachary H; Whittaker, Donald G; Rhodes, Olin E

    2012-01-01

    Positive demographic responses have been reported in several species where the immigration or supplementation of genetically distinct individuals into wild populations has resulted in a genetic rescue effect. However, rarely have researchers incorporated what could be considerable risk of outbreeding depression into planning for genetic management programs. We assess the genetic effects of an experiment in genetic management involving replicate populations of California bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis californiana) in Oregon, USA, which previously experienced poor productivity and numerical declines. In the experiment, two declining populations were supplemented with ewes from a more genetically diverse population of California bighorn sheep in Nevada. We incorporated analysis of genetic samples representing both experimental populations prior to supplementation, samples from the supplemented individuals, and samples collected from both experimental populations approximately one generation after supplementation. We used genetic analyses to assess the integration of supplemented and resident populations by identifying interpopulation hybrids. Further, we incorporated demographic simulations to assess the risk of outbreeding depression as a result of the experimental augmentation. Finally, we used data from microsatellites and mitochondrial sequences to determine if genetic management increased genetic diversity in the experimental populations. Our analyses demonstrated the success of genetic management by documenting interpopulation hybrids, identifying no evidence for outbreeding depression as a result of contact between the genetically distinct supplemented and resident populations, and by identifying increased population-level metrics of genetic diversity in postsupplementation populations compared with presupplementation levels. PMID:22423334

  10. Foraging at the wildland–urban interface decouples weather as a driver of recruitment for desert bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longshore, Kathleen; Lowrey, Chris E.; Cummings, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of ungulate populations are living within or near the wildland–urban interface. When resources at the interface are of greater quality than that of adjacent natural habitat, wildlife can be attracted to these developed areas. Little is known about how use of the wildland–urban interface by wildlife may affect vital rates. Under natural conditions, recruitment by desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) correlates with variation in the timing and amount of rainfall that initiates and enhances growth of annual plant species. However, for populations that forage in developed areas, this relationship may become decoupled. In the River Mountains of Nevada, USA, desert bighorn sheep have been feeding in a municipal park at the wildland–urban interface since its establishment in 1985. Approximately one-third of the population now uses the park during summer months when nutritional content of natural forage is low. We hypothesized that use of this municipal area, with its abundant vegetation and water resources, may have decoupled the previous relationship between precipitation and lamb recruitment. We assessed variables known to affect lamb recruitment before (1971–1986) and after (1987–2006) establishment of the park using linear regression models. Our top candidate model for the pre-park period indicated that total November precipitation was the greatest driver of lamb recruitment in this population. After park establishment, this relationship became decoupled because lamb recruitment was no longer driven by weather variables. These results raise questions about the effects of decoupling drivers of population growth and maintaining natural populations near urban areas.

  11. Chlamydial-caused infectious keratoconjunctivitis in bighorn sheep of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meagher, Mary; Quinn, William J.; Stackhouse, Larry

    1992-01-01

    An epizootic of infectious keratoconjuctivitis occurred in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Yellowstone National Park during the winter of 1981-82. The causative organism was identified as Chlamydia sp. Mortality related to the epizootic was approximately 60% of an estimated 500 bighorn sheep in the northern range population. The infection probably affected all sex and age classes, but field surveys of live animals and mortality suggested that mature rams died disproportionately. Limited field observations the following winter on individuals having both normal and cloudy-appearing eyes suggested that half of the bighorns then present on the core units of winter range had contracted the disease and survived. By 1988, there were about 300 bighorn sheep in the population.

  12. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Yamada, Catherine; Potter, Kathleen A; Herndon, Caroline; Foreyt, William J; Knowles, Donald P; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae-free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). One bighorn sheep died with acute pneumonia 90 days after commingling, but the other three remained healthy for >100 days. This unprecedented survival rate is significantly different (P=0.002) from that of previous bighorn-domestic sheep contact studies but similar to (P>0.05) bighorn sheep survival following commingling with other ungulates. The absence of epizootic respiratory disease in this experiment supports the hypothesized role of M. ovipneumoniae as a key pathogen of epizootic pneumonia in bighorn sheep commingled with domestic sheep.

  13. Terrestrial records of Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2 / H1 / Elmo) and H2 in the Bighorn Basin (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abels, H. A.; Clyde, W. C.; Gingerich, P. D.; Hilgen, F. J.; Fricke, H. C.; Bowen, G. J.; Lourens, L. J.

    2012-04-01

    Late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermal events are short-lived periods of rapid greenhouse warming related to massive increases in the concentration of atmospheric CO2. Eocene Thermal Maximum 2 (ETM2; also known as the Elmo event or H1) is the second largest of these events after the PETM and is followed after ~100 kyr by the smaller H2 event. ETM2 has only been documented in a few high-resolution marine successions and suggested in one low-resolution terrestrial record. Thus the impact of ETM2 on continental climates and biotas remains largely unknown. Recently, we located two successive negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) of ~3.8 and ~2.8 per mille in paleosol carbonate in the floodplain sedimentary record of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming (USA). The C24r/C24n magnetochron boundary is pinpointed above the base of the larger CIE in our paleomagnetic results (Fig. 1). This stratigraphic position and the pattern and magnitude of the events indicate that the CIEs are the ETM2/H1 and H2 events, respectively. Mammal finds in the McCullough Peaks area where we documented the CIEs indicate that the Wa4-Wa5 biozone boundary occurs well below ETM2. If rapid faunal turnover at the Wa4-Wa5 boundary (known as 'biohorizon B') involved extinction of Ectocion and Haplomylus and the first appearance of Bunophorus, as commonly assumed, then faunal turnover at biohorizon B cannot be explained by greenhouse warming at the ETM2 hyperthermal event. Our new terrestrial carbon isotope record of ETM2/H1 and H2 reveals, when placed in an astronomically-calibrated timeframe, a very similar pattern to records recovered from marine successions. The magnitudes of the ongoing CIEs are similar to those found in western India that has been tentatively linked to ETM2. Also, the CIEs of PETM, ETM2, and H2 in paleosol carbonate records from the Bighorn Basin seem to scale linearly with CIEs in marine carbonate records from the same events.

  14. Graphically characterizing the movement of a rabid striped skunk epizootic across the landscape in northwestern Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Craig A; Mills, Kenneth W; Fischer, Justin W; McLean, Robert G; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Engeman, Richard M

    2013-09-01

    A striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) rabies epizootic in northwestern Wyoming was studied from the Index Case in 1988 to the last case in 1993, and possibly is the first rabies epizootic in a previously rabies-free zone monitored from beginning to end. The 843 km(2) study area comprised skunk habitat along 90 km of Shoshone River's floodplain from Bighorn Lake upstream to Cody. Of 1,015 skunks tested, 215 were rabies-positive. Integrating spatial and temporal data from positive cases, we analyzed the epizootic's movements and dynamics at 6-month intervals using multivariate movement maps, a new multivariate descriptive methodology presented here to demonstrate the epizootic's directional flow, while illustrating areas with higher case densities (i.e., wave crests). This approach should help epidemiologists and public health officials to better understand future rabies epizootics. PMID:23812724

  15. Graphically characterizing the movement of a rabid striped skunk epizootic across the landscape in northwestern Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Craig A; Mills, Kenneth W; Fischer, Justin W; McLean, Robert G; Fagerstone, Kathleen A; Engeman, Richard M

    2013-09-01

    A striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis) rabies epizootic in northwestern Wyoming was studied from the Index Case in 1988 to the last case in 1993, and possibly is the first rabies epizootic in a previously rabies-free zone monitored from beginning to end. The 843 km(2) study area comprised skunk habitat along 90 km of Shoshone River's floodplain from Bighorn Lake upstream to Cody. Of 1,015 skunks tested, 215 were rabies-positive. Integrating spatial and temporal data from positive cases, we analyzed the epizootic's movements and dynamics at 6-month intervals using multivariate movement maps, a new multivariate descriptive methodology presented here to demonstrate the epizootic's directional flow, while illustrating areas with higher case densities (i.e., wave crests). This approach should help epidemiologists and public health officials to better understand future rabies epizootics.

  16. The bats of Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bogan, Michael A.; Cryan, Paul M.; Choate, Jerry R.

    2000-01-01

    We examined 1280 bats of 12 species submitted to the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory (WSVL) for ra­bies testing between 1981 and 1992. The most abundant species in the sample was Myotis lucifugus, followed by Epte­sicus fuscus, Lasionycteris noetivagans, M. ciliolabrum, and M. volans. Using the WSVL sample and additional museum specimens, we summarized available records and knowledge for 17 species of bats in Wyoming, Records of the WSVL show that, between 1981 and 1992, 113 bats actually tested positive for rabies. We examined 45 of those rabies­ positive bats; E. fuscus had the highest incidence (60%) in the sample, followed by L. noctivagans (11 %) and L. cinereus (9%).

  17. Desert bighorn sheep mortality due to presumptive type C botulism in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swift, P.K.; Wehausen, J.D.; Ernest, H.B.; Singer, R.S.; Pauli, A.M.; Kinde, H.; Rocke, T.E.; Bleich, V.C.

    2000-01-01

    During a routine telemetry flight of the Mojave Desert (California, USA) in August 1995, mortality signals were detected from two of 12 radio-collared female desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the vicinity of Old Dad Peak in San Bernardino County (California). A series of field investigations determined that at least 45 bighorn sheep had died near two artificial water catchments (guzzlers), including 13 bighorn sheep which had presumably drowned in a guzzler tank. Samples from water contaminated by decomposing bighorn sheep carcasses and hemolyzed blood from a fresh bighorn sheep carcass were tested for the presence of pesticides, heavy metals, strychnine, blue-green algae, Clostridium botulinum toxin, ethylene glycol, nitrates, nitrites, sodium, and salts. Mouse bioassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detected type C botulinum toxin in the hemolyzed blood and in fly larvae and pupae. This, coupled with negative results from other analyses, led us to conclude that type C botulinum poisoning was most likely responsible for the mortality of bighorn sheep outside the guzzler tank.

  18. Cloning and comparison of bighorn sheep CD18 with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weiguo; Brayton, Kelly A; Lagerquist, John; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2006-03-15

    Previously, we have shown that CD18, the beta-subunit of beta(2)-integrins, serves as a receptor for leukotoxin (Lkt) secreted by Mannheimia (Pasteurella) haemolytica on bovine leukocytes. Anti-CD18 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit Lkt-induced cytolysis of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) leukocytes suggesting that CD18 may serve as a receptor for Lkt on the leukocytes of this species as well. Confirmation of bighorn sheep CD18 as a receptor for Lkt, and elucidation of the enhanced Lkt-susceptibility of bighorn sheep polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), necessitates the cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding bighorn sheep CD18. Hence, in this study we cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding CD18 of bighorn sheep, and compared with that of other animal species. The cDNA of bighorn sheep CD18 has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2310bp. CD18 sequences obtained individually from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PMNs were identical to each other. Comparison of the deduced 770-amino acid sequence of CD18 of bighorn sheep with that of domestic sheep, goats, cattle, humans and mice revealed 99, 98, 95, 82 and 80% identity, respectively. Availability of cloned bighorn sheep CD18 cDNA should allow the molecular characterization of M. haemolytica Lkt-receptor interactions in bighorn sheep and other ruminants that are susceptible to this disease.

  19. Changes in alluvial architecture associated with Eocene hyperthermals: Preliminary results from the Bighorn Basin Coring Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acks, R.; Kraus, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was followed by two lesser hyperthermal events: ETM2 and H2 both at ~53.7 Ma. The carbon isotope excursion for ETM2 was approximately half that of the PETM and the H2 excursion even smaller, indicating lower increases in temperature than during the PETM. The paleohydrologic responses to these events are less well understood than the response to PETM warming. Although the ETM2 and H2 events are better known from marine than continental strata, both events have been identified from outcrops of the alluvial Willwood Formation from the Deer Creek and Gilmore Hill areas of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming (Abels et al., 2012). Here, we analyze two cores drilled from stratigraphically equivalent Willwood strata from Gilmore Hill. The cores provide an opportunity to examine the impact of these events on the architecture of fluvial strata. Willwood strata are composed largely of channel sandstones, heterolithic deposits generated by channel avulsion, and paleosols that formed on overbank deposits. The paleosols provide qualitative and quantitative information on changes in soil moisture and precipitation through this interval. The cores also show a distinct change in the stacking of paleosols The core is subdivided into three parts: (1) the lowest ~third has thinner, more densely spaced paleosols, (2) the middle has thicker paleosols that are more widely spaced, and (3) the upper third has thicker and more common channel sandstones interspersed with avulsion deposits and fewer red paleosols; this corresponds to the hyperthermal interval. In particular, a ~20 m thick sandstone complex caps the section and appears to truncate part of the hyperthermal interval. Although vertical variations in alluvial architecture can reflect tectonic or climatic change, the correspondence of the sandstone-rich part of the cores with the hyperthermals suggests climate was the major control on their formation. Thick purple paleosols associated with the

  20. BigHorn Home Improvement Center Energy Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The BigHorn Development Project, located in Silverthorne, Colorado, is one of the nation's first commercial building projects to integrate extensive high-performance design into a retail space. The BigHorn Home Improvement Center, completed in the spring of 2000, is a 42,366-ft2 (3,936 m2) hardware store, warehouse, and lumberyard. The authors were brought in at the design stage of the project to provide research-level guidance to apply an integrated design process and perform a postoccupancy evaluation. An aggressive energy design goal of 60% energy cost saving was set early in the process, which focused the efforts of the design team and provided a goal for measuring the success of the project. The extensive use of natural light, combined with energy-efficient electrical lighting design, provides good illumination and excellent energy savings. The reduced lighting loads, management of solar gains, and cool climate allow natural ventilation to meet the cooling loads. A hydronic radiant floor system, gas-fired radiant heaters, and a transpired solar collector deliver heat. An 8.9-kW roof-integrated photovoltaic (PV) system offsets a portion of the electricity. After construction, the authors installed monitoring equipment to collect energy performance data and analyzed the building's energy performance for two and one-half years. The authors also helped program the building controls and provided recommendations for improving operating efficiency. The building shows an estimated 53% energy cost saving and a 54% source energy saving. These savings were determined with whole-building energy simulations that were calibrated with measured data. This paper discusses lessons learned related to the design process, the daylighting performance, the PV system, and the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system.

  1. Epizootic Pneumonia of Bighorn Sheep following Experimental Exposure to Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Thomas E.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Potter, Kathleen A.; Lahmers, Kevin; Oaks, J. Lindsay; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Srikumaran, Subramaniam; Foreyt, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bronchopneumonia is a population limiting disease of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). The cause of this disease has been a subject of debate. Leukotoxin expressing Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi produce acute pneumonia after experimental challenge but are infrequently isolated from animals in natural outbreaks. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, epidemiologically implicated in naturally occurring outbreaks, has received little experimental evaluation as a primary agent of bighorn sheep pneumonia. Methodology/Principal Findings In two experiments, bighorn sheep housed in multiple pens 7.6 to 12 m apart were exposed to M. ovipneumoniae by introduction of a single infected or challenged animal to a single pen. Respiratory disease was monitored by observation of clinical signs and confirmed by necropsy. Bacterial involvement in the pneumonic lungs was evaluated by conventional aerobic bacteriology and by culture-independent methods. In both experiments the challenge strain of M. ovipneumoniae was transmitted to all animals both within and between pens and all infected bighorn sheep developed bronchopneumonia. In six bighorn sheep in which the disease was allowed to run its course, three died with bronchopneumonia 34, 65, and 109 days after M. ovipneumoniae introduction. Diverse bacterial populations, predominantly including multiple obligate anaerobic species, were present in pneumonic lung tissues at necropsy. Conclusions/Significance Exposure to a single M. ovipneumoniae infected animal resulted in transmission of infection to all bighorn sheep both within the pen and in adjacent pens, and all infected sheep developed bronchopneumonia. The epidemiologic, pathologic and microbiologic findings in these experimental animals resembled those seen in naturally occurring pneumonia outbreaks in free ranging bighorn sheep. PMID:25302992

  2. Longwall in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2007-05-15

    The article describes development of a longwall operation at Pacific Corp's Jim Bridger mine in Wyoming, USA. The lease acquisition and permitting process began in late 2003 and the longwall operations began on 5 March 2007. The quality is between sub and bituminous coal. The mine is shallow and the surrounding rock is weaker than longwall mines in Colorado or Utah. DBT supplied the longwall system comprising 1.75 m shields, a 1 m wide face conveyor and a DBT EL200 shear with a 1-m web. The mine also operates a highwall unit and two draglines. 4 photos.

  3. A continuous climatic impact on Holocene human population in the Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Robert L; Surovell, Todd A; Shuman, Bryan N; Smith, Geoffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Ancient cultural changes have often been linked to abrupt climatic events, but the potential that climate can exert a persistent influence on human populations has been debated. Here, independent population, temperature, and moisture history reconstructions from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming (United States) show a clear quantitative relationship spanning 13 ka, which explains five major periods of population growth/decline and ~45% of the population variance. A persistent ~300-y lag in the human demographic response conforms with either slow (~0.3%) intrinsic annual population growth rates or a lag in the environmental carrying capacity, but in either case, the population continuously adjusted to changing environmental conditions. PMID:23267083

  4. Survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in the absence of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To test the hypothesis that Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae is an important agent of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) pneumonia that has previously inevitably followed experimental commingling with domestic sheep (Ovis aries), we commingled M. ovipneumoniae–free domestic and bighorn sheep (n=4 each). On...

  5. Oxygen isotope, fluid inclusion, microprobe and petrographic studies of the preCambrian granites from the southern Wind River range and the Granite Mountains, central Wyoming, U.S.A.: Constraints on origin, hydrothermal alteration and uranium genesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheang, K. K.

    The Granite Mountain is comprised of the granite of Long Creek Mountain and the volumetrically dominant granite of Lankin Dome. Average delta 018 O values in per mil deg/00 of the granite of Long Creek Mountain is 8.2 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 4) and average delta 018 8.5 + or - -0.5 deg/00 (N = 37), values of the two phases from the granite of Lankin Dome are: biotite granites = delta 018 8.5 + or 0.5 deg/00 (N = 37), leucocratic graphite = 8.4 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 12). The average delta 018 values for Louis Lake Batholith are: hornblende-biotite granodiorite = 7.3 + or - 0.3 deg/00 (N = 13) and leucocratic biotite granite = 7.7 + or - 0.1 deg/00 (N = 6). It is concluded from the whole rock oxygen isotopic, mineralogical, chemical and strontium isotopic data that the unaltered granites in the Granite Mountains were probably derived from a uranium enriched source with some peraluminous metasedimentary component which favoured the preconcentration of uranium and thorium, whereas the Louis Lake Batholith was formed by partial melting of igneous source materials that are not strongly enriched in uranium.

  6. A comparison of trace element concentrations in biota from four irrigation projects in Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, P. Jr.; Jennings, M.; Dickerson, K.

    1994-12-31

    Irrigation drainwater can or has the potential to cause the mobilization of trace elements into the food chain and adversely affect fish and aquatic birds. Because of the semi-arid climate, irrigation is a necessary component of agriculture in Wyoming. Biota from four irrigation projects in Wyoming were collected and analyzed for trace element concentrations between 1988 and 1990. The irrigation projects included: the Kendrick Reclamation Project, Natrona County; the Riverton Reclamation Project, Fremont County; the Shoshone Irrigation Project, Park and Bighorn counties; and the Wind River Irrigation Project, Fremont County. Selenium concentrations were elevated in aquatic vegetation, aquatic invertebrates, bird eggs, bird livers and fish from the Kendrick Reclamation Project. Reproductive impairment and embryo teratogenesis was documented at the Kendrick Reclamation Project. Trace element concentrations in most biological samples from the three other irrigation projects were less than levels suspected of causing adverse effects. However, at the Riverton Reclamation Project, selenium concentrations in some samples of aquatic vegetation, aquatic invertebrates, fish and fish eggs exceeded concentrations associated with adverse effects. Differences in selenium concentrations in the four irrigation projects can be explained by the extent of seleniferous formations and soils, and the presence of closed basin wetlands.

  7. Modeling risk of pneumonia epizootics in bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sells, Sarah N.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Nowak, J. Joshua; Lukacs, Paul M.; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Gude, Justin A.; Krausman, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Pneumonia epizootics are a major challenge for management of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) affecting persistence of herds, satisfaction of stakeholders, and allocations of resources by management agencies. Risk factors associated with the disease are poorly understood, making pneumonia epizootics hard to predict; such epizootics are thus managed reactively rather than proactively. We developed a model for herds in Montana that identifies risk factors and addresses biological questions about risk. Using Bayesian logistic regression with repeated measures, we found that private land, weed control using domestic sheep or goats, pneumonia history, and herd density were positively associated with risk of pneumonia epizootics in 43 herds that experienced 22 epizootics out of 637 herd-years from 1979–2013. We defined an area of high risk for pathogen exposure as the area of each herd distribution plus a 14.5-km buffer from that boundary. Within this area, the odds of a pneumonia epizootic increased by >1.5 times per additional unit of private land (unit is the standardized % of private land where global  = 25.58% and SD = 14.53%). Odds were >3.3 times greater if domestic sheep or goats were used for weed control in a herd's area of high risk. If a herd or its neighbors within the area of high risk had a history of a pneumonia epizootic, odds of a subsequent pneumonia epizootic were >10 times greater. Risk greatly increased when herds were at high density, with nearly 15 times greater odds of a pneumonia epizootic compared to when herds were at low density. Odds of a pneumonia epizootic also appeared to decrease following increased spring precipitation (odds = 0.41 per unit increase, global  = 100.18% and SD = 26.97%). Risk was not associated with number of federal sheep and goat allotments, proximity to nearest herds of bighorn sheep, ratio of rams to ewes, percentage of average winter precipitation, or whether herds were of native versus mixed

  8. Paleoproterozoic metamorphism in the northern Wyoming province: Implications for the assembly of Laurentia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, P.A.; Burger, H.R.; Wooden, J.L.; Brady, J.B.; Cheney, J.T.; Hamrs, T.A.; Heatherington, A.L.; Mogk, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    U-Pb ages measured on zircons from the Tobacco Root Mountains and monazite from the Highland Mountains indicate that the northwestern Wyoming province experienced an episode of high-grade metamorphism at ???1.77 Ga. Leucosome emplaced in Archean gneisses from the Tobacco Root Mountains contains a distinctive population of zircons with an age of 1.77 Ga but also contains zircons to ???3.5 Ga; it is interpreted to have been derived primarily by anatexis of nearby Archean schist. A granulite facies mafic dike that cuts across Archean gneissic banding in the Tobacco Root Mountains contains two distinct populations of zircons. A group of small (<50 ??m) nonprismatic grains is interpreted to be metamorphic and yields an age of 1.76 Ga; a group of slightly larger prismatic grains yields an age of 2.06 Ga, which is interpreted to be the time of crystallization of the dike. Monazite from a leucogranite from the Highland Mountains yields a well-defined age of 1.77 Ga, which is interpreted as the time of partial melting and emplacement of the leucogranite. These results suggest that the northwestern Wyoming province, which largely lies within the western part of the Great Falls tectonic zone, experienced a metamorphic maximum at 1.77 Ga. This age is ???100 m.yr. younger than the proposed time of Wyoming-Hearne collision in the central Great Falls tectonic zone (1.86 Ga) and suggests that the northwestern Wyoming province may have been involved in a separate, younger collisional event at ???1.77 Ga. An event at this time is essentially coeval with collisions proposed for the eastern and southeastern margins of the province and suggests a multiepisodic model for the incorporation of the Wyoming craton into Laurentia. ?? 2005 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  9. Causes of pneumonia epizootics among bighorn sheep, Western United States, 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Highland, Margaret A; Baker, Katherine; Cassirer, E Frances; Anderson, Neil J; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren L; Wolff, Peregrine; Smith, Joshua B; Jenks, Jonathan A

    2012-03-01

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep.

  10. Causes of Pneumonia Epizootics among Bighorn Sheep, Western United States, 2008–2010

    PubMed Central

    Highland, Margaret A.; Baker, Katherine; Cassirer, E. Frances; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren L.; Wolff, Peregrine; Smith, Joshua B.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    Epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep is a devastating disease of uncertain etiology. To help clarify the etiology, we used culture and culture-independent methods to compare the prevalence of the bacterial respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica, Bibersteinia trehalosi, Pasteurella multocida, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae in lung tissue from 44 bighorn sheep from herds affected by 8 outbreaks in the western United States. M. ovipneumoniae, the only agent detected at significantly higher prevalence in animals from outbreaks (95%) than in animals from unaffected healthy populations (0%), was the most consistently detected agent and the only agent that exhibited single strain types within each outbreak. The other respiratory pathogens were frequently but inconsistently detected, as were several obligate anaerobic bacterial species, all of which might represent secondary or opportunistic infections that could contribute to disease severity. These data provide evidence that M. ovipneumoniae plays a primary role in the etiology of epizootic pneumonia of bighorn sheep. PMID:22377321

  11. 76 FR 32225 - Notice of Public Meeting; Wyoming Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Yellowstone, Cheyenne, Wyoming. FOR FURTHER INFORMATON CONTACT: Cindy Wertz, Wyoming Resource Advisory Council Coordinator, Wyoming State Office, 5353 Yellowstone, Cheyenne, Wyoming, 82009, telephone 307-775-6014....

  12. SAVAGE RUN WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, M.E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral evaluation and related surveys were conducted in the Savage Run Wilderness in Wyoming and results of these studies indicate probable mineral-resource potential in four areas. Gold and (or) silver mineralization in veins associated with faults was found in two areas; all known occurrences inside the wilderness are very small in size. Slightly anomalous values of platinum, palladium, and nickel were recorded from rock-chip and stream- sediment samples from the southeast portion of the wilderness where layered mafic rocks predominate, and a probable resource potential exists for platinum, palladium, and nickel. An area of sheared rocks in the northeastern corner of the wilderness has a probable resource potential for copper. The nature of the geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of organic fuels.

  13. NORTH ABSAROKA WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Willis H.; Williams, Frank E.

    1984-01-01

    The North Absaroka Wilderness in Wyoming was studied to evaluate the resource potential of the area. The results of geologic field mapping, field inspection of claims and prospects, analyses of bedrock and stream-sediment samples, and an aeromagnetic survey indicate that a small area of geologic terrane with probable mineral-resource potential for silver, lead, and zinc is present on the northern edge of the wilderness. Bentonite, low-quality coal, and localized deposits of uranium and chromite have been produced from surrounding areas; but such deposits, if present in the wilderness, are probably too deeply buried, too small, or too sporadically distributed to be classed as resources. Copper and gold mines and prospects are present on the fringes of the wilderness, but otherwise the area seems to be devoid of concentrations of metallic minerals. No surface evidence of geothermal energy resources was found.

  14. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  15. 75 FR 19920 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wyoming; Revisions to the Wyoming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Wyoming; Revisions to the Wyoming Air Quality Standards and Regulations AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...) revisions submitted by the State of Wyoming on September 11, 2008. Wyoming has revised its Air...

  16. Fusobacterium necrophorum in North American Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Narayanan, Sanjeevkumar; Batra, Sai Arun; Jegarubee, Bavananthasivam; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum has been detected in pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis ) lungs, in addition to the aerobic respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica , Bibersteinia trehalosi , Pasteurella multocida , and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae . Similar to M. haemolytica , F. necrophorum produces a leukotoxin. Leukotoxin-induced lysis and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and macrophages are responsible for acute inflammation and lung tissue damage characteristic of M. haemolytica -caused pneumonia. As one approach in elucidating the role of F. necrophorum in BHS pneumonia, we determined the frequency of the presence of F. necrophorum in archived pneumonic BHS lung tissues, and susceptibility of BHS leukocytes to F. necrophorum leukotoxin. A species-specific PCR assay detected F. necrophorum in 37% of pneumonic BHS lung tissues (total tested n=70). Sequences of PCR amplicons were similar to the less virulent F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin exhibited cytotoxicity to BHS PMNs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As with the M. haemolytica leukotoxin, F. necrophorum leukotoxin was more toxic to BHS PMNs than domestic sheep PMNs. It is likely that F. necrophorum enters the lungs after M. haemolytica and other aerobic respiratory pathogens enter the lungs and initiate tissue damage, thereby creating a microenvironment that is conducive for anaerobic bacterial growth. In summary, Fusobacterium leukotoxin is highly toxic for BHS leukocytes; however, based on the PCR findings, it is unlikely to play a direct role in the development of BHS pneumonia.

  17. Fusobacterium necrophorum in North American Bighorn Sheep ( Ovis canadensis ) Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Narayanan, Sanjeevkumar; Batra, Sai Arun; Jegarubee, Bavananthasivam; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-07-01

    Fusobacterium necrophorum has been detected in pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis ) lungs, in addition to the aerobic respiratory pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica , Bibersteinia trehalosi , Pasteurella multocida , and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae . Similar to M. haemolytica , F. necrophorum produces a leukotoxin. Leukotoxin-induced lysis and degranulation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and macrophages are responsible for acute inflammation and lung tissue damage characteristic of M. haemolytica -caused pneumonia. As one approach in elucidating the role of F. necrophorum in BHS pneumonia, we determined the frequency of the presence of F. necrophorum in archived pneumonic BHS lung tissues, and susceptibility of BHS leukocytes to F. necrophorum leukotoxin. A species-specific PCR assay detected F. necrophorum in 37% of pneumonic BHS lung tissues (total tested n=70). Sequences of PCR amplicons were similar to the less virulent F. necrophorum subsp. funduliforme. Fusobacterium necrophorum leukotoxin exhibited cytotoxicity to BHS PMNs and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. As with the M. haemolytica leukotoxin, F. necrophorum leukotoxin was more toxic to BHS PMNs than domestic sheep PMNs. It is likely that F. necrophorum enters the lungs after M. haemolytica and other aerobic respiratory pathogens enter the lungs and initiate tissue damage, thereby creating a microenvironment that is conducive for anaerobic bacterial growth. In summary, Fusobacterium leukotoxin is highly toxic for BHS leukocytes; however, based on the PCR findings, it is unlikely to play a direct role in the development of BHS pneumonia. PMID:27224212

  18. Stochastic predation events and population persistence in bighorn sheep.

    PubMed

    Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Coulson, Tim; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Hogg, John T; Pelletier, Fanie

    2006-06-22

    Many studies have reported temporal changes in the relative importance of density-dependence and environmental stochasticity in affecting population growth rates, but they typically assume that the predominant factor limiting growth remains constant over long periods of time. Stochastic switches in limiting factors that persist for multiple time-steps have received little attention, but most wild populations may periodically experience such switches. Here, we consider the dynamics of three populations of individually marked bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) monitored for 24-28 years. Each population experienced one or two distinct cougar (Puma concolor) predation events leading to population declines. The onset and duration of predation events were stochastic and consistent with predation by specialist individuals. A realistic Markov chain model confirms that predation by specialist cougars can cause extinction of isolated populations. We suggest that such processes may be common. In such cases, predator-prey equilibria may only occur at large geographical and temporal scales, and are unlikely with increasing habitat fragmentation.

  19. New interpretation of Clarks Fork field, northern Bighorn basin, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.S.; Lindsley-Griffin, N.

    1986-08-01

    Clarks Fork field is located at the northern edge of the Bighorn basin (T9S, R22E) in Carbon County, Montana. Production was first established in 1944 by General Petroleum Corporation in the Cretaceous Peay Sandstone (basal Frontier) and was later extended to the Cretaceous Greybull (1949) and Lakota (1956) sandstones by British American. Total cumulative hydrocarbons from this field are 1,1789,193 bbl of oil and 3,061,522 mcf of gas, with Lakota sandstones being most productive. Lakota production occurs from a structural-stratigraphic trap in an east-west-trending channel on the axis of Clarks Fork anticline, geographically near the center of the township. Our structural reinterpretation of Clarks Fork field suggests that Elk Basin anticline is a northwest extension of the Elk Basin field anticline. The Elk Basin thrust truncates the north limb of the fold and does not strike to the northwest, as shown by earlier interpretations. They interpret a northwest-striking thrust in the center of the township as a splay off the Elk Basin thrust, and have named it the Clarks Fork thrust. The Clarks Fork anticline is located on the hanging wall of Clarks Fork thrust. Subsurface maps indicate the Clarks Fork area has not been fully developed. Stratigraphic traps in the Lakota and Greybull sandstones are present in several areas of the township. Structural traps in the center and northwest portions of the township may also exist.

  20. Stochastic predation events and population persistence in bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Coulson, Tim; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Hogg, John T; Pelletier, Fanie

    2006-01-01

    Many studies have reported temporal changes in the relative importance of density-dependence and environmental stochasticity in affecting population growth rates, but they typically assume that the predominant factor limiting growth remains constant over long periods of time. Stochastic switches in limiting factors that persist for multiple time-steps have received little attention, but most wild populations may periodically experience such switches. Here, we consider the dynamics of three populations of individually marked bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) monitored for 24–28 years. Each population experienced one or two distinct cougar (Puma concolor) predation events leading to population declines. The onset and duration of predation events were stochastic and consistent with predation by specialist individuals. A realistic Markov chain model confirms that predation by specialist cougars can cause extinction of isolated populations. We suggest that such processes may be common. In such cases, predator–prey equilibria may only occur at large geographical and temporal scales, and are unlikely with increasing habitat fragmentation. PMID:16777749

  1. Hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of the Paleozoic rocks in the upper Colorado River basin in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, excluding the San Juan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geldon, Arthur L.

    2003-01-01

    The hydrologic properties and ground-water flow systems of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks in the Upper Colorado River Basin were investigated under the Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) program of the U.S. Geological Survey in anticipation of the development of water supplies from bedrock aquifers to fulfill the region's growing water demands. The study area, in parts of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah, and Wyoming, covers about 100,000 square miles. It includes parts of four physiographic provinces--the Middle Rocky Mountains, Wyoming Basin, Southern Rocky Mountains, and Colorado Plateaus. A variety of landforms, including mountains, plateaus, mesas, cuestas, plains, badlands, and canyons, are present. Altitudes range from 3,100 to 14,500 feet. Precipitation is distributed orographically and ranges from less than 6 inches per year at lower altitudes to more than 60 inches per year in some mountainous areas. Most of the infrequent precipitation at altitudes of less than 6,000 feet is consumed by evapotranspiration. The Colorado and Green Rivers are the principal streams: the 1964-82 average discharge of the Colorado River where it leaves the Upper Colorado River Basin is 12,170 cubic feet per second (a decrease of 5,680 cubic feet per second since construction of Glen Canyon Dam in 1963). On the basis of their predominant lithologic and hydrologic properties, the Paleozoic rocks are classified into four aquifers and three confining units. The Flathead aquifer, Gros Ventre confining unit, Bighorn aquifer, Elbert-Parting confining unit, and Madison aquifer (Redwall-Leadville and Darwin-Humbug zones) make up the Four Corners aquifer system. A thick sequence, composed mostly of Mississippian and Pennsylvanian shale, anhydrite, halite, and carbonate rocks--the Four Corners confining unit (Belden-Molas and Paradox-Eagle Valley subunits)--overlies the Four Corners aquifer system in most areas and inhibits vertical ground-water flow between the Four Corners aquifer

  2. Influence of climate and eolian dust on the major-element chemistry and clay mineralogy of soils in the northern Bighorn basin, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Soil chronosequences in the northern Bighorn basin permit the study of chronologic changes in the major-element chemistry and clay mineralogy of soils formed in different climates. Two chronosequences along Rock Creek in south-central Montana formed on granitic alluvium in humid and semiarid climates over the past two million years. A chronosequence at the Kane fans in north-central Wyoming formed on calcareous alluvium in an arid climate over the past 600,000 years. Detailed analyses of elemental chemistry indicate that the soils in all three areas gradually incorporated eolian dust that contained less zirconium, considered to be chemically immobile during weathering, than did the alluvium. B and C horizons of soils in the wettest of the chronosequences developed mainly at logarithmic rates, suggesting that leaching, initially rapid but decelerating, dominated the dust additions. In contrast, soils in the most arid of the chronosequences developed at linear rates that reflect progressive dust additions that were little affected by leaching. Both weathering and erosion may cause changes with time to appear logarithmic in A horizons of soils under the moist and semiarid climatic regimes. Clay minerals form with time in the basal B and C horizons and reflect climatic differences in the three areas. Vermiculite, mixed-layer illite-smectite, and smectite form in the soils of the moist-climate chronosequence; smectite forms in the semiarid-climate chronosequence; and smectite and palygorskite form in the arid-climate chronosequence. ?? 1990.

  3. Libraries in Wyoming: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/wyoming.html Libraries in Wyoming To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cheyenne Laramie County Library System 2200 Pioneer Ave. Cheyenne, WY 82001 307- ...

  4. A bighorn sheep die-off in southern Colorado involving a Pasteurellaceae strain that may have originated from syntopic cattle.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Diamond, Brandon; Spraker, Terry R; Sirochman, Michael A; Walsh, Daniel P; Machin, Chandra M; Bade, Donald J; Miller, Michael W

    2010-10-01

    We investigated a pasteurellosis epizootic in free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) wherein a Pasteurellaceae strain carried by syntopic cattle (Bos taurus) under severe winter conditions appeared to contribute to pneumonia in affected bighorns. Twenty-one moribund or dead bighorn sheep were found on the "Fossil Ridge" herd's winter range, Colorado, USA, between 13 December 2007 and 29 February 2008. Eight carcasses examined showed gross or microscopic evidence of acute to subacute fibrinous bronchopneumonia. All eight carcasses yielded at least one β-hemolytic Mannheimia haemolytica biogroup 1(±(G)) strain, and seven also yielded a β-hemolytic Bibersteinia trehalosi biogroup 4 (CDS) strain; evidence of Pasteurella multocida, Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, and parainfluenza 3 and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses was also detected. Isolates of β-hemolytic Manneimia haemolytica biogroup 1(G) from a bighorn carcass and a syntopic cow showed 99.5% similarity in genetic fingerprints; B. trehalosi biogroup 4(CDS) isolates were ≥94.9% similar to an isolate from a nearby bighorn herd. Field and laboratory observations suggested that pneumonia in affected bighorns may have been caused by a combination of pathogens including two pathogenic Pasteurellaceae strains--one likely of cattle origin and one likely of bighorn origin--with infections in some cases perhaps exacerbated by other respiratory pathogens and severe weather conditions. Our and others' findings suggest that intimate interactions between wild sheep and cattle should be discouraged as part of a comprehensive approach to health management and conservation of North American wild sheep species.

  5. Wyoming: Territory to Statehood, Unit VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    Designed for elementary school students, this unit on the Wyoming evolution from territory to statehood provides concepts, activities, stories, resources, and maps. Concepts stress the five national flags which have flown over Wyoming, several other territories Wyoming was a part of, construction of the Union Pacific railroad, problems of the new…

  6. Local Re-Cratonization of the Wyoming Province and the Uplift of the Black Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezada, M.; Humphreys, E.; Schmandt, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Archean Wyoming Craton is a primary building block of the core of the North American continent. It resisted tectonic deformation for over a billion years, but during the Laramide orogeny significant crustal shortening was accommodated by basement-involved thrusting. Xenoliths suggest that ~50 km of cratonic mantle were removed from the Wyoming Province by basal erosion during this time. This orogenic event resulted in the formation of several mountain ranges in Wyoming which are part of the Rocky Mountains. The eastern limit of the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming is typically defined by the Big Horn and Laramie ranges. The Black Hills represent a topographic anomaly having a similar trend to the Big Horn and the Laramie Mts, but lying ~200 km NE of the Rocky Mountain Front (RMF); while the intervening region is relatively undeformed. Subduction of the conjugate to the Shatsky Rise is the leading hypothesis to explain the flattening of the Farallon slab that lead to the Laramide orogeny. The leading edge of the Shatsky conjugate would have been the conjugate to the Tamu Massif, the largest known single volcano on the planet. The reconstructed path of the Tamu conjugate plausibly places it beneath the region between the RMF and the Black Hills, where a high seismic velocity anomaly is observed by body wave tomography to depths exceeding 200 km. We propose that subcretion of the highly depleted mantle lithosphere of the Tamu cojugate re-cratonized a region of the Wyoming Province forming a distinct rigid block. We further suggest that the new block successfully resisted tectonic deformation and transferred the stresses of the Laramide orogeny northeastward to generate the basement-cored uplift of the Black Hills.

  7. Redescription of Bellerophon bittneri (Gastropoda: Triassic) from Wyoming.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yochelson, E.L.; Boyd, D.W.; Wardlaw, B.

    1985-01-01

    Bellerophon bittneri Newell and Kummel is an Early Triassic bellerophontacean from the Dinwoody Formation in the Wind River Mountains. The available type material consists of one fair, but incomplete, external mold, which resembles a Bellerophon but is actually a Retispira. After repeated search, additional specimens were found at one locality in the southern Wind River Range of Wyoming; Retispira bittneri is redescribed from this new material. Like other Triassic bellerophontaceans, there is nothing unusual about the species apart from occurrence in the Mesozoic; it is clearly congeneric with Permian Retispira from underlying rocks. -Authors

  8. Bathymetry and temperature of some glacial lakes in Wyoming

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Luna B.

    1980-01-01

    On the west flank of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming, are several large lakes occupying glacially scoured depressions dammed by terminal moraines. Fremont, Willow, and New Fork Lakes, having maximal depths of 185, 85, and 62 m, respectively, are not only deep, but in 1970-1978 they had no measurable coliform. They have exceptionally low values of total dissolved solids; Fremont Lake has only 12.8 mg/liter, probably the second most dilute large lake in coterminus United States. Summer mixing is restricted to the uppermost 10 m, below which the lakes are essentially isothermal at the maximum density temperature, about 3.9°C. PMID:16592797

  9. Bathymetry and temperature of some glacial lakes in Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Leopold, L B

    1980-04-01

    On the west flank of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming, are several large lakes occupying glacially scoured depressions dammed by terminal moraines. Fremont, Willow, and New Fork Lakes, having maximal depths of 185, 85, and 62 m, respectively, are not only deep, but in 1970-1978 they had no measurable coliform. They have exceptionally low values of total dissolved solids; Fremont Lake has only 12.8 mg/liter, probably the second most dilute large lake in coterminus United States. Summer mixing is restricted to the uppermost 10 m, below which the lakes are essentially isothermal at the maximum density temperature, about 3.9 degrees C.

  10. Bathymetry and temperature of some glacial lakes in Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Leopold, L B

    1980-04-01

    On the west flank of the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming, are several large lakes occupying glacially scoured depressions dammed by terminal moraines. Fremont, Willow, and New Fork Lakes, having maximal depths of 185, 85, and 62 m, respectively, are not only deep, but in 1970-1978 they had no measurable coliform. They have exceptionally low values of total dissolved solids; Fremont Lake has only 12.8 mg/liter, probably the second most dilute large lake in coterminus United States. Summer mixing is restricted to the uppermost 10 m, below which the lakes are essentially isothermal at the maximum density temperature, about 3.9 degrees C. PMID:16592797

  11. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    This report is temporarily unavailableSummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  12. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  13. Remote Stratigraphic Analysis: Combined TM and AIS Results in the Wind River/bighorn Basin Area, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, H. R.; Paylor, E. D.; Adams, S.

    1985-01-01

    An in-progress study demonstrates the utility of airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data for unraveling the stratigraphic evolution of a North American, western interior foreland basin. AIS data are used to determine the stratigraphic distribution of mineralogical facies that are diagnostic of specific depositional environments. After wavelength and amplitude calibration using natural ground targets with known spectral characteristics, AIS data identify calcite, dolomite, gypsum and montmorillonite-bearing strata in the Permian-Cretaceous sequence. Combined AIS and TM results illustrate the feasibility of spectral stratigraphy, remote analysis of stratigraphic sequences.

  14. Unraveling the multiple origins of heterogeneity within Lower Mississippian Madison reservoirs: Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sonnenfeld, M.D.

    1995-08-01

    {open_quotes}Fracture-controlled{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}karst-controlled{close_quotes} contributions to reservoir heterogeneity tend to be viewed as non-fabric selective in nature. Given such an outlook, predictions of fracture and karst overprints depend on an awareness of extrinsic controls such as past and present stress-fields, structural curvature, fault proximity, and the positions and movements of paleo-water tables. The hierarchical sequence stratigraphy of the 300 m Madison provides the stratigraphic framework necessary to characterize the vertical distribution of early, fabric-selective platformal dolomite; additionally, this framework assists in discriminating between fabric-selective and non-fabric-selective styles of karst and fracturing. In the case of Madison karst, early meteoric lithification and subtle Mississippian tectonics resulted in a vertically oriented fracture-controlled karst on top of the Madison, yet this non fabric-selective system channeled waters into several fabric-selective, regionally widespread solution collapse zones and cave systems. The horizontally oriented regional dissolution was stratigraphically controlled by soluble evaporitic zones and/or argillaceous aquitards overlying intra-Madison sequence boundaries rather than occurring at various unconfined water-table stillstands. Evaporite solution collapse breccias presently form partial to complete barriers to vertical fluid flow depending on thickness and degree of associated argillaceous influx, while cave-roof {open_quotes}fracture breccias{close_quotes} were preferential sites of late dolomitization within the giant Elk Basin Madison reservoir. In the case of Madison fracturing, stratigraphic cycles of several scales provide effective scales of analysis in the quest for true mechanical stratigraphic units defined by common fracture styles.

  15. Estimates of monthly streamflow characteristics at selected sites, Wind River and part of Bighorn River drainage basins, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rankl, J.G.; Montague, Ellen; Lenz, B.N.

    1994-01-01

    Monthly streamflow records from gaging stations with more than 5 years of record were extended to a 50-year base period, 1941-90, using a mixed- station, record-extension model. Monthly streamflow characteristics were computed from the extended record. Four statistical methods--basin characteristics, active-channel width, concurrent measurement, and weighted average were used to estimate monthly streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites and at streamflow-gaging stations with fewer than 5 years of record. Linear- regression models were used with the basin characteristic and active-channel-width methods to define the relations between the monthly streamflow characteristics and physical basin, climatic, and channel characteristics. The concurrent-measurement method used a Maintenance of Variance Extension, Type 1 curve-fitting technique to correlate discharge at active streamflow-gaging stations, which had computed streamflow characteristics, with discharge measured at ungaged sites. The weighted-average method is a weighted combination of estimates from any two or all three of the other methods. For the basin-characteristics method, the standard errors of estimate ranged from 37 to 83 percent and for the active-channel-width method, 34 to 100 percent. Standard errors for the concurrent- measurement method ranged from 27 to 151 percent. The standard error for the weighted-average method, ranged from 18 to 82 percent, which was lower than any individual method. Application of the equations for estimating monthly streamflow characteristics is limited to perennial streams with physical-basin, climatic, and active channel- width characteristics that are within the range of values used in the study. The equations are not applicable to estimate flow for ephemeral streams.

  16. Role of bibersteinia trehalosi, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza-3 virus in bighorn sheep pneumonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS) have been found to be culture- and/or sero-positive for Bibersteinia trehalosi, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI-3). The objective of this study was to determine whether these pathogens can cause fatal pneumonia in BHS. In the first study...

  17. Use of exposure history to identify patterns of immunity to pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia; Cassirer, E. Frances; Besser, Thomas H.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Individual host immune responses to infectious agents drive epidemic behavior and are therefore central to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. However, important features of individual immune responses, such as the strength and longevity of immunity, can be challenging to characterize, particularly if they cannot be replicated or controlled in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ. Pneumonia is a poorly understood disease that has impeded the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) following their widespread extirpation in the 1900s. We analyzed the effects of pneumonia-exposure history on survival of 388 radio-collared adults and 753 ewe-lamb pairs. Results from Cox proportional hazards models suggested that surviving ewes develop protective immunity after exposure, but previous exposure in ewes does not protect their lambs during pneumonia outbreaks. Paradoxically, multiple exposures of ewes to pneumonia were associated with diminished survival of their offspring during pneumonia outbreaks. Although there was support for waning and boosting immunity in ewes, models with consistent immunizing exposure were similarly supported. Translocated animals that had not previously been exposed were more likely to die of pneumonia than residents. These results suggest that pneumonia in bighorn sheep can lead to aging populations of immune adults with limited recruitment. Recovery is unlikely to be enhanced by translocating nai¨ve healthy animals into or near populations infected with pneumonia pathogens.

  18. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae can predispose bighorn sheep to fatal Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae has been isolated from the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS). However experimental reproduction of fatal pneumonia in BHS with M. ovipneumoniae was not successful. Therefore the specific role, if any, of M. ovipneumoniae in BHS pneumonia is unclear. The objective of th...

  19. Use of Exposure History to Identify Patterns of Immunity to Pneumonia in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Plowright, Raina K.; Manlove, Kezia; Cassirer, E. Frances; Cross, Paul C.; Besser, Thomas E.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Individual host immune responses to infectious agents drive epidemic behavior and are therefore central to understanding and controlling infectious diseases. However, important features of individual immune responses, such as the strength and longevity of immunity, can be challenging to characterize, particularly if they cannot be replicated or controlled in captive environments. Our research on bighorn sheep pneumonia elucidates how individual bighorn sheep respond to infection with pneumonia pathogens by examining the relationship between exposure history and survival in situ. Pneumonia is a poorly understood disease that has impeded the recovery of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) following their widespread extirpation in the 1900s. We analyzed the effects of pneumonia-exposure history on survival of 388 radio-collared adults and 753 ewe-lamb pairs. Results from Cox proportional hazards models suggested that surviving ewes develop protective immunity after exposure, but previous exposure in ewes does not protect their lambs during pneumonia outbreaks. Paradoxically, multiple exposures of ewes to pneumonia were associated with diminished survival of their offspring during pneumonia outbreaks. Although there was support for waning and boosting immunity in ewes, models with consistent immunizing exposure were similarly supported. Translocated animals that had not previously been exposed were more likely to die of pneumonia than residents. These results suggest that pneumonia in bighorn sheep can lead to aging populations of immune adults with limited recruitment. Recovery is unlikely to be enhanced by translocating naïve healthy animals into or near populations infected with pneumonia pathogens. PMID:23637929

  20. Timing and synchrony of births in bighorn sheep: implications for reintroduction and conservation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaver, Robert W.; Jericho C. Whiting,; Daniel D. Olson,; Justin M. Shannon,; Terry Bowyer,; Jerran T. Flinders,

    2012-01-01

    Implications: Consideration should be given to the adjustment of timing and synchrony of births when reintroducing bighorns, especially when animals are released into different ecoregions. Also, biologists should select release sites that are ecologically similar to source areas, thereby reducing potential negative effects of animals adjusting timing and synchrony of births to environmental conditions of restoration areas.

  1. Bighorn sheep pneumonia: Sorting out the cause of a polymicrobial disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pneumonia of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a dramatic disease of high morbidity and mortality first described more than 80 years ago. The etiology of the disease has been debated since its initial discovery, and at various times lungworms, Mannheimia haemolytica and other Pasteurellaceae, and M...

  2. A summary of the U.S. Geological Survey 1999 resource assessment of selected coal zones in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, Wyoming, Montana, and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ellis, M.S.; Nichols, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    In 1999, 1,100 million short tons of coal were produced in the United States, 38 percent from the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region. This coal has low ash content, and sulfur content is in compliance with Clean Air Act standards (U.S. Statutes at Large, 1990).The National Coal Resource Assessment for this region includes geologic, stratigraphic, palynologic, and geochemical studies and resource calculations for 18 major coal zones in the Powder River, Williston, Green River, Hanna, and Carbon Basins. Calculated resources are 660,000 million short tons. Results of the study are available in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1625?A (Fort Union Coal Assess-ment Team, 1999) and Open-File Report 99-376 (Flores and others, 1999) in CD-ROM format.

  3. An individual-based modelling approach to estimate landscape connectivity for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Corrie H.; Kyle, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background. Preserving connectivity, or the ability of a landscape to support species movement, is among the most commonly recommended strategies to reduce the negative effects of climate change and human land use development on species. Connectivity analyses have traditionally used a corridor-based approach and rely heavily on least cost path modeling and circuit theory to delineate corridors. Individual-based models are gaining popularity as a potentially more ecologically realistic method of estimating landscape connectivity. However, this remains a relatively unexplored approach. We sought to explore the utility of a simple, individual-based model as a land-use management support tool in identifying and implementing landscape connectivity. Methods. We created an individual-based model of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that simulates a bighorn sheep traversing a landscape by following simple movement rules. The model was calibrated for bighorn sheep in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, a region containing isolated herds that are vital to conservation of the species in its northern range. Simulations were run to determine baseline connectivity between subpopulations in the study area. We then applied the model to explore two land management scenarios on simulated connectivity: restoring natural fire regimes and identifying appropriate sites for interventions that would increase road permeability for bighorn sheep. Results. This model suggests there are no continuous areas of good habitat between current subpopulations of sheep in the study area; however, a series of stepping-stones or circuitous routes could facilitate movement between subpopulations and into currently unoccupied, yet suitable, bighorn habitat. Restoring natural fire regimes or mimicking fire with prescribed burns and tree removal could considerably increase bighorn connectivity in this area. Moreover, several key road crossing sites that could benefit from wildlife overpasses were

  4. An individual-based modelling approach to estimate landscape connectivity for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    PubMed

    Allen, Corrie H; Parrott, Lael; Kyle, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background. Preserving connectivity, or the ability of a landscape to support species movement, is among the most commonly recommended strategies to reduce the negative effects of climate change and human land use development on species. Connectivity analyses have traditionally used a corridor-based approach and rely heavily on least cost path modeling and circuit theory to delineate corridors. Individual-based models are gaining popularity as a potentially more ecologically realistic method of estimating landscape connectivity. However, this remains a relatively unexplored approach. We sought to explore the utility of a simple, individual-based model as a land-use management support tool in identifying and implementing landscape connectivity. Methods. We created an individual-based model of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that simulates a bighorn sheep traversing a landscape by following simple movement rules. The model was calibrated for bighorn sheep in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, a region containing isolated herds that are vital to conservation of the species in its northern range. Simulations were run to determine baseline connectivity between subpopulations in the study area. We then applied the model to explore two land management scenarios on simulated connectivity: restoring natural fire regimes and identifying appropriate sites for interventions that would increase road permeability for bighorn sheep. Results. This model suggests there are no continuous areas of good habitat between current subpopulations of sheep in the study area; however, a series of stepping-stones or circuitous routes could facilitate movement between subpopulations and into currently unoccupied, yet suitable, bighorn habitat. Restoring natural fire regimes or mimicking fire with prescribed burns and tree removal could considerably increase bighorn connectivity in this area. Moreover, several key road crossing sites that could benefit from wildlife overpasses were

  5. An individual-based modelling approach to estimate landscape connectivity for bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    PubMed

    Allen, Corrie H; Parrott, Lael; Kyle, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background. Preserving connectivity, or the ability of a landscape to support species movement, is among the most commonly recommended strategies to reduce the negative effects of climate change and human land use development on species. Connectivity analyses have traditionally used a corridor-based approach and rely heavily on least cost path modeling and circuit theory to delineate corridors. Individual-based models are gaining popularity as a potentially more ecologically realistic method of estimating landscape connectivity. However, this remains a relatively unexplored approach. We sought to explore the utility of a simple, individual-based model as a land-use management support tool in identifying and implementing landscape connectivity. Methods. We created an individual-based model of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that simulates a bighorn sheep traversing a landscape by following simple movement rules. The model was calibrated for bighorn sheep in the Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada, a region containing isolated herds that are vital to conservation of the species in its northern range. Simulations were run to determine baseline connectivity between subpopulations in the study area. We then applied the model to explore two land management scenarios on simulated connectivity: restoring natural fire regimes and identifying appropriate sites for interventions that would increase road permeability for bighorn sheep. Results. This model suggests there are no continuous areas of good habitat between current subpopulations of sheep in the study area; however, a series of stepping-stones or circuitous routes could facilitate movement between subpopulations and into currently unoccupied, yet suitable, bighorn habitat. Restoring natural fire regimes or mimicking fire with prescribed burns and tree removal could considerably increase bighorn connectivity in this area. Moreover, several key road crossing sites that could benefit from wildlife overpasses were

  6. Fluvial response to the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in northwest Wyoming and western Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, B. Z.; Heller, P.; Clementz, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    The Willwood and Wasatch formations of northwest Wyoming and western Colorado record alluvial deposition within the intermontane Bighorn and Piceance Creek basins, respectively. Both display substantial shifts in the character of fluvial sand-bodies coincident with an abrupt negative carbon isotope excursion linked to the Paleocene Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) climate change event at ~55 Ma. In the northern Bighorn Basin, an anomalously thick and laterally persistent multi-story fluvial sand-body crops out within the main body of the PETM isotopic excursion. The internal architecture and lithofacies within the sand-body are similar to pre- and post-PETM sand-bodies, and mean paleo-flow depths do not appear to change substantially. The most significant change is the increase in vertical and lateral amalgamation within the PETM sand-body. Long-term basin sedimentation rates are constant spanning the event implying a transient increase in channel mobility via avulsion and meandering processes during the PETM, which preferentially evacuated fine-grained overbank material out of the basin to the north. Similarly, fluvial sand-bodies are more laterally and vertically amalgamated during the PETM in the Piceance Creek Basin. Yet here the sand-bodies are a recurrent phenomenon throughout the PETM, persist after the PETM, and show dramatic internal architectural changes. Flow depths increase by ~50% and are twice as variable during the PETM, lithofacies are dominated by upper flow regime structures, and crevasse splay deposits are ubiquitous in the associated floodplain strata. In both basins enhanced channel mobility was likely facilitated by a combination of vegetation overturn and alteration of precipitation patterns. Sediment stored higher in the catchment and on related hill-slopes was released, choked basin river systems, instigated greater in-channel deposition, and caused more rapid avulsions. Introduction of coarser sediment loads and vegetation change would have

  7. Bighorn sheep pneumonia: sorting out the cause of a polymicrobial disease.

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Frances Cassirer, E; Highland, Margaret A; Wolff, Peregrine; Justice-Allen, Anne; Mansfield, Kristin; Davis, Margaret A; Foreyt, William

    2013-02-01

    Pneumonia of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) is a dramatic disease of high morbidity and mortality first described more than 80 years ago. The etiology of the disease has been debated since its initial discovery, and at various times lungworms, Mannheimia haemolytica and other Pasteurellaceae, and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae have been proposed as primary causal agents. A multi-factorial "respiratory disease complex" has also been proposed as confirmation of causation has eluded investigators. In this paper we review the evidence for each of the candidate primary agents with regard to causal criteria including strength of association, temporality, plausibility, experimental evidence, and analogy. While we find some degree of biological plausibility for all agents and strong experimental evidence for M. haemolytica, we demonstrate that of the alternatives considered, M. ovipneumoniae is the best supported by all criteria and is therefore the most parsimonious explanation for the disease. The strong but somewhat controversial experimental evidence implicating disease transmission from domestic sheep is consistent with this finding. Based on epidemiologic and microbiologic data, we propose that healthy bighorn sheep populations are naïve to M. ovipneumoniae, and that its introduction to susceptible bighorn sheep populations results in epizootic polymicrobial bacterial pneumonia often followed by chronic infection in recovered adults. If this hypothesized model is correct, efforts to control this disease by development or application of vectored vaccines to Pasteurellaceae are unlikely to provide significant benefits, whereas efforts to ensure segregation of healthy bighorn sheep populations from M. ovipneumoniae-infected reservoir hosts are crucial to prevention of new disease epizootics. It may also be possible to develop M. ovipneumoniae vaccines or other management strategies that could reduce the impact of this devastating disease in bighorn sheep.

  8. Plant-derived terpenoids as paleovegetation proxies: evaluation of the proxy with Paleocene and Eocene megafloras and plant biomarkers in the Bighorn Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freeman, K. H.; Wing, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Plant terpenoids (defense compounds synthesized from the 5-carbon building block isoprene) have a long history of use as geochemical plant biomarkers, and potentially can be used to reconstruct changes in the abundances of major land plant groups in rocks and sediments that do not preserve plant megafossils or pollen. Pentacyclic triterpenoids are synthesized almost exclusively by angiosperms whereas conifers produce the tricyclic diterpenoids. Many previous studies have focused on the use of di- to triterpenoid ratios to reconstruct floral changes in the geologic past, however few studies have compared terpenoid-based paleoflora proxies to pollen or megafossils. Prior reconstructions also did not take into account differences in biomarker production between plant functional types, such as deciduous and evergreen plants, which can be quite large. To investigate the use of terpenoids as paleoflora proxies, we examined sediments from the Bighorn Basin (Wyoming, USA) where ancient megafloras have been studied in detail. We analyzed di- and triterpenoid abundances as well as plant leaf waxes (n-alkanes) and other biomarkers in a total of 75 samples from 15 stratigraphic horizons from the late Paleocene (62 Ma) to early Eocene (52.5 Ma). By comparing terpenoid ratios with abundances estimated from plant megafossils, we can evaluate the utility of terpenoids as paleovegetation proxies. In nearly all samples, angiosperm triterpenoids are significantly lower in abundance than conifer diterpenoids. This contrasts with leaf fossil data that indicate paleofloras were dominated by angiosperms in both abundance and diversity. Traditional use of terpenoid paleovegetation proxies would therefore significantly overestimate the abundance of conifers, even when accounting for plant production differences. To determine if this overestimate is related to the loss of angiosperm triterpenoids (rather than enhanced production of diterpenoids in the geologic past), we compared angiosperm

  9. Utilizing ERTS-1 imagery for tectonic analysis through study of the Bighorn Mountains region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Comparisons of imagery of three seasons, late summer-fall, winter, and spring indicate that for this region fall imagery is the best for overall geologic analysis. Winter scenes with light to moderate snow cover provide excellent topographic detail owing to snow enhancement, lower sun angle, and clarity of the atmosphere. Spring imagery has considerable reduction of tonal contrast owing to the low reflecting heavy green grass cover which subdues lithologic effects; heavy snow cover in the uplands masks topography. Mapping of geologic formations is impractical in most cases. Separation into tonal units can provide some general clues on structure. A given tonal unit can include parts of several geologic formations and different stratigraphic units can have the same tonal signature. Drainage patterns and anomalies provide the most consistent clues for detecting folds, monoclines, and homoclines. Vegetation only locally reflects lithology and structure. False color infrared 9 x 9 transparencies are the most valuable single imagery. Where these can be supplemented by U-2 color infrared for more detailed work, a tremendous amount of information is available. Adequately field checking such a large area just in one scene is the major logistic problem even in a fairly well known region.

  10. Glaciation of northwestern Wyoming interpreted from ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breckenridge, R. M.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of ERTS Imagery has shown a number of alpine glacial features can be recognized and mapped successfully. Although the Wyoming mountains are generally regarded as the type locality for Rocky Mountain glaciation some areas have not been studied from a glacial standpoint because of inaccessibility or lack of topographic control. ERTS imagery provides an excellent base for this type of regional geomorphic study. A map of maximum extent of Wisconsin Ice, flow directions and major glacial features was compiled from interpretation of the ERTS imagery. Features which can be mapped are large moraines, outwash fans and terraces. Present-day glaciers and snowfields are easily discriminated and mapped. Glaciers and glacial deposits which serve as aquifers play a significant role in the hydrologic cycle and are important because of the increasing demand placed on our water resources. ERTS provides a quick and effective method for change detection and inventory of these vital resources.

  11. Transmission of Mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis): unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protein-tagged organisms.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Paulraj K; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Subramaniam, Renuka; Herndon, Caroline N; Knowles, Donald P; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Foreyt, William J; Wayman, Gary; Marciel, Ann Marie; Highlander, Sarah K; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) died of pneumonia when commingled with domestic sheep (Ovis aries) but did not conclusively prove that the responsible pathogens were transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep. The objective of this study was to determine, unambiguously, whether Mannheimia haemolytica can be transmitted from domestic to bighorn sheep when they commingle. Four isolates of M. haemolytica were obtained from the pharynx of two of four domestic sheep and tagged with a plasmid carrying the genes for green fluorescent protein (GFP) and ampicillin resistance (AP(R)). Four domestic sheep, colonized with the tagged bacteria, were kept about 10 m apart from four bighorn sheep for 1 mo with no clinical signs of pneumonia observed in the bighorn sheep during that period. The domestic and bighorn sheep were then allowed to have fence-line contact for 2 mo. During that period, three bighorn sheep acquired the tagged bacteria from the domestic sheep. At the end of the 2 mo of fence-line contact, the animals were allowed to commingle. All four bighorn sheep died 2 days to 9 days following commingling. The lungs from all four bighorn sheep showed gross and histopathologic lesions characteristic of M. haemolytica pneumonia. Tagged M. haemolytica were isolated from all four bighorn sheep, as confirmed by growth in ampicillin-containing culture medium, PCR-amplification of genes encoding GFP and Ap(R), and immunofluorescent staining of GFP. These results unequivocally demonstrate transmission of M. haemolytica from domestic to bighorn sheep, resulting in pneumonia and death of bighorn sheep.

  12. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF WYOMING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecoregions of Wyoming have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a national, hierarchical ecore...

  13. Educational Finance Reform in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Robert O.; Basom, Margaret R.

    This paper provides a history and analysis of educational finance in Wyoming. It offers a summary of the funding model that is currently in place and that has been challenged in court--the fourth such challenge in the past 30 years. The article focuses on the current litigation. It discusses the funding formula that was adopted by the state…

  14. Wyoming's "Education Reform & Cost Study."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Joseph B.

    A history of education in the state of Wyoming, along with a description of recent legislative initiatives, are presented in this paper. It opens with statewide reorganizations begun in the 1960s that unified school districts and equalized property valuation. A decade later a court order ruled the system inequitable and new laws provided for a…

  15. Wyoming Kids Count Factbook, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Kids Count, Cheyenne.

    This Kids Count factbook details statewide trends in the well-being of Wyoming's children. The 1997 report has been expanded to include detailed information on the status of children by categories of welfare, health, and education. The first part of the factbook documents trends by county for 15 indicators: (1) poverty and population; (2)…

  16. Immobilization of mountain goats with xylazine and reversal with idazoxan.

    PubMed

    Haviernick, M; Côté, S D; Festa-Bianchet, M

    1998-04-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were captured in traps and immobilized with xylazine, later reversed with idazoxan. One hundred and forty-one goats were immobilized, 94 with a single injection and 47 with multiple injections. Dosage (mg/kg of body weight) of xylazine received, induction time, and recovery time after handling did not differ among sex-age classes. Increasing the dosage did not shorten induction time. The first injection of xylazine in multiple-injection captures was lower than the dose given in single-injection captures, suggesting that insufficient initial doses of xylazine made multiple injections necessary. Xylazine is an effective drug for immobilization of mountain goats captured in traps, at dosages of about 4.9 mg/kg. The dosage of xylazine required to immobilize mountain goats is higher than that reported for bighorn sheep and white-tailed deer.

  17. Low-temperature thermochronology of the Laramide Ranges and eastward translation of shortening in the Sevier Belt, Wyoming, Utah and Montana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyton, Sara Lynn

    Mountain foreland (Wind River, Beartooth, Bighorn and Laramie Ranges) and the Uncompahgre Uplift using the apatite (U-Th)/He system. Apatite (U-Th)/He ages generally decrease with increasing subsurface depth (decreasing elevation) and most samples show age dispersion ranging from tens to hundreds of Myr. Additionally, several samples show correlations between apatite (U-Th)/He age and effective U concentration (eU = [U] + 0.235[Th]) of the crystal, indicating that radiation damage has affected He diffusivity, and hence (U-Th)/ He age. Many surface and near-surface samples have apatite (U-Th)/He ages that are older than corresponding apatite fission-track ages. Forward modeling of Laramide-type thermal histories using a radiation damage diffusion model showed that (U-Th)/He ages may be widely dispersed, and may be older than corresponding apatite fission-track ages within a fossil He partial retention zone. Most of our samples, however, do not show the correlation between (U-Th)/He age and eU predicted by radiation damage diffusion models. We investigated the influence of both grain size and eU content and show that the effects of grain size can obscure (U-Th)/ He age-eU correlations and, similarly, the effect of eU variation can obscure (U-Th)/ He age-grain size correlations. (U-Th)/He ages that are older than fission-track ages from high peaks in the Wind River Range, and from some samples from the Beartooth Range, are most likely the result of He implantation from high eU phases. Best-fit thermal histories from the inversion of age-eU pairs were extrapolated to other elevations to create model age-elevation profiles for a range of eU concentrations. These model profiles approximate our real data. Inverse modeling of (U-Th)/He age data suggests that rapid exhumation within the Laramide province likely began earlier in the Bighorn Mountains (before ˜71 Ma) than the Beartooth Range (before ˜58 Ma), and that the borehole at the northern end of the Laramie Range penetrated

  18. Correlates to colonizations of new patches by translocated populations of bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, F.J.; Moses, M.E.; Bellew, S.; Sloan, W.

    2000-01-01

    By 1950, bighorn sheep were extirpated from large areas of their range. Most extant populations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in the Intermountain West consist of <100 individuals occurring in a fragmented distribution across the landscape. Dispersal and successful colonizations of unoccupied habitat patches has been rarely reported, and, in particular, translocated populations have been characterized by limited population growth and limited dispersal rates. Restoration of the species is greatly assisted by dispersal and successful colonization of new patches within a metapopulation structure versus the existing scenario of negligible dispersal and fragmented, small populations. We investigated the correlates for the rate of colonizations of 79 suitable, but unoccupied, patches by 31 translocated populations of bighorn sheep released into nearby patches of habitat. Population growth rates of bighorn sheep in the release patches were correlated to Ne of the founder group, and early contact with a second released population in a nearby release patch (logistic regression, p = 0.08). Largest population size of all extant released populations in 1994 was correlated to potential Ne of the founder group, the number of different source populations represented in the founder, and early contact with a second released population (p = 0.016). Dispersal rates were 100% higher in rams than ewes (p = 0.001). Successful colonizations of unoccupied patches (n = 24 of 79 were colonized) were associated with rapid growth rates in the released population, years since release, larger area of suitable habitat in the release patch, larger population sizes, and a seasonal migratory tendency in the released population (p = 0.05). Fewer water barriers, more open vegetation and more rugged, broken terrain in the intervening habitat were also associated with colonizations (p = <0.05). We concluded that high dispersal rates and rapid reoccupation of large areas could occur if bighorn

  19. Pesticides in Wyoming Groundwater, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Taylor, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 296 wells during 1995-2006 as part of a baseline study of pesticides in Wyoming groundwater. In 2009, a previous report summarized the results of the baseline sampling and the statistical evaluation of the occurrence of pesticides in relation to selected natural and anthropogenic (human-related) characteristics. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture, resampled a subset (52) of the 296 wells sampled during 1995-2006 baseline study in order to compare detected compounds and respective concentrations between the two sampling periods and to evaluate the detections of new compounds. The 52 wells were distributed similarly to sites used in the 1995-2006 baseline study with respect to geographic area and land use within the geographic area of interest. Because of the use of different types of reporting levels and variability in reporting-level values during both the 1995-2006 baseline study and the 2008-10 resampling study, analytical results received from the laboratory were recensored. Two levels of recensoring were used to compare pesticides—a compound-specific assessment level (CSAL) that differed by compound and a common assessment level (CAL) of 0.07 microgram per liter. The recensoring techniques and values used for both studies, with the exception of the pesticide 2,4-D methyl ester, were the same. Twenty-eight different pesticides were detected in samples from the 52 wells during the 2008-10 resampling study. Pesticide concentrations were compared with several U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories for finished (treated) water established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. All detected pesticides were measured at concentrations smaller than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories where applicable (many pesticides did not have standards or advisories). One or more pesticides

  20. Relationship of floodplain ichnocoenoses to paleopedology, paleohydrology, and paleoclimate in the Willwood Formation, Wyoming, during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.J.; Hasiotis, S.T.; Kraus, M.J.; Woody, D.T.

    2008-01-01

    Vertical changes in distribution, abundance, and ichnodiversity of ichnocoenoses in alluvial deposits of the Willwood Formation suggest significantly drier moisture regimes in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a transient period of global warming. The Willwood Formation at Polecat Bench contains an abundant assemblage of ichnofossils, including various types of rhizoliths and invertebrate trace fossils, such as Naktodemasis bowni, Camborygma litonomos, Edaphichnium lumbricatum, cf. Cylindricum isp., cf. Planolites isp., cf. Steinichnus, and cocoon traces. These comprise six distinct ichnocoenoses, which are categorized as dominantly terraphilic, hygrophilic, or hydrophilic based on the inferred moisture regimes of their most abundant ichnofossil morphotypes and associated pedogenic features, including other trace fossils and rhizoliths. The interpreted moisture regimes correlate well with the paleoenvironments of their host lithofacies, as inferred from sedimentology and paleopedology. Outside the PETM interval at Polecat Bench, abundant avulsion deposits and thin, compound paleosols containing hygrophilic and hydrophilic ichnocoenoses suggest frequent depositional events and predominantly poor to imperfect soil-drainage conditions. Within the PETM interval, thick, cumulative paleosol profiles with abundant terraphilic to hygrophilic ichnocoenoses suggest significantly improved drainage conditions. Lithofacies and ichnocoenoses above the PETM interval are not significantly different from those below the interval, indicating a return to pre-PETM moisture regimes. These conclusions support previous studies that suggest the Bighorn Basin experienced transient drying during this interval. This study demonstrates that ichnocoenoses and their ichnopedologic associations can be used to refine paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic generalizations inferred from paleoclimate models. Copyright ?? 2008, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary

  1. Heat flow, radioactivity, gravity, and geothermal resources in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, E.R.; Buelow, K.L.

    1981-12-01

    The surface heat flow values in the Sierra Madre-Medicine Bow-Laramie Mountains region are in the range 0.6 to 1.5 HFU. When the heat from local bedrock radioactivity is considered, the reduced flux in these mountains is low to normal (0.6 to 1.2 HFU). These data and the low to normal gradients (10 to 25/sup 0/C/km) in the studied drill holes strongly suggest that the resource potential of the Southern Rockies in Wyoming is low. The geothermal resource potential of the sedimentary basins in Wyoming that border these mountains also appears to be low because preliminary estimates for the flux in these areas are less than or equal to 1.5 HFU and the average gradients in analyzed drill holes are generally less than or equal to 30/sup 0/C/km. In contrast to southern Wyoming, the high surface and reduced heat flows strongly suggest that the Park areas and other parts of the Southern Rockies in northern Colorado are potentially valuable geothermal resource areas. The narrow northerly borders (less than or equal to 50 km) of these positive anomalies suggest that some of the resources could be shallow, as does the evidence for regional igneous and tectonic activity in the late Cenozoic. The small number of combined heat flow and radioactivity stations precludes detailed site-specific evaluations in these regions, but a few generalizations are made.

  2. Provenance of the Tullock Member of the Fort Union Formation, Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana: evidence for early Paleocene Laramide uplift

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansley, P.L.; Brown, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A petrologic and provenance study indicates that Laramide uplifts to the west and south of the Powder River Basin (PRB) were emergent and shedding detritus by early Paleocene time. This conclusion is based largely on the presence of abundant first-cycle carbonate clasts in the northwestern PRB, and metamorphic and igneous clasts and labile heavy-mineral grains in the Tullock throughout the basin. The proximity and composition of the north end of the Bighorn uplift strongly suggest that it was the source for carbonate, igneous, and metamorphic rock fragments in northwestern Tullock outcrops. The conclusions are supported by recent fission-track, palynological, and sedimentological studies that indicate that Laramide-style foreland deformation in southwestern Montana began in late Cenomanian to Turonian time and migrated through central Wyoming to the Colorado Front Range by late Maastrichtian time. -from Authors

  3. Wyoming DOE EPSCoR

    SciTech Connect

    Gern, W.A.

    2004-01-15

    All of the research and human resource development projects were systemic in nature with real potential for becoming self sustaining. They concentrated on building permanent structure, such as faculty expertise, research equipment, the SEM Minority Center, and the School of Environment and Natural Resources. It was the intent of the DOE/EPSCoR project to permanently change the way Wyoming does business in energy-related research, human development for science and engineering careers, and in relationships between Wyoming industry, State Government and UW. While there is still much to be done, the DOE/EPSCoR implementation award has been successful in accomplishing that change and enhancing UW's competitiveness associated with coal utilization, electrical energy efficiency, and environmental remediation.

  4. Water resources of Carbon County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.; Mason, Jon P.; Norris, Jodi R.; Miller, Kirk A.

    2006-01-01

    Carbon County is located in the south-central part of Wyoming and is the third largest county in the State. A study to describe the physical and chemical characteristics of surface-water and ground-water resources in Carbon County was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office. Evaluations of streamflow and stream-water quality were limited to analyses of historical data and descriptions of previous investigations. Surface-water data were not collected as part of the study. Forty-five ground-water-quality samples were collected as part of the study and the results from an additional 618 historical ground-water-quality samples were reviewed. Available hydrogeologic characteristics for various aquifers in hydrogeologic units throughout the county also are described. Flow characteristics of streams in Carbon County vary substantially depending on regional and local basin char-acteristics and anthropogenic factors. Precipitation in the county is variable with high mountainous areas receiving several times the annual precipitation of basin lowland areas. For this reason, streams with headwaters in mountainous areas generally are perennial, whereas most streams in the county with headwaters in basin lowland areas are ephemeral, flowing only as a result of regional or local rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Flow characteristics of most perennial streams are altered substantially by diversions and regulation. Water-quality characteristics of selected streams in and near Carbon County during water years 1966 through 1986 varied. Concentrations of dissolved constituents and suspended sediment were smallest at sites on streams with headwaters in mountainous areas because of resistant geologic units, large diluting streamflows, and increased vegetative cover compared to sites on streams with headwaters in basin lowlands. Both water-table and artesian conditions occur in aquifers within the county. Shallow ground water is

  5. Political mobilization, venue change, and the coal bed methane conflict in Montana and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, R.J.

    2005-03-31

    The emerging conflict over coal bed methane (CBM) exploration and development in the mountain west offers a classic example of what Baumgartner and Jones call a 'wave of criticism.' The cozy subgovernments that have dominated energy exploration and development in the mountain states are now under attack and are struggling to maintain their autonomy. Energy exploration, which was once perceived to have only positive consequences, is now the focus of an intense debate that has managed to unite previously warring factions. This article utilizes a comparative assessment of CBM politics in Montana and Wyoming to explain the connection between changing popular and elite perceptions of the issue, institutional change, and policy change.

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  7. 76 FR 80310 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... four deficiencies that were identified by OSM during the review of a previous program amendment (WY-038... documents at http://www.regulations.gov , you may review copies of the Wyoming program, this amendment, a... Wyoming program in the November 26, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 78637). You can also find later...

  8. Wyoming Geology and Geography, Unit I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on the geology and geography of Wyoming for elementary school students provides activities for map and globe skills. Goals include reading and interpreting maps and globes, interpreting map symbols, comparing maps and drawing inferences, and understanding time and chronology. Outlines and charts are provided for Wyoming geology and…

  9. Sarcoptic mange found in wolves in the Rocky Mountains in western United States.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Michael D; Bangs, Edward E; Sime, Carolyn; Asher, Valpa J

    2010-10-01

    We documented sarcoptic mange caused by mites (Sarcoptes scabiei) in 22 gray wolves (Canis lupus) in the northern Rocky Mountain states of Montana (n=16) and Wyoming (n=6), from 2002 through 2008. To our knowledge, this is the first report of sarcoptic mange in wolves in Montana or Wyoming in recent times. In addition to confirming sarcoptic mange, we recorded field observations of 40 wolves in Montana and 30 wolves in Wyoming displaying clinical signs of mange (i.e., alopecia, hyperkeratosis, and seborrhea). Therefore, we suspect sarcoptic mange may be more prevalent than we were able to confirm. PMID:20966263

  10. Wyoming groundwater-quality monitoring network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boughton, Gregory K.

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of human activities have the potential to contaminate groundwater. In addition, naturally occurring constituents can limit the suitability of groundwater for some uses. The State of Wyoming has established rules and programs to evaluate and protect groundwater quality based on identified uses. The Wyoming Groundwater-Quality Monitoring Network (WGQMN) is a cooperative program between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) and was implemented in 2009 to evaluate the water-quality characteristics of the State's groundwater. Representatives from USGS, WDEQ, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Wyoming Water Development Office, and Wyoming State Engineer's Office formed a steering committee, which meets periodically to evaluate progress and consider modifications to strengthen program objectives. The purpose of this fact sheet is to describe the WGQMN design and objectives, field procedures, and water-quality analyses. USGS groundwater activities in the Greater Green River Basin also are described.

  11. View of north central Wyoming and southern Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A view of approximately 3,600 square miles of north central Wyoming and southern Montana as seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Big Horn River flowing northward crosses between the northwest trending Big Horn Mountains and the Pryor Mountains. Yellowtail Reservoir, in the center of the picture, is impounded by a dam across the Big Horn River. A sharp contrast is clearly evident between the small rectangular crop areas along the Big Horn River (upper right) and the strip farming (yellow) practiced on the rolling hill along the Big Horn River and its tributaries (upper left corner and right edge). The low sun angle enhances the structural features of the mountains as well as the drainage patterns in the adjacent basins. Rock formations appear in this color photograph as they would to the eye from this altitude. The distinctive redbeds can be traced along the fr

  12. The copper deposits of the Encampment District, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, A.C.

    1904-01-01

    During the last few years prospecting in the Medicine Bow and Park ranges in northern Colorado and southern Wyoming has proved that copper-bearing minerals occur frequently and are very generally distributed over a wide region in this portion of the Rocky Mountains. This has gradually become known through the discovery of several more or less promising copper deposits and also through the exploitation of a few properties which have produced ore on a commercial scale. The increase in the number of prospectors has kept pace with the increasing interest in the region, until now every part of it has been at least cursorily examined. In spite of this activity and of a considerable amount of development work at several localities, the productive mines in actual operation are few, but the search for valuable deposits continues, and it is to be expected that other mines will eventually be discovered. 

  13. Precipitation, density, and population dynamics of desert bighorn sheep on San Andres National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, L.C.; Weisenberger, M.E.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of population size and performance for desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis mexicana) is critical to develop effective recovery and management strategies. In arid environments, plant communities and consequently herbivore populations are strongly dependent upon precipitation, which is highly variable seasonally and annually. We conducted a retrospective exploratory analysis of desert bighorn sheep population dynamics on San Andres National Wildlife Refuge (SANWR), New Mexico, 1941-1976, by modeling sheep population size as a function of previous population sizes and precipitation. Population size and trend of desert bighorn were best and well described (R 2=0.89) by a model that included only total annual precipitation as a covariate. Models incorporating density-dependence, delayed density-dependence, and combinations of density and precipitation were less informative than the model containing precipitation alone (??AlCc=8.5-22.5). Lamb:female ratios were positively related to precipitation (current year: F1,34=7.09, P=0.012; previous year: F1,33=3.37, P=0.075) but were unrelated to population size (current year. F1,34=0.04, P=0.843; previous year: F1,33 =0.14, P=0.715). Instantaneous population rate of increase (r) was related to population size (F1,33=5.55; P=0.025). Precipitation limited populations of desert bighorn sheep on SANWR primarily in a density-independent manner by affecting production or survival of lambs, likely through influences on forage quantity and quality. Habitat evaluations and recovery plans for desert bighorn sheep need to consider fundamental influences on desert bighorn populations such as precipitation and food, rather than focus solely on proximate issues such as security cover, predation, and disease. Moreover, the concept of carrying capacity for desert bighorn sheep may need re-evaluation in respect to highly variable (CV =35.6%) localized precipitation patterns. On SANWR carrying capacity for desert

  14. BigHorn Home Improvement Center: Proof that a Retail Building Can Be a Low Energy Building: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.

    2004-07-01

    The BigHorn Home Improvement Center in Silverthorne, Colorado was one of the first commercial buildings in the United States to integrate extensive high-performance design into a retail space. After monitoring and evaluation by NREL, the BigHorn Center was found to consume 54% less source energy and have 53% lower energy costs than typical retail buildings of similar size. The extensive use of daylighting to replace electric lighting reduced lighting energy requirements by 80% and significantly contributed to the reduced energy loads in the building.

  15. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  16. Ground-water resources of Natrona County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crist, Marvin A.; Lowry, Marlin E.

    1972-01-01

    Natrona County covers an area of 5.369 square miles in central Wyoming. The climate is arid except in the mountainous areas. The county includes parts of the Great Plains, Middle Rocky Mountains, Wyoming Basin, and Southern Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces. There is wide variation of topography. More than 30 geologic formations are exposed in the county, 28 of which are known to yield water to wells and springs. The formations range in age from Precambrian to Holocene. Ground water in approximately 40 percent of the county contains more than 1.000 mg/l (milligrams per liter) of dissolved solids. Water chemically suitable for livestock can be developed at depths of less than 1,000 feet throughout most of the area. Many of the geologic formations were deposited under similar conditions and have similar water-bearing properties; also. water from these rocks deposited under similar conditions tends to have similar chemical characteristics. For this report, the stratigraphic section has been arbitrarily divided into six rock units based on similarity of deposition. The igneous and metamorphic rock unit includes rocks of Precambrian age and igneous intrusives and extrusives of Tertiary age. These rocks probably would not yield more than about 5 gpm (gallons per minute) to wells. The water is usually calcium bicarbonate type and contains less than 500 mg/l of dissolved solids. The marine rock unit includes formations of Cambrian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian and Permian age, having a maximum total thickness of about 1,900 feet. The Madison Limestone of Mississippian age and the Tensleep Sandstone and the Casper Formation of Pennsylvanian and Permian age supply the largest yields to wells and springs in the county. In the northeastern part of the county, flow from each of three wells in the Madison reportedly is more than 4.000 gpm. Each of three wells in the Tensleep in the same area flows more than 400 gpm. Yields of springs in the Casper Formation near Casper

  17. Ural-Tweed Bighorn Sheep Wildlife Mitigation Project, 1984-1990 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Lewis R.; Yde, Chris A.

    1990-06-01

    The results of habitat improvement project activities accomplished under contract No.84-38 for bighorn sheep mitigation along Koocanusa Reservoir from September 1, 1984, through June 30, 1990, are reported here. Habitat treatments were applied to ten areas and covered 1100 acres. Treatments used were prescribed fire, slashing combined with prescribed fire, and fertilization. Several variations in season or intensity were used within the slashing and prescribed fire treatments. This project was coordinated with and complemented concurrent Kootenai National Forest habitat improvement activities.

  18. Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality sampling was conducted regularly at stream sites within or near the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during water years 2001-05 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2005) to characterize water quality in an area of coalbed natural gas development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, characterized the water quality at 22 sampling sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Data for general hydrology, field measurements, major-ion chemistry, and selected trace elements were summarized, and specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were evaluated for relations with streamflow and seasonal variability. Trend analysis for water years 1991-2005 was conducted for selected sites and constituents to assess change through time. Average annual runoff was highly variable among the stream sites. Generally, streams that have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains had more runoff as a result of higher average annual precipitation than streams that have headwaters in the plains. The Powder River at Moorhead, Mont., had the largest average annual runoff (319,000 acre-feet) of all the sites; however, streams in the Tongue River drainage basin had the highest runoff per unit area of the four major drainage basins. Annual runoff in all major drainage basins was less than average during 2001-05 because of drought conditions. Consequently, water-quality samples collected during the study period may not represent long-term water-quality con-ditions for all sites. Water-quality characteristics were highly variable generally because of streamflow variability, geologic controls, and potential land-use effects. The range of median specific-conductance values among sites was smallest in the Tongue River drainage basin. Median values in that basin ranged from 643 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm at 25?C) on the

  19. Christmas Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger ... of New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote ... date:  Mar 8, 2001 Images:  Christmas Mountains location:  Canada ...

  20. Laramide tectonics and humid alluvial fan sedimentation, Ne Uinta uplift, Utah and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Crews, S.G.; Ethridge, F.G. )

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes and interprets a sequence of syntectonic conglomerates and sandstones shed from the northeast flank of the Uinta Mountains during an early Eocene phase of the Laramide orogeny. The study area centers around a cuesta 10 km long known as Richards Mountain located on the Utah-Wyoming border about 3 km north of the Uinta fault zone. Conglomerates and sandstones of the basal Wasatch Formation that crop out on Richards Mountain constitute an exhumed, strike-parallel deposit of carose sediments that formed adjacent to the rising Uinta Mountains uplift. These rocks are an example of sedimentation in a proximal, humid piedmont setting and provide clues to the relative rate and timing of a major cycle of uplift and erosion of the Uinta Mountains. Topics specifically addressed in this study include: (1) sedimentary facies, fluvial architecture, depositional processes, paleocurrents, and grain-size trends at Richards Mountain, based on detailed measured sections; (2) tectonic significance of the richards Mountain sequence, including tectonic and geomorphic explanations for several scales of cyclicity within the sequence; and (3) Early Paleogene tectonic and depositional history of the northeastern flank of the Uinta Uplift and the southern Green River Basin.

  1. Eocene sediment dispersal pattern records asymmetry of Laramide Green River basin, southwestern Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.J.; Andersen, D.W.

    1987-05-01

    Provenance and paleocurrent data from synorogenic fluvial sandstones can be used to constrain theories about the timing and structural style of Laramide foreland uplifts and associated basins. The Green River basin of southwestern Wyoming is a large ellipsoidal basin bounded by uplifts with diverse orientations and basement rock compositions. Sandstone from the main body of the Eocene Wasatch Formation in the Green River basin was sampled along the south and west flanks of the Rock Springs uplift. Petrographic examination and paleocurrent measurements reveal two main facies. The first facies is rich in feldspar and metamorphic rock fragments derived from the Wind River Mountains to the north. The second facies is dominated by quartz and sedimentary rock fragments, reflecting a source in the Uinta Mountains to the south. Distribution of these facies indicates that a sediment lobe extends 15 km into the basin from the Uinta Mountains. Another sediment lobe originates from the Wind River Mountains and extends approximately 100 km south into the basin. This pattern suggests that the topographic axis of the depositional basin was an east-west-trending trough about 15 km north of the Uinta Mountains. The position of the basin axis is inferred to reflect greater subsidence near the Uinta Mountains. The asymmetric distribution of the two facies of the Wasatch Formation thus supports the model of basin subsidence caused by thrust-loading and indicates the Uinta Mountains were the dominant active thrust block bounding the Green River basin during the early Eocene.

  2. A continuous climatic impact on Holocene human population in the Rocky Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Robert L.; Surovell, Todd A.; Shuman, Bryan N.; Smith, Geoffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient cultural changes have often been linked to abrupt climatic events, but the potential that climate can exert a persistent influence on human populations has been debated. Here, independent population, temperature, and moisture history reconstructions from the Bighorn Basin in Wyoming (United States) show a clear quantitative relationship spanning 13 ka, which explains five major periods of population growth/decline and ∼45% of the population variance. A persistent ∼300-y lag in the human demographic response conforms with either slow (∼0.3%) intrinsic annual population growth rates or a lag in the environmental carrying capacity, but in either case, the population continuously adjusted to changing environmental conditions. PMID:23267083

  3. Wyoming Basin Ecoregion: Chapter 25 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hawbaker, Todd J.

    2012-01-01

    The Wyoming Basin Ecoregion (Omernik 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999) covers approximately 128,914 km2 (49,774 mi2) in Wyoming and parts of northwestern Colorado, northeastern Utah, southeastern Idaho, and southern Montana (fig. 1). The ecoregion is bounded on the east by the Northwestern Great Plains Ecoregion; on the south and east by the Southern Rockies Ecoregion; on the south by the Colorado Plateaus Ecoregion; on the south and west by the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains Ecoregion; and on the north by the Middle Rockies Ecoregion and parts of the Montana Valley and Foothill Prairies Ecoregion (fig. 1). The ecoregion generally consists of broad intermountain basins dominated by arid grasslands and shrublands, as well as isolated hills and low mountains that merge to the south into a dissected plateau.

  4. Early Mesozoic history and petroleum potential of formations in Wyoming and northern Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Picard, M.D. )

    1993-08-01

    During the Triassic and Jurassic, over what is now Wyoming and northern Utah, roughly equal amounts of sediment were being deposited in continental settings-lake, stream, and eolian-and in shallow-marine or deltaic-plain settings-delta, beach, marsh, tidal flat, and shallow shelf. Clastic rocks dominate. In order of decreasing abundance, the rocks are fine-grained clastics (siltstone, claystone, mudstone), sandstone, carbonates, evaporites, and claystone- and carbonate-pebble conglomerate. Approximately four-fifths of the succession contains red beds or variegated layers-purple, maroon, lavender, olive, green. Unconformities bound Jurassic formations in Wyoming-Nugget, Gypsum Spring, Sundance, and Morrison. Unconformities also bound the continental Upper Triassic section-unnamed red bed unit, Jelm, Popo Agie-separating it from the underlying shallow-marine formations-Dinwoody, Red Peak, Alcova, Crow Mountain. Within the marine sequence, an unconformity occurs at the top of the Alcova and, quite likely, shorter periods of erosion took place at the top and below the base of the sandy faces that underlies the Alcova. The postulate duration of the principal unconformities totals about 18 m.y., at least one-sixth of early Mesozoic time. The bulk of the remaining 80-100 m.y. may be represented by a large number of smaller unconformities. For the lower Mesozoic, as for most stratigraphic intervals, a few beds contain the story of what has taken place during the abyss of geologic time. Like other places in the world where evaporites occur in the Triassic, the Wyoming section produces little crude oil. No significant sequence in the early Mesozoic shows source-bed characteristics. The Crow Mountain Sandstone contains the best reservoirs. The Lower( ) Jurassic Nugget Sandstone produces the most oil and gas in the thrust belt of southwestern Wyoming and northern Utah. Cretaceous claystones below the thrusts contain the source beds.

  5. Quaternary history of the northeastern Bighorn Basin based on a climatically-controlled process-response model

    SciTech Connect

    Birdseye, R.U.

    1985-01-01

    The highest surfaces and oldest Pleistocene sediments in the northeastern Bighorn Basin are associated with the 600 kya North Kane Ash. Subsequent climatically-induced periods of aggradation and incision produced the remaining geomorphic elements. Processes associated with a typical interglacial-glacial cycle include: (1) interglacial stability with Bighorn River alluviation, pedimentation, and eolian deposition; (2) late-interglacial to early-glacial incision; (3) alluvial fan extension and increased landslide development during glacial intervals; and (4) an early-interglacial return to more stable conditions. Frequent stream captures during interglacial times were caused by the out-of-phase relationships between the Bighorn River and its tributaries. Quaternary climates of a given type have not been of equal magnitude or duration in the northeastern Bighorn Basin. The most intense glacial climates from which sediments are preserved are believed to have occurred ca. 600 kya, 440 kya an d140 kya. An abnormally dry climate existed between 400 kya and 275 kya, while extremely wet interglacial conditions prevailed about 100 kya. The last complete climatic cycle was the Bull Lake. The subsequent Holocene interglacial has been unusually dry. Thus not all Pleistocene climates have been capable of generating terraces of extensive alluvial fans.

  6. Genome Sequence of Bibersteinia trehalosi Strain Y31 Isolated from the Pneumonic Lung of a Bighorn Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Kugadas, Abirami; Humann, Jodi L.; Pierlé, Sebastián Aguilar; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the genome sequence for Bibersteinia trehalosi strain Y31, isolated from the lungs of a bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) that had succumbed to pneumonia, which exhibits proximity-dependent inhibition (PDI) of Mannheimia haemolytica. The sequence will be used to understand the mechanism of PDI for these organisms. PMID:27445392

  7. Utilizing ERTS-A imagery for tectonic analysis through study of Big Horn Mountains Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppin, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. NASA-provided color composite (1048-17234) which includes the southeastern portion of the Bighorn Mountains and the western Powder River basin is of excellent quality. The considerable variations in the red hues indicate that vegetational mapping will be enhanced over the black and white. Some additional delineation of rock units can be made, particularly the Chugwater formation. Preliminary look at just received winter scenes indicates that topographic features are enhanced both due to the snow cover and to the lower sun angle.

  8. Water resources of Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Jon P.; Miller, Kirk A.

    2004-01-01

    Sweetwater County is located in the southwestern part of Wyoming and is the largest county in the State. A study to quantify the availability and describe the chemical quality of surface-water and ground-water resources in Sweetwater County was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineers Office. Most of the county has an arid climate. For this reason a large amount of the flow in perennial streams within the county is derived from outside the county. Likewise, much of the ground-water recharge to aquifers within the county is from flows into the county, and occurs slowly. Surface-water data were not collected as part of the study. Evaluations of streamflow and stream-water quality were limited to analyses of historical data and descriptions of previous investigations. Forty-six new ground-water-quality samples were collected as part of the study and the results from an additional 782 historical ground-water-quality samples were reviewed. Available hydrogeologic characteristics for various aquifers throughout the county also are described. Flow characteristics of streams in Sweetwater County vary substantially depending on regional and local basin characteristics and anthropogenic factors. Because precipitation amounts in the county are small, most streams in the county are ephemeral, flowing only as a result of regional or local rainfall or snowmelt runoff. Flows in perennial streams in the county generally are a result of snowmelt runoff in the mountainous headwater areas to the north, west, and south of the county. Flow characteristics of most perennial streams are altered substantially by diversions and regulation. Water-quality characteristics of selected streams in and near Sweetwater County during water years 1974 through 1983 were variable. Concentrations of dissolved constituents, suspended sediment, and bacteria generally were smallest at sites on the Green River because of resistant geologic units, increased

  9. Occurrence of Pesticides in Ground Water of Wyoming, 1995-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2009-01-01

    . Considering only detections using the CAL, triazine pesticides were detected much more frequently than all other pesticide classes, and the number of different pesticides classified as triazines was the largest of all classes. More pesticides were detected at concentrations greater than the CSALs in water from wells sampled in the fall (28 different pesticides) than in the spring (21 different pesticides). Many pesticides were detected infrequently as nearly one-half of pesticides detected in the fall and spring at concentrations greater than the CSALs were detected only in one well. Using the CSALs for pesticides analyzed for in 11 or more wells, only five pesticides (atrazine, prometon, tebuthiuron, picloram, and 3,4-dichloroaniline, listed in order of decreasing detection frequency) were each detected in water from more than 5 percent of sampled wells. Atrazine was the pesticide detected most frequently at concentrations greater than the CSAL. Concentrations of detected pesticides generally were small (less than 1 microgram per liter), although many infrequent detections at larger concentrations were noted. All detected pesticide concentrations were smaller than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking-water standards or applicable health advisories. Most concentrations were at least an order of magnitude smaller; however, many pesticides did not have standards or advisories. The largest percentage of pesticide detections and the largest number of different pesticides detected were in samples from wells located in the Bighorn Basin and High Plains/ Casper Arch geographic areas of north-central and southeastern Wyoming. Prometon was the only pesticide detected in all eight geographic areas of the State. Pesticides were detected much more frequently in samples from wells located in predominantly urban areas than in samples from wells located in predominantly agricultural or mixed areas. Pesticides were detected distinctly less often in sa

  10. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    We evaluated Management Questions (Core and Integrated) for each species and community for the Wyoming Basin REA. Core Management Questions address primary management issues, including (1) where is the Conservation Element, and what are its key ecological attributes (characteristics of species and communities that may affect their long-term persistence or viability); (2) what and where are the Change Agents; and (3) how do the Change Agents affect the key ecological attributes? Integrated Management Questions synthesize the Core Management Questions as follows: (1) where are the areas with high landscape-level ecological values; (2) where are the areas with high landscape-level risks; and (3) where are the potential areas for conservation, restoration, and development? The associated maps and key findings for each Management Question are summa

  11. Groundwater quality of southeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Blain, Liberty

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater is an important resource for domestic, municipal, stock, and irrigation uses in southeastern Wyoming. Thirty-seven percent of water used in the tri-County area, which includes Laramie, Platte, and Goshen Counties, is from groundwater. Most groundwater use in the tri-County area is withdrawn from three primary aquifer groups: Quaternary-age unconsolidated-deposit aquifers, Tertiary-age units of the High Plains aquifer system, and Upper Cretaceous bedrock aquifers (Lance Formation and Fox Hills Sandstone). Authors include selected physical properties and chemicals found in water samples, describe sources and importance, and report maximum levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. They also show concentration ranges for selected physical properties and chemicals in samples collected from the three primary aquifer groups in the tri-County area.

  12. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    We evaluated Management Questions (Core and Integrated) for each species and community for the Wyoming Basin REA. Core Management Questions address primary management issues, including (1) where is the Conservation Element, and what are its key ecological attributes (characteristics of species and communities that may affect their long-term persistence or viability); (2) what and where are the Change Agents; and (3) how do the Change Agents affect the key ecological attributes? Integrated Management Questions synthesize the Core Management Questions as follows: (1) where are the areas with high landscape-level ecological values; (2) where are the areas with high landscape-level risks; and (3) where are the potential areas for conservation, restoration, and development? The associated maps and key findings for each Management Question are summarized for each Conservation Element in individual chapters. Additional chapters on landscape intactness and an REA synthesis are included.

  13. Role of carriers in the transmission of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Bindu; Erickson, Kayla; Kugadas, Abirami; Batra, Sai A.; Call, Douglas R.; Davis, Margaret A.; Foreyt, William J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the absence of livestock contact, recurring lamb mortality in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations previously exposed to pneumonia indicates the likely presence of carriers of pneumonia-causing pathogens, and possibly inadequate maternally derived immunity. To investigate this problem we commingled naïve, pregnant ewes (n=3) with previously exposed rams (n=2). Post-commingling, all ewes and lambs born to them acquired pneumonia-causing pathogens (leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae), with subsequent lamb mortality between 4-9 weeks of age. Infected ewes became carriers for two subsequent years and lambs born to them succumbed to pneumonia. In another experiment, we attempted to suppress the carriage of leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae by administering an antibiotic to carrier ewes, and evaluated lamb survival. Lambs born to both treatment and control ewes (n=4 each) acquired pneumonia and died. Antibody titers against leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae in all eight ewes were ‘protective’ (>1:800 and no apparent respiratory disease); however their lambs were either born with comparatively low titers, or with high (but non-protective) titers that declined rapidly within 2-8 weeks of age, rendering them susceptible to fatal disease. Thus, exposure to pneumonia-causing pathogens from carrier ewes, and inadequate titers of maternally derived protective antibodies, are likely to render bighorn lambs susceptible to fatal pneumonia. PMID:27185269

  14. Role of carriers in the transmission of pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis).

    PubMed

    Raghavan, Bindu; Erickson, Kayla; Kugadas, Abirami; Batra, Sai A; Call, Douglas R; Davis, Margaret A; Foreyt, William J; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of livestock contact, recurring lamb mortality in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations previously exposed to pneumonia indicates the likely presence of carriers of pneumonia-causing pathogens, and possibly inadequate maternally derived immunity. To investigate this problem we commingled naïve, pregnant ewes (n=3) with previously exposed rams (n=2). Post-commingling, all ewes and lambs born to them acquired pneumonia-causing pathogens (leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae and Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae), with subsequent lamb mortality between 4-9 weeks of age. Infected ewes became carriers for two subsequent years and lambs born to them succumbed to pneumonia. In another experiment, we attempted to suppress the carriage of leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae by administering an antibiotic to carrier ewes, and evaluated lamb survival. Lambs born to both treatment and control ewes (n=4 each) acquired pneumonia and died. Antibody titers against leukotoxin-producing Pasteurellaceae in all eight ewes were 'protective' (>1:800 and no apparent respiratory disease); however their lambs were either born with comparatively low titers, or with high (but non-protective) titers that declined rapidly within 2-8 weeks of age, rendering them susceptible to fatal disease. Thus, exposure to pneumonia-causing pathogens from carrier ewes, and inadequate titers of maternally derived protective antibodies, are likely to render bighorn lambs susceptible to fatal pneumonia. PMID:27185269

  15. Ural-Tweed Bighorn Sheep Wildlife Mitigation Project, 1986 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chris A.; Summerfield, Bob; Young, Lewis

    1987-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of the project activities from September 1, 1984 to December 31, 1986. To date, habitat treatments have been initiated on eight areas. The treatments include selective slash and burn, prescribed fire and fertilization. Inclement weather precluded the completion of the prescribed burns scheduled during fall 1985 and fall 1986. The lower Stonehill prescribed fire was rescheduled from fall 1985 to spring 1986 with the burn accomplished, producing varied results. Extensive pretreatment vegetative information has been collected from all units scheduled for habitat manipulations. Additionally, future projects have been delineated for other areas frequented by bighorn sheep. Ten adult bighorn sheep (5 ewes and 5 rams) have been fitted with radio transmitters. Systematic aerial and ground surveys were utilized to monitor the movements and seasonal habitat preferences of the instrumented sheep. Age and sex information was gathered whenever possible to aid in the development of a population model, Monthly pallet group collections were initiated in May 1985 to provide samples for 2.6 diaminopimetic acid (DAPA), food habits and lungworm larvae analysis. The majority of the data analysis is ongoing and will be presented in later reports.

  16. Proceedings of the University of Wyoming Trustee Symposium (Jackson, Wyoming, August 3-6, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Univ., Jackson.

    The 1986 University of Wyoming Trustees Symposium examined five broad topics. Keynote speakers and topics are as follows: "An Introduction to the University of Wyoming" (Donald L. Veal); "What Is a University and What Is Its Role in Society?" (Walter Eggers); "Challenges for Universities in the Decades Ahead" (Jack H. Schuster); "Alternatives for…

  17. Proceedings of the University of Wyoming Trustees Symposium. (Jackson, Wyoming, August 2-5, 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Univ., Jackson.

    The 1987 University of Wyoming (UW) Trustees Symposium focused on five major topics. The topics and keynote speakers are as follows: "An Introduction to the University of Wyoming--The Perspective of a Newcomer," (Terry P. Roark); "College: Making the Connections" (Ernest L. Boyer); "A Quality Faculty for the Second Century" (Jack H. Schuster);…

  18. Late glacial aridity in southern Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, O.K.; Pitblado, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    While the slopes of the present-day Colorado Rocky Mountains are characterized by large stands of subalpine and montane conifers, the Rockies of the late glacial looked dramatically different. Specifically, pollen records suggest that during the late glacial, Artemisia and Gramineae predominated throughout the mountains of Colorado. At some point between 11,000 and 10,000 B.P., however, both Artemisia and grasses underwent a dramatic decline, which can be identified in virtually every pollen diagram produced for Colorado mountain sites, including Como Lake (Sangre de Cristo Mountains), Copley Lake and Splains; Gulch (near Crested Butte), Molas Lake (San Juan Mountains), and Redrock Lake (Boulder County). Moreover, the same pattern seems to hold for pollen spectra derived for areas adjacent to Colorado, including at sites in the Chuska Mountains of New Mexico and in eastern Wyoming. The implications of this consistent finding are compelling. The closest modem analogues to the Artemisia- and Gramineae-dominated late-glacial Colorado Rockies are found in the relatively arid northern Great Basin, which suggests that annual precipitation was much lower in the late-glacial southern Rocky Mountains than it was throughout the Holocene.

  19. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus) in Montana

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J.; Keating, Kim A.; Chapman, Phillip L.; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack; Clarke, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents. PMID:22195293

  20. Comparison of Passively Transferred Antibodies in Bighorn and Domestic Lambs Reveals One Factor in Differential Susceptibility of These Species to Mannheimia haemolytica-Induced Pneumonia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes fatal bronchopneumonia in bighorn sheep (BHS; Ovis canadensis) under natural and experimental conditions. Leukotoxin is the primary virulence factor of this organism. BHS are more susceptible to developing fatal pneumonia than the related species Ovis aries...

  1. Shared Bacterial and Viral Respiratory Agents in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis), Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), and Goats (Capra hircus) in Montana.

    PubMed

    Miller, David S; Weiser, Glen C; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J; Keating, Kim A; Chapman, Phillip L; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack; Clarke, P Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  2. Shared bacterial and viral respiratory agents in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus) in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, David S.; Weiser, Glen C.; Aune, Keith; Roeder, Brent; Atkinson, Mark; Anderson, Neil; Roffe, Thomas J.; Keating, Kim A.; Chapman, Phillip L.; Kimberling, Cleon; Rhyan, Jack C.; Clarke, P. Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Transmission of infectious agents from livestock reservoirs has been hypothesized to cause respiratory disease outbreaks in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), and land management policies intended to limit this transmission have proven controversial. This cross-sectional study compares the infectious agents present in multiple populations of bighorn sheep near to and distant from their interface with domestic sheep (O. aries) and domestic goat (Capra hircus) and provides critical baseline information needed for interpretations of cross-species transmission risks. Bighorn sheep and livestock shared exposure to Pasteurellaceae, viral, and endoparasite agents. In contrast, although the impact is uncertain, Mycoplasma sp. was isolated from livestock but not bighorn sheep. These results may be the result of historic cross-species transmission of agents that has resulted in a mosaic of endemic and exotic agents. Future work using longitudinal and multiple population comparisons is needed to rigorously establish the risk of outbreaks from cross-species transmission of infectious agents.

  3. Hydrology of Park County, Wyoming, exclusive of Yellowstone National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lowry, M.E.; Smalley, M.L.; Mora, K.L.; Stockdale, R.G.; Martin, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The climate of Park County, Wyoming, ranges from desert to alpine tundra. Average annual precipitation ranges from 6 to 40 inches. Ground water is present throughout most of the county, but supplies adequate for stock or domestic use are not readily available in areas of greatest need. The chemical quality of most of the water sampled was of suitable quality for livestock, but most of the water was not suitable for drinking, and the water from bedrock aquifers generally was not suitable for irrigation. Unconsolidated deposits are a principal source of ground water in the county. However, ground water is found in deposits topographically higher than stream level only where surface water has been applied for irrigation; those unconsolidated deposits beneath areas that are not irrigated, such as Polecat Bench, are dry. The conversion of irrigated land to urban development poses problems in some areas because yields of water-supply wells will be adversely affected by reduced recharge. The trend toward urban development also increases the risk of contamination of the ground water by septic tanks, petroleum products, and toxic and hazardous wastes. Perennial streams originate in the mountains and in areas where drainage from irrigated land is adequate to sustain flow. The average annual runoff from streams originating in the mountains is as large as 598 acre-feet per square mile, and the average annual runoff from streams originating in badlands and plains is as low as 14.8 acre-feet per square mile.

  4. The Geologic Story of the Uinta Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1969-01-01

    The opening of the West after the Civil War greatly stimulated early geologic exploration west of the 100th Meridian. One of the areas first studied, the Uinta Mountains region, gained wide attention as a result of the explorations of three Territorial Surveys, one headed by John Wesley Powell, one by Clarence King, and one by Ferdinand V. Hayden. Completion of the Union Pacific Railroad across southern Wyoming 100 years ago, in 1869, materially assisted geologic exploration, and the railheads at Green River and Rock Springs greatly simplified the outfitting of expeditions into the mountains. The overlap of the Powell, King, and Hayden surveys in the Uinta Mountains led to efforts that were less concerted than competitive and not without acrimony. Many parts of the area were seen by all three parties at almost the same time. Duplication was inevitable, of course, but all three surveys contributed vast quantities of new knowledge to the storehouse of geology, and many now-basic concepts arose from their observations. Powell's area of interest extended mainly southward from the Uinta Mountains to the Grand Canyon, including the boundless plateaus and canyons of southern Utah and northern Arizona. King's survey extended eastward from the High Sierra in California to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and encompassed a swath of country more than 100 miles wide. Hayden's explorations covered an immense region of mountains and basins from Yellowstone Park in Wyoming southeast throughout most of Colorado. Powell first entered the Uinta Mountains in the fall of 1868, having traveled north around the east end of the range from the White River country to Green River, Wyoming, then south over a circuitous route to Flaming Gorge and Browns Park, and finally back to the White River, where he spent the winter. In 1869, after reexamining much of the area visited the previous season, Powell embarked on his famous 'first boat trip' down the Green and Colorado Rivers. This trip was more exploratory

  5. Subsurface geology and porosity distribution, Madison Limestone and underlying formations, Powder River basin, northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana and adjacent areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, James A.

    1978-01-01

    To evaluate the Madison Limestone and associated rocks as potential sources for water supplies in the Powder River Basin and adjacent areas, an understanding of the geologic framework of these units, their lithologic facies patterns, the distribution of porosity zones, and the relation between porosity development and stratigraphic facies is necessary. Regionally the Madison is mainly a fossiliferous limestone. However, in broad areas of the eastern Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains, dolomite is a dominant constituent and in places the Madison is almost entirely dolomite. Within these areas maximum porosity development is found and it seems to be related to the coarser crystalline dolomite facies. The porosity development is associated with tabular and fairly continuous crystalline dolomite beds separated by non-porous limestones. The maximum porosity development in the Bighorn Dolomite, as in the Madison, is directly associated with the occurrence of a more coarsely crystalline sucrosic dolomite facies. Well data indicate, however, that where the Bighorn is present in the deeper parts of the Powder River Basin, it may be dominated by a finer crystalline dolomite facies of low porosity. The 'Winnipeg Sandstone' is a clean, generally well-sorted, medium-grained sandstone. It shows good porosity development in parts of the northern Powder River Basin and northwestern South Dakota. Because the sandstone is silica-cemented and quartzitic in areas of deep burial, good porosity is expected only where it is no deeper than a few thousand feet. The Flathead Sandstone is a predominantly quartzose, slightly feldspathic sandstone, commonly cemented with iron oxide. Like the 'Winnipeg Sandstone,' it too is silica-cemented and quartzitic in many places so that its porosity is poor in areas of deep burial. Illustrations in this report show the thickness, percent dolomite, and porosity-feet for the Bighorn Dolomite and the Madison Limestone and its subdivisions. The

  6. Analysis of ERTS-1 imagery and its application to evaluation of Wyoming's natural resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results of the Wyoming ERTS-1 investigation during the first six months (July-December 1972) included: (1) successful segregation of Precambrian metasedimentary/metavolcanic rocks from igneous rocks, (2) discovery of iron formation within the metasedimentary sequence, (3) mapping of previously unreported tectonic elements of major significance, (4) successful mapping of large scale fracture systems of the Wind River Mountains, (5) successful distinction of some metamorphic, igneous, and sedimentary lithologies by color additive viewing, (6) mapping of large scale glacial features, and (7) development of techniques for mapping small urban areas.

  7. Algal and Water-Quality Data for the Yellowstone River and Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Streams of the Yellowstone River Basin in Montana and Wyoming were sampled as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Algal communities were sampled in 1999 in conjunction with other ecological sampling and in 2000 during synoptic sampling. Water-quality measurements related to the algal sampling included light attenuation and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Sites were sampled on the main-stem Yellowstone River, major tributaries such as the Clarks Fork Yellowstone River and the Bighorn River, and selected minor tributaries. Some of the data collected, such as the phytoplankton chlorophyll-a data, were referenced or summarized in previous U.S. Geological Survey reports but were not previously published in tabular form, and therefore are presented in this report, prepared in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality. Data presented in this report include chlorophyll-a concentrations in phytoplankton and periphyton samples, as well as light attenuation and dissolved-oxygen production data from 1999-2000.

  8. The nature of Archean terrane boundaries: an example from the northern Wyoming Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mogk, D.W.; Mueller, P.A.; Wooden, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Archean northern Wyoming Province can be subdivided into two geologically distinct terranes, the Beartooth-Bighorn magmatic terrane (BBMT) and the Montana metasedimentary terrane (MMT). The BBMT is characterized by voluminous Late Archean (2.90-2.74 Ga) magmatic rocks (primarily tonalite, trondhjemite, and granite); metasedimentary rocks are preserved only as small, rare enclaves in this magmatic terrane. The magmatic rocks typically have geochemical and isotopic signatures that suggest petrogenesis in a continental magmatic arc environment. The MMT, as exposed in the northern Gallatin and Madison Ranges, is dominated by Middle Archean trondhjemitic gneisses (3.2-3.0 Ga); metasedimentary rocks, however, are significantly more abundant than in the BBMT. Each terrane has experienced a separate and distinct geologic history since at least 3.6 Ga ago based on differences in metamorphic and structural styles, composition of magmatic and metasupracrustal rocks, and isotopic ages; consequently, these may be described as discrete terranes in the Cordilleran sense. Nonetheless, highly radiogenic and distinctive Pb-Pb isotopic signatures in rocks of all ages in both terranes indicate that the two terranes share a significant aspect of their history. This suggests that these two Early to Middle Archean crustal blocks, that initially evolved as part of a larger crustal province, experienced different geologic histories from at least 3.6 Ga until their juxtaposition in the Late Archean (between 2.75 to 2.55 Ga ago). Consequently, the boundary between the BBMT and MMT appears to separate terranes that are not likely to be exotic in the sense of their Phanerozoic counterparts. Other Archean provinces do appear to contain crustal blocks with different isotopic signatures (e.g. West Greenland, India, South Africa). The use of the term exotic, therefore, must be cautious in situations where geographic indicators such as paleontologic and/or paleomagnetic data are not available

  9. Reclamation techniques in southwestern wyoming.

    PubMed

    Parady, F E

    1985-03-01

    Bridger Coal Company operates a 5.8 million tpy surface coal mine thrity five miles northeast of Rock Springs. Wyoming. Approximately 20.000 acres are under permit, with disturbance over the life of the mine projected to reach 10,000 acres. Located on the western rim of the continental divide, the mine receives less than 8.5 inches of precipitation annually. Soils in the area are coarse-textured. and problems associated with elevated salinity and sodicity arc encountered.A variety of common reclamation techniques have been modified to reflect these conditions. Soil horizons are segregated during salvage operations (the surface six inches as topsoil and the balance as subsoil). Unsuitable materials are not salvaged. Direct application of soil is used (over 130 acres in 1983) to maximize native plant regeneration and conserve soil fertility. Inter-seeding of seeding failures has proven to be significantly more successful than chisel plowing and reseeding. Broadcast seeding has been ineffective because of strong winds, and a no till drill has been modified to handle diverse seed mixes and rock conditions. The utility of fertilization under typically xeric moisture regimes is being evaluated. A research project has been initiated to assess establishment of a predominately native, diverse seed mix under irrigation, as well as to determine irrigation rates and duration.

  10. Trona resources in southwest Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dyni, J.R.; Wiig, S.V.; Grundy, W.D.

    1995-01-01

    Bedded trona (Na2CO3??NaHCO3??2H2O) in the lacustrine Green River Formation of Eocene age in the Green River Basin, southwest Wyoming, constitutes the largest known resource of natural sodium carbonate in the world. In this study, 116 gigatons (Gt) of trona ore are estimated to be present in 22 beds, ranging from 1.2 to 11 meters (m) in thickness. Of this total, 69 Gt of trona ore are estimated to be in beds containing less than 2 percent halite and 47 Gt in beds containing 2 or more percent halite. These 22 beds underlie areas of about 130 to more than 2,000 km2 at depths ranging from about 200 m to more than 900 m below the surface. The total resource of trona ore in the basin for which drilling information is available is estimated to be about 135 Gt. Underveloped trona beds in the deeper southern part of the basin may be best developed by solution mining. Additional unevaluated sodium carbonate resources are present in disseminated shortite (Na2CO3??2CaCO3) in strata interbedded with the trona and in shallow sodium carbonate brines in the northeast part of the basin. Estimates of the shortite and brine resources were not made. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  11. Reclamation techniques in southwestern wyoming.

    PubMed

    Parady, F E

    1985-03-01

    Bridger Coal Company operates a 5.8 million tpy surface coal mine thrity five miles northeast of Rock Springs. Wyoming. Approximately 20.000 acres are under permit, with disturbance over the life of the mine projected to reach 10,000 acres. Located on the western rim of the continental divide, the mine receives less than 8.5 inches of precipitation annually. Soils in the area are coarse-textured. and problems associated with elevated salinity and sodicity arc encountered.A variety of common reclamation techniques have been modified to reflect these conditions. Soil horizons are segregated during salvage operations (the surface six inches as topsoil and the balance as subsoil). Unsuitable materials are not salvaged. Direct application of soil is used (over 130 acres in 1983) to maximize native plant regeneration and conserve soil fertility. Inter-seeding of seeding failures has proven to be significantly more successful than chisel plowing and reseeding. Broadcast seeding has been ineffective because of strong winds, and a no till drill has been modified to handle diverse seed mixes and rock conditions. The utility of fertilization under typically xeric moisture regimes is being evaluated. A research project has been initiated to assess establishment of a predominately native, diverse seed mix under irrigation, as well as to determine irrigation rates and duration. PMID:24221682

  12. The Cretaceous record in a northeast-trending transect, northern Utah to east-central Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Merewether, E.A. )

    1991-03-01

    Cretaceous sedimentary rocks in the Laramide basins of the middle Rocky Mountains include 16,600 ft (5060 m) of predominantly siliciclastic strata in the thrust-belt of northern Utah and 7800 ft (2380 m) of mainly siliciclastic and calcareous strata near the craton in east central Wyoming. Regional changes in the thickness of the strata indicate that crustal subsidence during the Cretaceous was generally greatest in northern Utah and western Wyoming where it was associated with tectonic and sediment loading. However, the considerable thickness of uppermost Cretaceous nonmarine beds in several other areas reflects pronounced basin subsidence during early stages of the Laramide orogeny. In a transect from northern Utah to east-central Wyoming, based on outcrop sections, borehole logs, and chronostratigraphic data, Cretaceous rocks grade northeastward from mainly fluvial and nearshore marine synorogenic conglomerate, sandstone, mudstone, coal, and bentonite to mostly nearshore and offshore marine sandstone, mudstone, calcareous shale, and bentonite. Lateral changes in the lithofacies and in the extent of enclosed unconformities indicate marine transgressions and regressions that were effected by structural deformation, sedimentation, and eustatic events. Significant unconformities have been found at the base of the Cretaceous strata, at two horizons within beds of Albian age, at two horizons within rocks of Cenomanian and Turonian ages, at one horizon within Coniacian strata, and at two horizons within Campanian beds. Most of these unconformities are either flooding surfaces or sequence boundaries.

  13. A Review of Hypothesized Determinants Associated with Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Die-Offs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David S.; Hoberg, Eric; Weiser, Glen; Aune, Keith; Atkinson, Mark; Kimberling, Cleon

    2012-01-01

    Multiple determinants have been hypothesized to cause or favor disease outbreaks among free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) populations. This paper considered direct and indirect causes of mortality, as well as potential interactions among proposed environmental, host, and agent determinants of disease. A clear, invariant relationship between a single agent and field outbreaks has not yet been documented, in part due to methodological limitations and practical challenges associated with developing rigorous study designs. Therefore, although there is a need to develop predictive models for outbreaks and validated mitigation strategies, uncertainty remains as to whether outbreaks are due to endemic or recently introduced agents. Consequently, absence of established and universal explanations for outbreaks contributes to conflict among wildlife and livestock stakeholders over land use and management practices. This example illustrates the challenge of developing comprehensive models for understanding and managing wildlife diseases in complex biological and sociological environments. PMID:22567546

  14. Genetic Variation of Major Histocompatibility Complex and Microsatellite Loci: A Comparison in Bighorn Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, W. M.; Hedrick, P. W.; Muggli-Cockett, N. E.; Kalinowski, S.; Penedo, MCT.; Ramey-II, R. R.

    1997-01-01

    Examining and comparing genetic variation for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and microsatellite (MS) loci in the same individuals provides an opportunity to understand the forces influencing genetic variation. We examined five MHC and three MS loci in 235 bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) from 14 populations and found that both types of loci were highly variable and were in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Mean F(ST) values for both markers were very similar and MHC and MS genetic variability was predominantly distributed within rather than among populations. However, analyses of genetic distances and tree topologies revealed different spatial patterns of variation for the two types of loci. Collectively, these results indicated that neutral forces substantially influenced MS and MHC variation, and they provided limited evidence for selection acting on the MHC. PMID:9071595

  15. Wyoming Cloud Lidar: instrument description and applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhien; Wechsler, Perry; Kuestner, William; French, Jeffrey; Rodi, Alfred; Glover, Brent; Burkhart, Matthew; Lukens, Donal

    2009-08-01

    The Wyoming Cloud Lidar (WCL), a compact two-channel elastic lidar, was designed to obtain cloud measurements together with the Wyoming Cloud Radar (WCR) on the University of Wyoming King Air and the National Science Foundation/National Center of Atmospheric Research C-130 aircraft. The WCL has been deployed in four field projects under a variety of atmospheric and cloud conditions during the last two years. Throughout these campaigns, it has exhibited the needed reliability for turn-key operation from aircraft. We provide here an overview of the instrument and examples to illustrate the measurements capability of the WCL. Although the WCL as a standalone instrument can provide unique measurements for cloud and boundary layer aerosol studies, the synergy of WCL and WCR measurements coupled with in situ sampling from an aircraft provide a significant step forward in our ability to observe and understand cloud microphysical property evolution.

  16. Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP): High-Resolution Continental Records of Early Paleogene Hyperthermals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyde, W.; Wing, S.; Gingerich, P.

    2012-04-01

    Hyperthermals like the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) are transient global warming events associated with large negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs) that may serve as analogs to present-day climate change. Determining the causes and effects of hyperthermals is important for understanding the long-term carbon cycle and its effects on other parts of the Earth system. Most detailed stratigraphic records of hyperthermals come from marine sediment cores (e.g. IODP) with relatively few well-resolved continental stratigraphic records available. The Bighorn Basin is an intermontane basin that formed during the Laramide orogeny and experienced rapid subsidence and aggradational fluvial deposition from the early Paleocene through the early Eocene (~65-50 million years ago). It preserves the most complete early Paleogene continental sequence in the world and includes an approximately 40-meter-thick PETM interval During the summer of 2011, over 900 meters of core were recovered as part of the Bighorn Basin Coring Project (BBCP). Two 6.2-cm diameter overlapping cores were drilled at each of three sites. Two of the sites (Basin Substation and Polecat Bench) target the PETM in different environments, and the third site (Gilmore Hill) targets the younger and smaller hyperthermals known as ETM2 and H2. The BBCP cores make it possible to develop high-resolution (circa 1000-year) proxy records of climate change, carbon cycling, and biotic change from unweathered material to investigate the response of a terrestrial depositional and ecological system to extreme global warming events. The coring localities are also distributed along a transect from the margin to the axis of the basin to compare the tectonic and depositional effects on the hyperthermal records. Down-hole logs, multi-sensor core logs (magnetic susceptibility and color reflectance), visual core descriptions, and preliminary isotopic samples will be evaluated, with special emphasis on correlation to previous

  17. Patterns of megafloral change across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Kirk R.; Hickey, Leo J.

    1988-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of vegetation in the terminal Cretaceous of Western Interior North America was a complex mosaic resulting from the interaction of factors including a shifting coastline, tectonic activity, a mild, possibly deteriorating climate, dinosaur herbivory, local facies effects, and a hypothesized bolide impact. In order to achieve sufficient resolution to analyze this vegetational pattern, over 100 megafloral collecting sites were established, yielding approximately 15,000 specimens, in Upper Cretaceous and lower Paleocene strata in the Williston, Powder River, and Bighorn basins in North Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming. These localities were integrated into a lithostratigraphic framework that is based on detailed local reference sections and constrained by vertebrate and palynomorph biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and sedimentary facies analysis. A regional biostratigraphy based on well located and identified plant megafossils that can be used to address patterns of floral evolution, ecology, and extinction is the goal of this research. Results of the analyses are discussed.

  18. PCR assay detects Mannheimia haemolytica in culture-negative pneumonic lung tissues of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) from outbreaks in the western USA, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Goldy, Andrea; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Subramaniam, Renuka; Batra, Sai Arun; Kugadas, Abirami; Raghavan, Bindu; Dassanayake, Rohana P; Jennings-Gaines, Jessica E; Killion, Halcyon J; Edwards, William H; Ramsey, Jennifer M; Anderson, Neil J; Wolff, Peregrine L; Mansfield, Kristin; Bruning, Darren; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica consistently causes severe bronchopneumonia and rapid death of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) under experimental conditions. However, Bibersteinia trehalosi and Pasteurella multocida have been isolated from pneumonic bighorn lung tissues more frequently than M. haemolytica by culture-based methods. We hypothesized that assays more sensitive than culture would detect M. haemolytica in pneumonic lung tissues more accurately. Therefore, our first objective was to develop a PCR assay specific for M. haemolytica and use it to determine if this organism was present in the pneumonic lungs of bighorns during the 2009-2010 outbreaks in Montana, Nevada, and Washington, USA. Mannheimia haemolytica was detected by the species-specific PCR assay in 77% of archived pneumonic lung tissues that were negative by culture. Leukotoxin-negative M. haemolytica does not cause fatal pneumonia in bighorns. Therefore, our second objective was to determine if the leukotoxin gene was also present in the lung tissues as a means of determining the leukotoxicity of M. haemolytica that were present in the lungs. The leukotoxin-specific PCR assay detected leukotoxin gene in 91% of lung tissues that were negative for M. haemolytica by culture. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae, an organism associated with bighorn pneumonia, was detected in 65% of pneumonic bighorn lung tissues by PCR or culture. A PCR assessment of distribution of these pathogens in the nasopharynx of healthy bighorns from populations that did not experience an all-age die-off in the past 20 yr revealed that M. ovipneumoniae was present in 31% of the animals whereas leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was present in only 4%. Taken together, these results indicate that culture-based methods are not reliable for detection of M. haemolytica and that leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica was a predominant etiologic agent of the pneumonia outbreaks of 2009-2010.

  19. 77 FR 34894 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... 76 FR 80310, is withdrawn June 12, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffrey Fleischman..., Federal Register (45 FR 78637). You can also find later actions concerning Wyoming's program and program... receipt of the proposed amendment in the December 23, 2011, Federal Register (76 FR 80310). In the...

  20. Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs all partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships…

  1. Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs all partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships…

  2. Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships assist…

  3. Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships assist…

  4. Wyoming: Open Range for Library Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maul, Helen Meadors

    1996-01-01

    Describes the development of library technology and the need for telecommunications in a state with a lack of population density. Topics include the state library's role; shared library resources and library networks; government information; the Wyoming State Home Page on the World Wide Web; Ariel software; network coordinating; and central…

  5. 76 FR 34815 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ..., Federal Register (45 FR 78637). You can also find later actions concerning Wyoming's program and program... Register (75 FR 6332). In the same document, we opened the public comment period and provided an... Rules and Regulations and was approved by OSMRE in a November 24, 1986, Federal Register notice (51...

  6. Optimization at Wyoming gas plant improves profitability

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, L.E. ); Chontos, A.J. ); Hatch, D.R. )

    1990-05-28

    This paper reports on a computer-aided manufacturing system for on-line optimization implemented at the Painter complex (Wyoming) gas-processing plant. The system is based on rigorous process modeling techniques using real time data. Early results show significant potential for improving the plant's profitability.

  7. Wyoming: The State and Its Educational System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Harold L.

    Wyoming is a state of great natural beauty with only five people per square mile and a unique way of life that deserves to be preserved. The economy, though, is almost totally dependent on energy extraction, an area that has not done well of late. The state's small population makes "boutique" products and services not very profitable, and efforts…

  8. 76 FR 45643 - Wyoming Disaster #WY-00017

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... State of Wyoming (FEMA- 4007-DR), dated 07/22/2011. Incident: Severe Storms, Flooding, and Landslides... major disaster declaration on 07/22/2011, Private Non- Profit organizations that provide essential... Rates are: Percent For Physical Damage: Non-Profit Organizations with Credit Available Elsewhere....

  9. Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships…

  10. Wyoming Community College Commission Agency Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community Coll. Commission, Cheyenne.

    This paper reports on outcomes of community college programs monitored by the Wyoming Community College Commission (WCCC). The document covers the following WCCC objectives: (1) Study of tuition rates for the community colleges; (2) Negotiation of contracts and provision of financial support for administrative computing system components and…

  11. Wyoming Community Colleges Annual Partnership Report, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community College Commission, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "Annual Partnership Report" catalogs all partnerships that Wyoming community colleges established and maintained for each fiscal year. Each community college maintains numerous partnerships for the development and provision of academic, occupational-technical, workforce development, and enrichment educational programs. These partnerships…

  12. 75 FR 42470 - Wyoming Disaster #WY-00014

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... ADMINISTRATION Wyoming Disaster WY-00014 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  13. Wyoming Career and Technical Education Policy Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MPR Associates, Inc., 2009

    2009-01-01

    This policy analysis was produced for the Wyoming Department of Administration and Information by MPR Associates, Inc. Its purpose was to examine federal and state policy related to career and technical education (CTE) to determine whether existing policy (in the form of statutes, rules, regulations, and guidance) could either promote or impede…

  14. 78 FR 13004 - Wyoming Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... approval of the Wyoming program in the November 26, 1980, Federal Register (45 FR 78637). You can also find... provision concerning variable topsoil depths during reclamation, and addresses four deficiencies that were... variable topsoil depths during reclamation and addresses four deficiencies that OSM identified in...

  15. Causes of mortality of the Wyoming toad.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S K; Williams, E S; Thorne, E T; Mills, K W; Withers, D I; Pier, A C

    1999-01-01

    Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) that died from January 1989 to June 1996 were submitted to the Wyoming State Veterinary Laboratory (Laramie, Wyoming, USA) for postmortem evaluation. These consisted of 108 free-ranging toads and 170 animals from six captive populations. Ninety-seven (90%) of 108 free-ranging toad carcasses were submitted during September and October. From 1989 to 1992, 27 (77%) of 35 mortalities in the captive populations occurred in October, November, and December. From 1993 to 1996, mortality in captive toads occurred without a seasonal pattern and coincided with changes in hibernation protocols that no longer mimicked natural cycles. Cause of mortality was determined in 147 (53%) of the 278 cases. Mycotic dermatitis with secondary bacterial septicemia was the most frequent diagnosis in 104 (71%) of 147 toads. Basidiobolus ranarum was found by microscopic examination of skin sections in 100 (96%) of 104 of these mortalities. This fungus was isolated from 30 (56%) of 54 free-ranging and 24 (48%) of 50 captive toads. This research documents the causes of mortality for both free-ranging and captive endangered Wyoming toads over a 7 yr period. PMID:10073345

  16. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  17. Atlas Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These are the Anti-Atlas Mountains, part of the Atlas Mountain range in southern Morocco, Africa. The region contains some of the world's largest and most diverse mineral resources, most of which are still untouched. This image was acquired by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on June 22, 2001. This is a false-color composite image made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and red wavelengths. Image provided by the USGS EROS Data Center Satellite Systems Branch.

  18. 78 FR 63243 - Notice of Public Meeting; Wyoming Resource Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... be at the University of Wyoming BP Collaboration Center, 1020 East Lewis Street, Laramie, Wyoming... include discussions on National Environmental Policy Act cooperating agency issues, reclamation and mitigation initiatives by the University of Wyoming Ruckleshaus Institute, the University of...

  19. Estimates of the fraction of precipitation seedable under application of the Wyoming weather modification pilot project seeding criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritzman, Jaclyn M.

    The objective of the Wyoming Weather Modification Pilot Project is to evaluate the effect of glaciogenic seeding on wintertime precipitation over two co-located barriers in southeast Wyoming. Orographic clouds are to be targeted if they meet strict criteria. An analysis of the impact of seeding requires knowledge of the amount of precipitation that fell from seedable clouds. This amount of precipitation was determined by applying the strict seeding criteria to an eight-year simulation from the Weather Research and Forecasting model at 4-km horizontal resolution. Results from the analysis from the model suggested that the fraction of seedable precipitation was 35.1% (35.5%) over the Sierra Madre and Medicine Bow mountain ranges from 2000-2008. This fraction decreases to 23.2% (23.0%) under a warmer, future climate scenario over the Sierra Madres (Medicine Bows).

  20. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Torrington Quadrangle, Wyoming and Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Seeland, D

    1982-09-01

    The Torrington 1/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ Quadrangle in southeastern Wyoming and western Nebraska was evaluated to identify areas favorable for the occurrence of uranium deposits likely to contain 100 tons of uranium with an average grade of not less than 100 ppM (0.01 percent) U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. Almost all uranium occurrences reported in the literature were visited and sampled. Geochemical analyses of rock samples collected during the study were used in the evaluation. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment analyses were not available. Aerial-radiometric, and helium soil-gas surveys were analyzed. Much of the quadrangle is covered by Tertiary rocks. To assess the uranium potential of the Tertiary and pre-Tertiary rocks 270 well logs were studied and both contour and geologic maps made of the pre-Oligocene surface east and north of the Laramie Mountains. Five environments favorable for uranium deposits were outlined. The first is in the coarse-grained arkosic sandstone facies of the Wasatch Formation and the Lebo Member of the Fort Union Formation in the southern Powder River Basin. The second is in the Wind River Formation in the Shirley Basin, a stratigraphic and lithologic equivalent of the Wasatch. The third is the Lower Cretaceous Cloverly Formation in the northeastern part of the quadrangle. The fourth is in the Upper Cretaceous Lance (Laramie) Formation and the Fox Hills Sandstone in the southeastern corner of the quadrangle. The fifth favorable environment is in Precambrian rocks in the Laramie Mountains and Hartville uplift.

  1. Depositional environments of Fort Union Formation, Bison Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Southwell, E.H.; Steidtmann, J.R.; Middleton, L.

    1983-08-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation crops out in the vicinity of the Bison basin, approximately equidistant from the southeast terminus of the Wind River Range and the southwestern edge of the Granite Mountains uplift in central Wyoming. Early Laramide tectonic activity produced a series of uplifts north of the area forming a platform separating the Wind River and Great Divide basins. During middle to late Paleocene, aggrading fluvial systems flowing southward, rapidly deposited a sequence of thin, lenticular conglomerates and medium to coarse-grained planar-bedded sandstones in braided and anastomosing stream channels and carbonaceous overbank silt and claystones. Subaerially exposed interchannel areas developed cyclic pedogenic horizons. Early diagenetic cementation preserved tubular burrows and rhizoliths as well as impressions of fruits, nuts, leaves, and wood. Anomalous silicic cementation of mudstone, sandstone, and conglomerates probably are silcrete soil horizons developed in a warm temperature to subtropical humid climate. The sandstones are multicyclic containing fragments of preexisting siliceous sedimentary rocks (e.g., Tensleep Sandstone, Mowry Shale, and cherts from the Madison, Morrison, and Phosphoria Formations). Reworked glauconite is locally abundant in some Fort Union sandstones, reflecting the proximity of Paleozoic sources. Altered and embayed feldspars are present in trace amounts throughout most of the section, but significant accumulations of fresh feldspar are present near the top, indicating unroofing of Precambrian source before the Eocene.

  2. Early onset of vegetation growth vs. rapid green-up: impacts on juvenile mountain ungulates.

    PubMed

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Pelletier, Fanie; Von Hardenberg, Achaz; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Côté, Steeve D

    2007-02-01

    Seasonal patterns of climate and vegetation growth are expected to be altered by global warming. In alpine environments, the reproduction of birds and mammals is tightly linked to seasonality; therefore such alterations may have strong repercussions on recruitment. We used the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), a satellite-based measurement that correlates strongly with aboveground net primary productivity, to explore how annual variations in the timing of vegetation onset and in the rate of change in primary production during green-up affected juvenile growth and survival of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), Alpine ibex (Capra ibex), and mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in four different populations in two continents. We indexed timing of onset of vegetation growth by the integrated NDVI (INDVI) in May. The rate of change in primary production during green-up (early May to early July) was estimated as (1) the maximal slope between any two successive bimonthly NDVI values during this period and (2) the slope in NDVI between early May and early July. The maximal slope in NDVI was negatively correlated with lamb growth and survival in both populations of bighorn sheep, growth of mountain goat kids, and survival of Alpine ibex kids, but not with survival of mountain goat kids. There was no effect of INDVI in May and of the slope in NDVI between early May and early July on juvenile growth and survival for any species. Although rapid changes in NDVI during the green-up period could translate into higher plant productivity, they may also lead to a shorter period of availability of high-quality forage over a large spatial scale, decreasing the opportunity for mountain ungulates to exploit high-quality forage. Our results suggest that attempts to forecast how warmer winters and springs will affect animal population dynamics and life histories in alpine environments should consider factors influencing the rate of changes in primary production during green

  3. Geology and ground-water resources of the lower Bighorn Valley, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, Louis J.; Paulson, Q.F.

    1968-01-01

    The Bighorn River has incised a deep, broad valley in Cretaceous strata along its 65-mile lower reach below the mouth of Bighorn Canyon in south-central Montana. It ceased downcutting at six different levels 100-200 feet apart, widening its flood plain and alluviating each level with about 30 feet of sandy gravel. These deposits are the only economic source of ground water in large areas of the valley where the underlying bedrock consists of relatively impermeable shale to great depths. Ground water in the alluvium is hard and in the irrigated lowlands is highly mineralized at those places where drainage is slow and discharge by evapotranspiration is great. Three bedrock sandstone aquifers are present at moderate depths along three separate reaches of the valley. The sandstones yield soft, moderately to highly mineralized water that contains a high percent sodium. Wells in alluvial gravel of the irrigated lowlands can yield 100 gallons per minute at many places because the alluvium is fairly permeable and is readily recharged by infiltration of applied irrigation water, canal seepage, and ground water moving into the lowlands from the alluvium of tributary coulees. Seepage from the Two Leggins Canal in the central area probably is large. Alluvial gravel deposits have been mantled by thick alluvial and colluvial deposits of silty clay or silt that thin riverward. These fine-grained deposits drain slowly and confine ground water in alluvial gravel under artesian pressure at many places in the irrigated lowlands of the central and southern areas. The piezometric surface is close to the land surface at many places in the central area, and capillary rise and evapotranspiration in waterlogged ground has produced agriculturally harmful alkali deposits. Waterlogging of presently irrigated land in the central area will become more widespread if irrigation is extended to higher terraces to the west unless drainage ditches are installed along the base of high-terrace alluvium

  4. Disease and Predation: Sorting out Causes of a Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Decline

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Joshua B.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Estimating survival and documenting causes and timing of mortality events in neonate bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) improves understanding of population ecology and factors influencing recruitment. During 2010–2012, we captured and radiocollared 74 neonates in the Black Hills, South Dakota, of which 95% (70) died before 52 weeks of age. Pneumonia (36%) was the leading cause of mortality followed by predation (30%). We used known fate analysis in Program MARK to estimate weekly survival rates and investigate the influence of intrinsic variables on 52-week survival. Model {S1 wk, 2–8 wks, >8 wks} had the lowest AICc (Akaike’s Information Criterion corrected for small sample size) value, indicating that age (3-stage age-interval: 1 week, 2–8 weeks, and >8 weeks) best explained survival. Weekly survival estimates for 1 week, 2–8 weeks, and >8 weeks were 0.81 (95% CI = 0.70–0.88), 0.86 (95% CI = 0.81–0.90), and 0.94 (95% CI = 0.91–0.96), respectively. Overall probability of surviving 52 weeks was 0.02 (95% CI = 0.01–0.07). Of 70 documented mortalities, 21% occurred during the first week, 55% during weeks 2–8, and 23% occurred >8 weeks of age. We found pneumonia and predation were temporally heterogeneous with lambs most susceptible to predation during the first 2–3 weeks of life, while the greatest risk from pneumonia occurred from weeks 4–8. Our results indicated pneumonia was the major factor limiting recruitment followed by predation. Mortality from predation may have been partly compensatory to pneumonia and its effects were less pronounced as alternative prey became available. Given the high rates of pneumonia-caused mortality we observed, and the apparent lack of pneumonia-causing pathogens in bighorn populations in the western Black Hills, management activities should be geared towards eliminating contact between diseased and healthy populations. PMID:24516623

  5. Measured and Estimated Sodium-Adsorption Ratios for Tongue River and its Tributaries, Montana and Wyoming, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.; Nimick, David A.; Cleasby, Thomas E.; Kinsey, Stacy M.; Lambing, John H.

    2007-01-01

    The Tongue River drains an area of about 5,400 square miles and flows northward from its headwaters in the Bighorn National Forest of northeastern Wyoming to join the Yellowstone River at Miles City, Montana. Water from the Tongue River and its tributaries is extensively used for irrigation in both Wyoming and Montana. The Tongue River watershed contains vast coal deposits that are extracted at several surface mines. In some areas of the watershed, the coal beds also contain methane gas (coal-bed methane or natural gas), which has become the focus of intense exploration and development. Production of coal-bed methane requires the pumping of large volumes of ground water from the coal beds to reduce water pressure within the formation and release the stored gas. Water from the coal beds typically is high in sodium and low in calcium and magnesium, resulting in a high sodium-adsorption ratio (SAR). Disposal of ground water with high sodium concentrations into the Tongue River has the potential to increase salinity and SAR of water in the river, and potentially reduce the quality of water for irrigation purposes. This report documents SAR values measured in water samples collected at 12 monitoring sites in the Tongue River watershed and presents regression relations between specific conductance (SC) and SAR at each site for the years 2004-06. SAR in water samples was determined from laboratory-measured concentrations of sodium, calcium, and magnesium. The results of regression analysis indicated that SC and SAR were significantly related (p-values < 0.05) at most sites. The regression relations developed for most monitoring sites in the Tongue River watershed were used with continuous SC data to estimate daily SAR during the 2004 and 2005 irrigation seasons and to estimate 2006 provisional SAR values, which were displayed on the Web in real-time. Water samples were collected and analyzed from seven sites on the main stem of the Tongue River located at: (1) Monarch

  6. Rocky Mountain evolution: Tying Continental Dynamics of the Rocky Mountains and Deep Probe seismic experiments with receiver functions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rumpfhuber, E.-M.; Keller, Gordon R.; Sandvol, E.; Velasco, A.A.; Wilson, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we have determined the crustal structure using three different receiver function methods using data collected from the northern transect of the Continental Dynamics of the Rocky Mountains (CD-ROM) experiment. The resulting migrated image and crustal thickness determinations confirm and refine prior crustal thickness measurements based on the CD-ROM and Deep Probe experiment data sets. The new results show a very distinct and thick lower crustal layer beneath the Archean Wyoming province. In addition, we are able to show its termination at 42??N latitude, which provides a seismic tie between the CD-ROM and Deep Probe seismic experiments and thus completes a continuous north-south transect extending from New Mexico into Alberta, Canada. This new tie is particularly important because it occurs close to a major tectonic boundary, the Cheyenne belt, between an Archean craton and a Proterozoic terrane. We used two different stacking techniques, based on a similar concept but using two different ways to estimate uncertainties. Furthermore, we used receiver function migration and common conversion point (CCP) stacking techniques. The combined interpretation of all our results shows (1) crustal thinning in southern Wyoming, (2) strong northward crustal thickening beginning in central Wyoming, (3) the presence of an unusually thick and high-velocity lower crust beneath the Wyoming province, and (4) the abrupt termination of this lower crustal layer north of the Cheyenne belt at 42??N latitude. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN YIELD AND RETENTION IN HIGH-ELEVATION ECOSYSTEMS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Yields and retention of inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and nitrate concentrations in surface runoff are summarized for 28 high elevation watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California and Rocky Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado. Catchments ranged in elevation from 2475 to 3603 m and from...

  8. Identification of the Skills Needed by Workers in Various Segments of the Mountain States Graphic Communications Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dharavath, H. Naik

    The skills needed now and 5 years from now by workers in the graphic communications industry in New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming were identified through a mail survey of mountain states printing companies. Of the 478 companies to which surveys were mailed, 64 were returned (response rate, 13.40%). A paired t-test was conducted to identify…

  9. Estimated Water Use in Wyoming During 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boughton, Gregory K.; Remley, Kendra R.; Bartos, Timothy T.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has compiled and published estimates of water withdrawals every 5 years since 1950. This series of water-use reports serves as one of the few sources of information about regional or national trends in water withdrawals (Hutson and others, 2004). In Wyoming, six categories - irrigation, mining, thermoelectric power, public supply, self-supplied domestic, and industrial - were included in the most recent (2000) USGS compilation of estimated water use. For each category, withdrawal volumes were compiled by water source (surface water or ground water), and by county. Irrigation, public supply, and industrial ground-water withdrawals also were compiled by aquifer. With the exception of saline ground-water mining withdrawals totaling 222 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), all withdrawals in Wyoming were freshwater. Estimated withdrawals are listed from largest to smallest throughout this fact sheet.

  10. Geology and mineralization of the Wyoming Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hausel, W.D.; Edwards, B.R.; Graff, P.J.; ,

    1991-01-01

    The Wyoming Province is an Archean craton which underlies portions of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Utah, and much of Wyoming. The cratonic block consists of Archean age granite-gneiss with interspersed greenstone belts and related supracrustal terranes exposed in the cores of several Laramide uplifts. Resources found in the Province and in the adjacent accreted Proterozoic terrane include banded iron formation, Au, Pt, Pd, W, Sn, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, and diamonds. The Province shows many similarities to the mineral-rich cratons of the Canadian shield, the Rhodesian and Transvaal cratons of southern Africa, and the Pilbara and Yilgarn blocks of Western Australia, where much of the world's precious and strategic metal and gemstone resources are located.

  11. Slip-shod or safely shod: the bighorn sheep as a natural model for research.

    PubMed Central

    Manning, D P; Cooper, J E; Jones, C; Bruce, M

    1990-01-01

    Over a million injuries caused by slipping of footwear are believed to require treatment by doctors every year in the United Kingdom and many domestic animals are injured by slipping. Recent research has revealed that surface roughness of solings and floors is an important determinant of grip on lubricated surfaces and it is also known that soling friction is affected by hardness. The bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) an animal species which has adapted to a slippery environment, was studied to elucidate optimum roughness and hardness and other features which influence grip. Four adult ewes were examined in the London Zoo. The cloven hooves of this species are very mobile and the cranial tips of the hooves are the first parts to make contact with the ground. A very small contact area ensures penetration of a film of water. Mean roughness of the contact area was found to be 53 microns Rtm and the mean hardness 63 Shore A. These characteristics appear to facilitate an excellent grip on wet slippery rock but not on smooth ice. Further studies of the feet of wild species could contribute to an understanding of the factors which determine the safety of solings and floors. Images Figure 1. Figure 3. PMID:2250262

  12. Disease introduction is associated with a phase transition in bighorn sheep demographics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manlove, Kezia; Cassirer, E. Frances; Cross, Paul C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Ecological theory suggests that pathogens are capable of regulating or limiting host population dynamics, and this relationship has been empirically established in several settings. However, although studies of childhood diseases were integral to the development of disease ecology, few studies show population limitation by a disease affecting juveniles. Here, we present empirical evidence that disease in lambs constrains population growth in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) based on 45 years of population-level and 18 years of individual-level monitoring across 12 populations. While populations generally increased (λ = 1.11) prior to disease introduction, most of these same populations experienced an abrupt change in trajectory at the time of disease invasion, usually followed by stagnant-to-declining growth rates (λ = 0.98) over the next 20 years. Disease-induced juvenile mortality imposed strong constraints on population growth that were not observed prior to disease introduction, even as adult survival returned to pre-invasion levels. Simulations suggested that models including persistent disease-induced mortality in juveniles qualitatively matched observed population trajectories, whereas models that only incorporated all-age disease events did not. We use these results to argue that pathogen persistence may pose a lasting, but under-recognized, threat to host populations, particularly in cases where clinical disease manifests primarily in juveniles.

  13. Bighorns Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE): Amplitude Response to Different Seismic Charge Configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Harder, S. H., Killer, K. C., Worthington, L. L., Snelson, C. M.

    2010-09-02

    Contrary to popular belief, charge weight is not the most important engineering parameter determining the seismic amplitudes generated by a shot. The scientific literature has long claimed that the relationship, A ~R2L1/2, where A is the seismic amplitude generated by a shot, R is the radius of the seismic charge and L is the length of that charge, holds. Assuming the coupling to the formation and the pressure generated by the explosive are constants, this relationship implies that the one should be able to increase the charge radius while decreasing the charge length and obtain more seismic amplitude with less charge weight. This has significant implications for the economics of lithospheric seismic shots, because shallower holes and small charge sizes decrease cost. During the Bighorns Array Seismic Experiment (BASE) conducted in the summer of 2010, 24 shots with charge sizes ranging from 110 to 900 kg and drill hole diameters of 300 and 450 mm were detonated and recorded by an array of up to 2000 single-channel Texan seismographs. Maximum source-receiver offset of 300 km. Five of these shots were located within a one-acre square in an effort to eliminate coupling effects due to differing geological formations. We present a quantitative comparison of the data from these five shots to experimentally test the equation above.

  14. Temporal dynamics of linkage disequilibrium in two populations of bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Joshua M; Poissant, Jocelyn; Malenfant, René M; Hogg, John T; Coltman, David W

    2015-01-01

    Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is the nonrandom association of alleles at two markers. Patterns of LD have biological implications as well as practical ones when designing association studies or conservation programs aimed at identifying the genetic basis of fitness differences within and among populations. However, the temporal dynamics of LD in wild populations has received little empirical attention. In this study, we examined the overall extent of LD, the effect of sample size on the accuracy and precision of LD estimates, and the temporal dynamics of LD in two populations of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) with different demographic histories. Using over 200 microsatellite loci, we assessed two metrics of multi-allelic LD, D′, and χ′2. We found that both populations exhibited high levels of LD, although the extent was much shorter in a native population than one that was founded via translocation, experienced a prolonged bottleneck post founding, followed by recent admixture. In addition, we observed significant variation in LD in relation to the sample size used, with small sample sizes leading to depressed estimates of the extent of LD but inflated estimates of background levels of LD. In contrast, there was not much variation in LD among yearly cross-sections within either population once sample size was accounted for. Lack of pronounced interannual variability suggests that researchers may not have to worry about interannual variation when estimating LD in a population and can instead focus on obtaining the largest sample size possible. PMID:26380673

  15. Magnificent Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    One way to increase awareness of endangered national heritage is to teach youth the importance of the land through the study of selected works of art. This article describes a lesson, in which students will study the work of Thomas Moran and create a mountain range collage. A short biography of Thomas Moran is included.

  16. Annotated bibliography of selected references on shoreline barrier island deposits with emphasis on Patrick Draw Field, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Rawn-Schatzinger, V.; Schatzinger, R.A.

    1993-07-01

    This bibliography contains 290 annotated references on barrier island and associated depositional environments and reservoirs. It is not an exhaustive compilation of all references on the subject, but rather selected papers on barrier islands, and the depositional processes of formation. Papers that examine the morphology and internal architecture of barrier island deposits, exploration and development technologies are emphasized. Papers were selected that aid in understanding reservoir architecture and engineering technologies to help maximize recovery efficiency from barrier island oil reservoirs. Barrier islands from Wyoming, Montana and the Rocky Mountains basins are extensively covered.

  17. Wyoming's Early Settlement and Ethnic Groups, Unit IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming's early settlement and ethnic groups provides concepts, activities, stories, charts, and graphs for elementary school students. Concepts include the attraction Wyoming held for trappers; the major social, economic, and religious event called "The Rendezvous"; the different ethnic and religious groups that presently inhabit…

  18. 77 FR 31385 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the North Porcupine Coal Tract described below in Campbell County, Wyoming, will be offered for...

  19. 77 FR 3790 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the South Porcupine Coal Tract described below in Campbell County, Wyoming, will be offered for...

  20. 76 FR 35465 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the Caballo West Coal Tract described below in Campbell County, Wyoming, will...

  1. 77 FR 22607 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-16

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the South Porcupine Coal Tract described below in Campbell County, Wyoming, will be reoffered...

  2. 76 FR 28063 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that certain coal resources in the Belle Ayr North Coal Tract described below in Campbell County, Wyoming, will be offered for...

  3. The Impact of New Informational Technology on Education in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolly, John; And Others

    Educational changes in Wyoming that are linked to the emergence of new informational technologies are considered. Attention is directed to the following topics: assumptions for Wyoming educators as they plan to respond to the impact of technology on teacher education; the importance of educational goals and objectives; the national climate…

  4. 30 CFR 950.35 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE WYOMING § 950.35 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a) Wyoming... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 950.35 Section 950.35 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION...

  5. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 8, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitehead, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    The States of Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Wyoming compose the 392,764-square-mile area of Segment 8, which is in the north-central part of the continental United States. The area varies topographically from the high rugged mountain ranges of the Rocky Mountains in western Montana and Wyoming to the gently undulating surface of the Central Lowland in eastern North Dakota and South Dakota (fig. 1). The Black Hills in southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming interrupt the uniformity of the intervening Great Plains. Segment 8 spans the Continental Divide, which is the drainage divide that separates streams that generally flow westward from those that generally flow eastward. The area of Segment 8 is drained by the following major rivers or river systems: the Green River drains southward to join the Colorado River, which ultimately discharges to the Gulf of California; the Clark Fork and the Kootenai Rivers drain generally westward by way of the Columbia River to discharge to the Pacific Ocean; the Missouri River system and the North Platte River drain eastward and southeastward to the Mississippi River, which discharges to the Gulf of Mexico; and the Red River of the North and the Souris River drain northward through Lake Winnipeg to ultimately discharge to Hudson Bay in Canada. These rivers and their tributaries are an important source of water for public-supply, domestic and commercial, agricultural, and industrial uses. Much of the surface water has long been appropriated for agricultural use, primarily irrigation, and for compliance with downstream water pacts. Reservoirs store some of the surface water for flood control, irrigation, power generation, and recreational purposes. Surface water is not always available when and where it is needed, and ground water is the only other source of supply. Ground water is obtained primarily from wells completed in unconsolidated-deposit aquifers that consist mostly of sand and gravel, and from wells

  6. What Does Energy Development Mean for Wyoming? A Community Study at Hanna, Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellis, Lee

    The enormous but often overlooked impact of energy resource development on small Western United States communities can be illustrated by the experiences of the traditional coal mining town of Hanna, Wyoming. Coal development doubled the population between 1970 and 1972, and required the addition of a sewer system and a police force, plus the…

  7. Healthy Wyoming: Start with Youth Today. Results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior and School Health Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City. Health Behavior Lab.

    This report presents results of the 1991 Wyoming Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) and the 1991 Wyoming School Health Education Survey (SHES). Thirty-five schools participated in the YRBS, with 3,513 students in grades 9-12; 92 public schools with students in grades 7-12 participated in the SHES. Statistical data from the YRBS are provided in the…

  8. A Multivalent Mannheimia-Bibersteinia Vaccine Protects Bighorn Sheep against Mannheimia haemolytica Challenge ▿

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Renuka; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Kugadas, Abirami; Potter, Kathleen A.; Foreyt, William J.; Hodgins, Douglas C.; Shewen, Patricia E.; Barrington, George M.; Knowles, Donald P.; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Bighorn sheep (BHS) are more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS) to Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia. Although both species carry M. haemolytica as a commensal bacterium in the nasopharynx, DS carry mostly leukotoxin (Lkt)-positive strains while BHS carry Lkt-negative strains. Consequently, antibodies to surface antigens and Lkt are present at much higher titers in DS than in BHS. The objective of this study was to determine whether repeated immunization of BHS with multivalent Mannheimia-Bibersteinia vaccine will protect them upon M. haemolytica challenge. Four BHS were vaccinated with a culture supernatant vaccine prepared from M. haemolytica serotypes A1 and A2 and Bibersteinia trehalosi serotype T10 on days 0, 21, 35, 49, and 77. Four other BHS were used as nonvaccinated controls. On the day of challenge, 12 days after the last immunization, the mean serum titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to surface antigens against M. haemolytica were 1:160 and 1:4,000, respectively. Following intranasal challenge with M. haemolytica A2 (1 × 105 CFU), all four control BHS died within 48 h. Necropsy revealed acute fibrinonecrotic pneumonia characteristic of M. haemolytica infection. None of the vaccinated BHS died during the 8 weeks postchallenge observation period. Radiography at 3 weeks postchallenge revealed no lung lesions in two vaccinated BHS and mild lesions in the other two, which resolved by 8 weeks postchallenge. These results indicate that if BHS can be induced to develop high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to surface antigens, they are likely to survive M. haemolytica challenge which is likely to reduce the BHS population decline due to pneumonia. PMID:21832104

  9. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae can predispose bighorn sheep to fatal Mannheimia haemolytica pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Dassanayake, Rohana P; Shanthalingam, Sudarvili; Herndon, Caroline N; Subramaniam, Renuka; Lawrence, Paulraj K; Bavananthasivam, Jegarubee; Cassirer, E Frances; Haldorson, Gary J; Foreyt, William J; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Knowles, Donald P; Besser, Thomas E; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2010-10-26

    Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae has been isolated from the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep (BHS). However experimental reproduction of fatal pneumonia in BHS with M. ovipneumoniae was not successful. Therefore the specific role, if any, of M. ovipneumoniae in BHS pneumonia is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether M. ovipneumoniae alone causes fatal pneumonia in BHS, or predisposes them to infection by Mannheimia haemolytica. We chose M. haemolytica for this study because of its isolation from pneumonic BHS, and its consistent ability to cause fatal pneumonia under experimental conditions. Since in vitro culture could attenuate virulence of M. ovipneumoniae, we used ceftiofur-treated lung homogenates from pneumonic BHS lambs or nasopharyngeal washings from M. ovipneumoniae-positive domestic sheep (DS) as the source of M. ovipneumoniae. Two adult BHS were inoculated intranasally with lung homogenates while two others received nasopharyngeal washings from DS. All BHS developed clinical signs of respiratory infection, but only one BHS died. The dead BHS had carried leukotoxin-positive M. haemolytica in the nasopharynx before the onset of this study. It is likely that M. ovipneumoniae colonization predisposed this BHS to fatal infection with the M. haemolytica already present in this animal. The remaining three BHS developed pneumonia and died 1-5 days following intranasal inoculation with M. haemolytica. On necropsy, lungs of all four BHS showed lesions characteristic of bronchopneumonia. M. haemolytica and M. ovipneumoniae were isolated from the lungs. These results suggest that M. ovipneumoniae alone may not cause fatal pneumonia in BHS, but can predispose them to fatal pneumonia due to M. haemolytica infection.

  10. Do Magnetic Minerals Record Paleoprecipitation? Insights from Paleocene-Eocene Paleosols in the Bighorn Basin, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxbauer, D.; Feinberg, J. M.; Fox, D. L.; Clyde, W.

    2015-12-01

    The magnetic mineralogy of soils and paleosols is a rich archive of paleoclimatic information. However, efforts to quantify parameters such as mean annual precipitation (MAP) or temperature using environmental magnetism are still in their infancy. Inherent in any magnetic paleoclimate proxy is a fundamental understanding of how the concentration, grain size distribution, and composition of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides formed during pedogenesis reflect the climatic conditions that prevailed during soil formation. The influence of diagenetic processes on magnetic minerals, particularly for paleosols in pre-Quaternary systems, may compromise our ability to recover a climatic signal due to mineral alterations or incomplete preservation. Here, we evaluate the rock magnetic properties of non-loessic paleosols across the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, ~55.5 Ma) in the Bighorn Basin, WY. Our study compares data from nine paleosol layers sampled from outcrop, exposed to surficial weathering, as well as the equivalent paleosol layers sampled from drill core, all of which are preserved below a pervasive oxidative weathering front and presumably unweathered. Despite variation in magnetic properties within paleosol layers, there is no clear change in magnetic mineralogy that we can attribute to surficial weathering. Further, common measures of magnetic enhancement in susceptibility and remanence show similar trends across the PETM, in both core and outcrop, when compared to estimates of MAP from geochemical weathering indices. Taken together, our record suggests that the magnetic minerals preserved in ancient paleosols retain at least qualitative information about paleoprecipitation and could be an important source of information for paleoclimatic studies. Further work to improve our understanding of the relative preservation of various pedogenic components in paleosols will ultimately determine their viability as quantitative indicators of paleoclimate.

  11. Bighorn sheep × domestic sheep hybrids survive Mannheimia haemolytica challenge in the absence of vaccination.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, R; Shanthalingam, S; Bavananthasivam, J; Kugadas, A; Raghavan, B; Batra, S A; Herndon, C N; Rodriguez, J; Tibary, A; Nelson, D; Potter, K A; Foreyt, W J; Srikumaran, S

    2014-06-01

    Bighorn sheep (BHS, Ovis canadensis) are much more susceptible than domestic sheep (DS, Ovis aries) to pneumonia caused by leukotoxin (Lkt)-producing members of the Family Pasteurellaceae, particularly Mannheimia haemolytica and Bibersteinia trehalosi. Leukotoxin is widely accepted as the critical virulence factor of these bacteria since Lkt-negative mutants do not cause death of BHS. Typically, DS carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi as commensal bacteria in their nasopharynx. In contrast, most BHS do not carry Lkt-positive M. haemolytica or B. trehalosi, or carry Lkt-negative strains in their nasopharynx. In previous studies, we demonstrated that unimmunized DS resist M. haemolytica challenge while BHS succumb to it. We hypothesized that Lkt-neutralizing antibodies, induced by Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi innately carried by DS in their nasopharynx, render them less susceptible to infection by these bacteria. In this study we developed BHS×DS F1 hybrids by artificial insemination of domestic ewes with BHS semen. F1 hybrids were fertile, and produced F2 hybrids and back-crosses. The F1, F2, and back-crosses were raised together with domestic ewes. All these animals acquired Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi, and developed high titers of Lkt-neutralizing antibodies in the absence of vaccination. Furthermore, all of these animals resisted challenge with lethal dose of M. haemolytica. These results suggest that lack of previous exposure to Lkt is at least partially responsible for fatal pneumonia in BHS when they acquire Lkt-positive M. haemolytica and/or B. trehalosi from DS when the two species commingle.

  12. Differences in leukocyte differentiation molecule abundances on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) neutrophils identified by flow cytometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although both domestic sheep (DS) and bighorn sheep (BHS) are affected by similar respiratory bacterial pathogens, experimental and field data indicate BHS are more susceptible to pneumonia. Cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for use in flow cytometry (FC) are valuable reagents for interspe...

  13. Transmission of mannheimia haemolytica from domestic sheep (ovis aries) to bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) : Unequivocal demonstration with green fluorescent protien-tagged organisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that bighorn sheep (BHS) die of pneumonia when they commingle with domestic sheep (DS). However, these studies did not conclusively prove the transmission of pathogens from DS to BHS. The objective of this study was to determine unambiguously whether Mannheimia hae...

  14. Molecular cloning, characterization and in vitro expression of SERPIN B1 of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) and domestic sheep (Ovis aries), and comparison with that of other species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mannheimia haemolytica infection results in enhanced PMN-mediated tissue damage in the lungs of bighorn sheep (BHS) compared to that of domestic sheep (DS). SERPIN B1 is an inhibitor of PMN-derived serine proteases. It prevents lung tissue injury by inhibiting the serine proteases released as a resu...

  15. Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever-like skin disease in a free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis), Alberta, Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF)-like clinical disease was diagnosed in a free-ranging bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in Alberta, Canada. Ante-mortem observations and gross pathology included muscle atrophy, marked weight loss and focally extensive alopecia with chronic crusting hyperkeratotosis and...

  16. Depositional history of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody Formation in the Wind River basin area, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, R.K.; Paull, R.A. )

    1993-04-01

    Thirty-three measured sections of the Dinwoody Formation, including five from the literature, provide information on thickness, lithology, paleontology, and stratigraphic relations within the Wind River basin and immediately adjacent areas of Wyoming. Most of these sections are in Fremont County, and some lie within the Wind River Indian Reservation. The Dinwoody becomes progressively thinner eastward, from a maximum thickness of 54.6 m in the northwestern Wind River Mountains to zero near the Natrona County line. The formation is characterized by yellowish-weathering, gray siltstone and silty shale. Variable amounts of limestone, sandstone, gypsum, and claystone are also present. Marine bivalves, gastropods, brachiopods (Lingula), and conodonts are common in the western part of the study area, but are absent to the northeast in gypsiferous strata, and near the eastern limit of Dinwoody deposition. The Dinwoody in the Wind River Basin area was deposited unconformably on the Upper Permian Ervary Member of the Park City Formation during the initial Mesozoic flood onto the Wyoming shelf during the Griesbachian, and represents the first of three Lower Triassic transgressive sequences in the western miogeocline. Conodonts of the Isarcica Chronozone document the rapid nature of this eastward transgression. The Permian surface underlying the Dinwoody rarely shows evidence of the long hiatus separating rocks of this age and earliest Triassic deposits. The Dinwoody transgression was followed by westward progradation of the Red Peak Formation of the Chugwater Group across the study area.

  17. Imaging and Investigating the Crust of Wyoming using Multiple Seismic Sources and Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Colin T.

    For my thesis I use multiple types of seismic sources and methods to investigate the crust of northern Wyoming. In the first study, I use single-channel "Texan" geophones as passive-source receivers despite their intended use as active-source instruments. I show that these instruments are not only capable of recording distant earthquakes, but that the dense arrays that are typical with Texan deployments can be used to great effect to image basin geometry, successfully recovering the depth and dip of the Bighorn Basin and Powder River Basin using simple assumptions. My second study involves finding the regional stress field using 89 local earthquakes that I identified and located using six months of continuous waveform data. I compute focal mechanisms for 14 earthquakes and find dominantly NE-SW directed extensional faulting throughout the mid- to upper crust. I also observe one 63-km deep earthquake under the Wind River Basin, which is below the Moho in the area. This indicates a strong upper mantle capable of brittle failure, separated from the crustal earthquakes by a ˜20 km thick aseismic zone. I next use the earthquakes I have observed and located to study the effectiveness of P/S amplitude ratios as a seismic discriminant at close distances. This test is useful as global seismic monitoring continues to grow and networks expand nearer to known, and potentially unknown, explosion sources. I find that the P/S amplitude ratio remains a viable discriminant, but observe dramatic variation across the array due to geologic interference along the source-receiver path that could present significant problems for future discrimination studies. Last I combine the active and passive sources used in these studies to create a 3D tomographic image of the crust and upper mantle. I invert over 22,000 P-wave arrivals to create the final velocity model. The result shows a surprising lack of fast 7.x material in the lower crust, material which had been first imaged by the nearby

  18. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two radar images show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color radar images obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at the left was obtained using the L-band radar channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the image (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow

  19. Space Radar Image of Yellowstone Park, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    These two radar images show the majestic Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, the oldest national park in the United States and home to the world's most spectacular geysers and hot springs. The region supports large populations of grizzly bears, elk and bison. In 1988, the park was burned by one of the most widespread fires to occur in the northern Rocky Mountains in the last 50 years. Surveys indicated that 793,880 acres of land burned. Of that, 41 percent was burned forest, with tree canopies totally consumed by the fire; 35 percent was a combination of unburned, scorched and blackened trees; 13 percent was surface burn under an unburned canopy; 6 percent was non-forest burn; and 5 percent was undifferentiated burn. Six years later, the burned areas are still clearly visible in these false-color radar images obtained by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar on board the space shuttle Endeavour. The image at the left was obtained using the L-band radar channel, horizontally received and vertically transmitted, on the shuttle's 39th orbit on October 2, 1994. The area shown is 45 kilometers by 71 kilometers (28 miles by 44 miles) in size and centered at 44.6 degrees north latitude, 110.7 degrees west longitude. North is toward the top of the image (to the right). Most trees in this area are lodge pole pines at different stages of fire succession. Yellowstone Lake appears as a large dark feature at the bottom of the scene. At right is a map of the forest crown, showing its biomass, or amount of vegetation, which includes foliage and branches. The map was created by inverting SIR-C data and using in situ estimates of crown biomass gathered by the Yellowstone National Biological Survey. The map is displayed on a color scale from blue (rivers and lakes with no biomass) to brown (non-forest areas with crown biomass of less than 4 tons per hectare) to light brown (areas of canopy burn with biomass of between 4 and 12 tons per hectare). Yellow

  20. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis)

    PubMed Central

    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Cross, Paul C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Group living facilitates pathogen transmission among social hosts, yet temporally stable host social organizations can actually limit transmission of some pathogens. When there are few between-subpopulation contacts for the duration of a disease event, transmission becomes localized to subpopulations. The number of per capita infectious contacts approaches the subpopulation size as pathogen infectiousness increases. Here, we illustrate that this is the case during epidemics of highly infectious pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). We classified individually marked bighorn ewes into disjoint seasonal subpopulations, and decomposed the variance in lamb survival to weaning into components associated with individual ewes, subpopulations, populations and years. During epidemics, lamb survival varied substantially more between ewe-subpopulations than across populations or years, suggesting localized pathogen transmission. This pattern of lamb survival was not observed during years when disease was absent. Additionally, group sizes in ewe-subpopulations were independent of population size, but the number of ewe-subpopulations increased with population size. Consequently, although one might reasonably assume that force of infection for this highly communicable disease scales with population size, in fact, host social behaviour modulates transmission such that disease is frequency-dependent within populations, and some groups remain protected during epidemic events. PMID:25377464

  1. Compensating for diminishing natural water: Predicting the impacts of water development on summer habitat of desert bighorn sheep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longshore, K.M.; Lowrey, C.; Thompson, D.B.

    2009-01-01

    Artificial water sources have been used for decades to enhance and restore wildlife habitat but the benefits of their use have been subject to debate. During the past century, the number of natural springs in Joshua Tree National Park, California, USA, has declined. In response to concerns about the viability of the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni) population, a number of water developments were constructed throughout the park. We modeled potential historical and present-day summer habitat of female bighorn sheep to evaluate the effectiveness of the artificial and remaining natural water sources in maintaining habitat and to determine how loss of artificial sources might affect future habitat availability. Prior to 1950, 583.5 km2 of summer habitat was potentially available. Presently, only 170.6 km2 of habitat is available around natural water sources and 153.5 km2 is available around guzzlers. When all perennial water sources are included in the habitat model (minus overlap), 302.3 km2 of summer habitat is potentially available. This represents only 51.7% of summer habitat available prior to 1950. Without artificial water developments, 47.7% of present-day summer habitat would be lost, which raises important management questions regarding the debate about what is natural or artificial within otherwise protected areas.

  2. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis).

    PubMed

    Manlove, Kezia R; Cassirer, E Frances; Cross, Paul C; Plowright, Raina K; Hudson, Peter J

    2014-12-22

    Group living facilitates pathogen transmission among social hosts, yet temporally stable host social organizations can actually limit transmission of some pathogens. When there are few between-subpopulation contacts for the duration of a disease event, transmission becomes localized to subpopulations. The number of per capita infectious contacts approaches the subpopulation size as pathogen infectiousness increases. Here, we illustrate that this is the case during epidemics of highly infectious pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). We classified individually marked bighorn ewes into disjoint seasonal subpopulations, and decomposed the variance in lamb survival to weaning into components associated with individual ewes, subpopulations, populations and years. During epidemics, lamb survival varied substantially more between ewe-subpopulations than across populations or years, suggesting localized pathogen transmission. This pattern of lamb survival was not observed during years when disease was absent. Additionally, group sizes in ewe-subpopulations were independent of population size, but the number of ewe-subpopulations increased with population size. Consequently, although one might reasonably assume that force of infection for this highly communicable disease scales with population size, in fact, host social behaviour modulates transmission such that disease is frequency-dependent within populations, and some groups remain protected during epidemic events.

  3. Costs and benefits of group living with disease: a case study of pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manlove, Kezia R.; Cassirer, E. Frances; Cross, Paul C.; Plowright, Raina K.; Hudson, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Group living facilitates pathogen transmission among social hosts, yet temporally stable host social organizations can actually limit transmission of some pathogens. When there are few between-subpopulation contacts for the duration of a disease event, transmission becomes localized to subpopulations. The number of per capita infectious contacts approaches the subpopulation size as pathogen infectiousness increases. Here, we illustrate that this is the case during epidemics of highly infectious pneumonia in bighorn lambs (Ovis canadensis). We classified individually marked bighorn ewes into disjoint seasonal subpopulations, and decomposed the variance in lamb survival to weaning into components associated with individual ewes, subpopulations, populations and years. During epidemics, lamb survival varied substantially more between ewe-subpopulations than across populations or years, suggesting localized pathogen transmission. This pattern of lamb survival was not observed during years when disease was absent. Additionally, group sizes in ewe-subpopulations were independent of population size, but the number of ewe-subpopulations increased with population size. Consequently, although one might reasonably assume that force of infection for this highly communicable disease scales with population size, in fact, host social behaviour modulates transmission such that disease is frequency-dependent within populations, and some groups remain protected during epidemic events.

  4. Mountains: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Alton; Gilligan, Nancy; Golston, Syd; Linville, Rex

    1999-01-01

    Introduces the lessons from "Mountain: A Global Resource" that were developed by the National Council for the Social Studies (NCSS) and The Mountain Institute for use by NCSS members and their students. Provides an overview that introduces the mountains, mountain cultures, historical perceptions, and the geographical importance of mountains. (CMK)

  5. Observing team from the University of Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    July 19, 1994An observing team from the University of Wyoming , the University of Rochester, and the University of Minnesota is obtaining infrared images of the recent comet impacts on Jupiter. The observations are being made with the Wyoming Infrared Observatory 2.3-meter telescope near Laramie, using an infrared camera developed at Rochester. The accompanying image of Jupiter, obtained on the evening of Sunday July 17, shows three bright spots near the lower left. These are the impact sites of (from left to right) fragments C, A, and E. The other features visible are the bright polar and equatorial regions, and also the Great Red Spot, located below the equator and somewhat to the right.At this relatively short infrared wavelength (2.2 micrometers) the planet it mostly dark because the methane in the Jupiter atmosphere absorbs any sunlight which passes through a significant depth of that atmosphere. Bright regions usually correspond to high altitude clouds which reflect the sunlight before it can penetrate the deeper atmosphere and be absorbed. The bright nature of the impact spots therefore indicates the presence of high altitude haze or clouds -- material carried up from the lower atmosphere by the fireball and plume from the comet impact. More detailed measurements at a variety of wavelengths should reveal the chemical composition of the haze material. The observing team will be continuing their work throughout the comet impact period and expect to obtain images of the plumes from the other comet fragments which will be striking Jupiter later this week.Co ntact: Robert R. Howell Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Wyoming Laramie, WY 82070 307-766-6150

  6. Wyoming geo-notes No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, G.B.

    1984-01-01

    After a general overview of the mineral industry in Wyoming, activities and data are given on petroleum, natural gas, coal, uranium, trona, thorium, and other industrial minerals, metals, and precious stones. Coal production figures by county and basin are given. Maps are included showing regions containing subbituminous, bituminous, lignite, and strippable deposits of coal; major active and inactive uranium deposits; oil, gas, and oil shale deposits and pipeline corridors; and selected mineral occurrences of bentonite, trona, and jade. Production forecasts are given for uranium, trona, oil, gas, and coal. Reserve estimates are given for petroleum, natural gas, coal, trona, uranium, and oil shale. 8 references, 4 figures, 7 tables.

  7. Bedload measurements, East Fork River, Wyoming

    PubMed Central

    Leopold, Luna B.; Emmett, William W.

    1976-01-01

    A bedload trap in the riverbed provided direct quantitative measurement of debris-transport rate in the East Fork River, Wyoming, a basin of 466 km2 drainage area. Traction load moves only during the spring snow melt season. Data collected in three spring runoff seasons during which a peak flow of 45 m3/s occurred showed that transport rate is correlated with power expenditure of the flowing water and at high flows becomes directly proportional to power as suggested by Bagnold. PMID:16592302

  8. Minerals outlook for Wyoming, September 1983: overview

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, G.B.

    1983-01-01

    An update of Wyoming's geological survey notes the possibility that new gas and oil drilling could reverse the state's economic decline, but federal intervention was needed when the sudden natural gas glut caused contract cancellations and the Colorado Interstate Gas Company had to resort to emergency flaring. Little or no improvement is indicated in coal, trona, gypsum, and limestone production, while uranium production continued its decline. Only bentonite drilling should improve, and the last iron ore operation closed. The survey produced a preliminary geologic map showing 284 rock formations. 4 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  9. LARAMIE PEAK WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Segerstrom, Kenneth; Weisner, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey, most of the Laramie Peak Wilderness study area in Wyoming was concluded to have little promise for the occurrence of mineral or energy resources. Only three small areas in the northern part, one extending outside the study area to Esterbrook, were found to have probable mineral-resource potential for copper and lead. The geologic setting precludes the presence of fossil-fuel resources in the study area. There are no surface indications that geothermal energy could be developed within or near the study area.

  10. Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Nealon, Teresa

    2014-06-30

    This report outlines the accomplishments of the Wyoming Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Technology Institute (WCTI), including creating a website and online course catalog, sponsoring technology transfer workshops, reaching out to interested parties via news briefs and engaging in marketing activities, i.e., advertising and participating in tradeshows. We conclude that the success of WCTI was hampered by the lack of a market. Because there were no supporting financial incentives to store carbon, the private sector had no reason to incur the extra expense of training their staff to implement carbon storage. ii

  11. Behavioral and catastrophic drift of invertebrates in two streams in northeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wangsness, David J.; Peterson, David A.

    1980-01-01

    Invertebrate drift samples were collected in August 1977 from two streams in the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming. The streams are Clear Creek, a mountain stream, and the Little Powder River, a plains stream. Two major patterns of drift were recognized. Clear Creek was sampled during a period of normal seasonal conditions. High drift rates occurred during the night indicating a behavioral drift pattern that is related to the benthic invertebrate density and carrying capacity of the stream substrates. The mayfly genes Baetis, a common drift organism, dominated the peak periods of drift in Clear Creek. The Little Powder River has a high discharge during the study period. Midge larvae of the families Chironomidae and Ceratopogonidae, ususally not common in drift, dominated the drift community. The dominance of midge larvae, the presence of several other organisms not common in drift, and the high discharge during the study period caused a catastrophic drift pattern. (USGS)

  12. Vegetation analysis in the Laramie Basin, Wyoming from ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, M. A.; Redfern, F. R.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The application of ERTS-1 imagery to vegetation mapping and identification was tested and confirmed by field checking. ERTS-1 imagery interpretation and density contour mapping allows definition of minute vegetation features and estimation of vegetative biomass and species composition. Large- and small-scale vegetation maps were constructed for test areas in the Laramie Basin and Laramie mountains of Wyoming. Vegetative features reflecting grazing intensity, moisture availability, changes within the growing season, cutting of hay crops, and plant community constituents in forest and grassland are discussed and illustrated. Theoretical considerations of scattering, sun angle, slope, and instrument aperture upon image and map resolution were investigated. Future suggestions for applications of ERTS-1 data to vegetative analysis are included.

  13. Geochemical maps of stream sediments in central Colorado, from New Mexico to Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Giles, Stuart A.; Klein, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has completed a series of geologic, mineral resource, and environmental assessment studies in the Rocky Mountains of central Colorado, from Leadville eastward to the range front and from New Mexico to the Wyoming border. Regional stream-sediment geochemical maps, useful for assessing mineral resources and environmental effects of historical mining activities, were produced as part of the study. The data portrayed in this 56-parameter portfolio of landscape geochemical maps serve as a geochemical baseline for the region, indicate element abundances characteristic of various lithologic terranes, and identify gross anthropogenic effects of historical mining. However, although reanalyzed in this study by modern, sensitive methods, the majority of the stream-sediment samples were collected in the 1970s. Thus, metal concentrations portrayed in these maps represent stream-sediment geochemistry at the time of collection.

  14. Employment of satellite snowcover observations for improving seasonal runoff estimates. [Indus River and Wind River Range, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rango, A.; Salomonson, V. V.; Foster, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Low resolution meteorological satellite and high resolution earth resources satellite data were used to map snowcovered area over the upper Indus River and the Wind River Mountains of Wyoming, respectively. For the Indus River, early Spring snowcovered area was extracted and related to April through June streamflow from 1967-1971 using a regression equation. Composited results from two years of data over seven Wind River Mountain watersheds indicated that LANDSAT-1 snowcover observations, separated on the basis of watershed elevation, could also be related to runoff in significant regression equations. It appears that earth resources satellite data will be useful in assisting in the prediction of seasonal streamflow for various water resources applications, nonhazardous collection of snow data from restricted-access areas, and in hydrologic modeling of snowmelt runoff.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey science for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative: 2013 annual report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Zachary H.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Assal, Timothy J.; Bern, Carleton R.; Biewick, Laura R. H.; Boughton, Gregory K.; Chalfoun, Anna D.; Chong, Geneva W.; Dematatis, Marie K.; Fedy, Bradley C.; Garman, Steven L.; Germaine, Stephen S.; Hethcoat, Matthew G.; Homer, Collin G.; Huber, Christopher; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Latysh, Natalie; Manier, Daniel; Melcher, Cynthia P.; Miller, Kirk A.; Potter, Christopher J.; Schell, Spencer; Sweat, Michael J.; Walters, Annika W.; Wilson, Anna B.

    2014-01-01

    Milestone FY2013 accomplishments included completing the development of a WLCI inventory and monitoring framework and the associated monitoring strategies, protocols, and analytics; and initial development of an Interagency Inventory and Monitoring Database, which will be accessible through the Monitoring page of the WLCI Web site at http://www.wlci.gov/monitoring. We also completed the initial phase of the mountain shrub-mapping project in the Big Piney-La Barge mule deer winter range. Finally, a 3-year survey of pygmy rabbits in four major gas-field areas was completed and used to validate the pygmy rabbit habitat model/map developed earlier in the project. Important products that became available for use by WLCI partners included publication of USGS Data Series report (http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/800/pdf/ds800.pdf) that compiles our WLCI land cover and land use data, which depict current and historical patterns of sage-grouse habitat in relation to energy development and will be used to pose “what-if” scenarios to evaluate possible outcomes of alternative land-use strategies and practices on habitat and wildlife. Another important FY2013 product was a journal article (http://aapgbull.geoscienceworld.org/content/97/6/899.full) that describes the Mowry Shale and Frontier formation, which harbors coalbed methane and shale gas resources in Wyoming, Colorado, and Utah, for use in future scenario-building work. We also produced maps and databases that depict the structure and condition of aspen stands in the Little Mountain Ecosystem, and then presented this information to the Bureau of Land Management, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, and other interested entities for supporting aspen-management objectives.

  16. Geochemical constraints on Cenozoic intraplate magmatism in the Upper Wind River Basin, Wyoming (USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, A. C.; Dodd, Z. C.; Brueseke, M. E.; Adams, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Upper Wind River Basin is located in north-central Wyoming (USA). At the northwestern edge of the basin, preliminary work by others has identified <4 Ma igneous rocks (lavas and shallow intrusives in low volumes) that are exposed southeast of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. Virtually no literature exists on these rocks aside from a few K-Ar ages. Pilot Knob is an augite-rich intrusive body that yields a 3.4 ± 0.06 Ma K-Ar age. Lava Mountain, which lies ~ 4 km south of Pilot Knob, is a shield volcano where ~25 lavas are exposed in what appear to be glacially truncated cliffs. At the summit, a small capping cinder cone overlies lavas; one of the youngest lavas yields a K-Ar age of 0.48 ± 0.06 Ma. Crescent Mountain lies ~6 miles northeast of Lava Mountain and one Crescent Mountain lava yielded an ~3.6 Ma K-Ar age. At Spring Mountain, ~14 km north of Dubois, WY, local eruptions of at least one thin basaltic lava occurred from fissures that cut Paleozoic and Eocene sedimentary strata. Materials sampled from all locations range from basalt to dacite and define a primarily calc-alkaline differentiation array. Pilot Knob and one Crescent Mountain sample have wt. % K2O values between 2.7 to 3.8 at ~53 to 56 wt. % SiO2, which are much more K-rich than any other sample. These samples are also characterized by enrichments in LILE (e.g., >2000 ppm Ba, >1500 ppm Sr), LREE (>100 ppm La, >250 ppm Ce), Zr, Pb, and HREE depletions, relative to the other samples. The least evolved basalts from Spring Mountain are primitive with Mg # ~70 and Cr >900 ppm. Preliminary field constraints and satellite imagery indicates that regional fault zones control the location of individual eruptive loci/intrusives. For example, Pilot Knob and Lava Mountain lie along the projection of a normal fault zone that extends southeast from the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field. Work is ongoing to further physically, geochemically, and isotopically characterize these igneous rocks with the goal

  17. Cretaceous biostratigraphy in the Wyoming thrust belt

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, D.J.; Jacobson, S.R.

    1982-07-01

    Biostratigraphy is essential to exploration for oil and gas in the Wyoming thrust belt because fossils provide a temporal framework for interpretation of events of faulting, erosion, sedimentation, and the development of hydrocarbon traps and migration pathways. In the Cretaceous section, fossils are especially useful for dating and correlating repetitive facies of different ages in structurally complex terrain. The biostratigraphic zonation for the region is based on megafossils (chiefly ammonites), which permit accurate dating and correlation of outcrop sections, and which have been calibrated with the radiometric time scale for the Western Interior. Molluscan and vertebrate zone fossils are difficult to obtain from the subsurface, however, and ammonities are restricted to rocks of margin origin. Palynomorphs (plant microfossils) have proven to be the most valuable fossils in investigations of stratigraphy and structures in the subsurface of the thrust belt because palynomorphs can be recovered from drill cuttings. Palynomorphs also are found in both marine and nonmarine rocks and can be used for correlation between facies. In this paper, stratigraphic ranges of selected Cretaceous marine and nonmarine palynomorphs in previously designated reference sections in Fossil Basin, Wyoming, are correlated with the occurrence of ammonities and other zone fossils in the same sections. These correlations can be related to known isotopic ages, and they contribute to the calibration of palynomorph ranges in the Cretaceous of the Western Interior.

  18. Ground-water quality in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically summarizes ground-water quality from selected chemical-quality data for about 2,300 ground-water sites in Wyoming. Dissolved-solids, nitrate, fluoride, arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, iron, and manganese concentrations are summarized on a statewide basis. The major chemical-quality problem that limits the use of Wyoming ground-water is excessive dissolved-solids concentrations. The aquifers with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentration of water in aquifers with 20 or more sampled sites, are Holocene lacustrine deposits, the upper Testiary Ogallala Formation and Arikaree Formation, and the Mississippian Madison Limestone. The counties with the best quality water, based on the lowest median dissolved-solids concentrations are Teton County and Laramie County. Hot Springs County and Natrona County have the highest median dissolved-solids concentrations. About 3 percent of the nitrate concentrations of ground-water samples exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard of 10 milligrams per liter. Fluoride concentrations exceeded the national primary drinking-water standard in 14 percent of the ground-water samples. Except for selenium, toxic trace elements generally have not been found in concentrations in excess of the drinking-water standards. About 19 percent of the iron and about 30 percent of the manganese concentrations in ground-water samples exceeded the national secondary drinking-water standards. (USGS)

  19. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  20. Preliminary results of wildcat drilling in Absaroka volcanic rocks, Hot Springs County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, M.H.; Sundell, K.A.

    1986-08-01

    Recent drilling of three remote, high-elevation wildcat wells has proven that excellent Paleozoic reservoirs are present at shallow depths beneath Eocene volcaniclastic rocks. The Tensleep and Madison Formations are fluid filled above an elevation of 8000 ft, and all Paleozoic formations exhibit shows of oil and gas. These prolific reservoir rocks have produced billions of barrels of oil from the adjacent Bighorn and Wind river basins, and they pinch out with angular unconformity against the base of the volcanics, providing enormous potential for stratigraphic oil accumulations. Vibroseis and portable seismic data have confirmed and further delineate large anticlines of Paleozoic rocks, which were originally discovered by detailed surface geologic mapping. These structures can be projected along anticlinal trends from the western Owl Creek Mountains to beneath the volcanics as well. The overlying volcanics are generally soft, reworked sediments. However, large, hard boulders and blocks of andesite-dacite, which were previously mapped as intrusives, are present and are the result of catastrophic landslide/debris flow. The volcanics locally contain highly porous and permeable sandstones and abundant bentonite stringers. Oil and gas shows were observed throughout a 2400-ft thick interval of the Eocene Tepee Trail and Aycross Formations. Shows were recorded 9100 ft above sea level in the volcanic rocks. A minimum of 10 million bbl of oil (asphaltum) and an undetermined amount of gases and lighter oils have accumulated within the basal volcanic sequence, based on the evaluation of data from two drill sites. Significant amounts of hydrocarbons have migrated since the volcanics were deposited 50 Ma. Large Laramide anticlines were partially eroded and breached into the Paleozoic formations and resealed by overlying volcanics with subsequent development of a massive tar seal.

  1. Rocky Mountain Basins Produced Water Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Historical records for produced water data were collected from multiple sources, including Amoco, British Petroleum, Anadarko Petroleum Corporation, United States Geological Survey (USGS), Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission (WOGC), Denver Earth Resources Library (DERL), Bill Barrett Corporation, Stone Energy, and other operators. In addition, 86 new samples were collected during the summers of 2003 and 2004 from the following areas: Waltman-Cave Gulch, Pinedale, Tablerock and Wild Rose. Samples were tested for standard seven component "Stiff analyses", and strontium and oxygen isotopes. 16,035 analyses were winnowed to 8028 unique records for 3276 wells after a data screening process was completed. [Copied from the Readme document in the zipped file available at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the Zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain four versions of the database: ACCESS, EXCEL, DBF, and CSV formats. The information consists of detailed water analyses from basins in the Rocky Mountain region.

  2. Rare, large earthquakes at the laramide deformation front - Colorado (1882) and Wyoming (1984)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spence, W.; Langer, C.J.; Choy, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    The largest historical earthquake known in Colorado occurred on 7 November 1882. Knowledge of its size, location, and specific tectonic environment is important for the design of critical structures in the rapidly growing region of the Southern Rocky Mountains. More than one century later, on 18 October 1984, an mb 5.3 earthquake occurred in the Laramie Mountains, Wyoming. By studying the 1984 earthquake, we are able to provide constraints on the location and size of the 1882 earthquake. Analysis of broadband seismic data shows the 1984 mainshock to have nucleated at a depth of 27.5 ?? 1.0 km and to have ruptured ???2.7 km updip, with a corresponding average displacement of about 48 cm and average stress drop of about 180 bars. This high stress drop may explain why the earthquake was felt over an area about 3.5 times that expected for a shallow earthquake of the same magnitude in this region. A microearthquake survey shows aftershocks to be just above the mainshock's rupture, mostly in a volume measuring 3 to 4 km across. Focal mechanisms for the mainshock and aftershocks have NE-SW-trending T axes, a feature shared by most earthquakes in western Colorado and by the induced Denver earthquakes of 1967. The only data for the 1882 earthquake were intensity reports from a heterogeneously distributed population. Interpretation of these reports also might be affected by ground-motion amplification from fluvial deposits and possible significant focal depth for the mainshock. The primary aftershock of the 1882 earthquake was felt most strongly in the northern Front Range, leading Kirkham and Rogers (1985) to locate the epicenters of the aftershock and mainshock there. The Front Range is a geomorphic extension of the Laramie Mountains. Both features are part of the eastern deformation front of the Laramide orogeny. Based on knowledge of regional tectonics and using intensity maps for the 1984 and the 1967 Denver earthquakes, we reinterpret prior intensity maps for the 1882

  3. In vitro prion protein conversion suggests risk of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; Morawski, A.R.; Carlson, C.M.; Chang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) affect both domestic sheep (scrapie) and captive and free-ranging cervids (chronic wasting disease; CWD). The geographical range of bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis; BHS) overlaps with states or provinces that have contained scrapie-positive sheep or goats and areas with present epizootics of CWD in cervids. No TSEs have been documented in BHS, but the susceptibility of this species to TSEs remains unknown. Results: We acquired a library of BHS tissues and found no evidence of preexisting TSEs in these animals. The prion protein gene (Prnp) in all BHS in our library was identical to scrapie-susceptible domestic sheep (A136R 154Q171). Using an in vitro prion protein conversion assay, which has been previously used to assess TSE species barriers and, in our study appears to recollect known species barriers in mice, we assessed the potential transmissibility of TSEs to BHS. As expected based upon Prnp genotype, we observed BHS prion protein conversion by classical scrapie agent and evidence for a species barrier between transmissible mink encephalopathy (TME) and BHS. Interestingly, our data suggest that the species barrier of BHS to white-tailed deer or wapiti CWD agents is likely low. We also used protein misfolding cyclic amplification to confirm that CWD, but not TME, can template prion protein misfolding in A136R 154Q171genotype sheep. Conclusions: Our results indicate the in vitro conversion assay used in our study does mimic the species barrier of mice to the TSE agents that we tested. Based on Prnp genotype and results from conversion assays, BHS are likely to be susceptible to infection by classical scrapie. Despite mismatches in amino acids thought to modulate prion protein conversion, our data indicate that A136R154Q171 genotype sheep prion protein is misfolded by CWD agent, suggesting that these animals could be susceptible to CWD. Further investigation of TSE transmissibility to BHS, including

  4. UPR, DOE team to find gas deposits in Wyoming`s Green River Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Clinton, C.L.; Guennewig, V.B.

    1996-04-01

    Union Pacific and the U.S. Department of Energy have entered into a project in an effort to find a more economic and technologically efficient method of drilling for and producing the exceptionally large gas resources trapped in tight sands in the Greater Green River Basin. The project will be conducted in the Frontier Formation in Southwestern Wyoming. A vertical well will be drilled and tested to evaluate the economic benefit of various technologies.

  5. Geology of photo linear elements, Great Divide Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackstone, D. L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Ground examination of photo linear elements in the Great Divide Basin, Wyoming indicates little if any tectonic control. Aeolian aspects are more widespread and pervasive than previously considered.

  6. Surface owner's estate becomes dominant: Wyoming's surface owner consent statute

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, T.

    1981-01-01

    This comment discusses the constitutionality of Wyoming's surface owner consent law in three areas. The first is whether Wyoming's statute is an unconstitutional taking without compensation of the dominant position of the mineral estate holder. The second theory will be that the federal government has preempted the area of mineral lands regulation and therefore Wyoming's statute is void. The third theory is that Wyoming's statute is unconstitutional because it denies equal protection of the law under the fourteenth amendment to the US Constitution. This comment will deal primarily with the reservations of mineral rights under lands the federal government disposed of to private interests. It will not deal with reservations of mineral estates by private parties.

  7. 15. CLOSEUP OF THE SWITCHGEAR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. Wyoming Valley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CLOSEUP OF THE SWITCHGEAR, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Wyoming Valley Flood Control System, Woodward Pumping Station, East of Toby Creek crossing by Erie-Lackawanna Railroad, Edwardsville, Luzerne County, PA

  8. Rocky Mountain Snowpack Chemistry at Selected Sites, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, George P.; Mast, M. Alisa; Nanus, Leora; Manthorne, David J.; Clow, David W.; Handran, Heather M.; Winterringer, Jesse A.; Campbell, Donald H.

    2004-01-01

    During spring 2002, the chemical composition of annual snowpacks in the Rocky Mountain region of the Western United States was analyzed. Snow samples were collected at 75 geographically distributed sites extending from New Mexico to Montana. Near the end of the 2002 snowfall season, the snow-water equivalent (SWE) in annual snowpacks sampled generally was below average in most of the region. Regional patterns in the concentrations of major ions (including ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate), mercury, and stable sulfur isotope ratios are presented. The 2002 snowpack chemistry in the region differed from the previous year. Snowpack ammonium concentrations were higher at 66 percent of sites in Montana compared to concentrations in the 2001 snowpack but were lower at 74 percent of sites in Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico. Nitrate was lower at all Montana sites and lower at all but one Wyoming site; nitrate was higher at all but two Colorado sites and higher at all New Mexico sites. Sulfate was lower across the region at 77 percent of sites. The range of mercury concentrations for the region was similar to those of 2001 but showed more variability than ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations. Concentrations of stable sulfur isotope ratios exhibited a strong regional pattern with values increasing northward from southern Colorado to northern Colorado and Wyoming.

  9. Geothermal resources of the Washakie and Great Divide basins, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Heasler, H.P.; Buelow, K.L.

    1985-01-01

    The geothermal resources of the Great Divide and Washakie Basins of southern Wyoming are described. Oil well bottomhole temperatures, thermal logs of wells, and heat flow data were interpreted within a framework of geologic and hydrologic constraints. It was concluded large areas in Wyoming are underlain by water hotter than 120{sup 0}F. Isolated areas with high temperature gradients exist within each basin. 68 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs. (ACR)

  10. Expansion and Enhacement of the Wyoming Coalbed Methane Clearinghouse Website to the Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse.

    SciTech Connect

    Hulme, Diana; Hamerlinck, Jeffrey; Bergman, Harold; Oakleaf, Jim

    2010-03-25

    Energy development is expanding across the United States, particularly in western states like Wyoming. Federal and state land management agencies, local governments, industry and non-governmental organizations have realized the need to access spatially-referenced data and other non-spatial information to determine the geographical extent and cumulative impacts of expanding energy development. The Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse (WERIC) is a web-based portal which centralizes access to news, data, maps, reports and other information related to the development, management and conservation of Wyoming's diverse energy resources. WERIC was established in 2006 by the University of Wyoming's Ruckelshaus Institute of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) and the Wyoming Geographic Information Science Center (WyGISC) with funding from the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The WERIC web portal originated in concept from a more specifically focused website, the Coalbed Methane (CBM) Clearinghouse. The CBM Clearinghouse effort focused only on coalbed methane production within the Powder River Basin of northeast Wyoming. The CBM Clearinghouse demonstrated a need to expand the effort statewide with a comprehensive energy focus, including fossil fuels and renewable and alternative energy resources produced and/or developed in Wyoming. WERIC serves spatial data to the greater Wyoming geospatial community through the Wyoming GeoLibrary, the WyGISC Data Server and the Wyoming Energy Map. These applications are critical components that support the Wyoming Energy Resources Information Clearinghouse (WERIC). The Wyoming GeoLibrary is a tool for searching and browsing a central repository for metadata. It provides the ability to publish and maintain metadata and geospatial data in a distributed environment. The WyGISC Data Server is an internet mapping application that provides traditional GIS mapping and analysis

  11. US hydropower resource assessment for Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Wyoming.

  12. The Wyoming Infrared Observatory telescope software system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillar, Earl J.; Dumbrill, Daniel; Grasdalen, G. L.; Howell, R. R.

    1993-06-01

    We describe the University of Wyoming telescope control and data- acquisition software system. The software was designed to be maintainable, portable, and inexpensive. Moreover, the software was designed to allow rapid communication between the hardware, the data- acquisition processes, and the tracking processes, while leaving each distinct. We show how the new real-time features embodied in the POSIX.4 standard and implemented in the Unix compatible LynxOS operating system allow us to perform all of our tasks on a single 80486 machine with a standard Unix-like environment, with outstanding real-time performance. We discuss our telescope pointing model, which allows us to point with a root-mean-square error of less than 5 arcsec over the sky with the 2.3-m telescope. For more detailed investigation and use, we will make the software available through anonymous FTP.

  13. Overview of Energy Development Opportunities for Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2012-11-01

    An important opportunity exists for the energy future of Wyoming that will • Maintain its coal industry • Add substantive value to its indigenous coal and natural gas resources • Improve dramatically the environmental impact of its energy production capability • Increase its Gross Domestic Product These can be achieved through development of a carbon conversion industry that transforms coal and natural gas to synthetic transportation fuels, chemical feedstocks, and chemicals that are the building blocks for the chemical industry. Over the longer term, environmentally clean nuclear energy can provide the substantial energy needs of a carbon conversion industry and be part of the mix of replacement technologies for the current fleet of aging coal-fired electric power generating stations.

  14. Newcastle folio, Wyoming-South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Darton, N. H.

    1904-01-01

    The Newcastle quadrangle embraces the quarter of a square degree which lies between parallels 43° 30' and 44° north latitude and meridians 104° and 104° 30' west longitude.  It measures approximately 34 1/2 miles from north to south and 25 1/8 from east to west, and its area is 863 4/5 square miles.  It lies mainly in the eastern portion of Weston County, Wyo., but includes also a narrow area of western Custer and Pennington counties, S. Dak.  The northeastern portion of the quadrangle lies on the slopes of the Black Hills, but the larger part of it belongs to the Great Plains, although these plains are lower here than in the greater part of adjoining portions of Nebraska and Wyoming.  The district is drained by branches of the South Branch of Cheyenne River.

  15. Mucormycotic dermatitis in captive adult Wyoming toads.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S K; Williams, E S; Pier, A C; Mills, K W; Bock, M D

    1999-01-01

    During late May 1995, 50 adult captive endangered Wyoming toads (Bufo baxteri) were brought out of hibernation. Approximately 3 to 10 days after hibernation emergence, all toads were hormonally induced to breed, and paired. Each pair was placed in their own breeding tank. Four toads developed clinical signs of disease which included lethargy and multiple (4 to 12) small (2 mm) raised hyperemic nodules with white fuzzy caps on the ventral skin. The condition progressively worsened until death occurred, within 3 to 6 days. Mycotic dermatitis caused by Mucor sp. was diagnosed in the four toads through histology and isolation of the organism. This is the first case report of a Mucor sp. causing a fatal dermatitis in an amphibian without significant inflammatory response and without systemic involvement. PMID:10073348

  16. Generalized potentiometric surface, estimated depth to water, and estimated saturated thickness of the High Plains aquifer system, March–June 2009, Laramie County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartos, Timothy T.; Hallberg, Laura L.

    2011-01-01

    The High Plains aquifer system, commonly called the High Plains aquifer in many publications, is a nationally important water resource that underlies a 111-million-acre area (173,000 square miles) in parts of eight States including Wyoming. Through irrigation of crops with groundwater from the High Plains aquifer system, the area that overlies the aquifer system has become one of the major agricultural regions in the world. In addition, the aquifer system also serves as the primary source of drinking water for most residents of the region. The High Plains aquifer system is one of the largest aquifers or aquifer systems in the world. The High Plains aquifer system underlies an area of 8,190 square miles in southeastern Wyoming. Including Laramie County, the High Plains aquifer system is present in parts of five counties in southeastern Wyoming. The High Plains aquifer system underlies 8 percent of Wyoming, and 5 percent of the aquifer system is located within the State. Based on withdrawals for irrigation, public supply, and industrial use in 2000, the High Plains aquifer system is the most utilized source of groundwater in Wyoming. With the exception of the Laramie Mountains in western Laramie County, the High Plains aquifer system is present throughout Laramie County. In Laramie County, the High Plains aquifer system is the predominant groundwater resource for agricultural (irrigation), municipal, industrial, and domestic uses. Withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation (primarily in the eastern part of the county) is the largest use of water from the High Plains aquifer system in Laramie County and southeastern Wyoming. Continued interest in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer system in Laramie County prompted a study by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Wyoming State Engineer's Office to update the potentiometric-surface map of the aquifer system in Laramie County. Groundwater levels were measured in wells completed in the High Plains

  17. Oil and Gas Development in Southwestern Wyoming - Energy Data and Services for the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Biewick, Laura R.H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to explore current oil and gas energy development in the area encompassing the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative. The Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative is a long-term science-based effort to ensure southwestern Wyoming's wildlife and habitat remain viable in areas facing development pressure. Wyoming encompasses some of the highest quality wildlife habitats in the Intermountain West. At the same time, this region is an important source of natural gas. Using Geographic Information System technology, energy data pertinent to the conservation decision-making process have been assembled to show historical oil and gas exploration and production in southwestern Wyoming. In addition to historical data, estimates of undiscovered oil and gas are included from the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey National Assessment of Oil and Gas in the Southwestern Wyoming Province. This report is meant to facilitate the integration of existing data with new knowledge and technologies to analyze energy resources development and to assist in habitat conservation planning. The well and assessment data can be accessed and shared among many different clients including, but not limited to, an online web-service for scientists and resource managers engaged in the Initiative.

  18. Seismic exploration in Rocky Mountain region

    SciTech Connect

    Gries, R.R.

    1985-05-01

    Modern exploration in the Rocky Mountain region depends on seismic delineation of prospective targets. In many areas an integration of geology and geophysics is required for a viable prospect today. This recent work resulted in several dramatic discoveries beneath thrusted Precambrian rocks. Continual drilling success in the Overthrust belt has been the result of integrating new subsurface data with improved seismic work. Basin and range deformation, in many places superimposed on the complexities of low-angle thrusts or hidden by volcanic cover is severely testing seismic acquisition technology and interpretation skills. The challenge to acquire good seismic data from beneath thick volcanic fields has been successful in Colorado and Wyoming. Angular unconformities are often clearly visible on seismic sections where they were difficult or impossible to recognize because of the absence of paleontologic data or because the strata above and below the erosional surface are too similar. Detection of angular discordance not only sets up the potential for locating truncation or pinch-out traps, but also enlarges our understanding of the tectonics and timing of Rocky Mountain deformation. Pennsylvanian deformation was as consequential in the Rocky Mountains as Laramide deformation, but is commonly masked by undisturbed Mesozoic rocks. Detection of these faults and folds has been greatly enhanced by seismic data, as well as deep-seated basement faults whose recurrent movement has controlled overlying stratigraphy. Stratigraphic exploration in Rocky Mountain basins has challenged both geologists and geophysicists and they have joined in an increasingly sophisticated search for traps in sand dunes, fluvial channels, incised valley, delta fans, salt-solution structures, carbonate banks and reefs, karst topography, and sometimes in poorly understood, but equally prolific, simple porosity and/or permeability barriers.

  19. Kootenai River Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project : Long-term Bighorn Sheep/Mule Deer Winter and Spring Habitat Improvement Project : Wildlife Mitigation Project, Libby Dam, Montana : Management Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Yde, Chis

    1990-06-01

    The Libby hydroelectric project, located on the Kootenai River in northwestern Montana, resulted in several impacts to the wildlife communities which occupied the habitats inundated by Lake Koocanusa. Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, in cooperation with the other management agencies, developed an impact assessment and a wildlife and wildlife habitat mitigation plan for the Libby hydroelectric facility. In response to the mitigation plan, Bonneville Power Administration funded a cooperative project between the Kootenai National Forest and Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks to develop a long-term habitat enhancement plan for the bighorn sheep and mule deer winter and spring ranges adjacent to Lake Koocanusa. The project goal is to rehabilitate 3372 acres of bighorn sheep and 16,321 acres of mule deer winter and spring ranges on Kootenai National Forest lands adjacent to Lake Koocanusa and to monitor and evaluate the effects of implementing this habitat enhancement work. 2 refs.

  20. The deep Madden Field, a super-deep Madison gas reservoir, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.H. ); Hawkins, C. )

    1996-01-01

    Madison dolomites form the reservoir of a super deep, potential giant sour gas field developed on the Madden Anticline immediately in front of the Owl Creek Thrust along the northern rim of the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming. The Madison reservoir dolomites are presently buried to some 25,000 feet at Madden Field and exhibit porosity in excess of 15%. An equivalent dolomitized Madison sequence is exposed in outcrop only 5 miles to the north on the hanging wall of the Owl Creek thrust at Lysite Mountain. Preliminary comparative stratigraphic, geochemical and petrologic data, between outcrop and available cores and logs at Deep Madden suggests: (1) early, sea level-controlled, evaporite-related dolomitization of the reservoir and outcrop prior to significant burial; (2) both outcrop and deep reservoir dolomites underwent significant recrystallization during a common burial history until their connection was severed during Laramide faulting in the Eocene; (3) While the dolomite reservoir at Madden suffered additional diagenesis during an additional 7-10 thousand feet of burial, the pore systems between outcrop and deep reservoir are remarkably similar. The two existing deep Madison wells at Madden are on stream, with a third deep Madison well currently drilling. The sequence stratigraphic framework and the diagenetic history of the Madison strongly suggests that outcrops and surface cores of the Madison in the Owl Creek Mountains will be useful in further development and detailed reservoir modeling of the Madden Deep Field.

  1. The deep Madden Field, a super-deep Madison gas reservoir, Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, C.H.; Hawkins, C.

    1996-12-31

    Madison dolomites form the reservoir of a super deep, potential giant sour gas field developed on the Madden Anticline immediately in front of the Owl Creek Thrust along the northern rim of the Wind River Basin, central Wyoming. The Madison reservoir dolomites are presently buried to some 25,000 feet at Madden Field and exhibit porosity in excess of 15%. An equivalent dolomitized Madison sequence is exposed in outcrop only 5 miles to the north on the hanging wall of the Owl Creek thrust at Lysite Mountain. Preliminary comparative stratigraphic, geochemical and petrologic data, between outcrop and available cores and logs at Deep Madden suggests: (1) early, sea level-controlled, evaporite-related dolomitization of the reservoir and outcrop prior to significant burial; (2) both outcrop and deep reservoir dolomites underwent significant recrystallization during a common burial history until their connection was severed during Laramide faulting in the Eocene; (3) While the dolomite reservoir at Madden suffered additional diagenesis during an additional 7-10 thousand feet of burial, the pore systems between outcrop and deep reservoir are remarkably similar. The two existing deep Madison wells at Madden are on stream, with a third deep Madison well currently drilling. The sequence stratigraphic framework and the diagenetic history of the Madison strongly suggests that outcrops and surface cores of the Madison in the Owl Creek Mountains will be useful in further development and detailed reservoir modeling of the Madden Deep Field.

  2. 76 FR 14058 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human Remains...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Wyoming, Anthropology Department, Human... University of Wyoming Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, Laramie, WY. The human remains were..., Anthropology Department, Human Remains Repository, professional staff in consultation with representatives...

  3. 76 FR 77829 - Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... AGENCY Draft Research Report: Investigation of Ground Water Contamination Near Pavillion, Wyoming AGENCY... of Ground Water Contamination near Pavillion, Wyoming.'' The draft research report was prepared by... at the site is potential ground water contamination, based on resident complaints about...

  4. Wasatch and Uinta Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 9 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, Mark S.

    2012-01-01

    The Wasatch and Uinta Mountains Ecoregion covers approximately 44,176 km2 (17, 057 mi2) (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). With the exception of a small part of the ecoregion extending into southern Wyoming and southern Idaho, the vast majority of the ecoregion is located along the eastern mountain ranges of Utah. The ecoregion is situated between the Wyoming Basin and Colorado Plateaus Ecoregions to the east and south and the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion to the west; in addition, the Middle Rockies, Snake River Basin, and Northern Basin and Range Ecoregions are nearby to the north. Considered the western front of the Rocky Mountains, the two major mountain ranges that define the Wasatch and Uinta Mountains Ecoregion include the north-south-trending Wasatch Range and east-west- trending Uinta Mountains. Both mountain ranges have been altered by multiple mountain building and burial cycles since the Precambrian era 2.6 billion years ago, and they have been shaped by glacial processes as early as 1.6 million years ago. The terrain is defined by sharp ridgelines, glacial lakes, and narrow canyons, with elevations ranging from 1,829 m in the lower canyons to 4,123 m at Kings Peak, the highest point in Utah (Milligan, 2010).

  5. 75 FR 66787 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of filing of plats of survey, Wyoming. SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) has filed the plats of survey of the lands described below in the BLM Wyoming State Office,...

  6. Office Practice/Procedures Course Titles and Content in the State of Wyoming and Selected States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrs, Glenna

    In an effort to provide consistency in office practice/procedures course titles and content, a study was conducted in Wyoming that found that at least 40 Wyoming high schools (55 percent) offer office practice, office procedures, or a similar class. Wyoming junior/community colleges provided information showing that four junior/community colleges…

  7. 30 CFR 950.35 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 950.35 Section 950.35 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE WYOMING § 950.35 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a)...

  8. 30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land..., Department of Environmental Quality, Abandoned Mine Lands Division, Herschler Building, Third Floor West,...

  9. 30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land..., Department of Environmental Quality, Abandoned Mine Lands Division, Herschler Building, Third Floor West,...

  10. 30 CFR 950.35 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 950.35 Section 950.35 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE WYOMING § 950.35 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a)...

  11. 30 CFR 950.35 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 950.35 Section 950.35 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE WYOMING § 950.35 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a)...

  12. 30 CFR 950.35 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. 950.35 Section 950.35 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND... STATE WYOMING § 950.35 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan amendments. (a)...

  13. 30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land..., Department of Environmental Quality, Abandoned Mine Lands Division, Herschler Building, Third Floor West,...

  14. 30 CFR 950.30 - Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land... § 950.30 Approval of Wyoming abandoned mine land reclamation plan. The Wyoming Abandoned Mine Land..., Department of Environmental Quality, Abandoned Mine Lands Division, Herschler Building, Third Floor West,...

  15. 30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

  16. 30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

  17. 30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

  18. 30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

  19. 30 CFR 825.2 - Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. 825.2 Section 825.2 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE... BITUMINOUS COAL MINES IN WYOMING § 825.2 Special bituminous coal mines in Wyoming. Special bituminous...

  20. Wyoming Community College System 2001-2002 Performance Report: Core Indicators of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community Coll. Commission, Cheyenne.

    This document focuses on the performance of some of Wyoming's community colleges as measured by 13 indicators chosen by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). Seven Wyoming community colleges and the Wyoming community college commission use these indicators. The core indicators are as follows: (1) student goal attainment; (2)…