Science.gov

Sample records for bilateral upper urinary

  1. Bilateral urinary calculi with discordant stone composition.

    PubMed

    Kadlec, Adam O; Fridirici, Zachary C; Acosta-Miranda, Alex M; Will, Thomas H; Sakamoto, Kyoko; Turk, Thomas M T

    2014-02-01

    To describe a cohort of bilateral stone formers with significantly different compositions between renal units. Patients treated for bilateral nephrolithiasis over a 4-year period (2007-2010) were identified. Stones were categorized by dominant (≥50%) mineralogical component. Patients with significant compositional differences between renal units (discordant stone formers) were compared to patients with a similar stone type in each kidney. Fifteen of the 59 bilateral stone formers (25.4%) were discordant stone formers with significant differences in stone composition between renal units. Forty-four of the 59 patients (74.6%) had the same stone composition on each side. Thirty percent of discordant stones had calcium phosphate as the dominant stone component. Discordant stone formers were younger, had better renal function, and tended to have a larger stone burden (p < 0.05). A significant minority of bilateral stone formers form a different type of stone in each kidney. Local or micro-environmental etiologies may explain this phenomenon and may also account for failure of preventive therapy in some patients.

  2. [Tumor of upper urinary tract in renal polycystic disease].

    PubMed

    Rabii, Redouane; el Mejjad, Amine; Fekak, Hamid; Querfani, Baderdine; Joual, Abdenbi; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2003-09-01

    Upper urinary tract tumours are exceptional in the context of renal polycystic disease. The authors report the case of Mrs B. F., 56 years old, who presented with left loin pain associated with haematuria. Clinical examination was normal and ultrasound examination revealed bilateral renal polycystic disease with a mass in the left renal sinus. CT urography showed a tumour arising from the renal pelvis suggestive of an upper urinary tract tumour. The laboratory assessment revealed normal renal function and normal urine cytology. Treatment consisted of radical nephroureterectomy with resection of a bladder cuff. Histological examination revealed a urothelial tumour of the renal pelvis with negative surgical margins. In the light of this case, the authors discuss the diagnostic difficulties and specificities, the treatment and the outcome of this unusual clinical association.

  3. Audit of cytology of upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Malta, F; Lenos, M; Leotsakos, I; Katafigiotis, I; Gakiopoulou, H; Constantinides, C; Mikou, P

    2016-10-01

    Cytology is an essential tool for the investigation of urinary tract malignancy. In this audit, we aimed to assess our laboratory performance in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract malignancy and to use the information provided to improve our service. We retrieved cytology reports of upper urinary tract specimens from two periods, re-evaluated the cases, compared the reports with histology data and estimated the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV). In the time interval between the two periods, we adopted new terminology, established better communication with clinicians and gained experience in the field. Finally, the data from the two periods were compared. In phase A, we estimated a sensitivity of 73%, specificity of 86% and PPV of 84.6%. As a result of the cytological re-evaluation, correlation with histology and clinical follow-up, plus communication with the clinicians during the audit, we established new terminology and a new request form. A three tiered grading system of atypia (mild, moderate and severe) was replaced by a two tiered grading system. The first category "atypia probably benign" corresponded to "mild atypia" while the second category "atypia, not otherwise specified" corresponded to "moderate atypia". The cases diagnosed as "severe atypia" were reclassified as "suspicious for malignancy". In phase B, the sensitivity, specificity and PPV were 75%, 89% and 90%, respectively. Our laboratory performance is in concordance with reported data and has been improved through this study. The audit process is extremely valuable for the identification of problems, for taking action and, finally, for the improvement of the clinical cytology service in the field of upper urinary tract malignancy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Bilateral Hydroureteronephrosis with a Hypertrophied, Trabeculated Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Showkathali; Raiz, Iqbal; Faiz, Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral hydroureteronephrosis involves the dilatation of the renal pelvis, calyces and ureter; it develops secondary to urinary tract obstruction and leads to a build-up of back pressure in the urinary tract, and it may lead to impairment of renal function and ultimately culminate in renal failure. Although clinically silent in most cases, it can be diagnosed as an incidental finding during evaluation of an unrelated cause. In a minority of patients, it presents with signs and symptoms. Renal calculus is the most common cause, but there are multiple non-calculus aetiologies, and they depend on age and sex. Pelviureteric junction obstruction, benign prostatic hypertrophy, urethral stricture, neurogenic bladder, retroperitoneal mass and bladder outlet obstruction are some of the frequent causes of hydroureteronephrosis in adults. The incidence of non-calculus hydronephrosis is more common in males than in females. Ultrasonography is the most important baseline investigation in the evaluation of patients with hydronephrosis. Here, we report a rarely seen case of bilateral hydroureteronephrosis associated with a hypertrophied, trabeculated bladder in an adult male cadaver, suspected to be due to a primary bladder neck obstruction, and analyse its various other causes, clinical presentations and outcomes. PMID:28894411

  5. Imaging in upper urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Ifergan, J; Pommier, R; Brion, M-C; Glas, L; Rocher, L; Bellin, M-F

    2012-06-01

    Most infections of the upper urinary tract are straightforward and do not require any emergency radiological investigations. A sonogram carried out within 48 hours will in most cases be sufficient to eliminate obstructed pyelonephritis requiring emergency drainage of urine. In complicated cases, or those affecting already weakened areas, an urgent CT scan is necessary, preferably after injection of iodinated contrast medium if renal function permits. CT scanning is far better at diagnosis than sonography as well as at investigating whether there are complications. Furthermore, it is essential that the radiologist is aware of unusual and rare forms of pyelonephritis, especially pseudotumoural forms, so that clinicians can be pointed towards the appropriate treatment, avoiding unnecessary and invasive interventions.

  6. Bilateral high upper limb replantation in a child.

    PubMed

    Koul, Ashok Raj; Cyriac, Asha; Khaleel, V M; Vinodan, K

    2004-05-01

    Bilateral high amputation of upper limbs in a child is a very unusual injury. In the present case, although the amputation was high and significant avulsion was present, the age of the child (6 years) made the case both challenging and encouraging--challenging because of the anticipated systemic effects of reperfusion, and encouraging because the long-term prognosis is always more encouraging in a child.

  7. Bilateral and multiple cavitation sounds during upper cervical thrust manipulation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The popping produced during high-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust manipulation is a common sound; however to our knowledge, no study has previously investigated the location of cavitation sounds during manipulation of the upper cervical spine. The primary purpose was to determine which side of the spine cavitates during C1-2 rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation. Secondary aims were to calculate the average number of pops, the duration of upper cervical thrust manipulation, and the duration of a single cavitation. Methods Nineteen asymptomatic participants received two upper cervical thrust manipulations targeting the right and left C1-2 articulation, respectively. Skin mounted microphones were secured bilaterally over the transverse process of C1, and sound wave signals were recorded. Identification of the side, duration, and number of popping sounds were determined by simultaneous analysis of spectrograms with audio feedback using custom software developed in Matlab. Results Bilateral popping sounds were detected in 34 (91.9%) of 37 manipulations while unilateral popping sounds were detected in just 3 (8.1%) manipulations; that is, cavitation was significantly (P < 0.001) more likely to occur bilaterally than unilaterally. Of the 132 total cavitations, 72 occurred ipsilateral and 60 occurred contralateral to the targeted C1-2 articulation. In other words, cavitation was no more likely to occur on the ipsilateral than the contralateral side (P = 0.294). The mean number of pops per C1-2 rotatory HVLA thrust manipulation was 3.57 (95% CI: 3.19, 3.94) and the mean number of pops per subject following both right and left C1-2 thrust manipulations was 6.95 (95% CI: 6.11, 7.79). The mean duration of a single audible pop was 5.66 ms (95% CI: 5.36, 5.96) and the mean duration of a single manipulation was 96.95 ms (95% CI: 57.20, 136.71). Conclusions Cavitation was significantly more likely to occur bilaterally than unilaterally during upper cervical HVLA

  8. [Urodynamics of upper urinary tracts after intestinal plastic surgery on urinary bladder (experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Mudraia, I S; David'iants, A A; Zaĭtsev, A V

    1999-01-01

    In dog experiments, the urinary bladder was replaced for an isolated intestinal segment to test upper urinary tract function as regards configuration of the established urine reservoir early and late after the surgery. Intestinal plastic surgery of the bladder changes parameters of ureteral function in unchanged potential reserve of ureteral contraction. Postileocystoplasty urodynamics of the upper urinary tracts is characterized by lowering of intraureteral pressure, decreased amplitude of ureteral contractions, enhanced tonicity and motility. Plastic replacement of the bladder with isolated intestinal segment is not contraindicated in the solitary kidney.

  9. Endourologic Management of Upper Tract Transitional Cell Carcinoma following Cystectomy and Urinary Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Jeffrey John; Smaldone, Marc Christopher; Ost, Michael Cecil

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, nephroureterectomy is the gold standard therapy for upper tract recurrence of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) following cystectomy and urinary diversion. With advances in endoscopic equipment and improvements in technique, conservative endourologic management via a retrograde or antegrade approach is technically feasible with acceptable outcomes in patients with bilateral disease, solitary renal units, chronic renal insufficiency, or significant medical comorbidities. Contemporary studies have expanded the utility of these techniques to include low-grade, low-volume disease in patients with a normal contralateral kidney. The aim of this report is to review the current outcomes of conservative management for upper tract disease and discuss its application and relevance in patients following cystectomy with lower urinary tract reconstruction. PMID:19125199

  10. Posterior Bilateral Intermuscular Approach for Upper Cervical Spine Injuries.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yong; Xiong, Wei; Han, Sung I I; Fang, Zhong; Li, Feng

    2017-08-01

    To investigate a novel intermuscular surgical approach for posterior upper cervical spine fixation. Twenty-three healthy volunteers underwent magnetic resonance imaging. By using the magnetic resonance imaging scans in transverse view at the level of lower edge of atlas, the distances from the posterior midline to lateral margin of trapezius, to the medial margin of splenius capitis, and to middle line of semispinalis capitis were recorded. The angle between posterior middle line and the line crossing the lateral margin of trapezius and middle point of ipsilateral pedicles. From October 2009 to May 2013, 12 patients with upper cervical spine injuries were operated via the bilateral intermuscular approach. The time required for surgery, blood loss, and pre- and postoperative visual analogue scale scores were analyzed. The average distance of 0-T was 39.2 ± 7.5 mm, the angle between the approach and posterior middle line was 33.2 ± 8.4°. The surgical time was 78.3 ± 22.5 minutes (45-140 minutes), and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 87.5 ± 44.2 mL (30-200 mL). Preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scale scores were 6.4 ± 0.8 and 1.8 ± 0.7, respectively. The average follow-up time was 19.7 ± 11.5 months (9-48 months). The posterior bilateral intermuscular approach for upper cervical spine injuries is a valid alternative for Hangmans' fractures type I, type II, and type Ia according to Levine and Edwards classification as well as atlantoaxial subluxation caused by upper cervical spine trauma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Upper-urinary-tract urothelial tumors: conservative treatment by Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaboardi, Franco; Bozzola, Andrea; Melodia, Tommaso; Gulfi, Gildo M.; Galli, Stefano

    1993-05-01

    Upper urinary malignancies are rare tumors whose diagnosis sometimes represents a difficult dilemma. In selected cases, it is possible to treat the tumor with laser irradiation. This approach is reserved to low-stage low-grade tumors, a tumor in a solitary kidney, bilateral syncroneous disease or patients with deterioration of renal function. Thirty one patients suspected to have malignancies, as they presented upper tract filling defects at IVP, underwent uretero-pyeloscopy to confirm the diagnosis. Twenty patients with upper urinary tract urothelial tumors were treated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Before the procedure, the ureter and the pelvis were accessed by 0.038 inch guide-wire or 4 French ureteral catheter. A power of 25 - 30 watts/3 seconds was carried out for the laser irradiation of the tumor and of the base. Sometime after the procedure a ureter single J catheter was left indwelling for 48 hours. In the follow-up the patients had endoscopic surveillance every three months. Actually 12 patients are tumor-free after 3 - 36 months. Eight patients had a recurrence after the first treatment and they underwent new laser irradiation. All the recurrences were in other sites of the upper urinary tract and seemed to be related to tumor grade. In conclusion, conservative endourological ureteropyeloscopy coupled with Nd:YAG laser irradiation should be considered a useful treatment in selected patients.

  12. Unilateral and bilateral adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma requires adjustment of urinary and plasma metanephrine reference ranges.

    PubMed

    Osinga, Thamara E; van den Eijnden, Maartje H A; Kema, Ido P; Kerstens, Michiel N; Dullaart, Robin P F; de Jong, Wilhelmina H A; Sluiter, Wim J; Links, Thera P; van der Horst-Schrivers, Anouk N A

    2013-03-01

    Follow-up after adrenalectomy for pheochromocytoma is recommended because of a recurrence risk. During follow-up, plasma and/or urinary metanephrine (MN) and normetanephrine (NMN) are interpreted using reference ranges obtained in healthy subjects. Because adrenalectomy may decrease epinephrine production, we compared MN and NMN concentrations in patients after adrenalectomy to concentrations in a healthy reference population. A single-center cohort study was performed in pheochromocytoma patients after adrenalectomy between 1980 and 2011. Seventy patients after unilateral and 24 after bilateral adrenalectomy were included. Plasma-free and urinary-deconjugated MN and NMN determined at 3 to 6 months and annually until 5 years after adrenalectomy were compared with concentrations in a reference population. Data are presented in median (interquartile range). Urinary and plasma MN concentrations 3 to 6 months after unilateral adrenalectomy were lower compared with the reference population (39 [31-53] μmol/mol creatinine and 0.14 [0.09-0.18] nmol/L vs 61 [49-74] μmol/mol creatinine and 0.18 [0.13-0.23] nmol/L, respectively, both P < .05). Urinary MN after bilateral adrenalectomy was reduced even further (7 [1-22] μmol/mol creatinine; P < .05). Urinary and plasma NMN were higher after unilateral adrenalectomy (151 [117-189] μmol/mol creatinine and 0.78 [0.59-1.00] nmol/L vs 114 [98-176] μmol/mol creatinine and 0.53 [0.41-0.70] nmol/L; both P < .05). Urinary NMN after bilateral adrenalectomy was higher (177 [106-238] μmol/mol creatinine; P < .05). Changes in urinary and plasma MNs persisted during follow-up. Concentrations of MN are decreased, whereas NMN concentrations are increased after unilateral and bilateral adrenalectomy. Adjusted reference values for MN and NMN are needed in the postsurgical follow-up of pheochromocytoma patients.

  13. Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Presented With Bilateral Hydronephrosis and Urinary Infection: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Kewen; Xie, Yi; Li, Hanzhong

    2016-05-01

    Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a condition resulting from the kidney's impaired response to circulating antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to polydipsia and polyuria. Urinary tract dilatation caused by NDI is a rare situation. Here, we report a case of congenital NDI presented with bilateral hydronephrosis.A 15-year-old boy complaining a history of intermittent fever was admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital. He voided 10 to 15 L of urine daily. Radiographic examination revealed severe dilatation of bilateral renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder. Urinalysis shows hyposthenuria.He was diagnosed NDI since born. Transient insertion of a urethral catheter helped to relieve fever. Medical therapy of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride was prescribed and effective.Dilatation of urinary tract caused by diabetes insipidus is rare, but may be present in severe condition. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to perform early treatment to avoid impairment of renal function.

  14. Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Presented With Bilateral Hydronephrosis and Urinary Infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Kewen; Xie, Yi; Li, Hanzhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a condition resulting from the kidney's impaired response to circulating antidiuretic hormone (ADH), leading to polydipsia and polyuria. Urinary tract dilatation caused by NDI is a rare situation. Here, we report a case of congenital NDI presented with bilateral hydronephrosis. A 15-year-old boy complaining a history of intermittent fever was admitted to Peking Union Medical College Hospital. He voided 10 to 15 L of urine daily. Radiographic examination revealed severe dilatation of bilateral renal pelvis, ureter, and bladder. Urinalysis shows hyposthenuria. He was diagnosed NDI since born. Transient insertion of a urethral catheter helped to relieve fever. Medical therapy of hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride was prescribed and effective. Dilatation of urinary tract caused by diabetes insipidus is rare, but may be present in severe condition. Therefore, it is crucial for clinicians to perform early treatment to avoid impairment of renal function. PMID:27258490

  15. [Endoscopic management of urothelial tumours of the upper urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Tomatis, Laurent; Neuzillet, Yann; Carcenac, Aurélien; Nahon, Olivier; Lay, Franck; Lechevallier, Eric; Coulange, Christian

    2006-04-01

    The reference treatment for filling defects of the upper urinary tract is nephroureterectomy with excision of a perimeatal bladder segment. The authors evaluated the role of endoscopy and laser in the management of filling defects of the upper urinary tract. Filling defects of the upper urinary tract were evaluated by biopsies performed during ureteroscopy followed by 10 Watt Holmium-YAG laser vaporisation. High-grade or incompletely vaporised tumours or multifocal tumours or tumours more than 2 cm in diameter received complementary treatment. Low-grade and completely vaporised tumours were followed by ureteroscopy at 3 months and then every 6 months. The authors conducted a prospective study from March 2002 to September 2004. Fifteen consecutive patients were managed according to this protocol. The mean age was 70 years (range: 53 to 85 years). Thirty nine tumours were treated. The mean tumour diameter was 1.05 cm (range: 0.3 to 2.5 cm). In this series of 15 patients treated according to this protocol, 39 tumours were diagnosed and treated. The grade was determined by biopsy in 66% of cases. Seven patients have a median recurrence-free survival of 18 months (range: 12 to 34 months). Overall, conservative management was able to be performed in twelve patients, corresponding to a 22-month kidney preservation rate of 80%. Two patients died during follow-up, one from prostatic cancer and the other from invasive urothelial bladder tumour. One patient who had had recurrence ans had been re-treated was lost for report. Filling defects of the upper urinary tract can be investigated by ureteroscopy to obtain a histological diagnosis and to perform treatment by laser vaporisation. Complementary treatment is then performed depending on the histological results, either by complementary vaporisation or by nephroureterectomy. Laser treatment ensures a high kidney preservation rate but with a recurrence risk. Conservative endoscopic treatment, which is considered to be

  16. What is a urodynamics study of upper urinary tract?

    PubMed

    Vela-Navarrete, R

    1980-01-01

    The urodynamic study of the upper urinary tract is a urologic procedure whose objective is to complement the information obtained by excretion urography in selected cases of documented or suspected upper tract obstruction. The procedure has several steps, all of which can be done by antegrade transcutaneous puncture of the kidney. The first and most important step consists of the simultaneous analysis of resting pelvic pressure, solute concentration in aspirated urine from the renal pelvis, and antegrade pyelogram. This set of data makes up the basic urodynamic evaluation and will be sufficient in many cases for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. However, in selected circumstances of equivocal dilatation or severe kidney atrophy, more complementary information can be gained using antegrade flow studies or temporary diversion by needle nephrostomy, respectively. These conclusions have been based on more than 300 urodynamic evaluations done by the author.

  17. [Mortality predictive factors in patients with urinary sepsis associated to upper urinary tract calculi].

    PubMed

    Badia, M; Iglesias, S; Serviá, L; Domingo, J; Gormaz, P; Vilanova, J; Gavilan, R; Trujillano, J

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the clinical characteristics of patients with urinary sepsis associated to ureteral calculi admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), and to identify predictors of mortality in the first 24 hours of admission. A retrospective observational study covering a 16-year period (2006-2011) was carried out. The combined clinical/surgical ICU of a secondary-level University hospital. All patients admitted to the ICU due to obstructive urinary sepsis. None. We analyzed general clinical and laboratory test and urological data. The diagnostic technique, affected side, decompression technique, isolated microorganism and antibiotic therapy used were also considered. The assessment of risk factors was performed by multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 107 patients admitted to the ICU were included in the study, with a mortality rate of 19.6%. The diagnosis was mainly established by ultrasound, and the most commonly used decompression technique was retrograde JJ stenting. Microorganisms were isolated in 48.6% of the patients. In total, 20.6% of the patients had bacteremia. Multivariate analysis found age, acute renal failure and the use of vasoactive drugs administered continuously for the first 24 hours of admission to be independently associated to mortality. Advanced age, acute renal failure and the need for vasoactive drugs were associated to an increased risk of mortality in patients with urinary sepsis associated to upper urinary tract calculi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi in infants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Han, Tiandong; Tian, Ye; Wang, Wenying; Du, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical value of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi in infants. Fifty-five infants with upper urinary tract calculi were included in this study: 41 males and 14 females. Retrograde intrarenal surgery was performed by an 8 Fr/30 cm flexible ureterorenoscope (POLY®) combined with a holmium laser. CT scanning or radiography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder region was performed one month after the operation to confirm the clearance of calculi. All the 55 infants with calculi in 74 sides underwent 66 flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy procedures. The median operation time was 30 min. The median amount of flushing fluid was 500 mL. The stone-free rate after a single session treatment was 94.6%, within which 10 infants underwent simultaneous bilateral flexible ureteroscopy lithotripsy. Catheters were retained in 45 infants for 24–48 h after the operation. Continuous high fever due to reflux was present in two cases. Flushing fluid extravasation was found in one infant. Some patients with minor complications, such as mild hematuria, irritation symptoms, and low fever, recovered without treatment. The duration of hospitalization time after the operation was approximately 1–5 days. Flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy is a safe, highly efficient, minimally invasive, and reproducible operation for removal of upper urinary tract calculi in infants. This technique is a convenient method for postoperative management of patients that enhances their rapid recovery. It is a promising option for therapy of infants ineffectively treated by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. PMID:27633576

  19. Flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi in infants.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Xiao, Jing; Han, Tiandong; Tian, Ye; Wang, Wenying; Du, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical value of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy for the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi in infants. Fifty-five infants with upper urinary tract calculi were included in this study: 41 males and 14 females. Retrograde intrarenal surgery was performed by an 8 Fr/30 cm flexible ureterorenoscope (POLY®) combined with a holmium laser. CT scanning or radiography of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder region was performed one month after the operation to confirm the clearance of calculi. All the 55 infants with calculi in 74 sides underwent 66 flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy procedures. The median operation time was 30 min. The median amount of flushing fluid was 500 mL. The stone-free rate after a single session treatment was 94.6%, within which 10 infants underwent simultaneous bilateral flexible ureteroscopy lithotripsy. Catheters were retained in 45 infants for 24-48 h after the operation. Continuous high fever due to reflux was present in two cases. Flushing fluid extravasation was found in one infant. Some patients with minor complications, such as mild hematuria, irritation symptoms, and low fever, recovered without treatment. The duration of hospitalization time after the operation was approximately 1-5 days. Flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy is a safe, highly efficient, minimally invasive, and reproducible operation for removal of upper urinary tract calculi in infants. This technique is a convenient method for postoperative management of patients that enhances their rapid recovery. It is a promising option for therapy of infants ineffectively treated by extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy.

  20. Prevalence of upper urinary tract anomalies in hospitalized premature infants with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Vachharajani, A; Vricella, G J; Najaf, T; Coplen, D E

    2015-05-01

    The 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines address imaging after initial febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants >2 months of age. We sought to determine the frequency of upper urinary tract anomalies (hydronephrosis and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)) in hospitalized premature infants with UTI. We retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admissions at a tertiary care children's hospital between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010. We queried the records for UTI, renal ultrasound (US) and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). We identified 3518 unique admissions. UTI occurred in 118 infants (3%). Sixty-nine (60%) had a normal US. Renal dilation was predominantly renal pelvic dilation (12%) and isolated caliectasis (22%). VUR was identified in 15 (14%) infants evaluated with a VCUG. VUR was identified in nine (12%) infants without and in seven (16%) with an abnormality on US. Reflux was identified in 7% of male and 38% of female infants with a UTI. Anatomic abnormalities of the upper urinary tract are uncommon in premature infants with a UTI that occurs during neonatal hospitalization. In concordance with the AAP guidelines, a VCUG may not be required in all NICU infants under age 2 months after a single UTI.

  1. Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahallal, Youness; Mellas, Soufiane; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000 mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male.

  2. Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahallal, Youness; Mellas, Soufiane; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000 mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male. PMID:22606637

  3. [TACTICS OF TREATMENT OF PATIENTS FOR ONCOLOGICAL DISEASES IN IATROGENIC INJURY OF UPPER URINARY WAYS].

    PubMed

    Stakhovskyi, E O; Vukalovych, P S; Voylenko, O A; Stakhovskyi, O E; Vitruk, Yu V; Kononenko, O A

    2015-10-01

    Results of examination and treatment of 119 patients for oncological diseases were analyzed, in whom iatrogenic injury of ureter (IIU) have occurred. Remission of oncological diseases plastic operations were performed in 48 (40.3%) patients, reconstructive - in 23 (19.3%), restoration - in 3 (2.5%); while a progress - palliative nephrostomy in 41 (34.5%) patients. In 4 (3.4%) patients dynamical observation was conducted. The method of operative treatment was selected, taking into account efficacy of treatment of oncological diseases; mechanism of IIU; level of obstruction and irreversibility of changes in wall of ureter; character of injury (one-sided, bilateral, injury of ureter of a single kidney); anatomo-functional changes of upper and lower urinary ways; the patient state severity.

  4. [The electromotor unit of the upper urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Hanke, P; Bickeböller, R; Mersdorf, A; Jonas, D

    1992-10-01

    The muscular architecture of the upper urinary tract constitutes a functional but no anatomical syncytium, where the cells are coupled by nexus and crosslinking with low electrical resistance. The action potentials are evoked by spontaneous depolarisation of muscle cells. The sites of peak depolarisation could be termed pace-maker cells. They are localized in the calices. Recent studies have, however, described myofilaments capable of contraction in the proximal tubuli already. Volume and pressure loads on the hollow system have been identified as the regulation mechanism. Modulatory function is directly related to evidence of alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors, of receptor subtypes, of the adenylate cyclase system, of histamine- and possibly prostaglandin- and serotonin-receptors as well.

  5. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Paner, Gladell; Blanca, Ana; Montironi, Rodolfo; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Nagashima, Yoji; Chuang, Shi-Sung; Win, Khin Than; Madruga, Leo; Raspollini, Maria R; Cheng, Liang

    2017-06-01

    In this report, we summarized the clinicopathologic features of ten cases of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) of the upper urinary tract (ureter n = 6; renal pelvis n = 4), a rare variant of urothelial cancer characterized by a malignant epithelial component densely infiltrated by lymphoid cells. The initial diagnosis was made on radical nephrectomy in five cases, nephroureterectomy in three cases, and ureterectomy in two others. Four patients had pathologic stage T1 (n = 2) or T2 (n = 2) tumors, and six patients had stage pT3 disease. Microscopically, all tumors contained pure (n = 3) or predominant (n = 7) LELC, which composed 60 to 80% of the entire tumor. Non-LELC tumor component was adenocarcinoma (n = 2), spindle cell carcinoma (n = 1), or high-grade conventional urothelial carcinoma (n = 4). The LELC component was characterized by indistinct cytoplasmic borders and a syncytial growth pattern. Immunohistochemical staining showed LELC to be positive for cytokeratin AE1/AE3, CK7, CK34ßE12 (rare cells), CK5/6 (rare cells), and CK20 (rare cells); rare cells were p40 positive. GATA 3 was positive in all cases in a variable proportion of cells (20-80%). Lymphoid markers showed a polyclonal proliferation of predominant T cells admixed with B cells. In situ hybridization for the HPV genome was negative in all ten cases. Survival analysis showed no differences between LELC and conventional upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma, pT classification being the only significant prognostic parameter. Morphologic recognition and distinction from other (non-)neoplastic lesions with prominent lymphoid stroma are critical for its clinical management.

  6. [Application of sinusoidal modulated currents and radon therapy in patients with uroliths in upper urinary tracts].

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, I V; Li, A A; Gusarov, I I; Slepushkina, T G; Dubovskoĭ, A V; Derevnina, N A

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes the method of elimination of the upper urinary tract uroliths using a combination of the following modalities: sinusoidal modulated currents, drinking of artificial radon water, radon water baths and no-spa medication. Evacuation of the concrements or their fragments from the upper urinary tracts reached 80%.

  7. Gross anatomical study of bilateral megaureters associated with renal pelvis dilatation and a giant urinary bladder: an adult cadaver with a brief review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Hayato; Yi, Shuang-Qin; Hirai, Shuichi; Qu, Ning; Naito, Munekazu; Hatayama, Naoyuki; Kawata, Shinichi; Itoh, Masahiro

    2013-06-01

    Although bilateral megaureters are not an infrequent occurrence in the urinary tract, bilateral megaureters associated with bilateral renal pelvis dilatation and a giant urinary bladder appear to be rare. In this paper, a cadaver case of an adult Japanese male with bilateral megaureters is described. In addition to describing and illustrating this case, the anatomy and etiology of these anomalous structures is discussed with a brief review of the literature.

  8. Effects of virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training on brain activity in post-stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-Hyun; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the therapeutic effects of virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training on brain activity in patients with stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Eighteen chronic stroke patients were divided into two groups: the virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group (n = 10) and the bilateral upper-limb training group (n = 8). The virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group performed bilateral upper-extremity exercises in a virtual reality environment, while the bilateral upper-limb training group performed only bilateral upper-extremity exercise. All training was conducted 30 minutes per day, three times per week for six weeks, followed by brain activity evaluation. [Results] Electroencephalography showed significant increases in concentration in the frontopolar 2 and frontal 4 areas, and significant increases in brain activity in the frontopolar 1 and frontal 3 areas in the virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training group. [Conclusion] Virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training can improve the brain activity of stroke patients. Thus, virtual reality-based bilateral upper-extremity training is feasible and beneficial for improving brain activation in stroke patients.

  9. A Systematic Review of Bilateral Upper Limb Training Devices for Poststroke Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    van Delden, A. (Lex) E. Q.; Peper, C. (Lieke) E.; Kwakkel, Gert; Beek, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. In stroke rehabilitation, bilateral upper limb training is gaining ground. As a result, a growing number of mechanical and robotic bilateral upper limb training devices have been proposed. Objective. To provide an overview and qualitative evaluation of the clinical applicability of bilateral upper limb training devices. Methods. Potentially relevant literature was searched in the PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from 1990 onwards. Devices were categorized as mechanical or robotic (according to the PubMed MeSH term of robotics). Results. In total, 6 mechanical and 14 robotic bilateral upper limb training devices were evaluated in terms of mechanical and electromechanical characteristics, supported movement patterns, targeted part and active involvement of the upper limb, training protocols, outcomes of clinical trials, and commercial availability. Conclusion. Initial clinical results are not yet of such caliber that the devices in question and the concepts on which they are based are firmly established. However, the clinical outcomes do not rule out the possibility that the concept of bilateral training and the accompanied devices may provide a useful extension of currently available forms of therapy. To actually demonstrate their (surplus) value, more research with adequate experimental, dose-matched designs, and sufficient statistical power are required. PMID:23251833

  10. Unilateral Versus Bilateral Prostatic Arterial Embolization for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms in Patients with Prostate Enlargement

    SciTech Connect

    Bilhim, Tiago; Pisco, Joao; Rio Tinto, Hugo; Fernandes, Lucia; Campos Pinheiro, Luis; Duarte, Marisa; Pereira, Jose A.; Oliveira, Antonio G.; O'Neill, Joao

    2013-04-15

    This study was designed to compare baseline data and clinical outcome between patients with prostate enlargement/benign prostatic hyperplasia (PE/BPH) who underwent unilateral and bilateral prostatic arterial embolization (PAE) for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This single-center, ambispective cohort study compared 122 consecutive patients (mean age 66.7 years) with unilateral versus bilateral PAE from March 2009 to December 2011. Selective PAE was performed with 100- and 200-{mu}m nonspherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles by a unilateral femoral approach. Bilateral PAE was performed in 103 (84.4 %) patients (group A). The remaining 19 (15.6 %) patients underwent unilateral PAE (group B). Mean follow-up time was 6.7 months in group A and 7.3 months in group B. Mean prostate volume, PSA, International prostate symptom score/quality of life (IPSS/QoL) and post-void residual volume (PVR) reduction, and peak flow rate (Qmax) improvement were 19.4 mL, 1.68 ng/mL, 11.8/2.0 points, 32.9 mL, and 3.9 mL/s in group A and 11.5 mL, 1.98 ng/mL, 8.9/1.4 points, 53.8 mL, and 4.58 mL/s in group B. Poor clinical outcome was observed in 24.3 % of patients from group A and 47.4 % from group B (p = 0.04). PAE is a safe and effective technique that can induce 48 % improvement in the IPSS score and a prostate volume reduction of 19 %, with good clinical outcome in up to 75 % of treated patients. Bilateral PAE seems to lead to better clinical results; however, up to 50 % of patients after unilateral PAE may have a good clinical outcome.

  11. Bilateral simultaneous traumatic upper arm compartment syndromes associated with anabolic steroids.

    PubMed

    Erturan, Gurhan; Davies, Nev; Williams, Huw; Deo, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    Acute compartment syndrome, a surgical emergency, is defined as increased pressure in an osseofascial space. The resulting reduction of capillary perfusion to that compartment requires prompt fasciotomy. Treatment delay has a poor prognosis, and is associated with muscle and nerve ischemia, resultant infarction, and late-onset contractures. We report a case of traumatic bilateral upper limb acute compartment syndrome associated with anabolic steroids, requiring bilateral emergency fasciotomies. A 25-year-old male bodybuilder taking anabolic steroids, with no past medical history, presented to the Emergency Department 25 min after a road traffic accident. Secondary survey confirmed injuries to both upper limbs with no distal neurovascular deficit. Plain radiographs demonstrated bilateral metaphyseal fractures of the distal humeri. Within 2 h of the accident, the patient developed clinical features that were consistent with bilateral upper arm compartment syndrome. Bilateral fasciotomies of both anterior and posterior compartments were performed, confirming clinical suspicion. We suggest consideration of a history of anabolic steroid use when evaluating patients with extremity trauma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An Accelerometry-Based Methodology for Assessment of Real-World Bilateral Upper Extremity Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Ryan R.; Klaesner, Joseph W.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of both upper extremities (UE) is necessary for the completion of many everyday tasks. Few clinical assessments measure the abilities of the UEs to work together; rather, they assess unilateral function and compare it between affected and unaffected UEs. Furthermore, clinical assessments are unable to measure function that occurs in the real-world, outside the clinic. This study examines the validity of an innovative approach to assess real-world bilateral UE activity using accelerometry. Methods Seventy-four neurologically intact adults completed ten tasks (donning/doffing shoes, grooming, stacking boxes, cutting playdough, folding towels, writing, unilateral sorting, bilateral sorting, unilateral typing, and bilateral typing) while wearing accelerometers on both wrists. Two variables, the Bilateral Magnitude and Magnitude Ratio, were derived from accelerometry data to distinguish between high- and low-intensity tasks, and between bilateral and unilateral tasks. Estimated energy expenditure and time spent in simultaneous UE activity for each task were also calculated. Results The Bilateral Magnitude distinguished between high- and low-intensity tasks, and the Magnitude Ratio distinguished between unilateral and bilateral UE tasks. The Bilateral Magnitude was strongly correlated with estimated energy expenditure (ρ = 0.74, p<0.02), and the Magnitude Ratio was strongly correlated with time spent in simultaneous UE activity (ρ = 0.93, p<0.01) across tasks. Conclusions These results demonstrate face validity and construct validity of this methodology to quantify bilateral UE activity during the performance of everyday tasks performed in a laboratory setting, and can now be used to assess bilateral UE activity in real-world environments. PMID:25068258

  13. Bilateral Asymmetry in Upper Extremities Is More Pronounced in Distal Compared to Proximal Joints.

    PubMed

    Aune, T K; Ettema, G; Vereijken, B

    2016-01-01

    The authors' aim was to compare spatial and temporal accuracy in proximal versus distal joints in upper extremities. Given the morphological differences in corticospinal and corticomotoneuronal projections for proximal and distal muscles, they hypothesized that bilateral asymmetry would be larger for distal than for proximal joints. Twelve participants performed isolated flexion-extension movements with the shoulders and index fingers. Angular range of motion of finger and shoulder movements was kept constant. The results showed significant bilateral asymmetry for both proximal and distal joints for both spatial and temporal accuracy. More importantly, bilateral asymmetry was significantly larger for the index fingers than for the shoulders for both spatial and temporal variables, as hypothesized. These results at the behavioral level pave the way for further studies that combine direct measures of neural activation with behavioral measures to further illuminate the potential link between bilateral communication and laterality effects in motor performance.

  14. Bilateral macrodystrophia lipomatosa of the upper extremities with syndactyly and multiple lipomas.

    PubMed

    van der Meer, Saskia; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A; Schut, Simone M; Meek, Marcel F

    2011-12-01

    Macrodystrophia lipomatosa is a rare disease that causes congenital local gigantism of part of an extremity, which is characterised by an increase in all mesenchymal elements, particularly fibroadipose tissue. This is the first report to our knowledge of a case of histologically confirmed bilateral macrodystrophia lipomatosa of the upper extremities with syndactyly and multiple lipomas.

  15. Patients with Urinary Incontinence Appear More Likely to Develop Upper Urinary Tract Stones: A Nationwide, Population-Based Study with 8-Year Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hsiao-Jen; Lin, Alex Tong-Long; Lin, Chih-Chieh; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate associations between primary urinary incontinence and development of upper urinary tract stones in a nationwide population in Taiwan. Data of 1,777 adults with primary urinary incontinence and 26,655 controls (groups A, B, and C) without urinary incontinence at study inception were retrieved from the National Health Insurance System database in Taiwan and were analyzed retrospectively. No enrolled subjects had previous diagnosis of upper urinary tract stones or spinal cord injury. All subjects were followed through end of 2009, with a minimum follow-up of 8 years. A greater percentage of study subjects (334/1777, 18.8%) developed upper urinary tract stones than that of control groups A (865/8885, 9.7%) and B (888/8885, 10%), and C (930/8885, 10.5%) (all p-values < 0.0001). Urinary incontinence was associated with significantly increased risk of developing urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI, 1.70–2.34, p < 0.001). Age and metabolic syndrome status were both associated with developing upper urinary tract stones (both p-values < 0.0001). After adjusting for metabolic syndrome, regression analysis showed that urinary incontinence was still associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones (HR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.76–2.26, p < 0.0001). Long-term follow-up of Taiwanese patients with primary urinary incontinence suggests that urinary incontinence is associated with a significantly increased risk of developing upper urinary tract stones. Study findings suggest that physicians treating patients with urinary incontinence should give attention to early detection of upper urinary tract stones. PMID:27536881

  16. Are we closer to seeing carcinoma in situ in the upper urinary tract?

    PubMed Central

    Aboumarzouk, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is observed increase in detection rate of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer worldwide. This is a result of improved imaging as well as implementation of novel technologies of direct visualization of upper urinary tract. Standard techniques still remain insufficient to diagnose flat urothelial lesions. Carcinoma in situ is characterized by flat disordered proliferation of urothelial cells with marked cytologic abnormality, which occur within one cell layer as well as full thickness urothelium and therefore requires a better technology to pick up early and subtle mucosal changes. Material and methods The review presents available diagnostic tools in detection of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer and their ability to depict carcinoma in situ. Results Ureterorenoscopy is an investigation of choice as various promising techniques are under pilot investigations to enhance visualization of upper urinary tract carcinoma in situ. So far only photodynamic diagnosis has been reported to be as effective in detection of carcinoma in situ in the upper as within the lower urinary tract. Conclusions Although we are close to see upper urinary tract carcinoma in situ all new promising diagnostic techniques still require further validation in multicenter clinical trials to indicate any change to current recommendations. PMID:27551552

  17. The effects of bilateral movement training on upper limb function in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyoung Ju; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the functional and kinematic changes associated with two rehabilitation protocols: bilateral and unilateral movement training. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five patients with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to two training protocols for four weeks of training. Each training session consisted of three tasks. The tasks were performed with either the impaired and unimpaired arms moving synchronously (bilateral training) or with the impaired arm alone (unilateral training). To compare the changes associated with each rehabilitation protocol, functional and kinematic assessments were performed before and after the interventions. The functional state of each patient was measured by the Box and Block Test, and the kinematic variables were assessed by three-dimensional motion analysis. The Box and Block Test was used to assess the functional abilities of the affected upper limb. Kinematic measurements of upper limb movement were measured with a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. [Results] Results showed that the bilateral movement group had significantly improved motion of the shoulder compared to the unilateral movement group. [Conclusion] Bilateral movement training should be used to improve upper limb function in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27630418

  18. High EDSS can predict risk for upper urinary tract damage in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ineichen, Benjamin V; Schneider, Marc P; Hlavica, Martin; Hagenbuch, Niels; Linnebank, Michael; Kessler, Thomas M

    2017-03-01

    Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction (NLUTD) is very common in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and it might jeopardize renal function and thereby increase mortality. Although there are well-known urodynamic risk factors for upper urinary tract damage, no clinical prediction parameters are available. We aimed to assess clinical parameters potentially predicting urodynamic risk factors for upper urinary tract damage. A consecutive series of 141 patients with MS referred from neurologists for primary neuro-urological work-up including urodynamics were prospectively evaluated. Clinical parameters taken into account were age, sex, duration, and clinical course of MS and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Multivariate modeling revealed EDSS as a clinical parameter significantly associated with urodynamic risk factors for upper urinary tract damage (odds ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.71, p = 0.02). Using receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, an EDSS of 5.0 as cutoff showed a sensitivity of 86%-87% and a specificity of 52% for at least one urodynamic risk factor for upper urinary tract damage. High EDSS is significantly associated with urodynamic risk factors for upper urinary tract damage and allows a risk-dependent stratification in daily neurological clinical practice to identify MS patients requiring further neuro-urological assessment and treatment.

  19. Bilateral upper and lower eyelid severe psoriasiform blepharitis: case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feilin; Tao, Jeremiah P

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe a case of severe, psoriasiform blepharitis by means of a case report and literature review. A 44-year-old man developed chronic blepharitis and tearing months after bilateral cataract surgery. Exam showed diffuse quad-eyelid erythema, discharge, edema, madarosis, and scale. He also had insufficient tear drainage due to bilateral upper eyelid cicatricial punctal atresia with bilateral lower eyelid punctal stenosis. Biopsy of the lower eyelids exhibited psoriasiform hyperplasia. Topical 0.1% tacrolimus achieved improvement but caused some subjective eye irritation. Psoriasiform dermatitis manifesting on the eyelids is rare, may be associated with insufficient tear drainage, and may respond favorably to 0.1% tacrolimus.

  20. A review: the application of minimally invasive surgery to pediatric urology: upper urinary tract procedures.

    PubMed

    Traxel, Erica J; Minevich, Eugene A; Noh, Paul H

    2010-07-01

    This paper is one-half of a 2 part review on minimally-invasive procedures in pediatric urology. This article focuses on upper tract procedures, including complete nephrectomy, partial nephrectomy, pyeloplasty, and ureterocalicostomy. We note important articles on pure laparoscopic as well as robotic-assisted laparoscopic upper urinary tract surgeries, concentrating on their techniques and outcomes.

  1. [Cross-hand replantation in bilateral upper limb amputation: An anatomical emergency].

    PubMed

    Andre, A; Rongieres, M; Laffosse, J-M; Pailhe, R; Lauwers, F; Grolleau, J-L

    2015-08-01

    Bilateral amputations of upper limbs are excessively rare clinical situations. We report an exceptional clinical case of bilateral amputation of upper limbs at different levels: destruction of the right hand and left transhumeral amputation in a patient after an attempted suicide on train lines. This special situation led us to perform a cross-hand replantation of the left hand to the right forearm. Only 4 other similar cases have been published in the literature. Once the surgical indication had been formulated collectively, and taking into account all the ethical issues surrounding such a decision, we had to solve the issue of inverting anatomical structures in emergency. We have provided a detailed description of our surgical technique. The aim was to save at least one organ used for grasping. The result obtained is presented and reviewed.

  2. Cardiovascular changes after bilateral upper dorsal sympathectomy. Short- and long-term effects.

    PubMed Central

    Papa, M Z; Bass, A; Schneiderman, J; Drori, Y; Tucker, E; Adar, R

    1986-01-01

    The effect of bilateral upper dorsal sympathectomy (UDS) on cardiac function was investigated in two groups of young healthy patients who underwent bilateral excision of T2 and T3 ganglia for palmar hyperhidrosis. In ten patients echocardiography of left ventricular function (LVF) was performed before operation and 2 weeks after operation. Electrocardiograms (ECG) were done before operation, during operation immediately after sectioning each sympathetic chain, and at 2 weeks after operation. The mean pulse rate decreased significantly in patients after they underwent bilateral UDS. There were no clinical arrhythmias or changes in LVF in any patient. Submaximal exercise testing and ECG tracings done at rest and after effort were obtained for 29 patients before undergoing bilateral UDS, 30 days after operation, and 1-3 more times within a 2-year postoperative period. Pulse rates taken at rest and after effort were significantly lower than those taken after operation, and the blood pressure response to exercise was blunted. ECG tracings showed a significant change in the electrical frontal plane axis and shortening of the QTc interval. These changes were evident 30 days after operation and persisted for 2 years. In conclusion, bilateral UDS has no overt arrhythmogenic effect in the young, healthy heart and its beta-blocker-like effect persists for at least 2 years. PMID:3789841

  3. Stone fragility: its therapeutic implications in shock wave lithotripsy of upper urinary tract stones.

    PubMed

    Ansari, M S; Gupta, N P; Seth, A; Hemal, A K; Dogra, P N; Singh, T P

    2003-01-01

    To analyse the impact of stone composition on stone fragility (fragmentation) and clearance of upper urinary tract stones after shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). Between 1st July 1998 and 31st July 2001, 300 renal and ureteric units of 290 patients (10 being bilateral) underwent SWL for upper urinary tract calculi. The degree of fragmentation was divided into four types: (I) Excellent, (II) Good, (III) Fair and (IV) No fragmentation. Stone composition was done by X-ray diffraction crystallography. A statistical comparison was made between degree of fragmentation, number of shock waves delivered, voltage setting, number of sessions required and requirements of adjuvant procedures according to the stone composition. Stone analysis revealed that 90% of the patients had calcium oxalate stones. Of these 80% were calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and 20% calcium oxalate dehydrate (COD). Struvite, apatite and uric acid stones comprised of 6%, 3% and 1% respectively. Type-I fragmentation was achieved up to 63.96%, 50% and 100% in COD, struvite and uric stones respectively as compared to 44.9% and 44.44% for COM and apatite stones. Type-III fragmentation was seen up to 8.79% and 33.3% respectively in COM and apatite as compared to 5.55% or less in other types of the stones suggesting that COM and apatite stones produce larger fragments. The mean number of shock waves, voltage and number of treatments was significantly higher for COM and apatite stones (p value < 0.005) with a stone free rate of only 65-66% and 65-68% respectively at three months (p value < 0.001). Similarly the number of adjuvant procedures required in COM alone was more, i.e. 31 as compared to 17 procedures in rest of the other kinds of stones (p value < 0.05). Stone composition in Indian subcontinent is different from the western world. Fragility of a stone varies with the composition of the stone and affects the therapeutic results.

  4. An unusual case of Von Hipple Lindau (VHL) syndrome with bilateral multicentric renal cell carcinoma with synchronous solitary urinary bladder metastasis.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Premnath; Kumar, Anup; Singh, Ashutosh

    2007-01-01

    In VHL syndrome, renal cell carcinoma is distinctive for its early age of onset, for its bilateral and multifocal involvement. Synchronous solitary urinary bladder metastasis from renal cell carcinoma is extremely rare. We report an unusual case of VHL with bilateral multicentric renal cell carcinoma and synchronous solitary urinary bladder metastasis. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case reported in literature with this combination.

  5. Bilateral robots for upper-limb stroke rehabilitation: State of the art and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Bo; Zhang, Yanxin; Meng, Wei; Deng, Chao; Xie, Shengquan

    2016-07-01

    Robot-assisted bilateral upper-limb training grows abundantly for stroke rehabilitation in recent years and an increasing number of devices and robots have been developed. This paper aims to provide a systematic overview and evaluation of existing bilateral upper-limb rehabilitation devices and robots based on their mechanisms and clinical-outcomes. Most of the articles studied here were searched from nine online databases and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) from year 1993 to 2015. Devices and robots were categorized as end-effectors, exoskeletons and industrial robots. Totally ten end-effectors, one exoskeleton and one industrial robot were evaluated in terms of their mechanical characteristics, degrees of freedom (DOF), supported control modes, clinical applicability and outcomes. Preliminary clinical results of these studies showed that all participants could gain certain improvements in terms of range of motion, strength or physical function after training. Only four studies supported that bilateral training was better than unilateral training. However, most of clinical results cannot definitely verify the effectiveness of mechanisms and clinical protocols used in robotic therapies. To explore the actual value of these robots and devices, further research on ingenious mechanisms, dose-matched clinical protocols and universal evaluation criteria should be conducted in the future. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bilateral interpleural versus lumbar epidural bupivacaine-morphine analgesia for upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Demian, Atef D; Wahba, Ashraf M; Atia, Emad M; Hussein, Sami H

    2003-10-01

    This randomized study was designed to compare the effectiveness of bilateral interpleural analgesia with lumbar epidural analgesia, on postoperative pain relief in upper abdominal surgery. The studied patients were randomely allocated into either interpleural group "IP" (n = 15) or epidural group "EP" (n = 15). In "IP" group, preanesthetic bilateral interpleural block was done using a mixture of bupivacaine 0.5% (0.8 mg/kg) and 2 mg morphine diluted to 50 ml saline for each side. In "EP" group, the same mixture-diluted in 20 ml saline-was injected in the epidural space (L2-3). The general anesthetic technique was the same in both groups. Hemodynamic, gasometric, verbal pain score (VPS) values and complications were compared in both techniques. Heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) readings were in the accepted normal range in the perioperative period although significant lower readings were detected in "EP" group. No significant differences were displayed in blood gasometric variables between the two groups. There were considerable level of analgesia in both groups in the postoperative period although "EP" analgesia was superior to "IP". More pain free patients (9 versus 4) and significant lower consumption of nalbuphine were detected in "EP" group. The results of this study indicate that bilateral "IP" analgesia may offer a satisfactory analgesia for upper abdominal surgery when the use of other analgesic techniques may be contraindicated.

  7. [Immunity status in early postoperative complications in children with anomalies of kidneys and upper urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Panikratov, K D; Polozov, V V; Strel'nikov, A I; Sotnikova, N Iu

    2001-01-01

    31 children aged 1 to 9 years with malformations of the kidneys and upper urinary tracts were preoperatively examined for immune status. After plastic operation 14 children developed early postoperative infectious-inflammatory complications. It is suggested that early postoperative complications in some children with renal and upper urinary tract maldevelopments may arise because of weak compensatory abilities and immunodeficiency resultant from the operative stress. These created favourable conditions for activation of latent infection. Immunological assessment of the patient prior to surgery predicts early postoperative complications and thus enables proper preventive measures.

  8. [Protocol for ureteroscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of the upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Palou, Juan; Vicente, José; Segarra, José; Huguet, Jorge; Salvador, José; Villavicencio, Humberto

    2004-04-01

    Since Pérez-Castro and Martínez-Piñeiro initiated diagnostic and therapeutic ureteroscopy this technique has gained a place in the management of upper urinary tract tumors. Improvement of the equipment (rigid and flexible), better diagnosis and knowledge of outcomes and allows to treat a group of patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the ureter and pelvis by the conservative retrograde technique. In this article, we present an overview of indications and management of the upper urinary tract tumor by ureteroscopy.

  9. Consideration for treatment of upper urinary tract tumors with topical therapy.

    PubMed

    Huffman, J L; Morse, M J; Herr, H W; Whitmore, W F

    1985-10-01

    The use of topical chemotherapy for the treatment of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors and the selection of patients to receive this treatment remain problematic because of the relatively infrequent occurrence of these tumors compared with similar tumors within the bladder. The lack of clinicopathologic information on upper urinary tract urothelial tumors makes pretherapy diagnosis and clinical staging difficult. In addition, there are problems associated with delivery of the agent, and there is not as yet an effective method of surveillance after treatment. Only continued investigation with endoscopic diagnosis and treatment, as well as longitudinal follow-up, will determine methods of patients selection and the optimal use of topical chemotherapy.

  10. Bilateral and symmetrical heterotopic submandibular glands in the upper neck: case report.

    PubMed

    Sanli, Emine Ciğdem; Oztürk, Nail Can; Polat, Ayşe; Oztürk, Hakan

    2010-12-01

    During the neck dissection of a male cadaver, large heterotopic submandibular glands were encountered bilaterally in the upper neck. They were symmetrical, capsulated and lay deep to the superficial lamina of the superficial cervical fascia. Both glands were located in the submandibular and carotid triangles. The somewhat smaller orthotopic submandibular glands and the sublingual glands were in their normal anatomic location. Duct of the heterotopic gland united with the corresponding orthotopic submandibular gland's duct on each side and ended on the ipsilateral sublingual caruncle. Histopathologic examination of the heterotopic glands revealed seromucous (mainly serous) tissue. A bilaterally situated symmetrical heterotopic submandibular gland of this size has not heretofore been reported in the literature. The embryological and clinical significance of this case is discussed.

  11. Robotic unilateral and bilateral upper-limb movement training for stroke survivors afflicted by chronic hemiparesis.

    PubMed

    Simkins, Matt; Kim, Hyuchul; Abrams, Gary; Byl, Nancy; Rosen, Jacob

    2013-06-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of long-term neurological disability and the principle reason for seeking rehabilitative services in the US. Learning based rehabilitation training enables independent mobility in the majority of patients post stroke, however, restoration of fine manipulation, motor function and task specific functions of the hemiplegic arm and hand is noted in fewer than 15% of the stroke patients. Brain plasticity is the innate mechanism enabling the recovery of motor skills through neurological reorganization of the brain as a response to limbs' manipulation. The objective of this research was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy for the upper limbs with a dual arm exoskeleton system (EXO-UL7) using three different modalities: bilateral mirror image with symmetric movements of both arms, unilateral movement of the affected arm and standard care. Five hemiparetic subjects were randomly assigned to each therapy modality. An upper limb exoskeleton was used to provide bilateral and unilateral treatments. Standard care was provided by a licensed physical therapist. Subjects were evaluated before and after the interventions using 13 different clinical measures. Following these treatments all of the subjects demonstrated significant improved of their fine motor control and gross control across all the treatment modalities. Subjects exhibited significant improvements in range of motion of the shoulder, and improved muscle strength for bilateral training and standard care, but not for unilateral training. In conclusion, a synergetic approach in which robotic treatments (unilateral and bilateral depending on the level of the motor control) are supplemented by the standard of care may maximize the outcome of the motor control recover following stroke.

  12. Robotic-assisted laparoscopic reconstruction of the upper urinary tract: tips and tricks.

    PubMed

    Thiel, David D; Leroy, Timothy J; Winfield, Howard N; Igel, Todd C

    2010-08-01

    To examine whether simple tips and tricks provided in this manuscript and video make robotic reconstruction of the urinary tract possible from the renal calyx to the bladder. The da Vinci Surgical System (Intuitive Surgical, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA) has been widely accepted by urologists for complex reconstructive maneuvers such as radical prostatectomy and pyeloplasty. The manuscript and accompanying video outline tips and tricks for patient selection, patient evaluation, port placement, dissection techniques, robotic docking, ureteral repair, and stent management for complex urinary tract reconstruction of the upper urinary tract from the level of the renal calyx to the bladder. Modifications such as port placement, robotic docking techniques, and ureter reconstruction have simplified the technique of complex robotic-assisted laparoscopic reconstruction of the urinary tract. Numerous scenarios can be encountered during robotic-assisted laparoscopic repair of the upper urinary tract. Simple tips and tricks provided in this manuscript and video make robotic reconstruction of the urinary tract possible from the renal calyx to the bladder. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cross-arm replantation for traumatic bilateral upper extremity amputations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kailu; Zhong, Gang; Yin, Jiahui; Xiang, Zhou; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo

    2011-02-01

    A 40-year-old woman had her right extremity avulsed at the proximal upper arm level and the wrist and hand of her left extremity irretrievably injured in a traffic accident. The right distal forearm was surgically amputated and replanted onto the stump of the left distal forearm. New strategy for nerve repair was applied and the function recovery of the cross-replanted hand was favorable. We thought that cross-extremity replantation was indicated when the patient suffered from bilateral total or subtotal amputation at different levels and orthotopic replantation was impossible.

  14. MR urography versus retrograde pyelography/ureteroscopy for the exclusion of upper urinary tract malignancy.

    PubMed

    Lee, K S; Zeikus, E; DeWolf, W C; Rofsky, N M; Pedrosa, I

    2010-03-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) versus retrograde pyelography and/or ureteroscopy (RPU) in the detection of upper urinary tract neoplasms. This retrospective study included 35 patients with suspected upper urinary tract malignancy who underwent MRU and RPU within 6-months in our institution during the study period (February 2002 to January 2007). MRU and RPU reports were reviewed and results recorded. For each patient, the urinary tract was sub-divided into four regions for analysis: left kidney/renal pelvis, left ureter, right kidney/renal pelvis, and right ureter. MRU and RPU results for each patient were compared to a reference standard and the diagnostic performance of both techniques was compared. A total of 113 regions were analysed on MRU and 90 regions on RPU. Nineteen neoplasms were identified. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for the detection of urinary tract neoplasms were 63, 91, 60, and 92% for MRU, respectively, and 53, 97, 83, and 88% for RPU, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). The high negative predictive value of MRU in the present series supports its use as a non-invasive screening examination for excluding the presence of upper urinary tract malignancy. Copyright (c) 2010 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Bacterial culture and drug sensitivity analysis of upper urinary tract calculi complicating with infection].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu; Shi, Yong-kang; Huang, Xiao-bo; Ma, Kai; Xu, Qing-quan; Xiong, Lin-lin; Li, Jian-xing; Wang, Xia-feng

    2014-10-18

    To investigate the bacteriology and drug sensitivity of upper urinary tract calculi patients, and to provide information for choosing suitable antibiotics. In the study, 21 patients who suffered from lithiasis in upper urinary tract and required an emergency drainage for acute obstruction and infection were the "acute group"; 64 patients with calculi in upper urinary tract and accompanied with no infectious symptoms were the "common group". The bacteriology and drug sensitivity of the two groups were investigated. Gram-negative bacteria infected the most common of upper urinary tract calculi patients with infection, accounting for 71.4% in the acute group and 65.7% in the common group, among which Escherichia coli were the predominant ones (35.7% in the acute group and 32.9% in the common group). No difference was found between these two groups in bacterial distribution (P>0.05). Although the average drug resistance rate of Gram-negative bacteria in the acute group was higher than that in the common group, it revealed no significant difference (P>0.05). The drug resistance rate to semisynthetic penicillin, cefuroxime and ceftriaxone were more than 50%, 60%, and 50%, respectively. Quinolones, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, got a 45% drug resistance. Aminoglycoside, carbapenema were sensitive to Gram-negative bacteria. Cefoperazone/sulbactam and piperacillin/tazobactam were more effective than ceftriaxone and piperacillin, respectively. There was no significant difference between upper urinary tract calculi patients with acute infection and common infection in bacteriology and drug sensitivity. Semisynthetic penicillin, the second generation of cephalosporin and quinolone were no longer the good choices of empirical use. Antibiotics combined with β-lactamase inhibitors would be an ideal empirical therapeutic choice.

  16. Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the renal pelvis: an extremely rare neoplasm of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, K-W; Lin, V C-H; Chang, I-W

    2013-12-01

    Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) in the urinary tract is a rare neoplasm morphologically identical to the Müllerian counterpart. Clear cell adenocarcinoma is extremely rare in the upper urinary tract. We present a case with CCA of the renal pelvis. Microscopically, the tumor exhibited exophytic growth with predominantly tubulocystic structures, as well as solid and papillary patterns. The neoplastic cells were cuboidal with clear to pale eosinophilic cytoplasm and abundant intracellular and extracellular eosinophilic hyaline globules. By immunohistochemically, the tumor was labeled by cytokeratins and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1β. The patient was still alive without evidence of recurrence in the follow-up period of nineteen months after diagnosis.

  17. New grading system for upper urinary tract dilation using magnetic resonance urography in patients with neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Liao, Limin; Zhang, Fan; Chen, Guoqing

    2014-05-22

    In patients with neurogenic bladder (NB), elevated intravesical pressures can be transmitted to the upper urinary tract, causing hydronephrosis (HN) and ureteral dilation (UD), which are referred to as upper urinary tract dilation (UUTD). Ureteral obstruction at the bladder wall is another cause for UUTD, but is less of a concern. UUTD can lead to chronic renal failure. Therefore, evaluation and protection of UUT function is extremely important in the management for NB. Currently, the most common method by which to detect HN and UD is ultrasonography (US). The Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) established an US HN grading system in 1993, but this system was found to have some defects. The purpose of this study is to describe a new grading system for UUTD, including both HN and UD, based on magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and to correlate the new grading system with the SFU grading system for HN. A retrospective review of 70 patients with unilateral or bilateral UUTD was completed. Ninety-five sides in patients with UUTD were graded by the MRU-UUTD and SFU-HN grading systems. The results from the two grading systems were compared for each UUTD. The MRU-UUTD grading system revealed the following percentages for each grade: grade 0, 0; 1, 10.5%; 2, 19%; 3, 42.1%; and 4, 28.4%. The SFU-HN grading system revealed the following percentages for each grade: 0, 0; 1, 10.5%; 2, 19%; 3, 36.8%; and 4, 33.7%. There was no significant systematic difference between the two grading systems (p > 0.05), but a significant difference between grades 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). The MRU-UUTD grading system correlates well with SFU-HN grade, provides an objective and comprehensive evaluation for UUTD, and can be used for longitudinal monitoring of UUTD. This new grading system allows for better informed clinical decision-making, identifying changes in UUTD.

  18. The effects of virtual reality-based bilateral arm training on hemiplegic children's upper limb motor skills.

    PubMed

    Do, Ji-Hye; Yoo, Eun-Young; Jung, Min-Ye; Park, Hae Yean

    2016-01-01

    Hemiplegic cerebral palsy is a neurological symptom appearing on the unilateral arm and leg of the body that causes affected upper/lower limb muscle weakening and dysesthesia and accompanies tetany and difficulties in postural control due to abnormal muscle tone, and difficulties in body coordination. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of virtual reality-based bilateral arm training on the motor skills of children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, in terms of their upper limb motor skills on the affected side, as well as their bilateral coordination ability. The research subjects were three children who were diagnosed with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. The research followed an ABA design, which was a single-subject experimental design. The procedure consisted of a total of 20 sessions, including four during the baseline period (A1), 12 during the intervention period (B), and four during the baseline regression period (A2), For the independent variable bilateral arm training based on virtual reality, Nintendo Wii game was played for 30 minutes in each of the 12 sessions. For the dependent variables of upper limb motor skills on the affected side and bilateral coordination ability, a Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT) was carried out for each session and the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) was measured before and after the intervention, as well as after the baseline regression period. To test bilateral coordination ability, shooting baskets in basketball with both hands and moving large light boxes were carried out under operational definitions, with the number of shots and time needed to move boxes measured. The results were presented using visual graphs and bar graphs. The study's results indicated that after virtual reality-based bilateral arm training, improvement occurred in upper limb motor skills on the affected sides, and in bilateral coordination ability, for all of the research subjects. Measurements of the effects of sustained therapy after

  19. Bilateral corneal injury after face-paint application to upper eyelids.

    PubMed

    Ho, Derek Kwun-Hong; Ramessur, Ravi; Webber, Sue

    2017-05-10

    A 40-year-old woman with no known medical conditions or allergies presented with severely painful, watery eyes and blurred vision. She reported topical application of face-paint onto both upper eyelids prior to attending a Halloween party. She subsequently noticed a burning sensation, epiphora and misty vision within a few hours. On examination, bilateral large corneal epithelial defects were highlighted with fluorescein dye under cobalt-blue light. Antibiotic ointment, mydriatic and sodium ascorbate 10% eye-drops were given, and patient was advised to keep the eyelids shut to promote healing. No corneal defects were visible by day 4 and the patient was discharged with vision recovering to normal levels. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. [Renal and upper urinary tract tumors: what the nephrologist should know].

    PubMed

    Gigante, Margherita; Cicione, Raffaele Ivan; Ranieri, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Urinary tract carcinomas are among the most common malignancies and are derived from neoplastic transformation of the urothelium. They can be located in the lower (bladder, urethra) or upper (pyelocaliceal cavities, ureter) urinary tract. Urothelial carcinomas are the fourth most common cancer type after prostate or breast cancer, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Bladder cancer accounts for 90-95% of urothelial carcinomas and it is the most common malignancy of the urinary tract. Renal cancer also belongs to the urothelial carcinomas and is a relatively uncommon solid tumor, accounting for about 3% of all adult malignancies, although its incidence is on the rise. The most common histological subtype, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), is a clear cell carcinoma that makes up approximately 70-80% of all renal neoplasms and appears to be the only histological subtype that is partially responsive to immunotherapeutic approaches. The current review gives an overview of upper urinary tract tumors and renal cancer, in particular RCC, highlighting issues related to its molecular pathogenesis and the new immunotherapeutic approaches.

  1. Regional variations in the incidence of upper urinary tract stones in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Barker, D J; Donnan, S P

    1978-01-14

    Data from the Hospital In-patient Enquiry were used to define the regional patterns of hospital discharge rates for upper urinary tract stones and renal colic in England and Wales. By combining the rates for stones and colic, and by distinguishing emergency from planned admissions, the biases produced by repeated admissions of the same patient and by regional variations in diagnosis and coding may be reduced. There are regional variations in incidence of upper urinary tract stones: Wales and the southern regions of England have a generally higher incidence than northern regions. These variations may be related to regional differences in diet or occupation; or they may partly depend on associations between stone incidence and atmospheric temperature, exposure to ultraviolet irradiation, and hardness of drinking water.

  2. Localized amyloidosis of the upper urinary tract: a case series of three patients managed with reconstructive surgery or surveillance.

    PubMed

    Borza, Tudor; Shah, Rajal B; Faerber, Gary J; Wolf, J Stuart

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of primary localized amyloidosis of the upper urinary tract. Patients with primary localized amyloidosis of the upper urinary tract were identified by database inquiry, and their medical records were reviewed. Primary localized amyloidosis was identified in the ureter in two patients and in the renal pelvis in one patient. Systemic disease and amyloidosis secondary to a medical condition were excluded. All three patients presented with gross painless hematuria, and two also reported flank pain. None endorsed irritative urinary symptoms. Initial evaluation consisted of renal ultrasonography or intravenous urogram, and subsequently additional imaging and ureteroscopies with biopsies were performed. Congo red staining of the biopsies displayed apple green birefringence under polarized light. One patient was treated with distal ureterectomy and Boari flap ureteroneocystostomy, whereas the other two were followed with surveillance imaging. None of the patients have developed progressive disease or recurrence of their symptoms during follow-up of 15 months, 6 years, and 8 years. Primary localized amyloidosis of the upper urinary tract is a rare condition that is of interest because the clinical presentation and radiographic and endoscopic appearance mimic malignancy. Many commonalities exist between upper urinary tract and bladder amyloidosis, but obstructive features, like flank pain and hydronephrosis, are unique to upper urinary tract lesions. In the absence of significant obstruction, early eradication of an upper urinary tract lesion may not be necessary. Rather, follow-up with serial imaging is sufficient to monitor for disease progression.

  3. Bilateral hydronephrosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... upper urinary tract obstruction In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ... of urinary tract obstruction. In: Wein AJ, ed. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  4. Bilateral Brachial Plexus Home Going Catheters After Digital Amputation for Patient With Upper Extremity Digital Gangrene

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Elsayed, Alaa A; Seif, John; Guirguis, Maged; Zaky, Sherif; Mounir-Soliman, Loran

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral nerve catheter placement is used to control surgical pain. Performing bilateral brachial plexus block with catheters is not frequently performed; and in our case sending patient home with bilateral brachial plexus catheters has not been reported up to our knowledge. Our patient is a 57 years old male patient presented with bilateral upper extremity digital gangrene on digits 2 through 4 on both sides with no thumb involvement. The plan was to do the surgery under sequential axillary blocks. On the day of surgery a right axillary brachial plexus block was performed under ultrasound guidance using 20 ml of 0.75% ropivacaine. Patient was taken to the OR and the right fingers amputation was carried out under mild sedation without problems. Left axillary brachial plexus block was then done as the surgeon was closing the right side, two hours after the first block was performed. The left axillary block was done also under ultrasound using 20 ml of 2% mepivacaine. The brachial plexus blocks were performed in a sequential manner. Surgery was unremarkable, and patient was transferred to post anesthetic care unit in stable condition. Over that first postoperative night, the patient complained of severe pain at the surgical sites with minimal pain relief with parentral opioids. We placed bilateral brachial plexus catheters (right axillary and left infra-clavicular brachial plexus catheters). Ropivacaine 0.2% infusion was started at 7 ml per hour basal rate only with no boluses on each side. The patient was discharged home with the catheters in place after receiving the appropriate education. On discharge both catheters were connected to a single ON-Q (I-flow Corporation, Lake Forest, CA) ball pump with a 750 ml reservoir using a Y connection and were set to deliver a fixed rate of 7 ml for each catheter. The brachial plexus catheters were removed by the patient on day 5 after surgery without any difficulty. Patient's postoperative course was otherwise unremarkable

  5. Effectiveness and Safety of Ureteroscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Upper Urinary Tract Calculi in Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, Takashi; Otsuki, Hideo; Uehara, Shinya; Shimizu, Toshihiro; Murao, Wataru; Fujio, Koji; Fujio, Kei; Wada, Koichiro; Araki, Motoo; Nasu, Yasutomo

    2016-06-01

    Upper urinary tract calculi are common; however, there is no recommended treatment selection for elderly patients. Ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy (URS lithotripsy) is minimally invasive, and it provides a high stone-free rate (SFR) treatment for upper urinary tract calculi. Here, we retrospectively evaluated the surgical outcomes of URS lithotripsy after dividing the 189 cases into 3 groups by patient age: the '<65 group' (<65 years old, n=108), the '65-74 group' (65-74 years old, n=42), and the ' 75 group' ( 75 years old, n=39). The patients' characteristics, stone status, and perioperative outcomes were assessed. The 65-74 group and the 75 group had a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension compared to the<65 group. Compared to the<65 group, the 65-74 group had a significantly higher prevalence of hyperlipidemia, and the 75 group had significantly higher the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores. Despite these preoperative risk factors, SFR and postoperative pyelonephritis in the 65-74 group and the 75 group were similar to those of the<65 group. In conclusion, URS lithotripsy is the preferred treatment for upper urinary tract calculi, even for elderly patients who have multiple preoperative risk factors.

  6. MAGE-A expression, immune microenvironment, and prognosis in upper urinary tract carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Makise, Naohiro; Morikawa, Teppei; Nakagawa, Tohru; Ichimura, Takashi; Kawai, Taketo; Matsushita, Hirokazu; Kakimi, Kazuhiro; Kume, Haruki; Homma, Yukio; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-04-01

    The melanoma-associated antigen A (MAGE-A) family comprises cancer-testis antigens that represent promising prognostic biomarkers and immunotherapy targets in several cancer types. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of MAGE-A expression in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma in relation to clinicopathological features, lymphocytic infiltration, and clinical outcome. We immunohistochemically examined the expression of MAGE-A in 171 patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. High (≥ 50% positive) and low MAGE-A expression levels were observed in 33 (19%) and 49 (29%) cases, respectively. MAGE-A was negative in 89 cases (52%). MAGE-A expression was positively correlated with high histologic grade; concomitant carcinoma in situ; higher Ki-67 proliferation index; and infiltration of CD3-, CD8-, and CD45RO-positive T lymphocytes, but not with CD20-positive B lymphocytes. High MAGE-A expression was significantly associated with shorter metastasis-free survival after nephroureterectomy (log-rank P = .019; multivariate hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% confidence interval, 1.00-3.92). MAGE-A expression in metastatic lymph nodes was highly correlated with its expression in primary lesions. MAGE-A expression was retained in chemotherapy-resistant metachronous metastatic lesions of urothelial carcinoma. MAGE-A may be a promising prognostic biomarker and potential immunotherapeutic target for patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

  7. Transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: spectrum of imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Browne, Ronan F J; Meehan, Conor P; Colville, Jane; Power, Raymond; Torreggiani, William C

    2005-01-01

    Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) accounts for up to 10% of neoplasms of the upper urinary tract and usually manifests as hematuria. Imaging plays an important role in assessment of upper tract disease, unlike in bladder TCC, diagnosis of which is usually made at cystoscopy. Traditional imaging modalities, such as excretory urography, retrograde pyelography, and ultrasonography, still play pivotal roles in diagnosis of upper tract TCC, in combination with endourologic techniques. The multicentric nature of TCC makes assessment of the entire urothelium essential before treatment. The advent of minimally invasive surgery, which allows renal preservation in selected patients, makes accurate tumor staging mandatory to determine the appropriate therapy; staging is usually performed with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Vigilant urologic and radiologic follow-up is warranted to assess for metachronous lesions and recurrence. The emerging technique of CT urography allows detection of urinary tract tumors and calculi, assessment of perirenal tissues, and staging of lesions; it may offer the opportunity for one-stop evaluation in the initial assessment of hematuria and in follow-up of TCC. Similar MR imaging protocols can be used in patients who are not candidates for CT urography, although detection of urinary tract calcifications may be suboptimal.

  8. Double Layering and Bilateral Asymmetry of a Thermochemical Plume in the Upper Mantle beneath Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, G.; Ballmer, M. D.; Wolfe, C. J.; Solomon, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    /or lateral variations in eclogite content can give rise to bilateral asymmetry in the contribution of mafic material to partial melting. This prediction is consistent with geochemical evidence for difference in mafic materials between the Loa and Kea trends among the Hawaiian volcanoes. In addition to bilaterally asymmetric behavior, thermochemical plumes with relatively large volumes of eclogitic material pulse in time from the DEP upwards, a prediction that may contribute to the large variations in crustal volume that have been documented along the Hawaii-Emperor chain. While thermochemical convection is recognized as being important in the lower mantle, this study reveals the relevance of thermochemical convection in the upper mantle, specifically for the overall dynamics of mantle plumes, the genesis of intraplate volcanism, and ocean-island geochemistry.

  9. Review of the current management of upper urinary tract injuries by the EAU Trauma Guidelines Panel.

    PubMed

    Serafetinides, Efraim; Kitrey, Noam D; Djakovic, Nenad; Kuehhas, Franklin E; Lumen, Nicolaas; Sharma, Davendra M; Summerton, Duncan J

    2015-05-01

    The most recent European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on urological trauma were published in 2014. To present a summary of the 2014 version of the EAU guidelines on upper urinary tract injuries with the emphasis upon diagnosis and treatment. The EAU trauma guidelines panel reviewed literature by a Medline search on upper urinary tract injuries; publication dates up to December 2013 were accepted. The focus was on newer publications and reviews, although older key references could be included. A full version of the guidelines is available in print and online. Blunt trauma is the main cause of renal injuries. The preferred diagnostic modality of renal trauma is computed tomography (CT) scan. Conservative management is the best approach in stable patients. Angiography and selective embolisation are the first-line treatments. Surgical exploration is primarily for the control of haemorrhage (which may necessitate nephrectomy) and renal salvage. Urinary extravasation is managed with endourologic or percutaneous techniques. Complications may require additional imaging or interventions. Follow-up is focused on renal function and blood pressure. Penetrating trauma is the main cause of noniatrogenic ureteral injuries. The diagnosis is often made by CT scanning or at laparotomy, and the mainstay of treatment is open repair. The type of repair depends upon the severity and location of the injury. Renal injuries are best managed conservatively or with minimally invasive techniques. Preservation of renal units is feasible in most cases. This review, performed by the EAU trauma guidelines panel, summarises the current management of upper urinary tract injuries. Patients with trauma benefit from being accurately diagnosed and treated appropriately, according to the nature and severity of their injury. Copyright © 2014 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sports Adaptations for Unilateral and Bilateral Upper-Limb Amputees: Archery/Badminton/Baseball/Softball/Bowling/Golf/Table Tennis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowart, Jim

    1979-01-01

    The booklet discusses sports adaptations for unilateral and bilateral upper limb amputees. Designs for adapted equipment are illustrated and information on adaptations are described for archery (including an archery release aid and a stationary bow holder); badminton (serving tray); baseball/softball (adaptations for catching, throwing, and…

  11. Right-sided dominance of the bilateral vestibular system in the upper brainstem and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Dieterich, Marianne; Kirsch, V; Brandt, T

    2017-03-18

    MRI diffusion tensor imaging tractography was performed on the bilateral vestibular brainstem pathways, which run from the vestibular nuclei via the paramedian and posterolateral thalamic subnuclei to the parieto-insular vestibular cortex. Twenty-one right-handed healthy subjects participated. Quantitative analysis revealed a rope-ladder-like system of vestibular pathways in the brainstem with crossings at pontine and mesencephalic levels. Three structural types of right-left fiber distributions could be delineated: (1) evenly distributed pathways at the lower pontine level from the vestibular nuclei to the pontine crossing, (2) a moderate, pontomesencephalic right-sided lateralization between the pontine and mesencephalic crossings, and (3) a further increase of the right-sided lateralization above the mesencephalic crossing leading to the thalamic vestibular subnuclei. The increasing lateralization along the brainstem was the result of an asymmetric number of pontine and mesencephalic crossing fibers which was higher for left-to-right crossings. The dominance of the right vestibular meso-diencephalic circuitry in right-handers corresponds to the right-hemispheric dominance of the vestibular cortical network. The structural asymmetry apparent in the upper brainstem might be interpreted in relation to the different functions of the vestibular system depending on their anatomical level: a symmetrical sensorimotor reflex control of eye, head, and body mediated by the lower brainstem; a lateralized right-sided upper brainstem-thalamic function as part of the dominant right-sided cortical/subcortical vestibular system that enables a global percept of body motion and orientation in space.

  12. Protective Temporary Vesicostomy for Upper Urinary Tract Problems in Children: A Five-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Rouzrokh, Mohsen; Mirshemirani, Alireza; Khaleghnejad-Tabari, Ahmad; Sadeghian, Naser; Mohajerzadeh, Leily; Mohkam, Maesomeh

    2013-01-01

    Objective Temporary vesicostomy is a urinary diversion procedure for patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) dilatation, secondary to bladder outlet obstruction or dysfunction. The aim of this study was to evaluate our experience in children undergoing such diversion, analyzing its efficacy to prevent urinary tract infection (UTI), improve or resolve hydronephrosis, stabilize or improve kidney function and restore the health of UUT. Methods In this retrospective study, patients who had vesicostomy by Blocksom technique due to bladder outlet obstruction or dysfunction were evaluated in Mofid Children’s Hospital (in Tehran) from March 2007 to March 2012. The reason for applying this procedure was failure in clinical treatment. Data regarding gender, age, diagnosis, time of any surgical intervention, associated anomalies, primary/secondary complications and mortality were collected using a questionnaire, and evaluated by giving a grade that ranged from 0 (worst) to 10 (best) based on Lickert’s scale. Findings From a total number of 53 patients, (88.7% male and 11.3% female) with a mean age of 225 days, 66% had posterior urethral valve and 16 (30%) neurogenic bladder. UTI was present in all cases, hydronephrosis in 52 (98.1%), and vesico-ureteral reflux only in 45 (84.9%) patients. Valve ablation was performed in 17 cases, and clean intermittent catheterization in14 patients which were unsuccessful. We performed vesicostomy in all patients. Mortality rate was 7.5%. Vesicostomy was closed in 35 patients. Cure rate was 85% in UTI, 82.7% in hydronephrosis, 80% in VUR, and 86.5% in kidney function. Conclusion Vesicostomy is a simple procedure that protects upper urinary tract, decreases hydronephrosis, and improves kidney function. The procedure is well tolerated and reversible, with less complication and should be considered in children in whom conservative and medical treatment has failed. PMID:24910742

  13. Bilateral Upper Extremity Hyperesthesia and Absence of Neck Tenderness in Four Adolescent Athletes With Cervical Spine Injuries.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Jay Douglas; Thorpe, Elizabeth Lewis

    2017-01-24

    Cervical spine injury in the pediatric athlete is an uncommon but potentially devastating condition that can require a heightened index of suspicion to correctly diagnose. Although some cervical spine injuries present overtly with paraplegia due to cord transection, others can present more subtly with symptoms suggestive of bilateral peripheral neuropathy. Patients with traumatic brachial neuropraxia or "stinger" physiology can present similarly, but symptoms are exclusively unilateral. We present 4 patients with bilateral upper extremity hyperesthesias and absence of tenderness over the cervical vertebral landmarks who were subsequently diagnosed with cervical spine injuries.

  14. Growth-related changes of skeletal and upper-airway features in bilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    PubMed

    Akarsu-Guven, Bengisu; Karakaya, Jale; Ozgur, Figen; Aksu, Muge

    2015-10-01

    The craniofacial morphology of subjects with cleft lip and palate differs from that of subjects without clefts. Subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate tend to have maxillary retrognathism, a smaller mandible with an obtuse gonial angle, greater anterior upper and lower facial heights, and retroclined maxillary incisors. The purposes of this research were to compare the skeletal and upper-airway features of subjects with bilateral cleft lip and palate with the same features in control subjects without clefts and to determine the growth-related changes at different growth stages. The sample comprised 212 subjects divided into 2 groups: 68 with bilateral cleft lip and palate, and 144 controls without clefts; each group was further divided into 4 subgroups according to growth stage using the cervical vertebral maturation stage method. The subgroups were defined as early childhood (stage 1), prepubertal (stage 2), pubertal (stage 3), and postpubertal (stage 4). The cephalometric variables were evaluated with 2-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni test. Maxillary position showed no significant differences between the male groups. The maxilla was more prognathic at stage 2 and became more retrognathic at stages 3 and 4 in the females. The mandible was more retrusive in the bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects at stage 1 in males and at stages 3 and 4 in females. ANB was larger at stages 1 and 2, and it became similar to the controls at stages 3 and 4 in male and female bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Vertical growth was seen in the bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects regardless of sex, and no change was observed with age. Posterior airway space was narrower in all stages (except for stage 1 in females). Middle airway space was wider after stage 1 in the male and female bilateral cleft lip and palate subjects. Inferior airway space was narrower in the male bilateral cleft lip and palate patients at the early childhood and pubertal stages. Age

  15. Double Layering and Bilateral Asymmetry of a Thermochemical Plume in the Upper Mantle beneath Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballmer, Maxim D.; Ito, Garett; Wolfe, Cecily J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    2013-04-01

    bilateral asymmetry in the contribution of mafic materials to partial melting, a prediction that is consistent with the geochemical distinction between the Loa and Kea trends among Hawaiian volcanoes. Therefore, a deep origin of characteristic Loa and Kea sources, as previously suggested, may not be required. Furthermore, any deep-rooted asymmetry in eclogite content of the plume is shown to be veiled by the complex dynamics of the DEP and the shallow plume. This study reveals that phase transitions exert important effects on thermochemical convection in the upper mantle that influence the overall dynamics of mantle plumes, the genesis of intraplate volcanism, and ocean-island geochemistry.

  16. Long-term results of retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Qing; Jiang, Feng-Ming; Chen, Qi-Hui; Hou, Yu-Chuan; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Hao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Long; Wang, Chun-Xi

    2013-01-01

    We compared long-term clinical outcomes of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) patients treated by retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy (RNU) or open radical nephroureterectomy (ONU). Upper urinary tract TCC patients were treated with RNU (n = 86) or ONU (n = 72) and followed-up for more than three years. Demographic and clinical data, including preoperative indexes, intraoperative indexes and long-term clinical outcomes, were retrospectively compared to determine long-term efficacy of the two procedures. The RNU and ONU groups were statistically similar in age, gender, previous bladder cancer history, tumour location, pathologic tumour stage, pathologic node metastasis or tumour pathologic grade. The original surgery time required for both RNU and ONU was statistically similar, but RNU was associated with a significantly smaller volume of intraoperative estimated blood loss and shorter length of postoperative hospital stay. Follow-up (average: 42.4 months, range: 3-57) revealed that the RNU 3-year recurrence-free survival rate was 62.8% and the 3-year cancer specific survival rate was 80.7%. In the ONU group, the 3-year recurrence-free survival and the three-year cancer-specific survival rates were 59.2% and 80.3%, respectively. Neither of the survival rates were statistically different between the two groups. T stage, grade, lymph node metastasis and bladder tumour history were risk factors for tumour recurrence; the operation mode and the bladder cuff incision mode had no correlation with the recurrence-free survival. The open surgery strategy and the retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy strategy are equally effective for treating upper urinary tract TCC. However, the RNU procedure is less invasive, and requires a shorter duration of postoperative hospitalized care; thus, RNU is recommended as the preferred strategy.

  17. Long-term results of retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Qing; Jiang, Feng-Ming; Chen, Qi-Hui; Hou, Yu-Chuan; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Hao, Yuan-Yuan; Zhang, Long; Wang, Chun-Xi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We compared long-term clinical outcomes of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) patients treated by retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy (RNU) or open radical nephroureterectomy (ONU). Methods: Upper urinary tract TCC patients were treated with RNU (n = 86) or ONU (n = 72) and followed-up for more than three years. Demographic and clinical data, including preoperative indexes, intraoperative indexes and long-term clinical outcomes, were retrospectively compared to determine long-term efficacy of the two procedures. Results: The RNU and ONU groups were statistically similar in age, gender, previous bladder cancer history, tumour location, pathologic tumour stage, pathologic node metastasis or tumour pathologic grade. The original surgery time required for both RNU and ONU was statistically similar, but RNU was associated with a significantly smaller volume of intraoperative estimated blood loss and shorter length of postoperative hospital stay. Follow-up (average: 42.4 months, range: 3–57) revealed that the RNU 3-year recurrence-free survival rate was 62.8% and the 3-year cancer specific survival rate was 80.7%. In the ONU group, the 3-year recurrence-free survival and the three-year cancer-specific survival rates were 59.2% and 80.3%, respectively. Neither of the survival rates were statistically different between the two groups. T stage, grade, lymph node metastasis and bladder tumour history were risk factors for tumour recurrence; the operation mode and the bladder cuff incision mode had no correlation with the recurrence-free survival. Conclusion: The open surgery strategy and the retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy strategy are equally effective for treating upper urinary tract TCC. However, the RNU procedure is less invasive, and requires a shorter duration of postoperative hospitalized care; thus, RNU is recommended as the preferred strategy. PMID:22630340

  18. New grading system for upper urinary tract dilation using magnetic resonance urography in patients with Neurogenic Bladder

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with neurogenic bladder (NB), elevated intravesical pressures can be transmitted to the upper urinary tract, causing hydronephrosis (HN) and ureteral dilation (UD), which are referred to as upper urinary tract dilation (UUTD). Ureteral obstruction at the bladder wall is another cause for UUTD, but is less of a concern. UUTD can lead to chronic renal failure. Therefore, evaluation and protection of UUT function is extremely important in the management for NB. Currently, the most common method by which to detect HN and UD is ultrasonography (US). The Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) established an US HN grading system in 1993, but this system was found to have some defects. The purpose of this study is to describe a new grading system for UUTD, including both HN and UD, based on magnetic resonance urography (MRU) and to correlate the new grading system with the SFU grading system for HN. Methods A retrospective review of 70 patients with unilateral or bilateral UUTD was completed. Ninety-five sides in patients with UUTD were graded by the MRU-UUTD and SFU-HN grading systems. The results from the two grading systems were compared for each UUTD. Results The MRU-UUTD grading system revealed the following percentages for each grade: grade 0, 0; 1, 10.5%; 2, 19%; 3, 42.1%; and 4, 28.4%. The SFU-HN grading system revealed the following percentages for each grade: 0, 0; 1, 10.5%; 2, 19%; 3, 36.8%; and 4, 33.7%. There was no significant systematic difference between the two grading systems (p > 0.05), but a significant difference between grades 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). Conclusions The MRU-UUTD grading system correlates well with SFU-HN grade, provides an objective and comprehensive evaluation for UUTD, and can be used for longitudinal monitoring of UUTD. This new grading system allows for better informed clinical decision-making, identifying changes in UUTD. PMID:24885460

  19. Urinary shedding of leptospires and presence of Leptospira antibodies in healthy dogs from Upper Bavaria.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, Julia-Rebecca; Krupka-Dyachenko, Inke; Rettinger, Anna Lena; Dyachenko, Viktor; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter Andreas; Straubinger, Reinhard Konrad; Hartmann, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is classified as a re-emerging zoonotic disease with global impor- tance. The aim of this study was to determine urinary shedding of leptospires in healthy dogs and to identify the shedded leptospire species. Furthermore, antibody presence against leptospires was evaluated. In a prospective study urine samples of 200 healthy dogs from Upper Bavaria were randomly collected and evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for the lipL32 gene of pathogenic Leptospira (L) spp. Positive samples were further character- ized via multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to identify the Leptospira species. Microagglutination test (MAT) was performed to determine serum antibody titers. Three of 200 urine samples were found to be PCR-positive resulting in a urinary shedding prevalence of 1.5% (95% confidence interval 0.3-4.5%). All three dogs had been vaccinated before with a bivalent vaccine, covering the serogroups Canicola and lcterohaemorrhagiae. One dog shed leptospires of the species L. borgpetersenii, and two of the species L. interrogans. Of all dogs, 17.0% had antibody titers ≥ 1:100, and 3.5% titers ≥ 1:400 to serovars of non-vaccinal sero- groups. Healthy dogs that shed leptospires represent a possible risk for humans and other animals. The study emphasizes the importance of general hygiene measures in veterinary practice while handling urine of all dogs, and the use of vaccines that protect against a broader range of serogroups and that prevent urinary shedding.

  20. Concurrent upper and lower urinary tract robotic surgery: strategies for success.

    PubMed

    Eun, Daniel; Bhandari, Akshay; Boris, Ronald; Rogers, Craig; Bhandari, Mahendra; Menon, Mani

    2007-11-01

    To assess the feasibility of combined upper and lower urinary tract robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RALS) during one operative session. We describe strategies for port placement and the use of the new da Vinci S surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), equipped with a fourth arm, for concurrent surgeries in a porcine model and in humans within one operative session. We studied various schemes of port placement, patient positioning and robotic arm manoeuvring while doing concurrent ipsilateral upper and lower urinary tract surgery on six pigs. The operative times and estimated blood loss were recorded prospectively. Qualitative data such as robotic arm ergonomics, advantages and disadvantages of various port placement strategies were noted. During the various surgical exercises, particular attention was given to the extent and the limits of instrument arm reach and mobility of the various port-placement schemes. These concepts for port placement and patient positioning were then further evaluated in a cadaver followed by demonstration of feasibility by performing a robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery (RAL) right nephroureterectomy in a patient. We describe a four-port 'baseball diamond' strategy to allow instrument access to the entire ipsilateral urinary tract in one operating session without repositioning the patient and re-docking the robot. Furthermore, if additional instrument length is required to reach the deep pelvis, we describe a novel 'pivoting triangle' manoeuvre that incorporates the fourth arm and allows dual-port cannulation and lens telescoping. Single session, concurrent multiple quadrant RALS is facilitated by using the da Vinci S surgical system with a 'baseball diamond' port-placement strategy.

  1. Intensive upper- and lower-extremity training for children with bilateral cerebral palsy: a quasi-randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Bleyenheuft, Yannick; Ebner-Karestinos, Daniela; Surana, Bhavini; Paradis, Julie; Sidiropoulos, Alexis; Renders, Anne; Friel, Kathleen M; Brandao, Marina; Rameckers, Eugene; Gordon, Andrew M

    2017-06-01

    An approach that simultaneously engages both the upper and lower extremities, hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy including lower extremity (HABIT-ILE), has recently demonstrated improvements in upper and lower extremities in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). It is not known whether children with bilateral CP would benefit from this approach. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of HABIT-ILE in children with bilateral CP. A quasi-randomized trial design was used, whereby 20 participants (age 6-15y, Gross Motor Function Classification System levels II-IV, Manual Ability Classification System levels I-III) were assigned to a treatment (HABIT-ILE) or a comparison group in the order in which they were enrolled. Children in the HABIT-ILE group were assessed before and after 84 hours of intervention over 13 days, as well as at 3 months' follow-up. Children in the comparison group were assessed at the same time points. Children in both groups were assessed using the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66) and ABILHAND-Kids (primary measures), and six secondary measures. A group×test session interaction indicated significant improvements in the HABIT-ILE group as assessed by the GMFM-66, lower-extremity performance (6-Minute Walk Test; Pediatric Balance Scale), functional upper-extremity abilities (ABILHAND-Kids/Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory), and the dexterity of the less affected upper extremity. HABIT-ILE is efficacious for improving both upper- and lower-extremity function in children with bilateral CP. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  2. The effect of bilateral trainings on upper extremities muscle activation on level of motor function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kyung Min; Jung, Jinhwa; Shim, Sunhwa

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was conducted in order to compare muscle activation level on the affected and unaffected limb according to the recovery level of upper limb between bilateral activity with hands clasped and bilateral activity with pilates ring. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty inpatient who have had a stroke were recruited. Subjects were divided into two groups by the Fugl-Meyer Assessment of Motor Function score of moderately recovered group and well recovered group. The muscles activation of upper extremity and Co-Contraction Ratio (CCR) were analyzed. [Results] In the muscles activation of the well group, trapezius, anterior deltoid, and triceps muscles of affected side and biceps muscles of both sides were significantly higher when activity with pilates ring than activity with hands clasped. CCR of both side in the well group was significantly decreased during activity with pilates ring and in the moderate group, CCR of affected side was significantly decreased during activity with pilates ring. [Conclusion] Bilateral activity with a pilates ring is more effective than activity with hands clasped for the facilitation of muscle activation and coordination in stroke patients. PMID:28174466

  3. Spectrum of stone composition: structural analysis of 1050 upper urinary tract calculi from northern India.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohd S; Gupta, Narmada P; Hemal, Ashok K; Dogra, Premnath N; Seth, Amlesh; Aron, Monish; Singh, Tej P

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to study the spectrum of stone composition of upper urinary tract calculi by X-ray diffraction crystallography technique, in patients managed at All India Institute of Medical Sciences. Between 30 April 1998 and 31 March 2003, a total of 1050 urinary calculi (900 renal, 150 ureteric) were analyzed. The stone fragments were collected after extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, or retrieval by endoscopic (percutaneous nephrolithotomy, ureterorenoscopy), laparoscopic and various open surgical procedures. The structural analysis of the stones was done using X-ray diffraction crystallography. Four types of primary and three secondary X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained. The primary patterns were as follows. Pattern A, well organized crystalline structure; pattern B, moderately organized crystalline structure; pattern C, poorly organized crystalline structure; pattern D, very poorly organized crystalline structure. The three secondary patterns mainly highlighted the mixed variety of stones. These patterns were further analyzed and compared with standard X-ray diffraction (powder) photographs. Of the 1050 stones analyzed, 977 (93.04%) were calcium oxalate stones, out of which 80% were calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and 20% were calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD). Fifteen were struvite (1.42%) and 19 were apatite (1.80%). Ten were uric acid stones (0.95%) and the remaining 29 (2.76%) were mixed stones (COM + COD and calcium oxalate + uric acid, calcium oxalate + calcium phosphate, and calcium phosphate + magnesium ammonium phosphate). A total of 89.98% of staghorn stones were made of oxalates (COM/+COD) and only 4.02% were struvite. Urinary stone disease in the Indian population is different from that in Western countries, with a larger percentage of patients having calcium oxalate stones, predominantly COM. Also, the majority of staghorn stones (89.98%) were made of oxalates.

  4. Sulfadiazine-Induced Obstructive Nephropathy Presenting with Upper Urinary Tract Extravasation

    PubMed Central

    Kabha, Maharan; Dekalo, Snir; Barnes, Sophie; Mintz, Ishay; Matzkin, Haim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Obstructive nephropathy is an uncommon side effect of sulfadiazine, which is used for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. We present a case of acute renal colic and urine extravasation of a patient shortly after she was started on this medication. Case Presentation: A 31-year-old female presented with acute renal colic 2 weeks after starting treatment with sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine for ocular toxoplasmosis. Results: A noncontrast computed tomography revealed left hydronephrosis and fluid located around the kidney and in the left gutter. There were no urinary stones. Administration of intravenous contrast revealed significant urine extravasation at the level of the ureteropelvic junction. Intravenous contrast injection confirmed that the extravasation consisted of urine leakage at the ureteropelvic junction. Her clinical condition improved with the insertion of an internal stent, which was left in place for 4 weeks. A retrograde pyelography performed at the time of the internal stent removal ruled out persistent extravasation and filling defects in the left upper urinary tract. Considering the clinical circumstances and the imaging results, it appears that this is a first reported case of sulfadiazine-induced obstructive uropathy associated with urine extravasation. Conclusion: Although rare, obstructive uropathy related to sulfadiazine medication should be promptly suspected, diagnosed, and treated. Patients should be instructed to substantially increase their liquid intake while on that medication. PMID:27704057

  5. [The impact of upper urinary tract stone diseases on the national economy].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Kishimoto, T; Iimori, H; Sugimoto, T; Ikeuchi, H; Tanaka, S; Senju, M; Maekawa, M

    1987-10-01

    The incidence of upper urinary tract stones is increasing, and it is most often seen in persons in the prime of their lives during their most productive years. It must be taken into account that surgical treatment takes them away from their jobs for long periods of time. We therefore should be careful in choosing a treatment modality for a patient. We evaluated extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), transurethral ureteroscopy (TUL) and open surgery from the viewpoint of national economy and patient amenity. ESWL offered the fewest hospital days and better amenity, though it was the most expensive. ESWL also offered the fewest days missed from work and this could minimize the loss of national economic productivity. We conclude that as a whole, ESWL is the least expensive therapy in terms of national economy compared with TUL and open surgery.

  6. Oncological outcome of retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Okegawa, Takatsugu; Odagane, Akihiro; Ide, Hisamitsu; Horie, Shigeo; Nutahara, Kikuo; Higashihara, Eiji

    2006-05-01

    To report the oncological outcome of retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy (RNU) with bladder cuff excision for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), and to compare the outcome with that of the traditional open nephroureterectomy (ONU). From January 2001, 48 patients with upper urinary tract TCC were enrolled in the study; 25 had RNU and 23 had ONU. Oncological parameters (disease-free survival and disease-specific survival) were calculated from the time of surgery to the date of last follow up and were analysed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Mean follow up was 24.3 months in the RNU group, significantly shorter than in the ONU group. Bladder recurrence was identified in two patients with grade 3 pathological stage pT3, one patient with grade 3 stage pT2 disease and two patients with grade 2 stage pT2 disease. Multiple organ metastases in the lung, liver and lymph nodes were associated with bladder recurrence in two cases (grade 2 stage pT3, and grade 3 stage pT3). The recurrence rate was 20% (5 of 25 cases) and mean time to recurrence was 9.5 months. In the ONU group, bladder recurrence and metastases developed in four and three patients, respectively. The recurrence rate was 17% (4 of 23 cases) and mean time to recurrence was 23.4 months. No significant difference was detected in the disease-free survival rate and cancer-specific survival rate between the two groups (P=0.759 and P=0.866, respectively). The oncological outcome of RNU appears to be equivalent to that of ONU. Moreover, long-term follow up is necessary to evaluate the oncological outcome in comparison to ONU.

  7. Flexible ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy for upper urinary tract stone disease in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tepeler, Abdulkadir; Sninsky, Brian C; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study is to present the outcomes of flexible ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy (URS) for upper urinary tract stone disease in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients performed by a single surgeon. A retrospective analysis was performed for SCI patients treated with flexible URS for proximal ureter and kidney stone disease by a single surgeon between 2003 and 2013. Patient characteristics, operative outcomes, metabolic evaluation, and stone analyses were assessed in detail. A total of 27 URS procedures were performed for urolithiasis in 21 renal units of 19 patients. The mean age was 52.1 ± 15.6 years (16-72) and mean BMI was 29.2 ± 7.3 kg/m(2) (20-45.7). Etiology of SCI was trauma (n: 10), multiple sclerosis (n: 6), cerebrovascular accident (n: 1), or undetermined (n: 2). The mean stone size was 15.9 ± 8.6 (6-40) mm. In the 27 URS procedures, stones were located in the ureter (n: 5), the kidney (n: 14), and both areas (n: 8). Mean hospitalization time was 2.0 ± 2.4 (0-10) days. Postoperative complications were observed in 6 cases (22.2%). Three major complications included urosepsis (n: 1) and respiratory failure (n: 2), that were observed postoperatively and required admission to the intensive care unit. The 2 minor complications were hypotension, fever and UTI, and required medical treatment. Fourteen (66.6%) of the 21 renal units were stone free. Calcium phosphate carbonate (n: 9) and struvite (n: 5) were the primary stone compositions detected. Hypocitraturia (n: 6), hypercalciuria (n: 5), hypernaturia (n: 5), hyperoxaluria (n: 4), and hyperuricosuria (n: 1) were common abnormalities in 24-h urine analysis. Ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy can be an effective treatment modality for SCI patients with upper urinary tract calculi.

  8. Urinary Excretion Contributes to Long-Lasting Blockade of Bladder Muscarinic Receptors by Imidafenacin: Effect of Bilateral Ureteral Ligation.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yoshihiko; Kuraoka, Shiori; Endo, Soma; Takahashi, Ayaka; Onoue, Satomi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2017-01-01

    Imidafenacin is a potent and selective antagonist of M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors that is safe, efficacious, and well tolerated for controlling the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the bladder-selective pharmacological effects of this agent remain unclear. The in vivo pharmacologic effects of imidafenacin result from receptor occupancy. Therefore, the present study was performed to characterize in vivo muscarinic receptor binding by tritium-labeled imidafenacin with high specific activity ([(3)H]imidafenacin) in the bladder and other tissues of mice, and to clarify the mechanisms underlying selective binding of imidafenacin to bladder muscarinic receptors. After intravenous injection of [(3)H]imidafenacin, its binding to muscarinic receptors in the bladder and other tissues of mice was assessed by a radioligand binding assay. [(3)H]Imidafenacin showed a significantly longer duration of binding to muscarinic receptors in the bladder than in other tissues, and muscarinic receptor binding of [(3)H]imidafenacin was markedly suppressed in the bladder alone after bilateral ligation of the ureters. After intravenous injection, the [(3)H]imidafenacin concentration was markedly higher in the urine than in the plasma, suggesting that urinary excretion may contribute significantly to the selective and long-lasting binding of imidafenacin to bladder muscarinic receptors. These findings suggest that the intravesicular concentration of an antimuscarinic agent and its active metabolites may have a substantial influence on its pharmacological effect and duration of action in patients with OAB. In addition, factors that modulate urine production may influence the efficacy and safety of antimuscarinic agents. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-02-28

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management.

  10. Multi-modality imaging review of congenital abnormalities of kidney and upper urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Subramaniyan; Kumar, Devendra; Khanna, Maneesh; Al Heidous, Mahmoud; Sheikh, Adnan; Virmani, Vivek; Palaniappan, Yegu

    2016-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) include a wide range of abnormalities ranging from asymptomatic ectopic kidneys to life threatening renal agenesis (bilateral). Many of them are detected in the antenatal or immediate postnatal with a significant proportion identified in the adult population with varying degree of severity. CAKUT can be classified on embryological basis in to abnormalities in the renal parenchymal development, aberrant embryonic migration and abnormalities of the collecting system. Renal parenchymal abnormalities include multi cystic dysplastic kidneys, renal hypoplasia, number (agenesis or supernumerary), shape and cystic renal diseases. Aberrant embryonic migration encompasses abnormal location and fusion anomalies. Collecting system abnormalities include duplex kidneys and Pelvi ureteric junction obstruction. Ultrasonography (US) is typically the first imaging performed as it is easily available, non-invasive and radiation free used both antenatally and postnatally. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are useful to confirm the ultrasound detected abnormality, detection of complex malformations, demonstration of collecting system and vascular anatomy and more importantly for early detection of complications like renal calculi, infection and malignancies. As CAKUT are one of the leading causes of end stage renal disease, it is important for the radiologists to be familiar with the varying imaging appearances of CAKUT on US, CT and MRI, thereby helping in prompt diagnosis and optimal management. PMID:26981222

  11. Crossover replantation as a salvage procedure following bilateral transhumeral upper limb amputation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, Ismail Bülent; Mersa, Berkan; Kabakaş, Fatih; Saçak, Bülent; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi

    2011-04-01

    Cross-over replantation is a salvage option for cases with bilateral extremity amputations where the wound conditions do not enable an orthotopic replantation. Here, we present a 24-year-old patient who applied to our center with bilateral transhumeral amputations. Due to the wound conditions, a cross-over replantation was performed. 24 months after the initial operation, the patient exhibits good protective sensation at the distal levels and function to some degree, whereas the active range of motion is not as promising as previously expected. In this article, we present this case together with its immediate and long-term outcomes and the consequences of the cross-over replantation.

  12. 14,000 Volt Electrical Injury to Bilateral Upper Extremities: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J.; Sinno, H.; Perkins, A.; Tahiri, Y.; Luc, M.

    2011-01-01

    Electrical burns are among the most devastating of burn injuries. High voltage electrical injuries result in extensive deep tissue damage and are associated with multiple complications, long term morbidity, and a high mortality rate. We describe the case of a 47 year-old electric company linesman who suffered a high voltage electrical injury (HVEI) of 14,000 volts to bilateral hands and wrists managed by the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the McGill University Health Center in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. His management included multiple operative procedures, including escharotomies, fasciotomies, serial debridements, and bilateral pedicle groin flaps, and amputation of his left hand. PMID:22399869

  13. 14,000 volt electrical injury to bilateral upper extremities: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Sinno, H; Perkins, A; Tahiri, Y; Luc, M

    2011-06-01

    Electrical burns are among the most devastating of burn injuries. High voltage electrical injuries result in extensive deep tissue damage and are associated with multiple complications, long term morbidity, and a high mortality rate. We describe the case of a 47 year-old electric company linesman who suffered a high voltage electrical injury (HVEI) of 14,000 volts to bilateral hands and wrists managed by the Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the McGill University Health Center in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. His management included multiple operative procedures, including escharotomies, fasciotomies, serial debridements, and bilateral pedicle groin flaps, and amputation of his left hand.

  14. Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma in the Genetically Predisposed Patient: Role of Urinary Markers in Predicting Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Tecle, Nahom; Whelan, Patrick; Strong, Andrea; Deane, Leslie A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is an uncommon disease that is diagnosed clinically by the selective use of urine cytology, urine biomarkers, and imaging of the upper tract. We present a case of a patient with Lynch syndrome and high-grade UTUC that was diagnosed by an abnormal Cxbladder assay, prompting further endoscopic examination. Case Presentation: A 59-year-old Caucasian female with a history of endometrial cancer and bladder cancer with Lynch syndrome presented for evaluation of recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Her previous bladder tumors have been T1 high grade and Ta high grade and have been treated with resection and multiple cycles of intravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) therapy. She had also undergone a robotic left distal ureterectomy and psoas hitch for a high-grade distal ureteral tumor. Surveillance cystoscopy 7 months after revealed a biopsy-confirmed bladder tumor, which was resected, and she was started on maintenance BCG therapy. At presentation, follow-up urine cytology and UroVysion studies were negative. Cxbladder test was also initially negative. However, during close clinical monitoring, the Cxbladder test became positive. Cystoscopy was once more performed, which was unremarkable. Bilateral ureteroscopy was performed, revealing high-grade upper tract renal papillary carcinoma (UTUC) in the left renal pelvis. The patient declined a nephroureterectomy. She was treated with two sessions of holmium laser ablation of the left renal pelvis tumor and underwent 6 weekly courses of BCG + interferon instilled into her left renal pelvis using a 5F open-ended catheter. Repeat urine cytology, UroVysion, and Cxbladder tests were negative after completion of upper tract BCG therapy. Conclusion: Cxbladder test may be useful and an adjunct to urine cytology and the UroVysion FISH assay to evaluate patients at high risk for recurrent UTUC. PMID:28078326

  15. Holmium:YAG laser ablation of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma with new Olympus digital flexible ureteroscope

    PubMed Central

    Abad, Pablo Garrido; del Peso, Almudena Coloma; Arjona, Manuel Fernández

    2013-01-01

    Upper urinary tract transitional (UUTT) cell carcinoma is a relatively uncommon urologic tumor. The traditional treatment approach for them is radical nephroureterectomy. However, in recent years, less-invasive treatments, including different nephron-sparing procedures, have become increasingly popular. We report a case of laser ablation of UUTT cell carcinoma using new Olympus digital flexible ureteroscope (URF-V). PMID:24049390

  16. Congenital anomalies of kidney and upper urinary tract in children with congenital hypothyroidism; a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Rafeie, Mohammad; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba; Safi, Fatemeh; Amiri, Mohammad; Ebrahimimonfared, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) may be significantly associated with congenital malformations. However, there is little evidence on the relationship between renal and urinary tract anomalies and CH. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the renal and upper urinary tract anomalies in children with and without primary CH (PCH). Patients and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 200 children aged 3 months to 1 year, referring to Amir-Kabir hospital, Arak, Iran. One hundred children with PCH, as the case group, and 100 children without CH, as the control group, were selected. For all children, ultrasonography and other diagnostic measures (if necessary) were performed to evaluate renal and upper urinary tract anomalies (ureter and bladder). Results: The frequency of renal and upper urinary tract anomalies among 43 children with primary CH, with 83 cases (72.8%), was significantly higher than the frequency of anomalies among the 19 children in the control group, with 31 cases (27.1%) (OR = 3; CI 95%: 1.6-5.4; P = 0.001). Among the anomalies studied, only the differences in frequency of uretero-pelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) (OR = 6; CI 95%: 1.3-28; P = 0.018) and hydronephrosis (OR = 22; CI 95%: 5-95; P = 0.001) was significant between the two groups. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that PCH is significantly associated with the frequency of congenital anomalies of the kidneys and upper urinary tracts. However, further studies are recommended to determine the necessity of conducting screening programs for anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract in children with CH at birth. PMID:26693499

  17. Urothelial Dysfunction and Increased Suburothelial Inflammation of Urinary Bladder Are Involved in Patients with Upper Urinary Tract Urolithiasis – Clinical and Immunohistochemistry Study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuan-Hong; Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the urothelial dysfunction and inflammation of urinary bladder in patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) urolithiasis through the results of cystoscopic hydrodistension and immunohistochemistry study. Methods Ninety-one patients with UUT urolithiasis underwent cystoscopic hydrodistension before the stone surgery. Immunofluorescence staining of E-cadherin, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), tryptase (mast cell activation), and TUNEL (urothelial apoptosis) were performed in 42 patients with glomerulations after hydrodistension, 10 without glomerulations, and 10 controls. Results Of the 91 patients, 62 (68.2%) developed glomerulations after hydrodistension. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were present in 53.8% patients, in whom significantly smaller maximal anesthetic bladder capacity (MBC) was noted. Patients with middle or lower 1/3 ureteral stones had a significantly higher glomerulation rate (88.6% vs. 55.4%, p<0.01) and lower MBC (618.4±167.6 vs. 701.2±158.4 ml, p = 0.027) than those with upper 1/3 ureteral or renal stones. Patients with UUT urolithiasis had significantly lower expression of E-cadherin (26.2±14.8 vs. 42.4±16.7) and ZO-1 (5.16±4.02 vs. 11.02±5.66); and higher suburothelial mast cell (13.3±6.8 vs. 1.3±1.2) and apoptotic cell (2.6±2.5 vs. 0.1±0.3) numbers than in controls (all p<0.01). Conclusions Urothelial dysfunction and increased suburothelial inflammation and apoptosis are highly prevalent in the bladders of UUT urolithiasis patients, indicating inflammation cross-talk between UUT and urinary bladder. Patients with UUT urolithiaisis concomitant with LUTS had a smaller MBC, which may explain the presence of irritative bladder symptoms. PMID:25329457

  18. Impact of surgical experience on stone-free rates of ureteroscopy for single urinary calculi of the upper urinary tract: a matched-paired analysis of 600 patients.

    PubMed

    Netsch, Christopher; Knipper, Anne-Sophie; Orywal, Ann Kathrin; Tiburtius, Christian; Gross, Andreas J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of surgical experience on ureteroscopic stone-free rates (SFR) and complication rates (CR) for the treatment of urinary calculi of the upper urinary tract. We evaluated retrospectively, patients (n=300) having undergone ureteroscopy (URS) for single urinary calculi treated by residents (n=12) at our department over a 6-year period. These patients were matched according to age, gender, body-mass index, and stone side/size/site with patients (n=300) treated by consultants (n=5) of our department during the same period. Patient data, primary SFR, and CR were compared. The mean±standard deviation (range) stone size was 6.39±3.26 (2-20) mm. The primary SFR after one URS procedure was 95.2% and did not differ between residents and consultants (95% vs 95.3%, p=0.489). The SFR were 95.9% and 98.5% for ureteral stones (p=0.125) and 93.2% and 89.3% for kidney stones (p=0.298) in the resident and consultant group, respectively. The SFR differed significantly between ureteral and kidney stones (97.2% vs 91.3%, p≤0.001). Perioperative complications occurred in a total of 63 patients (10.5%): Clavien 1: 3.8%, Clavien 2: 2%, Clavien 3a: 1.8%, and Clavien 3b: 2.8%, respectively. There were no differences in the total CR between residents (12%) and consultants (9%) (p=0.2116). However, the ureteral perforation rate was significantly higher in residents compared with consultants (4.3% vs 1.3%, p≤0.027). URS is a safe and efficacious procedure for the treatment of single urinary calculi. Resident status does not compromise the SFR after ureteroscopic treatment of single urinary calculi. However, the incidence of ureteral perforation was associated with surgeon's experience.

  19. DNA copy number aberrations associated with lymphovascular invasion in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Misumi, Taku; Yamamoto, Yoshiaki; Miyachika, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Satoshi; Chochi, Yasuyo; Nakao, Motonao; Nagao, Kazuhiro; Hara, Takahiko; Sakano, Shigeru; Furuya, Tomoko; Oga, Atsunori; Kawauchi, Shigeto; Sasaki, Kohsuke; Matsuyama, Hideyasu

    2012-06-01

    Recent studies have reported that lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is a predictor of patient prognosis in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC). DNA copy number aberrations (DCNAs) identified by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) had not previously been examined in UUTUC. We therefore examined DCNAs in UUTUC and compared them with DCNAs in LVI. We applied aCGH technology using DNA chips spotted with 4,030 BAC clones to 32 UUTUC patients. Frequent copy number gains were detected on chromosomal regions 8p23.1 and 20q13.12, whereas frequent copy number losses were detected on chromosomal regions 13q21.1, 17p13.1, 6q16.3, and 17p11.2. DCNAs occurred more frequently in tumors with LVI than in those without it (P = 0.0002), and this parameter was more closely associated with LVI than with the tumor grade or pT stage. Disease-specific survival rate was higher in tumors without LVI than in those with it (P = 0.0120); however, tumor grade and stage were not significant prognostic factors of patient outcome. These data support our hypothesis that tumors with LVI have more genetic alterations in terms of total numbers of DCNAs than those without, and provide proof that aggressive adjuvant therapy should be considered for UUTUC patients with LVI.

  20. Total retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephroureterectomy with bladder-cuff resection for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhenqiang; Li, Longkun; Wang, Xiangwei; Chen, Wei; Jia, Weisheng; He, Fan; Shen, Chongxing; Ye, Gang

    2014-12-01

    Open nephroureterectomy (ONU) and bladder cuff resection (ONU-BCR) has been the gold standard of surgical treatment for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC). The aim of this study is to introduce a modified total retroperitoneal laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) with bladder-cuff resection (LNU-BCR) method for treating UUT-TCC and compare its clinical efficacy with ONU-BCR. Sixty-five patients with UUT-TCC, who underwent ONU-BCR (n = 36) or LNU-BCR (n = 29) between January 2008 and June 2012, were analyzed in this retrospective study. Perioperative data as well as incidence of disease recurrence at the primary site or distant metastasis was compared in patients with at least 6 months follow-up. As compared with patients with ONU-BCR, the patients with LNU-BCR had significantly shorter operative time, lower estimated blood loss, shorter time to oral intake, lower analgesic dose, shorter duration of analgesic use, shorter duration of incision drainage tube, shorter time to ambulation out of bed and reduced postoperative hospital stay (all, p < .05). No significant difference in postoperative complications or incidence of bladder carcinoma recurrence and distant metastasis during the follow-up period was observed. The modified LNU-BCR represents an effective and safe alternative technique to ONU-BCR with the advantages of reduced invasiveness, bleeding and hospitalization.

  1. Matched-pair analysis of open versus laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Blackmur, James P; Stewart, Grant D; Egong, Eric A; Cutress, Mark L; Tolley, David A; Riddick, Anthony C P; McNeill, S Alan

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) offers a superior morbidity profile compared with open nephroureterectomy (ONU) in treating upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma. Evidence of oncological equivalence between LNU and ONU is limited. We compare operative and oncological outcomes for LNU and ONU using matched-pair analysis. Of 159 patients who underwent a nephroureterectomy at a single institution between April 1992 and April 2010, 13 pairs of ONU and LNU patients were matched for gender, age, tumour location, tumour grade and stage. Operative details, post-operative characteristics and recurrences were collated and survival rates analysed using the Kaplan-Meier method. There was no significant difference in mean operation time between LNU (191 min) and ONU (194 min, p=0.92). There was no significant difference in the 5-year survival rate between LNU and ONU (overall survival 59.1% vs. 73.5%, p=0.18; progression-free survival 24.0% vs. 56.0%, p=0.14; cancer-specific survival 60.9% vs. 73.5%, p=0.56; bladder cancer recurrence-free survival 8.7% vs. 0.0%, p=0.09). Amidst limited RCT and comparative studies, this study presents further evidence of oncological equivalence between LNU and ONU. There was a trend towards poorer outcomes following LNU though, which merits further study. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Excretion patterns of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with tumours of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Kvist, E; Sjølin, K E; Iversen, J

    1990-01-01

    In 39 patients with either pelvic or renal cell tumours, the pre-operative urinary excretion ratios of pseudouridine/creatinine (psi:C) and beta-aminoisobutyric acid/creatinine (BAIB:C) were estimated. In 34/39 of the patients (87%), including both types of tumours, psi: C was found to be increased, and in only one patient was the value decreased. Twenty-five of the patients (64%) had a BAIB:C ratio within the normal range. 10 (25%) had increased and 4 (11%) decreased values. In 13 patients the psi:C and BAIB:C ratios from the affected side were compared with the values in urine from the bladder. Twelve of the patients had higher values of psi:C in the urine from the ureter. In seven patients the ureteric BAIB:C ratio was higher than the bladder BAIB:C ratio and in five patients the ureteric BAIB:C ratio was less than the bladder BAIB:C ratio. In only one patient were the values similar. The results indicate that patients with tumours of the upper urinary tract have changed excretion patterns compared with normal subjects and the urinary ratios on the affected side are different from those on the healthy side. The biological tumour markers pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid may be helpful in the diagnosis of tumours in the upper urinary tract.

  3. [Analysis of development, safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy for management of upper urinary tract calculi in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Yu, L P; Xu, T

    2017-08-18

    To evaluate the development, safety and efficacy of percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PNL) for management of upper urinary tract calculi in pediatric patients. In the study, 77 pediatric patients undergoing 87 PNLs through mini or standard tract for upper urinary tract calculi between January 2005 and December 2016 in Peking University People's hospital were reviewed, including 69 renal calculi, 6 upper ureteral calculi, 12 renal and upper ureteral calculi, 35 single calculi, 43 multiple calculi and 9 staghorn calculi. The development and efficacy of PNL in pediatric patients were studied by analyzing the characteristics and clinical indexes, and by reviewing the associated literature. The Clavien classification system was used to evaluate the complications after PNL. A total of 87 PNLs were performed in 77 pediatric patients. Eighty-one upper urinary tract calculi were managed through a single tract(93.1%), 5 pediatric patients were managed through 2 tracts(5.7%), and 1 pediatric patient was managed through 3 tracts(1.2%). The mean operating time was (77.0±29.8) min. The stone-free rate after one session was 100% for single calculi and 71.2% for multiple or staghorn calculi, 5(5.8%) children underwent auxiliary procedure to remove the residual calculi and the final stone-free rate of PNL was 88.5%. One of the main complications of pediatric PNL was fever. Sixteen (18.4%) had moderate fever(38-39 °C), 5 (5.7%) had high fever (39-40 °C) and there were no severe complications of infection, such as sepsis or septic shock. The mean hemoglobin loss was (10.3±16.1) g/L and the serum creatinine rise was (7.0±13.3) μmol/L. One(1.2%) pediatric patient suffered ureteroscopic lithotripsy because of the obstruction by the residual stone in ureter. No injury of organs or retroperitoneal urinary extravasation occurred. General assessment of the complications showed Clavien grade I complications in 14 (16.1%) pediatric patients, grade II in 7(8.0%) children and grade III in 1

  4. Laparoscopic vs open radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial cancer: oncological outcomes and 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Greco, Francesco; Wagner, Sigrid; Hoda, Rashid M; Hamza, Amir; Fornara, Paolo

    2009-11-01

    To compare the oncological outcomes of laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (LNU) vs open NU (ONU) for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Between July 1999 and January 2003, we performed 70 LNUs and 70 ONUs for TCC of the upper urinary tract. ONU was reserved for patients with previous abdominal surgery or with severe cardiac and/or pulmonary problems. Demographic data, tumour staging and histological grading and rates of metastasis were recorded and compared. For LNU and ONU the mean operative durations were 240 min and 190 min, respectively. The definitive pathology showed a high incidence of tumour stage pT2 G2 in both LNU and ONU groups. The median follow-up was 60 months. In the LNU group, the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 75%: 100% for pTa, 88% for pT1, 78% for pT2, and 35% for pT3 (P < 0.001). In the ONU group, the 5-year DFS was 73% (LNU vs ONU, P = 0.037): 100% for pTa, 89% for pT1, 75% for pT2 and 31% for pT3 (P < 0.001). The results of our long-term controlled study support the use of LNU as an effective alternative to ONU in the therapy of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer.

  5. Horseshoe lung associated with left-lung hypoplasia, left pulmonary artery sling and bilateral agenesis of upper lobe bronchi.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Berna; Alan, Serdar; Ozcelik, Ugur; Haliloglu, Mithat

    2009-09-01

    Horseshoe lung, a rare congenital anomaly, is almost always associated with unilateral (usually right-sided) lung hypoplasia, and, in most cases, in conjunction with the scimitar syndrome. We present an 8-month-old boy with horseshoe lung associated with left-lung hypoplasia, left pulmonary artery sling and bilateral agenesis of the upper lobe bronchi, diagnosed by multidetector CT (MDCT) imaging. The study also revealed an anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery as the last branch of the aortic arch, distal to the left subclavian artery, and an anomalous origin of the left common carotid artery from the brachiocephalic trunk. A hemivertebral anomaly of the seventh cervical vertebra was incidentally detected. MDCT with high-quality multiplanar and three-dimensional reconstructions is a noninvasive and rapid technique for detecting the complex combination of vascular, tracheobronchial and parenchymal anomalies, and any potential bone anomalies, in one imaging study.

  6. Pediatric MRU--its potential and its role in the diagnostic work-up of upper urinary tract dilatation in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Riccabona, Michael

    2004-06-01

    Knowledge of the manifestation, physiology and the natural course of pediatric upper urinary tract dilatation has grown with the ongoing discussion on adequate imaging. Furthermore, MR-urography techniques (MRU) have matured and have become applicable to infants and children. Modern MRU offers not only increased spatial and temporal resolution, thus enabling an investigation throughout the entire childhood, but also provides (semi-)quantitative functional information on renal perfusion, excretion and drainage. Thus MRU is increasingly considered the ideal non-ionizing "one stop shop" for the assessment of significant upper urinary tract dilatation in children. The goal of this review is to briefly comment on MRU techniques as applicable in childhood, discuss MRU indications, and summarize their potential in children with upper urinary tract dilatation. Additionally, diagnostic imaging algorithms for typical clinical conditions and queries that try to define the role MRU in pediatric upper urinary tract dilatation are suggested and discussed.

  7. Multidetector computed tomography urography for diagnosing upper urinary tract urothelial tumour.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Nigel C; Turney, Ben W; Taylor, Nia J; McCarthy, Catherine L; Crew, Jeremy P

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate multidetector computed tomography urography (MDCTU) for diagnosing upper urinary tract (UUT) urothelial tumour by comparison with retrograde ureteropyelography (RUP). MDCTU and RUP were used in a selected series of adult patients presenting with haematuria. Entry criteria were based on findings on intravenous urography and were chosen to ensure a high prevalence of UUT urothelial tumour to allow a valid retrospective comparison of the diagnostic techniques. MDCTU and RUP studies were scored for the presence and absence of UUT urothelial tumour by two radiologists, retrospectively and independently, and while unaware of the demographic and clinical information. The reference standards were the histopathology and clinical follow-up. MDCTU and RUP were used in 106 patients over a 24-month period. RUP was attempted in 151 of 212 UUTs; the corresponding MDCTU for each UUT was reviewed. MDCTU was a true-positive (TP) for urothelial tumour in 31, true-negative (TN) in 111, false-positive (FP) in eight and false-negative (FN) in one UUT, giving a sensitivity of 0.97, a specificity of 0.93, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.79 and a negative PV (NPV) of 0.99. RUP was technically successful and diagnostic in 96% of the UUTs (143/151). For diagnosing urothelial tumour, RUP was TP in 26, TN in 112, FP in four and FN in one UUT, giving a sensitivity of 0.97, specificity of 0.93, a PPV of 0.79 and NPV of 0.99. This study validates quantitatively the use of MDCTU for diagnosing UUT urothelial tumour.

  8. Influence of positive surgical margin status after radical nephroureterectomy on upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma survival.

    PubMed

    Colin, Pierre; Ouzzane, Adil; Yates, David R; Audenet, François; François, Audenet; Pignot, Géraldine; Arvin-Berod, Alexis; Merigot de Treigny, Olivier; Laurent, Guy; Valeri, Antoine; Irani, Jacques; Jacques, Irani; Saint, Fabien; Gardic, Solène; Gres, Pascal; Rozet, François; Neuzillet, Yann; Ruffion, Alain; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2012-10-01

    The influence of a positive surgical margin (PSM) on survival outcome of post radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) is unclear. The objectives of this study were to determine the significance of PSM on cancer-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS), and metastasis-free survival (MFS) post RNU. From a multicenter collaborative database, data on SM status, stage, grade, lymph node status, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), tumor location, follow-up, and survival was retrieved for 472 patients. Patients underwent open RNU with bladder cuff excision. Clinicopathological features were compared using χ(2) or Fisher exact test and unpaired t test for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were calculated. Median follow-up was 27.5 months (12.1-49.3 months). PSM was identified in 44 patients (9.3%) and correlated with pT stage (p = 0.002), grade (p < 0.001), LVI (p < 0.001), and location (p < 0.001). Univariate analyses revealed that PSM was a poor prognostic factor for CSS, RFS, and MFS (p = 0.003, 0.04, and <0.001, respectively). The 5-yr CSS and MFS for PSM was 59.1 and 51.6%, respectively, compared with 83.3 and 79.3% for patients with negative SM. Multivariate analyses revealed that SM status was an independent predictor of MFS [hazard ratio 2.7; p = 0.001). PSM after RNU is an important prognostic factor for developing UUT-UC metastases. The status of the surgical margin should be systematically reported on the pathological report and may be a useful variable to include in nomogram risk prediction tools.

  9. Laser therapy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: indications and management.

    PubMed

    Bader, Markus J; Sroka, Ronald; Gratzke, Christian; Seitz, Michael; Weidlich, Patrick; Staehler, Michael; Becker, Armin; Stief, Christian G; Reich, Oliver

    2009-07-01

    Ureteroscopically guided laser techniques are commonly used in the treatment of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUTT); however, there is an ongoing debate with regard to indication and management. To review the indication, feasibility, and treatment outcome of laser application for definitive endoscopic treatment of UUTT, focusing on technical aspects of different laser devices and their impact on tissue. PubMed and Medline were searched for reports on laser therapy in UUTT from 1980 to 2008, with particular focus on the technical background of various laser systems. For decades, nephroureterectomy has been considered the gold standard for treating UUTT. With the intent to preserve functioning renal parenchyma, minimally invasive approaches, initially advocated for patients requiring a nephron-sparing approach (ie, single functioning kidney, renal insufficiency or significant comorbidities), have gained widespread acceptance due to advances in ureteroscopy, percutaneous renal surgery, and laparoscopy. Ureteroscopically guided laser ablation has been used successfully, resulting in recurrence rates ranging from 31% to 65% and disease-free rates of 35% to 86%, depending on stage and grade at diagnosis. To obtain the highest treatment success, the initial staging and grading of the tumour is crucial. Because low-grade tumours rarely if ever progress in stage or grade, the success rate of ureteroscopic therapy parallels that of endoscopic resection of identical bladder tumours. In the treatment of higher grade, advanced tumours, ureteroscopic therapy is less likely to be curative, and thus, endoscopic manoeuvres can only be palliative. Due to the relatively low prevalence of this tumour and the lack of comparable randomised, multicentre trials, the indications for an endoscopic laser treatment option has to be defined based on the patient's individual situation.

  10. [Technique of thulium laser in managing bladder cuff in nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelium carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Pang, Kun; Sun, Xiao-Wen; Liu, Shi-Bo; Li, Wei-Guo; Shao, Yi; Zhuo, Jian; Wei, Hai-Bin; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2012-11-13

    To explore the application of thulium laser (2 µm laser) in managing bladder cuff in nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelium carcinoma (UUT-UC). The medical records of 56 patients undergoing nephroureterectomy at our hospital were reviewed retrospectively. The operative indicators, oncologic outcomes and clinicopathologic data were compared among the groups of open surgery (Group A), electric coagulation (Group B) and thulium laser technique (Group C). Furthermore a model of burst pressure measurement was built to measure the different burst pressures of sealing distal ureter. The follow-up results: when the indicators of operative duration, intraoperative blood loss volume, removal time of drainage tube, removal time of catheter and hospital stays were compared among three groups, Group A had no statistical differences with Group B/C in terms of removal time of drainage tube and removal time of catheter. But significant statistical differences existed in terms of operative duration, intraoperative blood loss volume and hospital stays ((232 ± 52) vs (148 ± 47) and (130 ± 49) min, (358 ± 81) vs (136 ± 74) and (145 ± 70) ml, (13 ± 3) vs (11 ± 4) and (10 ± 3) d, all P < 0.05). No statistical differences existed between Groups B and C in terms of all the above indicators. Burst pressure measurement results: no statistical differences existed between Group C and B ((116 ± 21) vs (139 ± 32) cm H2O, P > 0.05). For the surgical treatment of UUT-UC, thulium laser technique has no difference in operation indicators and oncologic outcomes compared to open surgery. Besides, it has the advantages of improved spatial beam quality and more precise tissue incision.

  11. [Oncological outcomes of laparoscopic and open treatment (nephroureterectomy) for urothelial tumors of the upper urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Lotrecchiano, Giuseppe; Delle Cave, Aldo; Tripodi, Vincenzo; De Fortuna, Enrico; Quaranta, Antonio; Attanasi, Franco; Salzano, Luigi

    2012-12-30

    Currently, the treatment of choice in urothelial tumors of the upper urinary tract is nephroureterectomy (NU) as an Open procedure (ONU), though the laparoscopic treatment is now routinely performed as a minimally invasive therapy (LNU). LNU has demonstrated oncologic safety at least equivalent to open, but some issues dealing with cancer still remain. We retrospectively analyzed data from 36 LNU performed between 2006 and 2010, compared with data of 32 ONU performed in 2002-2005 (pre-laparoscopy era). The mean follow-up was 23 months in patients undergoing LNU and 42 months for those treated with ONU. In particular, we evaluated cancer recurrence, the site of recurrence and survival rates. We had local recurrence in 3 patients (8.3%) after LNU and 2 after ONU (6.25%). 2 patients who underwent LNU (5.5%) died of metastatic disease at 9 and 12 months; 3 patients who underwent ONU (9.3%) died of metastasis at 12, 16 and 23 months, respectively. Bladder recurrence was observed in 3 patients after ONU and in 4 after LNU. The most frequent sites of cancer recurrence were: local recurrence (3 LUN, 2 ONU), 1 laparoscopic port recurrence, 3 regional lymph node recurrences (2 LNU, 1ONU), bladder recurrences (3 LNU, 4 ONU). There were no significant differences in disease recurrence and even survival rates at 1 and 3 years were not very different between the two techniques. The grade and stage of cancer affecting the incidence of metastatic disease, as well as the localization of early disease (pelvis-ureter-both) is a negative prognostic factor, rather than the surgical technique used. Therefore, there is no evidence that the control is compromised in cancer patients treated with LNU rather than with ONU.

  12. Validity and reliability of a novel device for bilateral upper extremity functional measurements.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chueh-Ho; Chou, Li-Wei; Wei, Shun-Hwa; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Sung, Wen-Hsu

    2014-05-01

    This study was designed to establish the validity and reliability of a new device that measures bilateral shoulder and elbow range of motion (ROM) and grip force performance in vivo. A further aim was to investigate the control of inter-limb grip force coordination during isometric force-maintenance tasks. Validity of the ROM and grip force measurements was examined using a validated clinical goniometer and standard weights. Twenty-one healthy adults (six female, 15 male; mean±standard deviation age=23.05±3.51) were recruited for this study. All subjects were asked to perform tests to evaluate the validity and reliability of ROM, grip force maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and coordination control measurements. The ROM and grip force measurements were linearly correlated with criterion standards. For reliability testing, all of the intraclass correlation coefficient values were >0.99. The inter-limb grip force coordination control task showed that the force modulation timing during dominant-to-non-dominant hand transition was longer than the non-dominant-to-dominant hand transition (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that this device is valid and reliable when used to measure shoulder and elbow ROM and grip force of both hands. Isometric force-maintenance tasks also indicated changes in inter-limb grip force control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bilateral differences in the upper quarter function of high school aged baseball and softball players.

    PubMed

    Butler, Robert J; Myers, Heather S; Black, Douglass; Kiesel, Kyle B; Plisky, Phillip J; Moorman, Claude T; Queen, Robin M

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Quarter Y Balance Test (YBT-UQ) was developed as a way to identify upper extremity and trunk mobility in the open kinetic chain in the reaching limb as well as midrange limitations and asymmetries of upper extremity and core stability in the closed kinetic chain on the stabilizing limb. Performance on the YBT-UQ is similar between genders and between limbs; however, this has not been examined in athletes who participate in sports that result in upper extremity asymmetries. The primary purpose of this study is to determine if differences exist between the throwing vs. non-throwing sides in high-school baseball and softball athletes on the YBT-UQ. In order to complete this forty-eight male high school baseball players and seventeen female high school softball players were tested on the YBT-UQ. Reach distances were normalized to arm length (% AL). Comparisons were made between the throwing (T) and non-throwing (NT) arm for each direction as well as the composite score. No significant differences were observed between the T and NT arm for the medial (NT: 98.4 ± 8.6 %AL, T: 99.1 ± 8.6 %AL, p=0.42), inferolateral (NT: 90.8 ± 11.8 %AL, T: 90.3 ± 11.5 %AL, p =0.61), superolateral (NT: 70.6 ± 10.9 %AL, T: 70.4 ± 11.1 % AL, p=0.91) reaches, or the composite score (NT: 87.2 ± 8.9 % AL, T: 86.6 ± 8.1 %AL, p=0.72). Similarly, no differences were observed between the male baseball and female softball players (p=0.30-0.90). Based on these findings, it was concluded that there was no difference in performance on the YBT-UQ between throwing and non-throwing limbs in high school baseball and softball players. 3.

  14. An unusual presentation of Guillain-Barré syndrome in a young man with bilateral upper extremity weakness.

    PubMed

    McNicholas, N; O'Dowd, S; McNamara, B; O'Toole, O

    2015-09-08

    A 30-year-old man attended the emergency department with a 4-day history of progressive, bilateral upper limb weakness. He had mild shortness of breath and occasional swallowing difficulties. One month prior to presentation, he had flu-like symptoms and diarrhoea. Examination revealed upper limb hypotonia, symmetrical distal arm weakness and hyporeflexia. Power and reflexes in the lower limbs were normal. Nerve conduction studies and lumbar puncture demonstrated features consistent with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The patient was treated with a 5-day course of intravenous immunoglobulins. He improved significantly over the next 2 weeks. Breathing and swallow function did not deteriorate and required no further intervention. He had a sustained improvement, and remained at baseline 1 year later. Work-up for underlying structural, infectious, inflammatory and paraneoplastic aetiologies were negative. Serum antiganglioside antibodies were positive for the anti-GT1a IgG isotype supporting the clinical diagnosis of the pharyngeal-cervical-brachial variant of GBS.

  15. The role of urinary cytology when diagnostic workup is suspicious for upper tract urothelial carcinoma but tumour biopsy is nonconfirmatory.

    PubMed

    Horovitz, David; Meng, Yifan; Joseph, Jean V; Feng, Changyong; Wu, Guan; Rashid, Hani; Messing, Edward M

    2017-07-01

    We sought to determine the value of obtaining preoperative urinary cytology when diagnostic workup of an upper tract mass is suspicious for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), but biopsy fails to confirm the diagnosis. Using billing code data, 239 patients were identified as having undergone radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) by 16 urologists from September 29, 1998 to July 31, 2015. Of this group, 19 adult patients had a presumed preoperative diagnosis of UTUC in a native kidney, at least three months of followup, no history of concurrent radical cystectomy with RNU, and negative/non-diagnostic tissue biopsy. These patients were divided into three groups: Group A had no urinary cytology taken (n=6); Group B had upper and/or lower tract cytology performed with neither positive nor atypical (n=7); Group C had upper and/or lower tract cytology performed with at least one positive or atypical (n=6). Demographic information and diagnostic workup was similar between the groups, although Group A had more patients with a history of prior radical cystectomy for bladder cancer (p=0.02). One patient in Group B had benign tissue on final pathology. All patients in Groups A and C had malignancy on final pathology and overall, the three groups had similar rates of malignancy. When a composite of clinical findings suggest UTUC, performing urinary cytology may not be necessary. A negative result in this setting should not be used to rule out UTUC, as this is often discordant with final pathology. A positive cytology result may help solidify the diagnosis when other findings are less clear.

  16. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinoma: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Drudi, F M; Di Candio, G; Di Leo, N; Malpassini, F; Gnecchi, M; Cantisani, V; Iori, F; Liberatore, M

    2013-02-01

    The main objective was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract malignancies by comparing with multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) and magnetic resonance urography (MRU). Secondary objectives were to compare the tumor size measured with CEUS, MDCTU and MRU and to assess the usefulness of CEUS in distinguishing high-grade tumors from low-grade ones. In connection with this prospective study carried out from January 2009 to September 2011, 18 patients underwent MDCTU or MRU, grayscale ultrasonography (US), color Doppler ultrasonography and CEUS followed by surgery and histological examination of the specimen. Quantitative analysis was performed using perfusion software. Time intensity curves were extracted and the following parameters were considered: wash-in time, time-to-peak, maximum signal intensity and wash-out time. Grayscale US identified 15/18 lesions; color Doppler showed no flow signal in 8 lesions, low color signal in 9 lesions and an intense color signal in 1 lesion; CEUS identified 17/18 lesions with the undetected lesion being the smallest one (1.2 cm) located in the upper pelvicalyceal system. Semi-quantitative analysis produced different data for high-grade and low-grade urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC). All detected upper urinary tract masses were UCCs. MRU, MDCTU and grayscale US overestimated the tumor size, while CEUS was the most accurate. CEUS is useful for evaluating upper urinary tract masses as this method permits differentiation between high-grade and low-grade tumors as well as distinction of the tumor from the adjacent structures and accurate mass measurements. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. How botulinum toxin in neurogenic detrusor overactivity can reduce upper urinary tract damage?

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Maximilien; Grise, Philippe; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin are the cornerstone of medical treatment of neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The primary aim of this treatment is to ensure a low pressure regimen in the urinary bladder, but the mechanisms leading to long-term protection of the urinary tract remain poorly understood. In this paper, we highlight the potential benefits of intradetrusor injections of botulinum toxin regarding local effects on the bladder structures, urinary tract infections, stone disease, vesico ureteral reflux, hydronephrosis, renal function based on a comprehensive literature review. PMID:26981445

  18. Surgical management for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC): a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rai, Bhavan Prasad; Shelley, Mike; Coles, Bernadette; Somani, Bhaskar; Nabi, Ghulam

    2012-11-01

    Surgical management of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC) has significantly changed over the past two decades. Data for several new surgical techniques, including nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), is emerging. The study systematically reviewed the literature comparing (randomised and observational studies) surgical and oncological outcomes for various surgical techniques MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, AMED, LILACS, Web of Science, Scopus, Biosis, TRIP, Biomed Central, Dissertation Abstracts, ISI proceedings, and PubMed were searched to identify suitable studies. Data were extracted from each identified paper independently by two reviewers (B.R. and B.S.) and cross checked by a senior member of the team. The data analysis was performed using the Cochrane software Review manager version 5. Comparable data from each study was combined in a meta-analysis where possible. For dichotomous data, odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated based on the fixed-effects model and according to an intention-to-treat analysis. If the data available were deemed not suitable for a meta-analysis it was described in a narrative fashion. One randomised control trial (RCT) and 19 observational studies comparing open nephroureterectomy (ONU) and laparoscopic NU (LNU) were identified. The RCT reported the LNU group to have statistically significantly less blood loss (104 vs 430 mL, P < 0.001) and mean time to discharge (2.30 vs 3.65 days, P < 0.001) than the ONU group. At a median follow-up of 44 months, the overall 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS; 89.9 vs 79.8%) and 5-year metastasis-free survival rates (77.4 vs 72.5%) for the ONU were better than for LNU, respectively, although not statistically significant. A meta-analysis of the observational studies favoured LNU group for lower urinary recurrence (P < 0.001) and distant metastasis. The meta-analyses for local recurrence for the two groups were comparable

  19. J-tube technique for double-j stent insertion during laparoscopic upper urinary tract surgical procedures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Suk; Lee, Byung Ki; Jung, Jin-Woo; Lee, Jung Keun; Byun, Seok-Soo; Lee, Sang Eun; Jeong, Chang Wook

    2014-11-01

    Double-J stent insertion has been generally performed during laparoscopic upper urinary tract (UUT) surgical procedures to prevent transient urinary tract obstruction and postoperative flank pain from ureteral edema and blood clots. Several restrictive conditions that make this procedure difficult and time consuming, however, include the coiled distal ends of the flexible Double-J stent and the limited bending angle of the laparoscopic instruments. To overcome these limitations, we devised a Double-J stent insertion method using the new J-tube technique. Between July 2011 and May 2013, Double-J stents were inserted using the J-tube technique in 33 patients who underwent a laparoscopic UUT surgical procedure by a single surgeon. The mean stent placement time was 4.8±2.7 minutes, and there were no intraoperative complications. In conclusion, the J-tube technique is a safe and time-saving method for Double-J stent insertion during laparoscopic surgical procedures.

  20. Novel mechanisms of early upper and lower urinary tract patterning regulated by RetY1015 docking tyrosine in mice.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Masato; Batourina, Ekatherina; Mendelsohn, Cathy; Jain, Sanjay

    2012-07-01

    Mutations in the receptor tyrosine kinase RET are associated with congenital anomalies of kidneys or urinary tract (CAKUT). RET tyrosine Y1015 is the docking site for PLCγ, a major regulator of RET signaling. Abrogating signaling via Y1015 causes CAKUT that are markedly different than renal agenesis in Ret-null or RetY1062F mutant mice. We performed analysis of Y1015F mutant upper and lower urinary tracts in mice to delineate its molecular and developmental roles during early urinary tract formation. We found that the degeneration of the common nephric ducts (CND), the caudal-most Wolffian duct (WD) segment, depends on Y1015 signals. The CNDs in Y1015F mutants persist owing to increased proliferation and reduced apoptosis, and showed abundance of phospho-ERK-positive cells. In the upper urinary tract, the Y1015 signals are required for proper patterning of the mesonephros and metanephros. Timely regression of mesonephric mesenchyme and proper demarcation of mesonephric and metanephric mesenchyme from the WD depends on RetY1015 signaling. We show that the mechanism of de novo ectopic budding is via increased ERK activity due to abnormal mesenchymal GDNF expression. Although reduction in GDNF dosage improved CAKUT it did not affect delayed mesenchyme regression. Experiments using whole-mount immunofluorescence confocal microscopy and explants cultures of early embryos with ERK-specific inhibitors suggest an imbalance between increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis and increased ERK activity as a mechanism for WD defects in RetY1015F mice. Our work demonstrates novel inhibitory roles of RetY1015 and provides a possible mechanistic explanation for some of the confounding broad range phenotypes in individuals with CAKUT.

  1. Comparison of laparoscopic stone surgery and percutaneous nephrolithotomy in the management of large upper urinary stones: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chenming; Yang, Huan; Tang, Kun; Xia, Ding; Xu, Hua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Zhangqun

    2016-11-01

    For the treatment of large upper urinary stones percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is generally considered the first choice, and Laparoscopic Stone Surgery (LSS) is an alternative. We aim to compare the efficiency and safety of PCNL with LSS, as far as the management of large upper urinary stones is concerned. A systematic search from Pubmed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library and Elsevier was performed up to August 1, 2015 for the relevant published studies. After data extraction and quality assessment, meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.3 software. 15 eligible trials evaluating LSS vs. PCNL were identified including 6 prospective and 9 retrospective studies with 473 patients undergoing LSS and 523 patients undergoing PCNL. Although LSS led to longer operative time (p = 0.01) and higher open conversion rate (p = 0.02), patients might benefit from significantly fewer overall complications (p = 0.03), especially lower bleeding rate (p = 0.02), smaller drop in hemoglobin level (p < 0.001), less need of blood transfusion (p = 0.01). The stone free rate was also higher for LSS compared with PCNL (p < 0.001) with less secondary/complementary procedure (p = 0.006). There was no significant difference in other demographic parameters between the two groups. Our data suggests that LSS turns out to be a safe and feasible alternative to PCNL for large upper urinary stones with less bleeding and higher stone free rate. Because of the inherent limitations of the included studies, further large sample prospective, multi-centric studies and randomized control trials should be undertaken to confirm our findings.

  2. Oncologic control after open or laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Rouprêt, Morgan; Hupertan, Vincent; Sanderson, Kristin M; Harmon, Justin D; Cathelineau, Xavier; Barret, Eric; Vallancien, Guy; Rozet, François

    2007-04-01

    To determine the surgical and oncologic outcomes in patients who underwent either open nephroureterectomy (ONU) or laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma. We performed a retrospective review of data for patients who underwent ONU or LNU for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma from 1994 to 2004 at one institution. The recorded data included sex, age, mode of diagnosis, smoking, history of bladder cancer, type of surgery, complications, tumor site, tumor size, tumor stage, tumor grade, length of hospital stay, recurrence, and progression. We also determined the recurrence and survival rates. We reviewed the data for 46 patients. The median age was 70 years. Seven patients had a history of bladder cancer. Overall, 26 patients underwent ONU and 20 LNU. No differences in the complication rate (15% versus 15%) were observed. The median hospital stay was 4 days (range 3 to 6) after LNU and 9 (range 7 to 12) after ONU (P <0.001). The tumor stage and grade were independent prognostic factors for survival on multivariate analysis (P <0.05). The 5-year disease-specific survival rate was 89.4% for low-grade tumors and 63.1% for high-grade tumors (P = 0.04). ONU was associated with high-grade (P = 0.02) or invasive (P = 0.001) tumors. The 5-year tumor-free survival rate after ONU and LNU was 51.2% and 71.6%, respectively (P = 0.59). LNU does not affect the mid-term oncologic control and enables a shorter hospital stay. It can be recommended as an alternative to ONU in the management of low-risk upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (Stage T1-T2 and/or low-grade disease). However, long-term follow-up is necessary to recommend it for highly invasive tumors (Stage T3-T4 or N+).

  3. Value of Preoperative Superselective Embolization of the Isthmus in a Patient with Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma and Horseshoe Kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, Skadi; Janitzky, Andreas; Porsch, Markus; Liehr, Uwe-Bernd; Dudeck, Oliver

    2011-02-15

    Standard treatment for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC) implies the radical removal of all urothelium-lined tissue, which requires nephroureterectomy with bladder cuff removal. We report on a patient with a rare coincidence of UUTUC and horseshoe kidney in whom a preoperative angiography helped to identify and subsequently embolize an abberant isthmic feeding artery, which was located in between both collecting systems. Ischemic discoloration of the isthmus area facilitated resection and no major blood loss occurred. Preoperative superselective embolization of the isthmus as the renal split area can be an effective tool to facilitate nephroureterectomy in the case of a horseshoe kidney.

  4. Kinematic data analysis for post-stroke patients following bilateral versus unilateral rehabilitation with an upper limb wearable robotic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Fedulow, Irina; Simkins, Matt; Abrams, Gary M; Byl, Nancy; Rosen, Jacob

    2013-03-01

    Robot-assisted stroke rehabilitation has become popular as one approach to helping patients recover function post-stroke. Robotic rehabilitation requires four important elements to match the robot to the patient: realistic biomechanical robotic elements, an assistive control scheme enabled through the human-robot interface, a task oriented rehabilitation program based on the principles of plasticity, and objective assessment tools to monitor change. This paper reports on a randomized clinical trial utilizing a complete robot-assisted rehabilitation system for the recovery of upper limb function in patients post-stroke. In this study, a seven degree-of-freedom (DOF) upper limb exoskeleton robot (UL-EXO7) is applied in a rehabilitation clinical trial for patients stable post-stroke (greater than six months). Patients had a Fugl-Meyer Score between 16-39, were mentally alert (> 19 on the VA Mini Mental Status Exam) and were between 27 and 70 years of age. Patients were randomly assigned to three groups: bilateral robotic training, unilateral robotic training, and usual care. This study is concerned with the changes in kinematics in the two robotic groups. Both patient groups played eight therapeutic video games over 12 sessions (90 min, two times a week). In each session, patients intensively played the different combination of video games that directly interacted with UL-EXO7 under the supervision of research assistant. At each session, all of the joint angle data was recorded for the evaluation of therapeutic effects. A new assessment metric is reported along with conventional metrics. The experimental result shows that both groups of patients showed consistent improvement with respect to the proposed and conventional metrics.

  5. Is ciprofloxacin safe in patients with solitary kidney and upper urinary tract infection?

    PubMed

    Gluhovschi, Gheorghe; Gadalean, Florica; Gluhovschi, Cristina; Velciov, Silvia; Petrica, Ligia; Bob, Flaviu; Bozdog, Gheorghe; Kaycsa, Adriana

    2016-12-01

    The solitary kidney (SK) undergoes adaptive phenomena of hyperfunction and hyperfiltration. These secondary adaptive phenomena can make it more vulnerable to potentially nephrotoxic therapies. Adverse reactions of the kidneys to ciprofloxacin are rare, but sometimes severe. Therefore, our study sought to assess the reactions to ciprofloxacin of patients with solitary kidney (SK) and urinary tract infection (UTI) by means of urinary biomarkers. We studied 19 patients with SK and urinary tract infection (UTI) who had been administered a 7-day treatment with intravenous ciprofloxacin. Urinary N-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase, alpha 1-microglobulin, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of these patients were measured at the initiation and at the end of treatment. In 47.37% patients NAG diminished under ciprofloxacin treatment. This observation has the significance of favourable evolution of the tubulointerstitial lesions caused by UTI and lack of nephrotoxic effects; 52.63% cases presented an increase of urinary NAG, a fact that suggests a nephrotoxic effect of ciprofloxacin. The evolution of urinary alpha 1-microglobulin was similar to that one of urinary NAG. Only one of three cases with chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 5 presented acute kidney injury, associated with increase in the tubular markers. In spite of the high variability of the urinary biomarkers, UTI evolved favourably in these cases; eGFR increased in 16 out of 19 patients, a fact which is indicative of a good outcome of renal function, even in patients with elevated levels of the tubular damage biomarkers. This observation supports the hypothesis that eGFR may be dissociated from the biomarkers which assess tubular injury. In SK patients the occurrence of AKI is not frequent, although the urinary biomarkers rise in some patients treated with ciprofloxacin. This is related not only to the nephrotoxic effect of the drug, but probably to the association of other factors (allergy, individual

  6. [Flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser lithotripsy for upper urinary tract stones in neurologic patients with severe motor disability].

    PubMed

    Madec, F-X; Suply, E; Luyckx, F; Nedelec, M; Chowaniec, Y; Branchereau, J; Le Normand, L; Glemain, P

    2017-05-01

    The study's objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and morbidity of flexible ureterorenoscopy and laser lithotripsy for upper urinary tract stones in patients with a nervous system pathology including severe motor disability. Between 2006 and 2013, we retrospectively analyzed 83 flexible ureterorenoscopy to treat 63 kidneys in 42 patients. Stone free (SF) kidneys defined as an absence of stones on computerized tomography, renal ultrasound, X-ray or direct ureterorenoscopy, were considered a surgical success. Complications were classified according to the Clavien-Dindo system. Success rates were 49.2 %, 57.1 % and 58.7 %, respectively after first, second and third flexible ureterorenoscopy procedure. Clearance after one procedure was achieved in 64.3 % of cases involving less than 20mm stones. No major complication (Clavien-Dindo>2) was described (0 %). Complication rates were 44.7 %, with 31.6 % Clavien-Dindo 2. The main complication was urosepsis, which occurred in 27.6 % of cases. Flexible ureteroscopy and laser lithotripsies for upper urinary tract stones in neurologic patients with severe motor disability are associated with a lower success rate and some frequent low grade complications compared to overall population. In clinical practice, the indications of flexible ureterorenoscopy for these patients seem restricted. 5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk factors for septic shock in acute obstructive pyelonephritis requiring emergency drainage of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Jun; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Nakagawa, Tohru; Suzuki, Motofumi; Fujimura, Tetsuya; Fukuhara, Hiroshi; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Kume, Haruki; Homma, Yukio

    2014-03-01

    To assess the risk factors for septic shock in patients with acute obstructive pyelonephritis requiring emergency drainage of the upper urinary tract. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 48 patients who underwent emergency drainage of the upper urinary tract for sepsis associated with acute obstructive pyelonephritis at our institute. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the risk factors. Among 54 events of sepsis, we identified 20 events of septic shock requiring vasopressor therapy. Cases with shock were more likely than those without shock to have ureteral stone (70 vs 38%, p = 0.024) and positive blood culture results (81 vs 28%, p = 0.006). They received drainage significantly earlier than those without shock (1.0 vs 3.5 days, p < 0.001). Univariate analysis demonstrated that acute obstructive pyelonephritis by ureteral stone, rapid progression (the occurrence of symptoms to drainage ≤ 1 day), positive blood culture, leukocytopenia (<4,000/mm(3)), thrombocytopenia (<120,000/mm(3)), and prothrombin time international normalized ratio ≥ 1.20 were correlated with septic shock. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified thrombocytopenia (p = 0.005) and positive blood culture (p = 0.040) as independent risk factors for septic shock. Thrombocytopenia and positive blood culture were independent risk factors for septic shock in acute obstructive pyelonephritis requiring emergency drainage. Thrombocytopenia would be practically useful as a predictor of septic shock.

  8. Protective effect of preserved bladder-filling sensation on upper urinary tract in patients with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ersöz, Murat; Sayılır, Selçuk

    2014-10-01

    In this study the possible preventive effect of bladder-filling sensation (BFS) on upper urinary tract deterioration (UUTD) in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients was investigated. Eighty-four (60 males, 24 females) patients with SCI who underwent neurourological assessment and urodynamic examinations because of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction and were prescribed appropriate bladder management and were under follow-up and whose disease duration was at least 3 years were included in the study. Bladder-filling sensation was categorised as "absent", "partially preserved" or "preserved", and as "normal" (preserved) and "abnormal" (partially preserved, absent). Presence of hydronephrosis, renal stones, and chronic pyelonephritis in any renal USG or IVP performed during the follow-up period were accepted as criteria of UUTD. The frequencies of UUTD for BFS subgroups were determined and compared. Mean age and mean disease duration were 38.4 ± 13.0 years and 72.2 ± 36.2 months. The frequency of UUTD was 31/84 (36.9 %) in the study population. The frequencies of UUTD were 0/8 (0 %), 22/53 (41.5 %) and 9/23 (39.1 %) for "preserved" "partially preserved" and "absent" BFS subgroups, respectively (p = 0.074). There was a statistically significant difference between normal BFS [0/8 (0 %)] and abnormal BFS [31/76 (40.8 %)] subgroups (p = 0.024). According to the results of our study preserved (normal) bladder-filling sensation has protective effect on upper urinary tract in patients with SCI.

  9. Can we improve the biopsy quality of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors? Single-center preliminary results of a new biopsy forceps.

    PubMed

    Al-Qahtani, Saeed M; Legraverend, Dorian; Gil-Diez de Medina, Sixtina; Sibony, Mathilde; Traxer, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the biopsy quality of upper urinary tract urothelial transitional cell carcinoma with a new biopsy forceps (BIGopsy®, Cook Medical) compared to a classic biopsy forceps (Piranha®, Boston Scientific). From December 2009 to December 2011, 20 patients with upper urinary tract urothelial transitional cell carcinoma underwent conservative treatment endoscopically. All lesions were evaluated and biopsied with 3 Fr cup forceps using both types of forceps (BIGopsy and Piranha). A single pathologist blindly analyzed the specimens in order to determine the optimal biopsy for each patient. Specimen histopathology results were graded; however, they were staged if the lamina propria was not invaded (T1) or if the tumor was detected at the lamina propria (T1+). Of the 20 upper urinary tract lesions, 12 (60%) were in the renal pelvis, 3 (15%) in the upper calyx, 1 (5%) in the middle calyx, 1 (5%) in the lower calyx, 1 (5%) in the upper third of the ureter and 2 (10%) in the middle third of the ureter. We did not detect T1 in all biopsies. One patient had no valid biopsies by both forceps. A diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma was made in 17 BIGopsy biopsies compared to 7 Piranha biopsies. Despite the limited number of cases, our study demonstrated the advantage of the new forceps (BIGopsy) in obtaining a valid biopsy of upper urinary tract urothelial tumors. Therefore, we recommend it in evaluating this pathology for optimal treatment. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. CT evaluation of the upper urinary tract in adults younger than 50 years with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria: is IV contrast enhancement needed?

    PubMed

    Lisanti, Christopher J; Toffoli, Thomas J; Stringer, Matthew T; DeWitt, Robert M; Schwope, Ryan B

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare CT urography (CTU) with unenhanced CT in the evaluation of upper urinary tracts in adults younger than 50 years with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. In this study, 1516 CTU examinations were reviewed in adults younger than 50 years. Inclusion criteria were no significant prior urologic disease and asymptomatic microscopic hematuria with at least one urinalysis with greater than or equal to 3 RBCs/high-power field and less than or equal to 50 RBCs/high-power field. Upper urinary tract findings on CTU were classified as malignancy-related or non-malignancy-related hematuria and incidental non-hematuria-related findings. A blinded radiologist reviewed the unenhanced images, recording upper urinary tract findings and recommendations for further contrast-enhanced imaging. The modified Wald equation at a 95% CI, the "Rule of Threes" equation, and binomial distribution were used for malignancy-related findings. Four hundred forty-five examinations in 442 patients met inclusion criteria. CTU reports showed zero malignancy-related hematuria findings, 64 non-malignancy-related hematuria findings (62 renal calculi and two others), and 138 incidental non-hematuria-related findings. Unenhanced CT interpretation had a sensitivity of 100% (64/64) and a specificity of 89.2% (337/378). The theoretic risk of an upper urinary tract malignancy is 0-1.1%. CTU added no additional diagnostic benefit versus unenhanced CT in evaluating the upper urinary tracts of adults younger than 50 years with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. Using only unenhanced CT can reduce radiation and minimize contrast agent-associated risk, with a less than 1.0% risk of missing upper urinary tract hematuria-related malignancy.

  11. Upper and Lower Urinary Tract Outcomes in Adult Myelomeningocele Patients: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Veenboer, Paul W.; Bosch, J. L. H. Ruud; van Asbeck, Floris W. A.; de Kort, Laetitia M. O.

    2012-01-01

    Background The introduction of sophisticated treatment of bladder dysfunction and hydrocephalus allows the majority of SB patients to survive into adulthood. However, no systematic review on urological outcome in adult SB patients is available and no follow-up schemes exist. Objectives To systematically summarize the evidence on outcome of urinary tract functioning in adult SB patients. Methods A literature search in PubMed and Embase databases was done. Only papers published in the last 25 years describing patients with open SB with a mean age >18 years were included. We focused on finding differences in the treatment strategies, e.g., clean intermittent catheterization and antimuscarinic drugs versus early urinary diversion, with regard to long-term renal and bladder outcomes. Results A total of 13 articles and 5 meeting abstracts on urinary tract status of adult SB patients were found describing a total of 1564 patients with a mean age of 26.1 years (range 3–74 years, with a few patients <18 years). All were retrospective cohort studies with relatively small and heterogeneous samples with inconsistent reporting of outcome; this precluded the pooling of data and meta-analysis. Total continence was achieved in 449/1192 (37.7%; range 8–85%) patients. Neurological level of the lesion and hydrocephalus were associated with incontinence. Renal function was studied in 1128 adult patients. In 290/1128 (25.7%; range 3–81.8%) patients some degree of renal damage was found and end-stage renal disease was seen in 12/958 (1.3%) patients. Detrusor-sphincter dyssynergy and detrusor-overactivity acted as adverse prognostic factors for the development of renal damage. Conclusions These findings should outline follow-up schedules for SB patients, which do not yet exist. Since renal and bladder deterioration continues beyond adolescence, follow-up of these individuals is needed. We recommend standardization in reporting the outcome of urinary tract function in adult SB

  12. Epithelial membrane protein 2 is a prognostic indictor for patients with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Wen; Li, Wei-Ming; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Chai, Chee-Yin; Chang, Tsuey-Yu; Sun, Yin; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Shiue, Yow-Ling; Su, Shu-Jem; Cheng, Hong-Lin; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Chow, Nan-Haw

    2013-09-01

    Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma is a relatively uncommon disease and is diagnosed more frequently at advanced stages. The prognosis of these patients mainly has been related to tumor stage and grade. As a result, the definition of prognostic indicators enabling precise patient selection is mandatory for neoadjuvant or adjuvant therapies. The epithelial membrane protein (EMP2) was identified as one of the up-regulated genes by isoflavones. EMP2 overexpression suppressed foci formation, anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and tumorigenicity in severe combined immunodeficiency mice (all P < 0.05). In addition, a cross-talk between EMP2 and integrins αV and β3 was shown in the regulation of cell adhesion and migration. Higher EMP2 expression was associated with a better progression-free survival (P = 0.008) and cancer-related death (P < 0.001). EMP2 was identified as a tumor-suppressor gene in urinary tract urothelial carcinoma and may be an innovative co-targeting candidate for designing integrin-based cancer therapy. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of complications from 600 retroperitoneoscopic procedures of the upper urinary tract during the last 10 years.

    PubMed

    Liapis, Dimitri; de la Taille, Alexandre; Ploussard, Guillaume; Robert, Grégoire; Bastien, Laurence; Hoznek, Andras; Vordos, Dimitri; Abbou, Claude; Salomon, Laurent

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to review 10 years experience of retroperitoneoscopy procedures. A total of 600 patients treated between 1995 and 2007 by retroperitoneoscopy (nephrectomy, partial and total nephrectomy, adrenalectomy, pyeloplasty, renal cyst, calyceal diverticulectomy) were reviewed for per, peri and postoperative complications including patients in the learning curve. The mean blood loss was 159 mL. Conversion to open surgery was required in 28 patients (4.6%) primarily due to technical problems during dissection (elective). There were 32 (5.3%) surgical complications, including bleeding or hematomas in 12 cases and 2 of them required reintervention, urinomas in 8 which were treated by installation of a ureteral drainage (JJ stent). Wound or deep abscesses happened in four, urinary fistula in one and pancreatic fistula in another. Evisceration (hernias) was seen in three patients. Intestinal injury occurred in two. The complication rate depended on the difficulty of the procedure and learning curve of the surgeon. A total of 28 patients (4.6%) presented medical postoperative complications (hyperthermias, deep venous thrombosis, pyelonephritis, pulmonary superinfections, pulmonary atelectasia and transient vascular ischemic accident). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 6.2 days (ranged from 2 to 20). Retroperitoneoscopy can be the technique of choice for accessing and carrying out all the surgery of the upper urinary tract respecting the principles of oncological surgery. After experience with 600 cases during the last 10 years the technique has become safe, simplified, reproducible and effective although not easy. Most complications are minor and easily managed.

  14. [The effect of beta-stimulation and beta-1-blockade on the motility of the upper urinary tract].

    PubMed

    Hettenbach, A; Tschada, R; Hiltmann, W D; Zimmermann, T

    1988-01-01

    18 patients with severe congestion of the urinary tract in pregnancy were treated by implantation of ureteral catheters for intermittend exoneration. Before and during the infusion of 2 micrograms/min Fenoterol the basal tone, the frequency and amplitude of the contractions of the renal pelvis were measured after retrograde filling with increasing volumes. 45 min after the i.v. application of 10 mg Metoprolol the measurements were repeated under the same conditions. During the infusion of Fenoterol there was a significant decrease of the frequency and amplitude of the contractions of the renal pelvis. Whereas at low retrograde filling volumes the basal tone in the renal pelvis decreased, at higher filling volumes - because of the concomittant deteriation of the urine transport capacity - an increase of the basal tone could be found. The relaxant effects of the beta-stimulation on the upper urinary tract could be diminished by the application of the beta-1-blocker Metoprolol; a complete compensation however was not possible.

  15. Minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy guided by ultrasonography to treat upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity

    PubMed Central

    He, Zhaohui; Zhang, Caixia; Zeng, Guohua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report our experience of minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy(MPCNL) in managing upper urinary tract calculi complicated with severe spinal deformity. Materials and Methods: Between August 2001 to December 2012, 16 upper urinary calculi in 13 patients with severe spinal deformity were treated by MPCNL. Preoperative investigation of the respiratory function, evaluation of anatomy by intravenous urography (IVU) and CT scan, and preoperative kidney ultrasonagraphy with simulation of the percutaneous puncture were performed in all patients. The percutaneous puncture was guided by ultrasonography. Results: A total of 19 MPCNL procedures were performed in 16 kidneys, with an average 1.2 procedures in each kidney. Three kidneys needed two sessions of MPCNL, and 2 kidneys needed combined treatment with retrograde flexible ureterscopic lithotripsy. All procedures were successfully completed with no major complications during or after surgery. The mean (range) operative duration was 67 (20-150) min and the mean postoperative haemoglobin drop was 1.0 (0.2-3.1) g/dL. Complete stone-free status was achieved in 14 kidneys. At a mean follow-up of 48(3-86) months, recurrence of small lower calyx stone was detected in one patient. Recurrent UTI was documented by urine culture in two patients and managed with sensitive antibiotics. Conclusion: PCNL for patients with severe spinal deformities is challenging. Ultrasonography-assisted puncture can allow safe and successfully establishment of PCN tract through a narrow safety margin of puncture and avoid the injury to the adjacent organs. However, the operation should be performed in tertiary centers with significant expertise in managing complex urolithiasis. PMID:27509373

  16. Trends in surgery for upper urinary tract calculi in the USA using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample: 1999-2009.

    PubMed

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Sammon, Jesse D; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Sun, Maxine; Bhojani, Naeem; Sukumar, Shyam; Peabody, James O; Menon, Mani; Trinh, Quoc-Dien

    2013-07-01

    To determine trends in demographics and treatment for inpatient upper urinary tract calculi in the USA using a population-based cohort. All patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of kidney or ureteric calculus between 1999 and 2009 in the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample were extracted and weighted. Temporal trend analyses were used to determine trends in gender, race and age presentation, as well as utilization rates of interventions. Temporal trends were quantified using the estimated annual percent change (EAPC) using least squares linear regression analysis. Overall, 2 109 455 patients were hospitalized with upper urinary tract calculi over the 11-year period. The majority of admissions were for ureteric calculi (63.4%). Admissions for renal calculus increased by 12.1% during the study period (EAPC + 0.92%, P = 0.039, 95% CI: 0.17-1.66), whilst discharges for ureteric calculus remained stable. A significant increase (25.4%) in hospitalizations for women was found (EAPC + 2.21%, P < 0.001, 95% CI: 1.40-3.03); by 2006, more women than men were admitted to hospital (95 953 vs. 94 556, respectively). There were significant increases in hospitalization for black, Hispanic and older patients. Significant changes in the use of all studied interventions were found except for ureteroscopy, extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy and nephrectomy. In this nationally representative sample of inpatient discharges, significant increases were found in admissions for renal compared with ureteric calculi, and for black, Hispanic and older patients. With regard to surgical intervention, the largest increase was found in the use of procedures for kidney calculi. Women now comprise the majority in the inpatient management of stone disease. © 2013 BJU International.

  17. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Due to Bacterial Persistence or Reinfection in Women-Does This Factor Impact Upper Tract Imaging Findings?

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuefeng Rose; Rego, Lauren L; Christie, Alana L; Lavelle, Rebecca S; Alhalabi, Feras; Zimmern, Philippe E

    2016-08-01

    We compared the rates of upper tract imaging abnormalities of recurrent urinary tract infections due to bacterial persistence or reinfection. Following institutional review board approval we reviewed a prospectively maintained database of women with documented recurrent urinary tract infections (3 or more per year) and trigonitis. We searched for demographic data, urine culture findings and findings on radiology interpreted upper tract imaging, including renal ultrasound, computerized tomography or excretory urogram. Patients with irretrievable images, absent or incomplete urine culture results for review, no imaging performed, an obvious source of recurrent urinary tract infections or a history of pyelonephritis were excluded from analysis. Of 289 women from 2006 to 2014 with symptomatic recurrent urinary tract infections 116 met study inclusion criteria. Mean ± SD age was 65.0 ± 14.4 years. Of the women 95% were white and 81% were postmenopausal. Almost a third were sexually active and none had prolapse stage 2 or greater. Of the 116 women 48 (41%) had persistent and 68 (59%) had reinfection recurrent urinary tract infection. Imaging included ultrasound in 52 patients, computerized tomography in 26, ultrasound and computerized tomography in 31, and excretory urogram with ultrasound/computerized tomography in 7. Of the total of 58 imaging findings in 55 women 57 (98%) were noncontributory. One case (0.9%) of mild hydronephrosis was noted in the persistent recurrent urinary tract infection group but it was not related to any clinical parameters. Escherichia coli was the dominant bacteria in 71% of persistent and 47% of reinfection recurrent urinary tract infections in the most recently reported urine culture. This study reaffirms that upper tract imaging is not indicated for bacterial reinfection, recurrent urinary tract infections. However, the same conclusion can be extended to recurrent urinary tract infections secondary to bacterial persistence, thus

  18. Bilateral emphysematous pyelitis: a rare encounter in urology.

    PubMed

    Tan C C K Ho, G H; Bahadzor, B; Praveen, S; Goh, E H; Syahril, A S; Zulkifli, M Z

    2013-01-01

    Gas-forming infection of the kidneys can affect either the parenchyma or the collecting system. They are known as emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) and emphysematous pyelitis (EP) respectively. Bilateral EPN is a fairly established entity and numerous articles about this condition have been published. However, much less is known about bilateral EP. We report a rare case of bilateral EP and a literature review of this disease. A 66-year-old woman with long-standing bilateral staghorn calculi presented with bilateral EP and severe sepsis. She was treated with antibiotics and bilateral double-J stents to drain the upper urinary tracts. She recovered after 1 month of intensive care and medical therapy. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) had been scheduled to treat her staghorn calculi. A literature search on MEDLINE and Google Scholar with the terms "bilateral emphysematous pyelitis" only found 1 case report in English and another 2 reports in the Korean language that discussed bilateral EP. The collective experience of these few cases, including the present case, suggests that bilateral EP runs a more benign course than bilateral EPN. It should be diagnosed as soon as possible with computed tomography (CT) scans of the renal system. Current evidence shows that can be treated successfully with timely antibiotics. Drainage of the collecting system either percutaneously or with placement of double-J stents might facilitate recovery.

  19. Allium Stents: A Novel Solution for the Management of Upper and Lower Urinary Tract Strictures.

    PubMed

    Bahouth, Zaher; Moskovitz, Boaz; Halachmi, Sarel; Nativ, Ofer

    2017-08-22

    Stents are widely use in endoscopic urological procedures. One of the most important indications is the treatment of urinary tract strictures. Allium(™) Medical has introduced several types of stents for the treatment of different types of urinary tract strictures, based on anatomic location. All the stents are made of nitinol and coated with a co-polymer that reduces encrustations. These stents are self-expandable and have a large caliber and a high radial force. They have different shapes, designed especially for the treatment of each type of stricture. One of the most important features of Allium-manufactured stents is the ease of removal, due to their special unraveling feature. The company has introduced the Bulbar Urethral Stent (BUS) for treatment of bulbar urethral strictures; a rounded stent available in different lengths. Initial data on 64 patients with bulbar urethral stricture treated with the BUS showed a significant improvement in symptoms, with minimal complications and few adverse events. For treatment of prostate obstruction in patients unfit for surgery or unwilling to undergo a classical prostatic surgery, the Triangular Prostatic Stent (TPS) was introduced, which has a triangular shape that fits in the prostatic urethra. Its body has a high radial force attached to an anchor (which prevents migration) through a trans-sphincteric wire (which reduces incontinence rate). Initial data on 51 patients showed significant improvement in symptoms and in urinary peak flow rate, with a relatively small number of complications. The Round Posterior Stent (RPS) was designed for treatment of post radical prostatectomy bladder neck contracture. This short, round stent has an anchor, which is placed in the bladder neck. This stent being relatively new, the clinical data are still limited. Ureteral strictures can be treated with the Ureteral Stent (URS), which is round-shaped, available in different lengths, and has an anchor option (for very distal or very

  20. Should Complete and Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury Patients Receive the Same Attention in Urodynamic Evaluations and Ultrasonography Examinations of the Upper Urinary Tract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkoc, Yesim; Cinar, Yasemin; Kismali, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare urodynamic findings and upper urinary tract (UUT) abnormalities detected by ultrasonography in complete and incomplete suprasacral spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Thirty-eight suprasacral SCI patients who underwent ultrasonography evaluation of the UUT and urodynamic…

  1. Should Complete and Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury Patients Receive the Same Attention in Urodynamic Evaluations and Ultrasonography Examinations of the Upper Urinary Tract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkoc, Yesim; Cinar, Yasemin; Kismali, Erkan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare urodynamic findings and upper urinary tract (UUT) abnormalities detected by ultrasonography in complete and incomplete suprasacral spinal cord injury (SCI) patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Thirty-eight suprasacral SCI patients who underwent ultrasonography evaluation of the UUT and urodynamic…

  2. Utility of copeptin and standard inflammatory markers in the diagnostics of upper and lower urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Masajtis-Zagajewska, Anna; Kurnatowska, Ilona; Wajdlich, Malgorzata; Nowicki, Michal

    2015-07-08

    A new serum marker of inflammation copeptin (CPP) a stable C-terminal pro-vasopressin was assessed along with conventional markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and IL-6 to discriminate between lower and upper bacterial urinary tract infections (UTI). Study population comprised 45 patients including 13 with lower UTI (L-UTI) and 32 with upper UTI (U-UTI) and 24 healthy controls. Serum markers, blood cultures and urine cultures were assessed before commencing antibiotic treatment and repeated 24, 48 h and 7 days thereafter. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were plotted to assess a diagnostic utility of different inflammatory markers. Before antibiotic therapy all inflammatory markers including serum CPP (2821.1 ± 1072.4 pg/ml vs. 223.8 ± 109.3 pg/ml; p < 0.05) were higher in UTI than in controls. CPP was not different between L- and U-UTI (2253 ± 1323 pg/ml vs 3051 ± 1178 pg/ml; p = 0.70) despite significant differences in hsCRP (2.09 ± 1.7 mg/dl vs 127.3 ± 62.4 mg/dl; p < 0.001), PCT (0.05 ± 0 vs 5.02 ± 0.03 ng/ml p < 0.001) and IL-6 (22.5 ± 1.6 vs 84.8 ± 67 pg/ml p < 0.001). For U-UTI the areas under the ROC curves were 1.0 for both hsCRP and CPP, 0.94 for PCT and 0.7 for IL-6 and for L-UTI 0.571, 1, 0.505 and 0.73, respectively. After 7 days of treatment all markers decreased in parallel to clinical response. Although elevated serum copeptin may become a marker of UTI it seems to be inferior compared to traditional serum inflammation markers for differentiation of bacterial infections involving upper and lower urinary tract.

  3. Comparison of computed tomographic urography, magnetic resonance urography and the combination of diffusion weighted imaging in diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guang-Yu; Lu, Qing; Wu, Lian-Ming; Zhang, Jin; Chen, Xiao-Xi; Xu, Jian-Rong

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the performance of computed tomographic urography (CTU), static-fluid magnetic resonance urography (static-fluid MRU) and combinations of CTU, static-fluid MRU and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) in the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer. Between January 2010 and June 2011, patients with suspected UUT cancer underwent CTU, static-fluid MRU and DWI (b=1000s/mm(2)) within a 1-week period. The diagnostic performances of CTU, static-fluid MRU and combinations of CTU, static-fluid MRU and DWI for upper urinary tract cancer were prospectively evaluated. The ureteroscopic and histopathologic findings were compared with the imaging findings. Compared to static-fluid MRU alone (sensitivity: 76/75%, reader 1/reader 2), combining DWI with MRI can increase the sensitivity (sensitivity: 84/84%, p=0.031/p=0.016) of upper urinary tract cancer diagnosis. CTU had greater sensitivity (95/94%) and accuracy (92/91%) than both static-fluid MRU (sensitivity: p<0.001/p<0.001 and accuracy: 83/81%, p=0.001/p<0.001) and static-fluid MRU with DWI (sensitivity: p=0.023/p=0.039 and accuracy: 87/85%, p=0.042/p=0.049) for the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancers. Compared with CTU alone, CTU with DWI did not significantly increase sensitivity, specificity or accuracy. However, the diagnostic confidence was improved when the combined technique was used (p=0.031/p=0.024). Moreover, there was no significant change in sensitivity, specificity, accuracy or diagnostic confidence when static-fluid MRU was used in combination with CTU and DWI. Although there is a potential role for static-fluid MRU and static-fluid MRU with DWI in urinary tract imaging, CTU is still the better choice for the diagnosis of upper urinary tract cancer. Combining DWI with CTU can help improve confidence in upper urinary tract cancer diagnoses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Validation of Cefazolin as Initial Antibiotic for First Upper Urinary Tract Infection in Children

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Yoshifusa; Wakabayashi, Hitomi; Ogawa, Yasuha; Machida, Ayano; Endo, Mio; Tamai, Tetsuro; Sakurai, Shunsuke; Hibino, Satoshi; Mikawa, Takeshi; Watanabe, Yoshitaka; Ugajin, Kazuhisa; Fukuchi, Kunihiko; Itabashi, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    To validate the policy of administering cefazolin (CEZ) as a first-line antibiotic to children who are hospitalized with their first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI), we evaluated microbial susceptibility to CEZ and the efficacy of CEZ. The 75 enrolled children with febrile UTI were initially treated with CEZ. Switching CEZ was not required in 84% of the patients. The median fever duration, prevalence of bacteremia, prevalence of UTI caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, and median duration of hospitalization were significantly higher in the CEZ-ineffective group. The risks of vesicoureteral reflux, indication of operation, and renal scarring are not increased, even when CEZ is ineffective as a first-line antibiotic. CEZ is effective in more than 80% of pediatric patients with their first febrile UTI, but it should be switched to appropriate antibiotics considering sepsis or the ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae pathogen, when fever does not improve within 72 hours. PMID:27335998

  5. Prognostic Impact of Thrombospodin-2 (THBS2) Overexpression on Patients with Urothelial Carcinomas of Upper Urinary Tracts and Bladders

    PubMed Central

    Chang, I-Wei; Li, Chien-Feng; Lin, Victor Chia-Hsiang; He, Hong-Lin; Liang, Per-In; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Li, Ching-Chia; Huang, Chun-Nung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is a type of tumor, especially of the urinary bladder, that affects people worldwide. Clarification of its detailed tumor biology and discovery of potential targets for developing treatment strategies are imperative because of frequent recurrences and poor prognosis of advanced UCs. By data mining a published dataset of UC of bladder (UCB) transcriptome (GSE31684) from Gene Expression Omnibus, National Center of Biotechnology Information (GEO, NCBI), we identified that THBS2 was the most significantly upregulated gene among those related to structural molecule activity (GO:0005198). Therefore, we evaluated the clinical significance and prognostic impact of thrombospondin-2 (THBS2) protein, A.K.A. TSP2, which encoded by THBS2 gene. Materials and Methods: THBS2 immunostaining was performed in 340 UCs of upper urinary tract (UC-UUTs) and 295 UCBs; subsequently, both groups were dichotomized into high- and low-expression subgroups. Moreover, statistical analyses were performed to correlate the association between THBS2 expression and clinicopathological parameters with two survival indexes: disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS). Results: High THBS2 immunoexpression was significantly associated with advanced primary tumor status, nodal metastasis, and vascular invasion in both UC-UUT and UCB groups (all P ≤ .001). In addition, THBS2 overexpression was linked to adverse DSS and MeFS in univariate analyses and served as an independent prognosticator indicating poor outcomes in both groups in multivariate analyses. Conclusion: THBS2 may play a crucial role in UC progression and may be a novel prognostic marker. Additional investigations to elucidate the molecular pathway are necessary for developing potential THBS2-targeted therapies for UCs. PMID:27471570

  6. Analysis of complications from 600 retroperitoneoscopic procedures of the upper urinary tract during the last 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Liapis, Dimitri; De La Taille, Alexandre; Ploussard, Guillaume; Robert, Grégoire; Bastien, Laurence; Hoznek, Andras; Vordos, Dimitri; Abbou, Claude; Salomon, Laurent

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study is to review 10 years experience of retroperitoneoscopy procedures. Methods 600 patients treated between 1995 and 2007 netroperitoneoscopy (nephrectomy, partial and total nephrectomy, adrenalectomy, pyeloplasty, renal cyst, calyceal diverticulectomy) were reviewed for per, peri and post operative complications including patients in the learning curve. Results The mean blood loss was 159mL. Conversion to open surgery was required in 28 patients (4.6%) primarily due to technical problems during dissection (elective). There were 32 (5.3%) surgical complications, including bleeding or hematomas in 12 cases and 2 of them required reintervention, urinomas in 8 which were treated by installation of a ureteral drainage (JJ stent). Wound or deep abscesses happened in 4, urinary fistula in 1 and pancreatic fistula in another. Evisceration (hernias) was seen in 3 patients. Intestinal injury occurred in 2. The complication rate depended on the difficulty of the procedure and learning curve of the surgeon. Twenty eight patients (4.6%) presented medical post-operative complications (hyperthermias, deep venous thrombosis, pyelonephritis, pulmonary superinfections, pulmonary atelectasia and transient vascular ischemic accident). Mean postoperative hospital stay was 6.2 days (ranged from 2 to 20). Conclusion Retroperitoneoscopy can be the technique of choice for accessing and carrying out all the surgery of the upper urinary tract respecting the principles of oncological surgery. After experience with 600 cases during the last 10 years the technique has become safe, simplified, reproducible and effective although not easy. Most complications are minor and easily managed. PMID:18807049

  7. Bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve neuropraxia following laryngeal mask insertion: a rare cause of serious upper airway morbidity.

    PubMed

    Sacks, M D; Marsh, D

    2000-01-01

    We report the case of a 4-year-old boy who developed bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve neuropraxia following a routine anaesthetic with a laryngeal mask airway. The possible mechanisms of injury and the ways that this rare but critical complication might be avoided are discussed.

  8. Successful Recovery and Transplantation of 11 Organs Including Face, Bilateral Upper Extremities, and Thoracic and Abdominal Organs From a Single Deceased Organ Donor.

    PubMed

    Tullius, Stefan G; Pomahac, Bohdan; Kim, Heung Bae; Carty, Matthew J; Talbot, Simon G; Nelson, Helen M; Delmonico, Francis L

    2016-10-01

    We report on the to date largest recovery of 11 organs from a single deceased donor with the transplantation of face, bilateral upper extremities, heart, 1 lung, liver (split for 2 recipients), kidneys, pancreas, and intestine. Although logistically challenging, this case demonstrates the feasibility and safety of the recovery of multiple thoracic and abdominal organs with multiple vascular composite allotransplants and tissues. Our experience of 8 additional successful multiple vascular composite allotransplants, thoracic, and abdominal organ recoveries suggests that such procedures are readily accomplishable from the same deceased donor.

  9. Evaluation and management of upper urinary tract obstruction in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Kass, E J; Majd, M

    1985-02-01

    Our clinical experience over the past 5 years would suggest that both the diuretic renogram and the Whitaker study permit an objective and quantitative assessment of urinary obstruction. The diagnostic accuracy of both studies exceeds 90 per cent, although neither study has proved to be infallible. Both have potential sources of error that must be monitored carefully if their reliability is to be maximized. Potential sources of error in the diuretic renogram include the state of hydration, renal functional status, distensibility and volume of the collecting system, a filled bladder, and ability to respond to the diuretic. Its reliability can be increased if the standard testing protocol is followed, the study closely monitored, and the limitations of the test realized. Interpretation of the diuretic renogram based only upon the appearance of the washout curve without consideration of the calculated half time or the sequential analogue images is unreliable and in our experience would have been responsible for an incorrect interpretation in 40 per cent of patients. The diuretic renal scan is used as the initial testing modality because it is reliable, reproducible, noninvasive, and objective and provides important information concerning individual renal function. Over 80 per cent of children with hydronephrosis can be completely evaluated by the diuretic renogram alone without the need for more invasive testing modalities. Nevertheless, the pressure perfusion study will continue to be necessary for the evaluation of certain individuals. Because of its invasive nature, we prefer to reserve this study for very specific, well-defined circumstances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure.

  11. Transurethral resection versus open bladder cuff excision in patients undergoing nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract carcinoma: Operative and oncological results.

    PubMed

    Fragkoulis, Charalampos; Pappas, Athanasios; Papadopoulos, Georgios I; Stathouros, Georgios; Fragkoulis, Aristodimos; Ntoumas, Konstantinos

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of distal ureter management on oncological results after open nephroureterectomy (ONU) comparing transurethral resection of the intramural ureter to conventional open excision, as controversy still exists about the method of choice for managing the distal ureter and bladder cuff during ONU. We retrospectively collected data from 378 patients who underwent ONU for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC) from 1988 to 2009. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to the type of operation performed. Group A comprised 192 patients who had ONU with open resection of the bladder cuff from 1988 to 1997. Group B comprised 186 patients in whom transurethral resection of the intramural ureter plus single incision ONU was performed between 1998 and 2009. The mean operative time, hospital stay, duration of catheterisation, bladder recurrence rates, and cancer-specific survival (CSS) were assessed. The total operative time was statistically significantly less in the endoscopic group (Group B). For catheterisation, patients treated with an open approach (Group A) had a statistically significantly shorter duration of postoperative catheterisation. There was no statistical difference between Groups A and B for the bladder recurrence rate (Group A 24% vs 27% in Group B, P = 0.51). There was no difference in CSS at the 5-year follow-up. ONU with transurethral resection of the intramural ureter up to the extravesical fat followed by ureter extraction is an oncologically safe and technically feasible operation.

  12. [Sporadic upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinomas: identification of interaction between toxic carcinogens and individuals genetic susceptibility].

    PubMed

    Colin, P; Koenig, P; Ballereau, C; Phé, V; Berthon, N; Villers, A; Biserte, J; Rouprêt, M

    2010-01-01

    Upper urinary tract urothelial cell carcinomas (UUT UCC) are rare sporadic tumors. Recent epidemiologic and molecular data have shown a singular susceptibility of UUT UCCs for specific risk factors. The main exogenic factors involved in UUT UCCs carcinogenesis remain tobacco and occupational exposure (aromatic amines, polycyclic hydrocarbures and chlored solvents). Enzymatic variants of detoxification system may be responsible of carcinogenesis with these toxics. Tumors induced by phenacetine consumption are decreasing since it was banned in the 1970s. Also, acid aristolochic exposure (Balkan nephropathy, Chinese Herb nephropathy) has been demonstrated to specifically induce UUT UCCs. Familial genic polymorphism of detoxification system would explain geographic distribution in endemic areas. In Taiwan, chronic arsenic exposition would constitute the main risk factor of UUT UCC. However, theses mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unclear. The knowledge of UUT UCC development mechanisms implying toxic detoxification systems is still incomplete. To date, there is a growing body of evidence supporting that the interaction between individual genetic susceptibilities and environmental toxic exposure is a key to explain carcinogenesis in the majority of sporadic UUT UCC occurrence.

  13. Urinary pH Levels are Strongly Associated with Bladder Recurrence After Nephroureterectomy in Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Patients with a Smoking History.

    PubMed

    Ide, Hiroki; Kikuchi, Eiji; Hagiwara, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Nozomi; Hongo, Hiroshi; Miyajima, Akira; Oya, Mototsugu

    2016-12-01

    Aromatic amines, well-known bladder carcinogens, derived from cigarette smoke are activated by acidic urine. We herein determined whether urinary pH levels are associated with bladder recurrence in upper tract urothelial carcinoma patients with a positive smoking history. A total of 256 upper tract urothelial carcinoma patients who were surgically treated at our institution between 1990 and 2013 were included. Urinary pH levels were defined as the median of at least two consecutive measurements within 1 month of surgery. Ninety-six patients (37.5 %) had pH <5.5 and 160 (62.5 %) had pH ≥5.5, and urinary pH levels were identified as one of the significant predictors for bladder recurrence in univariate but not multivariate Cox regression analysis in overall. In patients with a positive smoking history among those without a history of bladder tumor (N = 110), the 5-year bladder recurrence-free survival rate was 52.5 % in patients with pH ≥5.5, which was significantly higher than that in those with pH <5.5 (25.9 %, p = 0.032). In the multivariate analysis, urinary pH <5.5 (p = 0.022, HR; 1.86) was independently associated with bladder recurrence. No significant difference for bladder recurrence was observed between these two groups in patients with no smoking history among them. Urinary pH <5.5 is associated with an increased risk of bladder recurrence in upper tract urothelial carcinoma patients with a positive smoking history among those without a history of bladder tumor. Modifications to pH for urine alkalization may prevent bladder recurrence.

  14. Risk stratification of metastatic recurrence in invasive upper urinary tract carcinoma after radical nephroureterectomy without lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Colin, Pierre; Ghoneim, Tarek P; Nison, Laurent; Seisen, Thomas; Lechevallier, Eric; Cathelineau, Xavier; Ouzzane, Adil; Zerbib, Marc; Long, Jean-Alexandre; Ruffion, Alain; Crouzet, Sébastien; Cussenot, Olivier; Audouin, Marie; Irani, Jacques; Gardic, Solène; Gres, Pascal; Audenet, François; Roumiguié, Mathieu; Valeri, Antoine; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2014-04-01

    To assess the risk factors of metastasis relapse in pT2-3 upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUCs) treated by radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) without lymphadenectomy (LN). A multicentric retrospective study was performed for pT2-3 pNx UTUCs treated by RNU between 1995 and 2010. The following criteria were retrieved: age, gender, American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status, surgical approach, preoperative hydronephrosis, stage, grade, tumor location, surgical margin, lymphovascular invasion (LVI) status and outcomes. Metastasis-free survival (MFS) was measured by Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test. Overall, 151 patients were included. The median follow-up was 18.5 months (IQR 9.5-37.9). The 2- and 5-year MFS were 69 % ± 4.5 and 54.1 % ± 5.8, respectively. In univariate analysis, ureteral location, pT3 stage, positive LVI status and positive surgical margin were significantly associated with worse MFS (p = 0.03; 0.02; 0.01 and 0.006, respectively). In the multivariate analysis of ureteral location and pT3 stage were independent prognostic factors (p = 0.03 and 0.03, respectively). Based on the results of the univariate analysis, we proposed a risk model predicting MFS, which classifies patients into 3 categories with different overall survival (p < 0.001). In view of our data, tumor location, T stage, LVI and surgical margin status are mandatory to predict survival in case of RN without LN. Contingent upon external validation, our risk model based on these variables could be useful to provide relevant information concerning metastasis relapse probability and necessity of close follow-up for these patients.

  15. DNA repair genes and prognosis in sporadic forms of urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    García-Tello, A; Ramón de Fata, F; Andrés, G; Ropero, S; López, J I; Angulo, J C

    2014-11-01

    Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer is caused by mutations in DNA repair genes, known as mismatch repair (MMR) genes, and is associated with microsatellite instability. Urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis is also associated with this syndrome. These genetic abnormalities have been described in sporadic forms of upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC). This was a descriptive study and survival analysis of a series of 80 patients with sporadic UTUC with no metastases at diagnosis (N0/Nx M0) treated exclusively with nephroureterectomy. We evaluated the expression of MMR genes (hMLH1, hPMS2, hMSH2 and hMSH6) in sections performed with tissue microarray (TMA) and their association with clinical-pathological parameters. We analyzed the prognostic value of the loss of expression of these genes in UTUC. We detected no loss of MSH2 or of MSH6, but there was a loss of MLH1 in 11 cases (13.8%) and of PMS2 in 21 cases (26.3%). The expression of hMLH1 and hPMS2 were strongly associated (P<.0001), and this phenotype expression entails significant clinical implications. The loss of MLH1 was associated with a low grade (P=.02). Loss of PMS2 was associated with a lower stage (P=.05), a pushing pattern with no invasive edges (P=.008) and less angiogenesis (P=.008). The inactivation of hPMS2 or hMLH1 is an independent protective factor (HR, 0.309) and, along with the histologic grade (HR, 5.561), defines the patients' prognosis. In our experience, the inactivation of hPMS2 or hMLH1 is an independent marker of good prognosis and occurs in a quarter of sporadic UTUC cases. The immunohistochemical study of these patients can be used to assess the screening of hidden forms of Lynch syndrome. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Outcomes of surgical treatment for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: Comparison of retroperitoneoscopic and open nephroureterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Taweemonkongsap, Tawatchai; Nualyong, Chaiyong; Amornvesukit, Teerapon; Leewansangtong, Sunai; Srinualnad, Sittiporn; Chaiyaprasithi, Bansithi; Sujijantararat, Phichaya; Tantiwong, Anupan; Soontrapa, Suchai

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To determine the surgical and oncologic outcomes in patients who underwent retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy (RNU) in comparison to standard open nephroureterectomy (ONU) for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Patients and methods From April 2001 to January 2007, 60 total nephroureterectomy were performed for upper tract TCC at Siriraj Hospital. Of the 60 patients, thirty-one were treated with RNU and open bladder cuff excision, and twenty-nine with ONU. Our data were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. The recorded data included sex, age, history of bladder cancer, type of surgery, tumor characteristics, postoperative course, disease recurrence and progression. Results The mean operative time was longer in the RNU group than in the ONU group (258.8 versus 190.6 min; p = 0. < 001). On the other hand, the mean blood loss and the dose of parenteral analgesia (morphine sulphate) were lower in the RNU group (289.3 versus 313.7 ml and 2.05 versus 6.72 mg; p = 0.868 and p = 0.018, respectively). There were two complications in each group. No significant difference in p stage and grade in both-groups (p = 0.951, p = 0.077). One patient with RNU had lymph node involvement, three in ONU. Mean follow up was 26.4 months (range 3–72) for RNU and 27.9 months (range 3–63) for ONU. No port metastasis occurred during follow up in RNU group. Tumor recurrence developed in 11 patients (bladder recurrence in 9 patients, local recurrence in 2 patients) in the RNU group and 14 patients (bladder recurrence in 13 patients, local recurrence in 1 patient) in the ONU group. No significant difference was detected in the tumor recurrence rate between the two procedures (p = 0.2716). Distant metastases developed in 3 patients (9.7%) after RNU and 2 patients (6.9%) after ONU. The 2 year disease specific survival rate after RNU and ONU was 86.3% and 92.5%, respectively (p = 0.8227). Conclusion Retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy is less invasive

  17. Outcomes of surgical treatment for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: comparison of retroperitoneoscopic and open nephroureterectomy.

    PubMed

    Taweemonkongsap, Tawatchai; Nualyong, Chaiyong; Amornvesukit, Teerapon; Leewansangtong, Sunai; Srinualnad, Sittiporn; Chaiyaprasithi, Bansithi; Sujijantararat, Phichaya; Tantiwong, Anupan; Soontrapa, Suchai

    2008-01-15

    To determine the surgical and oncologic outcomes in patients who underwent retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy (RNU) in comparison to standard open nephroureterectomy (ONU) for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). From April 2001 to January 2007, 60 total nephroureterectomy were performed for upper tract TCC at Siriraj Hospital. Of the 60 patients, thirty-one were treated with RNU and open bladder cuff excision, and twenty-nine with ONU. Our data were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. The recorded data included sex, age, history of bladder cancer, type of surgery, tumor characteristics, postoperative course, disease recurrence and progression. The mean operative time was longer in the RNU group than in the ONU group (258.8 versus 190.6 min; p = 0. < 001). On the other hand, the mean blood loss and the dose of parenteral analgesia (morphine sulphate) were lower in the RNU group (289.3 versus 313.7 ml and 2.05 versus 6.72 mg; p = 0.868 and p = 0.018, respectively). There were two complications in each group. No significant difference in p stage and grade in both-groups (p = 0.951, p = 0.077). One patient with RNU had lymph node involvement, three in ONU. Mean follow up was 26.4 months (range 3-72) for RNU and 27.9 months (range 3-63) for ONU. No port metastasis occurred during follow up in RNU group. Tumor recurrence developed in 11 patients (bladder recurrence in 9 patients, local recurrence in 2 patients) in the RNU group and 14 patients (bladder recurrence in 13 patients, local recurrence in 1 patient) in the ONU group. No significant difference was detected in the tumor recurrence rate between the two procedures (p = 0.2716). Distant metastases developed in 3 patients (9.7%) after RNU and 2 patients (6.9%) after ONU. The 2 year disease specific survival rate after RNU and ONU was 86.3% and 92.5%, respectively (p = 0.8227). Retroperitoneoscopic nephroureterectomy is less invasive than open surgery and is an oncological feasible operation

  18. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Management of Endoscopically Treated Upper Urinary Tract Transitional Cell Carcinoma: Preliminary Data.

    PubMed

    Villa, Luca; Cloutier, Jonathan; Cotè, Jean-Francois; Salonia, Andrea; Montorsi, Francesco; Traxer, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    To describe our initial experience with confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) for the evaluation and treatment of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC). Preliminary data were analyzed from 11 patients with suspicion of UUT-TCC scheduled for flexible ureteroscopy (f-URS) and consensual holmium-YAG laser tumor ablation. CLE was performed before endoscopic biopsy and laser photoablation of the suspected lesion using a 3F-diameter flexible probe UroFlex™ B (Cellvizio® system; Mauna Kea Technologies, Paris, France), which allows to obtain microscopic resolution imaging (3.5 μm), with a field of view of 325 μm and a depth of tissue imaging of 40 to 70 μm. Video sequences were analyzed offline and thereafter compared with histopathologic findings. CLE technique was feasible and showed good quality imaging in all patients. Overall, the Cellvizio system provided reliable images of healthy urothelium when the probe was pointed toward normal tissue, showing umbrella cells on the surface and vessels in the lamina propria. Moreover, CLE displayed the characteristic features of high-density cellular aggregates and fibrovascular stalks in four patients with pathologically confirmed low-grade UUT-TCC. In the patient with pathologically confirmed high-grade UUT-TCC, more distorted microarchitecture and tortuous vessels were clearly recognized with CLE. These preliminary data showed the feasibility of CLE technique when applied to the diagnosis of UUT-TCC. Further clinical studies are required to confirm CLE accuracy in distinguishing healthy urothelial tissue from malignant lesions, thus helping clinicians in targeting ureteroscopic biopsy and improving the conservative management of UUT-TCC patients.

  19. Should oncological cases of upper urinary system be excluded at the beginning of the laparoscopic learning curve?

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Özgür Haki; Ötünçtemur, Alper; Özbek, Emin; Uruç, Fatih; Verit, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    The place of oncological cases of upper urinary system in the laparoscopic learning curve was investigated. A total of 139 patients from two different centers underwent laparoscopic operations and were included in this retrospective study. Mean operative times for oncological, and non-oncological cases were 101.3 (range 60-450), and 102.7 (45-490) minutes respectively. Fourty-two (31.3 %) patients were oncological cases. In 4 oncological cases, the surgeons switched to open surgery because of massive bleeding and six (14.2 %) oncological cases required blood transfusions during peri/postoperative periods. Pulmonary embolism was observed in one oncological case. In one non-oncological case, the surgeon switched to open surgery because of intestinal perforation and 10 (9.7 %) non-oncological cases needed blood transfusions during peri/postoperative periods. In addition, some complications such as intestinal perforation (n=1), mechanical ileus (n=1), and pulmonary embolism (n=1) were observed during postoperative period. Intestinal perforation was repaired using laparoscopic (n=1) method. Mechanical ileus was approached with open surgical technique. Mean hospital stay of the patients in the oncological and non-oncological series were 4.5 (3-23) and 4.5 (3-30) days respectively. We think that renal oncological cases should be included in the spectrum of laparoscopic indications even at the beginning of the learning curve. Certainly, we still share the opinion that cancer cases which require highly challenging surgeries like radical cystectomy, and prostatectomy should be postponed till to gaining of higher level of experience.

  20. p53 expression as a prognostic factor in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Yong; Cho, Kang Su; Diaz, Richilda Red; Choi, Young Deuk; Choi, Hong Yong

    2015-01-01

    To conduct a meta-analysis examining p53 expression as a potential risk factor in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) and to systematically review the available data. A comprehensive literature review was performed from January 1991 to August 2012, using search engines such as PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and KoreaMed. All retrieved references were manually reviewed, and two authors independently extracted the data. The quality of case-control and cohort studies was assessed using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) checklists. Heterogeneity among studies was examined using the Q statistics and Higgins' I(2) statistic. Of 302 abstracts of original research studies, nine case-control trials fit our criteria for inclusion in the analysis. Of the nine articles included, four scored 'low' and five scored 'modest' in the quality assessment performed according to the SIGN checklists. Analysis of the correlation between different factors and p53 expression in UUT-UC showed that pathologic stage (≥pT3 or

  1. Long-term outcome of hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for pathologic T3 upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chen, Shyh-Chyan; Wang, Shuo-Meng; Chueh, Shih-Chieh; Lai, Ming-Kuen; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Huang, Kuo-How; Yu, Hong-Jeng

    2009-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and long-term outcomes of hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (HALNU) compared with open nephroureterectomy (ONU) in the management of pT(3)N0 upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC). Between January 1994 and December 2005, 21 patients who underwent HALNU for stage pT(3)N0 UTT-UC were matched and compared with 31 patients who underwent ONU. The oncologic out-comes, including bladder recurrence, recurrence-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival, were statistically analyzed. The median follow-up period in the HALNU group was 72 months (range 33-111 months) and 115 months in the ONU group (range 24-161 months). Patient age, sex, body mass index, tumor size, specimen weight, and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification showed no significant difference between the two groups. The HALNU group had statistically less blood loss than the ONU group (113 mL versus 487 mL; P = 0.02). The average hospital stay and doses of narcotic analgesics were significantly less in the HALNU group than the ONU group. The complication and bladder recurrence rates were similar between the two groups. The 5-year recurrence-free survival, cancer-specific survival, and overall survival were also comparable in both groups. HALNU is a safe and efficacious procedure with comparable long-term oncologic outcomes in comparison with ONU in treating patients with locally advanced pT(3)N0UUT-UC.

  2. The oncological results of laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell cancer are equal to those of open nephroureterectomy.

    PubMed

    Waldert, Matthias; Remzi, Mesut; Klingler, Hans Christoph; Mueller, Lukas; Marberger, Michael

    2009-01-01

    To compare the overall, tumour-specific, recurrence-free, and progression- free survival of patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC) treated with laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) or standard open NU (ONU). Clinical, pathological and follow-up data were analysed for 43 LNUs and 59 ONUs performed at our institution from 1999 to 2006. In LNU the kidney was removed laparoscopically as in radical nephrectomy, but without transecting the ureter. The specimen was then removed intact with the entire ureter and a bladder cuff through a nonmuscle-splitting supra-inguinal incision. ONU was performed through separate intercostal and supra-inguinal incisions with the entire specimen being removed intact with a bladder cuff through the latter. The mean (SD) follow-up was 41 (20) months for LNU and 41 (29) for ONU. Pathological staging was: pTa 26% vs 20%, pT1 21% vs 27%, pT2 12% vs 17%, pT3 42% vs 34% for LNU and ONU, respectively. In all, seven vs six patients had positive nodes on final histology. Recurrent tumours in the bladder were detected in 26% of patients after LNU and in 27% after ONU after the mean follow-up. There were no local recurrences after LNU but there was local recurrence in six patients after ONU. There were no port-site metastases during the follow-up. Five LNU patients and seven ONU patients developed distant or lymph node metastasis. The actuarial 5-year tumour free-survival rate was 79% in the LNU group vs 76% in the ONU group (P = 0.82). The actuarial disease-specific survival at 5-years was 85% for LNU and 80% for ONU patients (P = 0.62). The surgical approach did not influence recurrence or survival. Oncological results of LNU and ONU are comparable. The lower morbidity of LNU offers advantages for the patient.

  3. Comparison of the FDA and ASCO/CAP Criteria for HER2 Immunohistochemistry in Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gilhyang; Chung, Yul Ri; Kim, Bohyun; Song, Boram; Moon, Kyung Chul

    2016-11-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is one of the known oncogenes in urothelial carcinoma. However, the association between HER2 and the prognosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate HER2 expression using the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria and American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) criteria and compare their prognostic significance in UUTUC. HER2 expression was evaluated in 144 cases of UUTUC by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using tissue microarrays. We separately analyzed HER2 expression using the FDA and ASCO/CAP criteria. The IHC results were categorized into low (0, 1+) and high (2+, 3+) groups. Using the FDA criteria, 94 cases were negative, 38 cases were 1+, nine cases were 2+, and three cases were 3+. Using the ASCO/CAP criteria, 94 cases were negative, 34 cases were 1+, 13 cases were 2+, and three cases were 3+. Four cases showing 2+ according to the ASCO/CAP criteria were reclassified as 1+ by the FDA criteria. High HER2 expression by both the FDA criteria and ASCO/CAP criteria was significantly associated with International Society of Urological Pathology high grade (p = .001 and p < .001). The high HER2 expression group classified with the FDA criteria showed significantly shorter cancer-specific survival (p = .004), but the HER2 high and low expression groups classified with the ASCO/CAP criteria did not show significant differences (p = .161) in cancer-specific survival. HER2 high expression groups were significantly associated with shorter cancer-specific survival, and our study revealed that the FDA criteria are more suitable for determining HER2 expression in UUTUC.

  4. Comparison of the FDA and ASCO/CAP Criteria for HER2 Immunohistochemistry in Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gilhyang; Chung, Yul Ri; Kim, Bohyun; Song, Boram; Moon, Kyung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is one of the known oncogenes in urothelial carcinoma. However, the association between HER2 and the prognosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUTUC) has not yet been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate HER2 expression using the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) criteria and American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) criteria and compare their prognostic significance in UUTUC. Methods HER2 expression was evaluated in 144 cases of UUTUC by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using tissue microarrays. We separately analyzed HER2 expression using the FDA and ASCO/CAP criteria. The IHC results were categorized into low (0, 1+) and high (2+, 3+) groups. Results Using the FDA criteria, 94 cases were negative, 38 cases were 1+, nine cases were 2+, and three cases were 3+. Using the ASCO/CAP criteria, 94 cases were negative, 34 cases were 1+, 13 cases were 2+, and three cases were 3+. Four cases showing 2+ according to the ASCO/CAP criteria were reclassified as 1+ by the FDA criteria. High HER2 expression by both the FDA criteria and ASCO/CAP criteria was significantly associated with International Society of Urological Pathology high grade (p = .001 and p < .001). The high HER2 expression group classified with the FDA criteria showed significantly shorter cancer-specific survival (p = .004), but the HER2 high and low expression groups classified with the ASCO/CAP criteria did not show significant differences (p = .161) in cancer-specific survival. Conclusions HER2 high expression groups were significantly associated with shorter cancer-specific survival, and our study revealed that the FDA criteria are more suitable for determining HER2 expression in UUTUC. PMID:27725621

  5. Diffusion-weighted MRI as a potential imaging biomarker reflecting the metastatic potential of upper urinary tract cancer

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Y; Kobayashi, S; Koga, F; Ishioka, J; Satoh, S; Ishii, C; Tanaka, H; Matsuoka, Y; Numao, N; Saito, K; Masuda, H; Fujii, Y; Kihara, K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) as an imaging biomarker for upper urinary tract cancer (UUTC) that has already metastasized or will metastasize soon. Methods: 61 patients clinically diagnosed with UUTC were prospectively enrolled in this study. All the patients underwent MRI, including DW-MRI, prior to any interventions. Correlations between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and other clinicopathological variables, including metastasis-free survival, were analysed. Results: Median follow-up period was 938 days. Of the 61 patients, 12 had any metastases at the initial diagnosis. 11 patients developed metastases during the follow-up period. These 23 patients were categorized as “Metastatic”. Of the remaining 38 patients, 35 with a follow-up period longer than 400 days were categorized as “Localized”. ADC was significantly lower in the Metastatic category than in the Localized (p = 0.0002) category. Multivariate analysis of pre-operative variables identified ADC (cut-off value, 1.08 × 10−3 mm2 s−1) and clinical T stage based on T2 weighted MRI as an independent predictive factor of metastatic UUTC. 46 patients without any metastases during the initial diagnosis were stratified into a high-risk group (16 patients with low ADC and clinical T3–4) and a low-risk group (30 patients with high ADC or clinical Ta-2). The 3-year metastasis-free survivals were 45% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion: In the current study, UUTC with lower ADC value is more likely to have metastatic potential. Incorporating ADC with clinical T stage helps to differentiate metastatic UUTC at the initial diagnosis. Advances in knowledge: DW-MRI is a potential imaging biomarker reflecting metastatic propensity of UUTC. PMID:25074719

  6. [Medulla and upper cervical cord compression by bilateral vertebral artery presented with myelopathy and drop attack: case report].

    PubMed

    Koyama, Seigo; Maeda, Tsuyoshi; Komine, Akiko

    2002-05-01

    A 51-year-old man had suffered from attacks of quadri-paresis and unconsciousness for previous three years prior to presentation. Prior to admission, he had been received anticonvulsants, but his symptoms showed no improvement. Neurological examination revealed hyper-reflexia of his left lower extremity and moderate decrease of sense of pain, temperature, and tactile sensation in his left extremities and trunk, while vibratory sensation was normal. Magnetic resonance(MR) imaging revealed a flow-void area in the craniocervical junction and marked narrowing of the medulla oblongata and upper cervical cord by compression of the vertebral arteries(VA). CT myelography also showed the compression and narrowing of the spinal cord. Vertebral angiography demonstrated symmetrical running course of the arteries, which curved medially at the level of craniocervical junction. Suboccipital craniectomy and C1 and upper half of C2 laminectomies were performed. After dural opening, the ventrolateral aspects of the lower medulla oblongata and the upper cervical cord were found to be compressed by the VA. The arteries were retracted dorsolaterally by GORE-TEX tapes so as to decompress the medulla oblongata and cervical cord, and the tapes were anchored to the residual part of C1 posterior arch. Postoperative MR imaging and CT myelography showed complete decompression, and the patient was relieved of his previous neurological symptoms.

  7. TERT promoter mutations are associated with distant metastases in upper tract urothelial carcinomas and serve as urinary biomarkers detected by a sensitive castPCR

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Yuan, Xiaotian; Liu, Jikai; Kong, Feng; Wang, Chang; Ren, Hongbo; Yan, Keqiang; Hu, Sanyuan; Xu, Zhonghua; Björkholm, Magnus; Fan, Yidong; Zhao, Shengtian; Liu, Cheng; Xu, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    TERT promoter C228T and C250T mutations occur in various malignancies including bladder cancer (BC) and may serve as urinary tumor markers. However, the mutation association with clinical variables in upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUCs) is unclear. There is also a lack of sensitive tools to detect the minor mutant TERT promoter in bulk urinary DNA. Here we analyzed 220 UTUC patients [98 with renal pelvic carcinoma (RPC) and 122 with ureter carcinoma (UC)] and developed a Competitive Allele-Specific TaqMan PCR (castPCR) for urinary assay. We identified C228T or C250T mutations in 42 of 98 (43%) RPC and 23 of 122 (19%) UC tumors. Distant metastases were significantly correlated with UTUC patients harboring TERT promoter mutations (P = 0.001). C228T were detected in 6/10 and 9/10 of urine samples from patients with mutation-carrying tumors using Sanger sequencing and castPCR, respectively. When urine samples from 70 BC patients were analyzed together, the sensitivity of urinary C228T assay was 89% and 50% for castPCR and Sanger sequencing, respectively (P < 0.001). Collectively, TERT promoter mutations occur in UTUCs with a high frequency in RPCs and predict distant metastasis. castPCR assays of the mutation are a useful tool for urine-based diagnostics of urological malignancies. PMID:25474136

  8. Bilateral central vein stenosis: options for dialysis access and renal replacement therapy when all upper extremity access possibilities have been lost.

    PubMed

    Aitken, Emma; Jackson, Andrew J; Kasthuri, Ram; Kingsmore, David B

    2014-01-01

    Patients with bilateral central vein stenosis present a unique challenge: treatment options are limited, largely unproven and associated with reputedly poor outcomes. Our aim was to compare patency rates of different access and renal replacement treatment (RRT) modalities in patients with bilateral central vein stenosis/occlusion. Data on all patients presenting to a tertiary referral vascular access centre with end-stage vascular access (defined by bilateral central vein stenosis/occlusion with loss of upper limb access) over a 5-year period were included. 3, 6 and 12-month patencies of translumbar catheters (TLs), tunnelled femoral catheters (Fem), native long saphenous vein loops (SV), prosthetic mid-thigh loop grafts (ThGr), peritoneal dialysis (PD), and expedited donation after cardiac death (DCD) cadaveric renal transplants (Tx) via local allocation policies were compared using log-rank test. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to estimate long-term access survival. One hundred forty-six vascular access modalities were attempted in 62 patients (62 Fem, 25 TL, 15 SV, 25 ThGr, 8 PD, 11 Tx). Median follow-up was 876±57 days. Three, 6 and 12-month primary-assisted patencies for each modality were as follows: Fem: 75.4%, 60% and 28%; TL: 88%, 65% and 50%; SV: 87.5%, 60% and 44.6%; ThGr: 64%, 38% and 23.5%; PD: 62.5%, 62.5% and 50%; Tx: 72.7%, 72.7% and 72.7%. SV had better secondary patency at 900 days (76.9%) than ThGr (49.2%) or Fem (35.8%) (p<0.01). No patients died as a result of loss of access. Patients with bilateral central vein stenosis often require more than one vascular access modality to achieve a "personal access solution." Native long saphenous vein loops provided the best long-term patency. Expedited renal transplantation with priority local allocation of DCD organs to patients with precarious vascular access provides a potential solution to this difficult problem.

  9. Proprioceptive performance of bilateral upper and lower limb joints: side-general and site-specific effects.

    PubMed

    Han, Jia; Anson, Judith; Waddington, Gordon; Adams, Roger

    2013-05-01

    Superiority of the left upper limb in proprioception tasks performed by right-handed individuals has been attributed to better utilization of proprioceptive information by a non-preferred arm/hemisphere system. However, it is undetermined whether this holds for multiple upper and lower limb joints. Accordingly, the present study tested active movement proprioception at four pairs of upper and lower limb joints, after selecting twelve participants with both strong right arm and right leg preference. A battery of versions of the active movement extent discrimination apparatus were employed to generate the stimuli for movements of different extents at the ankle, knee, shoulder and fingers on the right and left sides of the body, and discrimination scores were derived from participants' responses. Proprioceptive performance on the non-preferred left side was significantly better than the preferred right side at all four joints tested (overall F 1, 11 = 36.36, p < 0.001, partial η (2) = 0.77). In the 8 × 8 matrix formed by all joints, only correlations between the proprioceptive accuracy scores for the right and left sides at the same joint were significant (ankles 0.93, knees 0.89, shoulders 0.87, fingers 0.91, p ≤ 0.001; all others r ≤ 0.40, p ≥ 0.20). The results point to both a side-general effect and a site-specific effect in the integration of proprioceptive information during active movement tasks, whereby the non-preferred limb/hemisphere system is specialized in the utilization of the best proprioceptive sources available at each specific joint, but the combination of sources employed differs between body sites.

  10. Diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control increases bladder cancer recurrence risk in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tai, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chung-Hsin; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Tai, Huai-Chin; Wang, Sho-Mon; Pu, Yeong-Shiau

    2015-03-01

    The association of diabetes mellitus and bladder cancer recurrence following radical nephroureterectomies (RNUs) in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) was investigated. Between January 1996 and March 2009, 538 patients with UTUC who received RNU and had no previous bladder cancer histories were enrolled. The clinicopathological characteristics were obtained and used for the analysis of metachronous bladder recurrence by using Cox proportional hazard model. The diabetic patients (N = 104, 19.3%) were elderly (72 vs 67 years, p < 0.001) and had more hypertension (56.7 vs 34.5%, p < 0.001) as compared with non-diabetic patients. There was no significant difference in the rest of clinicopathological characteristics between patient groups. During the median follow-up duration of 51 months, bladder recurrences were discovered in 47.1 and 33.1% of diabetic and non-diabetic patients with UTUC, respectively. Poorly controlled diabetic patients (HbA1c  ≥ 7.0%) exhibited a shorter duration of bladder cancer recurrence-free survival as compared with those with good glycemic controlled diabetes mellitus and without diabetes mellitus (log-rank test, p < 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). In the multivariate analysis, male gender [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.67, p = 0.017], ureteral tumour (HR = 1.61, p = 0.020), end-stage renal disease (HR = 2.09, p = 0.030) and diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control (HR = 2.10, p < 0.018) independently predicted bladder recurrence after RNU. Diabetes mellitus with poor glycemic control (HbA1c  ≥ 7.0%) increases the risk of subsequent bladder cancer recurrence. These results underscore the need for intensive glycemic control and close follow-up for diabetic patients. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Computed tomography-urography for upper urinary tract imaging: is it required for all patients who present with hematuria?

    PubMed

    Cauberg, Evelyne C C; Nio, C Y; de la Rosette, Jean M C H; Laguna, M Pilar; de Reijke, Theo M

    2011-11-01

    To define in which patients who present with microscopic or macroscopic hematuria CT urography (CTU) is indicated as an imaging mode for the upper urinary tract (UUT). We conducted a prospective study on consecutive patients who attended a modern protocol-driven hematuria clinic from January 2006 to February 2010. Standard tests (history taking, physical examination, urinalysis via dipstick method, ultrasonography of kidneys and bladder performed by urologists, cystoscopy, and cytology) were directed to all patients, whereas the mode of additional UUT imaging (ultrasonography by a radiologist or four-phase CTU/magnetic resonance (MR) urography (MRU) when CTU was contraindicated) was selected according to a risk factor-based management algorithm. The added value of cross-sectional urography (CTU/MRU) supplementary to ultrasonography (by urologists) to detect renal masses, UUT tumors, and stones was assessed. Univariate and multivariate analysis on predictive factors for cross-sectional urography result were performed. From the total of 841 patients, lesions that might account for hematuria could not be identified in 462 (54.9%), whereas in 250 (29.7%) and 124 (14.7%) patients, hematuria was from benign and malignant disease, respectively. Cross-sectional urography revealed relevant UUT lesions in 73 of 525 (13.9%) patients. Only result of ultrasonography (odds ratio [OR] 7.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.0-14.9), P<0.001) and type of hematuria (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.1, P=0.01) were significant predictors for cross-sectional urography result. In 44 of 456 (9.6%) patients with no abnormalities on ultrasonography, CTU/MRU revealed that these were false negatives, with most lesions missed being stones. In 253 of 309 (81.9%) patients with macroscopic hematuria, no lesions were detected in the UUT on CTU/MRU, in contrast to 199 of 216 patients (92.1%) with microscopic hematuria. For patients who present with microscopic hematuria, ultrasonography is sufficient to exclude

  12. Bilateral Ureteral Obstruction in Children after Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Grande, M.; Lisi, G.; Bianchi, D.; Bove, P.; Miano, R.; Esser, A.; De Sanctis, F.; Neri, A.; Grande, S.; Villa, M.

    2015-01-01

    Acute renal failure due to bilateral ureteral obstruction is a rare complication after appendectomy in children. We report a case of bilateral ureteric obstruction in a 14-year-old boy nine days after surgery for an acute appendicitis. After saline-filling of the urinary bladder, transabdominal ultrasound demonstrated bilateral hydronephrosis of moderate degree. No abscess was found with CT but presence of millimetric stones on both distal ureters was shown, with bilateral calyceal dilatation. Cystoscopy revealed inflammatory changes in the bladder base. Following introduction of bilateral ureteric stents, there was rapid normalisation of urinary output and serum creatinine. PMID:26295001

  13. Bilateral force transients in the upper limbs evoked by single-pulse microstimulation in the pontomedullary reticular formation

    PubMed Central

    Hirschauer, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in the pontomedullary reticular formation (PMRF) give rise to the reticulospinal tract. The motor output of the PMRF was investigated using stimulus-triggered averaging of electromyography (EMG) and force recordings in two monkeys (M. fascicularis). EMG was recorded from 12 pairs of upper limb muscles, and forces were detected using two isometric force-sensitive handles. Of 150 stimulation sites, 105 (70.0%) produced significant force responses, and 139 (92.5%) produced significant EMG responses. Based on the average flexor EMG onset latency of 8.3 ms and average force onset latency of 15.9 ms poststimulation, an electromechanical delay of ∼7.6 ms was calculated. The magnitude of force responses (∼10 mN) was correlated with the average change in EMG activity (P < 0.001). A multivariate linear regression analysis was used to estimate the contribution of each muscle to force generation, with flexors and extensors exhibiting antagonistic effects. A predominant force output pattern of ipsilateral flexion and contralateral extension was observed in response to PMRF stimulation, with 65.3% of significant ipsilateral force responses directed medially and posteriorly (P < 0.001) and 78.6% of contralateral responses directed laterally and anteriorly (P < 0.001). This novel approach permits direct measurement of force outputs evoked by central nervous system microstimulation. Despite the small magnitude of poststimulus EMG effects, low-intensity single-pulse microstimulation of the PMRF evoked detectable forces. The forces, showing the combined effect of all muscle activity in the arms, are consistent with reciprocal pattern of force outputs from the PMRF detectable with stimulus-triggered averaging of EMG. PMID:25652926

  14. Non-transitional cell carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: A case series among 305 cases at a tertiary urology institute

    PubMed Central

    Elawdy, Mohamed Mohamed; Taha, Diaa-Eldin; Osman, Yasser; El-Hamid, Mohamed Abd; El-Mekresh, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    Non-transitional cell carcinomas (non-TCC) of the upper urinary tract as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma (SmCC) are rare with few case reports in the literature. We retrospectively reviewed our patients who surgically treated for upper tract urothelial carcinoma from 1983 to 2013 for non-TCC pathological cancer characteristics and survival. Among 305 patients, only 5 (1.6%) cases were found: One case of SmCC, another had adenocarcinoma, and 3 SCC cases. None of them had intravesical recurrence and the cancer-specific survival for non-TCC cohort is markedly decreased (log-rank = 0.01) compared to TCC patients. PMID:28216943

  15. Bilateral xanthogranulomatous orchitis in a tetraplegic patient.

    PubMed

    Val-Bernal, J Fernando; Argueta, Liza; Fernández-Flórez, Alejandro; Correas, Miguel Angel; Val, Daniel; Garijo, M Francisca; López-Rasines, Gerardo

    2012-01-15

    Xanthogranulomatous orchitis (XGO) is a rare chronic inflammatory process characterized by destruction of tissue that is replaced by an outstanding cellular infiltrate of lipid-laden macrophages. To date, 20 cases of this process have been reported previously. We present herein the case of a 55-year-old man who had sustained complete tetraplegia at C-6 level and neuropathic bladder for 21 years. After repeated episodes of urinary tract infection, the patient developed a bilateral XGO and a right xanthogranulomatous epididymitis (XGE) that were treated with bilateral orchiepididymectomy. To our knowledge, a bilateral XGO has not yet been reported. Repeated episodes of high-pressure urinary reflux along the vas deferens during dyssynergic voiding possibly led to retrograde extension from the urinary tract by common urinary pathogens and development of bilateral XGO and right XGE. Since tissue destruction is a feature of this process, curative treatment required antibiotic therapy followed by bilateral excision of testes and epididymes.

  16. A novel computed method to reconstruct the bilateral digital interarticular channel of atlas and its use on the anterior upper cervical screw fixation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ai-Min; Wang, Wenhai; Xu, Hui; Lin, Zhong-Ke; Yang, Xin-Dong; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-Zi; Chi, Yong-Long

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate a novel computed method to reconstruct the bilateral digital interarticular channel of atlas and its potential use on the anterior upper cervical screw fixation. Methods. We have used the reverse engineering software (image-processing software and computer-aided design software) to create the approximate and optimal digital interarticular channel of atlas for 60 participants. Angles of channels, diameters of inscribed circles, long and short axes of ellipses were measured and recorded, and gender-specific analysis was also performed. Results. The channels provided sufficient space for one or two screws, and the parameters of channels are described. While the channels of females were smaller than that of males, no significant difference of angles between males and females were observed. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates the radiological features of approximate digital interarticular channels, optimal digital interarticular channels of atlas, and provides the reference trajectory of anterior transarticular screws and anterior occiput-to-axis screws. Additionally, we provide a protocol that can help make a pre-operative plan for accurate placement of anterior transarticular screws and anterior occiput-to-axis screws.

  17. A novel computed method to reconstruct the bilateral digital interarticular channel of atlas and its use on the anterior upper cervical screw fixation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ai-Min; Wang, Wenhai; Xu, Hui; Lin, Zhong-Ke; Yang, Xin-Dong; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Xu, Hua-Zi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate a novel computed method to reconstruct the bilateral digital interarticular channel of atlas and its potential use on the anterior upper cervical screw fixation. Methods. We have used the reverse engineering software (image-processing software and computer-aided design software) to create the approximate and optimal digital interarticular channel of atlas for 60 participants. Angles of channels, diameters of inscribed circles, long and short axes of ellipses were measured and recorded, and gender-specific analysis was also performed. Results. The channels provided sufficient space for one or two screws, and the parameters of channels are described. While the channels of females were smaller than that of males, no significant difference of angles between males and females were observed. Conclusion. Our study demonstrates the radiological features of approximate digital interarticular channels, optimal digital interarticular channels of atlas, and provides the reference trajectory of anterior transarticular screws and anterior occiput-to-axis screws. Additionally, we provide a protocol that can help make a pre-operative plan for accurate placement of anterior transarticular screws and anterior occiput-to-axis screws. PMID:26925345

  18. Endourological treatment of bilateral ureteral stones in bilateral ureteral duplication with right ureterocele

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Volkan; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Yonguc, Tarık; Bozkurt, Ibrahim Halil; Polat, Salih; Basmaci, Ismail

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral collecting system duplication is a very rare abnormality, including the splitting of the ureteric bud. Complete ureteral duplication with two separate openings in the urinary bladder is also extremely rare. To the best of our knowledge, we present the first case of bilateral ureteral stones in bilateral duplicated collecting system. PMID:26279727

  19. [Human activities, hydro-agricultural management and urinary schistosomiasis. Methodological approach and results (a preliminary study in Upper-Volta)].

    PubMed

    Le Bras, M; Faucher, P; Giap, G; Meric, D; Commenges, D; Villenave, D; Camara, S; Gatheron, C; Appriou, M

    1982-01-01

    In the schistosomiasis endemic sub-sahelian region, a study of the prevalence of the disease was carried out on three different areas: the highest was around a small river, the lowest in the hydro-agricultural management region, mean prevalence was noted around a natural lake. Human activities have been classified with regards to the areas of transmission. Activity is closely linked to prevalence. For the populations, symptoms of urinary schistosomiasis (Rudzenga) constitute a real disease, traditional healers are the masters of earth (Tengsoba), water has hardly any importance in transmission.

  20. Preoperative controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score as a novel predictive biomarker of survival in patients with localized urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract treated with radical nephroureterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hiroki; Kondo, Tsunenori; Yoshida, Kazuhiko; Omae, Kenji; Takagi, Toshio; Iizuka, Junpei; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the controlling nutritional status (CONUT) score and survival of patients with localized urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). We retrospectively enrolled 107 patients. CONUT score was calculated based on the serum albumin concentration, lymphocyte count, and total cholesterol concentration. Patients were classified into 2 groups based on CONUT score. Relapse-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) after RNU were compared between the 2 groups, and predictors of survival were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. For CONUT score, the area under the curve was 0.588 and the optimal cutoff value was 3. Twenty-four patients (22.4%) had high CONUT scores. The patients with high CONUT scores had significantly shorter 5-year RFS, CSS, and OS than did those with low CONUT scores (RFS: 50.1% vs. 66.0%; CSS: 28.1% vs. 71.7%; OS: 26.4% vs. 66.8%; all P<0.05). Results of the multivariable analysis, after adjustment for factors such as pT stage, pN stage, tumor grade, presence of lymphovascular invasion, and C-reactive protein level, revealed that CONUT score was an independent predictor of CSS (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.44, P = 0.0016) and OS (HR = 2.90, P = 0.0214) and showed marginal significance for predicting RFS (HR = 2.26, P = 0.0581). Preoperative CONUT score helps predict survival in patients with localized urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract treated with RNU. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A comparison of the clinical outcome between open and hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Thomas Y; Huang, Yi-Hsiu; Chiu, Allen W; Shen, Kun-Hung; Lee, Ying-Huei

    2004-10-01

    To report the surgical outcome of retroperitoneoscopic hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) with bladder cuff excision for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), and to compare the outcome with that of the open procedure (ONU). From January 1998 to January 2003, 145 patients with upper urinary tract TCC were enrolled in the study; 87 had ONU and 58 retroperitoneoscopic hand-assisted LNU. The specimens were reviewed by experienced pathologists to confirm the pathological stage. Operative duration, intraoperative blood loss, bowel recovery, analgesic use, hospital stay and time to convalescence were compared for both groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS The mean follow-up for ONU and LNU was 35.1 and 16.0 months, the mean operative duration 230.2 and 259.1 min (P = 0.006), the mean blood loss 747.3 and 408.9 mL (P < 0.001), the mean duration of Foley catheterization 6.8 and 5.1 days (P < 0.001), and the hospital stay 12.6 and 9.3 days (P < 0.001). The bladder recurrence rate 2 years after surgery was 9.1% for ONU and 8.6% for LNU (P = 0.23); the local recurrence rate during the follow-up was 3.4% and none, respectively (P = 0.35). Although LNU took longer than ONU the intraoperative bleeding and hospital stay were better than for ONU. Both procedures have statistically comparable bladder recurrence and local recurrence rates.

  2. Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway enhances cancer cell invasion by upregulating the MMP expression and is associated with poor prognosis in upper urinary tract urothelial cancer.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Masaru; Mikami, Shuji; Kikuchi, Eiji; Kosaka, Takeo; Miyajima, Akira; Nakagawa, Ken; Mukai, Makio; Okada, Yasunori; Oya, Mototsugu

    2010-02-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the activation of the AhR pathway are involved in xenobiotic-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis. Although xenobiotics, such as cigarette smoke, contribute to the development of urothelial carcinoma (UC), the relationship between AhR and UC is unclear. In the present study, we investigated AhR expression in 209 patients with upper urinary tract UC. The nuclear expression of AhR was significantly associated with histological grade, pathological T stage, lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement. A multivariate Cox analysis revealed that nuclear AhR expression was a significant and independent predictor for disease-specific survival (hazard ratio = 2.469, P = 0.013). To determine whether the AhR pathway can be activated in the T24 UC cell line, we examined the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1, which are target genes of the AhR pathway, following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a ligand of AhR. TCDD treatment upregulated the expression levels of AhR, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. TCDD enhanced T24 cell invasion associated with the upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-9. Furthermore, targeting AhR messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in T24 cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) downregulated the mRNA expression of AhR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, MMP-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9; furthermore, the cells transfected with siRNA for AhR showed decreased invasion activity in comparison with the cells transfected with a non-targeting siRNA. Our results therefore suggest that AhR plays a role in the invasiveness of UC cells and can serve as a marker for the prognosis of upper urinary tract UC.

  3. Neonatal imperforate hymen causing obstruction of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Johal, Navroop S; Bogris, Sotirios; Mushtaq, Imran

    2009-04-01

    An imperforate hymen associated with urinary retention, bilateral hydronephrosis, and bilateral hydrosalpinx is extremely rare in the neonatal period. We present a case of a 2-day-old neonate with a marked interlabial swelling causing urinary retention. Imaging revealed hydrometrocolpos, hydrosalpinx, and bilateral hydronephrosis. Her symptoms resolved after hymenectomy.

  4. Detailed evaluation of the upper urinary tract in patients with prune belly syndrome using magnetic resonance urography.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Roig, M L; Grattan-Smith, J D; Arlen, A M; Smith, E A; Kirsch, A J

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic resonance urography (MRU) has proven to be useful in the setting of complex urologic anatomy. Prune belly syndrome (PBS) patients are known to have malformed and highly variable urinary tract anatomy due to significant dilation and renal dysplasia. To further characterize the renal and ureteral anatomy and renal function in patients with PBS via MRU. Children with PBS undergoing MRU (2006-2011) were identified. Studies were performed to evaluate severe hydronephrosis in all patients. Demographics, previous imaging, and MRU findings were collected. A single radiologist reviewed all studies. MRU was performed on 13 boys, with a median age of 29.3 months (IQR 6-97). Two patients underwent >1 study for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJ obstruction) and calyceal diverticulum with a solitary kidney, respectively. Hydroureteronephrosis (HUN) was identified in 12 boys (92%), while one (8%) did not have ureteral dilation. All patients demonstrated morphologic abnormalities beyond HUN as follows: five (38%) renal dysplasia; five (38%) scarring; four (31%) calyceal diverticula; and three (23%) thickened bladder. The median renal transit time (RTT) was 6 min (IQR 3.5-10.5), and >8 min (range 8.5-35) in six patients; one patient was ultimately diagnosed with obstruction. The mean serum creatinine was 0.5 ± 0.3 mg/dl. This summary figure is a coronal excretory phase T1 MRU image demonstrating absence of well-defined calyces and a 5-cm calyceal diverticulum (white arrow). This study reports significant anatomic and functional findings on MRU that were not readily apparent when using standard imaging for children with PBS. The high-resolution images and functional data obtained with MRU allowed for visualization of calyceal diverticula and abnormal renal pelvic anatomy not previously described in PBS. In addition, renal dysplasia could be identified with MRU, which is badly characterized in the PBS population outside of renal biopsy studies. Potential limitations

  5. Intraoperative prognostic factors and atypical patterns of recurrence in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma treated with laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy.

    PubMed

    Carrion, Albert; Huguet, Jorge; García-Cruz, Eduard; Izquierdo, Laura; Mateu, Laura; Musquera, Mireia; Ribal, Maria José; Alcaraz, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to identify clinical, intraoperative and pathological prognostic factors for predicting extraurothelial recurrence and cancer-specific survival (CSS) in patients with upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) who had undergone laparoscopic radical nephroureterectomy (LRNU), and to investigate the site-specific patterns of recurrence and the associated outcomes. Materials and methods A retrospective revision was undertaken of 117 consecutive patients who had undergone transperitoneal LRNU for UTUC between 2007 and 2012. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to identify prognostic factors and Kaplan-Meier was used to estimate CSS. Results With a median follow-up of 20 months, 36 patients (30%) developed extraurothelial recurrence (local and/or distant). In the multivariate analysis, entering the urinary tract during LRNU was related to local recurrence (p = 0.04), management of the distal ureter to CSS (p = 0.003), pathological stage and positive margins to local (p = 0.001, p = 0.013), distant (p = 0.028, p = 0.009) and global recurrence (p = 0.05, p = 0.012) and CSS (p = 0.011, p = 0.042), and multifocality to distant recurrence (p = 0.024). Median time to recurrence was 11.4 months after LRNU. Of 36 patients with progression, 23 (64%) had simultaneous local and distant recurrence and eight had atypical metastases: two port-site metastases, five peritoneal, two subcutaneous and two abdominal wall implants. The 5 year CSS was 61% for all patients with UTUC and 9% for those with recurrence. Conclusions Intraoperative events could have a negative impact on the oncological outcomes of patients with UTUC treated with LRNU. The use of laparoscopy for advanced UTUC may be related to atypical ways of spreading.

  6. Comprehensive MR Urography Protocol: Equally Good Diagnostic Performance and Enhanced Visibility of the Upper Urinary Tract Compared to Triple-Phase CT Urography

    PubMed Central

    Sudah, Mazen; Masarwah, Amro; Kainulainen, Sakari; Pitkänen, Marja; Matikka, Hanna; Dabravolskaite, Vaiva; Aaltomaa, Sirpa; Vanninen, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance and the visualization of the upper urinary tract (UUT) using a comprehensive 3.0T- magnetic resonance urography (MRU) protocol versus triple-phase computed tomography urography (CTU). Methods During the study period (January-2014 through December-2015), all consecutive patients in our tertiary university hospital scheduled by a urologist for CTU to exclude UUT malignancy were invited to participate. Diagnostic performance and visualization scores of 3.0T-MRU were compared to CTU using Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. Results Twenty patients (39 UUT excreting units) were evaluated. 3.0T-MRU and CTU achieved equal diagnostic performances. The benign etiology of seven UUT obstructions was clarified equally with both methods. Another two urinary tract malignant tumors and one benign extraurinary tumor were detected and confirmed. Diagnostic visualization was slightly better in the intrarenal cavity areas with CTU but worsened towards distal ureter. MRU showed consistently slightly better visualization of the ureter. In the comparison, full 100% visualizations were detected in all areas in 93.6% (with 3.0T-MRU) and 87.2% (with CTU) and >75% visualization in 100% (3.0T-MRU) and 93.6% (CTU). Mean CTU effective radiation dose was 9.2 mSv. Conclusions Comprehensive 3.0T-MRU is an accurate imaging modality achieving comparable performance with CTU; since it does not entail exposure to radiation, it has the potential to become the primary investigation technique in selected patients. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02606513 PMID:27384417

  7. Comprehensive MR Urography Protocol: Equally Good Diagnostic Performance and Enhanced Visibility of the Upper Urinary Tract Compared to Triple-Phase CT Urography.

    PubMed

    Sudah, Mazen; Masarwah, Amro; Kainulainen, Sakari; Pitkänen, Marja; Matikka, Hanna; Dabravolskaite, Vaiva; Aaltomaa, Sirpa; Vanninen, Ritva

    2016-01-01

    To prospectively compare the diagnostic performance and the visualization of the upper urinary tract (UUT) using a comprehensive 3.0T- magnetic resonance urography (MRU) protocol versus triple-phase computed tomography urography (CTU). During the study period (January-2014 through December-2015), all consecutive patients in our tertiary university hospital scheduled by a urologist for CTU to exclude UUT malignancy were invited to participate. Diagnostic performance and visualization scores of 3.0T-MRU were compared to CTU using Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. Twenty patients (39 UUT excreting units) were evaluated. 3.0T-MRU and CTU achieved equal diagnostic performances. The benign etiology of seven UUT obstructions was clarified equally with both methods. Another two urinary tract malignant tumors and one benign extraurinary tumor were detected and confirmed. Diagnostic visualization was slightly better in the intrarenal cavity areas with CTU but worsened towards distal ureter. MRU showed consistently slightly better visualization of the ureter. In the comparison, full 100% visualizations were detected in all areas in 93.6% (with 3.0T-MRU) and 87.2% (with CTU) and >75% visualization in 100% (3.0T-MRU) and 93.6% (CTU). Mean CTU effective radiation dose was 9.2 mSv. Comprehensive 3.0T-MRU is an accurate imaging modality achieving comparable performance with CTU; since it does not entail exposure to radiation, it has the potential to become the primary investigation technique in selected patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02606513.

  8. Comparative study of oncologic outcome of laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and standard nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Daisuke; Saika, Takashi; Ebara, Shin; Uehara, Shinya; Nagai, Atsushi; Fujita, Ryuji; Irie, Shin; Yamada, Daisuke; Tsushima, Tomoyasu; Nasu, Yasutomo; Kumon, Hiromi

    2007-03-01

    To determine the oncologic safety of laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU), we compared the long-term oncologic outcome of LNU versus open nephroureterectomy (ONU) in patients with upper tract transitional cell carcinoma. A total of 367 nephroureterectomy procedures were performed at our institutes for upper tract transitional cell carcinoma without distant metastases. Of 224 patients without concomitant or previous bladder cancer, 58 underwent LNU with open intact specimen retrieval plus open distal ureter and bladder cuff removal and 166 underwent ONU. Their data were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. The mean follow-up was 13.6 months (range 14 to 34) for the LNU group and 28.0 months (range 14 to 36) for the ONU group. Bladder recurrence was recognized in 19 patients (32.8%) after LNU at a median follow-up of 5.6 months compared with 63 patients (38.0%) after ONU. Local recurrence only developed in 2 patients (1.1%) after ONU. One port site metastasis occurred in a patient who had undergone LNU. Distant metastases developed in 10 patients (17.2 %) after LNU and 33 patients (19.9%) after ONU. The frequency of bladder recurrence, local recurrence, and distant metastases did not differ significantly between the two groups. The actual disease-free 2-year survival rates were similar (75.6% versus 81.7%). In all patients, the risk of metastases and death increased with advanced tumor stage and grade, but not by surgical procedure. In the surgical management of upper tract transitional cell carcinoma, LNU does not negatively affect long-term oncologic control and can be considered an alternative modality. Tumor stage and grade are, however, important prognostic factors in the incidence of metastases and cancer-specific mortality.

  9. Bilateral renal calculi

    PubMed Central

    Sreenevasan, G

    1974-01-01

    Bilateral renal calculi were present in 114 (10.7%) of 1,070 cases of proved urinary calculus admitted to the Urological Department of the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, during the period November 1968—May 1973. The management of bilateral renal calculi is discussed with reference to the first 100 cases in this series. The introduction of renography has greatly facilitated the decision as to which kidney should be operated on first. The management of patients with and without uraemia is discussed and the use of the modified V and V—Y incisions for the removal of staghorn calculi is described. Complications and results are briefly reviewed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 4Fig. 6Fig. 7 PMID:4845653

  10. Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract: comparison between the WHO/ISUP 1998 consensus classification and WHO 1999 classification system.

    PubMed

    Holmäng, Sten; Johansson, Sonny L

    2005-08-01

    To compare the usefulness of World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Urological Pathologists 1998 consensus classification with the WHO 1999 classification in a large series of urothelial tumors of the upper urinary tract. Only a few bladder tumor studies have compared these systems. A clinical and histopathologic review was performed of all patients diagnosed in western Sweden between 1971 and 1998 with renal pelvic or ureteral carcinoma. We selected 555 surgically treated patients who all had a urothelial tumor on review of the pathologic findings and no bladder tumor before diagnosis of the upper tract tumor. The median follow-up was 52 months. Disease-specific survival was calculated using Kaplan-Meier estimates. A total of 349 patients had Stage pTa, pT1, or pT2 tumor, with a 5-year disease-specific survival rate of 95%, 80%, and 79%, respectively. No significant difference was found in the prognosis among papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential and low-grade and high-grade tumors of the same stage. Nor was a difference found among papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential and grade 1, 2, and 3 tumors. Of the 349 patients, 171, all with high-grade Stage pT3 tumors, had a 35% disease-specific survival rate. Of these tumors, 38 were grade 2 and 133 were grade 3, with a survival rate of 49% and 25%, respectively (P <0.0037). All 35 pT4 tumors were high grade, and no patient survived past 30 months. Tumor stage was a very strong predictor of prognosis in this series of patients treated with open surgery. The tumor grade had little additional prognostic value, although a small advantage was found for the WHO 1999 classification, but only for high-grade, Stage pT3 tumors.

  11. TREATMENT EFFECTS OF WST11 VASCULAR TARGETED PHOTODYNAMIC THERAPY IN UROTHELIAL CELL CARCINOMA AND FEASIBILITY, SAFETY, AND LONG TERM OUTCOMES IN THE UPPER URINARY TRACT OF SWINE

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Katie S; Winter, Ashley G; Corradi, Renato Beluco; LaRosa, Stephen; Jebiwott, Sylvia; Somma, Alexander; Takaki, Haruyuki; Srimathveeravalli, Govindarajan; Lepherd, Michelle; Monette, Sebastien; Kim, Kwanghee; Scherz, Avigdor; Coleman, Jonathan A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Surgical management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma requires removal of kidney and ureter, compromising renal function. Non-surgical alternatives have potentially prohibitive safety concerns. We examine the feasibility and safety of ablation of the ureter and renal pelvis using endoluminal vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy in a porcine model and report efficacy of WST11 vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy in a murine model. Materials and Methods Following approval, we performed 28 endoluminal ablations in the ureters and renal pelvis of 18 swine. Intravenous infusion of WST11 (4mg/kg) followed by laser illumination (10 minutes) was performed via percutaneous access or retrograde ureteroscopic approach. Animals were followed clinically with laboratory testing, imaging and histology was evaluated at several post-ablation time points. A murine xenograft was created with the 5637 human urothelial cell carcinoma line to determine sensitivity to this therapy. Results At 24 hours, 50 mW/cm laser fluence produced superficial necrosis of the ureter and deeper necrosis (penetrating the muscularis propria or adventitia) was produced by treatment with 200 mW/cm in the ureter and renal pelvis. At 4 weeks, superficial urothelium had regenerated over the treatment site. No symptomatic obstruction, clinically relevant hydronephrosis, or abnormality of lab testing was noted up to 4 weeks. In mice, 80% had no evidence of tumor at 19 days after WST11 vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy. Conclusions Urothelial cell carcinoma appears to be sensitive to WST11 vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy. Depth of WST11 vascular-targeted photodynamic therapy treatment effects can be modulated in a dose-dependent manner by titration of light intensity. Moreover, this treatment modality, applied to the porcine upper urinary tract, is feasible via antegrade and retrograde access. PMID:26860792

  12. Comparing non contrast computerized tomography criteria versus dual X-ray absorptiometry as predictors of radio-opaque upper urinary tract stone fragmentation after electromagnetic shockwave lithotripsy.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Diaa A; Elgammal, Mohammed A; ElGanainy, Ehab O; Hageb, Adel; Mohammed, Khaled; El-Taher, Ahmed Mohamed; Mostafa, Mostafa Mohamed; Ahmed, Abdelfatah Ibrahim

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in comparison to non contrast computed tomography (NCCT) density as possible predictors of upper urinary tract stone disintegration by shock wave lithotripsy (SWL). This study included 100 consecutive patients, with solitary renal stone 0.5-2 cm or upper ureteral stone up to 1 cm. DXA to calculate stone mineral density (SMD) and stone mineral content (SMC) was done. NCCT was performed to measure Hounsfield units (HU). SWL was performed with an electromagnetic lithotripsy, plain X-ray documented disintegration after SWL. Successful treatment was defined as stone free or complete fragmentation after 1 or 2 sessions of SWL. The impact of patients age, sex, body mass index, stone laterality, location, volume, length, mean SMC and SMD, HU and Hounsfield density (HD), skin to stone distance (SSD) and number of shock waves were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Only 76 patients were available for follow-up. Success of disintegration was observed in 50 out of 76 patients (65.8 %). On multivariate analysis, SMC and number of shock wave were the significant independent factors affecting SWL outcome (p = 0.04 and p = 0.000, respectively). SMC as detected by DXA is a significant predictor of success of stone disintegration by SWL. SMC measured by DXA is more accurate than HU measured by CT. Patients with high stone mineral content (SMC greater than 0.65 g) should be directly offered another treatment option.

  13. Sarcopenia predicts survival outcomes among patients with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract undergoing radical nephroureterectomy: a retrospective multi-institution study.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Hiroki; Kondo, Tsunenori; Omae, Kenji; Takagi, Toshio; Iizuka, Junpei; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Tanabe, Kazunari

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effect of sarcopenia, a condition of low muscle mass, on the survival among patients who were undergoing radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract (UCUT). We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients with UCUT (cT[any]N0M0) who underwent RNU between 2003 and 2013 at our department and its affiliated institutions. Preoperative computed tomography images were used to calculate each patient's skeletal muscle index, an indicator of whole-body muscle mass. Sarcopenia was defined according to the sex-specific consensus definitions, based on the patient's skeletal muscle and body mass indexes. We analyzed the relapse-free survival (RFS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS) after RNU to identify factors that predicted patient survival. A total of 137 patients were included, and 90 patients (65.7 %) were diagnosed with sarcopenia. Compared to the non-sarcopenic patients, the sarcopenic patients had a significant inferior 5-year RFS (48.8 vs. 79.6 %, p = 0.0002), CSS (57.1 vs. 92.6 %, p < 0.0001), and OS (48.2 vs. 90.6 %, p < 0.0001). Multivariate analyses revealed that sarcopenia was an independent predictor of shorter RFS, CSS, and OS (all, p < 0.0001). Sarcopenia was an independent predictor of survival among patients with UCUT who were undergoing RNU.

  14. Accuracy of photodynamic diagnosis in the detection and follow-up of patients with upper urinary tract lesions: Initial 3-year experience

    PubMed Central

    Aboumarzouk, Omar M.; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Moseley, Harry; Kata, Slawomir G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of photodynamic diagnostic (PDD) ureterorenoscopy for detecting upper-urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (UUT-TCC) in our initial 3 years, and compare the results with that of white light ureterorenoscopy (WLU). Patients and methods Between August 2007 and March 2010, 32 patients underwent PDD flexible ureterorenoscopy for UUT-TCC. Oral 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) was used as the photosensitiser. The sensitivity, specificity and detection rate of PDD were calculated. Results The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of PDD for detecting abnormal tissue were 96%, 100%, 100% and 88%, compared to the results of WLU of 80%, 86%, 95% and 55%, respectively. PDD was able to detect 96% (24/25) of the abnormal tissue and 96% (21/22) of cancerous tissue, while WLU detected 80% (20/25) of abnormal tissue and 91% (20/22) of the tumour tissue. Three patients of the 32 (10%) developed side-effects related to 5-ALA; two patients developed a facial-skin photosensitive reaction and one developed hypotension. All were treated conservatively, with no long-term effects. Conclusion PDD can be used safely in the UUT, and with a higher sensitivity, specificity and detection rate than standard WLU for detecting UUT tumours. PMID:26558016

  15. Survival analysis in patients with upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma: a comparison between open and hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy.

    PubMed

    Hsueh, Thomas Y; Huang, Yi-Hsiu; Chiu, Allen W; Huan, Steven K; Lee, Ying-Huei

    2007-03-01

    To evaluate the stage- and grade-specific survival rate in patients with upper urinary tract (UUT) transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) after open (ONU) or hand-assisted laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) with bladder-cuff excision. From January 1998 to April 2005, 143 patients with UUT-TCC were treated with either ONU or LNU and enrolled in the study. The peri-operative data were collected by retrospective chart review. The recurrence, metastasis and survival rate were calculated. The 5-year disease-specific survival of patients with pT1 disease was 88.1% after ONU and 92.0% after LNU (P = 0.745); the respective values for patients with pT2 were 11/17 and 12/15 (P = 0.874), and for pT3 were six/11 and 12/15 (P = 0.476). The incidence of bladder recurrence within 2 years after surgery was 24.7% for ONU and 19.7% for LNU (P = 0.475). The results were similar after ONU or LNU with bladder-cuff excision; bladder-cuff excision using a hand-assisted device is effective and serves as a treatment option for patients with UUT-TCC.

  16. Impact of tumour size on prognosis of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma after radical nephroureterectomy: a multi-institutional analysis of 795 cases.

    PubMed

    Shibing, Yan; Liangren, Liu; Qiang, Wei; Hong, Liao; Turun, Song; Junhao, Lei; Lu, Yang; Zhengyong, Yuan; Yonghao, Jiang; Guangqing, Fu; Yunxiang, Li; Dehong, Cao

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the prognostic impact of tumour size on survival outcomes in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Data on 795 patients treated with RNU for UTUC from seven centres were retrospectively analysed with focus on tumour size. Clinicopathological features and relevant prognostic factors were compared between patients with tumours ≤3.0 cm and those with tumours >3.0 cm in size. The primary endpoints were cancer-specific survival (CSS), disease recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). At a median follow-up of 32 months, 313 (39.4%) patients died from UTUC, 321 (40.4%) developed cancer recurrence, and 359 (45.1%) died from all causes. Tumour size >3.0 cm was associated with unfavourable clinicopathlogical features. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that tumour size was significantly correlated with worse CSS, RFS and OS (all P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that tumour size was an independent predictor of CSS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.296; P < 0.001), RFS (HR 2.193; P < 0.001) and OS (HR 2.417; P < 0.001). Tumour size >3.0 cm was a significant predictor of CSS, RFS and OS after RNU for patients with UTUC. Further studies are warranted before tumour size is included in risk prediction tools. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Expression of Estrogen Receptor Beta Predicts Oncologic Outcome of pT3 Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma Better Than Aggressive Pathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hao Lun; Sung, Ming Tse; Tsai, Eing Mei; Lin, Chang Shen; Lee, Nai Lun; Chung, Yueh-Hua; Chiang, Po Hui

    2016-01-01

    Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UT-UC) is rare and treatment options or prognostic markers are limited. There is increasing evidence indicating that urothelial carcinoma may be an endocrine-related cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognostic effect of estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) on the outcome of UT-UC. From 2005 to 2012, this study included 105 patients with pT3 UT-UC. Perioperative factors, pathological features, and ERβ immunostaining were reviewed and prognostic effects were examined by multivariate analysis. This study divided patients into either the ERβ-high (n = 52) or ERβ-low (n = 53) group and analyzed their oncologic outcomes. All pathological features except infiltrating tumor architecture (significantly higher incidence in ERβ-low group, p = 0.004) are symmetric in both groups. Low ERβ expression was significantly correlated with local recurrence and distant metastasis in univariate analysis (p = 0.035 and 0.004, respectively) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.05 and 0.008, respectively). Cell line study also proved that knock down of ERβ cause less UTUC proliferation and migration. In addition, ERβ agonist also enhanced the cytotoxic and migration inhibition effect of cisplatin and ERβ antagonist cause the UTUC cell more resistant to cisplatin. This result may help identify patients in need of adjuvant therapy or develop potential targeted therapy. PMID:27052470

  18. Bilateral cellulitis.

    PubMed

    Batra, Vivek; Baras, Alexander

    2015-09-21

    We present a case of bilateral lesions in a 50-year-old man, which were on first impression mistaken for and initially treated as bilateral cellulitis. We propose that bilateral cellulitis, as opposed to unilateral, is rare and that other aetiologies should be considered in evaluating a patient with bilateral lesions. The differential diagnosis includes stasis-dermatitis, lipodermatosclerosis, lymphoedema and vascular lesions such as Kaposi sarcoma, as was identified in this case. Early consultation with dermatology and biopsy in unclear cases mitigates the unnecessary use of prolonged antibiotics, antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile infections. HIV testing is an essential screening test in all adults who present with non-specific viral symptoms and rash.

  19. A Prospective Evaluation of High-Resolution CT Parameters in Predicting Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy Success for Upper Urinary Tract Calculi.

    PubMed

    Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Mosharafa, Ashraf A; Ibrahim, Hamdy; Selim, Hany M; Hamed, Mohamed; Elghoneimy, Mohamed N; Salem, Hosny K; Abdelazim, Mohamed S; Badawy, Hesham

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the ability of noncontrast CT parameters (stone size, stone attenuation, and skin-to-stone distance [SSD]) to predict the outcome of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) in a prospective cohort of patients with renal and upper ureteric stones. Patients with stones 5 to 20 mm were prospectively enrolled from 2011 to 2014. Patients had NCCT with recording of stone size, stone mean attenuation, and SSD, as well as various stone and patient parameters. The numbers of needed sessions as well as the final outcome were determined, with SWL failure defined as residual fragments >3 mm. Predictors of SWL failure were assessed by multiple regression analysis. Two hundred twenty patients (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age 41.5 ± 12.4 years) underwent SWL. Mean ± SD stone size was 11.3 ± 4.1 mm, while mean ± SD stone attenuation was 795.1 ± 340.4 HU. Mean ± SD SSD was 9.4 ± 2.1 cm. The average number of sessions was 1.64. SWL was effective in 186 (84.5%) patients (group A), while 34 (15.5%) patients had significant residual fragments (>3 mm). On univariate analysis, predictors of SWL failure included stone attenuation >1000 HU, older age, higher body mass index, higher attenuation value, larger stone size, and longer SSD. Increased SSD and higher stone attenuation retained their significance as independent predictors of SWL failure (p < 0.05) on multiple regression analysis both after first session and as final SWL outcome. A positive correlation was found between number of SWL sessions and mean stone attenuation (r = 0.6, p < 0.001) and SSD (r = 4, p < 0.001). Stone mean attenuation and SSD on noncontrast CT are significant independent predictors of SWL outcome in patients with renal and ureteric stones. These parameters should be included in clinical decision algorithms for patients with urolithiasis. For patients with stones having mean attenuation of >1000 HU and/or large SSDs, alternatives to

  20. Downregulation of RNF128 Predicts Progression and Poor Prognosis in Patients with Urothelial Carcinoma of the Upper Tract and Urinary Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Ying; Wang, Chieh-Tien; Huang, Steven Kuan-Hua; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Chun-Nung; Li, Ching-Chia; Chan, Ti-Chun; Liang, Peir-In; Hsing, Chung-Hsi; Li, Chien-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background: The TP53 tumor suppressor gene plays a crucial role in the carcinogenesis of many malignancies, including urothelial carcinoma (UC). Overexpression of p53 is associated with poor prognosis in UC. Recently, RING finger protein 128 (RNF128) was shown to be involved in p53-induced apoptosis, forming a negative feedback loop. However, the significance of RNF128 in patients with UC remains unknown. In this study, our aim was to evaluate the expression of RNF128 in UC and to assess its predictive and prognostic value in a well-established cohort. Methods: Through data mining from a published transcriptome (GSE31684), RNF128 was identified as the most differentially expressed gene in UC among those associated with negative regulation of the cytokine biosynthetic process (GO:0042036). Its immunoexpression was further evaluated using the H-scores of 340 patients with upper urinary tract UC (UTUC) and 295 with urinary bladder UC (UBUC). The scores were correlated with clinicopathological features, disease-specific survival (DSS) and metastasis-free survival (MeFS). We also used Western blot analysis to evaluate RNF128 protein expression in human urothelial cell (HUC) lines. Results: Downregulation of RNF128 expression was significantly associated with advanced pT stage (p<0.001), high histological grade (UTUC, p<0.001; UBUC, p=0.035), nodal metastasis (UTUC, p<0.001; UBUC, p=0.001), vascular invasion (UTUC, p<0.001; UBUC, p=0.008) and high mitotic rate (UTUC, p=0.003; UBUC, p=0.023). Low expression of RNF128 was an adverse prognosticator for DSS (UTUC, p<0.0001; UBUC, p<0.0001) and MeFS (UTUC, p<0.0001; UBUC, p=0.0002). Moreover, low expression was predictive of poor DSS (UTUC, p=0.006; UBUC, p=0.003) and MeFS (UTUC, p=0.009; UBUC, p=0.036) in multivariate comparisons. Western blot analysis showed that the RNF128 protein was downregulated in invasive urothelial cancer cell lines. Conclusion: Our findings showed that downregulation of RNF128 was correlated with

  1. Bilateral combined laryngocele

    PubMed Central

    Suqati, Abrar A.; Alherabi, Ameen Z.; Marglani, Osama A.; Alaidarous, Tariq O.

    2016-01-01

    Laryngocele is an uncommon condition that represents a benign dilatation of the laryngeal saccule with air and/or fluid, arising in the region of the laryngeal ventricle. Laryngoceles, or laryngomucocele can be classified as internal, or combined. The aim of presenting this rare case of a bilateral combined laryngocele, are to emphasize the importance of diagnostic laryngoscopy in upper airway pathologies evaluation, increase awareness in the general otolaryngologist community, and to highlight the external surgical method. PMID:27464869

  2. Comparison of oncological outcomes after segmental ureterectomy or radical nephroureterectomy in urothelial carcinomas of the upper urinary tract: results from a large French multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Colin, Pierre; Ouzzane, Adil; Pignot, Géraldine; Ravier, Emmanuel; Crouzet, Sébastien; Ariane, Mehdi M; Audouin, Marie; Neuzillet, Yann; Albouy, Baptiste; Hurel, Sophie; Saint, Fabien; Guillotreau, Julien; Guy, Laurent; Bigot, Pierre; De La Taille, Alexandre; Arroua, Frédéric; Marchand, Charles; Matte, Alexandre; Fais, Pierre O; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2012-10-01

    What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UUT-UCs) are rare tumours. Because of the aggressive pattern of UC, radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) with bladder cuff removal remains the 'gold-standard' treatment. However, conservative strategies, such as segmental ureterectomy (SU) or endourological management, have also been developed in patients with imperative indications. Some teams are now advocating the use of conservative management more commonly in cases of elective indications of UUT-UCs. Due to the paucity of cases of UUT-UC, only limited data are available on the oncological outcomes afforded by conservative management. We retrospectively investigated the oncological outcomes after SU and RNU in a large multi-institutional database. Overall, 52 patients were treated with SU and 416 with RNU. There was no statistical difference between the RNU and SU groups for the 5-year probability of cancer-specific survival, recurrence-free survival and metastasis-free survival. The type of surgery was not a significant prognostic factor in univariate analysis. The results were the same in a subgroup analysis of only unifocal tumours of the distal ureter with a diameter of <2 cm and of low stage (≤T2). Our results suggest that oncological outcomes after conservative treatment with SU are comparable to RNU for the management of UUT-UC in select cases. To compare recurrence-free survival (RFS), metastasis-free survival (MFS) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) after segmental ureterectomy (SU) vs radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the upper urinary tract (UUT-UC) located in the ureter. We performed a multi-institutional retrospective review of patients with UUT-UC who had undergone RNU or SU between 1995 and 2010. Type of surgery, Tumour-Node-Metastasis status, tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion and positive surgical margin were tested as prognostic factors for survival. In all, 52

  3. National Practice Pattern and Time Trends in Treatment of Upper Urinary Tract Calculi in Korea: a Nationwide Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite high prevalence of upper urinary tract calculi (UUTC), there are few studies regarding patterns of care in Asian populations. We investigated treatment patterns and time trends in patients with newly diagnosed UUTC in Korea using the National Health Insurance database that includes de-identified claims from a random 2% sample of the entire population (> 1 million people). A total of 14,282 patients who received active treatments, including shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), ureteroscopic surgery (URS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), and uretero/pyelolithotomy (UPL), for newly diagnosed UUTC between 2003 and 2013 were included. The number of primary and all treated cases of UUTC significantly (43% and 103.3%, respectively) increased over the 10-year period. While patients undergoing SWL, URS, PNL, and UPL as primary treatment increased by 43.7%, 31.9%, 87.5%, and 0%, respectively, the relative proportion undergoing each treatment remained constant over the 10 years (SWL > 90%, URS 4.5% to 7.8%, PNL 0.4% to 1.0%, and UPL < 0.4%, respectively). Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that age > 40 years (compared to age < 30 years) was significantly associated with URS, PNL, and UPL, rather than SWL, while patients living in urban or suburban/rural areas (compared to metropolitan) were significantly less likely to undergo URS and PNL. In summary, the majority of Korean patients underwent SWL as primary treatment for UUTC, and the predominant use of SWL remained steady over a 10-year period in Korea. Our results will be valuable in examining treatment patterns and time trends in Korean UUTC patients. PMID:27822940

  4. National Practice Pattern and Time Trends in Treatment of Upper Urinary Tract Calculi in Korea: a Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinsung; Suh, Beomseok; Lee, Myung Shin; Woo, Seung Hyo; Shin, Dong Wook

    2016-12-01

    Despite high prevalence of upper urinary tract calculi (UUTC), there are few studies regarding patterns of care in Asian populations. We investigated treatment patterns and time trends in patients with newly diagnosed UUTC in Korea using the National Health Insurance database that includes de-identified claims from a random 2% sample of the entire population (> 1 million people). A total of 14,282 patients who received active treatments, including shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), ureteroscopic surgery (URS), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), and uretero/pyelolithotomy (UPL), for newly diagnosed UUTC between 2003 and 2013 were included. The number of primary and all treated cases of UUTC significantly (43% and 103.3%, respectively) increased over the 10-year period. While patients undergoing SWL, URS, PNL, and UPL as primary treatment increased by 43.7%, 31.9%, 87.5%, and 0%, respectively, the relative proportion undergoing each treatment remained constant over the 10 years (SWL > 90%, URS 4.5% to 7.8%, PNL 0.4% to 1.0%, and UPL < 0.4%, respectively). Multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that age > 40 years (compared to age < 30 years) was significantly associated with URS, PNL, and UPL, rather than SWL, while patients living in urban or suburban/rural areas (compared to metropolitan) were significantly less likely to undergo URS and PNL. In summary, the majority of Korean patients underwent SWL as primary treatment for UUTC, and the predominant use of SWL remained steady over a 10-year period in Korea. Our results will be valuable in examining treatment patterns and time trends in Korean UUTC patients.

  5. Ureteral and multifocal tumours have worse prognosis than renal pelvic tumours in urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract treated by nephroureterectomy.

    PubMed

    Ouzzane, Adil; Colin, Pierre; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Pignot, Geraldine; Ariane, Mehdi Mokhtar; Saint, Fabien; Hoarau, Nicolas; Adam, Emilie; Azemar, Marie Dominique; Bensadoun, Henri; Cormier, Luc; Cussenot, Olivier; Houlgatte, Alain; Karsenty, Gilles; Bruyère, Franck; Maurin, Charlotte; Nouhaud, François Xavier; Phe, Véronique; Polguer, Thomas; Roumiguié, Mathieu; Ruffion, Alain; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2011-12-01

    It is not known whether the primary tumour location of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) is associated with prognosis. To evaluate the impact of initial primary tumour location on survival in patients who had undergone radical nephroureterectomy (RNU). Using a multi-institutional, retrospective database, we identified 609 patients with UUT-UC who had undergone RNU between 1995 and 2010. Tumour location was categorised as renal pelvis, ureter, or multifocal. All patients had undergone RNU. Tumour location was tested as a prognostic factor for survival through univariate and multivariable Cox regression analysis. Tumour location was renal pelvis in 317 cases (52%), ureter in 185 cases (30%), and multifocal in 107 cases (18%). Compared to renal pelvic and ureteral tumours, multifocal tumours were more likely to be associated with advanced stages (pT3/pT4; 39%, 30%, and 54%, respectively; p<0.001) and high-grade disease (53%, 56%, and 76%, respectively; p<0.001). On multivariable analysis, tumour location was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific death, disease recurrence, and metastasis (p<0.05). The 5-yr cancer-specific death-free survival probability was 86.8% for renal pelvic tumours, 68.9% for ureteral tumours, and 56.8% for multifocal tumours (p<0.001). The retrospective design of this study was its main limitation. Ureteral and multifocal tumours had a worse prognosis than renal pelvic tumours. These findings are not in line with recently published data and should be investigated in a prospective assessment to obtain a definitive statement regarding this matter. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Does the Heat Generation by the Thulium:Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Laser in the Irrigation Fluid Allow Its Use on the Upper Urinary Tract? An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Amanatides, Lefteris; Panagopoulos, Vasileios; Kyriazis, Iason; Vrettos, Theofanis; Fligou, Fotini; Kamal, Wissam; Liatsikos, Evangelos N

    2016-04-01

    The current experimental study aimed into evaluating the temperature raise of the irrigation fluid caused by the use of the Thulium:Yttrium aluminum garnet (Tm:YAG) laser. The study setting was designed to replicate conditions of upper urinary tract (UT) surgery. An experimental setting was designed for the investigation of differences in the temperature of the irrigation fluid in different flow rates, laser power settings, and laser activation times and modes. The experimental configuration included a burette equipped with a micrometric stopcock, a thermocouple, and a modified 40-mL vessel. A Tm:YAG and Holmium:Yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG) laser devices were used. The Tm:YAG in the continuous mode and in power settings of 5, 10, and 20 W showed similar temperature changes during the 10-minute observation period. The temperatures of the Tm:YAG in the pulsed mode tended to range within similar levels (46.8°C-61°C) with the continuous mode (47.8°C-68°C) when power settings up to 20 W were considered. When the higher power settings (50 and 100 W) were investigated, the temperatures reached were significantly higher in both pulsed and continuous modes. The Ho:YAG showed similar temperatures in comparison to the Tm:YAG in all the flow rates and power settings. The temperatures ranged between 45.6°C and 68.7°C. The Tm:YAG in the pulsed and continuous mode with power settings up to 20 W seemed to have potential for UT use. By combining a power setting at the above limit and a low flow rate (as low as 2 mL/minute), it is possible to use the Tm:YAG with safety in terms of temperature.

  7. Cancer-specific survival after radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: proposal and multi-institutional validation of a post-operative nomogram

    PubMed Central

    Yates, D R; Hupertan, V; Colin, P; Ouzzane, A; Descazeaud, A; Long, J A; Pignot, G; Crouzet, S; Rozet, F; Neuzillet, Y; Soulie, M; Bodin, T; Valeri, A; Cussenot, O; Rouprêt, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Owing to the scarcity of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) it is often necessary for investigators to pool data. A patient-specific survival nomogram based on such data is needed to predict cancer-specific survival (CSS) post nephroureterectomy (NU). Herein, we propose and validate a nomogram to predict CSS post NU. Patients and methods: Twenty-one French institutions contributed data on 1120 patients treated with NU for UUT-UC. A total of 667 had full data for nomogram development. Study population was divided into the nomogram development cohort (397) and external validation cohort (270). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for univariate and multivariate analyses and to build a nomogram. A reduced model selection was performed using a backward step-down selection process, and Harrell's concordance index (c-index) was used for quantifying the nomogram accuracy. Internal validation was performed by bootstrapping and the reduced nomogram model was calibrated. Results: Of the 397 patients in the nomogram development cohort, 91 (22.9%) died during follow-up, of which 66 (72.5%) died as a consequence of UUT-UC. The actuarial CSS probability at 5 years was 0.76 (95% CI, 71.62-80.94). On multivariate analysis, T stage (P<0.0001), N status (P=0.014), grade (P=0.026), age (P=0.005) and location (P=0.022) were associated with CSS. The reduced nomogram model had an accuracy of 0.78. We propose a nomogram to predict 3 and 5-year CSS post NU for UUT-UC. Conclusion: We have devised and validated an accurate nomogram (78%), superior to any single clinical variable or current model, for predicting 5-year CSS post NU for UUT-UC. PMID:22374463

  8. Oncologic outcomes following three different approaches to the distal ureter and bladder cuff in nephroureterectomy for primary upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ming; Shen, Jung-Tsung; Li, Ching-Chia; Ke, Hung-Lung; Wei, Yu-Ching; Wu, Wen-Jeng; Chou, Yii-Her; Huang, Chun-Hsiung

    2010-06-01

    There is a lack of consensus regarding the prognostic significance of different approaches to the bladder cuff at surgery for primary upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC). To compare the oncologic outcomes following radical nephroureterectomy using three different methods of managing the bladder cuff. From January 1990 to December 2007, 414 patients with primary UUT-UC underwent radical nephroureterectomy at our institution. Of these, 301 were included in our study. Three methods of bladder cuff excision-intravesical incision, extravesical incision, and transurethral incision (TUI)-were performed. Patients' medical records were reviewed retrospectively. The clinicopathologic data and oncologic outcomes were compared among groups. Of the 301 patients, 81 (26.9%) underwent the intravesical method, 129 (42.9%) underwent the extravesical technique, and 91 (30.2%) underwent TUI. There were no differences in clinical and histopathologic data among the three groups. When comparing the intravesical, extravesical, and TUI techniques, bladder recurrence developed in, respectively, 23.5%, 24.0%, and 17.6% cases (p=0.485); local retroperitoneal recurrence in 7.4%, 7.8%, and 5.5% (p=0.798); contralateral recurrence in 4.9%, 3.9%, and 2.2% (p=0.632); and distant metastasis in 7.4%, 10.4%, and 5.5% (p=0.564). There were no differences in recurrence-free and cancer-specific survival among the three groups (p=0.680 and 0.502, respectively). The three techniques had comparable oncologic outcomes. Our data validate the TUI method of bladder cuff control in patients with primary UUT-UC without coexistent bladder tumors. Copyright © 2010 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Long-term comparative outcomes of open versus laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial-cell carcinoma after a median follow-up of 13 years*.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Grant D; Humphries, Katie J; Cutress, Mark L; Riddick, Antony C P; McNeill, S Alan; Tolley, David A

    2011-08-01

    Open nephroureterectomy (ONU) rather than laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) is still regarded as the standard of care for extirpative surgical management of upper urinary tract urothelial-cell carcinoma (UUT-UCC). The longest published follow-up of LNU is 7 years. We report outcomes for patients having surgery ≥10 years ago. Consecutive patients with UUT-UCC who were treated with ONU (n=39) or LNU (n=23) between April 1992 to September 2000 were included. Preoperative, tumor, operative and postoperative characteristics, recurrence, and outcomes were collated. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Median follow-up of censored patients was 163 months (13.6 y). Estimated mean overall survival (OS) was 111 months for ONU and 103 months for LNU. Mean progression free survival (PFS) was 175 months for ONU and 143 months for LNU. Probability of PFS at 10 years was 79% for ONU and 76% for LNU and was unchanged at 15 years. There was no significant difference between ONU and LNU in terms of OS (P=0.51, log-rank test), PFS (P=0.70) or cancer-specific survival (CSS; P=0.43). There were no prognostic differences between ONU and LNU after correcting for confounding variables. There was no increase in the probability of a bladder cancer recurrence from 10 to 15 years postoperation. Long-term follow-up of patients who were operated on more than 10 years ago suggests that LNU has oncologic equivalence to ONU because there were no significant differences in OS, PFS, or CSS between ONU and LNU patients followed for a median of 13 years.

  10. Effects of bilateral passive range of motion exercise on the function of upper extremities and activities of daily living in patients with acute stroke.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ju; Lee, Yaelim; Sohng, Kyeong-Yae

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate the effects of early passive range of motion exercise on the function of upper extremities and activities of daily living in patients with acute stroke. [Methods] A total of 37 patients with acute stroke in intensive care units, were assigned to the experimental group (n=19) and control group (n=18). The experimental group performed passive range of motion exercise twice a day, for 4 weeks, immediately after a pretest; the patients in the control group performed the range of motion exercise in the same manner for 2 weeks beginning 2 weeks after the pretest. The functions of upper extremities (edema, range of motion), manual function, and activities of daily living of both groups were measured before and at four weeks after the intervention. [Results] The experimental group showed a significant decrease in the edema of upper extremities compared with the control group. It also showed a significant increase in the range of motion, function of upper extremities, and the activities of daily living compared to the control group. [Conclusion] Passive range of motion exercise in the early stage can improve the function of upper extremities and activities of daily living in patients with acute stroke.

  11. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... It may begin around the time of menopause. Urgency urinary incontinence happens when people have a sudden need ... urinary incontinence is a mix of stress and urgency urinary incontinence. You may leak urine with a laugh ...

  12. Bilateral arm training: why and who benefits?

    PubMed

    McCombe Waller, Sandy; Whitall, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral arm training has emerged as an approach that leads to positive outcomes in addressing upper extremity paresis after stroke. However, studies have not demonstrated improvements in all patients using current outcome measures. Furthermore, the rationale for using this type of training has been incompletely explained. The purpose of this article was to first review the theoretical justifications for the use of bilateral arm training by examining motor control and neural mechanisms underlying arm function and neural recovery, and second, to discuss examples of clinical studies using a variety of bilateral training strategies to identify who may benefit most from this approach. We argue that bilateral arm training is a necessary adjunct to unilateral training because bilateral re-training is important and best served through bilateral not unilateral training, and also, that bilateral training may help unilateral skill recovery through alternative putative mechanisms. Our review of the empirical evidence suggests that individuals at all levels of severity can benefit in some manner from bilateral training, but that not all approaches are effective for all severity levels. In addition to requesting more randomized controlled trials and studies of neurophysiological mechanisms we conclude the following: 1) Bilateral training can improve unilateral paretic limb functions of the upper extremity after stroke, however, specific training approaches need to be matched to baseline characteristics of the patients; 2) Given the importance of bilateral activities in daily life, there is a need to recognize, train and assess the important contribution of supportive role functions of the paretic arm used on its own and as part of complementary bilateral functional skills; 3) An assessment of bilateral and unilateral functioning which includes bilateral task analysis, as well as, evaluations of interlimb coordination should be included in all studies that include bilateral

  13. Bilateral arm training: Why and who benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Sandy McCombe; Whitall, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral arm training has emerged as an approach that leads to positive outcomes in addressing upper extremity paresis after stroke. However, studies have not demonstrated improvements in all patients using current outcome measures. Furthermore, the rationale for using this type of training has been incompletely explained. The purpose of this article was to first review the theoretical justifications for the use of bilateral arm training by examining motor control and neural mechanisms underlying arm function and neural recovery, and second, to discuss examples of clinical studies using a variety of bilateral training strategies to identify who may benefit most from this approach. We argue that bilateral arm training is a necessary adjunct to unilateral training because bilateral re-training is important and best served through bilateral not unilateral training, and also, that bilateral training may help unilateral skill recovery through alternative putative mechanisms. Our review of the empirical evidence suggests that individuals at all levels of severity can benefit in some manner from bilateral training, but that not all approaches are effective for all severity levels. In addition to requesting more randomized controlled trials and studies of neurophysiological mechanisms we conclude the following: 1) Bilateral training can improve unilateral paretic limb functions of the upper extremity after stroke, however, specific training approaches need to be matched to baseline characteristics of the patients; 2) Given the importance of bilateral activities in daily life, there is a need to recognize, train and assess the important contribution of supportive role functions of the paretic arm used on its own and as part of complementary bilateral functional skills; 3) An assessment of bilateral and unilateral functioning which includes bilateral task analysis, as well as, evaluations of interlimb coordination should be included in all studies that include bilateral

  14. Bilateral vestibulopathy.

    PubMed

    Strupp, M; Feil, K; Dieterich, M; Brandt, T

    2016-01-01

    The leading symptoms of bilateral vestibulopathy (BVP) are postural imbalance and unsteadiness of gait that worsens in darkness and on uneven ground. There are typically no symptoms while sitting or lying under static conditions. A minority of patients also have movement-induced oscillopsia, in particular while walking. The diagnosis of BVP is based on a bilaterally reduced or absent function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). This deficit is diagnosed for the high-frequency range of the angular VOR by a bilaterally pathologic bedside head impulse test (HIT) and for the low-frequency range by a bilaterally reduced or absent caloric response. If the results of the bedside HIT are unclear, angular VOR function should be quantified by a video-oculography system (vHIT). An additional test supporting the diagnosis is dynamic visual acuity. Cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (c/oVEMP) may also be reduced or absent, indicating impaired otolith function. There are different subtypes of BVP depending on the affected anatomic structure and frequency range of the VOR deficit: impaired canal function in the low- and/or high-frequency VOR range only and/or otolith function only; the latter is very rare. The etiology of BVP remains unclear in more than 50% of patients: in these cases neurodegeneration is assumed. Frequent known causes are ototoxicity mainly due to gentamicin, bilateral Menière's disease, autoimmune diseases, meningitis and bilateral vestibular schwannoma, as well as an association with cerebellar degeneration (cerebellar ataxia, neuropathy, vestibular areflexia syndrome=CANVAS). In general, in the long term there is no improvement of vestibular function. There are four treatment options: first, detailed patient counseling to explain the cause, etiology, and consequences, as well as the course of the disease; second, daily vestibular exercises and balance training; third, if possible, treatment of the underlying cause, as in bilateral

  15. Bilateral cleft lip.

    PubMed

    Mulliken, John B

    2004-04-01

    The surgeon's objectives are normal nasolabial appearance and normal speech. The principles for synchronous repair of bilateral cleft lip have been established, and the techniques continue to evolve. Primary repair impairs maxillary growth, but little can be done at this time except to practice gentle craftsmanship and to minimize tension on the lower labial closure. The cutaneous lip should never be reopened for revision, and the number of secondary procedures involving the nasal cartilages should be kept to a minimum. Many adolescents with repaired bilateral cleft lip need maxillary advancement to improve projection of the nasal tip, to protrude the upper lip, and to attain normal sagittal skeletal harmony. With expected improvements in the technology of distraction osteogenesis, maxillary advancement may someday become as acceptable as orthodontic treatment.

  16. Bilateral pneumothoraces following acupuncture.

    PubMed

    Oskarsson, Palmi; Walker, Craig Andrew; Leigh-Smith, Simon

    2017-08-03

    A 50-year-old woman was brought to the emergency department with shortness of breath and chest tightness following acupuncture to her upper back for a chronically painful left shoulder. She had symptoms of respiratory distress and chest X-ray revealed bilateral pneumothoraces. Symptoms resolved after insertion of bilateral Seldinger chest drains. She was admitted to the Cardiothoracic Surgery ward, chest drains were removed on the second and third days and the patient was discharged from hospital after 3 days. Clinicians and acupuncturists should be aware of this adverse event following acupuncture. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. The oncologic impact of a delay between diagnosis and radical nephroureterectomy due to diagnostic ureteroscopy in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas: results from a large collaborative database.

    PubMed

    Nison, Laurent; Rouprêt, Morgan; Bozzini, Grégory; Ouzzane, Adil; Audenet, François; Pignot, Géraldine; Ruffion, Alain; Cornu, Jean-Nicolas; Hurel, Sophie; Valeri, Antoine; Roumiguie, Mathieu; Polguer, Thomas; Hoarau, Nicolas; Mérigot de Treigny, Olivier; Xylinas, Evanguelos; Matte, Alexandre; Droupy, Stéphane; Fais, Pierre Olivier; Descazeaud, Aurélien; Colin, Pierre

    2013-02-01

    According to the current upper urinary tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUC) guidelines, ureteroscopic evaluation (URS) is recommended to improve diagnostic accuracy and obtain a grade (by biopsy or cytology). However, URS may delay radical surgery [e.g., nephroureterectomy (RNU)]. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of URS implementation before RNU on patient survival. A French multicentre retrospective study including 512 patients with nonmetastatic UTUC was conducted between 1995 and 2011. Achievement of ureteroscopy (URS), treatment time (time between imaging diagnosis and RNU), tumour location, pT-pN stage, grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI) and the presence of invaded surgical margins (R+) were evaluated as prognostic factors for survival using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Cancer-specific survival (CSS), recurrence-free survival (RFS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. A total of 170 patients underwent ureteroscopy prior to RNU (URS+ group), and 342 did not undergo URS (URS-). The median treatment time was significantly longer in the URS+ group (79.5 vs. 44.5 days, p = 0.04). Ureteroscopic evaluation was correlated with ureteral location and lower stage and tumour grade (p = 0.022, 0.005, 0.03, respectively). Tumour stage, LVI+ and R+ status were independently associated with CSS (p = 0.024, 0.049 and 0.006, respectively). The 5-year CSS, RFS and MFS did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.23, 0.89 and 0.35, respectively). These results were confirmed for muscle-invasive (MI) UTUC (p = 0.21, 0.44 and 0.67 for CSS, RFS and MFS, respectively). Despite the increased time to radical surgery, diagnostic ureteroscopy can be systematically performed for the appraisal of UTUC to refine the therapeutic strategy without significantly affecting oncological outcomes, even for MI lesions.

  18. Thulium Laser in the Upper Urinary Tract: Does the Heat Generation in the Irrigation Fluid Pose a Risk? Evidence from an In Vivo Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Kallidonis, Panagiotis; Kamal, Wissam; Panagopoulos, Vasileios; Vasilas, Marinos; Amanatides, Lefteris; Kyriazis, Iason; Vrettos, Theofanis; Fligou, Fotini; Liatsikos, Evangelos

    2016-05-01

    The current experimental study aimed at evaluating the temperature raise of the irrigation fluid caused by the use of the thulium (Tm:YAG) and holmium laser (Ho:YAG) in the upper urinary tract (UT) of pigs. An experimental setting was designed for the investigation of differences in the temperature of the irrigation fluid in the renal pelvis of a porcine model under different flow rates and laser power settings. The experimental configuration included a single-use flexible ureteroscope, a Tm:YAG and a Ho:YAG laser system. A thermocouple was inserted through a 6F ureteral catheter that was placed parallel to the FlexVue in the renal pelvis. An additional thermocouple was placed next to the renal pelvis after open preparation of the kidney. Irrigation was achieved with either the irrigation bags placed 1 m above the level of the pig or with the use of an irrigation pump (30 and 60 compressions per minute). Tm:YAG (10, 20, 30, 40 W): The higher flow provided by the pump system minimized the increase of temperature within the renal pelvis regardless of the laser power. The external temperature increase was lower in comparison to the increase inside the renal pelvis. The internal temperature could increase up to 10.5°C from a baseline value of 23°C. Ho:YAG (10, 20 W): There was no temperature change or an increase of only 2.1°C under the different power and irrigation flow rate settings. There were no differences in the temperature between the inside and outside of the renal pelvis. The use of Tm:YAG in continuous mode with power settings up to 40 W and flow rates similar to those used in the clinical practice seemed to result in temperature increases in the irrigation fluid, which do not represent a risk for the renal tissue during the UT endoscopic surgery.

  19. Laparoscopic versus open nephroureterectomy for the treatment of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: a systematic review and cumulative analysis of comparative studies.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shaobin; Tao, Weiyang; Chen, Qiyin; Liu, Lianxin; Jiang, Hongchi; Hu, Hailong; Han, Ruifa; Wang, Chunyang

    2012-06-01

    Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy (LNU) has increasingly been used as a minimally invasive alternative to open nephroureterectomy (ONU), but studies comparing the efficacy and safety of the two surgical procedures are still limited. Evaluate the oncologic and perioperative outcomes of LNU versus ONU in the treatment of upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma. A systematic review and cumulative analysis of comparative studies reporting both oncologic and perioperative outcomes of LNU and ONU was performed through a comprehensive search of the Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Library electronic databases. All analyses were performed using the Review Manager (RevMan) v.5 (Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark) and Meta-analysis In eXcel (MIX) 2.0 Pro (BiostatXL) software packages. Twenty-one eligible studies (1235 cases and 3093 controls) were identified. A significantly higher proportion of pTa/Tis was observed in LNU compared to ONU (27.52% vs 22.59%; p = 0.047), but there were no significant differences in other stages and pathologic grades (all p>0.05). For patients who underwent LNU, the 5-yr cancer-specific survival (CSS) rate was significantly higher, at 9% (p = 0.03), compared to those who underwent ONU, while the overall recurrence rate and bladder recurrence rate were notably lower, at 15% (p = 0.01) and 17% (p = 0.02), respectively. However, there were no statistically significant differences in 2-yr CSS, 5-yr recurrence-free survival (RFS), 5-yr overall survival (OS), 2-yr OS, and metastasis rates between LNU and ONU (all p>0.05). Moreover, there were no significant differences between LNU and ONU in terms of intraoperative complications, postoperative complications, and perioperative mortality (all p>0.05). The results of our study were mainly limited by the retrospective design of most of the individual studies included as well as selection biases based on different management of regional lymph nodes and pathologic characteristics. Our data suggest

  20. Unenhanced low-dose versus standard-dose CT localization in patients with upper urinary calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL)

    PubMed Central

    Licheng, Jiang; Yidong, Fan; Ping, Wang; Keqiang, Yan; Xueting, Wang; Yingchen, Zhang; Lei, Gao; Jiyang, Ding; Zhonghua, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: With the ethical concern about the dose of CT scan and wide use of CT in protocol of suspected renal colic, more attention has been paid to low dose CT. The aim of the present study was to make a comparison of unenhanced low-dose spiral CT localization with unenhanced standard-dose spiral CT in patients with upper urinary tract calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) treatment. Methods: Twenty eight patients with ureter and renal calculus, preparing to take MPCNL, underwent both abdominal low-dose CT (25 mAs) and standard-dose CT (100 mAs). Low-dose CT and standard-dose CT were independently evaluated for the characterization of renal/ureteral calculi, perirenal adjacent organs, blood vessels, indirect signs of renal or ureteral calculus (renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation), and the indices of localization (percutaneous puncture angulation and depth) used in the MPCNL procedure. Results: In all 28 patients, low-dose CT was 100 per cent coincidence 100 per cent sensitive and 100 per cent specific for depicting the location of the renal and ureteral calculus, renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation, adjacent organs, and the presumptive puncture point and a 96.3 per cent coincidence 96 per cent sensitivity and 93 per cent specificity for blood vessel signs within the renal sinus, and with an obvious lower radiation exposure for patients when compared to standard-dose CT (P<0.05). The indices of puncture depth, puncture angulation, and maximum calculus transverse diameter on the axial surface showed no significant difference between the two doses of CT scans, with a significant variation in calculus visualization slice numbers (P<0.05). Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings show that unenhanced low-dose CT achieves a sensitivity and accuracy similar to that of standard-dose CT in assessing the localization of renal ureteral calculus and adjacent organs conditions and identifying the maximum calculus

  1. Unenhanced low-dose versus standard-dose CT localization in patients with upper urinary calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL).

    PubMed

    Licheng, Jiang; Yidong, Fan; Ping, Wang; Keqiang, Yan; Xueting, Wang; Yingchen, Zhang; Lei, Gao; Jiyang, Ding; Zhonghua, Xu

    2014-03-01

    With the ethical concern about the dose of CT scan and wide use of CT in protocol of suspected renal colic, more attention has been paid to low dose CT. The aim of the present study was to make a comparison of unenhanced low-dose spiral CT localization with unenhanced standard-dose spiral CT in patients with upper urinary tract calculi for minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy (MPCNL) treatment. Twenty eight patients with ureter and renal calculus, preparing to take MPCNL, underwent both abdominal low-dose CT (25 mAs) and standard-dose CT (100 mAs). Low-dose CT and standard-dose CT were independently evaluated for the characterization of renal/ureteral calculi, perirenal adjacent organs, blood vessels, indirect signs of renal or ureteral calculus (renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation), and the indices of localization (percutaneous puncture angulation and depth) used in the MPCNL procedure. In all 28 patients, low-dose CT was 100 per cent coincidence 100 per cent sensitive and 100 per cent specific for depicting the location of the renal and ureteral calculus, renal enlargement, pyeloureteral dilatation, adjacent organs, and the presumptive puncture point and a 96.3 per cent coincidence 96 per cent sensitivity and 93 per cent specificity for blood vessel signs within the renal sinus, and with an obvious lower radiation exposure for patients when compared to standard-dose CT (P<0.05). The indices of puncture depth, puncture angulation, and maximum calculus transverse diameter on the axial surface showed no significant difference between the two doses of CT scans, with a significant variation in calculus visualization slice numbers (P<0.05). Our findings show that unenhanced low-dose CT achieves a sensitivity and accuracy similar to that of standard-dose CT in assessing the localization of renal ureteral calculus and adjacent organs conditions and identifying the maximum calculus transverse diameter on the axial surface, percutaneous puncture depth

  2. Metabolic Changes after Urinary Diversion

    PubMed Central

    Van der Aa, Frank; Joniau, Steven; Van Den Branden, Marcel; Van Poppel, Hein

    2011-01-01

    Urinary diversion is performed on a regular basis in urological practice. Surgeons tend to underestimate the metabolic effects of any type of diversion. From the patient's perspective, diarrhea is the most bothersome complaint after urinary diversion. This might be accompanied by malabsorption syndromes, such as vitamin B12 deficiency. Electrolyte abnormalities can occur frequently such as hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, or less frequently such as hypokalemia, hypocalcaemia, and hypomagnesaemia. Bone health is at risk in patients with urinary diversion. Some patients might benefit from vitamin D and calcium supplementation. Many patients are also subject to urinary calculus formation, both at the level of the upper urinary tract as in intestinal reservoirs. Urinary diversion can affect hepatic metabolism, certainly in the presence of urea-splitting bacteria. The kidney function has to be monitored prior to and lifelong after urinary diversion. Screening for reversible causes of renal deterioration is an integral part of the followup. PMID:21687576

  3. Resonance metallic ureteric stent in a case of ketamine bladder induced bilateral ureteric obstruction with one year follow up.

    PubMed

    Yong, Guo Liang; Kong, Chia Yew; Ooi, Michelle Wei Xin; Lee, Eng Geap

    2015-01-01

    Upper urinary tract occlusion is well recognized in patients with chronic ketamine abuse. The mechanism is generally unknown, but the ulcerative cystitis contracture may be responsible for obstruction. We present the first reported use of the Resonance metallic ureteric stent in the management ureteric obstruction caused by ketamine-induced uropathy. A 31-year-old lady with one-year history of recreational ketamine abuse presented with symptoms related to drug-induced ulcerative cystitis over twelve-months. She presented with acute renal failure with bilateral pyonephrosis and sepsis, and was initially treated with bilateral nephrostomy insertions and antegrade stenting. The J stents recovered the renal function, but the patient suffered from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI's) with the prosthesis in-situ. The patient successfully underwent bilateral insertion of 12cm 6.0 French Cook Resonance metallic ureteric stents. One year following the placement of the metallic stents, the patient maintained optimal renal function with no episode of UTI. Ketamine induced uropathy is a well documented complication of chronic drug-induced ulcerative cystitis. The mechanical strength and inert property of metallic ureteric stents make it an ideal device to manage this problematic benign cause of ureteric obstruction. This is the first reported case of therapeutic bilateral metallic ureteric stents in the management of patients with ketamine induced uropathy with one year follow up. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Urinary Tuberculosis with Renal Failure: Challenges in Management

    PubMed Central

    Chirmade, Rahul Arun; Baheti, Vidyasagar Hansraj; Tanwar, Harshawardhan Vedpalsingh; Patwardhan, Sujata Kiran; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction India is the country with the highest burden of TB, an estimated incidence figure of 2.1 million cases of TB for India out of a global incidence of 9 million according to World Health Organization (WHO) statistics for 2013. Renal impairment in these patients is slow and due to continuous infection causing destruction of renal mass. Reconstruction of urinary tract which is frequently required for patients with Urinary TB poses significant challenges. This paper analyses these challenges. Aim To analyse challenges in reconstruction of urinary tract in patients with urinary tuberculosis and renal failure. Materials and Methods Thirty-one patients with renal tuber-culosis were seen from August 2011 to August 2013. We faced major problem in outcomes of surgery in patients with multifocal disease. Results Out of 31 patients 18 patients were males and 13 were females. Total 11 patients had serum creatinine more than 2mg/dl (1.5 mg/dl being upper normal range of our laboratory) at the time of presentation. These patients had simultaneous kidney, ureter and bladder involvement or with bilateral disease. Four of these patients underwent uretero-calicostomy, five patients underwent augmentation cystoplasty with bilateral ureteric reimplantation and two patients underwent ileal conduit as they were having serum creatinine of more than 2.5 mg/dl. All patients who underwent ureterocalicostomy had re stricture and failure of surgery and augmentation cystoplasty had raised creatinine requiring second procedure in the form of percutaneous nephrostomy. Patients with ileal conduit remained stable with overnight bladder drainage at bed time. Conclusion Though renal failure is not considered contrain-dication for augmentation cystoplasty, reconstruction using large segment of bowel predisposes them to metabolic complications and sepsis. Use of short segment of ileal conduit with continued drainage at night in creatinine above 2.5 mg% is reasonable option for augmentation

  5. Spontaneous bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Marasinghe, Jeevan P; Condous, George; Amarasinghe, W I

    2009-03-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented at eight weeks and four days of gestation, according to her menstrual dates, complaining of painless vaginal bleeding for three days. Her urinary pregnancy test was positive. Initial transvaginal ultrasound demonstrated an irregular complex structure with a fluid filled centre in the right adnexum. Despite the diagnosis of a possible underlying unruptured right tubal ectopic pregnancy, she declined surgical intervention and was managed expectantly as an inpatient. When she complained of increasing abdominal pain with haemodynamic instability, an emergency laparotomy was performed and a diagnosis of bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy was made.

  6. [A rare cause of urinary obstruction: urogenital tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Fekak, H; Rabii, R; Moufid, K; Joual, A; Debbagh, A; Bennani, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2003-04-01

    The authors reported a rare cause of urogenital tuberculosis complicated by an obstructive acute renal failure in 44 years old man with solitary anatomic kidney. The authors insisted of using the upper urinary tract opacification by percutaneous nephrostomy for diagnosis, the urogenital tuberculosis with this exploration, we can suspected the tuberculosis by abnormalities of the radiologic imagine, and confirmed the koch bacilli urinary into urinary tract. The upper chance of positives of finding koch bacilli in higher than urinary bladder.

  7. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... The knowledge gained from these studies is advancing scientific understanding of why urinary tract disorders develop, leading to improved methods of diagnosing, treating, and preventing them. Clinical trials ...

  8. Bilateral ankle edema with bilateral iritis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil

    2007-07-01

    I report two patient presented to me with bilateral symmetrical ankle edema and bilateral acute iritis. A 42-year-old female of Indian origin and 30-year-old female from Somalia both presented with bilateral acute iritis. In the first patient, bilateral ankle edema preceded the onset of bilateral acute iritis. Bilateral ankle edema developed during the course of disease after onset of ocular symptoms in the second patient. Both patients did not suffer any significant ocular problem in the past, and on systemic examination, all clinical parameters were within normal limit. Lacrimal gland and conjunctival nodule biopsy established the final diagnosis of sarcoidosis in both cases, although the chest x-rays were normal.

  9. Bilateral synchronous plasmacytoma of the testis

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rona; Soman, Lali V.

    2016-01-01

    Extramedullary plasmacytoma (EMP) is usually seen in the head and neck regions and in the upper respiratory, gastrointestinal, and central nervous systems. Testis is a rare site for EMP, and bilateral synchronous testicular plasmacytoma occurring as an isolated event at initial presentation has been reported only once previously. We present herein the second such report in a 70-year-old man who underwent bilateral orchidectomy. PMID:27034568

  10. Bilateral Duane syndrome and bilateral aniridia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif O; Aldahmesh, Mohammad

    2006-06-01

    Duane retraction syndrome has been reported in association with structural abnormalities of the eye, including epibulbar dermoid, keratoconus, iris dysplasia, heterochromia iridis, persistent fetal vasculature, cataract, choroidal coloboma, microphthalmia, and optic nerve dysplasia. A novel association, that of bilateral Duane syndrome with bilateral aniridia, is the subject of this report.

  11. Bilateral ovarian carcinoma with bilateral uveal melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Mullaney, J; Mooney, D; O'Connor, M; McDonald, G S

    1984-01-01

    A case of bilateral uveal melanoma in a 60-year-old woman in association with primary bilateral ovarian carcinoma is described. This is the first case in which ultrastructural studies have been performed on the ocular tumours. Seven previously described cases are summarised, and the extreme rarity of such reports would suggest that this may indeed be a new syndrome. Images PMID:6704361

  12. A novel technique of ultra-mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy: introduction and an initial experience for treatment of upper urinary calculi less than 2 cm.

    PubMed

    Desai, Janak; Zeng, Guohua; Zhao, Zhijian; Zhong, Wen; Chen, Wenzhong; Wu, Wenqi

    2013-01-01

    To describe our novel modified technique of ultra-mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (UMP) using of a novel 6 Fr mininephroscope through an 11-13 Fr metal sheath to perform holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy. The medical records of 36 patients with moderate-sized (<20 mm) kidney stones treated with UMP from April to July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were assessed at the 1st day and 1st month postoperatively by KUB and US to assess stone-free status. The mean stone size was 14.9 ± 4.1 mm (rang: 6-20). The average operative time was 59.8 ± 15.9 (30-90) min. The stone-free rate at postoperative 1st day and 1st month was 88.9% and 97.2%. The mean hospital stay was 3.0 ± 0.9 (2-5) days. Complications were noted in 6 (16.7%) cases according to the Clavien classification, including sepsis in 2 (5.6%) cases (grade II), urinary extravasations in 1 (2.8%) case (grade IIIa), and fever in 3 (8.3%) cases (grade II). No patients needed blood transfusion. UMP is technically feasible, safe, and efficacious for moderate-sized renal stones with an advantage of high stone-free rates and low complication rates. However, due to the limits of its current unexplored indications, UMP is therefore a supplement to, not a substitute for, the standard mini-PCNL technology.

  13. Urinary Incontinence

    MedlinePlus

    ... you to restrict your activities and limit your social interactions Increase the risk of falls in older adults ... increase your risk of developing urinary incontinence include: Gender. Women are more likely to have stress incontinence. ...

  14. Vesicostomy and Colostomy in a Premature Neonate With Posterior Urethral Valves, Bilateral Dysplastic Kidneys, and High Imperforate Anus: The Challenge of Stoma Placement.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Melissa; Alnaqi, Amar A A; Braga, Luis H

    2016-07-01

    Although anorectal malformations are often associated with urinary tract abnormalities, the association with posterior urethral valves is exceptionally rare. We report a unique case of a premature (35 gestational weeks) male neonate born with posterior urethral valves, bilateral dysplastic kidneys, and imperforate anus, successfully treated by Blocksom vesicostomy and left upper quadrant loop colostomy. The challenges involving placement of both stomas in a small abdominal wall of a 2200 g premature neonate are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Novel Technique of Ultra-Mini-Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy: Introduction and an Initial Experience for Treatment of Upper Urinary Calculi Less Than 2 cm

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Guohua; Zhao, Zhijian; Zhong, Wen; Chen, Wenzhong; Wu, Wenqi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. To describe our novel modified technique of ultra-mini-percutaneous nephrolithotomy (UMP) using of a novel 6 Fr mininephroscope through an 11–13 Fr metal sheath to perform holmium: YAG laser lithotripsy. Methods. The medical records of 36 patients with moderate-sized (<20 mm) kidney stones treated with UMP from April to July 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were assessed at the 1st day and 1st month postoperatively by KUB and US to assess stone-free status. Results. The mean stone size was 14.9 ± 4.1 mm (rang: 6–20). The average operative time was 59.8 ± 15.9 (30–90) min. The stone-free rate at postoperative 1st day and 1st month was 88.9% and 97.2%. The mean hospital stay was 3.0 ± 0.9 (2–5) days. Complications were noted in 6 (16.7%) cases according to the Clavien classification, including sepsis in 2 (5.6%) cases (grade II), urinary extravasations in 1 (2.8%) case (grade IIIa), and fever in 3 (8.3%) cases (grade II). No patients needed blood transfusion. Conclusions. UMP is technically feasible, safe, and efficacious for moderate-sized renal stones with an advantage of high stone-free rates and low complication rates. However, due to the limits of its current unexplored indications, UMP is therefore a supplement to, not a substitute for, the standard mini-PCNL technology. PMID:23984372

  16. Bilateral obturator neuropathy after transobturator vaginal sling: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Derrick J; Ghomi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Transobturator tape procedure is a popular and effective minimally invasive technique to treat stress urinary incontinence. We report a case of transient obturator neuropathy caused by transobturator tape placement for stress urinary incontinence. Findings on physical examination were significant for bilateral obturator neuropathy resulting in significant motor deficit, prompting removal of the sling to avoid the potential of prolonged or permanent morbidity. There was immediate complete resolution of neuropathy with the return of motor function after surgical removal of the sling.

  17. Modified laparoscopic nephroureterectomy for treatment of upper urinary tract transitional cell cancer is not associated with an increased risk of tumour recurrence.

    PubMed

    Klingler, H C; Lodde, M; Pycha, A; Remzi, M; Janetschek, G; Marberger, M

    2003-10-01

    Laparoscopic nephroureterectomy reduces the morbidity of surgical management of urinary tract transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), but a potentially increased risk for local tumour spreading was reported. We evaluated results obtained from patients undergoing a modified laparoscopic approach and open procedures in this respect. Between January 2000 and March 2002 we performed 19 modified laparoscopic nephroureterectomies (LNU) with open intact specimen retrieval in conjunction with open distal ureter and bladder cuff removal and 15 open standard nephroureterectomies (ONU). Staging lymphadenectomy was performed in 14/19 (73.7%) patients with LNU and in 6/15 (40.0%) with ONU. In all patients operating time, blood loss, complications, pain score (VAS) and data in respect to tumour recurrence were analysed. Mean follow-up was 22.1+/-9.2 (range 14-34) months for LNU and 23.1+/-8.8 (14-36) for ONU respectively. In LNU and ONU pathological features were 12 pT1 vs. 10 pT1, 2 pT2 vs. 2 pT2 and 5 pT3 vs. 3 pT3, respectively. All patients had TCC and were R0 at final histology. Four patients with LNU had lymph node involvement, one in ONU. LNU had decreased operating times (p=0.057), blood loss (p=0.018), complications (p=0.001) and VAS scores (p=0.001). One tumour recurrence occurred in LNU, associated with a pT3b pN2 G3 TCC at final histology. One patient with ONU had local tumour recurrence at the site of the bladder cuff. No port-site metastasis occurred during follow-up with LNU. Improved peri-operative results and same cancer control as compared to open surgery by this modified LNU was not associated with an increased risk for tumour recurrence, since strict "non-touch" preparation, avoiding of urine spillage and intact specimen retrieval prevents tumour seeding. However, results from long term studies are still warranted to clarify this issue.

  18. Comparison of the clinical efficacy and safety of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy and ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy in the treatment of obstructive upper ureteral calculi with concurrent urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jun-Tao; Li, Wei-Guo; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Sun, Wen-Lan; Zhao, Wei; Ruan, Yuan; Zhong, Chen; Wood, Kristofer; Wei, Hai-Bin; Xia, Shu-Jie; Sun, Xiao-Wen

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of retroperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (RPLU) and ureteroscopic holmium laser lithotripsy (UHLL) as two minimally invasive procedures in managing obstructive upper ureteral calculi with concurrent urinary tract infections (UTI). The retrospective study included 189 patients who underwent unilateral obstructive upper ureteral stones with concurrent UTI from January 2007 to November 2014 at our institution. Patients received RPLU (81 cases) or UHLL (108 cases). All patients received preoperative anti-infection treatment (indwelling ureteral stent and/or preoperative antibiotics). Collected data, including sex, age, stone size, success rate, operation duration, post-operation hospitalization time, and post-operation complications, were compared. All patients were followed up for more than 6 months after surgeries, and no ureterostenosis occurred. The study included 189 patients, 41 (21.7 %) females and 148 (78.3 %) males with a medium age of 52 years (range 22-81 years). All surgeries were successfully performed without conversion to open surgery. Stone size in the RPLU group was larger than that of the UHLL group (16.1 ± 1.4 vs. 10.4 ± 1.6 mm, P = 0.012). Operative duration (P = 0.009) and hospitalization time (P < 0.001) in the UHLL group were significantly shorter than those in the RPLU group, whereas stone clearance rate was significantly higher in the RPLU group (100 vs. 88.9 %, P = 0.002). Of note, postoperative fever was more common in patients treated with UHLL (15 cases) versus RPLU (4 cases) (13.9 vs. 4.9 %, P = 0.043). Moreover, in the UHLL group, three patients without a preoperative indwelling ureteral stent were complicated with sepsis, which was not seen in RPLU group. In our study, the safety and stone clearance rate of RPLU are better than those of UHLL in the treatment of unilateral upper ureteric calculi with concurrent UTI

  19. Degree of hydronephrosis predicts adverse pathological features and worse oncologic outcomes in patients with high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Chung, Paul H; Krabbe, Laura-Maria; Darwish, Oussama M; Westerman, Mary E; Bagrodia, Aditya; Gayed, Bishoy A; Haddad, Ahmed Q; Kapur, Payal; Sagalowsky, Arthur I; Lotan, Yair; Margulis, Vitaly

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate degree of hydronephrosis (HN) as a surrogate for adverse pathological features and oncologic outcomes in patients with high-grade (HG) and low-grade (LG) upper tract urothelial carcinomas (UTUCs). We retrospectively reviewed 141 patients with localized UTUCs that underwent extirpative surgery at a tertiary referral center. Preoperative imaging was used to evaluate presence and degree of ipsilateral HN. We evaluated degree of HN (none/mild vs. moderate/severe), pathological findings, and oncologic outcomes. HG UTUC was present in 113 (80%) patients, muscle-invasive disease (≥pT2) in 49 (35%), and non-organ-confined disease (≥pT3) in 41 (29%). At a median follow-up of 34 months, 49 (35%) patients experienced intravesical recurrence, 28 (20%) developed local/systemic recurrence, and 24 (17%) died of UTUC. HN was graded as none/mild in 77 (55%) patients and moderate/severe in 64 (45%). In patients with HG UTUC, but not LG, degree of HN was associated with advanced pathological stage (P<0.001), positive lymph nodes (P = 0.01), local/systemic recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 5.5, P = 0.02), and cancer-specific survival (HR = 5.2, P = 0.02). On multivariable analysis of preoperative factors, degree of HN in patients with HG UTUC was associated with muscle invasion (HR = 9.3; 95% CI: 3.08-28.32; P<0.001), non-organ-confined disease (HR = 4.5; 95% CI: 1.66-12.06; P = 0.003), local/systemic recurrence-free survival (HR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.07-5.64; P = 0.04), and cancer-specific survival (HR = 2.6; 95% CI: 1.05-6.22; P = 0.04). Degree of HN can serve as a surrogate for advanced disease and predict worse oncologic outcomes in HG UTUC. Degree of HN was not predictive of intravesical or local/systemic recurrence in LG UTUC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Urinary Retention

    MedlinePlus

    ... indicates the bladder does not empty completely. A health care provider performs this test during an office visit. The patient often receives ... more urodynamic tests to diagnose urinary retention. The health care provider will perform these tests during an office visit. For tests that use ...

  1. Recent Advances in Urinary Tract Reconstruction for Neuropathic Bladder in Children

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Roberto I.; Lorenzo, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic bladder usually causes several limitations to patients’ quality of life, including urinary incontinence, recurrent urinary tract infections, and upper urinary tract damage. Its management has significantly changed over the last few years. The aim of our paper is to address some salient features of recent literature dealing with reconstructive procedures in pediatric and adolescent patients with lower urinary tract dysfunction. PMID:26962441

  2. Bilateral urinothorax identified by technetium-99m DPTA renal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Ralston, M.D.; Wilkinson, R.H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of unilateral urinary tract obstruction with extravasation resulting in bilateral pleural effusions is presented. The fluid within the pleural cavities was established to originate from the kidney using (/sup 99m/Tc)diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and scintillation camera imaging.

  3. BILATERAL ISOLATED CHOROIDAL MELANOCYTOSIS.

    PubMed

    Mason, Lauren B; Mason, John O

    2016-01-01

    To report a very rare case of bilateral isolated choroidal melanocystosis. Clinical case report and literature review. A 24-year-old asymptomatic African American woman presented with bilateral diffuse choroidal pigmentation. The diagnosis of bilateral isolated choroidal melanocytosis was made, and optical coherence tomography was remarkable for increased choroidal thickness with a normal inner and outer retina. Although extremely rare, bilateral isolated choroidal melanocytosis may occur in young patients, as well as in those who are African American. Longer follow-up of this case and those in the literature will elucidate whether these choroidal lesions enlarge or have a risk of developing uveal melanoma.

  4. [Bilateral spontaneous renal pelvis rupture during a computed tomography: Report of one case].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Roberto; Latorre, Patricio; Raurich, Rodrigo

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the urinary excretory system is a rare condition. It is mainly associated with obstruction of the excretory system and is usually unilateral. We report a 58 years old male who, during the performance of a computed tomography of the urinary system, felt an intense lumbar pain. A bilateral rupture at the level of the fornix was found. The patient had an uneventful evolution thereafter. Fifteen days later a new computed tomography showed indemnity of the urinary excretory system.

  5. BILATERAL HYDRONEPHROSIS IN A SUGAR GLIDER (PETAURUS BREVICEPS).

    PubMed

    Cusack, Lara; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Jiménez, David A; Mayer, Joerg; Divers, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    An adult, intact male sugar glider ( Petaurus breviceps ) presented for acute caudal abdominal swelling. Treatment by the referring veterinarian included aspiration of urine from the swelling. On physical examination, mild depression, pale mucus membranes, and caudal abdominal swelling were noted. Focused ultrasonographic assessment revealed a fluid-filled caudal abdominal structure and subjective bladder wall thickening. The following day, the sugar glider was severely depressed. Hematology results included hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and azotemia. Ultrasonography revealed bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Despite supportive care, the animal died. Postmortem examination confirmed bilateral ureteral dilation, renal petechial hemorrhage, and dilation of the right renal pelvis. Submucosal edema, hemorrhage, and lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the urinary bladder, ureters, and renal pelvises were noted. Hyperplasia of the urinary bladder and ureteral epithelium, coupled with inflammation, may have caused functional obstruction leading to bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter. This is the first reported case of hydronephrosis in a marsupial.

  6. The role of American Society of Anesthesiologists scores in predicting urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract outcome after radical nephroureterectomy: results from a national multi-institutional collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Berod, Alexis Arvin; Colin, Pierre; Yates, David R; Ouzzane, Adil; Audouin, Marie; Adam, Emilie; Arroua, Frédéric; Marchand, Charles; Bigot, Pierre; Soulié, Michel; Roumiguié, Mathieu; Polguer, Thomas; Gardic, Solène; Grès, Pascal; Ravier, Emmanuel; Neuzillet, Yann; Delage, Francky; Bodin, Thomas; Pignot, Géraldine; Rouprêt, Morgan

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Prognosis (cohort) Level of Evidence 2b. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC) is a rare disease, usually treated by nephroureterectomy, occurring in a population with a median age of 70 years and with frequent tobacco use and other comorbidities. We know that the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score has prognostic value in urological oncology but this has not been assessed in UUT-UC. Using a multi-institutional French database, we have shown that the 5-year cancer-specific survival differed significantly between ASA 1, ASA 2 and ASA 3 patients (83.8%, 76.9% and 70.6%, respectively; P = 0.01). ASA status had a significant impact on cancer-specific survival in univariate and multivariate analyses, with a threefold higher risk of mortality at 5 years for ASA 3 compared with ASA 1 patients (P = 0.04). • To evaluate the impact of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores on the survival of patients treated with radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UUT-UC). • A retrospective multi-institutional cohort study of the French collaborative national database of UUT-UC treated by RNU in 20 centres from 1995 to 2010. • The influence of age, gender and ASA score on survival was assessed using a univariable and multivariable Cox regression analysis with pathological features used as covariables. • Overall, 554 patients were included. The median follow-up was 26 months (10-48 months), and the median age was 69.5 years (61-76 years). In total, 114 (20.6%) patients were classified as ASA 1, 326 (58.8%) as ASA 2 and 114 (20.6%) as ASA 3. • The 5-year recurrence-free survival (P = 0.21) and metastasis-free survival (P = 0.22) were not significantly different between ASA 1 (52.8% and 76%), ASA 2 (51.9% and 75.3%) and ASA 3 patients (44.1% and 68.2%, respectively). • The 5-year cancer-specific survival differed significantly

  7. [Hemorrhagic bilateral renal angiomyolipoma].

    PubMed

    Benjelloun, Mohamed; Rabii, Redouane; Mezzour, Mohamed Hicham; Joual, Abdenbi; Bennani, Saâd; el Mrini, Mohamed

    2003-09-01

    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare benign tumour, often associated with congenital diseases especially de Bourneville's tuberous sclerosis. Bilateral angiomyolipoma is exceptional. The authors report a case of bilateral renal angiomyolipoma in a 33-year-old patient presenting with haemorrhagic shock. In the light of this case and a review of the literature, the authors discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this disease.

  8. [Urinary bilharziasis].

    PubMed

    Gigase, P L

    1992-01-01

    A short account is given of present views on urinary schistosomiasis or bilharziasis. The incidence of infections is increasing in endemic areas of Africa and the near east, as a consequence of irrigation programs and hydroelectric power development. Urinary schistosomiasis is a disease of children and young adults. The serious consequences, obstructive uropathy due to more or less irreversible ureteral lesions, and cancer of the bladder, less directly related to the infection, appear but later in life. Diagnosis is still based on parasitology and serology but ultrasonography has proven to be an important means to evaluate the extent of lesions of the urinary tract, especially in developing countries. Praziquantel was a major development in the medical treatment and cures easily the infection. Some irreversible consequences have however to be treated surgically. Schistosomiasis is still an important cause of morbidity and mortality in medically backward endemic countries. The control of the disease aims at reducing morbidity and mortality, consequences of the infection, rather than to avoid infection itself. It is based on mass treatment of school age children, together with focal molluscacides at places where people have contacts with water. Vaccination will be available in the near future and will be a welcome addition to other control measures, but will not be able to interrupt transmission on its own. Only economic development will solve in the long term this social African problem.

  9. Spontaneous bilateral tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Wali, Aisha Syed; Khan, Rozilla Sadia

    2012-02-01

    With the increase in incidence of ectopic pregnancy over the decades, bilateral ectopic pregnancy is also increasing. It is usually associated with assisted reproductive techniques (ART) but in recent years few cases of spontaneous bilateral ectopic pregnancy have been reported. Gynaecologists should be aware of this and that ultrasonography has limitations in diagnosis. In cases of ectopic pregnancy where contralateral adnexa is not clearly identified on ultrasound and fertility needs to be conserved, patient should be managed by experts in well equipped centres. A case of spontaneous bilateral tubal pregnancy that remained undiagnosed till laparotomy, is described.

  10. Bilateral Anterior Shoulder Dislocation

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Yuk Chuen; Lui, Tun Hing

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Unilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is one of the most common problems encountered in orthopedic practice. However, simultaneous bilateral anterior dislocation of the shoulders is quite rare. Case Presentation: We report a case of a 75-year-old woman presented with simultaneous bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation following a trauma, complicated with a traction injury to the posterior cord of the brachial plexus. Conclusions: Bilateral anterior shoulder dislocation is very rare. The excessive traction force during closed reduction may lead to nerve palsy. Clear documentation of neurovascular status and adequate imaging before and after a reduction should be performed. PMID:25685749

  11. Bilateral Integrative Medicine, Obviously

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Steven H.; Shapiro, Simon J.

    2006-01-01

    Unstated and unacknowledged bias has a profound impact on the nature and implementation of integrative education models. Integrative education is the process of training conventional biomedical and traditional Chinese medicine practitioners in each tradition such that patient care may be effectively coordinated. A bilateral education model ensures that students in each tradition are cross-taught by experts from the ‘other’ tradition, imparting knowledge and values in unison. Acculturation is foundational to bilateral integrative medical education and practice. Principles are discussed for an open-minded bilateral educational model that can result in a new generation of integrative medicine teachers. PMID:16786060

  12. Bilateral guaifenesin ureteral calculi.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Chris; Schwartz, Bradley F

    2004-01-01

    We report on a patient with bilateral ureteral calculi composed of guaifenesin metabolite as determined by infrared spectroscopy. These stones may be associated with excessive guaifenesin intake related to the current popularity of ephedrine preparations.

  13. Bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

    PubMed

    Govil, Somya; Gupta, Vishesh; Misra, Neeta; Misra, Pradyumna

    2013-05-10

    The bilateral lateral periodontal cyst is a rare nasological entity, which despite clinical and radiological presentation is being diagnosed by histological characteristics. It is asymptomatic in nature and is observed in routine radiography. The aim and objective of this article is to present a rare case of bilateral lateral periodontal cyst in a 14-year-old child. The clinical and radiographical findings, along with its management have been discussed. Enucleation of bilateral cyst without extraction of the adjacent tooth was performed. Lesion samples were sent for histopathological analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed a thin, non keratinised stratified squamous epithelium resembling reduced enamel epithelium. Epithelial plaques were also seen. A clinicopathological correlation incorporating the surgical, radiographical and gold standard histopathological findings was obtained to suggest the final diagnosis of the bilateral lateral periodontal cyst.

  14. [Bilateral idiopathic granulomatous orchitis].

    PubMed

    Peyrí Rey, E; Riverola Manzanilla, A; Cañas Tello, M A

    2008-04-01

    A rare case of asymtomatic synchronous bilateral granulomatous orchitis idiopathic is decribed. In the scrotal ultrasonography are multiple hypoecoic areas, differential diagnosis between testicular tumor and granulomatous orchitis is very difficult in any examination by histological findings.

  15. Papillary thyroid cancer with bilateral adrenal metastases.

    PubMed

    Batawil, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid malignancy and has an excellent prognosis. Distant organ metastasis is rare. Bilateral adrenal metastases with iodine uptake has not been described before. A 47-year-old woman presented for evaluation because of severe right upper arm pain and weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging of the thoracic spine showed a compression fracture at the third thoracic vertebra associated with a soft tissue mass. Computed tomography (CT)-guided biopsy of the mass showed metastatic papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ultrasonography of the neck showed an enlarged right thyroid lobe with cervical lymphadenopathy. A high-resolution CT scan of the chest showed multiple bilateral pulmonary nodules. Treatment included total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection, external beam radiation to the thoracic spine, and (131)I therapy. Initial whole body (131)I scintigraphy showed faint uptake in the right upper abdomen, interpreted as a sign of physiologic bowel activity; however, repeat whole body (131)I scintigraphy showed increased uptake in both adrenal glands, consistent with metastatic disease. Serial abdominal CT scans showed progressively enlarging bilateral adrenal masses. Despite additional treatment with (131)I, the patient's disease progressed at all metastatic sites. This patient had bilateral adrenal metastases from advanced papillary thyroid cancer with distant metastasis to lung and bone at initial presentation and poor response to repeated (131)I therapy. Unilateral adrenal metastasis from thyroid cancer has been described previously in six cases; this is the first case report of bilateral adrenal metastases. Bilateral adrenal metastasis is rare in papillary thyroid cancer. Elevated abdominal uptake of (131)I in a high-risk patient may be a sign of abdominal metastatic disease.

  16. [A Case of Synchronous Malignant Pheochromocytomas in Bilateral Adrenal Glands].

    PubMed

    Usui, Kimitsugu; Hirasawa, Terukazu; Kobayashi, Masataka; Shioi, Kouichi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Sakai, Naoki; Noguchi, Sumio; Tsuura, Yukio

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of synchronous malignant pheochromocytoma in bilateral adrenal glands. A 73- year-old man presented to our hospital with bilateral adrenal masses incidentally found during abdominal ultrasonography examination for an unrelated issue. The patient had a 30-year history of hypertension and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed heterogeneous tumors in bilateral adrenal glands and an enlarged para-aortic lymph node. Hormonal examinations revealed a high value of urinary catecholamines. Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy showed increased uptake in bilateral adrenal glands and the lymph node. Both adrenal tumors and the node were surgically removed. Pathological examination revealed histologically distinct tissue between the two adrenal tumors. The patient received five cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, consisting of cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dacarbazine. The patient has been in remission for 32 months following surgical treatment.

  17. Surgical management of pediatric urinary incontinence.

    PubMed

    Dave, Sumit; Salle, Joao Luiz Pippi

    2013-08-01

    The surgical management of pediatric urinary incontinence secondary to neurogenic bladder and congenital anomalies is challenging, and continues to evolve with new surgical innovations. The goal of these surgical procedures is to achieve complete and socially acceptable urinary dryness, while preserving volitional voiding where possible, without causing damage to the upper tracts. This review focuses on recent studies and highlights the pros and cons of these advances, based on our experience. The short-term success in achieving urinary continence has to be tempered with the long-term implications of these reconstructive procedures, about which our knowledge is limited.

  18. Echinoderms Have Bilateral Tendencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wenchan; Wang, Sishuo; Lv, Jianhao

    2012-01-01

    Echinoderms take many forms of symmetry. Pentameral symmetry is the major form and the other forms are derived from it. However, the ancestors of echinoderms, which originated from Cambrian period, were believed to be bilaterians. Echinoderm larvae are bilateral during their early development. During embryonic development of starfish and sea urchins, the position and the developmental sequence of each arm are fixed, implying an auxological anterior/posterior axis. Starfish also possess the Hox gene cluster, which controls symmetrical development. Overall, echinoderms are thought to have a bilateral developmental mechanism and process. In this article, we focused on adult starfish behaviors to corroborate its bilateral tendency. We weighed their central disk and each arm to measure the position of the center of gravity. We then studied their turning-over behavior, crawling behavior and fleeing behavior statistically to obtain the center of frequency of each behavior. By joining the center of gravity and each center of frequency, we obtained three behavioral symmetric planes. These behavioral bilateral tendencies might be related to the A/P axis during the embryonic development of the starfish. It is very likely that the adult starfish is, to some extent, bilaterian because it displays some bilateral propensity and has a definite behavioral symmetric plane. The remainder of bilateral symmetry may have benefited echinoderms during their evolution from the Cambrian period to the present. PMID:22247765

  19. Echinoderms have bilateral tendencies.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chengcheng; Wu, Liang; Zhao, Wenchan; Wang, Sishuo; Lv, Jianhao

    2012-01-01

    Echinoderms take many forms of symmetry. Pentameral symmetry is the major form and the other forms are derived from it. However, the ancestors of echinoderms, which originated from Cambrian period, were believed to be bilaterians. Echinoderm larvae are bilateral during their early development. During embryonic development of starfish and sea urchins, the position and the developmental sequence of each arm are fixed, implying an auxological anterior/posterior axis. Starfish also possess the Hox gene cluster, which controls symmetrical development. Overall, echinoderms are thought to have a bilateral developmental mechanism and process. In this article, we focused on adult starfish behaviors to corroborate its bilateral tendency. We weighed their central disk and each arm to measure the position of the center of gravity. We then studied their turning-over behavior, crawling behavior and fleeing behavior statistically to obtain the center of frequency of each behavior. By joining the center of gravity and each center of frequency, we obtained three behavioral symmetric planes. These behavioral bilateral tendencies might be related to the A/P axis during the embryonic development of the starfish. It is very likely that the adult starfish is, to some extent, bilaterian because it displays some bilateral propensity and has a definite behavioral symmetric plane. The remainder of bilateral symmetry may have benefited echinoderms during their evolution from the Cambrian period to the present.

  20. Bilateral zosteriform extragenital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Piyush; Jha, Abhijeet Kumar; Mallik, Sambeet Kumar; Raihan, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with asymptomatic eruption on both forearms and lower aspects of the legs for 6 months. The lesions first appeared on his inner aspects of the wrist, the dorsal surface of the hands, and legs and progressed to involve proximal aspects of the extremities. There was no significant past history. On examination, multiple pearly white papules and depigmented atrophic plaques were found bilaterally on the flexors of the arms and the extensors of the legs. The lesions were arranged in a linear manner, following the lines of Blaschko (Figures 1 and 2). The surface of the atrophic plaques was notable for prominent telangiectasia, giving an erythematous appearance. The genitalia, oral cavity, palms, and soles were spared. Systemic examination was noncontributory. Lichen striatus and extragenital lichen sclerosus (ELS) were considered the differential diagnosis. Clinically, the age of the patient, the absence of scaling, and the presence of atrophic plaques and telangiectasia were in favor of ELS. A punch biopsy from an atrophic plaque was performed, and it revealed hyperkeratosis, atrophic epidermis, basal layer vacuolar degeneration, mild lymphocytic infiltration in the dermis, edema, and homogenization of collagen of the upper portion of the dermis (Figures 3 and Figure 4). Histopathologic findings were consistent with lichen sclerosus. A diagnosis of bilateral zosteriform ELS was made.

  1. Bilateral shotgun pellet pulmonary emboli

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Stephen; Ali, Sayed

    2012-01-01

    Intravascular migration of bullets and other foreign bodies is a rare but known complication of penetrating trauma. Missile embolization can represent a diagnostic challenge because it may present in various and unexpected ways. We present the case of a 54-year-old female who sustained shotgun pellet emboli to the pulmonary arteries following a left upper extremity gunshot wound and related vascular surgery. The case illustrates bilateral embolization, and the embolic events occurred following surgery. Embolization should be considered in evaluating patients with gunshot wounds, particularly if there are anomalous symptoms or the projectile is not found in the original, or expected, location. Close attention to the location of the foreign bodies on serial radiographs may reveal the diagnosis of intravascular embolization. PMID:22690290

  2. Bilateral abscessed orchiepididymitis associated with sepsis caused by Veillonella parvula and Clostridium perfringens: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed Central

    Arrosagaray, P M; Salas, C; Morales, M; Correas, M; Barros, J M; Cordon, M L

    1987-01-01

    Veillonella species is a gram-negative coccus which is part of the anaerobic normal flora in the oral cavity, small intestine, upper respiratory tract, vagina, and urinary tract. The role that this organism plays in infection is not well known, and it is generally associated with other bacteria. We present a case of bilateral abscessed orchiepididymitis associated with septicemia due to Veillonella parvula and, later, to Clostridium perfringens, with the development of severe renal insufficiency and septic shock, which resolved favorably with antibiotic therapy, treatment of shock, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. In reviewing the literature, we have not found any other case of sepsis due to Veillonella sp. associated with urological disorders. PMID:2887584

  3. Bilateral Nasoalveolar Cyst Causing Nasal Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yildizoglu, Uzeyir; Polat, Bahtiyar; Durmaz, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Nasoalveolar cysts, which originate from epithelial remnants of nasolacrimal duct, are nonodontogenic soft tissue lesions of the upper jaw. These cysts are thought to be developmental and are presented with fullness in the upper lip and nose, swelling on the palate, and sometimes nasal obstruction. Because of cosmetic problems, they are often diagnosed at an early stage. These lesions are mostly revealed unilaterally but also can be seen on both sides. In this case report, a patient who complained of nasal obstruction and then diagnosed with bilateral nasoalveolar cysts and treated by sublabial excision is presented and clinical features and treatment approaches are discussed with the review of literature. PMID:27980871

  4. A rare cause of anuria: Bilateral synchronous isolated mid-ureteric tubercular lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dangi, Anuj D.; Kodiatte, Thomas Alex; Kumar, Santosh; Kekre, Nitin S.

    2015-01-01

    A young female presenting with right flank pain, fever, raised creatinine and bilateral hydronephrosis was treated with antibiotics elsewhere, with presumptive diagnosis of bilateral pyelonephritis. She had partial relief in symptoms and her creatinine level showed an improvement. Three months later during evaluation at our center she had anuria, hypertensive crisis and pulmonary edema which were managed with emergency bilateral percutaneous nephrostomies. Cross-sectional imaging and ureteroscopy suggested bilateral synchronous intramural mid-ureteric lesions as underlying pathology. Histopathology of the ureteric segments during laparotomy revealed caseating granulomas suggestive of tuberculosis. This clinical presentation has not been previously described in urinary tuberculosis. PMID:26604451

  5. Bilateral epididymitis in a child with undiagnosed posterior urethral valves.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Justin; Lorenzo, Armando J; DeMaria, Jorge; Braga, Luis H P

    2013-07-01

    Posterior urethral valves are most commonly detected in the early neonatal period, the diagnosis often antenatally suspected from ultrasound findings. Nevertheless, some cases might go undetected and become manifest later in life with lower urinary tract symptoms. We describe the unusual case of a 5-year-old boy with a 2-month history of bladder distension, urinary dribbling, and epididymitis. Cystourethrography revealed posterior urethral valves with reflux into the seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and epididymis, bilaterally. A review of the published data is provided in the context of this unusual presentation pattern.

  6. [Bilateral caudate head infarcts].

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, N; Yamamoto, Y; Akiguchi, I; Oiwa, K; Nakajima, K

    1997-11-01

    We reported a 67-year-old woman with bilateral caudate head infarcts. She developed sudden mutism followed by abulia. She was admitted to our hospital 2 months after ictus for further examination. She showed prominent abulia and was inactive, slow and apathetic. Spontaneous activity and speech, immediate response to queries, spontaneous word recall and attention and persistence to complex programs were disturbed. Apparent motor disturbance, gait disturbance, motor aphasia, apraxia and remote memory disturbance were not identified. She seemed to be depressed but not sad. Brain CT and MRI revealed bilateral caudate head hemorrhagic infarcts including bilateral anterior internal capsules, in which the left lesion was more extensive than right one and involved the part of the left putamen. These infarct locations were thought to be supplied by the area around the medial striate artery including Heubner's arteries and the A1 perforator. Digital subtraction angiography showed asymptomatic right internal carotid artery occlusion. She bad had hypertension, diabetes mellitus and atrial fibrillation and also had a left atrium with a large diameter. The infarcts were thought to be caused by cardioembolic occlusion to the distal portion of the left internal carotid artery. Although some variations of vasculature at the anterior communicating artery might contribute to bilateral medial striate artery infarcts, we could not demonstrate such abnormalities by angiography. Bilateral caudate head infarcts involving the anterior internal capsule may cause prominent abulia. The patient did not improve by drug and rehabilitation therapy and died suddenly a year after discharge.

  7. A rare entity in adults: Bilateral Hutch diverticulum with calculi

    PubMed Central

    Telli, Onur; Guclu, Adil Gucal; Haciyev, Perviz; Burgu, Berk; Gogus, Cagatay

    2015-01-01

    Congenital bladder diverticulum (CBD) is a very uncommon entity in adults. CBD could be unilateral or bilateral and is caused by a congenital weakness in the bladder musculature. CBD is differentiated from the paraureteral or Hutch type of diverticula. A 42-year-old male presented with bilateral Hutch diverticulum and multiple diverticulum calculus on intravenous pyelography. Cystoscopy revealed bladder diverticulum just medial to the left ureteral orifice with multiple calculi; the patient successfully underwent endoscopic laser cystolithotripsy with resolution of his urinary tract infection. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report presenting stone formation of CBD in an adult. PMID:26029313

  8. Bilateral Single System Orthotopic Ureterocele with Bilateral Multiple Calculi Presented with Retention of Urine - an Urological Emergency

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sweta; Khan, Dawood; Basu, Supriya

    2017-01-01

    The ureterocele is an uncommon congenital anomaly of the lower ureter. Ureterocele with a single pelvicalyceal system, bilateral, and orthotopic variety is less common. Calculi within bilateral ureterocele are a rare occurrence. To the best of our knowledge, only a few similar cases have been reported in the literature. Among the all reported presentations of this type of ureterocele, presentation with Acute Urinary Retention (AUR) has not been described in the literature. We present a case of nine-year-old child having bilateral, single system orthotopic ureterocele with calculi in bilateral ureterocele and presented with AUR due to obstructive bulbar urethral calculus. The bilateral endoscopic incision was given and all four calculi were removed endoscopically through percutaneous route. Voiding cystourethrography after two years follow-up was non-refluxing. The purpose of reporting this case is the rarity of the disease and to emphasize that delay in diagnosis and treatment of these cases may lead to complications such as recurrent urinary tract infection and renal failure. PMID:28892967

  9. Subsequent bilateral thalamic haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Jesus; Scherle, Claudio; Machado, Calixto

    2009-01-01

    Simultaneous or subsequent bilateral thalamic haemorrhage is rare, and most reported cases are from Asian countries. An 80-year-old white Cuban man, with a history of arterial hypertension, suffered sudden onset of right hemiparesis. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed a left posteromedial thalamic haemorrhage. Two days later his condition suddenly deteriorated: blood pressure was 220/105 mm Hg, he was stuporous and tetraplegic, respiration was ataxic, and his gaze was fixed and deviated downward and inward. CT scan showed haemorrhages in both thalami, extending to the ventricles. 32 h later the patient died. There are few previous publications of simultaneous or subsequent bilateral thalamic haemorrhages and this is the first report involving a Hispanic patient. Prognosis in patients with bilateral thalamic haemorrhage is poor, and the mechanism underlying the development of subsequent and symmetrical bleeding is not clear. PMID:21709830

  10. Congenital anomalies of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans G; Belman, A Barry

    2014-01-01

    The upper urinary tract forms as a consequence of the reciprocal inductive signals between the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. A clue to the timing of events leading to an abnormality of the upper urinary tract can be the presence also of associated anomalies of internal genitalia since separation of these systems occurs at about the 10th week of gestation. Prenatal sonography has facilitated the detection of urological abnormalities presenting with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis suggests obstruction, but by itself cannot be equated with it. Instead, further radiographic imaging is required to delineate anatomy and function. Now, moreover, non-surgical management of CAKUT should be considered whenever possible. Despite the widespread use of prenatal screening sonography that usually identifies the majority of congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, many children still present with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Regardless of the etiology for the presentation, the goal of management is preservation of renal function through mitigation of the risk for recurrent UTI and/or obstruction. In the past many children underwent surgical repair aimed at normalization of the appearance of the urinary tract. Today, management has evolved such that in most cases surgical reconstruction is performed only after a period of observation - with or without urinary prophylaxis. The opinions presented in this section are not espoused by all pediatric urologists but represent instead the practice that has evolved at Children's National Medical Center (Washington DC) based significantly on information obtained by nuclear renography, in addition to sonography and contrast cystography.

  11. Bilateral eyelid erythema associated with false eyelash glue.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tatsuya

    2013-03-01

    We report an unusual case of bilateral eyelid erythema caused by eyelash glue. A 22-year-old woman presented with a 3-day history of bilateral eyelid dermatitis after attaching false eyelashes by using latex-containing glue. Slit-lamp examination revealed erythema and swelling of the upper lids of both eyes. The skin prick test was positive for eyelash glue and her total tear IgE score was high. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bilateral eyelid dermatitis caused by eyelash glue.

  12. Bilateral clicking ribs.

    PubMed Central

    Parry, W; Breckenridge, I; Khalil, Y F

    1989-01-01

    Congenital abnormalities of the ribs, including slipping or clicking rib, are well recognised but rarely give rise to symptoms. Slipping rib has previously been described as a unilateral condition. We report an unusual case of symptomatic bilateral slipping ribs treated successfully by surgery. PMID:2928991

  13. Spontaneous Bilateral Olecranon Fractures in a Rheumatoid Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kirmani, Sayyied; Draviaraj, Kingsley; Madegowda, Babu; Shahane, Shantanu

    2008-01-01

    A case is described of a patient sustaining bilateral spontaneous olecranon fractures while undergoing rehabilitation following surgery for a hip fracture. The patient's underlying rheumatoid arthritis disease process most likely caused erosions and subchondral cysts formation in the mid-trochlear notch region. This area, in turn, acts as a pivot point in elbow extension/flexion movements. During rehabilitation, the patient became dependent on her upper limbs for mobilisation. This led to significant forces being put through this already weakened region, causing spontaneous bilateral olecranon fractures. Rheumatoid patients after lower limb surgery should be careful during rehabilitation, and avoid undue strains through their upper limbs. PMID:18430326

  14. Spontaneous bilateral olecranon fractures in a rheumatoid patient.

    PubMed

    Kirmani, Sayyied; Draviaraj, Kingsley; Madegowda, Babu; Shahane, Shantanu

    2008-04-01

    A case is described of a patient sustaining bilateral spontaneous olecranon fractures while undergoing rehabilitation following surgery for a hip fracture. The patient's underlying rheumatoid arthritis disease process most likely caused erosions and subchondral cysts formation in the mid-trochlear notch region. This area, in turn, acts as a pivot point in elbow extension/flexion movements. During rehabilitation, the patient became dependent on her upper limbs for mobilisation. This led to significant forces being put through this already weakened region, causing spontaneous bilateral olecranon fractures. Rheumatoid patients after lower limb surgery should be careful during rehabilitation, and avoid undue strains through their upper limbs.

  15. Acute bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Surur, John

    2011-01-01

    The author reports the case of a well and fit patient who presented herself to the emergency department and was found to have bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis. She was admitted to the intensive care where she was initially treated conservatively with antibiotics, percutaneous drainage and continuous renal replacement therapy, but her condition deteriorated. She underwent a left total nephrectomy and a partial right nephrectomy that resulted in remarkable improvement. The patient started passing urine spontaneously, so no haemofiltration was required. She was discharged home and her case was followed-up by an urologist and nephrologist. This case lays emphasis on thoroughly investigating and managing a patient with bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis and, in relation to its management, on the dilemma of whether the treatment of choice should be conservative or surgical. PMID:22707665

  16. Bilateral tibial hemimelia I.

    PubMed

    Suganthy, J; Rassau, Marina; Koshi, Rachel; Battacharjee, Suranjan

    2007-05-01

    Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly. We report a case of bilateral tibial hemimelia born to phenotypically normal parents. The two amputated legs with tibial dysplasia obtained from a 3-year-old boy were studied by radiography and anatomical dissection. The radiological evaluation revealed a normal hip joint. The lower end of femur was normal without any bifurcation, shortening or bowing. Fibula was present on both legs and there was no sign of bowing or doubling. Both right and left tibiae were absent. In addition, on the right side, five tarsal bones, two metatarsals and the corresponding digital rays were absent. On the left side, three tarsal bones were absent. Dissection of the amputated segments showed the presence of extensor digitorum longus, peroneus tertius, peroneus longus and brevis, gastrocnemius, and soleus. Following bilateral knee disarticulation the patient was fitted with prosthesis and is doing well.

  17. Bilateral Wilms' tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Malcolm, A.W.; Jaffe, N.; Folkman, M.J.; Cassady, J.R.

    1980-02-01

    Twenty children with bilateral Wilms' tumor were presented to the Children's Hospital Medical Center and Children's Cancer Research Foundation, Sidney Farber Cancer Institute, and Joint Center for Radiation Therapy (CHMC-CCRF, SFCI, JCRT) from January 1, 1956 to December 31, 1976. Of these 20, 16 had simultaneous and 4 had metachronous disease on presentation. All patients were treated with surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Of the 16 patients with simultaneous disease, 10 (63%) are alive and free of disease 12+ to 175+ months post diagnosis and treatment, with median follow-up of 121 months. There were no long-term survivors in the metachronous group; all were dead of disease within 21 months from initial presentation of original tumor. With these data we relate prognosis to extent of disease and discuss a general approach to the management of bilateral Wilms' tumor.

  18. Bilateral internal acoustic canal mass.

    PubMed

    Nazim, Korkut; Mehmet, Yilmaz; Tuna, Edizer Deniz; Marlen, Mamanov Asanbekovich

    2013-01-01

    We reported a case of bilateral internal acoustic canal mass. A 42-year-old man patient was previously treated for colon cancer. After surgery during chemotherapy signs as severe vertigo and bilateral sudden hearing loss occurred. Temporal bone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) had bilateral internal acoustic canal masses.

  19. Bilateral Renal Lymphangiectasia.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Vaidehi K; Shah, Maulin K; Gandhi, Shruti P; Patel, Himanshu V

    2016-09-01

    Renal Lymphangiectasia (RLM) is very rare benign lymphatic malformation. It can be misdiagnosed for other cystic renal masses, most commonly polycystic kidneys. Though incidentally found in most cases, it may be the cause for hypertension and renal failure in undiagnosed patients. Here, we report a case of an adult asymptomatic male with bilateral RLM which was detected as an incidental finding on ultrasound. Confirmation by CT-scan and laboratory diagnosis of aspirated fluid was done, and patient was managed conservatively.

  20. Bilateral asymmetric supernumerary heads of biceps brachii

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Song Eun; Jung, Chaeyong; Ahn, Kyu Youn

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical variations of the biceps brachii have been described by various authors, but the occurrence of bilateral asymmetric supernumerary heads is rare and has not been reported. We found three accessory heads of the biceps brachii muscle on right arm and an anomalous third head of biceps brachii on left arm. The third, fourth, and fifth heads of right arm originated from the body of humerus at the insertion site of coracobrachialis and inserted into the distal part of biceps brachii short head in order. The third head of left arm originated from humerus at the insertion site of coracobrachialis and combined with the distal part of biceps brachii and continued to the proximal part of common biceps tendon. Understanding the existence of bilateral asymmetric supernumerary heads of biceps brachii may influence preoperative diagnosis and surgery on the upper limbs. PMID:22025976

  1. Bilateral Testicular Tumors Resulting in Recurrent Cushing Disease After Bilateral Adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Puar, Troy; Engels, Manon; van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Sweep, Fred C G J; Hulsbergen-van de Kaa, Christina; Kamphuis-van Ulzen, Karin; Chortis, Vasileios; Arlt, Wiebke; Stikkelbroeck, Nike; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedi L; Hermus, Ad R M M

    2017-02-01

    Recurrence of hypercortisolism in patients after bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing disease is extremely rare. We present a 27-year-old man who previously underwent bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing disease with complete clinical resolution. Cushingoid features recurred 12 years later, with bilateral testicular enlargement. Hormonal tests confirmed adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing disease. Surgical resection of the testicular tumors led to clinical and biochemical remission. Gene expression analysis of the tumor tissue by quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed high expression of all key steroidogenic enzymes. Adrenocortical-specific genes were 5.1 × 105 (CYP11B1), 1.8 × 102 (CYP11B2), and 6.3 × 104 (MC2R) times higher than nonsteroidogenic fibroblast control. This correlated with urine steroid metabolome profiling showing 2 fivefold increases in the excretion of the metabolites of 11-deoxycortisol, 21-deoxycortisol, and total glucocorticoids. Leydig-specific genes were 4.3 × 101 (LHCGR) and 9.3 × 100 (HSD17B3) times higher than control, and urinary steroid profiling showed twofold increased excretion of the major androgen metabolites androsterone and etiocholanolone. These distinctly increased steroid metabolites were suppressed by dexamethasone but unresponsive to human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation, supporting the role of ACTH, but not luteinizing hormone, in regulating tumor-specific steroid excess. We report bilateral testicular tumors occurring in a patient with recurrent Cushing disease 12 years after bilateral adrenalectomy. Using mRNA expression analysis and steroid metabolome profiling, the tumors demonstrated both adrenocortical and gonadal steroidogenic properties, similar to testicular adrenal rest tumors found in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia, suggesting the presence of pluripotent cells even in patients without congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

  2. Evaluation of dysfunction and malformations of the urinary tract in patients with meningomyelocele, by renal dynamic scintigraphy and direct radionuclide cystography. An Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chetan D; Chawla, Madhavi; Nadig, Murali R; Mahapatra, Ashok K; Bal, Chandrasekhar

    2007-01-01

    Meningomyelocele (MMC) is the most common form of neural crest closure defect and may be associated with dysfunction and malformations of multiple organs including urinary tract. It affects as many as 2-4 in 1000 live births, however there are no epidemiological studies available from India. Anatomical and neurogenic abnormalities of the urinary tract are known to occur in these patients. Scanty literature is available regarding the utility of radionuclide procedures in the evaluation of urinary tract in patients of MMC. The aim of this study was to evaluate urinary tract dysfunction and malformations in patients operated of MMC by diuretic renal dynamic scintigraphy (RDS) and direct radionuclide cystography (DRCG). In this retrospective analysis, 140 operated patients for MMC, mean age: 4.46, range: 1-18 years; 83 male and 57 female, referred to our department for evaluation of the upper renal tract, were studied. Neurogenic bladder (NB) was associated in 69 patients. The diagnosis of NB was based on clinical features like incontinence, expressibility of urine bladder and on urodynamic studies. RDS was performed after the intravenous administration of 10.36 MBq/kg of technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetate or 99mTc-L, L-ethylenedicysteine. All patients with hydronephrosis (HDN) or hydroureteronephrosis (HDUN) on RDS underwent DRCG using 11.1-18.5 MBq of 99mTc-sulphur colloid. Our results showed that: out of the 140 patients, 78 (56%) including 33 with NB, had normal renal scintigraphy. Six patients (4%) had congenital renal anomalies. Twenty patients (14%) revealed non-obstructive HDN and had no vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR). Thirty-six patients (26%) with bilateral HDUN also had NB of which 19 (53%) had VUR. Fourteen (74%) of these patients with VUR had impaired renal function. In discussion, patients with MMC may present with disordered innervation of the detrussor muscle and external sphincter, which adversely affects the bladder function and

  3. Urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2013-07-01

    The urinary tract is a common source for life-threatening infections. Most patients with sepsis or septic shock from a urinary source have complicated urinary tract infection. This article explains the epidemiology, risk factors, and treatment. Effective management, appropriate collection of microbiology specimens, prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy, source control, and supportive therapy are described. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IMAGING DIAGNOSIS--URINARY BLADDER DUPLICATION IN A CAT.

    PubMed

    Cook, Alysa B; Langston, Cathy E; Fischetti, Anthony J; Donovan, Taryn A

    2015-01-01

    A female kitten presented for chronic, intermittent, antibiotic-responsive urinary incontinence and chronic kidney disease. Abdominal ultrasound identified bilateral pelvic/ureteral dilation and three closely apposed thin-walled fluid-filled structures in the caudal abdomen, extending toward the pelvic inlet. Excretory urography and negative contrast cystography identified contrast medium accumulation from the dilated ureters into two tubular soft tissue masses of the caudal abdomen, with subsequent gradual filling of a more cranially located urinary bladder. A retrograde vaginocystourethrogram identified a normal uterus, normal vagina, and a single urethra continuous with the cranially located urinary bladder. Antemortem diagnosis was suspicious for bilateral ectopic ureteroceles. Postmortem diagnosis, 35 months following initial presentation, determined the fluid-filled masses to have abundant smooth muscle in the wall, including a muscularis mucosa connected by a common ostium, consistent with urinary bladder duplication. Urinary bladder duplication should be included as a differential diagnosis in cats with these clinical and imaging characteristics. In this case, differentiation of ectopic ureterocele from urinary bladder duplication required histological confirmation.

  5. The late occurrence of urinary tract damage in patients successfully treated by radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Zoubek, J.; McGuire, E.J.; Noll, F.; DeLancey, J.O.

    1989-06-01

    Urinary tract complications apparently resulting from radiation therapy for carcinoma of the cervix can occur as long as 30 years after cessation of such treatment. Patients generally present with urinary incontinence and often are treated by standard operative methods that usually are unsuccessful. Incontinence is related to bladder fibrosis, urethral nonfunction and vesicovaginal fistuLa formation, and may be accompanied by bilateral ureteral obstruction. Of 11 patients with late complications of radiotherapy 4 had upper tract deterioration, 4 had vesicovaginal fistulas, 5 had an incompetent urethra aNd 9 had a fibrotic, noncompliant areflexive bladder. Treatment was aimed at providing adequate low pressure storage capacity and consisted of augmentation cystoplasty in 5 patients, repair of the fistula in 4 and correction of urethral dysfunction in 5. Women who complain of incontinence and/or irritable bladder symptoms with a history of radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma should be evaluated for fistuLa formation, urethral incompetence, and detrusor areflexia and fibrosis before treatment is done.

  6. Ischemic bilateral opercular syndrome.

    PubMed

    Milanlioglu, Aysel; Aydın, Mehmet Nuri; Gökgül, Alper; Hamamcı, Mehmet; Erkuzu, Mehmet Atilla; Tombul, Temel

    2013-01-01

    Opercular syndrome, also known as Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome, is a paralysis of the facial, pharyngeal, masticatory, tongue, laryngeal, and brachial muscles. It is a rare cortical form of pseudobulbar palsies caused by vascular insults to bilateral operculum. Its clinical presentations include anarthria, weakness of voluntary muscles involving face, tongue, pharynx, larynx, and masticatory muscles. However, autonomic reflexes and emotional activities of these structures are preserved. In the present case, an 81-year-old male presented with acute onset of anarthria with difficulties in chewing, speaking, and swallowing that was diagnosed with opercular syndrome.

  7. Ischemic Bilateral Opercular Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Milanlioglu, Aysel; Aydın, Mehmet Nuri; Gökgül, Alper; Hamamcı, Mehmet; Erkuzu, Mehmet Atilla; Tombul, Temel

    2013-01-01

    Opercular syndrome, also known as Foix-Chavany-Marie syndrome, is a paralysis of the facial, pharyngeal, masticatory, tongue, laryngeal, and brachial muscles. It is a rare cortical form of pseudobulbar palsies caused by vascular insults to bilateral operculum. Its clinical presentations include anarthria, weakness of voluntary muscles involving face, tongue, pharynx, larynx, and masticatory muscles. However, autonomic reflexes and emotional activities of these structures are preserved. In the present case, an 81-year-old male presented with acute onset of anarthria with difficulties in chewing, speaking, and swallowing that was diagnosed with opercular syndrome. PMID:23476665

  8. Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Asymmetry in Cycling Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ting; Jensen, Jody L.

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral asymmetry, a form of limb laterality in the context of moving two limbs, emerges in childhood. Children and adults show lateral preference in tasks that involve the upper and lower limbs. The importance of research in limb laterality is the insight it could provide about lateralized functions of the cerebral hemispheres. Analyzing…

  9. Age-Related Differences in Bilateral Asymmetry in Cycling Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ting; Jensen, Jody L.

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral asymmetry, a form of limb laterality in the context of moving two limbs, emerges in childhood. Children and adults show lateral preference in tasks that involve the upper and lower limbs. The importance of research in limb laterality is the insight it could provide about lateralized functions of the cerebral hemispheres. Analyzing…

  10. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria.

  11. Bilateral ureteral complete obstruction with huge spontaneous urinoma formation in a patient with advanced bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Jou, Yeong-Chin; Shen, Cheng-Huang; Cheng, Ming-Chin; Lin, Chang-Te; Chen, Pi-Che

    2012-02-01

    Spontaneous rupture of the collecting system with extravasation of urine and urinoma formation is usually associated with urinary tract obstruction by a ureteral calculus. Tumor growth is an extremely rare cause of urinary extravasation. Here we report a case of bilateral obstructive uropathy with a huge spontaneous left retroperitoneal urinoma caused by advanced infiltrative transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. The point of leakage was located in the left renal pelvis. The urinary leakage ceased after percutaneous nephrostomy drainage, and the patient subsequently underwent radical cystoprostatectomy. Histopathology revealed a high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder with pelvic lymph node metastasis. The patient refused any adjuvant treatment and expired 6 months after the operation from disseminated metastasis from bladder cancer. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. [Upper thoracic sympathectomy in treatment of upper limb ischaemia in distal lesions of the arterial bed].

    PubMed

    Alukhanian, O A; Martirosian, Kh G; Aristov, D S; Kurganskiĭ, O V

    2013-01-01

    Analysed herein was efficacy of 76 videothoracoscopic upper chest sympathectomies performed for upper limb ischaemia in a total of 61 patients. Of these, 15 patients were found to suffer bilateral lesions. The findings of clinical follow up and instrumental examinations (laser Doppler flowmetry, rheovasography, measuring transcranial oxygen tension in tissues) made it possible to draw a conclusion on efficacy of upper chest sympathectomy in distal lesions of the vascular bed of the upper extremities.

  13. Bilateral Hernias in the Female

    PubMed Central

    Glassow, Frank

    1969-01-01

    An experience with 216 bilateral hernias in female patients is reviewed. The condition is rare, occurring only once in every 250 patients admitted for a hernia repair. Bilateral primary indirect inguinal hernias were the most frequent type. Bilateral primary femoral hernias were quite rare while bilateral primary direct inguinal hernias were even more uncommon. Other rare bilateral combinations are briefly described. The incidence in children is given. Etiological factors are discussed, emphasizing the strong posterior wall of the inguinal canal in females. Two per cent of patients developed a recurrent hernia; one per cent of hernias recurred. No recurrence following a bilateral primary indirect inguinal hernia repair and no “femoral” recurrence following inguinal repair were recorded. PMID:5348491

  14. Renal transplantation using external continent urinary diversion.

    PubMed

    Lucon, A M; Sabbaga, E; Ianhez, L E; Chocair, P R; Pestana, J O; Arap, S

    1994-02-01

    A 29-year-old man born with bladder exstrophy presented with end stage renal failure many years after ileal conduit diversion. Bilateral nephrectomy and continent external urinary diversion were performed, and 1.5 months later a cadaveric kidney was grafted into the right iliac fossa. The patient was well at 18 months with a serum creatinine level of 1.2 mg./dl. and he was completely dry with 4 or 5 daily catheterizations. Although followup is still short, renal transplantation with drainage into an external continent urinary diversion permits excellent quality of life and good renal function. Therefore, this alternative is worth consideration whenever other reconstructive alternatives are not possible in candidates for renal transplantation.

  15. Etiologies of bilateral pleural effusions

    PubMed Central

    Puchalski, Jonathan T.; Argento, A. Christine; Murphy, Terrence E.; Araujo, Katy L.B.; Oliva, Isabel B.; Rubinowitz, Ami N.; Pisani, Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background To evaluate the safety, etiology and outcomes of patients undergoing bilateral thoracentesis. Methods This is a prospective cohort study of 100 consecutive patients who underwent bilateral thoracenteses in an academic medical center from July 2009 through November 2010. Pleural fluid characteristics and etiologies of the effusions were assessed. Mean differences in levels of fluid characteristics between right and left lungs were tested. Associations between fluid characteristics and occurrence of bilateral malignant effusions were evaluated. The rate of pneumothorax and other complications subsequent to bilateral thoracentesis was determined. Results Exudates were more common than transudates, and most effusions had multiple etiologies, with 83% having two or more etiologies. Bilateral malignant effusions occurred in 19 patients, were the most common single etiology of exudative effusions, and were associated with higher levels of protein and LDH in the pleural fluid. Among 200 thoracenteses performed with a bilateral procedure, seven resulted in pneumothoraces, three of which required chest tube drainage and four were ex vacuo. Conclusions More often than not, there are multiple etiologies that contribute to pleural fluid formation, and of the combinations of etiologies observed congestive heart failure was the most frequent contributor. Exudative effusions are more common than transudates when bilateral effusions are present. Malignancy is a common etiology of exudative effusions. This study suggests that the overall complication rate following bilateral thoracentesis is low and the rate of pneumothorax subsequent to bilateral thoracentesis is comparable to unilateral thoracentesis. PMID:23219348

  16. The female urinary microbiota, urinary health and common urinary disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, Alan J.

    2017-01-01

    This review provides the clinical context and updated information regarding the female urinary microbiota (FUM), a resident microbial community within the female bladder of many adult women. Microbial communities have variability and distinct characteristics in health, as well as during community disruption (dysbiosis). Information concerning characteristics of the FUM in health and disease is emerging. Sufficient data confirms that the microbes that compose the FUM are not contaminants and are cultivatable under appropriate conditions. Common clinical conditions, including urinary tract infection (UTI) and urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), a common form of urinary incontinence (UI), may be usefully reconsidered to determine the role of the FUM. Knowledge of FUM characteristics may help advance prevention, diagnosis and treatment of these conditions and other common lower urinary disorders in women. The FUM appears related to UTI and UUI in adult women. The specific role of the FUM remains to be clarified and requires significant additional work in describing FUM variability and resilience in health. Unique aspects of the FUM prompt re-evaluation of existing nomenclature to more appropriately define health and disease; the concept of dysbiosis may be useful for understanding the interaction of the FUM with other aspects of lower urinary tract physiology, including urothelial signaling. Clinicians, through their clinical laboratories, can adopt enhanced urine culture techniques that more fully describe the living microbes within the FUM. This additional information may provide clinicians and their patients an opportunity to impact clinical care without antibiotic use, if the FUM can be appropriately modified to improve treatment precision for UTI and UUI. PMID:28217699

  17. [Bilateral cochlear implantation].

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Jona; Migirov, Lela; Taitelbaum-Swead, Rikey; Hildesheimer, Minka

    2010-06-01

    Cochlear implant surgery became the standard of care in hearing rehabilitation of patients with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss. This procedure may alter the lives of children and adults enabling them to integrate with the hearing population. In the past, implantation was performed only in one ear, despite the fact that binaural hearing is superior to unilateral, especially in noisy conditions. Cochlear implantation may be performed sequentially or simultaneously. The "sensitive period" of time between hearing loss and implantation and between the two implantations, when performed sequentially, significantly influences the results. Shorter time spans between implantations improve the hearing results after implantation. Hearing success after implantation is highly dependent on the rehabilitation process which includes mapping, implant adjustments and hearing training. Bilateral cochlear implantation in children is recommended as the proposed procedure in spite of the additional financial burden.

  18. Idiopathic bilateral lipid keratopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, E.; Arrellanes, L.; Boruchoff, S. A.; Ormerod, L. D.; Albert, D. M.

    1988-01-01

    A 52-year-old Mexican man presented with asymptomatic, bilaterally symmetrical lipid infiltrates of the cornea and adjacent limbus. No evidence of previous ocular disease or systemic disorder of lipid metabolism could be detected. Penetrating keratoplasty of the right eye was required. The cornea was rigid and thick, with posterior bulging into the anterior chamber. Light microscopy revealed deep corneal lipid granules, foamy histiocytes, vascularisation, and chronic non-granulomatous inflammation. Transmission electron microscopy showed extracellular lipid spaces and numerous intracytoplasmic lipid vacuoles in histiocytes, keratocytes, conjunctival epithelium, and the endothelium of blood vessels in the corneal stroma and adjacent limbal conjunctiva. Histochemical analysis revealed the presence of neutral fats, free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids. Images PMID:3395592

  19. Bilateral isolated phrenic neuropathy causing painless bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Lin, P T; Andersson, P-B; Distad, B J; Barohn, R J; Cho, S C; So, Y T; Katz, J S

    2005-11-08

    The authors report four patients with a syndrome of painless bilateral isolated phrenic neuropathy. Electrophysiologic testing demonstrated active denervation restricted to the diaphragm. Long-term recovery was poor. The authors conclude that bilateral isolated phrenic neuropathy is a cause of painless diaphragmatic paralysis distinguishable from immune brachial plexus neuropathy and other neuromuscular disorders with similar clinical presentation.

  20. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Norton, Peggy; Brubaker, Linda

    2006-01-07

    Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

  1. [Urinary fistula: update].

    PubMed

    Allona Almagro, A; Sanz Migueláñez, J L; Pérez Sanz, P; Pozo Mengual, B; Navío Niño, S

    2002-01-01

    The urinary fistulas are not a frequent problem in our urological rutinary work, being the vesicovaginal ones the most common. However, it will be necessary to know them to be able to diagnose and treat them in the best way. In this article we classificate the different urinary fistulas (uro-gynecologicals, uro-vasculars, uro-cutaneous and entero-urinarys), explaining the possible etiologies and the correct management.

  2. Urinary catheter - infants

    MedlinePlus

    Bladder catheter - infants; Foley catheter - infants; Urinary catheter - neonatal ... Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ...

  3. Bilateral native kidney neoplasia detected by ultrasound in functionning renal allograft recipient.

    PubMed

    Noce, Annalisa; Iaria, Giuseppe; Durante, Olga; Sforza, Daniele; Canale, Maria Paola; Di Villahermosa, Simone Manca; Castagnola, Veronica; Tisone, Giuseppe; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2012-12-01

    We report the case of bilateral renal clear cell carcinoma in the native kidney, occurring fouryears after renal transplantation. Renal Doppler duplex sonography revealed large solid bilateral neoformation. Total-body computed tomography confirmed the presence of bilateral kidney lesions and also showed the presence of concomitant gross dyscariocinetic lesion of left hemotorax. The patient underwent bilateral native nephrectomy and the histological diagnosis was renal cell carcinoma. Subsequent left upper lobectomy revealed necrotic keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma. Then, the patients was switched tacrolimus to everolimus treatment and mycophenolate mofetil was reduced.

  4. Traumatic bilateral renal infarction.

    PubMed

    Peterson, N E

    1989-02-01

    Published examples of unilateral and bilateral renal artery thrombosis attest to their usual subjection to nephrectomy at diagnosis or soon thereafter, eliminating the opportunity for spontaneous improvement which would enlighten the issue of how often late recovery may occur, and under what circumstances. Seven cases of renal artery thrombosis and five patients with renal artery embolization extracted from the literature have included documentation of patchy histologic viability within otherwise total infarction. Conversely, 47 reports of renal artery thrombosis culminating in nephrectomy or examined post mortem include no reference to any of these histologic features. Presumptions are speculative regarding whether these features were absent, overlooked, or unexamined. Their incidence cannot be estimated--only the possibility of recoverable renal function in an unknown number of involved patients. It may be presumed that the majority of kidneys exposed to sustained arterial interruption will undergo irreversible infarction, with an undefined small subgroup later developing renal hypertension. An unknown number, however, may fortuitously possess arterial collateralization competent to support sufficient numbers of viable nephrons to sustain adequate renal function. It is further speculated that shared pathophysiologic features establish the opportunity for misdiagnosis of renal cortical necrosis, which carries a documented potential for spontaneous recovery. Impulsive bilateral nephrectomy may therefore be unjustified, particularly in consideration of the minimal potential hazards of nonremoval. In the event of convalescent problems of renal origin, delayed nephrectomy remains an option. The requirement for interval hemodialysis is further influenced by the advantages accruing from retention of the native kidneys relative to calcium metabolism and blood product replacement. A final consideration relates to the advisability of secondary revascularization of

  5. Efficacy and safety of semirigid ureteroscopy combined with holmium: YAG laser in the treatment of upper urinary tract calculi: Is it a good alternative treatment option of flexible ureteroscopy for developing countries?

    PubMed

    Yuksel, Ozgur Haki; Akan, Serkan; Urkmez, Ahmet; Uruc, Fatih; Verit, Ayhan

    2015-11-01

    To assess the success rates of endoscopic management of upper ureteral stones using semirigid ureterorenoscopy and holmium: YAG laser lithotripters. A total of 74 patients with an established diagnosis of upper ureteric stone and scheduled for endoscopic ureteral stone treatment were retrospectively evaluated. Failure was defined as the inability to contact or fragment the stone, migration of the stone into the renal pelvis and difficulty in visualizing the stone for the second time. Success rates and influencing factors as for stone-free state were investigated. Mean age of our patients was 45.99±15.00 (range: 24-82) years. In 14 of 74 patients procedural failure was observed. Double J stents were implanted in 65 % of the patients and ureteral catheterization was performed on 20% of them. The total success rate was 81.1 %. Major complication rate was 1.1 percent. Factors effecting the success rate as gender, age, body mass index, grade of hydronephrosis and stone size were evaluated and only age was found to be statistically significant. Despite some potential risks, semirigid ureterorenoscopic stone extraction and holmium: YAG laser lithotripters are still safe and effective treatment alternatives for management of upper ureteral stones.

  6. Pediatric Urinary Tract Infection

    MedlinePlus

    SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections and Catheterization in Children with Neurogenic Bladder and ... To protect the kidneys from damage – By preventing urinary tract infections (UTI) – By identifying and treating vesicoureteral remux (VUR). ...

  7. Molecular basis of Escherichia coli colonization of the upper urinary tract in BALB/c mice. Gal-Gal pili immunization prevents Escherichia coli pyelonephritis in the BALB/c mouse model of human pyelonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    O'Hanley, P; Lark, D; Falkow, S; Schoolnik, G

    1985-01-01

    Most human pyelonephritis Escherichia coli isolates express both mannose (MS)- and globoside (Gal-Gal)-binding pili. An ascending E. coli urinary tract infection model was established in the 16-wk-old female BALB/c mouse to compare the pathogenic significance of MS and Gal-Gal pili and their efficacy as vaccines for the prevention of pyelonephritis. The distribution and density of pilus receptor compounds in urogenital tissues and as soluble compounds in urine were determined with antibodies to the synthetic receptor analogues, alpha D-Gal(1----4) beta D-Gal and alpha D-Man(1----2) alpha D-Man. Both carbohydrates were detected in vagina, bladder, ureter, and renal pelvis epithelium and in collecting duct and tubular cells. A pilus receptor compound also was detected in urine. It competitively inhibited the binding capacity of MS pili and was found to be physically, chemically, and immunologically related to Tamm-Horsfall uromucoid. Infectivity and invasiveness were quantitatively and histologically characterized for four E. coli strains: J96, a human pyelonephritis strain that expresses both MS and Gal-Gal pili; two recombinant strains prepared from J96 chromosomal DNA encoding MS pili or Gal-Gal pili; and the nonpiliated K12 recipient. Intravesicular administration of J96 (10(6) colony-forming units [CFU]) resulted in renal colonization and invasion in each of nine mice. The Gal-Gal clone (10(6) CFU) colonized the kidneys in each of 10 mice but did not invade. In contrast, the MS clone (10(6) CFU) did not colonize renal epithelium or invade. This effect was superceded when larger doses (greater than or equal to 10(10) CFU) of the MS clone were administered in volumes that cause acute vesicoureteric reflux. The efficacy was determined of vaccines composed of pure MS or Gal-Gal pili or the lipopolysaccharide containing O somatic antigen of the challenge strain, J96. The Gal-Gal pilus vaccine blocked renal colonization in 19 of 22 mice and renal invasion in 10 of 11

  8. Acute kidney injury due to bilateral ureteral obstruction in children

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Daniele; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Bove, Pierluigi

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral ureteral obstruction in children is a rare condition arising from several medical or surgical pictures. It needs to be promptly suspected in order to attempt a quick renal function recovery. In this paper we concentrated on uncommon causes of obstruction, with the aim of giving a summary of such multiple, rare and heterogeneous conditions joint together by the common denominator of sudden bilateral ureteral obstruction, difficult to be suspected at times. Conversely, typical and well-known diseases have been just run over. We considered pediatric cases of ureteral obstruction presenting as bilateral, along with some cases which truly appeared as single-sided, because of their potential bilateral presentation. We performed a review of the literature by a search on PubMed, CrossRef Metadata Search, internet and reference lists of single articles updated to May 2014, with no time limits in the past. Given that we deal with rare conditions, we decided to include also papers in non-English languages, published with an English abstract. For the sake of clearness, we divided our research results into 8 categories: (1) urolithiasis; (2) congenital urinary tract malformations; (3) immuno-rheumatologic causes of ureteral obstruction; (4) ureteral localization of infections; (5) other systemic infective causes of ureteral obstructions; (6) neoplastic intrinsic ureteral obstructions; (7) extrinsic ureteral obstructions; and (8) iatrogenic trigonal obstruction or inflammation. Of course, different pathogenic mechanisms underlay those clinical pictures, partly well-known and partly not completely understood. PMID:25374811

  9. Acute kidney injury due to bilateral ureteral obstruction in children.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Daniele; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Bove, Pierluigi

    2014-11-06

    Bilateral ureteral obstruction in children is a rare condition arising from several medical or surgical pictures. It needs to be promptly suspected in order to attempt a quick renal function recovery. In this paper we concentrated on uncommon causes of obstruction, with the aim of giving a summary of such multiple, rare and heterogeneous conditions joint together by the common denominator of sudden bilateral ureteral obstruction, difficult to be suspected at times. Conversely, typical and well-known diseases have been just run over. We considered pediatric cases of ureteral obstruction presenting as bilateral, along with some cases which truly appeared as single-sided, because of their potential bilateral presentation. We performed a review of the literature by a search on PubMed, CrossRef Metadata Search, internet and reference lists of single articles updated to May 2014, with no time limits in the past. Given that we deal with rare conditions, we decided to include also papers in non-English languages, published with an English abstract. For the sake of clearness, we divided our research results into 8 categories: (1) urolithiasis; (2) congenital urinary tract malformations; (3) immuno-rheumatologic causes of ureteral obstruction; (4) ureteral localization of infections; (5) other systemic infective causes of ureteral obstructions; (6) neoplastic intrinsic ureteral obstructions; (7) extrinsic ureteral obstructions; and (8) iatrogenic trigonal obstruction or inflammation. Of course, different pathogenic mechanisms underlay those clinical pictures, partly well-known and partly not completely understood.

  10. Partial cardiac sympathetic denervation after bilateral thoracic sympathectomy in humans.

    PubMed

    Moak, Jeffrey P; Eldadah, Basil; Holmes, Courtney; Pechnik, Sandra; Goldstein, David S

    2005-06-01

    Upper thoracic sympathectomy is used to treat several disorders. Sympathetic nerve fibers emanating from thoracic ganglia innervate the heart. Whether unilateral or bilateral upper thoracic sympathectomy affects cardiac sympathetic innervation in humans in vivo has been unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess whether thoracic sympathectomy decreases cardiac sympathetic innervation, as indicated by positron emission tomographic scanning after intravenous injection of the sympathoneural imaging agent 6-[18F]fluorodopamine. Nine patients with previous upper thoracic sympathectomies (four right-sided, one left-sided, four bilateral) underwent thoracic 6-[18F]fluorodopamine scanning between 1 and 2 hours after injection of the imaging agent. In each case, a low rate of entry of norepinephrine into the arm venous drainage (norepinephrine spillover) verified upper limb sympathectomy. Data were compared with those from the interventricular septum of patients with cardiac sympathetic denervation associated with pure autonomic failure and from normal volunteers. All four patients with bilateral sympathectomy had low septal myocardial 6-[18F]fluorodopamine-derived radioactivity (2,673 +/- 92 nCi-kg/cc-mCi at an average of 89 minutes after injection) compared with normal volunteers (3,634 +/- 311 nCi-kg/cc-mCi at 83 minutes, N = 22, P = .007) and higher radioactivity than in patients with pure autonomic failure (1,320 +/- 300 nCi-kg/cc-mCi at 83 minutes, N = 7, P = .003). Patients with unilateral sympathectomy had normal 6-[18F]fluorodopamine-derived radioactivity (3,971 +/- 337 nCi-kg/cc-mCi at 87 minutes). Bilateral upper thoracic sympathectomy partly decreases cardiac sympathetic innervation density.

  11. [Functional status of urinary tract after plastic surgery of the urinary bladder with a segment of the ileum (experimental study)].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Kirpatovskiĭ, V I; Mudraia, I S; David'iants, A A; Kaprin, A D; Obukhova, T V; Lavrinova, L N

    1999-01-01

    Replacement of the gall bladder with an isolated ileal segment was made to evaluate function of the urinary tracts depending on configuration of the created urine reservoir early and late after the operation in dogs. Intestinoplasty of the gall bladder changes parameters of ureteral function. Upper urinary tract urodynamics after ileocystoplasty is characterized by lowering of intraureteral pressure, decreased amplitude of the contractions, high tonicity and motility. The intestinal bladder has the same mean basal pressure at rest but less when full than the control animals. Reflex urination after the bladder reconstruction in subtotal resection was intact. Detubulized urinary reservoir had low intravesical pressure and no spontaneous contraction activity.

  12. Acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, G N; Prasad, Rajniti; Meena, Manoj; Hussain, Moosa

    2014-05-26

    We present a case of acute silicosis with bilateral pneumothorax of a 28-year-old man working at a stone crusher factory for 1 year. He presented to the emergency department with cough, respiratory distress and diffuse chest pain. The patient was managed with bilateral intercostal tube drainage under water seal, oxygen inhalation and conservative therapy. On follow-up he showed improvement of resting dyspnoea and was doing well. This case is being reported because of the rare complications of acute silicosis as bilateral pneumothorax.

  13. Bilateral perisylvian infarct: a rare cause and a rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Kate, M P; Nair, M D; Kesavadas, C; Kapilamoorthy, T R

    2011-04-01

    Foix-Chavany-Marie opercular syndrome is a severe form of pseudobulbar palsy occurring due to bilateral anterior opercular lesions. We report a case of a 51-year-old man with sudden onset of inability to speak and dysphagia, and a history of synovial sarcoma of the right hand. Detailed language evaluation was normal. The patient had right upper motor neuron facial paresis and absent gag reflex bilaterally. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed acute and subacute infarcts involving the bilateral insular cortex. Two-dimensional echocardiography and cardiac MR imaging showed a mobile mass in the left atrium attached to the interatrial septum, which was likely a myxoma. Chest radiograph and computed tomography imaging of the chest revealed multiple cannonball shadows that were suggestive of secondaries in the lung. The probable cause of the cerebral lesions was the mass lesion in the heart or metastatic lesions from the synovial sarcoma. The cardiac surgeon and surgical oncologist recommended palliative care.

  14. Coital Urinary Incontinence Induced by Impairment of the Dorsal Nerve of the Clitoris in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Yolanda; Juárez, Raúl; Medel, Alfonso; Corona-Quintanilla, Dora Luz; Pacheco, Pablo; Juárez, Margarita

    2016-02-01

    We determined the effect of chronic bilateral neurectomy of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris on urinary parameters and sexual behavior of conscious female rats. A total of 18 anesthetized virgin female Wistar rats were used in this study, including 11 that underwent bilateral neurectomy of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris and 7 that underwent sham surgery. Urinary parameters were determined in awake animals preoperatively, and 3 and 10 days postoperatively. Sexual behavior was tested 14 days postoperatively to determine whether the females expelled urine during sexual encounters. After male ejaculation the females were anesthetized with urethane to record external urethral sphincter electromyogram activity in response to clitoris, perigenital skin and vaginal stimulation. Neurectomy was corroborated anatomically. Sham surgery did not significantly modify urinary parameter values. However, bilateral neurectomy of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris significantly increased voiding frequency and voiding duration (p <0.05). It did not significantly affect the flow rate, voided volume or voiding interval. Of females that underwent bilateral neurectomy of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris 67% expelled urine just after male ejaculation. These results suggest that the pudendal nerve is an important neural pathway in the convergence and crosstalk of female urogenital neural circuits, and genital deafferentation may be a causal factor of coital urinary incontinence. Rats with bilateral transection of the dorsal nerve of the clitoris may serve as an animal model of coital incontinence. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Bilateral and symmetrical tinea mammae.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Murat; Kavak, Ayse; Yamaner, Nalan Jale

    2013-09-14

    Tinea corporis has rarely been reported in some locations such as on the breast skin as unilaterally. Herein, we present a case of bilateral tinea mammae, which has not been reported before in English language literature to our knowledge.

  16. Bilateral Olecranon Tophaceous Gout Bursitis

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Güzelali; Andıç, Kemal; Erdem Yaşar, Niyazi

    2017-01-01

    In this case, we present a patient with the diagnosis of bilateral olecranon tophaceous gout. After the surgical treatment, there was no limitation of range of motion or wound problem at 6th month control. PMID:28326103

  17. Pediatric isolated bilateral iliac aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Chithra, R; Sundar, R Ajai; Velladuraichi, B; Sritharan, N; Amalorpavanathan, J; Vidyasagaran, T

    2013-07-01

    Aneurysms are rare in children. Isolated iliac artery aneurysms are very rare, especially bilateral aneurysms. Pediatric aneurysms are usually secondary to connective tissue disorders, arteritis, or mycotic causes. We present a case of a 3-year-old child with bilateral idiopathic common iliac aneurysms that were successfully repaired with autogenous vein grafts. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bilateral cochlear implantation: current concepts.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Rose J; Buchman, Craig A

    2009-10-01

    The goal of this review is to examine the most recent literature exploring the indications, outcomes, and long-term benefit of bilateral cochlear implantation in children and adults. The indications for cochlear implantation have expanded, as many unilaterally implanted individuals are able to achieve open-set word recognition. Despite the benefits seen in unilateral implantation, many individuals have difficulty perceiving speech in noisy environments. Bilateral cochlear implantation has made great strides in providing individuals access to sound information from both ears, allowing improved speech perception in quiet and in noise, as well as sound localization. Recently, the House Cochlear Implant study group released a position statement in which the group strongly endorsed bilateral cochlear implantation. Improved speech perception in quiet has also been demonstrated by many groups with bilateral implantation. Improved sound localization abilities have been shown to be dependent on interaural level differences. The binaural benefits of head shadow and summation have been long shown in bilaterally implanted individuals. Recently, a growth in squelch has been seen in these individuals likely as a result of increased experience with both implants. This may indicate neural integration of the inputs over time. The literature supports the binaural benefit of bilateral cochlear implantation with demonstrated improved speech perception outcomes in quiet and in noise, sound localization data, and subjective benefits.

  19. Detection of PCT and urinary β2 -MG enhances the accuracy for localization diagnosing pediatric urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jian; Luan, Jiangwei; Zhu, Gaohong; Qi, Chang; Wang, Dandan

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to investigate whether the combination of urinary beta 2 microglobulin (urinary β2 -MG) and procalcitonin (PCT) diagnosis could enhance the localization diagnostic precision of pediatric urinary tract infection comparing with single diagnosis. A study was conducted in the Nephrology Department of Wuhan women and children's health care centre. This study incorporated 85 participants, including 35 children who were diagnosed as upper urinary tract infection (UUTI) with the symptom of fever and 50 children who conducted lower urinary tract infection (LUTI). Levels of PCT and urinary β2 -MG in both UUTI and LUTI patients were measured and compared. The level of PCT and β2 -MG were both significantly higher in UUTI group compared with in LUTI group. AUC of urinary β2 -MG ROC (sensitivity of 71.4%, specificity of 90.0%) was significantly smaller than that of PCT ROC (sensitivity of 77.1%, specificity of 96.0%) in the single diagnosis. Although in the combined diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity increased to 88.6% and 98%, respectively. Both PCT and β2 -MG could be used to localize the UTI. Introducing urinary β2 -MG into PCT diagnosis could increase the sensitivity and specificity of UTI lesion diagnosis in clinical practice. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Teaching strategies for assessing and managing urinary incontinence in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bradway, Christine; Cacchione, Pamela

    2010-07-01

    Urinary incontinence is common and affects many aspects of older adults' lives; therefore, it is essential that nursing faculty include this content in classroom and clinical teaching situations. This article describes innovative strategies for teaching upper-level nursing students (e.g., junior and senior undergraduates) about urinary incontinence in older adults, specifically, the relevant anatomy and physiology of continence and associated pathophysiology of urinary incontinence, risk factors and consequences, definitions and types, and effective nursing assessment and management strategies.

  1. Robotic implantation of biodegradable regenerative urinary conduit: experimental study.

    PubMed

    de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Azhar, Raed A; Berger, Andre K; Chopra, Sameer; Marien, Arnaud; Santomauro, Michael; Satkunasivam, Raj; Sun, Yi; Aron, Monish; Ukimura, Osamu; Desai, Mihir M; Gill, Inderbir S

    2015-01-01

    To determine the feasibility and develop a robotic technique for intracorporeal implantation of a biodegradable tubular scaffold seeded with adipose-sourced smooth muscle cells (Neo-Urinary-Conduit) that, when implanted as a conduit for urinary diversion, facilitates regeneration of native-like neourinary tissue. Robotic NUC implantation was performed in two fresh male cadavers. The greater omentum was widely detached from the greater curvature of the stomach, in preparation for final wrapping of the conduit. Bilateral ureters were mobilized for implantation. The NUC, with two precreated ureteral openings, was inserted into the abdomen. Bilateral, stented uretero-NUC anastomoses were created. The NUC was circumferentially wrapped with the predissected omentum, exteriorized through the abdominal wall, and maturated. Both procedures were successfully completed intracorporeally. Operative time for NUC implantation was 90 and 100 minutes, respectively. Examination of gross anatomy showed no injury to other organs. There was no omental kinking, rotation, eversion, or stripping from the NUC. Bilateral stents were confirmed to be in situ with the proximal coil in the kidney. Uretero-NUC anastomoses and omentum were tension free. The entire NUC, including its distal edge and posterior aspect, was circumferentially wrapped 360 degrees. We demonstrated the feasibility and developed a robotic technique for intracorporeal implantation of a biodegradable regenerative urinary conduit. This study serves as the foundation for the robotic surgical technique before the clinical application.

  2. Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Toka, Hakan R; Toka, Okan; Hariri, Ali; Nguyen, Hiep T

    2010-07-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract anatomy (CAKUT) are common in children and represent approximately 30% of all prenatally diagnosed malformations. CAKUT is phenotypically variable and can affect the kidney(s) alone and/or the lower urinary tract. The spectrum includes more common anomalies such as vesicoureteral reflux and, rarely, more severe malformations such as bilateral renal agenesis. In young children, congenital anomalies are the leading cause of kidney failure and for kidney transplantation or dialysis. CAKUT can also lead to significant renal problems in adulthood and may present itself with hypertension and/or proteinuria. Congenital renal anomalies can be sporadic or familial, syndromic (also affecting nonrenal or non-urinary tract tissues), or nonsyndromic. Genetic causes have been identified for the syndromic forms and have shed some light into the molecular mechanisms of kidney development in human beings. The genetic causes for the more common nonsyndromic forms of CAKUT are unknown. The role of prenatal interventions and postnatal therapies as well as the benefits of screening affected individuals and their family members are not clear.

  3. Single ectopic ureteral orifice with bilateral duplicated renal collecting systems in an adult girl: Diagnosis by magnetic resonance urography.

    PubMed

    Tang, Min; Wang, Quanrongzi; Liu, Bianjiang; Li, Jie; Lu, Qiang; Song, Ninghong; Wang, Zengjun; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Renal duplication accompanied by ureteral ectopia is an uncommon urinary congenital abnormality. We report the case of a 21-year-old girl who suffered from lifelong continuous urinary leakage. She was finally diagnosed with bilateral duplicated collecting systems complicated with right ectopic ureteral orifice - an extremely rare case. The patient underwent ureteric re-implantation for the ectopic side, and her urinary incontinence ceased soon thereafter. In this case, traditional imaging failed to show the exact insertion of an ectopic ureter. However, magnetic resonance urography combined with retrograde intubation radiography successfully depicted the point of ureteric insertion, which may make the diagnostic process accurate and efficient.

  4. Approach to urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Najar, M S; Saldanha, C L; Banday, K A

    2009-10-01

    symptoms are prolonged, then a seven day course of antibiotics should be given. Selected group of patients benefits from low-dose prophylactic therapy. Upper urinary tract infection may need in-patient treatment. Treatment of acute prostatitis is 30-day therapy of appropriate antibiotics and for chronic bacterial prostatitis a low dose therapy for 6-12 months may be required. It should be noted that no attempt should be made to eradicate infection unless foreign bodies such as stones and catheters are removed and correctable urological abnormalities are taken care of. Treatment under such circumstances can result only in the emergence of resistant organisms and complicate therapy further.

  5. Approach to urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Najar, M. S.; Saldanha, C. L.; Banday, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    symptoms are prolonged, then a seven day course of antibiotics should be given. Selected group of patients benefits from low-dose prophylactic therapy. Upper urinary tract infection may need in-patient treatment. Treatment of acute prostatitis is 30-day therapy of appropriate antibiotics and for chronic bacterial prostatitis a low dose therapy for 6-12 months may be required. It should be noted that no attempt should be made to eradicate infection unless foreign bodies such as stones and catheters are removed and correctable urological abnormalities are taken care of. Treatment under such circumstances can result only in the emergence of resistant organisms and complicate therapy further. PMID:20535247

  6. [Nocosomial urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections (UTI) are mainly related to urinary catheterisation. In this paper we review the pathogenic mechanisms, particularly the route by which the microorganisms colonise the urinary tract, their adhesion ability, and their capacity to form biofilms, and are related not only to the microorganism but also to the type of urinary catheter. The aetiology of catheter related UTI is variable, and multiresistant microorganisms are often isolated, making empirical antibiotic therapy complex. Clinical findings are frequently atypical, and its diagnosis is difficult. The therapeutic management of catheter-related UTI should be stratified according to the type of UTI: asymptomatic bacteriuria should not be habitually treated, but patients with septic shock should receive a broad spectrum antibiotic. In this review, the value of the different preventive measures are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Intrinsic sphincter deficiency repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Urine leakage that gets worse Pain where the injection was done Allergic reaction to the material Implant ...

  8. Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    PubMed

    Jay, J; Staskin, D

    1998-10-01

    Despite the prevalence of urinary incontinence, most affected women don't seek help, primarily because of embarrassment or because they are not aware that effective treatment is available. Failure to store urine may be caused by an abnormality in any component of the lower urinary tract. Common abnormalities are poor bladder compliance and bladder outlet failure. Patients who experience failure to empty can present with recurrent urinary tract infections, retention or incontinence. Using a symptom-based classification of incontinence, this would be referred to as overflow incontinence. Other possible categories of urinary incontinence are failure to store and empty and functional incontinence. A combination of a failure to store and empty is difficult to diagnose and treat clinically. Treatments are directed at the particular cause of incontinence and can include medical or surgical therapies.

  9. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    DOEpatents

    Kuban, Daniel P.; Perkins, Gerald S.

    1989-01-01

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences therebetween. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed.

  10. [Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    2011-09-01

    Urinary tract infections occur very frequently in the community and in hospitalized patients and are mainly caused by Escherichia (E.) coli. Depending on virulence determinants of uropathogenic microorganisms and host-specific defense mechanisms, urinary tract infections can manifest as cystitis, pyelonephritis (bacterial interstitial nephritis), bacteremia or urosepsis. Uncomplicated urinary tract infections in otherwise healthy women should be treated for 3-7 days depending on the antibiotic therapy chosen, even if spontaneous remission rates of up to 40% have been reported. Antibiotics of the first choice for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are fluoroquinolones, pivmecillinam and fosfomycin. A huge problem is the increasing antimicrobial resistance of uropathogenic microorganisms. Complicated urinary tract infections associated with anatomical and/or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract and/or comorbidities such as diabetes or immunosuppressive therapy, need longer antibiotic treatment (e.g. 10-14 days) as well as interdisciplinary diagnostic procedures. Treatment of community acquired urosepsis includes cephalosporins of the third generation, piperacillin/tazobactam or ciprofloxacin. For nosocomial urosepsis the combination with an aminoglycoside or a carbapenem is recommended.

  11. 38 CFR 4.26 - Bilateral factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bilateral factor. 4.26... DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.26 Bilateral factor. When a partial disability results from disease... disability. The bilateral factor will be applied to such bilateral disabilities before other combinations are...

  12. 38 CFR 4.26 - Bilateral factor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bilateral factor. 4.26... DISABILITIES General Policy in Rating § 4.26 Bilateral factor. When a partial disability results from disease... disability. The bilateral factor will be applied to such bilateral disabilities before other combinations are...

  13. Urinary screening program to detect renal disease in preschool and kindergarten children.

    PubMed Central

    Arbus, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    In an attempt to detect major structural problems of the urinary tract in the early stages 12 006 preschool and kindergarten children (aged 2 to 6 years) were screened for urinary tract infection. Two cases of renal scarring--unilateral in one child and bilateral in the other--were found. It was often difficult to obtain a urine sample and many cultures yielded false-positive results. In terms of cost and effort expended in relation to the low yield of major nephrologic problems, there appears to be no justification at present for routine screening for urinary tract infection in this age group. PMID:861865

  14. Urinary screening program to detect renal disease in preschool and kindergarten children.

    PubMed

    Arbus, G S

    1977-05-21

    In an attempt to detect major structural problems of the urinary tract in the early stages 12 006 preschool and kindergarten children (aged 2 to 6 years) were screened for urinary tract infection. Two cases of renal scarring--unilateral in one child and bilateral in the other--were found. It was often difficult to obtain a urine sample and many cultures yielded false-positive results. In terms of cost and effort expended in relation to the low yield of major nephrologic problems, there appears to be no justification at present for routine screening for urinary tract infection in this age group.

  15. Analysis of ipsilateral and bilateral ratios in male amateur golfers.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jae-Wan; Lee, Chan-Bok; Eun, Denny; Jang, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Jin; Hyun, Gwang-Suk; Park, Jung-Min; Cha, Jun-Youl; Cho, Nam-Heung; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jin, Jun-Jang; Jin, Yong-Yun; Ham, Do-Woong; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-04-01

    The number of injuries that force golfers to quit is also increasing. In particular, the upper body injuries are concerns for amateur golfers. This study was conducted not only to investigate muscular balance, such as ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the upper body, but to also evaluate the possible problems of muscular joints in amateur golfers. Male golfers (n=10) and a healthy control group (n=10) were recruited for the assessment of muscular function in the upper body, which was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/sec. The tested parts were trunk, wrist, forearm, elbow, and shoulder joints. Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the significance of the differences between groups. The ipsilateral ratios of peak torque or work per repetition (WR) of trunk flexor and extensor in the golfers were not significantly different compared to those of the control group. These results were similar to the shoulder horizontal abductor and adductor. However, there were significant differences in the ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints. Especially, the WR of the wrist flexor, forearm pronator, and elbow flexor on the left side of amateur golfers showed imbalances in bilateral ratios. Moreover, the WR of the wrist and elbow flexors on the left side of amateur golfers were lower than those of the wrist and elbow extensors. Therefore, amateur golfers should strive to prevent injuries of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints and to reinforce the endurance on those parts of the left side.

  16. Ureaplasma urealyticum serotypes in urinary tract disease.

    PubMed Central

    Hewish, M J; Birch, D F; Fairley, K F

    1986-01-01

    Ureaplasma urealyticum cultures from 124 patients with urinary tract disease were serotyped by indirect immunofluorescence, using antisera to serotypes I to VIII. A similar range of serotypes was recovered from first-voided, midstream, and bladder-aspiration (SPA) urine, upper urinary tract samples, and vaginal swabs. Serotype VI was predominant (44/124) among the samples, whereas serotypes V (1/124 samples) and VII (0/124 samples) were uncommon. Twenty of 124 cultures contained more than one serotype, and three cultures were untypeable. Serotypes cultured from bladder urine were also present in vaginal and urethral samples, although these samples often carried additional serotypes. Consecutive SPA samples from the same patient invariably contained the same serotype, whereas some consecutive midstream urine samples showed a loss or gain of serotypes with time. One patient carried the same serotype in SPA urine over a period of 13 months. The pattern of serotypes recovered from the urinary tract was similar irrespective of the sampling site, the site of infection, the clinical diagnosis and renal function of the patient, and the presence or absence of other microorganisms. Colonization above the urethra and association with urinary tract disease appeared to be serotype independent. PMID:3700599

  17. Urinary tissue factor activity in colorectal disease.

    PubMed

    Carty, N; Taylor, I; Roath, O S; el-Baruni, K; Francis, J L

    1990-10-01

    Procoagulant activity (PCA) in normal urine has been recognized for over 50 years. Although tissue factor (TF) is produced by certain tumours, and is increased in both tumour-associated macrophages and blood monocytes, the possibility that it might also be increased in urine has not been studied in patients with cancer. We have measured urinary PCA in hospital controls without inflammatory or neoplastic disease (n = 79), in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 8), inflammatory bowel disease (n = 19), colorectal cancer (n = 70) and in patients undergoing colonoscopy (n = 50). Urinary PCA was higher (P less than 0.001) in patients with colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease than controls or patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Fourteen (88 per cent) out of 16 colonoscopy patients subsequently found to have carcinoma or inflammatory bowel disease had levels above the control upper quartile, compared with 8 (24 per cent) out of 34 with normal colonoscopy (P less than 0.001). TF inhibitors confirmed the nature of the PCA and Western blotting studies indicated a urinary TF molecular weight of approximately 38,000. These studies provide further evidence of abnormal haemostasis in malignancy and suggest that determination of urinary TF may provide a useful screening test in patients undergoing colonoscopy.

  18. Nontyphoidal salmonella urinary tract infection in a case of hyperparathyroidism and nephrocalcinosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-P; Shi, Z-Y; Chen, C-H; Chen, W-M; Lin, Y-H; Tsai, C-A; Lin, S-P; Huang, S-R; Liu, P-Y

    2014-01-01

    Nontyphoidal Salmonella infections often present with self-limited gastroenteritis. Extraintestinal focal infections are uncommon but have high mortality and morbidity. Urinary tract infection caused by nontyphoidal Salmonella is usually associated with structural abnormalities of the urinary tract. Nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis are the major risk factors. Although primary hyperparathyroidism has been reported to increase the risk of nephrocalcinosis and nephrolithiasis, little is known about the association between hyperparathyroidism and Salmonella urinary tract infection. We report the case of a 37-year old man who had a history of primary hyperparathyroidism and bilateral nephrocalcinosis and who developed urinary tract infection. Salmonella Group D was isolated from his urine specimen. Salmonella should be considered as a possible causality organism in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and nephrocalcinosis who develop urinary tract infection. These patients need to be aware of the potential risks associated with salmonellosis.

  19. Traumatic bilateral knee dislocations, unilateral hip dislocation, and contralateral humeral amputation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Voos, James E; Heyworth, Benton E; Piasecki, Dana P; Henn, R Frank; MacGillivray, John D

    2009-02-01

    Bilateral traumatic knee dislocations are a rarity. We report a case of bilateral traumatic knee dislocations with concomitant right hip dislocation and complete traumatic amputation of the left, nondominant upper extremity at the level of the proximal one-third of the humerus. Angiograms revealed no evidence of popliteal artery injury. Orthopedic treatment consisted of immediate reduction of the dislocations and urgent revision amputation of the upper extremity. Staged, bilateral knee ligamentous reconstructions were performed on hospital days 24 and 29, respectively. Despite this constellation of devastating injuries, the patient had a satisfactory outcome. In patients with high-energy hip or knee dislocations, the bilateral hips and knees should be carefully examined to check for associated fractures and/or dislocations.

  20. Bimodal fitting or bilateral implantation?

    PubMed

    Ching, Teresa Y C; Massie, Robyn; Van Wanrooy, Emma; Rushbrooke, Emma; Psarros, Colleen

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarises findings from studies that evaluated the benefits of bimodal fitting (combining a hearing aid and a cochlear implant in opposite ears) or bilateral cochlear implantation, relative to unilateral implantation, for children (Ching et al., 2007). On average, the size of binaural speech intelligibility advantages due to redundancy and head shadow was similar for the two bilateral conditions. An added advantage of bimodal fitting was that the low-frequency cues provided by acoustic hearing complemented the high-frequency cues conveyed by electric hearing in perception of voice and music. Some children with bilateral cochlear implants were able to use spatial separation between speech and noise to improve speech perception in noise. This is possibly a combined effect of the directional microphones in their implant systems and their ability to use spatial cues. The evidence to date supports the provision of hearing in two ears as the standard of care.

  1. [Antibacterial therapy of complicated urinary infections in outpatients].

    PubMed

    Rafal'skiĭ, V V; Strachunskiĭ, L S; Kogan, M I; Petrov, S B; Grinev, A V; Shevelev, A N

    2004-01-01

    The term complicated urinary infections (CUIs) includes infections developing in the presence of anatomic anomalies, metabolic or hormonal disorders, immunodeficiency or infection with atypical microorganisms. Complicating factors diminish efficiency of antibiotic treatment, raise probability of recurrence. CUIs account for 45.2% of all cases of outpatient urinary infections in adults in Russia. Nephroliths, diabetes mellitus and renal cysts are most prevalent complicating factors. CUIs causative agents' spectrum is wider and resistance bacteria isolation is more frequent compared to uncomplicated urinary infections. In addition to antibiotic therapy, CUIs treatment should be focused on detection and elimination of the complicating factor. If complicating factors are unremovable, antibiotic therapy should be directed to management of clinical symptoms of urinary infection, prevention of complications and damage to renal parenchyma. CUIs demand longer courses of antibiotics than uncomplicated urinary infections: 7-14 days in infection of the lower urinary tracts, at least 14 days in infection of the upper urinary tracts and 4-6 weeks in failure of the standard course. Fluoroquinolones are drugs of choice in adults.

  2. Predisposing factors for infantile urinary calculus in south-west of Iran.

    PubMed

    Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Hasan; Valavi, Ehsan; Ahmadzadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Urinary calculi in infants are relatively infrequent, but their incidence has increased in the recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation, metabolic risk factors, and urinary tract abnormalities in infants suffering from kidney calculus. A total of 152 infants were admitted between 2009 and 2012 with ultrasonography-proven urolithiasis. A Foley catheter was fixed and 24-hour urine samples were analyzed for calcium, citrate, oxalate, uric acid, and magnesium. For detecting cystinuria, qualitative measurement of urinary cystine was done by nitroprusside test. Urinary tract structural abnormalities were also evaluated. The mean age at the diagnosis of kidney calculus was 5.46 months (range, 15 days to 12 months). The most common clinical findings were restlessness and urinary tract infection. A family history of calculi was found in 67.1% of the patients and 68.4% were born to consanguineous marriages. Metabolic abnormalities and urinary tract abnormalities were found in 96.1% and 15.1% of children, respectively. Urinary tract abnormalities were more common in girls. The most common metabolic risk factors were hypercalciuria (79.6%) and hypocitraturia (40.9%). Hyperoxaluria and hypomagnesuria were found in about 28% of patients, both of which were associated with bilateral urolithiasis. These findings show that urinary metabolic abnormalities are very common in infants with urolithiasis. Appropriate evaluation of urinary metabolic parameters can lead us to proper diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Simultaneous bilateral patellar tendon rupture.

    PubMed

    Moura, Diogo Lino; Marques, José Pedro; Lucas, Francisco Manuel; Fonseca, Fernando Pereira

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral patellar tendon rupture is a rare entity, often associated with systemic diseases and patellar tendinopathy. The authors report a rare case of a 34-year-old man with simultaneous bilateral rupture of the patellar tendon caused by minor trauma. The patient is a retired basketball player with no past complaints of chronic knee pain and a history of steroid use. Surgical management consisted in primary end-to-end tendon repair protected temporarily with cerclage wiring, followed by a short immobilization period and intensive rehabilitation program. Five months after surgery, the patient was able to fully participate in sport activities.

  4. [Neurofibromatosis 2 (bilateral acoustic neurofibromatosis)].

    PubMed

    Yalcinkaya, C; Sarioglu, A; Boltshauser, E

    1989-10-14

    We report a personal series of 28 patients with neurofibromatosis 2 (NF-2), emphasizing the differences from classical NF-1. The hallmark of NF-2 is bilateral acoustic neuromas with initial symptoms usually occurring in the second or third decade. The natural history may lead to bilateral deafness, but hearing loss may also be a complication of surgery. NF-2 is frequently accompanied by additional intracranial tumors (particularly multiple meningiomas). Half of our patients had a spinal space-occupying lesion. NF-2 is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, and many patients appear to represent new mutations.

  5. Imaging in childhood urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Riccabona, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common query in pediatric radiology. Imaging for and after UTI is still a heavily debated topic with different approaches, as thorough evidence to decide upon a definite algorithm is scarce. This review article tries to address the clinical rational of the various approaches (general imaging, top-down or bottom-up, selected and individualized imaging concepts…), describes the available imaging modalities and the respective findings in imaging children with UTI, and proposes an imaging algorithm for the work-up of children during and after UTI discussing the "pros and cons" of the different attitudes. In summary, imaging by US is generally considered for all infants and children with a febrile or complicated (upper) UTI, particularly without previously known urinary tract anatomy. The further work-up (searching for renal scarring and assessment of vesico-ureteric reflux) is then decided according to these initial findings as well as the clinical presentation, course, and scenario.

  6. Urinary incontinence in women.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yoshitaka; Brown, Heidi W; Brubaker, Linda; Cornu, Jean Nicolas; Daly, J Oliver; Cartwright, Rufus

    2017-07-06

    Urinary incontinence symptoms are highly prevalent among women, have a substantial effect on health-related quality of life and are associated with considerable personal and societal expenditure. Two main types are described: stress urinary incontinence, in which urine leaks in association with physical exertion, and urgency urinary incontinence, in which urine leaks in association with a sudden compelling desire to void. Women who experience both symptoms are considered as having mixed urinary incontinence. Research has revealed overlapping potential causes of incontinence, including dysfunction of the detrusor muscle or muscles of the pelvic floor, dysfunction of the neural controls of storage and voiding, and perturbation of the local environment within the bladder. A full diagnostic evaluation of urinary incontinence requires a medical history, physical examination, urinalysis, assessment of quality of life and, when initial treatments fail, invasive urodynamics. Interventions can include non-surgical options (such as lifestyle modifications, pelvic floor muscle training and drugs) and surgical options to support the urethra or increase bladder capacity. Future directions in research may increasingly target primary prevention through understanding of environmental and genetic risks for incontinence.

  7. Nephroureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy in an alpaca with bilateral ectopic ureters diagnosed by computed tomographic excretory urography.

    PubMed

    Polf, Holly D; Smith, Shasta; Simpson, Katharine M; Rochat, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    To report diagnosis and treatment of urinary incontinence in a female Huacaya alpaca. Clinical case report. Female intact Huacaya alpaca (n = 1) METHODS: Computed tomographic (CT) excretory urography and vaginourethrography were performed to diagnose the cause of urinary incontinence. Bilateral ectopic ureters and left hydronephrosis and hydroureter were diagnosed. Left nephroureterectomy and right ureteroneocystostomy were performed with subsequent resolution of clinical signs. Pyelonephritis was identified by culture of the resected left kidney. CT excretory urography was helpful in the diagnosis of bilateral ectopic ureters in an alpaca and provided information for surgical planning. Surgical repair by ureteroneocystostomy and unilateral nephroureterectomy was successful in resolving clinical signs. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence. PMID:28124522

  9. Female urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Mota, Renato Lains

    2017-01-01

    Urinary incontinence is a common problem among women and it is estimated that between 15 and 55% of them complain of lower urinary symptoms. The most prevalent form of urinary incontinence is associated with stress, followed by mixed urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence. It is a symptom with several effects on quality of life of women mainly in their social, familiar and sexual domains. Female reproductive and urinary systems share anatomical structures, which promotes that urinary problems interfere with sexual function in females. This article is a review of both the concepts of female urinary incontinence and its impact on global and sexual quality of life. Nowadays, it is assumed that urinary incontinence, especially urge urinary incontinence, promotes anxiety and several self-esteem damages in women. The odour and the fear of incontinence during sexual intercourse affect female sexual function and this is related with the unpredictability and the chronicity of incontinence, namely urge urinary incontinence. Female urinary incontinence management involves conservative (pelvic floor muscle training), surgical and pharmacological treatment. Both conservative and surgical treatments have been studied about its benefit in urinary incontinence and also the impact among female sexual function. Unfortunately, there are sparse articles that evaluate the benefits of female sexual function with drug management of incontinence.

  10. Simultaneous bilateral multipuncture tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy in patient with orthotopic bladder substitution.

    PubMed

    Al-Kohlany, Khaled M; Al-Badany, Tawfik H; El-Nono, Ibrahim H

    2007-06-01

    We report the successful treatment of a patient that presented with bladder tumor, bilateral multiple renal stones, right lower ureteral stone, and bilateral hydroureteronephrosis with progressively rising serum creatinine. Initially, he was managed by drainage of the upper tract by left percutaneous nephrostomy tube until serum creatinine dropped to normal value then he was managed by radical cystectomy and orthotopic bladder substitution. Three weeks later, he was subjected to simultaneous bilateral multi-puncture tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy. In addition, we report on the feasibility of opacification of the collecting system via ascending pouchogram by direct passage of the dye through the directly implanted ureters thus avoiding intravenous contrast injection.

  11. Congenital imperforate hymen with bilateral hydronephrosis, polydactyly and laryngocele: A rare neonatal presentation.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Hulya; Yazici, Burhan; Kucuk, Adem; Senses, Dursun Ali

    2010-01-01

    Imperforate hymen is a rare congenital malformation to present with symptoms in the neonatal period. We present a case of a 5-day-old neonate with a marked interlabial swelling causing urinary retention. Imaging revealed hydrometrocolpos, hydrosalpinx, and bilateral hydronephrosis. Additionally, our patient had polydactyly of both feet and hands, and laryngocele that have not been previously described in literature. Hymenectomy is the mainstay of management to prevent the development of hematocolpos, pain, and possible retrograde menstruation.

  12. Comprehensive Management of Upper Tract Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, Georgios; Zacharias, Georgios; Koukourakis, Michael; Pistevou-Gobaki, Kiriaki; Papaloukas, Christos; Kostakopoulos, Athanasios; Kouloulias, Vassilios

    2009-01-01

    Urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract represents only 5% of all urothelial cancers. The 5-year cancer-specific survival in the United States is roughly 75% with grade and stage being the most powerful predictors of survival. Nephroureterectomy with excision of the ipsilateral ureteral orifice and bladder cuff en bloc remains the gold standard treatment of the upper urinary tract urothelial cancers, while endoscopic and laparoscopic approaches are rapidly evolving as reasonable alternatives of care depending on grade and stage of disease. Several controversies remain in their management, including a selection of endoscopic versus laparoscopic approaches, management strategies on the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the value of chemotherapy in upper tract disease. Aims of this paper are to critically review the management of such tumors, including endoscopic management, laparoscopic nephroureterectomy and management of the distal ureter, the role of lymphadenectomy, and the emerging role of chemotherapy in their treatment. PMID:19096525

  13. The effect of unilateral and bilateral strength training on the bilateral deficit and lean tissue mass in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Cora L; Chilibeck, Philip D; Davison, K Shawn

    2006-06-01

    Some have observed maximal strength of simultaneous bilateral homologous limb contraction is less than the sum of strengths of right and left limbs contracting alone; a phenomenon referred to as the bilateral deficit (BLD). There is controversy on whether there is a BLD for all exercises. We assessed whether a BLD occurs across different exercises (leg press, knee extension, and lat pull-down), whether the BLD could be altered with unilateral or bilateral training, and whether unilateral versus bilateral training was more beneficial for increasing lean tissue mass (LTM). Post-menopausal women (approximately 57 years) were randomized to bilateral (n=14) and unilateral (n=12) training, or non-training control (n=24) groups. Bilateral training involved seven exercises performed with bilateral contractions (two sets, 3 days week-1, 26 weeks). Unilateral training involved the same exercises performed with one limb at a time. A BLD was found for leg press and lat pull-down, but not for knee extension. Bilateral training decreased the BLD; whereas unilateral training had minimal effect on the BLD. The unilateral-training group had a greater increase in lower-body LTM compared to the control group (P<0.05); however, there were no differences between unilateral and bilateral training groups. Both training groups had greater increases in LTM of the upper- and whole-body compared to the control group. We conclude that the BLD is apparent for some exercises (i.e., the leg press and lat pull-down) but not others (i.e., knee extension). Bilateral training reduces the BLD; whereas unilateral training has minimal effect on the BLD.

  14. [Complications of urinary calculi].

    PubMed

    Joual, A; Fekak, H; Rabii, R; el Moussasoui, A; Benjelloun, S

    1996-01-01

    Urinary stones is a frequent disease whose renal complications can engage both functional and vital prognosis. We report 769 complicated cases observed 10 years. The diagnosis was made by intravenous urography and ultrasonography. 607 cases were mechanical complications, 582 hydronephrosis, 25 anuria, 262 were infectious complications, 82 chronic pyelonephritis, 60 pyonephrosis, 10 perinephric abscess. Treatment included adapted antibiotic therapy, ureteral catheter in case of anuria ; surgical extraction of the stone nephrectomy was performed in 100 patients. Results were generally good. 9 patients had endstage chronic renal failure. The high frequency of urinary stone complications is due to the fact that most patients consult late. The diagnosis must obviously be made.

  15. Postoperative urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Darrah, Daniela M; Griebling, Tomas L; Silverstein, Jeffrey H

    2009-09-01

    Postoperative urinary retention (PUR) is a common complication of surgery and anesthesia. The risk of retention is especially high after anorectal surgery, hernia repair, and orthopedic surgery and increases with advancing age. Certain anesthetic and analgesic modalities, particularly spinal anesthesia with long-acting local anesthetics and epidural analgesia, promote the development of urinary retention. Portable ultrasound provides rapid and accurate assessment of bladder volume and aids in the diagnosis and management of PUR. Catheterization is recommended when bladder volume exceeds 600 mL to prevent the negative sequelae of prolonged bladder overdistention.

  16. Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... gland) can cause lower urinary tract disease in cats. Although they are much less common causes, FLUTD ... your veterinarian about the best diet for your cat. Many commercial diets are acceptable, but some urinary ...

  17. Congenital upper eyelids ectropion in Down’s syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Corredor-Osorio, Rafael; Tovilla-Pomar, José Luis; Tovilla-Canales, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    Congenital bilateral ectropion of the upper eyelids is a rare, benign condition reported in ophthalmic literature. It is more frequently associated with Down’s syndrome, ichthyosis, and sporadic cases in newborns from black population. We report three cases of congenital bilateral upper eyelid ectropion associated with Down’s syndrome. Management of these patients usually requires medial and lateral canthoplasties, full-thickness pentagonal resection of the upper eyelids and placement of skin grafts. We present herein the evolution of one of these patients and we will discuss the mechanism of the eyelid ectropion and its treatment. PMID:28194320

  18. Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections Management in Women

    PubMed Central

    Al-Badr, Ahmed; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer

    2013-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent clinical bacterial infections in women, accounting for nearly 25% of all infections. Around 50–60% of women will develop UTIs in their lifetimes. Escherichia coli is the organism that causes UTIs in most patients. Recurrent UTIs (RUTI) are mainly caused by reinfection by the same pathogen. Having frequent sexual intercourse is one of the greatest risk factors for RUTIs. In a subgroup of individuals with coexisting morbid conditions, complicated RUTIs can lead to upper tract infections or urosepsis. Although the initial treatment is antimicrobial therapy, use of different prophylactic regimens and alternative strategies are available to reduce exposure to antibiotics. PMID:23984019

  19. An Investigation of Bilateral Symmetry During Manual Wheelchair Propulsion.

    PubMed

    Soltau, Shelby L; Slowik, Jonathan S; Requejo, Philip S; Mulroy, Sara J; Neptune, Richard R

    2015-01-01

    Studies of manual wheelchair propulsion often assume bilateral symmetry to simplify data collection, processing, and analysis. However, the validity of this assumption is unclear. Most investigations of wheelchair propulsion symmetry have been limited by a relatively small sample size and a focus on a single propulsion condition (e.g., level propulsion at self-selected speed). The purpose of this study was to evaluate bilateral symmetry during manual wheelchair propulsion in a large group of subjects across different propulsion conditions. Three-dimensional kinematics and handrim kinetics along with spatiotemporal variables were collected and processed from 80 subjects with paraplegia while propelling their wheelchairs on a stationary ergometer during three different conditions: level propulsion at their self-selected speed (free), level propulsion at their fastest comfortable speed (fast), and propulsion on an 8% grade at their level, self-selected speed (graded). All kinematic variables had significant side-to-side differences, primarily in the graded condition. Push angle was the only spatiotemporal variable with a significant side-to-side difference, and only during the graded condition. No kinetic variables had significant side-to-side differences. The magnitudes of the kinematic differences were low, with only one difference exceeding 5°. With differences of such small magnitude, the bilateral symmetry assumption appears to be reasonable during manual wheelchair propulsion in subjects without significant upper-extremity pain or impairment. However, larger asymmetries may exist in individuals with secondary injuries and pain in their upper extremity and different etiologies of their neurological impairment.

  20. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient.

  1. Urinary bladder xanthomatous cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Shrenik J.; Ajitsaria, Vineet; Singh, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Xanthoma cystitis of urinary bladder is a rare entity and may present as an intravesical mass. A 38-year-old female presented with abdominal pain and imaging was done which was suggestive of a malignant mass with surrounding tissue infiltration. Partial cystectomy was performed, and histological examination of the mass showed xanthomatous cystitis. PMID:28197037

  2. Urinary Tract Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  3. Urinary Tract Infections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on urinary tract infections is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are…

  4. Effect of minimizing tension during robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy on urinary function recovery.

    PubMed

    Kowalczyk, Keith J; Huang, Andy C; Hevelone, Nathanael D; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Yu, Hua-yin; Lynch, John H; Hu, Jim C

    2013-06-01

    Although most prostatectomy studies emphasize optimal nerve-sparing dissection planes, subtle technical variation also affects functional outcomes. The impact of minimizing assistant/surgeon tension on urinary function has not been quantified. We assess urinary function after attenuating neurovascular bundle (NVB) and rhabdosphincter tension during robotic-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). Retrospective study of prospectively collected data for 268 (RARP-T) versus 342 (RARP-0T) men with versus without tension on the NVB and rhabdosphincter during RARP. Outcomes compared include Expanded Prostate Cancer Index (EPIC) urinary function, estimated blood loss (EBL), operative time, and positive surgical margins (PSM). In unadjusted analysis, men undergoing RARP-T versus RARP-0T were older, had higher biopsy and pathologic Gleason grade, and higher preoperative prostate specific antigen (all p ≤ 0.023). Baseline urinary function was similar. Postoperatively, RARP-0T versus RARP-T was associated with higher 5-month urinary function scores (69.7 versus 64, p = 0.049). In adjusted analyses, RARP-0T versus RARP-T was associated with improved 5-month urinary function [Parameter Estimate (PE) 7.37, Standard Error (SE) 2.67, p = 0.006], while bilateral versus non-/unilateral nerve-sparing was associated with improved 12-month urinary function and continence (both p ≤ 0.035). RARP-0T versus RARP-T was associated with shorter operative times (PE 6.66, SE 1.90, p = 0.001) and higher EBL (PE 20.88, SE 6.49, p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in PSM. While the use of tension aids in dissection of anatomic planes, avoidance of NVB counter-traction and minimizing tension on the rhabdosphincter during apical dissection attenuates neuropraxia and leads to earlier urinary function recovery. Bilateral versus non-/unilateral nerve-sparing also improves urinary function recovery.

  5. Bilateral ureteropelvic disruption following blunt abdominal trauma: case report.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Fumiaki; Miyazaki, Yoshibumi; Kobayashi, Tastuho; Kikuchi, Hiroko; Mastuda, Kiyoshi

    2011-07-07

    Ureteral injury occurs in less than 1% of blunt abdominal trauma cases, partly because the ureters are relatively well protected in the retroperitoneum. Bilateral ureteral injury is extremely rare, with only 10 previously reported cases. Diagnosis may be delayed if ureteric injury is not suspected, and delay of 36 hours or longer has been observed in more than 50% of patients with ureteric injury following abdominal trauma, leading to increased morbidity. A 29-year-old man was involved in a highway motor vehicle collision and was ejected from the front passenger seat even though wearing a seatbelt. He was in a preshock state at the scene of the accident. An intravenous line and left thoracic drain were inserted, and he was transported to our hospital by helicopter. Whole-body, contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan showed left diaphragmatic disruption, splenic injury, and a grade I injury to the left kidney with a retroperitoneal haematoma. He underwent emergency laparotomy. The left diaphragmatic and splenic injuries were repaired. Although a retroperitoneal haematoma was observed, his renal injury was treated conservatively because the haematoma was not expanding. In the intensive care unit, the patient's haemodynamic state was stable, but there was no urinary output for 9 hours after surgery. Anuresis prompted a review of the abdominal x-ray which had been performed after the contrast-enhanced CT. Leakage of contrast material from the ureteropelvic junctions was detected, and review of the repeat CT scan revealed contrast retention in the perirenal retroperitoneum bilaterally. He underwent cystoscopy and bilateral retrograde pyelography, which showed bilateral complete ureteral disruption, preventing placement of ureteral stents. Diagnostic laparotomy revealed complete disruption of the ureteropelvic junctions bilaterally. Double-J ureteral stents were placed bilaterally and ureteropelvic anastomoses were performed. The patient's postoperative progress

  6. Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm presenting as bilateral hydroureteronephrosis: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Galosi, Andrea Benedetto; Grilli Cicilioni, Carlo; Sbrollini, Giulia; Angelini, Andrea; Maselli, Guevar; Carbonari, Luciano

    2014-12-30

    We report a case of Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (IAAA) producing bilateral hydro-ureteronephrosis. A 74-year-old patient presented to urologist office for bilateral hydronephrosis detected by kidney and bladder ultrasound (US). Patient reported lower urinary tract symptoms and inconstant and slight low back pain irradiated to inguinal region dating 3 weeks. Renal function, urine analysis and abdominal examination were normal. However the repeated ultrasound in the urologist office revealed abdominal aortic aneurism extended to iliac vessels. The patient was sent directly to vascular surgery unit where contrast computerized tomography (CT) and successful surgical repair were done. Final diagnosis was IAAA. The post-operative course was uneventful. Renal function was regular and the hydronephrosis reduced spontaneously under monitoring by CT and US. We review diagnosis and management of hydronephrosis that is sometimes linked to IAAA rather than standard AAA. Abdominal ultrasound is mandatory in any bilateral hydronephrosis and it could save lives.

  7. Amputee mobility predictor-bilateral: a performance-based measure of mobility for people with bilateral lower-limb loss.

    PubMed

    Raya, Michele A; Gailey, Robert S; Gaunaurd, Ignacio A; Ganyard, Heather; Knapp-Wood, Justin; McDonough, Karrie; Palmisano, Tiffany

    2013-01-01

    The Amputee Mobility Predictor (AMP) is an outcome measure designed to assess mobility and functional capabilities for people with unilateral lower-limb amputation. No comparable measure exists for those with bilateral lower-limb amputation (BLLA). The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the AMP-Bilateral (AMP-B) to measure the ability to perform functional tasks related to participation in advanced skill activities in those with BLLA and to determine whether AMP-B scores correlated with 6-minute walk test (6MWT) performance. Twenty-six male servicemembers (SMs) completed the study: 12 with bilateral transtibial amputation (BTTA), 7 with bilateral transfemoral amputation (BTFA), and 7 with combination transtibial and transfemoral amputation (TTA/TFA). Significant differences existed between the AMP-B scores (p < 0.001), AMP scores (p < 0.001), and 6MWT distance (p < 0.05) for SMs with BTTA and TTA/TFA and SMs with BTTA and BTFA but not between those with BTFA and TTA/TFA. Scoring of five AMP items was modified because they necessitate at least one intact knee joint to generate the necessary torque requirements to perform the activity without upper-limb assistance. Minor modifications in scoring of the AMP do not alter total score and allow clinicians to determine the mobility and functional capabilities of SMs with BTFA and TFA/TTA.

  8. Urinary Schistosomiasis: Review

    PubMed Central

    Barsoum, Rashad S.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the clinical manifestations of urinary schistosomiasis are displayed from a pathogenetic perspective. According to the prevailing host’s immune response profile, urinary schistosomiasis may be broadly categorized into cell-mediated and immune-complex-mediated disorders. The former, usually due to Schistosoma haematobium infection, are attributed to the formation of granulomata along the entire urinary tract. As they heal with excessive fibrosis, they may lead to strictures, calcifications and urodynamic abnormalities. The main impact is lower urinary, the site of heaviest ovi-position. Secondary bacterial or viral infection is common, any may be incriminated in secondary stone formation of the development of bladder malignancy. Immune-complex mediated lesions are usually associated with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma mansoni infection. Circulating complexes composed of schistosomal gut antigens and different classes of immunoglobulins deposit in the kidneys leading to several patterns of glomerular pathology. The latter have been categorized under six classes based on the histological and immunofluorescence profile. These classes have been linked to respective clinical manifestations and depend on the stage of evolution of the host’s immune response, extent of associated hepatic fibrosis and co-infection with salmonella or hepatitis C. Secondary amyloidosis develops in 15% of such patients, representing a critical impairment of macrophage function. Conclusion: The wide clinicopathological spectrum of urinary schistosomiasis mirrors the evolution of the host’s immune response according to chronicity of infection, bacterial or viral co-infection and, in the case of glomerulonephritis, to the extent of hepatic co-morbidity. PMID:25685452

  9. Bilateral tonsillolithiasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Emel; Ural, Ahmet; Oktemer, Tuğba Koçak; Alpaslan, Gökhan

    2006-09-01

    Although tonsilloliths are reported to be fairly common, florid cases casting distinct radiopaque shadows on panoramic radiographs are not often reported. This report illustrates such a case as an incidental finding in an asymptomatic 38-year-old female dental patient. Panoramic radiography revealed distinct radiopaque shadows over the ascending rami of the mandible bilaterally. These radiopacities were localized to the palatine tonsils by computerized tomographic inspection. Tonsillectomy was performed and tonsillolithiasis was confirmed by histopathologic examination.

  10. Bilateral Lower Sternocleidomastoid Botulinum Toxin Injections to Address Refractory Anterocollis.

    PubMed

    Peng-Chen, Zhongxing; Thompson, Amanda; Rodriguez, Ramon L

    2016-03-01

    Anterocollis is a type of cervical dystonia characterized by simultaneous and repetitive antagonist muscles contractions, resulting in abnormal neck flexion. It was described with a frequency of 6.8% from 399 patients with diagnosis of cervical dystonia and usually coexists with torticollis and/or laterocollis, as mixed cervical dystonia patterns. Botulinum toxin is usually a practical and effective treatment for cervical dystonia. The target muscles to inject in anterocollis are usually sternocleidomastoid and scalene muscles. There is also a case report suggesting longus collis involvement. Nevertheless, the dosage of the medication in anterocollis is limited by frequent side effects of dysphagia. We described 2 cases of refractory anterocollis. They did not benefit from conventional bilateral upper portion of sternocleidomastoid muscle injections with OnabotulinumtoxinA, but notably improved their symptoms and clinical global impression after switching to injections into bilateral lower portion of sternocleidomastoid muscles, without significant side effects.

  11. Spontaneous bilateral fracture of patella.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Biagio; Speciale, Domenico; Garofalo, Raffaele; Moretti, Lorenzo; Patella, Silvio; Patella, Vittorio

    2008-03-01

    Bilateral patellae fractures represent a rare entity, accounting for approximately 2.9% of all lesions interesting in this anatomical district. In most cases found in the published work, they are described as stress fractures or as complications of chronic diseases such as osteoporosis, renal failure and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Although many pathogenetic mechanisms have been supposed, none have been proved for certain. Insufficiency fractures of the patellae are rare events and no data has been published on their incidence. We present a case of bilateral fracture of the patellae due to an indirect trauma occurring in an 85-year-old patient affected by Parkinson's disease, osteoporosis and diffuse degenerative osteoarthritis. X-ray of the knees (anteroposterior and lateral) and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation confirmed the fractures. The patient was treated conservatively. She had a good result, returning to her previous autonomous ambulation. This case is unusual because there was no direct trauma to the knees because of bilaterality, but confirmed previous observations about insufficiency fractures of patellae in the presence of comorbidity. Insufficiency fractures of patellae can be an insidious condition in elderly people. Prepatellar pain, a common symptom in the relapse phase of degenerative arthritis of the knee, should not be underestimated, particularly in patients with diseases influencing metabolism of bone and with an elevated risk of fall. A periodical clinical and instrumental follow up should be done in these patient. Moreover, we underline the necessity of a multidisciplinary approach.

  12. New markers of urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Masajtis-Zagajewska, Anna; Nowicki, Michal

    2017-08-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common bacterial infection independent of age. It is also one of the most common causes of hospitalizations for infections among elderly people and the most common indication for antibiotic prescriptions in primary care. Both diagnostics and management of lower and upper urinary tract infections provide challenges in clinical practice due to their high prevalence and recurrence, and worldwide increase of antibiotic resistance. The clinical symptoms of UTI are often uncharacteristic or asymptomatic. The accurate diagnosis and early treatment are crucial due to risk of septicaemia and long-term consequences. Currently the diagnosis of urinary tract infection is based on the presence of clinical symptoms in combination with the results of nitrite strip test indicating the presence of bacteria in urine and semi-quantitative measurement of white blood cells count in urine. Although urine culture is the gold standard in UTI diagnostics it is both time-consuming and costly. Searching for novel biomarkers of UTI has attracted much attention in recent years. The article reviews several promising serum and urine biomarkers of UTI such as leukocyte esterase, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, interleukins, elastase alpha (1)-proteinase inhibitor, lactofferin, secretory immunoglobulin A, heparin-binding protein, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1, α-1 microglobulin (α1Mg) and tetrazolium nitroblue test (TNB). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Macejko, Amanda M; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2007-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are common complications of pregnancy; upper tract infections in particular may lead to significant morbidity for both the mother and fetus. Bacteriuria is a significant risk factor for developing pyelonephritis in pregnant women. Therefore, proper screening and treatment of bacteriuria during pregnancy is necessary to prevent complications. All women should be screened for bacteriuria in the first trimester, and women with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections or anomalies should have repeat bacteriuria screening throughout pregnancy. Treatment of bacteriuria should include 3-day therapy with appropriate antimicrobials, and women should be followed closely after treatment because recurrence may occur in up to one third of patients.

  14. Spinal tuberculosis in an infant associated with maternal urinary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Rachel Ranitha; Agarwal, Indira; Gibikote, Sridhar

    2012-07-01

    A ten-month-old infant who presented with regression of milestones and seizures was noted to have a gibbus deformity in the upper thoracic region. She was diagnosed to have spine and central nervous system tuberculosis by culture of pus from the paravertebral abcess which showed a growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The mother, who had been having recurrent episodes of Urinary tract infection, was diagnosed to have Urinary TB proven by culture. Spinal tuberculosis, though rare, can be encountered in infancy and should be kept in mind while treating infants presenting with related symptoms.

  15. Bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Green, Jennifer B; Skaife, Tyler L; Leslie, Bruce M

    2012-01-01

    To determine the incidence of bilateral distal biceps tendon ruptures. A retrospective review of 321 patients who underwent operative repair of a distal biceps tendon rupture between 1988 and 2010 identified 26 patients with bilateral ruptures. We recorded patient age, mechanism of injury, time between symptom onset before the first surgery and subsequent contralateral symptoms, and time between surgeries. Twenty-two bilateral ruptures were confirmed intra-operatively, 3 by MRI, and 1 was lost to follow up. A total of 23 bilateral ruptures (92%) occurred in men. The average age at the initial rupture was 44 years (range, 29-74 y). The average age at subsequent rupture was 48 years (range, 36-79 y). Excluding the 2 women (age 72 and 79 y), the average age at the initial rupture was 42 years and the average age at subsequent rupture was 46 years. The average interval between ruptures was 4.1 years (range, 0.8-13.9 y). The initial rupture occurred in the dominant extremity in 12 cases (50%) and in the nondominant extremity in 10 cases (42%); in 3 patients (8%) the dominance was not documented or ambidextrous. Thirty-three percent were heavy laborers, 3 patients had a smoking history, and 1 patient reported a history of steroid use. Twenty-two patients (88%) had the second side repaired, where we noted that 12 (55%) of the second tendon ruptures were partial tears. The 8% cumulative incidence of bilateral biceps tendon ruptures in a consecutive series of biceps tendon repairs may be higher because not all patients were contacted, which introduced a sampling bias. This 8% rate is markedly higher than the reported rate of 1.2 per 100,000 for an isolated distal biceps tendon rupture. This implies that patients with a distal biceps tendon rupture are at risk for a rupture on the contralateral side. Prognostic III. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bilateral supernumerary kidneys: how much is too much?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ruchir; Singh, Hanish; Willens, David; Drake, Sean

    2014-01-01

    A middle aged African-American woman with a stable history of carnitine palmitoyl transferase II (CPT II) deficiency presented with myalgias for 1 week. Physical examination and laboratory findings were consistent with severe sepsis secondary to pyelonephritis leading to rhabdomyolysis. Subsequent CT of the abdomen revealed bilateral supernumerary kidneys with non-obstructive calculi within the supernumerary kidneys. Abnormal ureteral development of the supernumerary kidneys likely led to an increased risk for urinary tract infections (UTIs) and renal calculi resulting in pyelonephritis. The stress of this infection overwhelmed the muscle CPT II enzyme load, putting her in a state of rhabdomyolysis. In addition to fluids and antibiotics, she was provided a diet rich in carbohydrates and low in fats so as to limit long-chain fatty acid oxidation. Supernumerary nephrectomy was not considered during this admission. During follow-up, she developed obstructive ureteral calculi requiring placement of a right-sided ureteral stent. PMID:24692375

  17. Urinary p75ECD

    PubMed Central

    Shepheard, Stephanie R.; Wuu, Joanne; Cardoso, Michell; Wiklendt, Luke; Dinning, Phil G.; Chataway, Tim; Schultz, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate urinary neurotrophin receptor p75 extracellular domain (p75ECD) levels as disease progression and prognostic biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: The population in this study comprised 45 healthy controls and 54 people with ALS, 31 of whom were sampled longitudinally. Urinary p75ECD was measured using an enzyme-linked immunoassay and validation included intra-assay and inter-assay coefficients of variation, effect of circadian rhythm, and stability over time at room temperature, 4°C, and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Longitudinal changes in urinary p75ECD were examined by mixed model analysis, and the prognostic value of baseline p75ECD was explored by survival analysis. Results: Confirming our previous findings, p75ECD was higher in patients with ALS (5.6 ± 2.2 ng/mg creatinine) compared to controls (3.6 ± 1.4 ng/mg creatinine, p < 0.0001). Assay reproducibility was high, with p75ECD showing stability across repeated freeze-thaw cycles, at room temperature and 4°C for 2 days, and no diurnal variation. Urinary p75ECD correlated with the revised ALS Functional Rating Scale at first evaluation (r = −0.44, p = 0.008) and across all study visits (r = −0.36, p < 0.0001). p75ECD also increased as disease progressed at an average rate of 0.19 ng/mg creatinine per month (p < 0.0001). In multivariate prognostic analysis, bulbar onset (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0, p = 0.0035), rate of disease progression from onset to baseline (HR 4.4, p < 0.0001), and baseline p75ECD (HR 1.3, p = 0.0004) were predictors of survival. Conclusions: The assay for urinary p75ECD is analytically robust and shows promise as an ALS biomarker with prognostic, disease progression, and potential pharmacodynamic application. Baseline urinary p75ECD provides prognostic information and is currently the only biological fluid–based biomarker of disease progression. PMID:28228570

  18. [Epidemiology of urinary lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Joual, A; Rais, H; Rabii, R; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemiological profile of urinary stones based on one thousand cases observed in our institution over a 10-year period. The mean age of the patients was 45 years and two-thirds of patients were males. The kidney was the commonest site of stones, in 57.8% of cases. The stone was radiopaque in 86.4% of cases and was a staghorn calculus in 12.2% of cases. An associated renal malformation was observed in 10.4% of cases. Urinary stones is therefore a common disease, essentially observed in a young population and characterized by recurrence. It therefore constitutes a public health problem and prevention consists of detecting recurrences and treating stone-inducing factors.

  19. Analysis of ipsilateral and bilateral ratios in male amateur golfers

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae-Yoon; Park, Jae-Wan; Lee, Chan-Bok; Eun, Denny; Jang, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Ho-Jin; Hyun, Gwang-Suk; Park, Jung-Min; Cha, Jun-Youl; Cho, Nam-Heung; Ko, Il-Gyu; Jin, Jun-Jang; Jin, Yong-Yun; Ham, Do-Woong; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    The number of injuries that force golfers to quit is also increasing. In particular, the upper body injuries are concerns for amateur golfers. This study was conducted not only to investigate muscular balance, such as ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the upper body, but to also evaluate the possible problems of muscular joints in amateur golfers. Male golfers (n=10) and a healthy control group (n=10) were recruited for the assessment of muscular function in the upper body, which was measured by an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/sec. The tested parts were trunk, wrist, forearm, elbow, and shoulder joints. Mann–Whitney U-test was used to evaluate the significance of the differences between groups. The ipsilateral ratios of peak torque or work per repetition (WR) of trunk flexor and extensor in the golfers were not significantly different compared to those of the control group. These results were similar to the shoulder horizontal abductor and adductor. However, there were significant differences in the ipsilateral and bilateral ratios of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints. Especially, the WR of the wrist flexor, forearm pronator, and elbow flexor on the left side of amateur golfers showed imbalances in bilateral ratios. Moreover, the WR of the wrist and elbow flexors on the left side of amateur golfers were lower than those of the wrist and elbow extensors. Therefore, amateur golfers should strive to prevent injuries of the wrist, forearm, and elbow joints and to reinforce the endurance on those parts of the left side. PMID:27162771

  20. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Chenoweth, Carol E; Saint, Sanjay

    2011-03-01

    Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) account for approximately 40% of all health care-associated infections. Despite studies showing benefit of interventions for prevention of CAUTI, adoption of these practices has not occurred in many healthcare facilities in the United States. As urinary catheters account for the majority of healthcare-associated UTIs, the most important interventions are directed at avoiding placement of urinary catheters and promoting early removal when appropriate. Alternatives to indwelling catheters such as intermittent catheterization and condom catheters should be considered. If indwelling catheterization is appropriate, proper aseptic practices for catheter insertion and maintenance and use of a closed catheter collection system are essential for preventing CAUTI. The use of antimicrobial catheters also may be considered when the rates of CAUTI remain persistently high despite adherence to other evidence-based practices, or in patients deemed to be at high risk for CAUTI or its complications. Attention toward prevention of CAUTI will likely increase as Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services and other third-party payers no longer reimburse for hospital-acquired UTI.

  1. Psychogenic urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Bird, J R

    1980-01-01

    The literature on psychogenic urinary retention is reviewed. 2 cases treated by analytical psychotherapy are reported, in which significant demand for physical punishment was revealed and seen as linked to unacceptable, unconscious sadistic and aggressive feelings. Some psychodynamic aspects of what is considered to be "a disturbance of internal body space' are discussed. Psychogenic urinary retention has received little attention in the literature. It may represent the uneasy position this disorder of bodily function occupies in clinical practice, with clear physical symptoms and associated psychological factors. The condition is more frequent in females, usually young adults. Case histories regularly record the placid, passive presentation of these patients, childhood enuresis and disturbed backgrounds. The diagnosis, "hysteric', is frequent and most psychodynamic evaluations suggest the symptom represents a displacement of unacceptable sexual wishes and impulse. 2 patients treated by analytical psychotherapy are reported who, whilst fulfilling many of the criteria already noted, additionally revealed an intense desire for physical punishment. This punitive demand had less to do with unacceptable sexual wishes, than guilt at repressed aggressive drives of considerable magnitude. The role of aggression in the genesis of psychogenic urinary retention has so far been little studied.

  2. Bilateral ECT induces bilateral increases in regional cortical thickness

    PubMed Central

    van Eijndhoven, P; Mulders, P; Kwekkeboom, L; van Oostrom, I; van Beek, M; Janzing, J; Schene, A; Tendolkar, I

    2016-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for patients suffering from severe or treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). Unfortunately its underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still unclear. One line of evidence indicates that the seizures produced by ECT induce or stimulate neuroplasticity effects. Although these seizures also affect the cortex, the effect of ECT on cortical thickness is not investigated until now. We acquired structural magnetic resonance imaging data in 19 treatment-resistant MDD patients before and after a bilateral ECT course, and 16 healthy controls at 2 time points, and compared changes in cortical thickness between the groups. Our results reveal that ECT induces significant, bilateral increases in cortical thickness, including the temporal pole, inferior and middle temporal cortex and the insula. The pattern of increased cortical thickness was predominant in regions that are associated with seizure onset in ECT. Post hoc analyses showed that the increase in thickness of the insular cortex was larger in responders than in non-responders, which may point to a specific relationship of this region with treatment effects of ECT. PMID:27552587

  3. Dual arm master controller for a bilateral servo-manipulator

    SciTech Connect

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1989-11-28

    A master controller for a mechanically dissimilar bilateral slave servo-manipulator is disclosed. The master controller includes a plurality of drive trains comprising a plurality of sheave arrangements and cables for controlling upper and lower degrees of master movement. The cables and sheaves of the master controller are arranged to effect kinematic duplication of the slave servo-manipulator, despite mechanical differences there between. A method for kinematically matching a master controller to a slave servo-manipulator is also disclosed. 13 figs.

  4. Bilateral reversed palmaris longus muscle: a rare anatomical variation.

    PubMed

    Salgado, G; Cantín, M; Inzunza, O; Muñoz, A; Saez, J; Macuer, M

    2012-02-01

    We report a case of bilateral reversed palmaris longus muscle (PLM). The muscle was tendinous in its upper portion and muscular in its lower portion in both arms. This rare variation has been mentioned only once in the literature as a surgical finding. According to the literature, a reversed PLM may cause a compartment syndrome in the wrist area, carpal tunnel, and Guyon's syndrome. The described variation is also useful to the hand surgeon as a tendon graft, a tendon for transfer, or as an anatomical landmark for operations at this area.

  5. Effect of esophagus distention on urinary bladder function in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaddumi, Ezidin G; Qnais, E Y; Allouh, M Z

    2012-01-01

    Micturition process is a spinobulbospinal reflex that is affected by the viscero-visceral interactions due to convergent inputs into spinal and/or supraspinal centers controlling that reflex. Although interaction between bladder and other pelvic organs, such as colon, are well studied, the viscero-visceral interaction between urinary bladder and internal organs in other regions are rarely studied. In the present study, continuous filling cystometry recordings, in male rats, were used to investigate the effects of mechanical stimulation of distal-esophagus (distention), as well as, electrical stimulation of abdominal branches of the vagus nerve on urinary bladder micturition cycles. Distal esophagus distention and electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve significantly increased the micturition frequency through decreasing the time of the storage phase of the micturition cycle. However, bilateral cervical vagotomy eliminated the effects of distal esophagus distention and electrical stimulation of vagus nerve on micturition cycles. The results of this study indicate that there is a viscero-visceral interaction between esophagus and urinary bladder, which is mediated through vagal afferents. Understanding the properties of the viscero-visceral interactions affecting the urinary bladder will help in the diagnosis and management of micturition problems. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bilateral cleft lip nasal deformity

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arun Kumar; Nandini, R.

    2009-01-01

    Bilateral cleft lip nose deformity is a multi-factorial and complex deformity which tends to aggravate with growth of the child, if not attended surgically. The goals of primary bilateral cleft lip nose surgery are, closure of the nasal floor and sill, lengthening of the columella, repositioning of the alar base, achieving nasal tip projection, repositioning of the lower lateral cartilages, and reorienting the nares from horizontal to oblique position. The multiplicity of procedures in the literature for correction of this deformity alludes to the fact that no single procedure is entirely effective. The timing for surgical intervention and its extent varies considerably. Early surgery on cartilage may adversely affect growth and development; at the same time, allowing the cartilage to grow in an abnormal position and contributing to aggravation of deformity. Some surgeons advocate correction of deformity at an early age. However, others like the cartilages to grow and mature before going in for surgery. With peer pressure also becoming an important consideration during the teens, the current trend is towards early intervention. There is no unanimity in the extent of nasal dissection to be done at the time of primary lip repair. While many perform limited nasal dissection for the fear of growth retardation, others opt for full cartilage correction at the time of primary surgery itself. The value of naso-alveolar moulding (NAM) too is not universally accepted and has now more opponents than proponents. Also most centres in the developing world have neither the personnel nor the facilities for the same. The secondary cleft nasal deformity is variable and is affected by the extent of the original abnormality, any prior surgeries performed and alteration due to nasal growth. This article reviews the currently popular methods for correction of nasal deformity associated with bilateral cleft lip, it's management both at the time of cleft lip repair and also secondarily

  7. [Urinary calculi and infection].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Infection urinary stones resulting from urease-producing bacteria are composed by struvite and/or carbonate apatite. Bacterial urease splits urea and promotes the formation of ammonia and carbon dioxide leading to urine alkalinization and formation of phosphate salts. Proteus species are urease-producers, whereas a limited number of strains of other Gram negative and positive species may produce urease. Ureaplasma urealyticum and Corynebacterium urealyticum are urease-producers that are not isolated by conventional urine cultures, but require specific tests for identification. Primary treatment requires surgical removal of stones as complete as possible. Extracorporeal and endoscopic treatments are usually preferred, while open surgery is actually limited to few selected cases. Residual stones or fragments should be treated by chemolysis via ureteral catheter or nephrostomy or administration of citrate salts in order to achieve a stone-free renal unit. Postoperatively, recurrent urinary tract infection should be treated with appropriate antibiotic treatment although long-term antibiotic prophylaxis can cause resistance. Urinary acidification has been proposed for the prophylaxis of infection stones, but long-term acidification is difficult to achieve in urine infected by urease-producing bacteria. Urease inhibitors lead to prevention and/or dissolution of stones and encrustations in patients with infection by urea-splitting bacteria, but their use is limited by their toxicity. The administration of citrate salts involves an increase of the value of nucleation pH (pHn), that is the pH value at which calcium and magnesium phosphate crystallization occurs, in a greater way than the corresponding increase in the urinary pH due to its alkalinizing effect and resulting in a reduction of the risk of struvite crystallization. In conclusion prevention of the recurrence of infection stones can be achieved by an integrated approach tailored on the single patient. Complete

  8. Amelogenesis imperfecta with bilateral nephrocalcinosis.

    PubMed

    Poornima, P; Katkade, Shashikant; Mohamed, Roshan Noor; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-05-24

    A 12-year-old patient presented with a severe delay of eruption in permanent maxillary and mandibular incisors. On examination, there was over-retained primary teeth and delayed eruption of permanent teeth. Retained primary teeth showed light yellow discolouration whereas permanent teeth were distinct yellow with thin or little enamel. Subsequent imaging revealed all the premolars except maxillary left first premolar showed signs of intra-alveolar coronal resorption, nephrocalcinosis with bilateral multiple calculi and small papillary tip calcifications, marked increase in alkaline phosphatase. Subsequent dental treatment for restoring the functional and aesthetic requirement followed by appropriate treatment for renal problem was undertaken.

  9. Bilateral talon cusp: case report.

    PubMed

    Soares, A B; de Araújo, J J; de Sousa, S M; Veronezi, M C

    2001-04-01

    Talon cusp is an uncommon condition often present in the maxillary incisors and mandibular premolars. Morphologically, this anomaly has a well-delineated cusp that extends at least half the distance from the cementoenamel junction or cingulum area to the incisal edge. The alteration can cause clinical problems such as caries or occlusal interference. Management of the talon cusp varies according to the circumstances of the individual case and should be as conservative as possible. Presented is a case of bilateral bifid talon cusp in maxillary central incisors that was successfully managed with conservative therapy.

  10. Bilateral isolated submandibular gland mumps.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Linnea; Henderson, Arthur Harry; Banfield, Graham; Carswell, Andrew

    2017-06-05

    Isolated submandibular swellings pose a diagnostic challenge to the practising otolaryngologist. We report an unusual case of mumps isolated to bilateral submandibular glands. We discuss the case and the literature surrounding this condition and remind clinicians that mumps should be considered as a diagnosis in the presence of submandibular gland swelling in the absence of typical parotid swelling associated with mumps. Early consideration of this differential diagnosis, serological testing and a multidisciplinary approach may help to clinch the diagnosis earlier and prevent spread of the virus. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Bilateral Inguinal Hernias Containing Ovaries

    PubMed Central

    Basrur, Gurudutt Bhaskar

    2015-01-01

    Inguinal hernias are rare in females. The authors report a case of bilateral inguinal hernias in a 10-year-old female. On exploration, the patient was found to be having a sliding hernia containing incarcerated ovary as contents on both sides. Peroperatively the contents were reduced, the sac was transfixed at its base and the redundant sac was excised. The repair of this form of hernias is more difficult because of adhesions between the contents and the wall of the sac and risk of damage during dissection. A description of this clinical presentation in the pre operative assessment and operative management are discussed in this report. PMID:25918632

  12. [Case report: bilateral Cushing's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cheikhrouhou, Héla; Khiari, Karima; Chérif, Lotfi; Ben Abdallah, Néjib; Ben Maïz, Hédi

    2003-04-01

    The authors report a case of a 49-year-old woman presenting a Cushing's syndrome (January 1997). The Magnetic Resonance Image of the pituitary gland revealed a microadenoma without extension in the cavernous sinus and a partial empty sella. The computed tomography scan showed a discreet bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with a left nodule (23 mm in diameter) a second nodule was noted. These data suggested the eventuality of maconodular adrenocortical hyperplasia in long-standing Cushing's disease. We discuss the implications of this finding for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  13. Bilateral Impedance Control For Telemanipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Christopher L.

    1993-01-01

    Telemanipulator system includes master robot manipulated by human operator, and slave robot performing tasks at remote location. Two robots electronically coupled so slave robot moves in response to commands from master robot. Teleoperation greatly enhanced if forces acting on slave robot fed back to operator, giving operator feeling he or she manipulates remote environment directly. Main advantage of bilateral impedance control: enables arbitrary specification of desired performance characteristics for telemanipulator system. Relationship between force and position modulated at both ends of system to suit requirements of task.

  14. Bilateral sacrospinous fixation without hysterectomy: 18-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Şentürk, Mehmet Baki; Güraslan, Hakan; Çakmak, Yusuf; Ekin, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of bilateral sacrospinous fixation (SSF), which was performed with surgical mesh interposition and bilateral vaginal repair. Material and Methods Twenty-two patients underwent SSF between 2010 and 2012, and the results were evaluated retrospectively. The results at preoperative and postoperative 6th, 12th, and 18th months of the pelvic organ prolapse quantification system (POP-Q) and the Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire-12 (PISQ-12) were compared using Friedman and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests. Values of p<0.05 and <0.01 were considered statistically significant. Results According to the POP-Q, significant healing was observed on all vaginal vault points (p=0.001), and no prolapse was observed until the 18-month follow-up stage. There were also prominent patients who felt satisfactory with respect to their sexual life according to PISQ-12 (p=0.001). Conclusion This technique appears to provide an adequate clinical resolution, and it may be the primary surgical option for women with pelvic organ prolapse. PMID:26097393

  15. Neonatal Staphylococcus lugdunensis urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Itaru; Hataya, Hiroshi; Yamanouchi, Hanako; Sakakibara, Hiroshi; Terakawa, Toshiro

    2015-08-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis is a known pathogen of infective endocarditis, but not of urinary tract infection. We report a previously healthy neonate without congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract who developed urinary tract infection due to Staphylococcus lugdunensis, illustrating that Staphylococcus lugdunensis can cause urinary tract infection even in those with no urinary tract complications.

  16. Transverse and vertical asymmetry of bilateral craniofacial structures in repaired unilateral and bilateral complete cleft lip and palate cases.

    PubMed

    Lal, N; Utreja, A; Tewari, A; Chari, P S

    1991-03-01

    Fifty repaired complete cleft lip and palate cases (38 UCLP and 12 BCLP) in the age range of 6 to 14 years were evaluated for transverse and vertical asymmetry using postero-anterior cephalograms. A total of nine bilateral landmarks, representing upper face, mid face and lower face were used. Results showed that asymmetry was not confined to any single plane of reference but manifested in both dimensions--transverse and vertical. The UCLP group had greater asymmetry of mid face than the BCLP group. Asymmetry was found to be extending to distant areas besides the contiguous structures.

  17. [Epidemiological aspects of bilateral retinoblastoma].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Martínez, R; Leal, C A; Rivera-Luna, R; Cárdenas, R S; Martínez, A B; Medina, A

    1995-01-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most frequent solid tumor in the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, México (INP). The bilateral presentation occurs in 25% of all patients. We present some epidemiological data of this form of the disease, in learn these epidemiological variables in our series. We reviewed the clinical charts from 1972 to 1994. We analyzed age, sex, timing of presentation of the second affected eye, positive family history, clinical staging, and the development of secondary malignancies. A total of 105 cases were detected from 412 RB total cases (25%). We observed a male predominance 1.6:1.0 p = 0.04 versus females. The clinical staging showed: retinal stage 9/102, ocular stage 58/102, orbital stage 26/102 and non classified 9/102 p < 0.00001. The asynchronous form is a rare presentation in our experience: 16/105 cases p = 0.00001 (15%). Only 16/105 patients had a positive family history of RB (15%). We found 2 of 105 cases with secondary malignancies (0.01%). The asynchronous form constitutes a rare presentation. We cannot explain the etiology for the high prevalence of bilateral disease. The frequency of secondary malignancies is lower than that reported in the literature.

  18. LUNG EDEMA FOLLOWING BILATERAL VAGOTOMY

    PubMed Central

    Lorber, Victor

    1939-01-01

    1. Small animals (rat and guinea pig) vagotomized in the neck die within a period of hours, the lungs showing extensive congestion and edema. 2. Tracheotomy permits appreciably longer survival with minimal lung changes approximating those seen in the control animals. 3. Intrathoracic vagotomy (sparing the recurrent laryngeal nerve) on one side, and cervical vagotomy on the other, permits almost indefinite survival (guinea pig and rabbit), unless laryngeal paralysis from the unilateral denervation produces respiratory obstruction (rat, guinea pig, and rabbit). 4. Pulmonary edema following bilateral vagotomy probably results primarily from respiratory obstruction. It is suggested that circulatory failure may also be a factor of some importance. The rôle of vagotomy itself is considered in relationship to these two phenomena. 5. The reaction of smaller animals to bilateral vagotomy, with regard to lung changes, apparently differs in no way from that of the larger animals, but is less readily demonstrated because of the smaller diameters of the air passages. PMID:19870894

  19. Bilateral internal thoracic artery grafting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of the left internal mammary artery graft to the anterior descending coronary artery as a surgical strategy has been shown to improve the survival rate and decrease the risk of adverse cardiac events in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery. These clinical benefits appear to be related to the superior short and long-term patency rates of the internal thoracic artery graft. Although the advantages of using of both internal thoracic arteries (ITA) for bypass grafting have taken longer to prove, recent results from multiple data sets now support these findings. The major advantage of bilateral ITA grafting appears to be improved survival rate, while the disadvantages of complex ITA grafting include the increased complexity of operation, and an increased risk of wound complications. While these short-term disadvantages have been mitigated in contemporary surgical practice, they have not eliminated. Bilateral ITA grafting should be considered the procedure of choice for patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery that have a predicted survival rate of longer than ten years. PMID:23977627

  20. SRBF: Speckle reducing bilateral filtering.

    PubMed

    Balocco, Simone; Gatta, Carlo; Pujol, Oriol; Mauri, Josepa; Radeva, Petia

    2010-08-01

    Speckle noise negatively affects medical ultrasound image shape interpretation and boundary detection. Speckle removal filters are widely used to selectively remove speckle noise without destroying important image features to enhance object boundaries. In this article, a fully automatic bilateral filter tailored to ultrasound images is proposed. The edge preservation property is obtained by embedding noise statistics in the filter framework. Consequently, the filter is able to tackle the multiplicative behavior modulating the smoothing strength with respect to local statistics. The in silico experiments clearly showed that the speckle reducing bilateral filter (SRBF) has superior performances to most of the state of the art filtering methods. The filter is tested on 50 in vivo US images and its influence on a segmentation task is quantified. The results using SRBF filtered data sets show a superior performance to using oriented anisotropic diffusion filtered images. This improvement is due to the adaptive support of SRBF and the embedded noise statistics, yielding a more homogeneous smoothing. SRBF results in a fully automatic, fast and flexible algorithm potentially suitable in wide ranges of speckle noise sizes, for different medical applications (IVUS, B-mode, 3-D matrix array US).

  1. Bilateral facial synkinesis in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Goel, Madhu Mati; Jain, Amita; Gupta, Arvind; Lalla, Rakesh; Singh, Gyan Prakash

    2012-05-23

    Leprosy is an important cause of cranial nerve palsy in endemic areas where it may be seen in upto 17.6% patients. The authors herein describe a rare case of bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis with video documentation and modified blink reflex. A 35-year-old gentleman presented with numbness involving right half of his face for 8 months and abnormal stretching sensations over both sides of his nose for one and a half months. Sensory and motor involvement of the right trigeminal nerve was detected along with bilaterally symmetrical facial synkinesis involving orbicularis oculi and nasalis. R(1) and R(2) responses consistent with mis-reinnervation were recorded on the left-side using orbicularis oculi and nasalis muscles. Skin biopsy revealed acid-fast bacilli and sural nerve biopsy, the presence of granulomas. After 3 months of follow-up on WHO multi-drug therapy, an improvement in facial sensations was observed but without any change in facial synkinetic movements.

  2. Urinary tract infections in children: EAU/ESPU guidelines.

    PubMed

    Stein, Raimund; Dogan, Hasan S; Hoebeke, Piet; Kočvara, Radim; Nijman, Rien J M; Radmayr, Christian; Tekgül, Serdar

    2015-03-01

    In 30% of children with urinary tract anomalies, urinary tract infection (UTI) can be the first sign. Failure to identify patients at risk can result in damage to the upper urinary tract. To provide recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children presenting with UTI. The recommendations were developed after a review of the literature and a search of PubMed and Embase. A consensus decision was adopted when evidence was low. UTIs are classified according to site, episode, symptoms, and complicating factors. For acute treatment, site and severity are the most important. Urine sampling by suprapubic aspiration or catheterisation has a low contamination rate and confirms UTI. Using a plastic bag to collect urine, a UTI can only be excluded if the dipstick is negative for both leukocyte esterase and nitrite or microscopic analysis is negative for both pyuria and bacteriuria. A clean voided midstream urine sample after cleaning the external genitalia has good diagnostic accuracy in toilet-trained children. In children with febrile UTI, antibiotic treatment should be initiated as soon as possible to eradicate infection, prevent bacteraemia, improve outcome, and reduce the likelihood of renal involvement. Ultrasound of the urinary tract is advised to exclude obstructive uropathy. Depending on sex, age, and clinical presentation, vesicoureteral reflux should be excluded. Antibacterial prophylaxis is beneficial. In toilet-trained children, bladder and bowel dysfunction needs to be excluded. The level of evidence is high for the diagnosis of UTI and treatment in children but not for imaging to identify patients at risk for upper urinary tract damage. In these guidelines, we looked at the diagnosis, treatment, and imaging of children with urinary tract infection. There are strong recommendations on diagnosis and treatment; we also advise exclusion of obstructive uropathy within 24h and later vesicoureteral reflux, if indicated. Copyright © 2014 European

  3. Increased risk of bone fracture among patients with urinary calculi: a nationwide longitudinal population-based study.

    PubMed

    Ou, S-M; Chen, Y-T; Shih, C-J; Tarng, D-C

    2015-04-01

    Urinary calculi were associated with higher risk of vertebral and upper limb fracture. Therefore, patients with urinary calculi should be evaluated carefully because they may have a higher risk of subsequent fracture later in life. The contribution of urinary calculi to reduced bone mineral density has been recognized. However, the association of urinary calculi with the risk of fracture remains inconclusive. The aim of the study was to determine the risk of overall fracture and fractures at different anatomic sites in patients with urinary calculi. The records of inpatients and outpatients with urinary calculi were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Database from 2000 to 2010. Among patients with urinary calculi at the cohort entry, controls were matched using propensity scores on a 1:1 ratio. All subjects were followed up from the date of enrollment until fracture occurrence, death, or December 31, 2010. There were 46,243 Medicare beneficiaries with a diagnosis of urinary calculi and 46,243 controls without calculi enrolled. Among these patients, 6005 patients with a diagnosis of urinary calculi and 5339 controls developed fractures during a median follow-up period of 5.3 years. Patients with urinary calculi had a higher incidence of fracture compared with controls (23.9 versus 22.1 per 1000 person-years) and a greater risk of overall fractures (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.08, 95 % confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.12), mainly located at the vertebrae (aHR 1.15, 95 % CI, 1.06-1.25) and upper limb (aHR 1.07, 95 % CI, 1.01-1.14), but the risk for hip fracture was not increased (aHR 1.09, 95 % CI, 0.96-1.22). Urinary calculus is independently associated with higher risk of subsequent fracture. Patients with urinary calculi should pay attention to the future vertebral and upper limb fractures.

  4. Urinary excretion patterns of pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in patients with tumours of the urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Kvist, E; Sjølin, K E; Iversen, J; Nyholm, K

    1993-01-01

    The preoperative and postoperative values of urinary pseudouridine:creatinine (phi:C) and beta-aminoisobutyric acid:creatinine (beta AIB:C) were estimated, in 192 patients with urothelial tumours of the bladder, 92 of whom had not previously been diagnosed. Urinary phi:C ratio correlated with the grade of tumour cell dysplasia (being highest in dysplasia grade 3), and to a lesser extent with the clinical stage. The treatment had no major influence on the excretion ratios. Decreased ratios, or those within the reference range, were associated with a better prognosis than increased ratios, and if both were increased at the same time the risk for progression of the disease was high. The biological tumour markers pseudouridine and beta-aminoisobutyric acid may be helpful in the diagnosis of tumours in the upper urinary tract, and in the follow-up of patients with tumours of the bladder.

  5. Cervical vagotomy increased the distal colon distention to urinary bladder inhibitory reflex in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kaddumi, Ezidin G

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the convergence of vagal inputs into brainstem centers with inputs from the urinary bladder and colon, as well as the convergence of vagal inputs into other centers controlling the urinary bladder and colon reflexes. However, the effect of the vagal inputs on the interaction between the urinary bladder and other pelvic organs has not been studied. In this study, the effect of bilateral cervical vagotomy on the distal colon to urinary bladder reflex was examined. Changes to cystometry parameters in response to increased distal colon distensions (1, 2, and 3 ml) were tested in urethane-anesthetized male rats with or without bilateral cervical vagotomy. In animals with intact vagus nerves, 1 and 2 ml distal colon distentions had no significant effects on micturition frequency; however, 3 ml distal colon distention significantly decreased the frequency of micturition cycles. Also, 3 ml distal colon distention inhibited micturition cycles in 37.5 % of these animals. On the other hand, following cervical vagotomy, 1 ml distal colon distention was enough to significantly decrease the frequency of micturition cycles and to inhibit the cycles in 75 % of the animals. These results demonstrate the presence of supraspinal inhibitory regulation, via the vagus nerve, over the distal colon to urinary bladder inhibitory reflex.

  6. Protocol for a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial investigating sacral neuromodulation for neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sacral neuromodulation has become a well-established and widely accepted treatment for refractory non-neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, but its value in patients with a neurological cause is unclear. Although there is evidence indicating that sacral neuromodulation may be effective and safe for treating neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction, the number of investigated patients is low and there is a lack of randomized controlled trials. Methods and design This study is a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind multicenter trial including 4 sacral neuromodulation referral centers in Switzerland. Patients with refractory neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction are enrolled. After minimally invasive bilateral tined lead placement into the sacral foramina S3 and/or S4, patients undergo prolonged sacral neuromodulation testing for 3–6 weeks. In case of successful (defined as improvement of at least 50% in key bladder diary variables (i.e. number of voids and/or number of leakages, post void residual) compared to baseline values) prolonged sacral neuromodulation testing, the neuromodulator is implanted in the upper buttock. After a 2 months post-implantation phase when the neuromodulator is turned ON to optimize the effectiveness of neuromodulation using sub-sensory threshold stimulation, the patients are randomized in a 1:1 allocation in sacral neuromodulation ON or OFF. At the end of the 2 months double-blind sacral neuromodulation phase, the patients have a neuro-urological re-evaluation, unblinding takes place, and the neuromodulator is turned ON in all patients. The primary outcome measure is success of sacral neuromodulation, secondary outcome measures are adverse events, urodynamic parameters, questionnaires, and costs of sacral neuromodulation. Discussion It is of utmost importance to know whether the minimally invasive and completely reversible sacral neuromodulation would be a valuable treatment option for

  7. Transfer of ballistic motor skill between bilateral and unilateral contexts in young and older adults: neural adaptations and behavioral implications.

    PubMed

    Hinder, Mark R; Carroll, Timothy J; Summers, Jeffery J

    2013-06-01

    Bilateral movement rehabilitation is gaining popularity as an approach to improve the recovery not only of bimanual function but also of unilateral motor tasks. While the neural mechanisms mediating the transfer of bilateral training gains into unimanual contexts are not fully understood, converging evidence from behavioral, neurophysiological, and imaging studies suggests that bimanual movements are not simply the superposition of unimanual tasks undertaken with both (upper) limbs. Here we investigated the neural responses in both hemispheres to bilateral ballistic motor training and the extent to which performance improvements transferred to a unimanual task. Since aging influences interhemispheric interactions during movement production, both young (n = 9; mean age 19.4 yr; 6 women, 3 men) and older (n = 9; 66.3 yr; 7 women, 2 men) adults practiced a bilateral motor task requiring simultaneous "fast-as-possible" abductions of their left and right index fingers. Changes in bilateral and unilateral performance, and in corticospinal excitability and intracortical inhibition, were assessed. Strong transfer was observed between bimanual and unimanual contexts for both age groups. However, in contrast to previous reports of substantial bilateral cortical adaptations following unilateral training, increases in corticospinal excitability following bilateral training were not statistically reliable, and a release of intracortical inhibition was only observed for older adults. The results indicate that the neural mechanisms of motor learning for bilateral ballistic tasks differ from those that underlie unimanual ballistic performance improvement but that aging results in a greater overlap of the neural mechanisms mediating bilateral and unilateral ballistic motor performance.

  8. Bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Gloria E; Wirrell, Elaine C; Matsumoto, Joseph Y; Krecke, Karl N

    2010-07-01

    Bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis is characterized by calcification of the basal ganglia and other gray matter structures. We describe a 16-year-old boy with paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. He exhibited mineralization in the basal ganglia, posterior thalami, and dentate nuclei bilaterally, and was diagnosed with sporadic bilateral striopallidodentate calcinosis. The paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia responded to low-dose treatment with carbamazepine (200 mg/day).

  9. Congenital bilateral sternocleidomastoid contracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Babu, Manohar K V; Lee, Peter; Mahadev, Arjandas; Lee, Eng Hin

    2009-05-01

    Unilateral sternocleidomastoid muscle contracture causing torticollis and other secondary deformities such as facial scoliosis, plagiocephaly and scoliosis of cervical spine are well known. The aetiology and pathogenesis is still intriguing. Although unilateral contracture of sternocleidomastoid is seen quite often, bilateral sternocleidomastoid contracture is almost unheard of. A review of the English literature revealed no cases of bilateral congenital sternocleidomastoid contracture being reported. We present a case report of a 19-year-old girl with congenital bilateral sternocleidomastoid contracture.

  10. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Litza, Janice A; Brill, John R

    2010-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common urologic disorder and one of the most common conditions for which physicians are consulted. Patients at increased risk for UTI include women; diabetics; the immunocompromised; and those with anatomic abnormalities, impaired mobility, incontinence, advanced age, and instrumentation. Antibiotic therapy aims to relieve symptoms and prevent complications such as pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Distinguishing asymptomatic bacteriuria from a UTI can be difficult, especially in those with comorbidities. Most experts do not recommend screening for UTI, except in the first trimester of pregnancy.

  11. Prosthetic urinary sphincter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helms, C. R.; Smyly, H. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A pump/valve unit for controlling the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic urinary sphincter device is described. A compressible bulb pump defining a reservoir was integrated with a valve unit for implantation. The valve unit includes a movable valve member operable by depression of a flexible portion of the valve unit housing for controlling fluid flow between the reservoir and collar; and a pressure sensing means which operates the valve member to relieve an excess pressure in the collar should too much pressure be applied by the patient.

  12. The role of DMSA scans in evaluation of the correlation between urinary tract infection, vesicoureteric reflux, and renal scarring.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, V; Mitra, D K; Agarwala, S; Kumar, R; Patel, C; Malhotra, A K; Gupta, A K

    2002-03-01

    The correlation between urinary tract infection (UTI), vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and renal scarring was studied in 89 patients (177 renal units; 1 solitary kidney) during the period 1997-2000. There were 63 males and 26 females; ages ranged from neonates to 14 years. UTI was diagnosed on the basis of a positive urine culture, VUR was diagnosed and graded by micturating cystourethrogram (MCU), and renal scarring was assessed by technetium 99 m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan. Ultrasonography (US) was done to evaluate renal tract dilatation and other structural abnormalities. A follow up DMSA scan was performed approximately 6 months after the initial scan. VUR was present in 106 of the 171 renal units in which it was studied and absent in 65 units. The majority of the VUR was grade V. Renal scars were seen in 90 of 177 renal units at presentation and in 72 of the 163 renal units studied at follow-up. Some information was lacking in 31 patients; hence, the correlation between UTI, VUR, and renal scarring was done in 58 patients. The majority of the suspected scars at presentation were not seen at follow-up, but most of the established scars persisted. Only 2 renal units showed scars for the first time on follow-up. On US, approximately 50% of normal kidneys showed either suspicious or established scars on DMSA scan, and patients with bilateral abnormality on US showed renal scars. Renal scars were seen in 15 of 23 children without VUR, 17 of 18 with unilateral VUR, and 16 of 17 with bilateral VUR. Thus, there is a cause-and-effect relationship between UTI and renal scarring that is made worse by VUR. DMSA scans have been shown to be the most reliable method of assessing renal scarring, and an abnormal US scan showing upper-tract dilatation or a structural abnormality may have a predictive value in the detection of renal scarring.

  13. Upper hemisternotomy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tristan; Flynn, Campbell

    2017-08-04

    Minimally invasive approaches are increasingly used in cardiac surgical procedures. Common approaches include upper hemisternotomy and right anterolateral thoracotomy. The additional exposure gained from conventional sternotomy does not greatly improve the access to the aortic valve and proximal thoracic aorta. Minimal access approaches have an equivalent safety profile when compared to conventional sternotomy, and are associated with reduced post-operative pain, reduced transfusion requirement, reduced respiratory complications and shorter hospital stays. Hemisternotomy offers a versatile access to supra-cardiac structures, with a shorter learning curve compared to anterolateral thoracotomy. We describe the procedural steps in performing a safe hemisternotomy. © The Author 2016. Published by MMCTS on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  14. Bilateral eosinophilic mastitis: an uncommon unheard entity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Aminder; Kaur, Pavneet; Sood, Neena; Puri, Harpreet; Garg, Bhavna

    2015-01-01

    We are reporting a case of bilateral eosinophilic mastitis which is rare and hardly heard. It is a mimicker of carcinoma breast both clinically & radiologically. A 30 years old non diabetic female presented with bilateral breast lumps with history of rhinitis off & on and peripheral eosinophilia. Mammography was suspicious while ultrasonography was diagnostic of bilateral mastitis. Aspiration cytology exhibited inflammatory lesion rich in eosinophils. Histopathology revealed the diagnosis of eosinophilic mastitis. Eosinophilic infiltration of the breast is a rare manifestation of tissue involvement in peripheral eosinophilia and bilateralism is even rarer.

  15. [Our experience with bilateral cochlear implantation].

    PubMed

    Carmel, Eldar; Taitelbaum-Swead, Ricky; Migirov, Lela; Hildesheimer, Minka; Kronenberg, Jona

    2008-03-01

    Cochlear implantation is a standard method of hearing rehabilitation among patients with severe to profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. In recent years there have been an increasing number of studies showing superior hearing with bilateral cochlear implantation in comparison with a unilateral procedure. In this study we present our experience with 15 patients, children and adults, who had bilateral cochlear implant surgery. Speech perception test results demonstrated a hearing benefit in bilateral cochlear implantation in comparison with a unilateral device, mainly by improvement in the identification of speech in noise tests.

  16. Cardiovascular Responses to Unilateral, Bilateral, and Alternating Limb Resistance Exercise Performed Using Different Body Segments.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Osvaldo C; Faraci, Lucas L; de Matos, Dihogo G; Mazini Filho, Mauro L; da Silva, Sandro F; Aidar, Felipe José; Hickner, Robert C; de Oliveira, Cláudia E P

    2017-03-01

    Moreira, OC, Faraci, LL, de Matos, DG, Mazini Filho, ML, da Silva, SF, Aidar, FJ, Hickner, RC, and de Oliveira, CEP. Cardiovascular responses to unilateral, bilateral and alternating limb resistance exercise performed using different body segments. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 644-652, 2017-The aim of this study was to verify and compare the cardiovascular responses to unilateral, bilateral, and alternating limb resistance exercise (RE) performed using different body segments. Fifteen men experienced in RE were studied during biceps curls, barbell rows, and knee extension exercises when performed bilaterally, unilaterally, and using alternating limbs. The protocol consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 10 repetition maximum with 2-minute rest between sets. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured after the last repetition. There was a statistically significant increase in HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and rate pressure product (RPP), from rest to postexercise. The RPP was higher in the third set of all exercises and in all 3 forms of execution, when compared with the first set. Bilateral biceps curls caused a greater increase in RPP (first and second sets) and HR, compared with the same exercise performed unilaterally. Furthermore, the performance of bilateral biceps curls induced greater HR and RPP, in all sets, compared with bilateral knee extension and barbell rows. There was also a significantly higher SBP for the alternating second and third sets and also for the bilateral third set of the knee extensions as compared with the barbell rows. It was concluded from the data of this study that the cardiovascular response was increased from rest to postexercise in all forms of exercise, especially immediately after the third set of RE. For exercises performed bilaterally with the upper body (biceps curls), there was a greater cardiovascular response when compared with the same exercise performed unilaterally or with lower-body exercise

  17. Bilateral Neck of Femur Fractures in a Bilateral Below-Knee Amputee: A Unique Case

    PubMed Central

    Lancer, Hannah R.

    2016-01-01

    According to the National Hip Fracture Database, over 64,000 patients were admitted with a hip fracture across England, Wales, and Northern Ireland in 2013, but very few are bilateral, and there are no current cases in the literature of bilateral neck of femur fractures in a patient with bilateral below-knee amputations. We present a case of a 69-year-old bilateral below-knee amputee male admitted to the emergency department with bilateral hip pain and radiological evidence of bilateral displaced neck of femur fractures. The patient subsequently underwent synchronous bilateral total hip replacements under general anaesthetic and an epidural and then went on to make a full recovery. He was discharged 27 days after arrival in hospital. Outpatient follow-up at 3 months has shown that the patient has returned to a similar level of preinjury function and is still able to carry out his daily activities with walking aids and bilateral leg prostheses. PMID:26881162

  18. Bilateral adrenalectomy for Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Katznelson, Laurence

    2015-04-01

    Review the indications, outcomes, and consequences of bilateral adrenalectomy (BLA) in patients with Cushing's disease. A literature review was performed. The primary therapy for Cushing's disease is surgery, with medical therapy and radiation therapy relegated to an adjuvant role. BLA is indicated in cases of persistent disease following pituitary surgery or in situations where rapid normalization of hypercortisolism is required. When performed via the laparoscopic approach, BLA is associated with a significantly reduced morbidity compared to the traditional, open approach. Following BLA, patients are at risk for adrenal crisis and the concern of Nelson's syndrome. However, BLA leads to a rapid resolution of the signs and symptoms of CS and leads to an improved long-term quality of life. BLA should be considered in the treatment algorithm for patients with persistent CD after failed pituitary surgery, especially in patients who have severe consequences of hypercortisolism or desire pregnancy.

  19. Bilateral fitting subtracting confocal microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Weiqian; Sheng, Zhong; Qiu, Lirong; Wang, Yun; Shao, Rongjun

    2016-12-20

    This paper proposes a bilateral fitting subtracting confocal microscopy (BFSCM) based on the optical arrangement of conventional confocal microscopy (CM). BFSCM first uses the data in both sides of a confocal axial response curve, which are very sensitive to the axial position of the sample, for respective linear fitting to obtain two fitting straight lines, and then obtains a difference confocal line by subtraction of the two fitting lines. Finally, it calculates the zero position of the difference confocal line to precisely capture the focus position of the confocal system, and thereby achieving a high-precision measurement of the 3D structure of the sample. The theoretical analyses and experiments indicate that BFSCM can improve the axial resolution, and has anti-interference capability and focusing ability with bipolar absolute zero point tracking, while it does not change the structure and lateral resolution of CM. BFSCM provides a novel method for the improvement of CM axial resolution.

  20. Cushing syndrome after bilateral lensectomy.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Karin Sofia; Weitz, Marcus; Eisenack, Johannes; Truffer, Béatrice; Konrad, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome induced by oral and parenteral corticosteroid administration is a well-known complication, and necessary precautions have to be taken. Cushing syndrome, however, following treatment with glucocorticoid-containing eye drops is a very rare complication. To the best of our knowledge, there have been only four reported cases in the literature. Herein, we present an infant boy who developed Cushing syndrome after receiving dexamethasone-containing eye drops after bilateral cataract extraction to prevent postoperative inflammatory complications. At the age of 5 months, after approx. 3 months of dexamethasone therapy, the patient presented with cushingoid facies, nephrocalcinosis and failure to grow. Iatrogenic Cushing syndrome was diagnosed and dexamethasone-containing eye drops were reduced and eventually stopped. Follow-up examinations revealed catch-up growth. Ocularly administered corticosteroids may have substantial systemic side effects in infants.

  1. Bilateral asymmetry of the humerus during growth and development.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Amanda

    2011-08-01

    The development of handedness throughout growth can be investigated by using bilateral asymmetry of the humerus as a proxy for this trait. A large skeletal sample of nonadults from English archaeological sites was examined using standard metric techniques to assess when right-sided asymmetry first appears in the human skeleton. Results of this work indicate a change in directional asymmetry during growth and development, with infants and young children exhibiting no significant asymmetry and older children and adolescents demonstrating right-sidedness. This trend is consistent with what has been observed in previous studies of upper limb asymmetry in skeletal material and behaviorally in living children, adding further strength to the premise that biomechanical forces strongly influence bilateral asymmetry in the upper limb bones. Variability in the magnitude of asymmetry between different features of the humerus was also noted. This characteristic can be explained by differing degrees of genetic canalization, with length and articular dimensions being more strongly canalized than diaphyseal properties. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. [Recurrent urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Pigrau-Serrallach, Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) are a frequent clinical problem in sexually active young women, pregnant or postmenopausal women and in patients with underlying urological abnormalities. The present chapter reviews RUTI based on their classification: relapses, which usually occur early (< 1 month), are caused by the same microorganism and are associated with underlying urological abnormalities, and reinfections, which usually occur later and are caused by a new distinct microorganism (or by the same microorganism usually located in the rectum or uroepithelial cells). The pathogenesis of RUTI is reviewed and the risk factors associated with RUTI in premenopausal women (usually related to sexual activity), postmenopausal women (in whom estrogen deficiency has a significant effect on the vaginal Lactobacillus flora), and in pregnant women are discussed. Likewise, an extensive review of the distinct therapeutic strategies to prevent RUTI is provided: self-treatment of cystitis, continuous antibiotic prophylaxis, postcoital antibiotic prophylaxis, topical vaginal estrogens, Lactobacillus, cranberry juice, intravesical administration of non-virulent E. coli strains and vaccines, among others. Several diagnostic-therapeutic algorithms are included. These algorithms are based on the type of urinary infection (relapse-reinfection), on the type of patient (young, postmenopausal, or pregnant women) and on the number of episodes of RUTI.

  3. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    PubMed

    Emonet, Stéphane; Harbarth, Stephan; van Delden, Christian

    2011-04-27

    Urinary tract infections are commonly seen by general practitioners. Quinolones are frequently prescribed in this setting. The emergence of resistance to these antibiotics has led to new guidelines for the management of uncomplicated UTI, based on the use of fosfomycin and furadantine. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic and treatment of urinary tract infections in adults.

  4. Amikacin therapy for urinary tract infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung-Yeon; Choi, Su-Mi; Park, Sun Hee; Lee, Dong-Gun; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yoo, Jin-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The number of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) is increasing. In an outpatient setting, there are limited therapeutic options to treat ESBL-producing pathogens. We evaluated the outcomes of amikacin outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) for UTIs caused by ESBL-EC in patients not pre-treated with carbapenem. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the outcomes of amikacin OPAT for UTIs caused by ESBL-EC. Results: From November 2011 to October 2012, eight females, who could not be hospitalized for carbapenem treatment, were treated with amikacin OPAT for nine episodes of non-bacteremic ESBL-EC UTIs. Seven of the eight patients had one or more comorbidities. Of the nine UTI cases, three had symptomatic lower UTIs and six had non-bacteremic upper UTIs. In all of the cases, symptomatic and laboratory improvements were observed following amikacin OPAT. One patient showed a delayed relapse with bilateral microabscesses 3 weeks after treatment cessation; however, a clinical and microbiological cure was eventually reached. All of the patients were able to tolerate amikacin OPAT without any significant nephrotoxicity or ototoxicity. Conclusions: Amikacin OPAT represents a feasible therapeutic option for non-bacteremic UTIs caused by ESBL-EC in settings with limited resources. PMID:26767869

  5. [Cervical myelopathy caused by bilateral vertebral artery compression].

    PubMed

    Nishiura, T; Fujiwara, K; Handa, A; Gotoh, M; Tsuno, K; Ishimitsu, H

    1998-01-01

    We report a rare case of myelopathy caused by compression of the upper cervical cord by the bilateral anomalous vertebral arteries. A 49-year-old man had dragged his right foot for 4 years. He also complained of a tingling sensation in his right arm and occipitalgia. Neurological examination disclosed right hemiparesis, hypalgesia in the right half of the body and hypertonicity of the lower extremities. MRIs showed a flow void area which compressed and distorted the spinal cord bilaterally at the level of the atlas. A vertebral angiogram showed that the bilateral vertebral arteries had pierced the dura matter under the posterior arch of the atlas, turned upward and laterally in the vertebral canal, making vascular loops at the level of the atlas. 3D CT angiography showed the loops convex medially in the anterior part of the vertebral canal. With these findings, we diagnosed the patient as suffering compression of the cervical cord by the bilateral anomalous vertebral arteries. Suboccipital craniectomy and C1 laminectomy were performed. When the dura mater was opened, the dorsolateral aspect of the spinal cord was found to be compressed and indented markedly by the vertebral arteries. To decompress the spinal cord, the vertebral arteries were retracted dorsolaterally by means of Gore-tex tape and anchored to the spinous process of the axis. Postoperatively, his neurological symptoms improved. Postoperative MRIs showed that the spinal cord was decompressed and had recovered its contour. A review of the literature revealed that only 3 such cases as this one have been reported. The clinical features of these rare cases are nonspecific myelopathy and concomitant occipitalgia or neck pain. The main cause of this rare entity seemed to be the compression of the vertebral artery through its course when it enters the vertebral canal between the atlas and the axis.

  6. Bilateral cerebellar activation in unilaterally challenged essential tremor

    PubMed Central

    Broersma, Marja; van der Stouwe, Anna M.M.; Buijink, Arthur W.G.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Groot, Paul F.C.; Speelman, Johannes D.; Tijssen, Marina A.J.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Essential tremor (ET) is one of the most common hyperkinetic movement disorders. Previous research into the pathophysiology of ET suggested underlying cerebellar abnormalities. Objective In this study, we added electromyography as an index of tremor intensity to functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (EMG-fMRI) to study a group of ET patients selected according to strict criteria to achieve maximal homogeneity. With this approach we expected to improve upon the localization of the bilateral cerebellar abnormalities found in earlier fMRI studies. Methods We included 21 propranolol sensitive patients, who were not using other tremor medication, with a definite diagnosis of ET defined by the Tremor Investigation Group. Simultaneous EMG-fMRI recordings were performed while patients were off tremor medication. Patients performed unilateral right hand and arm extension, inducing tremor, alternated with relaxation (rest). Twenty-one healthy, age- and sex-matched participants mimicked tremor during right arm extension. EMG power variability at the individual tremor frequency as a measure of tremor intensity variability was used as a regressor, mathematically independent of the block regressor, in the general linear model used for fMRI analysis, to find specific tremor-related activations. Results Block-related activations were found in the classical upper-limb motor network, both for ET patients and healthy participants in motor, premotor and supplementary motor areas. In ET patients, we found tremor-related activations bilaterally in the cerebellum: in left lobules V, VI, VIIb and IX and in right lobules V, VI, VIIIa and b, and in the brainstem. In healthy controls we found simulated tremor-related activations in right cerebellar lobule V. Conclusions Our results expand on previous findings of bilateral cerebellar involvement in ET. We have identified specific areas in the bilateral somatomotor regions of the cerebellum: lobules V, VI and VIII. PMID:26909321

  7. An Investigation of Bilateral Symmetry During Manual Wheelchair Propulsion

    PubMed Central

    Soltau, Shelby L.; Slowik, Jonathan S.; Requejo, Philip S.; Mulroy, Sara J.; Neptune, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of manual wheelchair propulsion often assume bilateral symmetry to simplify data collection, processing, and analysis. However, the validity of this assumption is unclear. Most investigations of wheelchair propulsion symmetry have been limited by a relatively small sample size and a focus on a single propulsion condition (e.g., level propulsion at self-selected speed). The purpose of this study was to evaluate bilateral symmetry during manual wheelchair propulsion in a large group of subjects across different propulsion conditions. Three-dimensional kinematics and handrim kinetics along with spatiotemporal variables were collected and processed from 80 subjects with paraplegia while propelling their wheelchairs on a stationary ergometer during three different conditions: level propulsion at their self-selected speed (free), level propulsion at their fastest comfortable speed (fast), and propulsion on an 8% grade at their level, self-selected speed (graded). All kinematic variables had significant side-to-side differences, primarily in the graded condition. Push angle was the only spatiotemporal variable with a significant side-to-side difference, and only during the graded condition. No kinetic variables had significant side-to-side differences. The magnitudes of the kinematic differences were low, with only one difference exceeding 5°. With differences of such small magnitude, the bilateral symmetry assumption appears to be reasonable during manual wheelchair propulsion in subjects without significant upper-extremity pain or impairment. However, larger asymmetries may exist in individuals with secondary injuries and pain in their upper extremity and different etiologies of their neurological impairment. PMID:26125019

  8. Unusual orthodontic correction of bilateral maxillary canine-first premolar transposition.

    PubMed

    Maia, Francisco Ajalmar; Maia, Nair Galvão

    2005-03-01

    Tooth transposition is a subject that intrigues orthodontists because of the associated treatment planning. Approximately 0.3-0.4% of the population has this type of tooth disharmony, and in the literature, most authors are in disagreement about the treatment approach. In this article, a case is presented of bilaterally maxillary canine-first premolar transposition associated with bilaterally upper lateral incisor agenesis treated in a very unusual way. The transposed teeth were orthodontically reversed to their normal sequence and the missing lateral incisor spaces closed. We choose this approach because once the decision was made to close the upper lateral incisor agenesis spaces, it was inadequate to position the upper first premolars in contact with the central incisors.

  9. A Rare Entity: Bilateral First Rib Fractures Accompanying Bilateral Scapular Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gulbahar, Gultekin; Kaplan, Tevfik; Turker, Hasan Bozkurt; Gundogdu, Ahmet Gokhan; Han, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    First rib fractures are scarce due to their well-protected anatomic locations. Bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures are very rare, although they may be together with scapular and clavicular fractures. According to our knowledge, no case of bilateral first rib fractures accompanying bilateral scapular fractures has been reported, so we herein discussed the diagnosis, treatment, and complications of bone fractures due to thoracic trauma in bias of this rare entity. PMID:26175916

  10. Post-operative urinary retention.

    PubMed

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  11. Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary Tract: Relation to Host Defense and Microbial Infection

    PubMed Central

    HICKLING, DUANE R.; SUN, TUNG-TIEN; WU, XUE-RU

    2015-01-01

    The urinary tract exits to a body surface area that is densely populated by a wide range of microbes. Yet, under most normal circumstances, it is typically considered sterile, i.e., devoid of microbes, a stark contrast to the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts where many commensal and pathogenic microbes call home. Not surprisingly, infection of the urinary tract over a healthy person’s lifetime is relatively infrequent, occurring once or twice or not at all for most people. For those who do experience an initial infection, the great majority (70% to 80%) thankfully do not go on to suffer from multiple episodes. This is a far cry from the upper respiratory tract infections, which can afflict an otherwise healthy individual countless times. The fact that urinary tract infections are hard to elicit in experimental animals except with inoculum 3–5 orders of magnitude greater than the colony counts that define an acute urinary infection in humans (105 cfu/ml), also speaks to the robustness of the urinary tract defense. How can the urinary tract be so effective in fending off harmful microbes despite its orifice in a close vicinity to that of the microbe-laden gastrointestinal tract? While a complete picture is still evolving, the general consensus is that the anatomical and physiological integrity of the urinary tract is of paramount importance in maintaining a healthy urinary tract. When this integrity is breached, however, the urinary tract can be at a heightened risk or even recurrent episodes of microbial infections. In fact, recurrent urinary tract infections are a significant cause of morbidity and time lost from work and a major challenge to manage clinically. Additionally, infections of the upper urinary tract often require hospitalization and prolonged antibiotic therapy. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic anatomy and physiology of the urinary tract with an emphasis on their specific roles in host defense. We also highlight the

  12. Anatomy and Physiology of the Urinary Tract: Relation to Host Defense and Microbial Infection.

    PubMed

    Hickling, Duane R; Sun, Tung-Tien; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2015-08-01

    The urinary tract exits to a body surface area that is densely populated by a wide range of microbes. Yet, under most normal circumstances, it is typically considered sterile, i.e., devoid of microbes, a stark contrast to the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts where many commensal and pathogenic microbes call home. Not surprisingly, infection of the urinary tract over a healthy person's lifetime is relatively infrequent, occurring once or twice or not at all for most people. For those who do experience an initial infection, the great majority (70% to 80%) thankfully do not go on to suffer from multiple episodes. This is a far cry from the upper respiratory tract infections, which can afflict an otherwise healthy individual countless times. The fact that urinary tract infections are hard to elicit in experimental animals except with inoculum 3-5 orders of magnitude greater than the colony counts that define an acute urinary infection in humans (105 cfu/ml), also speaks to the robustness of the urinary tract defense. How can the urinary tract be so effective in fending off harmful microbes despite its orifice in a close vicinity to that of the microbe-laden gastrointestinal tract? While a complete picture is still evolving, the general consensus is that the anatomical and physiological integrity of the urinary tract is of paramount importance in maintaining a healthy urinary tract. When this integrity is breached, however, the urinary tract can be at a heightened risk or even recurrent episodes of microbial infections. In fact, recurrent urinary tract infections are a significant cause of morbidity and time lost from work and a major challenge to manage clinically. Additionally, infections of the upper urinary tract often require hospitalization and prolonged antibiotic therapy. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the basic anatomy and physiology of the urinary tract with an emphasis on their specific roles in host defense. We also highlight the

  13. Thoracoscopic Bilateral Bullectomy for Simultaneously Developed Bilateral Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax: Ipsilateral Transmediastinal versus Bilateral Sequential Approach.

    PubMed

    Cho, Deog Gon; Lee, Seok In; Chang, Yong Jin; Cho, Kyu Do; Cho, Suk Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Simultaneously developed bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (BPSP) is an indication for thoracic surgery of both sides. Recently, we have reported a new technique for BPSP, which is ipsilateral apicoposterior transmediastinal (TM) bullectomy of both sides using video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and we compared this TM VATS with bilateral sequential (BS) VATS for BPSP. Materials and Methods From June 2003 to May 2014, 11 and 14 patients were performed VATS TM and BS bullectomy for BPSP, respectively. We reviewed the medical records and compared the clinical data between the two groups. For TM group, we first performed the right VATS bullectomy and approached through the apicoposterior mediastinal region for contralateral VATS. In the other group, conventional BS VATS bullectomy was performed in the lateral decubitus position change. Results The mean follow-up was 62.0 ± 32.6 months. No mortality and major complications were observed. The operative time (68.18 ± 24.93 vs. 96.07 ± 37.73, p = 0.046), duration of left pleural drainage (1.00 ± 0.45 vs. 3.21 ± 1.37, p = 0.000), and length of hospital stay (3.82 ± 1.54 vs. 4.93 ± 1.07, p = 0.044) were significantly shorter in the TM group than in the BS group. No significant differences were seen in duration of general anesthesia, total number of wedge resections and endostaplers used in both lungs, duration of right drainage, and postoperative recurrence. Conclusion The TM VATS approach may be a safe and feasible modality for BPSP. It may decrease the operative time, patients inconvenience such as bilateral multiple wounds and longstanding placement of chest tubes, and decrease the hospital stay compared with the BS VATS approach.

  14. Hysterectomy and urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kudish, Bela I; Shveiky, David; Gutman, Robert E; Jacoby, Vanessa; Sokol, Andrew I; Rodabough, Rebecca; Howard, Barabara V; Blanchette, Patricia; Iglesia, Cheryl B

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate an association between hysterectomy and urinary incontinence (UI) in postmenopausal women. Women (aged 50-79) with uteri (N = 53,569) and without uteri (N = 38,524) who enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study between 1993 and 1996 were included in this secondary analysis. Baseline (BL) and 3-year demographic, health/physical forms and personal habit questionnaires were used. Statistical analyses included univariate and logistic regression methods. The baseline UI rate was 66.5 %, with 27.3 % of participants having stress urinary incontinence (SUI), 23 % having urge UI (UUI), and 12.4 % having mixed UI (MUI). 41.8 % of women had undergone hysterectomy, with 88.1 % having had the procedure before age 54. Controlling for health/physical variables, hysterectomy was associated with UI at BL (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.19, 1.32) and over the 3-year study period (OR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.11, 1.36). Excluding women with UI at BL, a higher incidence of UUI and SUI episodes was found in hysterectomy at year 3. Among women who had undergone hysterectomy, those with bilateral oophorectomy (BSO) did not have increased odds of developing UI at BL or over the 3-year study period. Hormone use was not associated with a change in UI incidence (estrogen + progesterone, p = 0.17; unopposed estrogen, p = 0.41). Risk of UI is increased in postmenopausal women who had undergone hysterectomy compared with women with uteri.

  15. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady; Azoulay, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment.

  16. Bilateral phacoemulsification in an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Lima, Leandro; Bacellar, Marianna; D'Otaviano Vilani, Ricardo G; Fedullo, José Daniel; Lange, Rogério R

    2010-09-01

    A 14-year-old, female, captive-born orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus) developed bilateral cataracts. Ultrasonography, electroretinography and cataract correction using phacoemulsification were performed bilaterally. This case report aims to describe the ophthalmic procedures performed in this animal critically endangered of extinction. The surgery successfully restored vision and normal activity to the patient.

  17. Severe bilateral microphthalmos in a Pomeranian pup.

    PubMed

    Dell, Melanie

    2010-12-01

    A 4-week-old male Pomeranian was presented with eyes that had remained closed since birth. Clinical examination of the orbits revealed that globes were bilaterally absent, suggesting clinical anophthalmos. Following ultrasound imaging of the orbits, a diagnosis of severe bilateral microphthalmos was made, a condition of rare occurrence with an etiology that is not fully understood.

  18. Bilateral parotid swelling: a radiological review

    PubMed Central

    Gadodia, A; Bhalla, A S; Sharma, R; Thakar, A; Parshad, R

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral parotid swelling is not an uncommon occurrence and may pose a challenge for clinicians and radiologists. Numerous causes of bilateral parotid swellings have been identified. The purpose of this pictorial review is to display this wide array with a focus on multimodality approach. PMID:21960397

  19. Bilateral failure of adduction following orbital decompression.

    PubMed Central

    Kinsella, F; Kyle, P; Stansfield, A

    1990-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral complete failure of adduction following bilateral translid antralethmoidal orbital decompression. We believe the probable mechanism is neuropraxia (temporary dysfunction) of the third cranial nerves' supply to the medial recti, owing to these nerves' occupying an anatomically abnormal position. Partial recovery of adduction occurred over the ensuing six months. Images PMID:2337551

  20. CT demonstration of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, D.; Korobkin, M.; Silverman, P.M.; Dunnick, N.R.

    1983-08-01

    Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage with subsequent adrenal insufficiency is a recognized complication of anticoagulant therapy. Because the clinical manifestations are often nonspecific, the antemortem diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage has been a difficult clinical problem. Computed tomography (CT) provides detailed images of the adrenal glands that are not possible with conventional imaging methods. The CT findings of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage in an anticoagulated patient are reported.

  1. Severe bilateral microphthalmos in a Pomeranian pup

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Melanie

    2010-01-01

    A 4-week-old male Pomeranian was presented with eyes that had remained closed since birth. Clinical examination of the orbits revealed that globes were bilaterally absent, suggesting clinical anophthalmos. Following ultrasound imaging of the orbits, a diagnosis of severe bilateral microphthalmos was made, a condition of rare occurrence with an etiology that is not fully understood. PMID:21358938

  2. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment. PMID:27275469

  3. Postlaminectomy Bilateral Lumbar Intraspinal Synovial Cysts

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sung Ik; Lee, Jung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts are included in the difference diagnosis of lumbar radiculopathy. Developing imaging modalities has result in increased reporting about these lesions. However, the case of bilateral new lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy has been rarely reported. We report of a rare case with bilateral lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts after laminectomy, requiring surgical excision. PMID:27799997

  4. Effect of grapefruit juice on urinary lithogenicity.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, D S; Asplin, J R

    2001-07-01

    An increased risk of nephrolithiasis has been associated with the ingestion of grapefruit juice in epidemiological studies. To our knowledge the basis of this effect of grapefruit juice has not been studied previously. We studied the effect of grapefruit juice consumption on urinary chemistry and measures of lithogenicity. Ten healthy men and women between ages of 25 and 40 years participated. Each subject drank 240 ml. of tap water at least 3 times daily for 7 days during the control period. This period was followed by a second 7 days experimental period during which they drank 240 ml. of grapefruit juice 3 times daily. In each 7-day period urine was collected for 24 hours during the last 3 days. Urine chemical analysis was performed, supersaturations of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate and uric acid were calculated and urinary lithogenicity was measured. Urine volume and creatinine excretion were the same during the control and experimental periods. Grapefruit juice ingestion was associated with an increase in mean oxalate excretion plus or minus standard deviation of 41.1 +/- 9.2 to 51.9 +/- 12.0 mg. per 24 hours (p = 0.001) and in mean citrate excretion of 504.8 +/- 226.5 to 591.4 +/- 220.0 mg. per 24 hours (p = 0.01). There was no net change in the supersaturation or upper limit of metastability of calcium oxalate, calcium phosphate or uric acid. Crystal aggregation and growth inhibition by urinary macromolecules was not affected by grapefruit juice ingestion. Offsetting changes in urine chemistry caused by the ingestion of grapefruit juice led to no net change in calculated supersaturation. No changes in lithogenicity were demonstrated. The results do not demonstrate an effect of grapefruit juice for increasing lithogenicity. The basis of the observations of epidemiological studies remain unexplained.

  5. Enhanced motor learning with bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation: Impact of polarity or current flow direction?

    PubMed

    Naros, Georgios; Geyer, Marc; Koch, Susanne; Mayr, Lena; Ellinger, Tabea; Grimm, Florian; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-04-01

    Bilateral transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) is superior to unilateral TDCS when targeting motor learning. This effect could be related to either the current flow direction or additive polarity-specific effects on each hemisphere. This sham-controlled randomized study included fifty right-handed healthy subjects in a parallel-group design who performed an exoskeleton-based motor task of the proximal left arm on three consecutive days. Prior to training, we applied either sham, right anodal (a-TDCS), left cathodal (c-TDCS), concurrent a-TDCS and c-TDCS with two independent current sources and return electrodes (double source (ds)-TDCS) or classical bilateral stimulation (bi-TDCS). Motor performance improved over time for both unilateral (a-TDCS, c-TDCS) and bilateral (bi-TDCS, ds-TDCS) TDCS montages. However, only the two bilateral paradigms led to an improvement of the final motor performance at the end of the training period as compared to the sham condition. There was no difference between the two bilateral stimulation conditions (bi-TDCS, ds-TDCS). Bilateral TDCS is more effective than unilateral stimulation due to its polarity-specific effects on each hemisphere rather than due to its current flow direction. This study is the first systematic evaluation of stimulation polarity and current flow direction of bi-hemispheric motor cortex TDCS on motor learning of proximal upper limb muscles. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute Bilateral Renal and Splenic Infarctions Occurring during Chemotherapy for Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Noriko; Tomoda, Koichi; Matsuda, Masayuki; Fujita, Yukio; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Hontsu, Shigeto; Tasaki, Masato; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a rare case of acute bilateral renal and splenic infarctions occurring during chemotherapy for lung cancer. A 60-year-old man presented with acute and intensive upper abdominal and back pain during chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for lung cancer. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral renal and splenic infarctions. After the administration of unfractionated heparin his pain was relieved with a clearance of the infarctions in the CT findings and a recovery of renal dysfunction. Enhanced coagulation by lung cancer and arterial ischemia by chemotherapy may therefore contribute to the development of these infarctions. PMID:27980265

  7. Acute Bilateral Renal and Splenic Infarctions Occurring during Chemotherapy for Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Noriko; Tomoda, Koichi; Matsuda, Masayuki; Fujita, Yukio; Yamamoto, Yoshifumi; Hontsu, Shigeto; Tasaki, Masato; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Kimura, Hiroshi

    We herein report a rare case of acute bilateral renal and splenic infarctions occurring during chemotherapy for lung cancer. A 60-year-old man presented with acute and intensive upper abdominal and back pain during chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide for lung cancer. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral renal and splenic infarctions. After the administration of unfractionated heparin his pain was relieved with a clearance of the infarctions in the CT findings and a recovery of renal dysfunction. Enhanced coagulation by lung cancer and arterial ischemia by chemotherapy may therefore contribute to the development of these infarctions.

  8. Bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow in a pizza chef

    PubMed Central

    Vimercati, Luigi; Lorusso, Antonio; L’Abbate, Nicola; Assennato, Giorgio

    2009-01-01

    A case of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar neuropathy at the elbow in a 22-year-old pizza chef is described. An on-site analysis revealed that job tasks performed by the worker exposed him to a combination of biomechanical risk factors. Patient history and workplace observations suggest that occupational physical exposure may have caused the bilateral entrapment neuropathies. The present report underlines the advisability of a detailed occupational history in the case of entrapment neuropathies of the upper limbs commonly regarded as being related to biomechanical occupational exposure. PMID:21686375

  9. A Case of Congenital Bilateral Absence of Elbow Flexor Muscles: Review of Differential Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aliu, Oluseyi; Samra, Saleh; Lewis, Eric

    2007-01-01

    A 1-year-old boy presented to us with congenital inability to flex his elbow. He had bilaterally absent biceps brachii and brachialis muscles, a rare condition. We performed pedicle latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous flaps to the left and right volar upper arm at 21 and 24 months of age, respectively, to create elbow flexors. By 4 years of age, he had excellent elbow flexion bilaterally with strength grade in excess of 4.5. In addition to discussing our patient’s treatment options, we discuss other potential causes of weak elbow flexion when faced with this clinical dilemma. PMID:18780113

  10. Managing urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Sermin A; Mattoo, Tej K

    2011-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in childhood. Presence of pyuria and bacteriuria in an appropriately collected urine sample are diagnostic of UTI. The risk of UTI is increased with an underlying urological abnormality such as vesicoureteral reflux, constipation, and voiding dysfunction. Patients with acute pyelonephritis are at risk of renal scarring and subsequent complications such as hypertension, proteinuria with and without FSGS, pregnancy-related complications and even end-stage renal failure. The relevance and the sequence of the renal imaging following initial UTI, and the role of antimicrobial prophylaxis and surgical intervention are currently undergoing an intense debate. Prompt treatment of UTI and appropriate follow-up of those at increased risk of recurrence and/or renal scarring are important.

  11. A rare case of bilateral cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma recurring as bilateral cystic Wilms tumour.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Jujju Jacob; Ninan, Pradeep Joseph

    2015-04-15

    Childhood cystic partially differentiated nephroblastoma (CPDN) is an uncommon renal neoplasm. Bilateral CPDN or CPDN co-existing with a cystic nephroma/Wilms tumour is extremely rare. Treatment of CPDN is by complete surgical excision. Although local recurrences are uncommon, distant metastases have not been described. We present a case of bilateral CPDN that, after complete excision, recurred as bilateral cystic Wilms tumour. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the literature where a bilateral CPDN has recurred as bilateral Wilms tumour.

  12. The diagnosis and management of lower urinary tract symptoms in multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Sand, Peter K; Sand, Robert I

    2013-07-01

    Sixty-five percent of multiple sclerosis patients have moderate to severe urinary symptoms and up to 14% initially present with urinary symptomatology. Urinary retention, neurogenic detrusor overactivity, and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia, all increase the risk for urinary tract infections in patients with multiple sclerosis, and these infections may exacerbate their immune response, leading to symptom progression. Fewer than half of the patients with urinary symptoms have seen a specialist and only half have been treated for their neurogenic detrusor overactivity. Several treatments including pelvic floor muscle therapy, pelvic floor electrical stimulation, anticholinergics, desmopressin, sacral nerve neuromodulation, posterior tibial nerve stimulation, cannabinoids, and intravesical therapy with vanniloids, as well as botulinum toxin, have all been shown to be effective in treating urinary symptoms in those with multiple sclerosis. Clean intermittent catheterization is invaluable in patients with persistent urinary retention to avoid infection and upper tract dysfunction. Indwelling transurethral catheterization should be avoided because of the high risk of infection. Identification and successful treatment of these urinary conditions will improve the health and quality of life for these men and women.

  13. Renal autotransplantation in management of bilateral ureteral mortar shell injuries: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kastelan, Zeljko; Derezić, Daniel; Pasini, Josip; Sosić, Hrvoje

    2004-11-01

    We present a 36-year-old female patient who was injured in the pelvic region by a mortar shell fragment. The trauma comprised a complex lesion to both ureters, to the urinary bladder, and to the pelvic brim. The ruptured urinary bladder was sutured and a bilateral ureterocutaneostomy was performed in a hospital near the front line. Because of a large scar and the right ureter necrosis, a kidney autotransplant was performed 3 months later. A left ureterocystoneostomy was done. Five years later, because of urosepsis and hydronephrosis caused by a ureteral calculus, a nephrostomy was placed in the proximal right ureter, antibiotic treatment was prescribed, and the calculus was managed by crushing the stones using extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Ten years after the initial trauma, the patient is well, has normal micturition, and both of her kidneys are functioning normally.

  14. Simultaneous Bilateral Versus Staged Bilateral Carpal Tunnel Release: A Cost-effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Kevin W; Boyer, Martin I; Gelberman, Richard H; Calfee, Ryan P; Stepan, Jeffrey G; Osei, Daniel A

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if simultaneous bilateral carpal tunnel release (CTR) is a cost-effective strategy compared with bilateral staged CTR for the treatment of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. A decision analytic model was created to compare the cost effectiveness of three strategies (ie, bilateral simultaneous CTR, bilateral staged CTR, and no treatment). Direct medical costs were estimated from 2013 Medicare reimbursement rates and wholesale drug costs in US dollars. Indirect costs were derived from consecutive patients undergoing unilateral or simultaneous bilateral CTR at our institution and from national average wages for 2013. Health state utility values were derived from a general population of volunteers using the Short Form-6 dimensions (SF-6D) health questionnaire. Both surgical strategies were cost effective compared with the no-treatment strategy. Bilateral simultaneous CTR had lower total costs and higher total effectiveness than bilateral staged CTR, and had an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $921 per quality-adjusted life year compared with the no-treatment strategy. The conclusions of the analysis remained unchanged though all sensitivity analyses, displaying robustness against parameter uncertainty. Surgical management is cost effective for the treatment of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. Bilateral simultaneous CTR, however, has lower total costs and higher total effectiveness compared with bilateral staged CTR. Economic and Decision Analysis I.

  15. Congenital Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus Presented with Bilateral Hydronephrosis: Genetic Analysis of V2R Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Ryu, Dong-Ryeol; Song, Young Soo; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Hyung Jong; Kim, Joo Seong; Choi, Hoon Young

    2006-01-01

    Most cases of hydronephrosis are caused by urinary tract obstruction. However, excessive polyuric syndrome rarely gives rise to non-obstructive hydronephrosis, megaureter, and a distended bladder. The authors report here on two cases of congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) with severe bilateral hydronephrosis and megaureter. It is Interesting that the patients were symptomless except for their polyuria, and they both presented with bilateral hydronephrosis. Fluid deprivation testing revealed the presence of AVP resistant NDI. Gene analysis for these patients showed the AVP receptor 2 (V2R) missense mutations (Q225X and S126F), which have previously been reported on in other studies. We made the diagnosis of NDI by using a physiologic test, and we confirmed it by mutation analysis of the V2R gene. PMID:16502494

  16. Bilateral symmetry across Aphrodite Terra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crumpler, L. S.; Head, J. W.; Campbell, D. B.

    1987-01-01

    There are three main highland areas on Venus: Beta Regio, Ishtar Terra and Aphrodite Terra. The latter is least known and the least mapped, yet existing analyses of Aphrodite Terra based on available Pioneer-Venus orbiter data suggest that it may be the site of extensive rifting. Some of the highest resolution (30 km) PV data (SAR) included most of the western half of Aphrodite Terra. Recent analysis of the SAR data together with Arecibo range-doppler topographic profiling (10 X 100 km horizontal and 10 m vertical resolution) across parts of Aphrodite, further characterized the nature of possible tectonic processes in the equatorial highlands. The existence of distinct topographic and radar morphologic linear discontinuities across the nearly east-west strike of Aphrodite Terra is indicated. Another prominent set of linear features is distinctly parallel to and orthogonal to the ground tracks of the PV spacecraft and are not included because of the possibility that they are artifacts. Study of the northwest trending cross-strike discontinuities (CSD's) and the nature of topographic and morphologic features along their strike suggest the presence of bilateral topographic and morphologic symmetry about the long axis of Aphrodite Terra.

  17. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    PubMed Central

    Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  18. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    PubMed

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres.

  19. Restoring and maintaining urinary function.

    PubMed

    Lester, Joanne

    2012-08-01

    To describe surgical urinary diversion methods, nursing management, and survivorship issues in urologic cancer survivors. PubMed, Scopus, Cochran Reviews, Core 25 online texts. Options exist for patients that require urinary diversion, although long-term symptoms may persist. Nurses must be knowledgeable about obstructive uropathy and understand the surgical options for urinary diversion following a cystectomy; pre- and post-operative needs exist for the cancer patient, family, and caregiver. Following completion of active treatment, a survivorship care plan summarizes active treatment and complications, plans long-term health outcomes and surveillance, and communicates with the primary care provider. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bilateral renal abscess in a previously healthy 11-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Saduf; Bolt, Roel

    2010-11-01

    Renal abscesses are infrequently encountered in children. We describe a girl diagnosed with bilateral renal abscess. Although ultrasonography and computerised tomography are used to establish the diagnosis, in our case magnetic resonance imaging proved to be a useful additional diagnostic method. Using percutaneous aspiration, we were able to establish the correct diagnosis and identify the causative micro-organism. The patient was successfully treated with a combined intravenous and oral course of antibiotics. In conclusion, renal abscesses can occur in children without a history of reflux or urinary tract infection; this should be kept in mind when evaluating a child with fever. In addition, full recovery can be achieved solely with antibiotics.

  1. Monolateral purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a constellation of findings resulting in purple discoloration of the urine and/or urine drainage bag(s) occurring in patients with long-term urinary indwelling catheters. Other causative factors may include constipation, female gender, the presence of bacteria containing sulphatase and phosphatase enzymes, and alkaline urine. While the contributing factors for PUBS are linked with high morbidity, PUBS itself is a benign condition. A case study of monolateral PUBS in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes (NTs) is presented.

  2. The Pediatric Urinary Tract and Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Penny, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    The pediatric urinary tract often is assessed with medical imaging. Consequently, it is essential for medical imaging professionals to have a fundamental understanding of pediatric anatomy, physiology, and common pathology of the urinary tract to provide optimal patient care. This article provides an overview of fetal development, pediatric urinary anatomy and physiology, and common diseases and conditions of the pediatric urinary tract.

  3. Bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss: review.

    PubMed

    Sara, S A; Teh, B M; Friedland, P

    2014-01-01

    Unilateral and bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss represent different disease entities. The unilateral condition is more common and predominantly idiopathic, and up to 65 per cent of patients spontaneously recover hearing. Conversely, the bilateral condition is rare, mostly associated with serious systemic conditions, and has a higher prevalence of morbidity and mortality. A literature search using the PubMed database was conducted using the MeSH terms 'sudden', 'bilateral' and 'sensorineural hearing loss'. One hundred and three reported cases of bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss were identified. The condition is most often associated with toxic, autoimmune, neoplastic and vascular conditions. A younger age of onset, with a bimodal age distribution, was seen for bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss, compared with the unilateral condition. Patients with the bilateral condition had more profound hearing loss, with poorer recovery and a 35 per cent mortality rate. Vestibular symptoms were also less common than in the unilateral condition. The presentation of bilateral sudden onset sensorineural hearing loss is a medical emergency requiring thorough and urgent investigation to exclude life-threatening and reversible conditions.

  4. Heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after ovulation induction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bo; Xu, Gu-feng; Liu, Yi-feng; Qu, Fan; Yao, Wei-miao; Zhu, Yi-min; Gao, Hui-juan; Zhang, Dan

    2014-08-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is identified with the widely-applied assisted reproductive technology (ART). Bilateral ectopic pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy which is difficult to be diagnosed at the pre-operation stage. In this paper, we presented an unusual case of heterochronic bilateral ectopic pregnancy after stimulated intrauterine insemination (IUI), where there has been a delay of 22 d between the diagnoses of the two ectopic pregnancies. Literature was reviewed on the occurrence of bilateral ectopic pregnancy during the past four years in the MEDLINE database. We found 16 cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy reported since 2008, and analyzed the characteristics of those cases of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. We emphasize that ovulation induction and other ARTs may increase the risk of bilateral ectopic pregnancy. Because of the difficulty in identification of bilateral ectopic pregnancy by ultrasonography, the clinician should be aware that the treatment of one ectopic pregnancy does not preclude the occurrence of a second ectopic pregnancy in the same patient and should pay attention to the intra-operation inspection of both side fallopian tubes in any ectopic pregnancy case.

  5. Bilateral simultaneous sudden sensorineural hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Hung; Young, Yi-Ho

    2016-03-15

    This study adopted an inner ear test battery and MR imaging in patients with bilateral sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) to investigate their causes, disease extent, and evaluate hearing outcome. From 1995 to 2014, 16 patients with bilateral SSNHL received audiometry, caloric test and MR imaging. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) test was added to the test battery after 2000. Percentages of abnormal mean hearing level (MHL), cervical VEMP test, ocular VEMP test, and caloric test in patients with bilateral SSNHL were 100% (32/32), 100% (12/12), 100% (4/4), and 81% (26/32), respectively, implying that not only the cochlear part but also the vestibular part was severely affected in both ears. Causes of bilateral SSNHL were neoplasm in 5 patients, stroke in 5, meningitis in 1, and unknown in 5. Post-treatment MHL did not significantly differ from pre-treatment MHL indicating poor hearing outcome. Seven patients (44%) had passed away within 5years after onset, 2 patients were lost, and 7 patients survived. Via MR imaging, causes of bilateral SSNHL were identified for 69% of cases. Both cochlear and vestibular endorgans/afferents were identified to be severely affected bilaterally by the vestibular test battery and resulted in poor hearing outcome. A high mortality rate (44%) indicates that bilateral SSNHL is an ominous sign for a more sinister underlying disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Domino Flaps for Repairing of Secondary Bilateral Cleft Lip With Severe Columella Deformity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiao; Chiang, Cheng-An; Zhou, Da; Li, Qingfeng; Liu, Kai

    2017-01-01

    The patients with secondary bilateral cleft lip and nasal deformity always suffer from a serious part of the horizontal and vertical soft tissue deficiencies in the upper lip and nose, especially the columella. Normally, the Abbe flap is used to increase the soft tissue volume of upper lip. However, how to reconstruct the sever columella deficient, how to make full use of the Abbe flap and the remaining soft tissue of the upper lip, are always the problems that need to be solved by plastic surgeons. Twenty-nine patients with secondary bilateral cleft lip and severe columella deficiency were simultaneously reconstructed with several local flaps like dominos that was called "Domino sliding flaps." Six of the patients had their nasal tip and dorsum or collumella augmented and modified with autologous costal cartilage at the same time. The other 23 patients underwent the autologous auricular cartilage augmentation. The patients were followed from 15 months to 50 months. No secondary deformation occurred in any of the patients. 93.1% patients were satisfied with the aesthetics postoperatively, 89.7% patients were satisfied with the incision and donor site scar. Among them, 3 of the patients got hypertrophic scar on the upper lip and were modified 1 year after their first operations. The operational technique of the domino sliding flaps could better play the role of the Abbe flap. It also gave plastic surgeons an effective method to modify the severe deformities of bilateral cleft lip in 1 stage.

  7. Urinary Tract Infections (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... more serious infection that reaches the kidneys. continue Bacteria Are to Blame UTIs are usually caused by ... as soon as possible. previous continue Battling the Bacteria Only your health care provider can treat urinary ...

  8. [Ultrasound of the urinary system].

    PubMed

    Segura-Grau, A; Herzog, R; Díaz-Rodriguez, N; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound techniques are able to provide a fairly complete examination of the urinary system, achieving a high sensitivity in relevant-pathology detection, especially in the kidney, bladder and prostate. Early detection of pathologies such as tumors or urinary tract obstructions, sometimes even before their clinical manifestation, has improved their management and prognosis in many cases. This, added to its low cost and harmlessness, makes ultrasound ideal for early approaches and follow-up of a wide number of urinary system pathologies. In this article, the ultrasound characteristics of the main urinary system pathologies that can be diagnosed by this technique, are reviewed. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. [Bilateral persistent hyaloid artery. A case report].

    PubMed

    Borbolla-Pertierra, A M; Martínez-Hernández, C K; Juárez-Echenique, J C

    2014-06-01

    A 5-year-old male presented with bilateral poor vision, esotropia and a previous diagnosis of cataract since he was 1 year old. The physical examination revealed bilateral posterior paracentric capsule opacification, vitreous cavity with a permeable pulsatile blood filled hyaloid artery in both eyes. He was kept under observation. Persistent hyaloid artery is an uncommon faulty primary vitreous regression, often unilateral (although it may be bilateral) and sporadic, associated with microphthalmos. It may be complicated with glaucoma and phthisis bulbi. Vitrectomy plus lensectomy or simple observation are the accepted treatment options. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Bilateral four heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Yeon; Jang, Han-Bin; Kim, Jinu; Yoon, Sang Pil

    2015-09-01

    The sternocleidomastoid muscle shows a wide range of variations including supernumerary muscular heads. We found a rare variation in the sternocleidomastoid muscle with bilateral supernumerary heads in a 67-year-old Korean male cadaver. Bilateral four muscle bellies were recorded: two sternomastoids, one cleido-occipital and one cleido-mastoid occipital on the right side, and one sternomastoid, one cleido-occipital and two cleido-mastoids on the left side. The variation of bilateral four heads on sternocleidomastoid muscle is important to surgeons and anesthetists for clinical using.

  11. A rare case of bilateral tubal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Shetty, J P; Shetty, Bhaskar; Makkanavar, J H; Chandrika

    2011-07-01

    Diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy continues to be an important challenge. Here a case of incidental diagnosis of bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy is reported. There was a ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy on the left side and chronic ruptured tubal ectopic pregnancy on the right side. Leading cause of first trimester maternal deaths is due to complications of ectopic pregnancy. Here an unusual case of ectopic pregnancy is reported in which the patient had spontaneous bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancy which presented with left tubal rupture and subsequently emergency exploratory laparotomy revealed bilateral tubal mass, which on histopathological examination confirmed tubal pregnancy.

  12. Fibromuscular Dysplasia Presenting with Bilateral Renal Infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Doody, O.; Adam, W. R.; Foley, P. T.; Lyon, S. M.

    2009-03-15

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) describes a group of conditions which cause nonatheromatous arterial stenoses, most commonly of the renal and carotid arteries, typically in young women. We report a rare case of bilateral segmental renal infarction secondary to FMD in a young male patient. His initial presentation with loin pain and pyrexia resulted in a delay in the definitive diagnosis of FMD. He was successfully treated with bilateral balloon angioplasty. The delayed diagnosis in this patient until the condition had progressed to bilateral renal infarcts highlights the need for prompt investigation and diagnosis of suspected cases of FMD.

  13. Cutaneous tube ureterostomy: a fast and effective method of urinary diversion in emergency situations

    PubMed Central

    Abdin, Tamer; Zamir, Gideon; Pikarsky, Alon; Katz, Ran; Landau, Ezekiel H; Gofrit, Ofer N

    2015-01-01

    Aim To report on a simple and rapid method of urinary diversion. This method was applied successfully in different clinical scenarios when primary reconstruction of the ureters was not possible. Materials and methods The disconnected ureter is catheterized by a feeding tube. The tube is secured with sutures and brought out to the lateral abdominal wall as cutaneous tube ureterostomy (CTU). Results This method was applied in three different clinical scenarios: a 40-year-old man who sustained multiple high-velocity gunshots to the pelvis with combined rectal and bladder trigone injuries and massive bleeding from a comminuted pubic fracture. Damage control included colostomy and bilateral CTUs. A 26-year-old woman had transection of the right lower ureter during abdominal hysterectomy. Diagnosis was delayed for 3 weeks when the patient developed sepsis. The right kidney was diverted with a CTU. A 37-year-old male suffered from bladder perforation and hemorrhagic shock. Emergency cystectomy was done and urinary diversion was accomplished with bilateral CTUs. In all cases, effective drainage of the urinary system was achieved with normalization of kidney function. Conclusion When local or systemic conditions preclude definitive repair and damage control surgery is needed, CTU provides fast and effective urinary diversion. PMID:26090343

  14. [Lagophthalmos and ectropion of the upper eyelids in congenital ichthyosis].

    PubMed

    Handzel, D M; Zubcov-Iwantscheff, A A; Aral, H

    2013-10-01

    This report concerns the case of a 10-year-old female patient with congenital ichthyosis who developed bilateral ectropion of the upper eyelids resulting in massive ocular surface alterations due to lagophthalmos. A complex surgical approach with partial excision, tarsal strip refixation and a free skin graft led to normalization of the eyelid positioning and healing of the ocular surface.

  15. Urinary tract infections in children.

    PubMed

    Sedberry-Ross, Sherry; Pohl, Hans G

    2008-03-01

    Urinary tract infections can be a significant source of morbidity in the pediatric population. The mainstay of evaluating urinary tract infections in children has been physical examination, urinalysis and culture, and renal and bladder sonography and contrast cystography. However, novel clinical paradigms now consider the importance of various risk factors, such as bacterial virulence and antibiotic-resistance patterns, elimination disorders, and the role of innate immunity and inflammation in determining the likelihood of renal cortical scarring.

  16. Hyperammonemia in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kenzaka, Tsuneaki; Kato, Ken; Kitao, Akihito; Kosami, Koki; Minami, Kensuke; Yahata, Shinsuke; Fukui, Miho; Okayama, Masanobu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The present study investigated the incidence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections and explored the utility of urinary obstruction relief and antimicrobial administration to improve hyperammonemia. Methods This was an observational study. Subjects were patients who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized between June 2008 and June 2009. We measured plasma ammonia levels on admission in patients who were clinically diagnosed with urinary tract infection and hospitalized. We assessed each patient's level of consciousness on admission using the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) and performed urine and blood cultures. We also assessed hearing prior to hospitalization using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS). In cases with high ammonia levels on admission, plasma ammonia and GCS were measured 24 hours and 5–7 days later. Results Sixty-seven candidates were enrolled; of these, 60 cases (89.6%) with bacterial cell counts ≥104 CFU/mL were studied. Five cases (8.3%) presented with high plasma ammonia levels. Cases with hyperammonemia were significantly more likely to present with low GCS scores and urinary retention rate. All five cases received antimicrobial therapy with an indwelling bladder catheter to relieve urinary retention. The case 5 patient died shortly after admission due to complicated aspiration pneumonia; in the remaining cases, plasma ammonia levels were rapidly normalized and the level of consciousness improved. Conclusions The occurrence of hyperammonemia in urinary tract infections is not rare. The cause of hyperammonemia is urinary retention obstruction. Therefore, along with antimicrobial administration, relief of obstruction is important for the treatment of hyperammonemia caused by this mechanism. PMID:26292215

  17. Urinary tract infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Evan B; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2004-06-07

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an exceedingly common problem prompting seven million office visits and one million hospitalizations in the United States each year. Advances in the understanding of both host and bacterial factors involved in UTI have led to many improvements in therapy. While there have also been advances in the realm of antimicrobials, there have been numerous problems with multiple drug resistant organisms. Providing economical care while minimizing drug resistance requires appropriate diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  18. [Temocillin and urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Vallée, M; Bruyère, F; Roblot, F; Brureau, L

    2017-08-28

    Temocillin is an alternative to treat urinary tract infections with bacteria producing extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). The objective is to evaluate the use of temocillin in urinary tract infections. A systematic review of literature was carried out according to PRISMA criteria. All national and international recommendations have been reviewed regarding the indication of the use of temocillin in urology. Data collection on the use of temocillin in urinary tract infection has been performed from the Cochrane, LILACS and the Medline database. The following keywords were used: temocillin, extended spectrum beta-lactamase, urinary tract infections, urine, prostate, epididymis, testis, diffusion, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics. The selection was based on the methodology, language of publication (English/French), relevance to the topic and date of publication of the articles collected. The endpoint was to provide exhaustive scientific information allowing urologists to use this antibiotic in febrile urinary infections. Bacteria producing ESBL has a relatively high susceptible to temocillin, ranging from 61 % to 90 %. These rates would allow its use in probabilistic. The dosage recommended is currently, in the normo-renal patient, 4g per day by intermittent infusion or continuously after a loading dose of 2g. Some studies argue, particularly in case of difficult clinical situations or obese patients, for administration of high doses (6g/24h) rather continuous infusion. There is no evident relationship between high doses and side effects. With an excellent urinary and prostatic diffusion, temocilllin might be recommend for the treatment of ESBL prostatitis. Temocillin is known to have good urinary and prostatic diffusion. According to our results, this antibiotics is now a reliable alternative for the treatment of documented ESBL urinary tract infections. 4. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. [Urinary albumin fragmentation and immunoreactivity].

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yuriko; Nishimaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Toshie; Ida, Takashi; Shiba, Kiyoko

    2009-02-01

    Urinary albumin (ALB) has been measured as a marker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. In 2004, Comper et al. developed a gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the determination of urinary ALB. They demonstrated the presence in its albumin fraction of non immunoreactive ALB with the total molecular weight of a monomeric ALB that was non-reactive with the existing anti-ALB antibody, and reported that the level of urinary non-immunoreactive ALB was higher in diabetic patients than in normal subjects. In this study, we isolated urinary ALB from diabetic patients using an anti-ALB antibody-coupled affinity column to test its immunoreactivity. In some diabetic patients, the results of HPLC and turbidimetric immunoassay for urinary ALB were discrepant. Western blot analysis showed that ALB samples from such patients were contaminated with proteins other than ALB, and contained ALB, whose molecular weight became lower using a reductive procedure. In addition, the reactivity of ALB with anti-ALB antibody differed depending on whether it was in a reduced or non-reduced state. These results indicate that ALB in such patients is susceptible to structural changes due to disease-induced urinary factors and, thus, their urine contains ALB with an altered reactivity to antibody.

  20. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis with Bilateral Facial Palsy and Severe Mixed Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Szymańska, Anna; Jeleniewicz, Radosław

    2016-01-01

    Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is autoimmune and rare disease. It affects many organs, but the most often affected organs are the nose, lungs, and kidneys. It is part of vasculitis and causes an autoimmune attack by an abnormal type of circulating antibody termed ANCAs against small blood vessels. Disease concerns both men and women with a peak age of presentation in the sixth and seven decades. Typically upper and lower respiratory tract and kidneys are involved. Otitis externa, otitis media, or mastoiditis rarely occurs in granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Deafness is the most dangerous aural complication. Histological examination of biopsy is often not specific. A case of GPA with bilateral otitis media, bilateral deafness, and bilateral facial palsy with fatal course is presented. PMID:27493820

  1. The Youngest Patient with Bilateral Keratoconus Secondary to Chronic Persistent Eye Rubbing.

    PubMed

    Gunes, Alime; Tok, Levent; Tok, Özlem; Seyrek, Lütfi

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a four-year-old girl with bilateral keratoconus secondary to chronic persistent eye rubbing. She was referred to our clinic with intractable ocular itching and low vision. According to her family, she was generally rubbing her eyes. On slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination, bilateral papillary reactions were seen on the upper tarsal conjunctiva. Clinical examination and corneal topography were compatible with keratoconus. The patient's visual acuity was not evaluated because of cooperation difficulties. Systemic examination was normal. In fact, trauma may be the common underlying factor in eye rubbing and may cause development of keratoconus, even in the early years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest patient with bilateral keratoconus secondary to chronic persistent eye rubbing in the literature. Keratoconus should be kept in mind in patients with severe ocular itching, even in small children.

  2. [Urinary incontinence and obesity].

    PubMed

    Legendre, G; Fritel, X; Capmas, P; Pourcelot, A-G; Fernandez, H

    2012-06-01

    Obesity, defined as a body mass index (BMI) more than or equal to 30kg/m(2), promotes pelvic floor disorders such as urinary incontinence (UI) and genital prolapse. Datas from cohort studies found an association between high BMI and the onset of UI. This association seems to be predominant with for mixed UI and stress UI. For the urge UI and overactive bladder syndrome, the analysis of the literature found a weaker association. The weight is therefore the only modifiable risk factor. Thus, the weight loss by a hypocaloric diet associated with pelvic floor muscle training should be the front line treatment in the obese patient suffering from UI. Bariatric surgery can be discussed in the most obese patient, even if the risk/benefit balance should be weighed because of significant morbidity of this surgery. The results of sub urethral sling (by retropubic tension-free vaginal tape or transobturator sling) in obese patients appear to be equivalent to those obtained in patients of normal weight. Datas on per- and postoperative complications for suburethral slings are reassuring.

  3. The bilateral movement condition facilitates maximal but not submaximal paretic-limb grip force in people with post-stroke hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, Stacey L.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Although healthy individuals have less force production capacity during bilateral muscle contractions compared to unilateral efforts, emerging evidence suggests that certain aspects of paretic upper limb task performance after stroke may be enhanced by moving bilaterally instead of unilaterally. We investigated whether the bilateral movement condition affects grip force differently on the paretic side of people with post-stroke hemiparesis, compared to their non-paretic side and both sides of healthy young adults. Methods Within a single session, we compared: 1) maximal grip force during unilateral vs. bilateral contractions on each side, and 2) force contributed by each side during a 30% submaximal bilateral contraction. Results Healthy controls produced less grip force in the bilateral condition, regardless of side (- 2.4% difference), and similar findings were observed on the non-paretic side of people with hemiparesis (- 4.5% difference). On the paretic side, however, maximal grip force was increased by the bilateral condition in most participants (+11.3% difference, on average). During submaximal bilateral contractions in each group, the two sides each contributed the same percentage of unilateral maximal force. Conclusions The bilateral condition facilitates paretic limb grip force at maximal, but not submaximal levels. Significance In some people with post-stroke hemiparesis, the paretic limb may benefit from bilateral training with high force requirements. PMID:22248812

  4. Bilateral Coordination of Children who are Blind.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska, Izabela; Lieberman, Lauren J; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Molik, Bartosz; Kazimierska-Kowalewska, Kalina; Marszałek, Jolanta; Gómez-Ruano, Miguel-Ángel

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bilateral coordination in children and adolescents with visual impairments aged 7 to 18 years in comparison to their sighted peers. An additional objective was to identify the influence of sex and age on bilateral coordination. Seventy-five individuals with congenital severe visual impairment (40 girls and 35 boys) comprised the visually impaired group. The Sighted group comprised 139 youth without visual impairment. Subtest 4 of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was administered to test bilateral coordination. To analyze the effect of the independent variables in the results obtained in the Subtest 4, four linear regression models were applied according to group and sex. The results indicated that severe visual impairment and lack of visual sensation had a negative effect on the development of participants' bilateral coordination, which however did not depend on sex or age. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with bilateral nephrocutaneous fistulae.

    PubMed

    Biyani, C S; Torella, F; Cornford, P A; Brough, S J

    1997-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with bilateral nephrocutaneous fistulae and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Contralateral involvement of the psoas muscle is a rare occurrence and has not been previously documented.

  6. Bilateral persistent pupillary membranes associated with cataract

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Syed Shoeb; Binson, Caroline; Lung, Chong Ka; Ghani, Shuaibah Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Summary Exuberant persistent pupillary membranes (PPM) are rare in adult eyes. We report the case of a 53-year-old man diagnosed with bilateral, profuse, persistent pupillary membranes and unilateral cataract. PMID:23362401

  7. Violent injuries to the upper ureter.

    PubMed

    Evans, R A; Smith, M J

    1976-07-01

    Frequently traumatic injury to the renal pelvis or upper ureter is overshadowed by multiple associated injuries. The diagnosis may be particularly difficult, due to the lack of hematuria and absence of pathognomonic findings. All too frequently the delayed manifestations of urinary wound drainage, retroperitoneal mass, or urinary ascites and sepsis first draw attention to the ureteral injury. A review of the problem and our experience with 16 such injuries is presented. As with other infrequent injuries the single and most important diagnostic factor is the prepared mind of the examiner. We feel all patients who have penetrating abdominal trauma, have fractured lumbar processes, or are involved in accidents where deceleration or extension occur should have infusion pyelography even in the absence of hematuria.

  8. Exosomal Fetuin-A identified by proteomics: a novel urinary biomarker for detecting acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hua; Pisitkun, Trairak; Aponte, Angel; Yuen, Peter S.T.; Hoffert, Jason D.; Yasuda, Hideo; Hu, Xuzhen; Chawla, Lakhmir; Shen, Rong-Fong; Knepper, Mark A.; Star., Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Urinary exosomes containing apical membrane and intracellular fluid are normally secreted into the urine from all nephron segments, and may carry protein markers of renal dysfunction and structural injury. We aimed to discover biomarkers in urinary exosomes to detect acute kidney injury (AKI) which has a high mortality and morbidity. Animals were injected intravenously with cisplatin. Urinary exosomes were isolated by differential centrifugation. Protein changes were evaluated by two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis and changed proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF or LC-MS/MS. The identified candidate biomarkers were validated by western blotting in individual urine samples from rats subjected to cisplatin injection; bilateral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R); volume depletion (VD); and ICU patients with and without AKI. We identified 18 proteins that were increased and 9 proteins that were decreased 8 hr after cisplatin. Most of the candidates could not be validated by western blotting. However, exosomal Fetuin-A increased 52.5-fold at day 2 (1 day before serum creatinine increase and tubule damage) and remained elevated 51.5-fold at day 5 (peak renal injury) after cisplatin injection. By immuno-electron microscopy and elution studies, Fetuin-A was located inside urinary exosomes. Urinary Fetuin-A was increased 31.6-fold in the early phase (2~8hr) of ischemia/reperfusion, but not in prerenal azotemia. Urinary exosomal Fetuin-A also increased in three ICU patients with AKI compared to the patients without AKI. We conclude that 1) Proteomic analysis of urinary exosomes can provide biomarker candidates for the diagnosis of AKI; 2) Urinary Fetuin-A might be a predictive biomarker of structural renal injury. PMID:17021608

  9. Case of bilateral pneumolabyrinth presenting as sudden, bilateral deafness, without temporal bone fracture, after a fall.

    PubMed

    Lee, E J; Yang, Y S; Yoon, Y J

    2012-07-01

    We report a case of bilateral pneumolabyrinth presenting as sudden, bilateral deafness, without temporal bone fracture, after a fall. A 49-year-old man presented with sudden, bilateral deafness and whirling vertigo, without any other neurological manifestations. Temporal bone computed tomography clearly demonstrated the presence of air in the vestibule and cochlea on both sides. However, there was no definite fracture line, ossicular chain anomaly or soft tissue density in the temporal bone or middle-ear cavity. The patient was treated conservatively. Unfortunately, there was no improvement in his hearing. Pneumolabyrinth is an uncommon condition in which air is present in the vestibule or cochlea. It is rarely found, even with fractures violating the otic capsule or with transverse fractures of the temporal bone. In addition, its bilateral occurrence is extremely rare. In this article, we describe a case of bilateral pneumolabyrinth presenting as sudden, bilateral deafness, without temporal bone fracture, an occurrence which has not previously been reported.

  10. Bilateral cerebellopontine arachnoid cyst: A rare entity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anand; Sharma, Achal; Mittal, Radhey S; Gandhi, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Bilateral cerebellopontine angle (CPA) arachnoid cysts (ACs) are very rare: only one case is reported in literature. Pathogenesis of those cysts is unknown; they are thought to be congenital. The presenting symptoms of CPA AC are frequently nonspecific or otological. The management of ACs of the CPA is controversial. We are reporting two cases of bilateral CPA AC with their pathophysiology and review of literature.

  11. Bilateral Facial Paralysis: A 13-Year Experience.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Robert A; Jowett, Nathan; Banks, Caroline A; Knox, Christopher J; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2016-10-01

    Bilateral facial palsy is a rare clinical entity caused by myriad disparate conditions requiring different treatment paradigms. Lyme disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and leukemia are several examples. In this article, the authors describe the cause, the initial diagnostic approach, and the management of long-term sequelae of bilateral paralysis that has evolved in the authors' center over the past 13 years. A chart review was performed to identify all patients diagnosed with bilateral paralysis at the authors' center between January of 2002 and January of 2015. Demographics, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, initial medical treatment, interventions for facial reanimation, and outcomes were reviewed. Of the 2471 patients seen at the authors' center, 68 patients (3 percent) with bilateral facial paralysis were identified. Ten patients (15 percent) presented with bilateral facial paralysis caused by Lyme disease, nine (13 percent) with Möbius syndrome, nine (13 percent) with neurofibromatosis type 2, five (7 percent) with bilateral facial palsy caused by brain tumor, four (6 percent) with Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, three (4 percent) with bilateral temporal bone fractures, two (3 percent) with Guillain-Barré syndrome, one (2 percent) with central nervous system lymphoma, one (2 percent) with human immunodeficiency virus infection, and 24 (35 percent) with presumed Bell palsy. Treatment included pharmacologic therapy, physical therapy, chemodenervation, and surgical interventions. Bilateral facial palsy is a rare medical condition, and treatment often requires a multidisciplinary approach. The authors outline diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms of a tertiary care center to provide clinicians with a systematic approach to managing these complicated patients.

  12. Urinary cystatin C and tubular proteinuria predict progression of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Soo; Song, Sang Heon; Kim, In Joo; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Lee, Eun Kyung; Kim, Yong Ki

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of urinary cystatin C, a tubular damage marker, with the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy. RESERCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The baseline values of serum and urinary cystatin C were measured as primary parameters and those of urinary nonalbumin protein (NAP) were measured as secondary parameters. In this prospective observational study, a total of 237 type 2 diabetic patients were followed up for 29 months (13-44 months). Both the urinary cystatin C-to-creatinine ratio (CCR) and NAP-to-creatinine ratio (NAPCR) were significantly different according to the degree of albuminuria. Both markers had strongly positive correlations at baseline. After adjusting for several clinical factors, both urinary CCR and NAPCR had significant associations with the decline of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (r = 0.160, P = 0.021; r = 0.412, P < 0.001, respectively). Urinary CCR had positive correlations with the decline of eGFR in the subpopulation of patients with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). In patients with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and normoalbuminuria, only urinary NAPCR showed a significant association with the decline of eGFR; urinary CCR did not. In multivariate regression analysis, the number of patients who progressed to chronic kidney disease stage 3 or greater was higher in those in the upper tertiles of both the urinary levels of cystatin C and NAP than in those in the lower tertiles. The results of this study suggest that urinary cystatin C and NAP may be predictors of the progression of type 2 diabetic nephropathy.

  13. Urinary β-trace protein

    PubMed Central

    Donadio, Carlo; Bozzoli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The screening for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients needs the measurement of serum markers like creatinine. Our previous results indicated that urinary excretion of β-trace protein (BTP), a low-molecular-weight protein (23–29 kDa), is increased in CKD patients from stage 2. The aim of this study was to assess the major determinants of urinary excretion of BTP and to evaluate its feasibility as noninvasive marker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) impairment. We studied 355 CKD patients (198 males), aged 15 to 83 years, in stable clinical conditions, classified in the different stages of CKD on the basis of GFR (renal clearance of 99mTc-diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid). At the same time, we measured serum and urinary creatinine and BTP, and urinary albumin. Urinary excretion of BTP and albumin was expressed as mg/g urinary creatinine. Fractional clearance of BTP was calculated as the ratio of BTP clearance to creatinine clearance (%). Urinary excretion of BTP is mainly determined by its serum concentration and by the level of GFR, and to a lower extent by urinary albumin excretion. In fact, urinary BTP (U-BTP) and fractional clearance of BTP progressively and significantly increased along with the reduction of GFR and the concurrent rise in serum BTP (S-BTP). The relationship of U-BTP with GFR was very similar to that of S-BTP with GFR: U-BTP mirrors S-BTP. The accuracy of U-BTP to screen patients with GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was good (area under the curve 0.833), its sensitivity was 76.9%, specificity 80%, and positive predictive value 84.9%. Sensitivity of U-BTP was quite similar to that of S-BTP and serum creatinine. The major determinants of urinary excretion of BTP are S-BTP and GFR. U-BTP may be a suitable noninvasive marker to screen the general population for detection of GFR <90 mL/min/1.73 m2. PMID:27930558

  14. Bilateral deficits in fine motor control ability and manual dexterity in women with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pérez-de-Heredia-Torres, Marta; Martínez-Piédrola, Rosa M; Cigarán-Méndez, Margarita; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate fine motor control ability and manual dexterity women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) without symptoms in the upper extremity compared to healthy women. Subtests of the Purdue Pegboard Test (one-hand, bilateral and assembly) and of the Jebsen-Taylor hand-function test (writing, turning cards, picking up small, light and large heavy objects, simulated feeding and stacking checkers) were evaluated bilaterally in 20 women with FMS (aged 35-55 years) without symptoms in the upper limb and 20 age- and hand dominance-matched healthy women. Differences between sides and groups were analysed with several analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA revealed significant differences between groups (P < 0.001) and sides (P = 0.007) for one-hand pin placement subtest: women with FMS showed bilateral worse scores than controls. Patients also exhibited significantly lower scores in bilateral pin placement and assembly subtests when compared to healthy controls (P < 0.001). The ANOVA also revealed significant differences between groups for writing, turning over cards, picking up small objects, stacking checkers, picking up large light objects and picking up large heavy objects (all, P < 0.001): women with FMS needed more time for these subtests than healthy women with both hands. No difference for simulated feeding was found between groups. Our findings revealed bilateral deficits in fine motor control ability and manual dexterity in patients with FMS without symptoms in the upper extremity. These deficits are not related to the clinical features of the symptoms supporting an underlying central mechanism of altered motor control.

  15. Blockage of upper airway

    MedlinePlus

    ... Airway obstruction - acute upper Images Throat anatomy Choking Respiratory system References Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies: upper airway obstruction and infections. In: Marx ...

  16. Bilateral Keratectasia 34 Years after Corneal Transplant

    PubMed Central

    Valldeperas, Xavier; Angi, Martina; Romano, Vito; Romano, Mario R.

    2010-01-01

    We report the clinical findings of a patient with severe bilateral keratectasia 34 years after a penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in both eyes. An otherwise healthy 67-year-old man complained of deterioration of the eyesight in both eyes over the last 6 months. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus at the age of 32 years, and he underwent a bilateral PK. At presentation, visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and light perception in the left eye. A Pentacam pachymetric map revealed a central pachymetry of 720 μm in the right eye and of 710 μm in the left eye, as well as an average paracentral pachymetry of 436 and 270 μm in the 9-mm zone in the right and the left eye, respectively. Corneal topography revealed bilateral irregular and asymmetric bowing with generalized steepening and high corneal power. We describe a case of bilateral keratectasia 34 years after PK in a patient who was originally diagnosed with bilateral keratoconus. PMID:20737056

  17. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of the breasts—a rare indication for bilateral skin reducing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Francisco Laitano; Zerwes, Felipe Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the breast but giant juvenile fibroadenoma represent only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas and when bilateral are much more rare. We describe the case of a 25 years old girl that presented with bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas and was treated by bilateral skin reducing mastectomy using the inferior dermal flap, implant, and free nipple graft. PMID:27563567

  18. Urinary proteins in children with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Lena; Preda, Iulian; Hahn-Zoric, Mirjana; Hanson, Lars A; Jodal, Ulf; Sixt, Rune; Barregard, Lars; Hansson, Sverker

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that the urinary excretion of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-microglobulin (A1M), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and Clara cell protein (CC16) is increased in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) and relates to renal damage as measured by acute dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy. Fifty-two children <2 years of age with UTI were enrolled in the study, 44 of whom were febrile. The control group consisted of 23 patients with non-UTI infection and elevated serum CRP (s-CRP) levels. Thirty-six patients had abnormal DMSA uptake, classified as mild, moderate or severe damage (DMSA class 1, 2, 3, respectively). There was a significant association between DMSA class and the excretion of urinary RBP (u-RBP) and u-CC16. There was also a significant difference in u-CRP levels between children with UTI and control children with non-UTI infections, although u-CRP excretion was not significantly correlated to DMSA class. In conclusion, the urinary excretion of the low-molecular-weight proteins RBP and CC16 showed a strong association with uptake defects on renal DMSA scans. The urinary level of CRP seems to distinguish between children with UTI and other febrile conditions. A combination of these biomarkers may be useful in the clinical assessment of children with UTI.

  19. Bilateral brachial plexopathy complicating Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Cahide; Caksen, Hüseyin; Arslan, Sükrü; Anlar, Omer; Ataş, Bülent; Güven, Ahmet Sami; Odabaş, Dursun

    2006-06-01

    An 11-year-old boy presented with convulsion, fever, rash, abdominal pain, swelling on the eyelids, elbow and wrists, oliguria and hematuria. Based on the abnormal findings the patient was diagnosed with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. On the 3rd day of admission, neurological examination showed ataxic gait, loss of deep tendon reflexes, and decreased (4/5) of muscle strength on all extremities. Additionally, bilateral loss of touch, pain and temperature sensation in a glove, from the elbows to distal region (on C5-T1 level) was diagnosed. Cerebrospinal fluid examination and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were normal. The patient was discharged with oral prednisolone on the 7th day of admission. One week after discharging from the hospital, he was re-admitted with vertigo and seizures. He was in coma. MRI of cranial, cervical and cervical plexus were normal. Electromyography showed severe bilateral brachial plexopathy. Prednisolone and intravenous immunglobulin (IVIG) therapy were given without significant improvement. He was discharged from the hospital on the 17th day of admission. On the second month of follow-up, a second cure of IVIG was given because of no clinical improvement. Now, he is on the 4th month of follow-up, unfortunately, no improvement was noted on his muscle strength and sensorial abnormalities on the upper extremities.

  20. Bilateral lung metastasectomy in carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater

    PubMed Central

    Pih, Gyu Young; Kim, Dong Kwan; Park, Kwang‐Min

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The efficacy of lung metastasectomy is well established in several cancers, including colorectal cancer. However, little is known about the result of lung metastasectomy in carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Only two case reports have reported the efficacy of metastasectomy in ampullary cancer patients with pulmonary metastasis. We report the result of bilateral lung metastasectomy in a patient with ampullary cancer. A 63‐year‐old woman underwent pylorus‐preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy for carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. About three years after the surgery, two non‐calcified lung nodules in the right lower and left upper lobes had developed. Wedge resections of both lung nodules were performed and the pathological examination showed that the lung nodules were pulmonary metastases from the ampullary cancer. Ten years after the lung surgery, the patient is well and there is no evidence of recurrence. Surgical resection could be considered in patients with pulmonary metastasis from ampulla of Vater cancer, even when the metastases are bilateral. PMID:28168842