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Sample records for bildbauten pildimajade sees

  1. Seeing Double

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesic, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The separateness and connection of individuals is perhaps the central question of human life: What, exactly, is my individuality? To what degree is it unique? To what degree can it be shared, and how? To the many philosophical and literary speculations about these topics over time, modern science has added the curious twist of quantum theory, which requires that the elementary particles of which everything consists have no individuality at all. All aspects of chemistry depend on this lack of individuality, as do many branches of physics. From where, then, does our individuality come? In Seeing Double, Peter Pesic invites readers to explore this intriguing set of questions. He draws on literary and historical examples that open the mind (from Homer to Martin Guerre to Kafka), philosophical analyses that have helped to make our thinking and speech more precise, and scientific work that has enabled us to characterize the phenomena of nature. Though he does not try to be all-inclusive, Pesic presents a broad range of ideas, building toward a specific point of view: that the crux of modern quantum theory is its clash with our ordinary concept of individuality. This represents a departure from the usual understanding of quantum theory. Pesic argues that what is bizarre about quantum theory becomes more intelligible as we reconsider what we mean by individuality and identity in ordinary experience. In turn, quantum identity opens a new perspective on us. Peter Pesic is a Tutor and Musician-in-Residence at St. John's College, Santa Fe, New Mexico. He has a Ph.D. in physics from Stanford University.

  2. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  3. Evidence: To see or not to see.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Katie

    2010-10-01

    "To see or not to see" is an allusion to the classical Shakespearean quotation "to be or not to be, that is the question." Evidence as a concept pertains to truth, reality, and being in the world; it involves seeing, realizing, making visible, and clothing thoughts into words. A new interpretation of the concept of evidence in caring science is presented in this column, based on the etymology of the concept and Gadamer's hermeneutical philosophy. Ontological or absolute evidence is based on being and the true reality that extends beyond the immediate reality. The truth, or the substance, lies concealed within the true reality. Evidence includes envisioning, seeing, knowing, attesting, and revising.

  4. See-Saw Jeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Charlotte D.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the following case: Pete Wilmington, Vice President of Sales for See-Saw Jeans for Kids, has wrapped up a deal with Wal-Mart to carry See-Saw Jeans for Kids in all Wal-Mart stores on a trial basis for the next year. See-Saw Jeans for Kids is a clothing manufacturer with sales of $41 million, but the Wal-Mart account has the…

  5. SEEING IS BELIEVING, AND BELIEVING IS SEEING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutrow, B. L.

    2009-12-01

    Geoscience disciplines are filled with visual displays of data. From the first cave drawings to remote imaging of our Planet, visual displays of information have been used to understand and interpret our discipline. As practitioners of the art, visuals comprise the core around which we write scholarly articles, teach our students and make every day decisions. The effectiveness of visual communication, however, varies greatly. For many visual displays, a significant amount of prior knowledge is needed to understand and interpret various representations. If this is missing, key components of communication fail. One common example is the use of animations to explain high density and typically complex data. Do animations effectively convey information, simply "wow an audience" or do they confuse the subject by using unfamiliar forms and representations? Prior knowledge impacts the information derived from visuals and when communicating with non-experts this factor is exacerbated. For example, in an advanced geology course fractures in a rock are viewed by petroleum engineers as conduits for fluid migration while geoscience students 'see' the minerals lining the fracture. In contrast, a lay audience might view these images as abstract art. Without specific and direct accompanying verbal or written communication such an image is viewed radically differently by disparate audiences. Experts and non-experts do not 'see' equivalent images. Each visual must be carefully constructed with it's communication task in mind. To enhance learning and communication at all levels by visual displays of data requires that we teach visual literacy as a portion of our curricula. As we move from one form of visual representation to another, our mental images are expanded as is our ability to see and interpret new visual forms thus promoting life-long learning. Visual literacy is key to communication in our visually rich discipline. What do you see?

  6. Seeing science in color.

    PubMed

    2007-03-01

    Around 7%-10% of men have some form of what is commonly called red-green color blindness. New style specifications at Nature Structural & Molecular Biology aim to enable all readers to see the full spectrum of data in images. PMID:17334402

  7. Monkey See, Monkey Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Stolk, Mary

    The author cites empirical evidence and studies to support the thesis that television violence is not valuable as a sublimation for violence. Maintaining that television propaganda consists primarily of violence and mis-information about human behavior, and that children copy what they see, she concludes that television has taught people how to be…

  8. Seeing Both Sides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Toni

    2012-01-01

    For many development officers, giving to their alma maters, employers, or local nonprofit agencies makes them better at their jobs by deepening their understanding of donor motivations and reinforcing what to do--and what not to do. Some can testify to the importance of stewardship because they weren't treated well. Others find that seeing their…

  9. A History of Seeing Essential English (SEE I).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara; Milburn, Wanda O.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes Seeing Essential English (SEE), which is a manual code of English designed to specifically reflect English, and signed in English word order. The paper attempts to clear up misconceptions concerning SEE and confusion between SEE and Signing Exact English, provide some historical background about its development, and review…

  10. Seeing in the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Pin; Traub, W. A.; Kern, B. D.; Matsuo, T.

    2009-01-01

    Anticipating NASA's reinvigoration of suborbital programs, we present a quantitative analysis of seeing in the stratosphere and its implications for direct detection of mature exoplanets using a visible-wavelength, coronagraphic telescope onboard a balloon platform. We analyze two sources of dynamic wavefront perturbations: turbulence in the free atmosphere and locally generated turbulence. This paper concentrates on the former, as the local-seeing measurement and analysis results are detailed in a previous paper1. Using published, space-borne observations of optical inhomogeneities in the stratosphere, we calculate speckle intensities arising from aberrations of stellar wavefronts propagating through the atmosphere above a balloon-borne observatory. Specifically, we demonstrate that the inner scale of turbulence is critically important in determining speckle intensities for planet-star separations greater than 0.1 arcsecond. Therefore, a turbulence model such as the Hill-Andrews spectrum is required to account for the effects of the inner scale. Results derived from the (conventional) Komolgorov, von Karman, and Hill-Andrews spectra are presented vis-á-vis requirements of Planetscope, a balloon-borne coronagraph concept that would directly characterize known extrasolar planets and debris disks around nearby stars. Footnotes 1 Traub, WA; Chen, P; Kern B. "Planetscope: An Exoplanet Coronagraph on a Balloon Platform.” Proceedings of the SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 7010(70103S), DOI:10.1117/12.788087

  11. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version

    The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way.

    The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light.

    The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light.

    Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve.

    The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The

  12. A Burst to See

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    , able to record the event with unprecedented temporal resolution.. "These very early detections (just seconds after the beginning of the burst) showed the object to be so bright that it would have been visible just with the unaided eye," says Stefano Covino, from the REM team. "It was astonishing to see how rapidly the source varied during the observations," adds Sergey Karpov, of the TORTORA team. Astronomers use the so-called magnitude scale, an inverse scale where fainter objects have larger magnitudes. In dark sites, the most acute of human eyes can distinguish sources as faint as magnitude 6. GRB 080319B was slightly brighter than this limit, although for just less than a minute. The 8.2-metre ESO Very Large Telescope also reacted to the gamma-ray burst, thanks to a special procedure known as the rapid-response mode (see ESO 17/07), which allows automatic observations with no human intervention. The high-resolution spectrograph UVES could collect exquisite data starting only 10 minutes after the burst, following requests by Fabrizio Fiore and his team. Another team then used also UVES to determine the distance of the burst. "Despite its stunning brightness, the burst exploded in a galaxy 7.5 billion light years away," says Paul Vreeswijk, who led the second team. "It was therefore not only apparently bright, but also intrinsically very luminous. Indeed, it reached the brightest optical luminosity ever recorded for any astronomical object. For comparison, should the burst have exploded in our Galaxy, it would have lit up the night sky for several minutes as if it were daytime."

  13. Seeing effects on occultation curves.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, A. T.

    1971-01-01

    Evaluation of seeing effects on the light curve of a stellar occultation by the moon. Some theoretical studies of Fried (1966) and Hulett (1967) on the linear size of the downward-looking seeing disk are cited, showing that the seeing blur amounts to a few centimeters for a star in the zenith and that the linear blur must grow approximately as (sec z) to the 3/2 power. For most observations the seeing blur will not exceed 8 to 10 cm. The limitation on angular resolution imposed by this seeing effect is calculated.

  14. Advanced Multiple Aperture Seeing Profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhao, Gang

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of the seeing profile of the atmospheric turbulence as a function of altitude are crucial for solar astronomical site characterization, as well as the optimized design and performance estimation of solar Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO). Knowledge of the seeing distribution, up to 30 km, with a potential new solar observation site, is required for future solar MCAO developments. Current optical seeing profile measurement techniques are limited by the need to use a large facility solar telescope for such seeing profile measurements, which is a serious limitation on characterizing a site's seeing conditions in terms of the seeing profile. Based on our previous work, we propose a compact solar seeing profiler called the Advanced Multiple Aperture Seeing Profile (A-MASP). A-MASP consists of two small telescopes, each with a 100 mm aperture. The two small telescopes can be installed on a commercial computerized tripod to track solar granule structures for seeing profile measurement. A-MASP is extreme simple and portable, which makes it an ideal system to bring to a potential new site for seeing profile measurements.

  15. Ground Layer Laser Seeing Meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavazzani, S.; Rodeghiero, G.; Capraro, I.; Ortolani, S.; Barbieri, C.; Zitelli, V.

    2014-03-01

    The seeing calculation and its evolution during the night is a key point for the operation of telescopes and adaptive optics systems. Currently, there are various instruments able to measure the seeing, for example, the DIMM (differential image motion monitor) and the MASS (multi aperture scintillation sensor). This paper describes a new tool for the local ground layer seeing measurement. In particular, we want to derive the Fried parameter r0 through a laser beam horizontal propagation. This is a new method for the experimental study of low-altitude atmospheric turbulence. Finally, we sketch an experimental setup for the Asiago Ekar Observatory and its possible applications.

  16. Seeing

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... lens. The light is then refracted a second time while passing through the lens, finally focusing on the retina. The retina is the light sensitive part of the eye. Impulses travel down the optic nerve to the occipital lobe ...

  17. Seeing Isn't Believing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Alan

    1975-01-01

    Describes a series of optical illustions designed to explore the nature and behavior of light, the mechanics and optical principles of eyes, and the brain's learned ability to interpret what we see. (BR)

  18. Seeing and seeing: visual perception in art and science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Peter

    2004-11-01

    This article takes a brief walk through two complex cultures, looking at similarities and differences between them. Visual perception is vital to both art and science, for to see is to understand. The article compares how education in each subject fosters visualization and creative thinking.

  19. Scientific Visualization, Seeing the Unseeable

    SciTech Connect

    LBNL

    2008-07-08

    June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in bo... June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in both experimental and computational sciences. Wes Bethel, who heads the Scientific Visualization Group in the Computational Research Division, presents an overview of visualization and computer graphics, current research challenges, and future directions for the field.

  20. Scientific Visualization, Seeing the Unseeable

    ScienceCinema

    LBNL

    2016-07-12

    June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in bo... June 24, 2008 Berkeley Lab lecture: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in both experimental and computational sciences. Wes Bethel, who heads the Scientific Visualization Group in the Computational Research Division, presents an overview of visualization and computer graphics, current research challenges, and future directions for the field.

  1. Seeing the Benefits of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinstein, Leon; Budge, David

    2007-01-01

    Although some general practitioners now "prescribe" education to patients it would be wrong to see it as a panacea. Those who claim it can cure everything from memory loss to incontinence are being unduly optimistic. Education is an important mechanism for enhancing the health and well-being of individuals and reducing the health care and…

  2. Seeing Children's Eagerness for Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb

    2009-01-01

    The photo "Rescuing Hug" (www.52best.com/hug.asp) made famous on the Internet a few years ago had a huge impact on the way the author sees children's relationships with each other. With this inspiring story, the author has come to the powerful realization that if she believes children have the capacity and desire for deep connections then she…

  3. How Do Children See Animals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    In order to name an animal they see, children must use their existing mental models to provide the animal with a name. In this study, pupils between the ages of 4 and 14 are presented with preserved specimens of 6 different animals and asked a series of questions about them. The results indicate that pupils of all ages mainly recognize and use…

  4. Initial SEE Testing of Maestro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guertin, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    We have reported on initial SEE sensitivity of the full 49-core Maestro device. Supporting the low-level structures and qualitative system observation goals of phase 1 of testing. Observed sensitivities found to be consistent with Boeing predictions. Highlighted by the L1 data cache sensitivity which drives the rates on the current Maestro device. Presented details to the hardware and software setups that show where the limitations - highlighting future work. Key future work includes testing with memory and IO ports.

  5. Pharmacists see patients through discharge.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    At The Nebraska Medical Center in Omaha, pharmacists are part of a multidisciplinary team and see many patients in person starting on Day 1. Every patient history is either taken by a pharmacist or reviewed and approved by the pharmacists. They review the discharge prescriptions, conduct medication reconciliation, and educate the patients on their medications and the importance of taking them as directed. Case managers work with pharmacists to identify patients who are at high risk for readmissions and need follow-up calls and collaborated to develop a medication instruction sheet.

  6. Learning to see, seeing to learn: visual aspects of sensemaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, Daniel M.

    2003-06-01

    When one says "I see," what is usually meant is "I understand." But what does it mean to create a sense of understanding a large, complex, problem, one with many interlocking pieces, sometimes ill-fitting data and the occasional bit of contradictory information? The traditional computer science perspective on helping people towards understanding is to provide an armamentarium of tools and techniques - databases, query tools and a variety of graphing methods. As a field, we have an overly simple perspective on what it means to grapple with real information. In practice, people who try to make sense of some thing (say, the life sciences, the Middle East, the large scale structure of the universe, their taxes) are faced with a complex collection of information, some in easy-to-digest structured forms, but with many relevant parts scattered hither and yon, in forms and shapes too difficult to manage. To create an understanding, we find that people create representations of complex information. Yet using representations relies on fairly sophisticated perceptual practices. These practices are in no way preordained, but subject to the kinds of perceptual and cognitive phenomena we see in every day life. In order to understand our information environments, we need to learn to perceive these perceptual elements, and understand when they do, and do not, work to our advantage. A more powerful approach to the problem of supporting realistic sensemaking practice is to design information environments that accommodate both the world"s information realities and people"s cognitive characteristics. This paper argues that visual aspects of representation use often dominate sensemaking behavior, and illustrates this by showing three sensemaking tools we have built that take advantage of this property.

  7. Seeing measurements on Mount Graham

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulich, B. L.; Davison, W. B.

    1985-07-01

    A transportable 30-cm aperture telescope was constructed and used with a CCD camera to measure stellar image motion as seen from the summit of Mount Graham in southeastern Arizona. Based on observations during eight nights in October and November 1984, the average value of Fried's length r0 (Fried, 1967) at 0.5 micron wavelength is 13 cm at the zenith, implying a long-exposure visual image full width at half maximum of 0.8 arc second. Since only a small number of nights have been tested, the statistical uncertainty in the average seeing conditions is large and these results should be regarded as preliminary. No large differences were found among three different sites or between different heights of the telescope above the ground. Direct measurements of thermal turbulence in the first few tens of meters above ground indicate that telescopes may be located within a few meters of the ground and well below treetop height without significant seeing degradation.

  8. Seeing you seeing me: Stereotypes and the stigma magnification effect.

    PubMed

    Mikolon, Sven; Kreiner, Glen E; Wieseke, Jan

    2016-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 101(5) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2016-21000-001). In the article, Table 2 contained a production-related formatting error. Values from column 11 onward were shifted upwards in the table. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Despite an increased interest in the phenomenon of stigma in organizations, we know very little about the interactions between those who are stigmatized and those who stigmatize them. Integrating both the perceptions of the stigmatized worker and the stigmatizing customer into one model, the present study addresses this gap. It examines the role of stereotypes held by customers of stigmatized organizations and metastereotypes held by the stigmatized workers themselves (i.e., their shared beliefs of the stereotypes customers associate with them) in frontline exchanges. To do so, data regarding frontline workers (vendors) of homeless-advocate newspapers from 3 different sources (vendors, customers, trained observers) were gathered. Multilevel path-analytic hypotheses tests reveal (a) how frontline workers' prototypicality for a stigmatized organization renders salient a stigma within frontline interactions and (b) how stereotypes by customers and metastereotypes by frontline workers interact with each other in such contacts. The results support a hypothesized interaction between frontline workers' metastereotypes and customers' stereotypes-what we call the "stigma magnification effect". The study also derives important practical implications by linking stigma to frontline workers' discretionary financial gains. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Single Event Effect (SEE) Test Planning 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan; Berg, Melanie D.

    2011-01-01

    This is a course on SEE Test Plan development. It is an introductory discussion of the items that go into planning an SEE test that should complement the SEE test methodology used. Material will only cover heavy ion SEE testing and not proton, LASER, or other though many of the discussed items may be applicable. While standards and guidelines for how-to perform single event effects (SEE) testing have existed almost since the first cyclotron testing, guidance on the development of SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this section of the short course, we attempt to rectify this lack. We consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account. We note that we will use the term "test planning" in the context of those items being included in a test plan.

  10. Seeing the Implications of Zero Again

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponce, Gregorio A.

    2015-01-01

    Composing and decomposing numbers with base-ten blocks depends on children being able to see ten both as ten units and as one group of ten units (a long), cognizant that its value is the same in either case. Being able to see, or deciding when to see, an object or collection of objects as a unit is a key skill that children must develop to solve…

  11. The Efficacy of SEE: An Annotated Bibliography of SEE II and Related Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, B.

    This annotated bibliography contains a list of resources addressing the efficacy of Signing Exact English (SEE II). Forty-three entries summarize results of research that overall indicate the success of students with hearing impairments who learn SEE II. (CR)

  12. NASA Sees Holiday Lights from Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    It’s official — our holiday lights are so bright we can see them from space. Thanks to the VIIRS instrument on the Suomi NPP satellite, a joint mission between NASA and NOAA, scientists are present...

  13. Artificial intelligence: Learning to see and act

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schölkopf, Bernhard

    2015-02-01

    An artificial-intelligence system uses machine learning from massive training sets to teach itself to play 49 classic computer games, demonstrating that it can adapt to a variety of tasks. See Letter p.529

  14. [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] Spoken Word Processing: Evidence from Divided Attention Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour

    2016-10-01

    The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language ([Formula: see text] and second language ([Formula: see text] spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of these bilinguals. The other goal is to explore the effects of attention manipulation on implicit retrieval of perceptual and conceptual properties of spoken [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words. In so doing, the participants performed auditory word priming and semantic priming as memory tests in their [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. In a half of the trials of each experiment, they carried out the memory test while simultaneously performing a secondary task in visual modality. The results revealed that effects of auditory word priming and semantic priming were present when participants processed [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words in full attention condition. Attention manipulation could reduce priming magnitude in both experiments in [Formula: see text]. Moreover, [Formula: see text] word retrieval increases the reaction times and reduces accuracy on the simultaneous secondary task to protect its own accuracy and speed.

  15. Scaling and Single Event Effects (SEE) Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldham, Timothy R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper begins by discussing the potential for scaling down transistors and other components to fit more of them on chips in order to increasing computer processing speed. It also addresses technical challenges to further scaling. Components have been scaled down enough to allow single particles to have an effect, known as a Single Event Effect (SEE). This paper explores the relationship between scaling and the following SEEs: Single Event Upsets (SEU) on DRAMs and SRAMs, Latch-up, Snap-back, Single Event Burnout (SEB), Single Event Gate Rupture (SEGR), and Ion-induced soft breakdown (SBD).

  16. As Far as Opportunity's Eye Can See

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for As Far as Opportunity's Eye Can See (QTVR)

    This expansive view of the martian real estate surrounding the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is the first 360 degree, high-resolution color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera. The airbag marks, or footprints, seen in the soil trace the route by which Opportunity rolled to its final resting spot inside a small crater at Meridiani Planum, Mars. The exposed rock outcropping is a future target for further examination. This image mosaic consists of 225 individual frames.

  17. Seeing the Body Distorts Tactile Size Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, Matthew R.; Sadibolova, Renata

    2013-01-01

    Vision of the body modulates somatosensation, even when entirely non-informative about stimulation. For example, seeing the body increases tactile spatial acuity, but reduces acute pain. While previous results demonstrate that vision of the body modulates somatosensory sensitivity, it is unknown whether vision also affects metric properties of…

  18. Seeing the Unseen: Molecular Visualization in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finnan, Jeff; Taylor-Papp, Kim; Duran, Mesut

    2005-01-01

    In high school biology, students are challenged by many molecular concepts and structures. They meander through a number of molecular structures, some in macromolecular form: carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, nucleotides. Student difficulties arise in part from inability to visualize what they can't easily see. Students struggle moving from…

  19. Seeing for People Who Are Blind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldring, Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope (SLO) and how it can help people who are visually challenged use their sense of sight. Suggests uses in higher education where it can be modified to individual needs; explains the language of seeing; discusses the use of virtual reality to create spatial animation; and outlines future developments. (LRW)

  20. PARTIALLY SEEING PROGRAM, 1966-1967.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake County Special Education District, Gurnee, IL.

    THIS ADMINISTRATIVE OUTLINE OF THE PARTIALLY SEEING PROGRAM IN LAKE COUNTY, ILLINOIS, PRESENTS THE DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE TWO ITINERANT TEACHERS AND THEIR IMMEDIATE SUPERVISORS. THE PROGRAM'S PHILOSOPHY, GOALS, HISTORY AND PLACEMENT IN THE COUNTY'S ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE IS PRESENTED. THE ITINERANT TEACHER'S ADMINISTRATIVE…

  1. Space Environments and Effects Program (SEE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yhisreal-Rivas, David M.

    2013-01-01

    The need to preserve works and NASA documented articles is done via the collection of various Space Environments and Effects (SEE) related articles. (SEE) contains and lists the various projects that are ongoing, or have been conducted with the help of NASA. The goal of the (SEE) program is to make publicly available the environment technologies that are required to design, manufacture and operate reliable, cost-effective spacecraft for the government and commercial sectors. Of the many projects contained within the (SEE) program the Lunar-E Library and Spacecraft Materials Selector (SMS) have been selected for a more user friendly means to make the tools easily available to the public. This information which is still available required a person or entity to request access from a point of contact at NASA and wait for the requested bundled software DVD via postal service. Redesigning the material presentation and availability has been mapped to a single step process with faster turnaround time via Materials and Processes Technical Information System (MAPTIS) database. This process requires users to register and be verified in order to gain access to the information contained within. Aiding in the progression of making the software tools/documents available required a combination of specialized in-house data gathering software tools and software archeology.

  2. Scholars See Comics as No Laughing Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra

    2009-01-01

    Once fuel for mass book burnings, comic books are gaining a foothold in the nation's schools, with teachers seeing them as a learning tool and scholars viewing them as a promising subject for educational research. Evidence of the rising credibility of Spiderman, Batman, and Archie came last month when Fordham University's graduate school of…

  3. Who Gets to See Published Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The battle over public access to federally financed research is heating up again. The basic question is this: When taxpayers help pay for scholarly research, should those taxpayers get to see the results in the form of free access to the resulting journal articles? Actions in Washington this month highlight how far from settled the question is,…

  4. Do You See What I See? Infants' Reasoning about Others' Incomplete Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Yuyan; Beck, Whitney

    2010-01-01

    Twelve-month-olds realize that when an agent cannot see an object, her incomplete perceptions still guide her goal-directed actions. What would happen if the agent had incomplete perceptions because she could see only one part of the object, for example one side of a screen? In the present research, 16-month-olds were first shown an agent who…

  5. Carrots, carotene and seeing in the dark.

    PubMed

    Smith, W; Mitchell, P; Lazarus, R

    1999-01-01

    Should older people eat more carrots, or at least increase their carotene intake to prevent loss of night vision? Participants in the Blue Mountains Eye Study were asked about their ability to see in the dark. Nutrient and food intake were estimated from a food frequency questionnaire. Associations between self-reported poor night vision and estimated nutrient intake were investigated using logistic regression. Poor night vision among women was associated with higher beta-carotene (P for trend = 0.03) and total vitamin A intake (P for trend = 0.048). Increased consumption of carrots, but no other food high in beta-carotene, was associated with significant increased reporting of poor night vision among women (P for trend = 0.04). While carrot intake may protect against difficulty in seeing at night, it is probable that people attributing poor driving ability to their vision may be eating more carrots in the hope of reversing this decline.

  6. Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Report - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.

    1994-09-28

    This report describes the results from Phase II of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) Program, a joint effort to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high-level waste tanks. In Phase II, the program has been expanded to include inorganic constituents in addition to radionuclides. Results from Phase II that exceeded 20% relative percent difference criteria are identified.

  7. Space Environment and Effects System (SEES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higashio, Nana; Obara, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Haruhisa; Koga, Kiyokazu; Koshiishi, Hideki

    Space environment group in JAXA has installed insturments to measure space environment on eleven satellites. In the last year, the biggest instrument called SEDA-AP (Space Environment Data Acquision equipment -Attached Paylod) was atteched to the palette of JEM (ISS). On the other hand, we have a web site, "Space Environment and Effects System(SEES)". This system consisits of four parts. First part is to provide data that were obtained from these insturments. There are 18 kinds of mesurments, for example, radiation, magnetic field and so on. In 1994, Anik E-1 and Anik E-2 were broken by solar storm and we could catch the abnormal data from our instrument. Second part is a warning system. Many Japanese satellites are working around the earth and they are always exposed to radioactivity in space. So we predict the the radiation data in two days and if the expected value is over the threshold of safety, we inform a warning massage to users who want to keep their satellites safe. And we also provide the warning massage for Japanese astronauts who stay at ISS. Third part is the tool of the space environment /satellite environment models. There are 12 kinds of environment models which are constructed from 90 space environment models, for example, radiation model, solar activity model and so on. If you register your infomation in the SEES web site, you can simulate space environment by using them. Fourth part is providing the 2D and 3D infomations of satellite's orvits. This show the satelllite's position on the world map at a paticular time. If you want to use this system, please visit our SEES page at (http://seesproxy.tksc.jaxa.jp/fw/dfw/SEES/index.html ).

  8. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  9. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  10. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness.

  11. Seeing Objects as Faces Enhances Object Detection.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    The face is a special visual stimulus. Both bottom-up processes for low-level facial features and top-down modulation by face expectations contribute to the advantages of face perception. However, it is hard to dissociate the top-down factors from the bottom-up processes, since facial stimuli mandatorily lead to face awareness. In the present study, using the face pareidolia phenomenon, we demonstrated that face awareness, namely seeing an object as a face, enhances object detection performance. In face pareidolia, some people see a visual stimulus, for example, three dots arranged in V shape, as a face, while others do not. This phenomenon allows us to investigate the effect of face awareness leaving the stimulus per se unchanged. Participants were asked to detect a face target or a triangle target. While target per se was identical between the two tasks, the detection sensitivity was higher when the participants recognized the target as a face. This was the case irrespective of the stimulus eccentricity or the vertical orientation of the stimulus. These results demonstrate that seeing an object as a face facilitates object detection via top-down modulation. The advantages of face perception are, therefore, at least partly, due to face awareness. PMID:27648219

  12. Three little words--vision, perception, seeing.

    PubMed

    Koster, L W

    1998-04-01

    Vision, perception and seeing are everyday words, especially important to those in the image creation business. Vision, here, is used to describe the physiological process of image formation in the eye, and its subsequent projection to the brain for further action. Visual perception is a process driven by sensation with its outcome dependent on judgements based on the perceiver's situational experiences. It is a complex involving cerebral interpretations of a series of retinal images. Seeing is an intellectual exercise strongly influenced by perceptions and cultural experiences. It may be expressed in several ways, among them, verbally and pictorially. Some individuals acquire these expressions at an early age, but for most it must be learned. In the sciences, clarity is important, while in the fine arts, subtlety, and sometimes obscurity, are often sought. In all instances, the image maker is a communicator; and if the message is not received by a prepared viewer, the creator has failed. An understanding of seeing is an important mechanism in the process of image creation. An attempt will be made in this paper to advance an understanding of this process.

  13. Convergence in [Formula: see text]-quasicontinuous posets.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Xiao-Quan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present one way to generalize [Formula: see text]-convergence and [Formula: see text]-convergence of nets for arbitrary posets by use of the cut operator instead of joins. Some convergence theoretical characterizations of [Formula: see text]-continuity and [Formula: see text]-quasicontinuity of posets are given. The main results are: (1) a poset P is [Formula: see text]-continuous if and only if the [Formula: see text]-convergence in P is topological; (2) P is [Formula: see text]-quasicontinuous if and only if the [Formula: see text]-convergence in P is topological.

  14. Evaluating Constraints on Heavy-Ion SEE Susceptibility Imposed by Proton SEE Testing and Other Mixed Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, R. L.; Lauenstein, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    We develop metrics for assessing the effectiveness of proton SEE data for bounding heavy-ion SEE susceptibility. The metrics range from simple geometric criteria requiring no knowledge of the test articles to bounds of SEE rates.

  15. ``To See Cosmology in a Quetzal..."

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuenschwander, D. E.; Finkenbinder, L.

    2002-05-01

    High in the Talamanca Mountains of Costa Rica, our university maintains a field station called the Quetzal Education Research Center (QERC), in cloud forest habit of the magnificent Resplendent Quetzal. At these latitudes, where every surface is alive, the astronomical realities that constrain life's options acquire an in-your-face immediacy. Three years ago we began team-teaching a general astrobiology course featuring a 10-day trip to the QERC and other Costa Rican sites, including the Arenal Volcano and Manuel Antonio National Park. This experience places the student smack in the middle of an environment that dramatically shows how stellar evolution provides the energy, materials, and timescale for biological evolution. For example, discussion of tidal forces occurs when we are up to our necks in the tide at Manuel Antonio's beaches; discussions of nuclear reactions that power the Sun are followed with extended forest hikes to see the light-gathering strategies of photosynthetic organisms; as an astronomical system, quetzal DNA is a ``metal," a product of nucleosynthesis. Our time in Costa Rica also features an astronomy education program for the residents of San Gerardo de Dota (in the rural valley where the QERC is located), with presentations at the local school and astronomy ``open house" evenings at the QERC. As one travels the country one also sees the rapid destruction of tropical forest biodiversity. We therefore encourage through astrobiology the formation of another kind of ``ecosystem:" the global network of young people who are valiantly confronting the challenges of environmental sustainability. Solutions to these problems must take into account economic, cultural, and political realities as well as scientific realities. The importance of seeing these immediate problems in terms of astronomical and biological evolution timescales forms another splendid motivation for the study of astrobiology.

  16. Monitoring Polaris and Seeing Conditions at PARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, April

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was originally built by NASA to track and collect data from satellites. The location in the Pisgah National Forest was chosen due to the excellent ability of the surrounding mountains to block radio interference and light pollution. The PARI observatory has been monitoring Polaris for over 10 years and has amassed a large collection of images of the star and those surrounding it. While several telescopes have been used throughout the project, we are currently using a Omni XLT Series Celestron and an SBIG ST-8300M CCD camera with a 0.70 arcsecond/pixel ratio. The software is run on Windows, however, we will be making a switch to Linux and implementing a new program to control the camera. The new images, once converted to a usable format (ST10 to FITS), can be automatically fed into an in-house Java program to track the variability of the star and simultaneously determine the seeing conditions experienced on the campus. Since we have several years worth of data, the program will also be used to provide a history of variability and seeing conditions. We ultimately hope to be able to track the possible changes in variability of Polaris, as it's current location on the HR diagram is being studied. The data could also prove valuable for our on-site scientists and many visiting students to study on campus. We are also developing a relative scale for our seeing conditions, accompanied by FWHM measurements in arcseconds that will can be compared to those of surrounding observatories in mountainous areas.

  17. Triton - Do we see to the surface?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Brown, R. H.; Giver, L. P.; Tokunaga, A. T.

    1989-07-01

    The quantity and physical state of methane and nitrogen in the atmosphere of Neptune's satellite Triton and on the surface are evaluated by means of new telescopic data and laboratory measurements of these volatiles. Methane ice is seen in some spectral regions, indicating that the atmosphere is sufficiently transparent to permit sunlight penetration to the surface. Some of the molecular nitrogen absorption occurs in the atmosphere, though some must occur in condensed nitrogen (liquid or solid) on Triton's surface, or in a thin cloud of condensed nitrogen. The Voyager spacecraft cameras should see the surface of Triton.

  18. Hierarchical modelling of mobile, seeing robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luh, Cheng-Jye; Zeigler, Bernard P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a hierarchical robot simulation which supports the design of robots with vision and mobility. A seeing robot applies a classification expert system for visual identification of laboratory objects. The visual data acquisition algorithm used by the robot vision system has been developed to exploit multiple viewing distances and perspectives. Several different simulations have been run testing the visual logic in a laboratory environment. Much work remains to integrate the vision system with the rest of the robot system.

  19. See around the corner using active imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinvall, Ove; Elmqvist, Magnus; Larsson, Håkan

    2011-11-01

    This paper investigates the prospects of "seeing around the corner" using active imaging. A monostatic active imaging system offers interesting capabilities in the presence of glossy reflecting objects. Examples of such surfaces are windows in buildings and cars, calm water, signs and vehicle surfaces. During daylight it might well be possible to use mirrorlike reflection by the naked eye or a CCD camera for non-line of sight imaging. However the advantage with active imaging is that one controls the illumination. This will not only allow for low light and night utilization but also for use in cases where the sun or other interfering lights limit the non-line of sight imaging possibility. The range resolution obtained by time gating will reduce disturbing direct reflections and allow simultaneous view in several directions using range discrimination. Measurements and theoretical considerations in this report support the idea of using laser to "see around the corner". Examples of images and reflectivity measurements will be presented together with examples of potential system applications.

  20. Seeing lumps, sticks, and slabs in silhouettes.

    PubMed

    Willats, J

    1992-01-01

    Marr has suggested that we see three-dimensional (3-D) shapes in silhouettes because we make the implicit assumption that the viewed shapes are generalized cones. One difficulty with this suggestion is that it cannot deal with silhouettes of irregular 3-D shapes like clouds and trees; another is that it only applies to generalized cones with a relatively high length:width ratio. An alternative explanation, suggested by evidence from cross-cultural studies of language, from children's early speech, and from children's early drawings, is that the scene primitives actually used by humans are not generalized cones but 'lumps', 'sticks', and 'slabs', that is, primitives whose only shape properties are their relative extensions in 3-D space. In this paper it is proposed that the implicit assumption we make in interpreting silhouettes is that the extendedness of the silhouette reflects the extendedness of the viewed shape, so that a round region is seen as a lump and a long region is seen as a stick; and that such views seem "natural" because they are the views most likely to be encountered in normal environments. This account is more general than that of Marr because it explains how we interpret silhouettes of all kinds of 3-D shapes, even very irregular ones. Unlike Marr's account, it also deals with flat shapes like slabs and discs, and shows why it is difficult to see these shapes in silhouettes.

  1. The art of seeing and painting.

    PubMed

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The human urge to represent the three-dimensional world using two-dimensional pictorial representations dates back at least to Paleolithic times. Artists from ancient to modern times have struggled to understand how a few contours or color patches on a flat surface can induce mental representations of a three-dimensional scene. This article summarizes some of the recent breakthroughs in scientifically understanding how the brain sees that shed light on these struggles. These breakthroughs illustrate how various artists have intuitively understood paradoxical properties about how the brain sees, and have used that understanding to create great art. These paradoxical properties arise from how the brain forms the units of conscious visual perception; namely, representations of three-dimensional boundaries and surfaces. Boundaries and surfaces are computed in parallel cortical processing streams that obey computationally complementary properties. These streams interact at multiple levels to overcome their complementary weaknesses and to transform their complementary properties into consistent percepts. The article describes how properties of complementary consistency have guided the creation of many great works of art.

  2. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Jody

    2001-01-01

    The return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in 1990 brought a wealth of space exposure data on materials, paints, solar cells, adhesives and other data on the many space environments. The effects of the harsh space environments can provide damaging or even disabling effects on a spacecraft, its sub-systems, materials and instruments. In partnership with industry, academia, and other US and international government agencies, the National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Environments & Effects (SEE) Program defines the space environments and provides technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on the spacecraft. This program (agency-wide in scope but managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center) provides a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment. It does this by defining the best techniques for both flight- and groundbased experimentation, updating models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft and ensuring that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. This paper will describe the current SEE Program and discuss several current technology development activities associated with the spacecraft charging phenomenon.

  3. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Nugent, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth — approximately 21 million light-years away — than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  4. How to See a Recently Discovered Supernova

    ScienceCinema

    Nugent, Peter

    2016-07-12

    Berkeley Lab scientist Peter Nugent discusses a recently discovered supernova that is closer to Earth — approximately 21 million light-years away — than any other of its kind in a generation. Astronomers believe they caught the supernova within hours of its explosion, a rare feat made possible with a specialized survey telescope and state-of-the-art computational tools. The finding of such a supernova so early and so close has energized the astronomical community as they are scrambling to observe it with as many telescopes as possible, including the Hubble Space Telescope. More info on how to see it: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/31/glimpse-cosmic-explosion/ News release: http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2011/08/25/supernova/

  5. Fruit Flies Medicate Offspring After Seeing Parasites

    PubMed Central

    Kacsoh, Balint Z.; Lynch, Zachary R.; Mortimer, Nathan T.; Schlenke, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    Hosts have numerous defenses against parasites, of which behavioral immune responses are an important but under-appreciated component. Here we describe a behavioral immune response Drosophila melanogaster utilizes against endoparasitoid wasps. We found that when flies see wasps they switch to laying eggs in alcohol-laden food sources that protect hatched larvae from infection. This oviposition behavior change, mediated by neuropeptide F, is retained long after wasps are removed. Flies respond to diverse female larval endoparasitoids but not to pupal endoparasitoids or males, showing they maintain specific wasp search images. Furthermore, the response evolved multiple times across the genus Drosophila. Our data reveal a behavioral immune response based on anticipatory medication of offspring, and outline a non-associative memory paradigm based on innate parasite recognition by the host. PMID:23430653

  6. Fully "Eqwipped" to See the Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory over the past decade with an excess of $15 million of government research and development investment, quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) are infrared imaging sensors that can operate in the long wavelength portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, where objects at an ambient temperature emit the most energy. QWIPTECH was formed in July 1998 to offer JPL's QWIPs in a commercial format. The company currently holds an exclusive worldwide license to manufacture and sell the infrared photodetector sensors as part of a focal plane array called a QWIP Chip(TM). The QWIP Chip provides high thermal sensitivity (0.001 C) and possesses a broad dynamic range, permitting precise observations over a wide range of temperatures. Since the technology uses heat rather than light, it can "see" in complete darkness and through conditions such as dust, smoke, and light fog.

  7. Do You "See'" What I "See"? Differentiation of Visual Action Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Joël; Cirelli, Laura; Szeligo, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Dickinson and Szeligo ("Can J Exp Psychol" 62(4):211--222, 2008) found that processing time for simple visual stimuli was affected by the visual action participants had been instructed to perform on these stimuli (e.g., see, distinguish). It was concluded that these effects reflected the differences in the durations of these various…

  8. See-saw geometry and leptogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bari, P.

    2005-10-01

    The representation of the see-saw orthogonal matrix in the complex plane establishes a graphical correspondence between neutrino mass models and geometrical configurations, particularly useful to study relevant aspects of leptogenesis. We first derive the CP asymmetry bound for hierarchical heavy neutrinos and then an expression for the effective leptogenesis phase, determining the conditions for maximal phase and placing a lower bound on the phase suppression for generic models. Reconsidering the lower bounds on the lightest right-handed (RH) neutrino mass M and on the reheating temperature T, we find that models where one of the two heavier neutrino masses is dominated by the lightest right-handed (RH) neutrinos, typically arising from connections with quark masses, undergo both phase suppression and strong wash-out such that M(T)≳10 (10) GeV. The window 10 GeV≲M,T≲10 GeV is accessible only for a class of models where m is dominated by the lightest RH neutrino, with no straightforward connections with quark masses. Within this class we describe a new scenario of thermal leptogenesis where the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is generated by the decays of the second lightest RH neutrino, such that the lower bound on M disappears and is replaced by a lower bound on M. Interestingly, the final asymmetry is independent on the initial conditions. We also discuss the validity of the approximation of hierarchical heavy neutrinos in a simple analytical way.

  9. Moonlet Propellor: What are we seeing?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Mark C.; Stewart, G. R.

    2008-09-01

    The presence of a band of moonlets in the A ring has now been established by the identification of bright regions in the rings (Sremcevic, et al., Nature 449, 1019-1021, Tiscareno et al., Astron. J. 135, 1083-1091, 2008). These bright regions are often called propellers based on the characteristic shape seen in simulations. The propeller structures in these simulations are actually low density regions that are edges with high density wakes. The masses of the moonlets in observations are estimated by characteristic scalings seen in simulations where the radial separation between the features scales as the Hill sphere of the moonlet. More recent simulations that include the added realism of particle self-gravity and size distributions find that these interfere with the formation of the high density wakes. This leads to the question of what exactly we are seeing in Cassini observations of the propellers. This work presents large scale simulations ( 25 million particles) aimed at determining whether the bright propellers can be caused by moonlets disrupting gravitational aggregates. Scaling rules for such structures and conditions under which they do or don't form are explored. This work has been supported by NASA PG&G.

  10. Sample exchange/evaluation (SEE) report - Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, W.I.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results from Phase III of the Sample Exchange Evaluation (SEE) program. The SEE program is used to compare analytical laboratory performance on samples from the Hanford Site`s high level waste tanks.

  11. Use of Proton SEE Data as a Proxy for Bounding Heavy-Ion SEE Susceptibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Hayes, Kathryn P.

    2015-01-01

    Although heavy-ion single-event effects (SEE) pose serious threats to semiconductor devices in space, many missions face difficulties testing such devices at heavy-ion accelerators. Low-cost missions often find such testing too costly. Even well funded missions face issues testing commercial off the shelf (COTS) due to packaging and integration. Some missions wish to fly COTS systems with little insight into their components. Heavy-ion testing such parts and systems requires access to expensive and hard-to-access ultra-high energy ion accelerators, or significant system modification. To avoid these problems, some have proposed using recoil ions from high-energy protons as a proxy to bound heavy-ion SEE rates.

  12. See your brands through your customers' eyes.

    PubMed

    Lederer, C; Hill, S

    2001-06-01

    Subaru markets an L.L. Bean Outback station wagon. Dell stamps Microsoft and Intel logos on its computers. Such inter-weaving of different companies' brands is now commonplace. But one of the central tools of brand management-portfolio mapping--has not kept pace with changes in the marketplace. Most conventional brand maps include only those brands owned by a company, arranged along organizational lines with little regard for how the brands influence customer perceptions. In this article, the authors present a new mapping tool--the brand portfolio molecule--that reveals the way brands appear to customers. The brand portfolio molecule includes all the brands that factor into a consumer's decision to buy, whether or not the company owns them. The first step in creating a brand portfolio molecule is to determine which brands should or should not be included. The second step is to classify each brand by asking five key questions: 1) How important is this brand to customers' purchase decisions about the brand you're mapping? 2) Is its influence positive or negative? 3) What market position does this brand occupy relative to the other brands in the portfolio? 4) How does this brand connect to the other brands in the portfolio? 5) How much control do you have over this brand? The last step is to map the molecule using a 3-D modeling program or by hand with pen and paper. Individual brands take the form of atoms, and they're clustered in ways that reflect how customers see them. The usefulness of the tool lies in its ability to show the many forces that influence a customer's buying decision--and to provide a powerful new way to think about brand strategy. PMID:11408973

  13. HUBBLE SEES SUPERSONIC EXHAUST FROM NEBULA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    2-9 is a striking example of a 'butterfly' or a bipolar planetary nebula. Another more revealing name might be the 'Twin Jet Nebula.' If the nebula is sliced across the star, each side of it appears much like a pair of exhausts from jet engines. Indeed, because of the nebula's shape and the measured velocity of the gas, in excess of 200 miles per second, astronomers believe that the description as a super-super-sonic jet exhaust is quite apt. Ground-based studies have shown that the nebula's size increases with time, suggesting that the stellar outburst that formed the lobes occurred just 1,200 years ago. The central star in M2-9 is known to be one of a very close pair which orbit one another at perilously close distances. It is even possible that one star is being engulfed by the other. Astronomers suspect the gravity of one star pulls weakly bound gas from the surface of the other and flings it into a thin, dense disk which surrounds both stars and extends well into space. The disk can actually be seen in shorter exposure images obtained with the Hubble telescope. It measures approximately 10 times the diameter of Pluto's orbit. Models of the type that are used to design jet engines ('hydrodynamics') show that such a disk can successfully account for the jet-exhaust-like appearance of M2-9. The high-speed wind from one of the stars rams into the surrounding disk, which serves as a nozzle. The wind is deflected in a perpendicular direction and forms the pair of jets that we see in the nebula's image. This is much the same process that takes place in a jet engine: The burning and expanding gases are deflected by the engine walls through a nozzle to form long, collimated jets of hot air at high speeds. M2-9 is 2,100 light-years away in the constellation Ophiucus. The observation was taken Aug. 2, 1997 by the Hubble telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. In this image, neutral oxygen is shown in red, once-ionized nitrogen in green, and twice-ionized oxygen in

  14. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing V: Seeing and Isoplanatic Angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Warren; Els, Sebastian; Travouillon, Tony; Riddle, Reed; Schöck, Matthias; Bustos, Edison; Seguel, Juan; Walker, David

    2009-10-01

    In this article we present an analysis of the statistical and temporal properties of seeing and isoplanatic angle measurements obtained with combined Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) and Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) units at the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) candidate sites. For each of the five candidate sites we obtained multiyear, high-cadence, high-quality seeing measurements. These data allow for a broad and detailed analysis, giving us a good understanding of the characteristics of each of the sites. The overall seeing statistics for the five candidate sites are presented, broken into total seeing (measured by the DIMM), free-atmosphere seeing and isoplanatic angle (measured by the MASS), and ground-layer seeing (difference between the total and free-atmosphere seeing). We examine the statistical distributions of seeing measurements and investigate annual and nightly behavior. The properties of the seeing measurements are discussed in terms of the geography and meteorological conditions at each site. The temporal variability of the seeing measurements over timescales of minutes to hours is derived for each site. We find that each of the TMT candidate sites has its own strengths and weaknesses when compared against the other candidate sites. The results presented in this article form part of the full set of results that are used for the TMT site-selection process. This is the fifth article in a series discussing the TMT site-testing project.

  15. The Statistical Distributions and Evolutions of Seeing Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racine, R.

    2015-04-01

    Extensive series of DIMM and MASS seeing values from thirteen astronomical sites are used to examine the shapes of their statistical distributions and their evolutions with time. At all sites, the distributions of seeing values can be satisfactorily reproduced over densities that span more than four orders of magnitude by random combinations of seeing values from two independent equal-population log-normal seeing components. The seeing varies typically by a factor of 4 throughout a night. At good sites, it reaches sub-half-arc second on 80% of the night. It is most stable when near its modal value where the delays for a 10% change in DIMM seeing average ∼50 minutes. The average delays are ∼25 minutes at the 10th and 90th percentiles of the distributions. These lifetimes differ by a factor of 4 between the fastest and the slowest seeing sites. The MASS seeing evolves ∼7 times faster than the DIMM seeing. These characteristics make forecasting seeing a tall challenge.

  16. Can we believe what we see, if we see what we believe?--expert disagreement.

    PubMed

    Nordby, J J

    1992-07-01

    Forensic experts often disagree. The possible sources of such disagreements are analyzed and possible avenues of resolution indicated. The logic of interpreting scenes, and pattern injuries such as bitemarks, is explained to locate potential sources for interpretive error, and to recommend strategies to avoid compounding such errors when preparing cases. In one sense, two observers may not see the same thing, although their eyesight is normal and they are aware of the same artifact. Cases show that both practical and theoretical investigative expectations affect what count as observations. These expectations confer evidential status on the artifact. When two observers' expectations conflict, they do not see the same thing, so are not presented with the same evidence. Expectations can be either appropriate or inappropriate. These senses are clearly distinguished using illustrative cases. When inappropriate, they cause observational errors of a unique sort supplying one source for disagreement. When inferences are made from these inappropriately sanctioned observations,interpretive errors are compounded and resolutions of disagreement become difficult. These observational and inferential errors are explained, described, and illustrated with cases, along with recommendations for recognizing and avoiding them.

  17. NASA's Chandra Sees Brightest Supernova Ever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-05-01

    WASHINGTON - The brightest stellar explosion ever recorded may be a long-sought new type of supernova, according to observations by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based optical telescopes. This discovery indicates that violent explosions of extremely massive stars were relatively common in the early universe, and that a similar explosion may be ready to go off in our own galaxy. "This was a truly monstrous explosion, a hundred times more energetic than a typical supernova," said Nathan Smith of the University of California at Berkeley, who led a team of astronomers from California and the University of Texas in Austin. "That means the star that exploded might have been as massive as a star can get, about 150 times that of our sun. We've never seen that before." Chandra X-ray Image of SN 2006gy Chandra X-ray Image of SN 2006gy Astronomers think many of the first generation of stars were this massive, and this new supernova may thus provide a rare glimpse of how the first stars died. It is unprecedented, however, to find such a massive star and witness its death. The discovery of the supernova, known as SN 2006gy, provides evidence that the death of such massive stars is fundamentally different from theoretical predictions. "Of all exploding stars ever observed, this was the king," said Alex Filippenko, leader of the ground-based observations at the Lick Observatory at Mt. Hamilton, Calif., and the Keck Observatory in Mauna Kea, Hawaii. "We were astonished to see how bright it got, and how long it lasted." The Chandra observation allowed the team to rule out the most likely alternative explanation for the supernova: that a white dwarf star with a mass only slightly higher than the sun exploded into a dense, hydrogen-rich environment. In that event, SN 2006gy should have been 1,000 times brighter in X-rays than what Chandra detected. Animation of SN 2006gy Animation of SN 2006gy "This provides strong evidence that SN 2006gy was, in fact, the death of an

  18. Seeing a Stellar Explosion in 3D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-08-01

    faster in some directions than others, leading to an irregular shape with some parts stretching out further into space. The first material to be ejected from the explosion travelled at an incredible 100 million km per hour, which is about a tenth of the speed of light or around 100 000 times faster than a passenger jet. Even at this breakneck speed it has taken 10 years to reach a previously existing ring of gas and dust puffed out from the dying star. The images also demonstrate that another wave of material is travelling ten times more slowly and is being heated by radioactive elements created in the explosion. "We have established the velocity distribution of the inner ejecta of Supernova 1987A," says lead author Karina Kjær. "Just how a supernova explodes is not very well understood, but the way the star exploded is imprinted on this inner material. We can see that this material was not ejected symmetrically in all directions, but rather seems to have had a preferred direction. Besides, this direction is different to what was expected from the position of the ring." Such asymmetric behaviour was predicted by some of the most recent computer models of supernovae, which found that large-scale instabilities take place during the explosion. The new observations are thus the first direct confirmation of such models. SINFONI is the leading instrument of its kind, and only the level of detail it affords allowed the team to draw their conclusions. Advanced adaptive optics systems counteracted the blurring effects of the Earth's atmosphere while a technique called integral field spectroscopy allowed the astronomers to study several parts of the supernova's chaotic core simultaneously, leading to the build-up of the 3D image. "Integral field spectroscopy is a special technique where for each pixel we get information about the nature and velocity of the gas," says Kjær. "This means that besides the normal picture we also have the velocity along the line of sight. Because we

  19. Seeing and Experiencing Relativity--A New Tool for Teaching?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Fish, Jordan; Hacker, Jesse; Kienle, Justin; Kobylarek, Alexander; Sigler, Michael; Wierenga, Bert; Cheu, Ryan; Kim, Ebae; Sherin, Zach; Sidhu, Sonny; Tan, Philip

    2013-01-01

    "What would you see if you were riding a beam of light?" This thought experiment, which Einstein reports to have "conducted" at the age of 16, of course has no sensible answer: as Einstein published a decade later, you could never reach the speed of light. But it does make sense to ask what you would see if you were traveling…

  20. Can SEE-2 Children Understand ASL-Using Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    The study compared comprehension of American Sign Language (ASL) between 12 deaf subjects in a program using Signing Exact English (SEE-2) and 14 deaf subjects in a residential program using Signed English, Pidgin Signed English, and ASL. Students exposed to SEE-2 could comprehend ASL as well as residential school peers. (Author/DB)

  1. 22. SHIPYARD NO. 2, ROSIE THE RIVETER MEMORIAL (SEE ALSO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. SHIPYARD NO. 2, ROSIE THE RIVETER MEMORIAL (SEE ALSO HAER No. CA-326-D), FORD ASSEMBLY PLANT (SEE ALSO HAER No. CA-326-H), AND RICHMOND SHIPYARD NO. 3, SW. - Rosie the Riveter National Historical Park, 1401 Marina Way South, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  2. The Neon Paintbrush: Seeing, Technology, and the Museum as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Discusses visual perception; the way technology can change the way people see; combining seeing and technology to create visual cultures; the influence of the World Wide Web on visual technologies; and changes in visual culture, including museums and their Web sites. (LRW)

  3. Trends in Device SEE Susceptibility from Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Coss, J. R.; McCarty, K. P.; Schwartz, H. R.; Swift, G. M.; Watson, R. K.; Koga, R.; Crain, W. R.; Crawford, K. B.; Hansel, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The sixth set of heavy ion single event effects (SEE) test data have been collected since the last IEEE publications in December issues of IEEE - Nuclear Science Transactions for 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991, and the IEEE Workshop Record, 1993. Trends in SEE susceptibility (including soft errors and latchup) for state-of- are evaluated.

  4. Update on parts SEE susceptibility from heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickols, D. K.; Smith, L. S.; Schwartz, H. R.; Soli, G.; Watson, K.

    1992-10-01

    Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and The Aerospace Corporation have collected a fourth set of heavy ion single event effects (SEE) test data since their last joint contributions to IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science in December 1985, 1987, and 1989. Trends in SEE susceptibility (including soft errors and latchup) for state-of-the-art parts are displayed.

  5. Considerations for a Proton Single Event Effects (SEE) Guideline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2010-01-01

    The intent of this document is to provide guidance on when and what type of SEE tests should be performed on a device under test (DUT) based on orbit, technology, existing data, and application. It is NOT intended to provide a detailed guideline for how to perform proton SEE radiation tests on electronics.

  6. Making see and treat work for patients and staff.

    PubMed

    Parker, Louise

    2004-02-01

    Every department is at a different stage in the development of see and treat. Teams have been established in various ways and are experiencing different dilemmas in making see and treat work best. It is not enough to pick up an established see and treat model, place it in an emergency department and sit back and watch the results. There is no 'magic wand'; no single determining factor to make see and treat work well. Influencing factors need to be understood, applied locally and reviewed regularly to assess success. The NHS Modernisation Agency publishes its survey report, See and Treat: Making it work for patients and staff, on February 4. For Further details, access www.modern.nhs.uk/emergency

  7. The Use of "See" and "See Also" References in the Public Library Catalogs in Franklin County, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Kristen L.

    The "see" and "see also" references in a library's catalog are supposed to provide the cross-references necessary to guide the user to the appropriate subject heading. However, libraries have difficulty maintaining the current, accurate subject authority files needed to facilitate this. A review of the literature in this subject area revealed the…

  8. The Seeing Stick: Mapping Life Stories (Open to Suggestion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Etta

    1996-01-01

    Describes the "Seeing Stick," a graphic form for recording ideas, which students can use to summarize biographical information, show character development in a fictional story, or organize and present information in a topical unit. (SR)

  9. MedlinePlus: The ForeSee Customer Satisfaction Survey

    MedlinePlus

    ... score based on users' answers to questions on expectations and experience with the site. To find out more go to the ForeSee by Answers site. Back to survey results ... Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for ...

  10. VIEW OF ONESTAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF ONE-STAMP MILL WITH RANCH HOUSE AT REAR (See HABS No. CA-2347, DESERT QUEEN RANCH, for further documentation) - Desert Queen Ranch, One Stamp Gold Mill, Twentynine Palms, San Bernardino County, CA

  11. 9. KING STREET (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 59 (see 'Kongensgade ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. KING STREET (FRONT) ELEVATIONS OF KONGENSGADE 59 (see 'Kongensgade 59,' HABS No. VI-118) AND TOLDBODEN OLD CUSTOM HOUSE (SCALEHOUSE) - King Street Area Study, King Street, Christiansted, St. Croix, VI

  12. View of building 11050. With view of building 11070 (See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050. With view of building 11070 (See HABS No. CA 2774-B) in background. Looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Machine Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  13. Routine Eye Exams See Vision Problems You Miss

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159863.html Routine Eye Exams See Vision Problems You Miss Older people and those who ... half of people with no new symptoms or vision problems receive new prescriptions or treatment changes as ...

  14. Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing: Practical Approach to Test Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2014-01-01

    While standards and guidelines for performing SEE testing have existed for several decades, guidance for developing SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this presentation, the variety of areas that need to be considered ranging from resource issues (funds, personnel, schedule) to extremely technical challenges (particle interaction and circuit application), shall be discussed. Note: We consider the approach outlined here as a living document: mission specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account.

  15. See-saw nystagmus and brainstem infarction: MRI findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanter, D. S.; Ruff, R. L.; Leigh, R. J.; Modic, M.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with see-saw nystagmus had a lesion localized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to the paramedian ventral midbrain with involvement of the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal. This the first MRI study of see-saw nystagmus associated with a presumed brainstem vascular event. Our findings support animal and human studies suggesting that dysfunction of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or its connections is central in this disorder.

  16. Seeing Polar Environments with Windows Around the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban-Rich, J.

    2006-12-01

    For those that work in the Arctic, it is a fascinating place and one of vital importance to global systems. However for many other people, the Arctic is a remote, desolate place that has no connections to their daily lives. To try and overcome this belief and feeling and to help make the Arctic accessible and "alive" we have developed the Windows Around the World program (www.WindowsAroundTheWorld.org ). Come and see how technology and the internet can bring places closer together and can be used in elementary education. For young children seeing provides an important stimulation to learning. See the Arctic through a day or a year in the Windows Around the World program and learn how this visual data is being used in the classroom. World.org

  17. Strategies for estimating mirror and dome seeing for TMT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogiatzis, Konstantinos; Angeli, George Z.

    2006-06-01

    Mirror and dome seeing greatly influence the optical performance of large ground-based telescopes. This study describes a strategy for modeling the effects of passive ventilation on the optical performance of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) analyses are combined with thermal analyses to model the effects of turbulence and thermal variations within the airflow around the TMT telescope-enclosure configuration. An analytical thermal model based on Newton's cooling law and incorporating a conduction heat flux and a radiation term is used to track the primary mirror temperature throughout the night. A semi-empirical seeing model is used to relate mirror temperature and wind speed to seeing. Different external wind speeds, mirror heat fluxes and ambient thermal temporal gradients are investigated and comparisons are made.

  18. Numerical simulations of a new approach for seeing measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, A.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; El Azhari, Y.

    2013-09-01

    Using a numerical simulation, a new approach to determine the wave structure function, and therefore the astronomical seeing, is presented and discussed. This method is based on the study of the diffraction pattern produced by a double slit at the focus plane of a telescope. The phase screens are simulated using a fast Fourier transform (FFT) based method and Kolmogorov's law regarding atmospheric turbulence. From the scattered wave intensity, the wave structure function is calculated by taking into account both phase and amplitude fluctuations. This means that we can obtain a seeing value that is independent of the propagation distance between the turbulent layers and the ground level (Fresnel diffraction effect). Indeed, the seeing is related to the refractive-index structure constant (Cn2) inside the turbulent layers and thus should be independent of the aforementioned propagation distance.

  19. Estudio de seeing en la zona del Cerro Champaqui (I)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, R. J.; Eikenberry, S.; Scott, J.; Levato, H.; Firpo, V.; Farina, C.; Piroddi, D.; Jamud, N.; Bosch, G.; Mudrik, A.; Guzzo, P.; Donoso, V.; Recabarren, P.; Seifer, E.

    We report the results of the most recent seeing feasibility study performed in the region of Cerro Champaqui (2800m) at the mountain range of Sierras Grandes at the Province of Cordoba. We also describe the high frequency DIMM device built for this and other seeing samplings obtained at the provinces of San Juan; San Luis and Cordoba. This work is part of a long term project started in 2006; in search of sites of very low turbulence and suited for near infrared telescopes with active and adaptive optics. Two of the sites have been monitored during a total of 46 nights distributed in six months of the period 2011-2012. The preliminary results suggest the existence of `sub-arcsecond' seeing conditions during extended periods of time in at least one location in the mountain range in the SW of Cordoba and NE of San Luis provinces. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  20. Wishful seeing: more desired objects are seen as closer.

    PubMed

    Balcetis, Emily; Dunning, David

    2010-01-01

    Although people assume that they see the surrounding environment as it truly is, we suggest that perception of the natural environment is dependent upon the internal goal states of perceivers. Five experiments demonstrated that perceivers tend to see desirable objects (i.e., those that can fulfill immediate goals-a water bottle to assuage their thirst, money they can win, a personality test providing favorable feedback) as physically closer to them than less desirable objects. Biased distance perception was revealed through verbal reports and through actions toward the object (e.g., underthrowing a beanbag at a desirable object). We suggest that seeing desirable objects as closer than less desirable objects serves the self-regulatory function of energizing the perceiver to approach objects that fulfill needs and goals. PMID:20424036

  1. Dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaocheng; Meng, Fanning; Lin, Jianming; Yuan, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter is studied. We say that a real parameter [Formula: see text] belongs to the set [Formula: see text] for a positive integer n if [Formula: see text] has an attracting cycle of n-order. We prove that the Fatou set [Formula: see text] is a completely invariant attracting basin for every parameter [Formula: see text]. Further, regarding the set [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text], we prove the following results: (1) There exists [Formula: see text] such that [Formula: see text]. (2) For every positive integer [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] is non-empty. (3) For every prime number [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] has at least two components.

  2. Dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaocheng; Meng, Fanning; Lin, Jianming; Yuan, Wenjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter is studied. We say that a real parameter [Formula: see text] belongs to the set [Formula: see text] for a positive integer n if [Formula: see text] has an attracting cycle of n-order. We prove that the Fatou set [Formula: see text] is a completely invariant attracting basin for every parameter [Formula: see text]. Further, regarding the set [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text], we prove the following results: (1) There exists [Formula: see text] such that [Formula: see text]. (2) For every positive integer [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] is non-empty. (3) For every prime number [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] has at least two components. PMID:27386299

  3. Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing: Practical Approach to Test Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Label, Kenneth A.; Pellish, Jonathan Allen; Berg, Melanie D.

    2014-01-01

    While standards and guidelines for performing SEE testing have existed for several decades, guidance for developing SEE test plans has not been as easy to find. In this presentation, the variety of areas that need to be considered ranging from resource issues (funds, personnel, schedule) to extremely technical challenges (particle interaction and circuit application), shall be discussed. Note: we consider the approach outlined here as a "living" document: Mission-specific constraints and new technology related issues always need to be taken into account.

  4. What You See Is Not What You Get

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White-McMahon, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    When upset, 15-year-old Peter overreacts, dumping verbal hostility on everyone, even those trying to help. Peter's attempt to see the principal--who was out of the office--led to an emotionally explosive crisis. In this life space crisis intervention (LSCI), staff calmly tried to help Peter clarify distorted reality. But patient questioning raised…

  5. See, Say, Write: A Writing Routine for the Preschool Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Stefanie B.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Tortorelli, Laura S.

    2016-01-01

    See, Say, Write is an adaptable classroom writing routine that teachers can use across a range of activities in the preschool classroom. This preschool writing routine offers an opportunity for teachers to build on a shared experience through engagement in rich conversation and writing. After a shared experience, teachers will provide a visual…

  6. eSeeTrack--visualizing sequential fixation patterns.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Hoi Ying; Tory, Melanie; Swindells, Colin

    2010-01-01

    We introduce eSeeTrack, an eye-tracking visualization prototype that facilitates exploration and comparison of sequential gaze orderings in a static or a dynamic scene. It extends current eye-tracking data visualizations by extracting patterns of sequential gaze orderings, displaying these patterns in a way that does not depend on the number of fixations on a scene, and enabling users to compare patterns from two or more sets of eye-gaze data. Extracting such patterns was very difficult with previous visualization techniques. eSeeTrack combines a timeline and a tree-structured visual representation to embody three aspects of eye-tracking data that users are interested in: duration, frequency and orderings of fixations. We demonstrate the usefulness of eSeeTrack via two case studies on surgical simulation and retail store chain data. We found that eSeeTrack allows ordering of fixations to be rapidly queried, explored and compared. Furthermore, our tool provides an effective and efficient mechanism to determine pattern outliers. This approach can be effective for behavior analysis in a variety of domains that are described at the end of this paper.

  7. Visual Neuroscience: How Do Moths See to Fly at Night?

    PubMed

    Ala-Laurila, Petri

    2016-03-21

    A new study shows that moth vision trades speed and resolution for contrast sensitivity at night. These remarkable neural adaptations take place in the higher-order neurons of the hawkmoth motion vision pathway and allow the insects to see during night flights.

  8. The Relation between Components of Naming and Conditioned Seeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanman, Derek

    2013-01-01

    In two experiments, I tested for the presence of conditioned seeing as a measureable behavior, which was measured by participants' accuracy in drawing a stimulus, and how this behavior was related to the demonstration of the naming capability. In Experiment 1, participants demonstrated a correlation between drawing responses and speaker…

  9. Seeing and Hearing Students' Lived and Embodied Critical Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Elisabeth; Vasudevan, Lalitha

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that teachers and researchers must expand current verbo- and logo-centric definitions of critical literacy to recognize how texts and responses are embodied. Ethnographic data illustrate the ways that youth perform critical literacy in ways that educators might not always be prepared to see, hear, or acknowledge.…

  10. Seeing and being seen: Shame in the clinical situation.

    PubMed

    Steiner, John

    2015-12-01

    Shame may prevent the patient from emerging from a psychic retreat. As begins to do so he confronts two fears, first of seeing the object more clearly and second of being seen become prominent. Seeing leads to deeper and more distressing feelings connected with guilt and depression as the damage done to good objects is recognized. However it cannot be faced if shame leads to a demand for immediate relief. Shame is a prominent feature of the analytic situation and recognizing this may help the analyst to support his patients to tolerate the discomfort of being seen so that the conflicts about seeing can be worked through. Two clinical examples are briefly discussed. In the first feelings of inferiority lessened as they were analysed and allowed appreciative and depressive feelings to emerge. In the second embarrassment was associated with progress that the patient felt he had made but was embarrassed to admit. It is argued that the analysis of shame in the analytic situation is necessary so that being seen can be tolerated and allow the conflicts over seeing to be worked through. PMID:26481856

  11. "See Translation": Explicit and Implicit Language Policies on Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendus, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    The currently tested "See Translation" button can be considered an expression of Facebook's explicit language policy. It offers the users fast and easy translations of others' status updates and can therefore be seen as diminishing language barriers and reducing the need for a lingua franca in polylingual networks, thus enhancing…

  12. Classroom Discussions: Seeing Math Discourse in Action, Grades K-6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Nancy; Chapin, Suzanne; O'Connor, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom Discussions: Seeing Math Discourse in Action, Grades K-6" provides preservice and inservice instructors, coaches and facilitators with real, classroom-based video examples that illustrate the principles and practices covered in the authors' best-selling book, "Classroom Discussions: Using Math Talk to Help Students Learn, Grade K-6,…

  13. Visual Neuroscience: How Do Moths See to Fly at Night?

    PubMed

    Ala-Laurila, Petri

    2016-03-21

    A new study shows that moth vision trades speed and resolution for contrast sensitivity at night. These remarkable neural adaptations take place in the higher-order neurons of the hawkmoth motion vision pathway and allow the insects to see during night flights. PMID:27003884

  14. Learning to See: Developing the Perception of an Expert Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schempp, Paul G.; Johnson, Sophie Woorons

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify the perceptual skills of expert teachers and offer suggestions for teachers to learn to see like an expert. Being able to perceptively read the critical cues in a learning environment allows teachers to recognize present problems, anticipate potential problems, link immediate problems with previously…

  15. Seeing Is Believing? Insights from Young Children in Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, E. Jayne

    2015-01-01

    If the eye is a window to the soul, an important question to ask in the early years is "What do children see?" in their encounters with the world. Gaining a better understanding of children's interpretations is central to the pedagogical task of early childhood teachers, yet children are seldom asked to provide their points of view…

  16. 31. ELEVATION WEST FACE BLDG. 27, SEE SERVICE DRIVE TUNNEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. ELEVATION WEST FACE BLDG. 27, SEE SERVICE DRIVE TUNNEL INTO COURTYARD. - Fafnir Bearing Plant, Bounded on North side by Myrtle Street, on South side by Orange Street, on East side by Booth Street & on West side by Grove Street, New Britain, Hartford County, CT

  17. 23. Old Crosscut Canal, Pedestrian Bridge Details, February 1975. See ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Old Crosscut Canal, Pedestrian Bridge Details, February 1975. See photographs AZ-21-13 and AZ-21-14 for views of the completed bridge. Source: city of Phoenix Engineering Department. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. The Eye as a Theoretician: Seeing Structures in Generalizing Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I focus on what can be termed "the domestication of the eye"--that is to say, the lengthy process during which we come to see and recognize things according to "efficient" cultural means. This is the process that converts the eye into a sophisticated intellectual organ--a "theoretician" as Marx put it. In particular, I focus on…

  19. Going Global: Desktop Video Conferencing with CU-SeeMe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Sandy

    1996-01-01

    Students and teachers at Rocky Run Middle School (Virginia) use CU-SeeMe, a desktop video conferencing program providing real-time audio and visual, to communicate with educational communities in New Zealand and other international sites. Activities include helping foreign students adjust to American culture, teaching health education with expert…

  20. Launching a social enterprise see-and-treat service.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Elaine; Mayo, Amanda

    2009-06-01

    Many children who attend emergency departments with minor injuries or illnesses can be cared for by primary care services. This article describes an innovative partnership between a primary care trust and a social enterprise company to develop a see-and-treat primary care service that has reduced the number o children attending the traditional emergency department at a London hospital. PMID:19552329

  1. Get Answers: Using Student Response Systems to See Students' Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David; McLeod, Scott

    2005-01-01

    Imagine if teachers could view their students' thinking, like peeking inside a pot of cooking stew to see if it is done. Wouldn't it be nice if they could know what their students were learning, while they were teaching them? Most teachers use a variety of classroom techniques to understand what their students know and can do. Tests, quizzes,…

  2. Seeing and Experiencing Relativity -- A New Tool for Teaching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kortemeyer, Gerd; Fish, Jordan; Hacker, Jesse; Kienle, Justin; Kobylarek, Alexander; Sigler, Michael; Wierenga, Bert; Cheu, Ryan; Kim, Ebae; Sherin, Zach; Sidhu, Sonny; Tan, Philip

    2013-11-01

    "What would you see if you were riding a beam of light?" This thought experiment, which Einstein reports to have "conducted" at the age of 16, of course has no sensible answer: as Einstein published a decade later, you could never reach the speed of light.2 But it does make sense to ask what you would see if you were traveling close to the speed of light, and one of the first physicists to embark on this effort was George Gamow in his Mr. Tompkins in Wonderland.3 His protagonist is speeding on a bicycle through a city where the speed of light is lower, thus ingeniously taking advantage of the fact that special relativity scales with v/c: for it to kick in, you either have to move very fast (in rather unfamiliar territory), or light has to be slow (in which case special relativity kicks in at everyday velocities in everyday situations). Gamow provides drawings of what Mr. Tompkins and people at the curb would see in this slow-light city, at least, what they would see if one only took into account two of the effects: length contraction and time dilation.4

  3. Simulation design of a wearable see-through retinal projector.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Chiang, Yen-Chen; Pan, Jui-Wen

    2015-05-10

    This study proposes a new simulation design for a wearable see-through retinal projector combined with a compact camera. The see-through retinal projector is composed of an illumination system and eyepiece system. In this eyeglass-mounted design, all the information is projected directly into the user's eyes using a see-through retinal projector. The retinal projector forms a 20 in. (50.8 cm) upright virtual image located 2 m in front of the human eye, and the illumination system provides uniform illumination for liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) panels. Moreover, an RGB LED array is used as the light source to generate color images with color sequences. The compact camera has a lens with an aperture of F/2.8, a half field-of-view (FOV) of 30°, and 2 million pixels. This optical system design with the combination of a see-through retinal projector and a compact camera has a volume of about 5.83 cm(3) and a weight of 6.02 g. PMID:25967506

  4. 6. Detail, main floor, gullotine charging door with counterweights (see ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail, main floor, gullotine charging door with counterweights (see #8 for section of furnace immediately below in basement). - Charlestown Navy Yard, Incinerator, Midway along northern boundary of Charlestown Navy Yard, on Little Mystic Channel, near junction of Eighteenth Street & Second Avenue, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. "Twisted Beam" SEE Observations of Ionospheric Heating from HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briczinski, S. J.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Pedersen, T. R.; Rodriguez, S.; SanAntonio, G.

    2012-12-01

    High power HF radio waves exciting the ionosphere provide aeronomers with a unique space-based laboratory capability. The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaksa is the world's largest heating facility, providing effective radiated powers in the gigawatt range. Experiments performed at HAARP have allowed researchers to study many non-linear effects of wave-plasma interactions. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) is of interest to the ionospheric community for its diagnostic purposes. Typical SEE experiments at HAARP have focused on characterizing the parametric decay of the electromagnetic pump wave into several different wave modes such as upper and lower hybrid, ion acoustic, ion-Bernstein and electron-Bernstein. These production modes have been extensively studied at HAARP using traditional beam heating patterns and SEE detection. New results are present from HAARP experiments using a "twisted beam" excitation mode. Unlike traditional heating beams used at HAARP or other heating facilities, the twisted beam attempts to impart orbital angular momentum (OAM) into the heating region. Analysis of twisted beam heating shows that the SEE results obtained are nearly identical to the modes without OAM. One difference in the twisted beam mode is the heating region produced is in the shape of a ring as opposed to the more traditional "solid spot" region. The ring heating pattern may be more conducive to the creation of artificial airglow layers. The results of these runs include artificial layer creation and evolution as pertaining to the twisted beam pattern. The SEE measurements aid the interpretation of the twisted beam interactions in the ionosphere.

  6. iSeeChange: Crowdsourced Climate Change Reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drapkin, J. K.

    2012-12-01

    Directly engaging local communities about their climate change experiences has never been more important. As weather and climate become more unpredictable, these experiences provide a baseline for community decisions, developing adaptation strategies, and planning for the future. Typically, climate change is documented in a top-down fashion: a scientist has a question, makes observations, and publishes a study; in the best case scenario, a journalist reports on the results; if there's time, a local anecdote is sought to put the results in a familiar context. iSeeChange, a public media project funded by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, reports local environmental change in reverse and turns community questions and conversations with scientists into reported stories that promote opportunities to learn about climate change's affects on the environment and daily life. iSeeChange engages residents of the North Fork Valley region of western Colorado in a multiplatform conversation with scientists about how they perceive their environment is changing through the course of a year - season to season. By bringing together public radio, a mobile reporting and cellular engagement strategy, and a custom crowdsourcing multimedia platform, iSeeChange provides a central access point to collect observations (texts, photographs, voice recordings, and video), organize conversations and interviews with scientists, and report stories online and on air. In this way, iSeeChange is building a dynamic crowdsourced reservoir of information that can increase awareness of environmental problems and potentially disseminate useful information about climate change and successful adaptation strategies. Ultimately, by understanding the community's information needs in a localized question-driven context, the iSeeChange platform presents opportunities for the science community to better understand the value of information and develop better ways to tailor information for communities to use

  7. Layers of Seeing and Seeing through Layers: The Work of Art in the Age of Digital Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruby, Louisa Wood

    2008-01-01

    In consulting on or creating a Web site designed to use works of art for teaching purposes, it is extremely important to be aware of the differences between seeing an artwork "in the flesh" and in reproduction. Museum educators are highly aware of this disparity and are therefore eager to have students visit museums to experience authentic works…

  8. How the deployment of attention determines what we see

    PubMed Central

    Treisman, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Attention is a tool to adapt what we see to our current needs. It can be focused narrowly on a single object or spread over several or distributed over the scene as a whole. In addition to increasing or decreasing the number of attended objects, these different deployments may have different effects on what we see. This chapter describes some research both on focused attention and its use in binding features, and on distributed attention and the kinds of information we gain and lose with the attention window opened wide. One kind of processing that we suggest occurs automatically with distributed attention results in a statistical description of sets of similar objects. Another gives the gist of the scene, which may be inferred from sets of features registered in parallel. Flexible use of these different modes of attention allows us to reconcile sharp capacity limits with a richer understanding of the visual scene. PMID:17387378

  9. See Change: Classifying single observation transients from HST using SNCosmo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofiatti Nunes, Caroline; Perlmutter, Saul; Nordin, Jakob; Rubin, David; Lidman, Chris; Deustua, Susana E.; Fruchter, Andrew S.; Aldering, Greg Scott; Brodwin, Mark; Cunha, Carlos E.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Jee, Myungkook J.; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Santos, Joana; Stanford, S. Adam; Stern, Dana R.; Fassbender, Rene; Richard, Johan; Rosati, Piero; Wechsler, Risa H.; Muzzin, Adam; Willis, Jon; Boehringer, Hans; Gladders, Michael; Goobar, Ariel; Amanullah, Rahman; Hook, Isobel; Huterer, Dragan; Huang, Jiasheng; Kim, Alex G.; Kowalski, Marek; Linder, Eric; Pain, Reynald; Saunders, Clare; Suzuki, Nao; Barbary, Kyle H.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Meyers, Joshua; Spadafora, Anthony L.; Hayden, Brian; Wilson, Gillian; Rozo, Eduardo; Hilton, Matt; Dixon, Samantha; Yen, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The Supernova Cosmology Project (SCP) is executing "See Change", a large HST program to look for possible variation in dark energy using supernovae at z>1. As part of the survey, we often must make time-critical follow-up decisions based on multicolor detection at a single epoch. We demonstrate the use of the SNCosmo software package to obtain simulated fluxes in the HST filters for type Ia and core-collapse supernovae at various redshifts. These simulations allow us to compare photometric data from HST with the distribution of the simulated SNe through methods such as Random Forest, a learning method for classification, and Gaussian Kernel Estimation. The results help us make informed decisions about triggered follow up using HST and ground based observatories to provide time-critical information needed about transients. Examples of this technique applied in the context of See Change are shown.

  10. Good Teachers (the Movie You Will Never See)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillard, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    It began with a trip to the cinema to see Cameron Diaz in her new comedy, "Bad Teacher." It was a bad choice. Not a great flick, but as a parody of bad employees, in terms of things that can get one fired--drugs, alcohol , cheating, foul language, inappropriate sexual behavior--Diaz slams pedal to the metal. She nips out of airline booze bottles…

  11. Laser Imaging Video Camera Sees Through Fire, Fog, Smoke

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    Under a series of SBIR contracts with Langley Research Center, inventor Richard Billmers refined a prototype for a laser imaging camera capable of seeing through fire, fog, smoke, and other obscurants. Now, Canton, Ohio-based Laser Imaging through Obscurants (LITO) Technologies Inc. is demonstrating the technology as a perimeter security system at Glenn Research Center and planning its future use in aviation, shipping, emergency response, and other fields.

  12. A formative evaluation of CU-SeeMe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibeau, Michael

    1995-02-01

    CU-SeeMe is a video conferencing software package that was designed and programmed at Cornell University. The program works with the TCP/IP network protocol and allows two or more parties to conduct a real-time video conference with full audio support. In this paper we evaluate CU-SeeMe through the process of Formative Evaluation. We first perform a Critical Review of the software using a subset of the Smith and Mosier Guidelines for Human-Computer Interaction. Next, we empirically review the software interface through a series of benchmark tests that are derived directly from a set of scenarios. The scenarios attempt to model real world situations that might be encountered by an individual in the target user class. Designing benchmark tasks becomes a natural and straightforward process when they are derived from the scenario set. Empirical measures are taken for each task, including completion times and error counts. These measures are accompanied by critical incident analysis 2 7 13 which serves to identify problems with the interface and the cognitive roots of those problems. The critical incidents reported by participants are accompanied by explanations of what caused the problem and why This helps in the process of formulating solutions for observed usability problems. All the testing results are combined in the Appendix in an illustrated partial redesign of the CU-SeeMe Interface.

  13. Seeing fearful body language rapidly freezes the observer's motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Borgomaneri, Sara; Vitale, Francesca; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio

    2015-04-01

    Fearful body language is a salient signal alerting the observer to the presence of a potential threat in the surrounding environment. Although detecting potential threats may trigger an immediate reduction of motor output in animals (i.e., freezing behavior), it is unclear at what point in time similar reductions occur in the human motor cortex and whether they originate from excitatory or inhibitory processes. Using single-pulse and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), here we tested the hypothesis that the observer's motor cortex implements extremely fast suppression of motor readiness when seeing emotional bodies - and fearful body expressions in particular. Participants observed pictures of body postures and categorized them as happy, fearful or neutral while receiving TMS over the right or left motor cortex at 100-125 msec after picture onset. In three different sessions, we assessed corticospinal excitability, short intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Independently of the stimulated hemisphere and the time of the stimulation, watching fearful bodies suppressed ICF relative to happy and neutral body expressions. Moreover, happy expressions reduced ICF relative to neutral actions. No changes in corticospinal excitability or SICI were found during the task. These findings show extremely rapid bilateral modulation of the motor cortices when seeing emotional bodies, with stronger suppression of motor readiness when seeing fearful bodies. Our results provide neurophysiological support for the evolutionary notions that emotion perception is inherently linked to action systems and that fear-related cues induce an urgent mobilization of motor reactions.

  14. Algorithm aversion: people erroneously avoid algorithms after seeing them err.

    PubMed

    Dietvorst, Berkeley J; Simmons, Joseph P; Massey, Cade

    2015-02-01

    Research shows that evidence-based algorithms more accurately predict the future than do human forecasters. Yet when forecasters are deciding whether to use a human forecaster or a statistical algorithm, they often choose the human forecaster. This phenomenon, which we call algorithm aversion, is costly, and it is important to understand its causes. We show that people are especially averse to algorithmic forecasters after seeing them perform, even when they see them outperform a human forecaster. This is because people more quickly lose confidence in algorithmic than human forecasters after seeing them make the same mistake. In 5 studies, participants either saw an algorithm make forecasts, a human make forecasts, both, or neither. They then decided whether to tie their incentives to the future predictions of the algorithm or the human. Participants who saw the algorithm perform were less confident in it, and less likely to choose it over an inferior human forecaster. This was true even among those who saw the algorithm outperform the human.

  15. Seeing is believing, looks are deceiving: what does one see in images of drugs and drug use(rs)?

    PubMed

    Montagne, Michael

    2015-03-01

    Images of drugs and drug use(rs) convey meaning, feelings, and beliefs, and what is being seen is often believed. Images can also deceive in content, meaning, and belief. Drug use(r) researchers, who use images as data, must be cautious in interpreting what is being conveyed and why. As technological advances continue to shape the creation, modification, storage, and analysis of images, researchers must be ever more vigilant about what they are seeing and believing.

  16. Characteristics of positive and negative secondary ions emitted from [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] impacts.

    PubMed

    Debord, J D; Fernandez-Lima, F A; Verkhoturov, S V; Schweikert, E A; Della-Negra, S

    2013-01-01

    The current limitation for SIMS analyses is insufficient secondary ion yields, due in part to the inefficiency of traditional primary ions. Massive gold clusters are shown to be a route to significant gains in secondary ion yields relative to other commonly used projectiles. At an impact energy of 520 keV, [Formula: see text] is capable of generating an average of greater than ten secondary ions per projectile, with some impact events generating >100 secondary ions. The capability of this projectile for signal enhancement is further displayed through the observation of up to seven deprotonated molecular ions from a single impact on a neat target of the model pentapeptide leu-enkephalin. Positive and negative spectra of leu-enkephalin reveal two distinct emission regimes responsible for the emission of either intact molecular ions with low internal energies or small fragment species. The internal energy distribution for this projectile is measured using a series of benzylpyridinium salts and compared with the small polyatomic projectile [Formula: see text] at 110 keV as well as distributions previously reported for electrospray ionization and fast atom bombardment. These results show that [Formula: see text] offers high secondary ion yields not only for small fragment ions, e.g. CN(-), typically observed in SIMS analyses, but also for characteristic molecular ions. For the leu-enkephalin example, the yields for each of these species are greater than unity.

  17. 23. Photocopy of ca. 1890 photograph showing DRAWING ROOM (see ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of ca. 1890 photograph showing DRAWING ROOM (see also PA-1524-12). Photographed during the occupancy of Dr. and Mrs. Erwin Agnew. Note the following furnishings: 1) Chandeliers, possibly by Cornelius and Sons of Philadelphia; 2) Ceiling painting at top of photocopy is copy of Guido Reni's Aurora, one of the two most popular Renaissance paintings in the mid-19th century; 3) Scagliola columns; 4) 'Turkish' upholstered chairs (typical of the period); 5) Neo-renaissance mirror at extreme left - Parry House, 1921 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Computational see-through near-eye displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maimone, Andrew S.

    See-through near-eye displays with the form factor and field of view of eyeglasses are a natural choice for augmented reality systems: the non-encumbering size enables casual and extended use and large field of view enables general-purpose spatially registered applications. However, designing displays with these attributes is currently an open problem. Support for enhanced realism through mutual occlusion and the focal depth cues is also not found in eyeglasses-like displays. This dissertation provides a new strategy for eyeglasses-like displays that follows the principles of computational displays, devices that rely on software as a fundamental part of image formation. Such devices allow more hardware simplicity and flexibility, showing greater promise of meeting form factor and field of view goals while enhancing realism. This computational approach is realized in two novel and complementary see-through near-eye display designs. The first subtractive approach filters omnidirectional light through a set of optimized patterns displayed on a stack of spatial light modulators, reproducing a light field corresponding to in-focus imagery. The design is thin and scales to wide fields of view; see-through is achieved with transparent components placed directly in front of the eye. Preliminary support for focal cues and environment occlusion is also demonstrated. The second additive approach uses structured point light illumination to form an image with a minimal set of rays. Each of an array of defocused point light sources is modulated by a region of a spatial light modulator, essentially encoding an image in the focal blur. See-through is also achieved with transparent components and thin form factors and wide fields of view (>= 100 degrees) are demonstrated. The designs are examined in theoretical terms, in simulation, and through prototype hardware with public demonstrations. This analysis shows that the proposed computational near-eye display designs offer a

  19. Scaling theory of [Formula: see text] topological invariants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Schnyder, Andreas P

    2016-09-14

    For inversion-symmetric topological insulators and superconductors characterized by [Formula: see text] topological invariants, two scaling schemes are proposed to judge topological phase transitions driven by an energy parameter. The scaling schemes renormalize either the phase gradient or the second derivative of the Pfaffian of the time-reversal operator, through which the renormalization group flow of the driving energy parameter can be obtained. The Pfaffian near the time-reversal invariant momentum is revealed to display a universal critical behavior for a great variety of models examined. PMID:27400801

  20. Is [symbol: see text] Yasmin a "truly different" pill?

    PubMed

    2002-08-01

    A combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing the progestogen drospirenone (pronounced dro-spi-re-known) plus the oestrogen ethinylestradiol ([symbol: see text] Yasmin--Schering Health Care) is now available in the UK. Company advertising claims that Yasmin is "truly different", as reliable and safe as other COCs and is "the pill for well-being", with "no associated weight gain" and "a demonstrable positive effect" on premenstrual symptoms and skin condition. Such claims have also appeared in the lay media. Are they justified? PMID:12216337

  1. Scaling theory of [Formula: see text] topological invariants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Schnyder, Andreas P

    2016-09-14

    For inversion-symmetric topological insulators and superconductors characterized by [Formula: see text] topological invariants, two scaling schemes are proposed to judge topological phase transitions driven by an energy parameter. The scaling schemes renormalize either the phase gradient or the second derivative of the Pfaffian of the time-reversal operator, through which the renormalization group flow of the driving energy parameter can be obtained. The Pfaffian near the time-reversal invariant momentum is revealed to display a universal critical behavior for a great variety of models examined.

  2. New double inequalities for g-frames in Hilbert [Formula: see text]-modules.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhong-Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we establish two types of double inequalities for g-frames in Hilbert [Formula: see text]-modules, which involve scalars [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] respectively. It is shown that the results we obtained can immediately lead to the existing corresponding results when taking [Formula: see text].

  3. New double inequalities for g-frames in Hilbert [Formula: see text]-modules.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Zhong-Qi

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we establish two types of double inequalities for g-frames in Hilbert [Formula: see text]-modules, which involve scalars [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] respectively. It is shown that the results we obtained can immediately lead to the existing corresponding results when taking [Formula: see text]. PMID:27441144

  4. "Twisted Beam" SEE Observations of Ionospheric Heating from HAARP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briczinski, S. J.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.; Han, S.-M.; Pedersen, T. R.; Scales, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    Nonlinear interactions of high power HF radio waves in the ionosphere provide aeronomers with a unique space-based laboratory capability. The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaska is the world's largest heating facility, yielding effective radiated powers in the gigawatt range. New results are present from HAARP experiments using a "twisted beam" excitation mode. Analysis of twisted beam heating shows that the SEE results obtained are identical to more traditional patterns. One difference in the twisted beam mode is the heating region produced is in the shape of a ring as opposed to the more traditional "solid spot" region from a pencil beam. The ring heating pattern may be more conducive to the creation of stable artificial airglow layers because of the horizontal structure of the ring. The results of these runs include artificial layer creation and evolution as pertaining to the twisted beam pattern. The SEE measurements aid the interpretation of the twisted beam interactions in the ionosphere.

  5. In nutrition, can we "see" what is good for us?

    PubMed

    Barnes, Stephen; Prasain, Jeevan; Kim, Helen

    2013-05-01

    The selection of foods to eat is a complex interplay of vision, taste, smell, and texture. In addition to micro- and macronutrients, plant-based foods also contain several classes of phytochemicals. In many cases, the phytochemicals account for the various colors of foods. Although aesthetically pleasing, the color of foods may mislead consumers as to their phytochemical content, which is particularly true with regard to polyphenols. Polyphenols are a broad class of compounds with antioxidant and other health benefits. Human vision is limited to a small window (390-765 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Many important phytochemicals (e.g., vitamin C) have no absorbance in this range. Therefore, the human eye cannot directly judge the vitamin C content of foods. Being able to see in the ultraviolet range allows bees to locate the pollen-rich region of flowers, whereas pit vipers locate their prey by being able to "see" them in the infrared range. Assessing the impact of phytochemicals on human health depends on several factors. Colorless phytochemicals in unprocessed foods may be lost during the cooking process because no visual guide exists to ensure their retention. The molecular structures of phytochemicals influence the extent to which they are altered by cooking processes and the methods by which they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Extensive metabolism by phase I/II enzymes and by the gut microbiome may also create compounds that the eye is never allowed to appreciate. PMID:23674801

  6. See-Thru-Gonad zebrafish line: developmental and functional validation.

    PubMed

    Presslauer, Christopher; Bizuayehu, Teshome Tilahun; Razmi, Komeil; Fernandes, Jorge M O; Babiak, Igor

    2016-11-01

    Zebrafish are an important model species in developmental biology. However, their potential in reproductive biology research has yet to be realized. In this study, we established See-Thru-Gonad zebrafish, a transparent line with fluorescently labeled germ cells visible throughout the life cycle, validated its gonadal development features, and demonstrated its applicability by performing a targeted gene knockdown experiment using vivo-morpholinos (VMOs). To establish the line, we crossed the zf45Tg and mitfa(w2/w2); mpv17(b18/b18) zebrafish lines. We documented the in vivo visibility of the germline-specific fluorescent signal throughout development, from gametes through embryonic and juvenile stages up to sexual maturity, and validated gonadal development with histology. We performed targeted gene knockdown of the microRNA (miRNA) miR-92a-3p through injection of VMOs directly to maturing ovaries. After the treatment, zebrafish were bred naturally. Embryos from miR-92a-3p knockdown ovaries had a significant reduction in relative miR-92a-3p expression and a higher percentage of developmental arrest at the 1-cell stage as compared with 5-base mismatch-treated controls. The experiment demonstrates that See-Thru-Gonad line can be successfully used for vertical transmission of the effects of targeted gene knockdown in ovaries into their offspring. PMID:27655215

  7. In nutrition, can we "see" what is good for us?

    PubMed

    Barnes, Stephen; Prasain, Jeevan; Kim, Helen

    2013-05-01

    The selection of foods to eat is a complex interplay of vision, taste, smell, and texture. In addition to micro- and macronutrients, plant-based foods also contain several classes of phytochemicals. In many cases, the phytochemicals account for the various colors of foods. Although aesthetically pleasing, the color of foods may mislead consumers as to their phytochemical content, which is particularly true with regard to polyphenols. Polyphenols are a broad class of compounds with antioxidant and other health benefits. Human vision is limited to a small window (390-765 nm) of the electromagnetic spectrum. Many important phytochemicals (e.g., vitamin C) have no absorbance in this range. Therefore, the human eye cannot directly judge the vitamin C content of foods. Being able to see in the ultraviolet range allows bees to locate the pollen-rich region of flowers, whereas pit vipers locate their prey by being able to "see" them in the infrared range. Assessing the impact of phytochemicals on human health depends on several factors. Colorless phytochemicals in unprocessed foods may be lost during the cooking process because no visual guide exists to ensure their retention. The molecular structures of phytochemicals influence the extent to which they are altered by cooking processes and the methods by which they are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Extensive metabolism by phase I/II enzymes and by the gut microbiome may also create compounds that the eye is never allowed to appreciate.

  8. ψ-Contraction and [Formula: see text]-contraction in Menger probabilistic metric space.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pengcheng; Guan, Jinyu; Tang, Yanxia; Xu, Yongchun; Su, Yongfu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the definition of [Formula: see text]-contractive mapping and to discuss the relation of [Formula: see text]-contractive mappings and [Formula: see text]-contractive mappings. Furthermore, the generalized [Formula: see text]-contraction mapping principle has been proved without the uniqueness condition. Meanwhile, the generalized [Formula: see text]-contraction mapping principle has been obtained by using an ingenious method.

  9. Seeing the oceans in the shadow of Bergen values.

    PubMed

    Hamblin, Jacob Darwin

    2014-06-01

    Although oceanographers such as Roger Revelle are typically associated with key indicators of anthropogenic change, he and other scientists at midcentury had very different scientific priorities and ways of seeing the oceans. How can we join the narrative of the triumph of mathematical, dynamic oceanography with the environmental narrative? Dynamic methods entailed a broad set of values that touched the professional lives of marine scientists in a variety of disciplines all over the world, for better or for worse. The present essay highlights three aspects of "Bergen values" in need of greater exploration by scholars. First, how did the dominance of Scandinavian outlooks influence scientific questions across the broad spectrum of oceanography? Second, did oceanographers' particular means of making the oceans legible through instrumentation challenge their ability to perceive the oceans differently? Third, given the immense quantity of data, was the historical legacy of the dynamic oceanographers more descriptive than they imagined?

  10. Acoustics for the Deaf: Can You See Me Now?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongsawad, Cameron T.; Berardi, Mark L.; Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Gee, Kent L.; Whiting, Jennifer K.; Lawler, M. Jeannette

    2016-09-01

    Although acoustics examples and demonstrations can be an effective tool for engaging students in introductory physics classes and outreach, teaching principles of sound and vibration to the deaf and hard of hearing needs to be approached carefully. The deaf and hard of hearing have less intuition with sound but are no strangers to some of the effects of pressure, vibrations, and other basic principles that are related to sound. We recently expanded our "Sounds to Astound" outreach program and developed an acoustics demonstration program for 80 visiting deaf students mostly between the ages of 13 and 18. Both this experience, which had a "See and Feel" approach, similar to what was proposed by Lang, and a specialized planetarium program helped reinforce for the students the opportunities that exist for them in higher education. This paper describes some of the pedagogical underpinnings, the demonstrations, their implementation and lessons learned, and student responses.

  11. Seeing Earth Through the Eyes of an Astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The Human Exploration Science Office within the ARES Directorate has undertaken a new class of handheld camera photographic observations of the Earth as seen from the International Space Station (ISS). For years, astronauts have attempted to describe their experience in space and how they see the Earth roll by below their spacecraft. Thousands of crew photographs have documented natural features as diverse as the dramatic clay colors of the African coastline, the deep blues of the Earth's oceans, or the swirling Aurora Borealis of Australia in the upper atmosphere. Dramatic recent improvements in handheld digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera capabilities are now allowing a new field of crew photography: night time-lapse imagery.

  12. Seeing it coming: infants' brain responses to looming danger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Weel, F. R. (Ruud); van der Meer, Audrey L. H.

    2009-12-01

    A fundamental property of most animals is the ability to see whether an object is approaching on a direct collision course and, if so, when it will collide. Using high-density electroencephalography in 5- to 11-month-old infants and a looming stimulus approaching under three different accelerations, we investigated how the young human nervous system extracts and processes information for impending collision. Here, we show that infants’ looming related brain activity is characterised by theta oscillations. Source analyses reveal clear localised activity in the visual cortex. Analysing the temporal dynamics of the source waveform, we provide evidence that the temporal structure of different looming stimuli is sustained during processing in the more mature infant brain, providing infants with increasingly veridical time-to-collision information about looming danger as they grow older and become more mobile.

  13. Seeing the body: a new mechanism for acupuncture analgesia?

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anthony

    2013-09-01

    The use of visual illusions to study how the brain gives rise to a representation of the body has produced surprising results, particularly in relation to modulation of pain. It seems likely that this research has relevance to how we understand acupuncture analgesia. Acupuncture supplies several different kinds of signal to the brain: touch in the preliminary examination for tender areas; needle stimulation, mainly of Aδ fibres; and sometimes visual input from the patient's sight of the needle insertion. In the light of recent research, all these are likely to modulate pain. There are implications here for clinical practice and for research. Acupuncture may be more effective if patients can see the needles being inserted. The use of non-penetrating stimuli to the skin or minimal needle insertion at non-acupuncture points as control procedures becomes more than ever open to question and this, in turn, has relevance for claims that acupuncture is indistinguishable from placebo.

  14. Seeing mathematics: perceptual experience and brain activity in acquired synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Berit; Vanni, Simo; Silvanto, Juha

    2013-01-01

    We studied the patient JP who has exceptional abilities to draw complex geometrical images by hand and a form of acquired synesthesia for mathematical formulas and objects, which he perceives as geometrical figures. JP sees all smooth curvatures as discrete lines, similarly regardless of scale. We carried out two preliminary investigations to establish the perceptual nature of synesthetic experience and to investigate the neural basis of this phenomenon. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, image-inducing formulas produced larger fMRI responses than non-image inducing formulas in the left temporal, parietal and frontal lobes. Thus our main finding is that the activation associated with his experience of complex geometrical images emerging from mathematical formulas is restricted to the left hemisphere.

  15. Learning to see the other: a vehicle of reflection.

    PubMed

    Binding, Linda L; Morck, Angela C; Moules, Nancy J

    2010-08-01

    A contemporary challenge for nursing educators is to connect theory with practice for nursing students in a curriculum which is largely theory based. The use of reflective writing has been widely used to increase students' critical thinking, and writing skills, as well as to help students integrate concepts within the context of clinical nursing. In the clinical context, the concept of seeing the other can be challenging for students whose life experiences may not have included many of the crises faced by patients and their families. This paper embeds an undergraduate nursing student's reflective writing response to an exercise, from a family nursing course, utilized to help students relate more confidently to the patient as the other.

  16. Seeing via Miniature Eye Movements: A Dynamic Hypothesis for Vision

    PubMed Central

    Ahissar, Ehud; Arieli, Amos

    2012-01-01

    During natural viewing, the eyes are never still. Even during fixation, miniature movements of the eyes move the retinal image across tens of foveal photoreceptors. Most theories of vision implicitly assume that the visual system ignores these movements and somehow overcomes the resulting smearing. However, evidence has accumulated to indicate that fixational eye movements cannot be ignored by the visual system if fine spatial details are to be resolved. We argue that the only way the visual system can achieve its high resolution given its fixational movements is by seeing via these movements. Seeing via eye movements also eliminates the instability of the image, which would be induced by them otherwise. Here we present a hypothesis for vision, in which coarse details are spatially encoded in gaze-related coordinates, and fine spatial details are temporally encoded in relative retinal coordinates. The temporal encoding presented here achieves its highest resolution by encoding along the elongated axes of simple-cell receptive fields and not across these axes as suggested by spatial models of vision. According to our hypothesis, fine details of shape are encoded by inter-receptor temporal phases, texture by instantaneous intra-burst rates of individual receptors, and motion by inter-burst temporal frequencies. We further describe the ability of the visual system to readout the encoded information and recode it internally. We show how reading out of retinal signals can be facilitated by neuronal phase-locked loops (NPLLs), which lock to the retinal jitter; this locking enables recoding of motion information and temporal framing of shape and texture processing. A possible implementation of this locking-and-recoding process by specific thalamocortical loops is suggested. Overall it is suggested that high-acuity vision is based primarily on temporal mechanisms of the sort presented here and low-acuity vision is based primarily on spatial mechanisms. PMID:23162458

  17. 1. COMPARISON OF PLANS, SHOWING KONGENSGADE 6 (see photograph VI50 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. COMPARISON OF PLANS, SHOWING KONGENSGADE 6 (see photograph VI-50 50-2 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 8 (see photograph VI-50-3 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 9 (see photograph VI-50-3 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 17 (see photograph VI-50-5 for elevation), KONGENSGADE 56 (see photograph VI-50-8 for elevation), & KONGENSGADE 57 (see photograph VI-50-9 for elevation) - King Street Area Study, Kongensgade 5-18, 36, 37B, 51-58 (Houses), 5-18, 36-37B, 51-58 King Street, Frederiksted, St. Croix, VI

  18. Seeing the Wood for the Trees: Learning to Teach beyond the Curriculum. How Can Student Teachers Be Helped to See beyond the National Literacy Strategy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twiselton, Samantha

    2007-01-01

    "With the NLS--they can see how everything is important if we want our English to be good and it's helped me to see it that way too. Before, we just used to see it all separately. This way is much better" (Rebecca Graham, Year 4 English specialist after Final Block Placement). This quote was collected in the final stage of a study involving…

  19. Understanding why GPs see pharmaceutical representatives: a qualitative interview study.

    PubMed Central

    Prosser, Helen; Walley, Tom

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Doctors are aware of the commercial bias in pharmaceutical representative information; nevertheless, such information is known to change doctors' prescribing, and augment irrational prescribing and prescribing costs. AIM: To explore GPs, reasons for receiving visits from pharmaceutical representatives. DESIGN OF STUDY: Qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. SETTING: One hundred and seven general practitioners (GPs) in practices from two health authorities in the North West of England. RESULTS: The main outcome measures of the study were: reasons for receiving/not receiving representative visits; advantages/disadvantages in receiving visits; and quality of representative-supplied information. Most GPs routinely see pharmaceutical representatives, because they bring new drug information speedily; they are convenient and accessible; and can be consulted with a saving of time and effort. Many GPs asserted they had the skills to critically appraise the evidence. Furthermore, the credibility and social characteristics of the representative were instrumental in shaping GPs' perceptions of representatives as legitimate information providers. GPs also received visits from representatives for reasons other than information acquisition. These reasons are congruent with personal selling techniques used in marketing communications. CONCLUSIONS: The study draws attention to the social and cultural contexts of GP-representative encounters and the way in which the acquisition of pharmacological information within the mercantile context of representative visits is legitimated. This highlights the need for doctors to critically appraise information supplied by representatives in relation to other information sources. PMID:12879831

  20. Do Peers See More in a Paper Than Its Authors?

    PubMed Central

    Divoli, Anna; Nakov, Preslav; Hearst, Marti A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have shown a gradual shift in the content of biomedical publications that is freely accessible, from titles and abstracts to full text. This has enabled new forms of automatic text analysis and has given rise to some interesting questions: How informative is the abstract compared to the full-text? What important information in the full-text is not present in the abstract? What should a good summary contain that is not already in the abstract? Do authors and peers see an article differently? We answer these questions by comparing the information content of the abstract to that in citances—sentences containing citations to that article. We contrast the important points of an article as judged by its authors versus as seen by peers. Focusing on the area of molecular interactions, we perform manual and automatic analysis, and we find that the set of all citances to a target article not only covers most information (entities, functions, experimental methods, and other biological concepts) found in its abstract, but also contains 20% more concepts. We further present a detailed summary of the differences across information types, and we examine the effects other citations and time have on the content of citances. PMID:23227044

  1. Seeing the Light (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Brunger, Axel; Segalman, Rachel; Westphal, Andrew

    2011-09-12

    Berkeley Lab's Science at the Theater event "Seeing the Light" took place on Sept 12, 2011, at Berkeley Repertory's Roda Theatre. Learn how the Advanced Light Source is improving medicine, paving the way for clean energy, changing the future of computers, and much more. Featured speakers are Berkeley Lab's Roger Falcone, Rachel Segalman, Andrew Westphal, and Stanford University's Axel Brunger. Rachel Segalman: The future of clean energy technology relies on a better understanding of materials at the nanoscale. Berkeley Lab's Rachel Segalman uses the ALS to conduct this research, which could lead to improved photovoltaics and fuel cells. Axel Brunger: Improved treatment for human diseases hinges on understanding molecular-scale processes. Stanford University's Axel Brunger will discuss a new melanoma drug that was developed by a local company, Plexxikon, using the ALS for X-ray data collection. Andrew Westphal: What's comet dust made of? Andrew Westphal of UC Berkeley's Space Sciences Laboratory uses the ALS to study comet dust and interplanetary space dust collected by a NASA spacecraft. Moderated by Roger Falcone, Division Director of the Advanced Light Source

  2. Robotic SLODAR Development for Seeing Evaluation at the Bohyun Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Wilson, R.; Butterley, T.; Choi, Y.; Lee, S.

    We had developed a robotic SLODAR (SLOpe Detection And Ranging) for characterization of the vertical profile of atmospheric optical turbulence at the Bohyun observatory, South Korea. The SLODAR had been developed in partnership between Kongju National Univ. South Korea and Durham Univ., U.K. The SLODAR instrument consists of a robotic 50 cm telescope feeding into a pair of Shack Hartmann wavefront sensors. SLODAR analysis of the wavefront sensor data yields turbulence profiles of the surface layer of turbulence, with the vertical resolution depending on the separation and elevation of the target stars.The total seeing ( r0 ) is also measured, and by subtracting the directly measured turbulence from the total the unresolved strength (above the maximum sensing altitude) can also be determined. The instrument has two observing modes, "wide" and "narrow" depending on the angular sepration of pairs of stars. In wide mode regime, narrower targets are chosen ( 2 ~ 4 arcmin) such that the ground layer profile is measured up to ~500m. In narrow mode, very narrow targets (10 ~ 15 arcsec) are measured to provide the turbulence profile with coarse resolution up to ~6km. The automated SLODAR turbulence profiler at the Boyun Observatory is currently under remote and robotic operation since last June. We reports herein the development of the SLODAR with first observation results.

  3. Is Seeing Believing? Perceptions of Wildfire Risk Over Time.

    PubMed

    Champ, Patricia A; Brenkert-Smith, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing challenges to understanding how hazard exposure and disaster experiences influence perceived risk lead us to ask: Is seeing believing? We approach risk perception by attending to two components of overall risk perception: perceived probability of an event occurring and perceived consequences if an event occurs. Using a two-period longitudinal data set collected from a survey of homeowners living in a fire-prone area of Colorado, we find that study participants' initial high levels of perceived probability and consequences of a wildfire did not change substantially after extreme wildfire events in the intervening years. More specifically, perceived probability of a wildfire changed very little, whereas the perceived consequences of a wildfire went up a bit. In addition, models of risk perceptions show that the two components of overall risk perception are correlated with somewhat different factors, and experience is not found to be one of the strongest correlates with perceived risk. These results reflect the importance of distinguishing the components of overall risk and modeling them separately to facilitate additional insights into the complexities of risk perceptions, factors related to perceived risk, and change in risk perceptions over time.

  4. Passive millimeter-wave imaging: seeing in very poor visibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, Roger; Price, Sean; Gleed, David G.; Lettington, Alan H.

    1995-06-01

    It is more common to use the visible or infrared regions to image although it is possible to use millimeter waves. Passive millimeter wave imaging, however, has the advantage of being able to see in poor weather conditions such as in thick fog. The images, unlike radar signatures, have a natural appearance that can be easily interpreted. The spatial resolution of these imagers is limited by the aperture size and choice of operating frequency. Novel signal processing algorithms have been applied to improve the spatial resolution. Millimeter wave imagers detect slight temperature differences in the scene and using current technology it is possible to sense changes as low as 0.2 K whilst the contrast between an aircraft and its background can be as high as 200 K. A millimetric imager has been used at London Heathrow airport to demonstrate the high quality of the images that can be obtained. Aircraft can be recognized, runways and grass delineated and complex areas such as gates imaged. A qualitative comparison has been made of radar, thermal imaging and passive millimeter wave imaging for ground movement control. The possibility of deploying a passive millimeter wave imager on a commercial aircraft and of using it as part of an enhanced vision system is also discussed.

  5. Radiation microscope for SEE testing using GeV ions.

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, Barney Lee; Knapp, James Arthur; Rossi, Paolo; Hattar, Khalid M.; Vizkelethy, Gyorgy; Brice, David Kenneth; Branson, Janelle V.

    2009-09-01

    Radiation Effects Microscopy is an extremely useful technique in failure analysis of electronic parts used in radiation environment. It also provides much needed support for development of radiation hard components used in spacecraft and nuclear weapons. As the IC manufacturing technology progresses, more and more overlayers are used; therefore, the sensitive region of the part is getting farther and farther from the surface. The thickness of these overlayers is so large today that the traditional microbeams, which are used for REM are unable to reach the sensitive regions. As a result, higher ion beam energies have to be used (> GeV), which are available only at cyclotrons. Since it is extremely complicated to focus these GeV ion beams, a new method has to be developed to perform REM at cyclotrons. We developed a new technique, Ion Photon Emission Microscopy, where instead of focusing the ion beam we use secondary photons emitted from a fluorescence layer on top of the devices being tested to determine the position of the ion hit. By recording this position information in coincidence with an SEE signal we will be able to indentify radiation sensitive regions of modern electronic parts, which will increase the efficiency of radiation hard circuits.

  6. Brain mechanisms for representing what another person sees.

    PubMed

    Heyda, Ratha D; Green, Steven R; Vander Wyk, Brent C; Morris, James P; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2010-04-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a naturalistic joint attention scenario to evaluate two, alternative hypotheses concerning the social brain. The first, Content Specific Attribution hypothesis, was that core regions previously identified as being involved in social cognition also participate in representing the contents of another mind. The second, Dual Role hypothesis, was that extrastriate, category-specific visual regions respond to a visible stimulus of a specific category and to the same stimulus occluded, but when it appears to be the focus of another person's visual attention. Participants viewed category-specific stimuli (Place and Body images) to localize the extrastriate body area (EBA) and parahippocampal place area (PPA). Then, they observed a computerized character viewing each stimulus category, occluded from the participant's view. In support of the Content Specific Attribution hypothesis, whole-brain analyses revealed that viewing someone else looking at an occluded picture of a body activated brain regions previously associated with components of social cognition more than viewing someone else looking at an occluded picture of a place. Counter to the Dual Role hypothesis, functional region of interest (ROI) analyses revealed that the EBA and PPA were not clearly involved in representing what the character was seeing.

  7. What Can We Learn From Proton Recoils about Heavy-Ion SEE Sensitivity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Raymond L.

    2016-01-01

    The fact that protons cause single-event effects (SEE) in most devices through production of light-ion recoils has led to attempts to bound heavy-ion SEE susceptibility through use of proton data. Although this may be a viable strategy for some devices and technologies, the data must be analyzed carefully and conservatively to avoid over-optimistic estimates of SEE performance. We examine the constraints that proton test data can impose on heavy-ion SEE susceptibility.

  8. Emodin Decreases Hepatic Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1[Formula: see text] by Inhibiting its Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feifei; Hu, Lijuan; Yu, Ming; Wang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is an [Formula: see text] dimeric transcription factor. Because HIF-1[Formula: see text] is instable with oxygen, HIF-1 is scarce in normal mammalian cells. However, HIF-1[Formula: see text] is expressed in pathological conditions such as cancer and obesity. Inhibiting HIF-1[Formula: see text] may be of therapeutic value for these pathologies. Here, we investigated whether emodin, derived from the herb of Rheum palmatum L, which is also known as Chinese rhubarb, and is native to China, regulates HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression. Male C57BL/6 mice without or with diet-induced obesity were treated with emodin for two weeks, while control mice were treated with vehicle. HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression was determined by Western blot. We found that emodin inhibited obesity-induced HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in liver and skeletal muscle but did not regulate HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in the kidneys or in intra-abdominal fat. In vitro, emodin inhibited HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in human HepG2 hepatic cells and Y1 adrenocortical cells. Further, we investigated the mechanisms of HIF-1[Formula: see text] expression in emodin-treated HepG2 cells. First, we found that HIF-1[Formula: see text] had normal stability in the presence of emodin. Thus, emodin did not decrease HIF-1[Formula: see text] by stimulating its degradation. Importantly, emodin decreased the activity of the signaling pathways that led to HIF-1[Formula: see text] biosynthesis. Interestingly, emodin increased HIF-1[Formula: see text] mRNA in HepG2 cells. This may be a result of feedback in response to the emodin-induced decrease in the protein of HIF-1[Formula: see text]. In conclusion, emodin decreases hepatic HIF-1[Formula: see text] by inhibiting its biosynthesis.

  9. Comments on SEE: Comparative Advantages and and Experimental Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalley, Larry L.

    1996-01-01

    The Satellite Energy Exchange experiment measures the periodic, near-miss encounters between a sheppard satellite and a small test body (satellite) in approximately the same orbit about a primary. Several important experimental requirements have been chosen to enhance capabilities: (a) The satellite be flown in a sun-synchronous orbit at an altitude of about 1350 Km, (b) Passive temperature system stabilized by spacecraft axial rotation with sunshade baffles at the end of the spacecraft, (c) Test bodies with different material composition be available for experiments, (d) The containment spacecraft fly about the sheppard mass in a zero-g environment whereas the test bodies, experience average zero-g environment over an orbital period, (e) Primary attitude and station-keeping uses magnetic field alignment plus micro-Newton thrusters such as Field Emission Electric Propulsion, and (f) Very low power (nW) laser tracking systems minimize impulse delivered to test bodies. With the above conditions, SEE has the capabilities: (1) Long duration (several years life-time) flight experiment (2) Long-term, active (with historical time record), self-calibration of satellite mass distribution (capsule geodesy) over lifetime of the spacecraft. (3) Novel passive thermal stabilization systems designed to attain cryogenic temperatures around 78K. (4) Novel spacecraft stabilization systems. (5) Ability to measure G to 1 part in 10(exp 6-7) depending on ultimate duration of experiment. (6) Ability to place limits on both temporal and spacial variations on G. (7) Ability to set experimental limits on the Post Newtonian parameters (PPN) alpha(2) and zeta(2). (8) Ability to measure (or place limits on) the non Einsteinian eccentricity of the Earth-Sun system (and the parameter alpha(1)) for long duration flight. (9) Ability to measure Delta((dot)-G)/G to 1 part in 10(exp 12-13). The MiniSTEP, competes in a limited way with Project SEE. It is designed to improve the measurement of the

  10. Normal growth of the "see-through" medaka.

    PubMed

    Iwamatsu, Takashi; Nakamura, Hitomi; Ozato, Kenjiro; Wakamatsu, Yuko

    2003-05-01

    The see-through stock in the medaka Oryzias latipes, causes pigments to be absent from the whole body and has a transparent body in the adult stage as well as during embryonic stages. To establish a standard table of growth stages for this model fish, morphological features were examined during the growing period from hatching to adulthood. The main observations were performed on morphological changes in external and internal organs that could be seen through the body wall of the living fish during growth. Finally, five growth stages from just after hatching to the adult stage were defined on the basis of synchronized or definite changes in morphology as follows: (1) stage 40 in which the nodes (joints) in bony rays of the caudal and pectoral fins first appear, (2) the stage 41 in which the ribs and the anal, dorsal and ventral fins are formed by degeneration of the membrane fin folds, as recognized by the first appearance of nodes in the fin rays of the anal, pectoral and dorsal fins, and the parallel distribution of the dorsal artery and ventral vein of the tail, (3) stage 42 in which the 2-spiral pattern of the gut, the ray nodes in the ventral fins, and the scales first appear, (4) stage 43 in which early secondary sexual characters such as urinogenital protruberances (female) and papillar processes (male) appear, (5) stage 44 in which the 3-spiral pattern of the gut and the papillar process on the 2nd ray of pectral fins (male) appear. PMID:12777831

  11. Health and impact assessment: Are we seeing closer integration?

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Richard K.

    2011-07-15

    Health has always had a place in wider impact assessment activities, from the earliest days of the National Environmental Policy Act in the United States. However, early thinking tended to focus on health protection and environmental health issues, especially in relation to the effects of pollution. The adoption of wider models of health was reflected in impact assessment circles from the early 1990s, with particular emphasis on an integrated approach to impact assessment, especially at the project level, which would see health impact assessment benefiting from working with other forms of impact assessment, such as social and ecological. Yet twenty years later, integration still seems a distant prospect in many countries. In this paper I examine the case for integrating health considerations within the wider IA process, discuss some of the problems that have historically restricted progress towards this end, and explore the degree to which impact assessment practitioners have been successful in seeking to improve the consideration of health in IA. In New Zealand, project-level impact assessment is based on an integrated model under the Resource Management Act. In addition, HIA was recognised in the early 1990s as a valuable addition to the toolkit for project assessment. Since then policy-level HIA has grown supported by extensive capacity building. If health is being integrated into wider impact assessment, it should be happening in New Zealand where so many enabling conditions are met. Three major project proposals from New Zealand are examined, to characterise the broad trends in HIA development in New Zealand in the last ten years and to assess the degree to which health concerns are being reflected in wider impact assessments. The findings are discussed in the context of the issues outlined in the early part of the paper.

  12. You Don’t See What I See: Individual Differences in the Perception of Meaning from Visual Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Partos, Timea R.; Cropper, Simon J.; Rawlings, David

    2016-01-01

    Everyone has their own unique version of the visual world and there has been growing interest in understanding the way that personality shapes one’s perception. Here, we investigated meaningful visual experiences in relation to the personality dimension of schizotypy. In a novel approach to this issue, a non-clinical sample of subjects (total n = 197) were presented with calibrated images of scenes, cartoons and faces of varying visibility embedded in noise; the spatial properties of the images were constructed to mimic the natural statistics of the environment. In two experiments, subjects were required to indicate what they saw in a large number of unique images, both with and without actual meaningful structure. The first experiment employed an open-ended response paradigm and used a variety of different images in noise; the second experiment only presented a series of faces embedded in noise, and required a forced-choice response from the subjects. The results in all conditions indicated that a high positive schizotypy score was associated with an increased tendency to perceive complex meaning in images comprised purely of random visual noise. Individuals high in positive schizotypy seemed to be employing a looser criterion (response bias) to determine what constituted a ‘meaningful’ image, while also being significantly less sensitive at the task than those low in positive schizotypy. Our results suggest that differences in perceptual performance for individuals high in positive schizotypy are not related to increased suggestibility or susceptibility to instruction, as had previously been suggested. Instead, the observed reductions in sensitivity along with increased response bias toward seeing something that is not there, indirectly implicated subtle neurophysiological differences associated with the personality dimension of schizotypy, that are theoretically pertinent to the continuum of schizophrenia and hallucination-proneness. PMID:26954696

  13. You Don't See What I See: Individual Differences in the Perception of Meaning from Visual Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Partos, Timea R; Cropper, Simon J; Rawlings, David

    2016-01-01

    Everyone has their own unique version of the visual world and there has been growing interest in understanding the way that personality shapes one's perception. Here, we investigated meaningful visual experiences in relation to the personality dimension of schizotypy. In a novel approach to this issue, a non-clinical sample of subjects (total n = 197) were presented with calibrated images of scenes, cartoons and faces of varying visibility embedded in noise; the spatial properties of the images were constructed to mimic the natural statistics of the environment. In two experiments, subjects were required to indicate what they saw in a large number of unique images, both with and without actual meaningful structure. The first experiment employed an open-ended response paradigm and used a variety of different images in noise; the second experiment only presented a series of faces embedded in noise, and required a forced-choice response from the subjects. The results in all conditions indicated that a high positive schizotypy score was associated with an increased tendency to perceive complex meaning in images comprised purely of random visual noise. Individuals high in positive schizotypy seemed to be employing a looser criterion (response bias) to determine what constituted a 'meaningful' image, while also being significantly less sensitive at the task than those low in positive schizotypy. Our results suggest that differences in perceptual performance for individuals high in positive schizotypy are not related to increased suggestibility or susceptibility to instruction, as had previously been suggested. Instead, the observed reductions in sensitivity along with increased response bias toward seeing something that is not there, indirectly implicated subtle neurophysiological differences associated with the personality dimension of schizotypy, that are theoretically pertinent to the continuum of schizophrenia and hallucination-proneness. PMID:26954696

  14. Chandra Sees Shape of Universe During Formative, Adolescent Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a snapshot of the adolescent universe from about five billion years ago when the familiar web-like structure of galaxy chains and voids first emerged. The observation reveals distant and massive galaxies dotting the sky, clustered together under the gravitational attraction of deep, unseen pockets of dark matter. This provides important clues of how the universe matured from its chaotic beginnings to its elegant structure we see today. These results are presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society at Mt. Tremblant, Quebec. "Piece by piece, we are assembling a photo album of the universe through the ages," said Yuxuan Yang, a doctorate candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park, who conducted the analysis. "Last month we saw a picture of the infant universe taken with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Now we can add a snapshot of its adolescence." The Chandra observation traced a patch of sky known as the Lockman Hole in the constellation Ursa Major (containing the Big Dipper). Chandra saw a rich density of active galaxies, seven times denser than what has been detected in previous optical and radio surveys at similar distances. This provides the clearest picture yet at the large-scale structure of the universe at such distances (and age), according to Dr. Richard Mushotzky of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who led the observation. Lockman Hole JPEG, TIFF, PS An image that has been "blurred" to allow better view of the structures outlined by the X-ray sources. The color represents the spectra of the AGN. The red color indicates the sources on average radiates at longer wavelength while green and blue colors indicates the sources radiates at shorter wavelength. The Green and blue regions appear to form a wall, or shows more lumpiness than the "red" sources. If one could capture the

  15. Chandra Sees Shape of Universe During Formative, Adolescent Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    Scientists using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have taken a snapshot of the adolescent universe from about five billion years ago when the familiar web-like structure of galaxy chains and voids first emerged. The observation reveals distant and massive galaxies dotting the sky, clustered together under the gravitational attraction of deep, unseen pockets of dark matter. This provides important clues of how the universe matured from its chaotic beginnings to its elegant structure we see today. These results are presented today in a press conference at the meeting of the High Energy Astrophysics Division of the American Astronomical Society at Mt. Tremblant, Quebec. "Piece by piece, we are assembling a photo album of the universe through the ages," said Yuxuan Yang, a doctorate candidate at the University of Maryland, College Park, who conducted the analysis. "Last month we saw a picture of the infant universe taken with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. Now we can add a snapshot of its adolescence." The Chandra observation traced a patch of sky known as the Lockman Hole in the constellation Ursa Major (containing the Big Dipper). Chandra saw a rich density of active galaxies, seven times denser than what has been detected in previous optical and radio surveys at similar distances. This provides the clearest picture yet at the large-scale structure of the universe at such distances (and age), according to Dr. Richard Mushotzky of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., who led the observation. Lockman Hole JPEG, TIFF, PS An image that has been "blurred" to allow better view of the structures outlined by the X-ray sources. The color represents the spectra of the AGN. The red color indicates the sources on average radiates at longer wavelength while green and blue colors indicates the sources radiates at shorter wavelength. The Green and blue regions appear to form a wall, or shows more lumpiness than the "red" sources. If one could capture the

  16. Hubble Sees Material Ejected From Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    These NASA Hubble Space Telescope pictures of comet Hale-Bopp show a remarkable 'pinwheel' pattern and a blob of free-flying debris near the nucleus. The bright clump of light along the spiral (above the nucleus, which is near the center of the frame) may be a piece of the comet's icy crust that was ejected into space by a combination of ice evaporation and the comet's rotation, and which then disintegrated into a bright cloud of particles.

    Although the 'blob' is about 3.5 times fainter than the brightest portion at the nucleus, the lump appears brighter because it covers a larger area. The debris follows a spiral pattern outward because the solid nucleus is rotating like a lawn sprinkler, completing a single rotation about once per week.

    Ground-based observations conducted over the past two months have documented at least two separate episodes of jet and pinwheel formation and fading. By coincidence, the first Hubble images of Hale-Bopp, taken on September 26, 1995, immediately followed one of these outbursts and allow researchers to examine it at unprecedented detail. For the first time they see a clear separation between the nucleus and some of the debris being shed. By putting together information from the Hubble images and those taken during the recent outburst using the 82 cm telescope of the Teide Observatory (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain), astronomers find that the debris is moving away from the nucleus at a speed (projected on the sky) of about 68 miles per hour (109 kilometers per hour).

    The Hubble observations will be used to determine if Hale-Bopp is really a giant comet or rather a more moderate-sized object whose current activity is driven by outgassing from a very volatile ice which will 'burn out' over the next year. Comet Hale-Bopp was discovered on July 23, 1995 by amateur astronomers Alan Hale and Thomas Bopp. Though this comet is still well outside the orbit of Jupiter (almost 600 million miles, or one billion kilometers from Earth

  17. ISO sees the pattern in the cosmic wallpaper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-07-01

    Two dozen distant galaxies that are undergoing a process of intense evolution --either merging to build larger ones or reaching their final shape-- have been detected by a team of French astronomers using the European Space Agency's ISO space telescope. These are the first individual objects known to contribute their energy to the bulk of the Cosmic Infrared Background, a radiation that fills the entire universe like a wallpaper, emitted at the era when galaxies were formed. The new-found distant galaxies are indeed like the 'pattern' in this 'cosmic wallpaper'. This discovery will for the first time enable scientists to test different theories of galaxy formation, and therefore to tackle a key problem of astronomy --the birth process of galaxies which has remained a mystery so far, mainly because current telescopes cannot reach that far back in time, about 12,000 million years ago. This obstacle has been partially overcome by the French team headed by Jean-Loup Puget, at the Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Paris, precisely because they searched for the primeval galaxies by focusing first on the study of the cosmic wallpaper, the 'Cosmic Infrared Background' (see note to editors below). This background glow that fills the whole universe is a by-product of the galaxy formation itself, a relic of the era when the first galaxies were being born. Its existence was predicted three decades ago and it was known to be detectable only at infrared wavelengths, as the dust enshrouding young galaxies causes them to be both opaque in visible light but bright at infrared wavelengths. However, this cosmic wallpaper turned out to be very dim: only two years ago Puget's team detected it after a careful analysis of data from NASA's COBE satellite. Once the 'Cosmic Infrared Background' had been found, the next step was to disentangle it into the sources contributing to it, that is, into the young galaxies in evolution or the 'pattern' in the wallpaper. The two dozen distant

  18. Proyecto para la medición sistemática de seeing en CASLEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández Lajus, E.; Forte, J. C.

    La calidad del seeing astronómico es ciertamente uno de los parámetros mas importantes que caracterizan el sitio de un observatorio. Por tanto se desea determinar si el alto valor de seeing observado con el telescopio de 2.15 m se debe a efectos internos y/o del entorno a la cupula o si se debe simplemente al seeing propio del lugar. El actual mecanismo de refrigeración del espejo primario del 2.15, parece haber mejorado notablemente la calidad del seeing. Sin embargo se hace necesario saber hasta que punto el valor del seeing puede ser mejorado. La primera etapa del proyecto consistió en la puesta a punto del telescopio emplazado para este propósito y la adquisición de las primeras medidas tentativas de seeing.

  19. Prototype for Long Wavelength Array Sees First Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    to that from a more traditional dish style telescope with a diameter of 70 feet. The antenna design, which resembles a household ceiling fan, with blades that have drooped down at an angle of 45 degrees, was conceived to allow the array to see the full sky and cover a wide range of frequencies with a single antenna "The sophisticated digital electronics used in the LWDA allow it to change observing frequency or point in a new direction in an instant, and even allow it to look in two directions at the same time," says Dr. Paul Ray, an astrophysicist at NRL who is overseeing the overall performance of the LWDA. When completed, the LWA will operate in a similar manner, but on a much grander scale. Plans call for over 13,000 individual antennas, divided into 50 stations. These stations will be spread over a 250-mile area across New Mexico, and possibly beyond. Dr. Ray explains, "With so many antennas required for the final LWA, it is vital that we have a testbed on which we can demonstrate the performance of a small number of them before construction of the full LWA begins in earnest." NRL's LWDA serves this purpose, allowing the astronomers and engineers to test the dipole antennas and related computer hardware and software on a small scale, before embarking on construction. The LWA, funding for which is managed by the Office of Naval Research, is a project of the Southwest Consortium, led by the University of New Mexico, and including NRL, ARL:UT, and Los Alamos National Laboratory, with important contributions from Virginia Tech and cooperation from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The NRAO is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  20. Seeing, Inquiring, Witnessing: Using the Equity Audit in Practitioner Inquiry to Rethink Inequity in Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groenke, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    In "Letters to a Young Teacher," Jonathan Kozol (2007) describes the need for teachers to "speak out as witnesses to the injustices they see each day in public schools" (p. 93). Sometimes beginning teachers need help learning to see injustices, as well as in making sense of the sociopolitical systems of which schooling is a part. Or, as in the…

  1. 76 FR 50752 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request for the Landslide Report: Did You See It?

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Comments On December 9, 2010 we published a Federal Register notice (75 FR 76752) announcing that we would... Geological Survey Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request for the Landslide Report: Did You See It... information collection request (ICR) for the USGS Landslide Hazards Program's Landslide Report: Did You See...

  2. The use of stimulated electron emission (SEE) in homeland security applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ing, H.; Andrews, H. R.; Facina, M.; Lee, W. T.; Niu, H. W.

    2012-06-01

    Certain insulating solids can store a fraction of the absorbed energy when irradiated by ionizing radiation. The stored energy can be released subsequently by heating or optical stimulation. As a result, light may be emitted through Thermoluminescence (TL) or Optically-Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) and electrons may be emitted through Thermally-Stimulated Electron Emission (TSEE) or Optically-Stimulated Electron Emission (OSEE). TL and OSL are widely used in current radiation dosimetry systems. However, despite considerable research effort during the early 1970s, SEE was not commonly adopted for dosimetry applications. One of the main reasons is that SEE is a surface phenomenon, while luminescence is a bulk phenomenon, making SEE more susceptible to humidity, absorption of gases, minor physical defects and handling, both before and after irradiation. Nevertheless, it has been recognized that SEE may be useful for homeland security applications in nuclear forensics, where dose accuracy is not the primary performance metric. In this research, we are investigating the use of SEE for nuclear forensic applications. Many common materials, both natural and man-made, exhibit the phenomenon, providing an opportunity to use the environment itself as an in-situ radiation detector. We have designed and constructed a unique prototype reader for conducting SEE measurements. We have demonstrated that the SEE measurements from a variety of materials are quantitatively reproducible and correlated to radiation exposure. Due to the broad applicability of SEE, significant additional studies are warranted to optimize this novel technique for nuclear forensic and other applications.

  3. 29 CFR 1917.22 - Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... § 1917.2(p)). 2 The Department of Transportation and the United States Coast Guard apply requirements related to handling, storing and transportation of hazardous cargo (see 33 CFR part 126, 46 CFR, 49 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)). 1917.22 Section...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.22 - Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 1917.2(p)). 2 The Department of Transportation and the United States Coast Guard apply requirements related to handling, storing and transportation of hazardous cargo (see 33 CFR part 126, 46 CFR, 49 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)). 1917.22 Section...

  5. 29 CFR 1917.22 - Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... § 1917.2(p)). 2 The Department of Transportation and the United States Coast Guard apply requirements related to handling, storing and transportation of hazardous cargo (see 33 CFR part 126, 46 CFR, 49 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)). 1917.22 Section...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.22 - Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 1917.2(p)). 2 The Department of Transportation and the United States Coast Guard apply requirements related to handling, storing and transportation of hazardous cargo (see 33 CFR part 126, 46 CFR, 49 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)). 1917.22 Section...

  7. 29 CFR 1917.22 - Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... § 1917.2(p)). 2 The Department of Transportation and the United States Coast Guard apply requirements related to handling, storing and transportation of hazardous cargo (see 33 CFR part 126, 46 CFR, 49 CFR... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous cargo 2 (See § 1917.2(p)). 1917.22 Section...

  8. Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See

    ScienceCinema

    Lienhard, John [NPR, United States

    2016-07-12

    Public radio host Dr. John Lienhard gives a talk titled "Eye of the Forehead and Eye of the Mind: How Engineers and Scientists See". Lienhard contends that spatial visualization is the subtlest of abilities. In his talk, he traces its evolution through the past five centuries and explains how remarkable aids to seeing may have been placing mental visualization under threat.

  9. 29 CFR 1918.93 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2... Conditions. § 1918.93 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2). (a) Purpose and scope. This section covers areas in which the employer knows, or has reason to believe, that a hazardous atmosphere...

  10. 29 CFR 1918.93 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2... Conditions. § 1918.93 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2). (a) Purpose and scope. This section covers areas in which the employer knows, or has reason to believe, that a hazardous atmosphere...

  11. 29 CFR 1918.93 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2... Conditions. § 1918.93 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2). (a) Purpose and scope. This section covers areas in which the employer knows, or has reason to believe, that a hazardous atmosphere...

  12. 29 CFR 1918.93 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2... Conditions. § 1918.93 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2). (a) Purpose and scope. This section covers areas in which the employer knows, or has reason to believe, that a hazardous atmosphere...

  13. The Role of the Holy See in Fostering the Identity of Catholic Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    The Holy See plays an important role in encouraging the 1300 Catholic universities around the world to appropriate more fully their freely chosen Catholic identity. I use the word "identity" rather than "mission" because this follows the terminology most frequently used in documents from the Holy See. In this article, I discuss how the Holy See…

  14. 29 CFR 1918.97 - First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of... LONGSHORING General Working Conditions. § 1918.97 First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this... injury, regardless of severity, to the employer. (b) First aid. A first aid kit shall be available at...

  15. 29 CFR 1918.97 - First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of... LONGSHORING General Working Conditions. § 1918.97 First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this... injury, regardless of severity, to the employer. (b) First aid. A first aid kit shall be available at...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.97 - First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of... LONGSHORING General Working Conditions. § 1918.97 First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this... injury, regardless of severity, to the employer. (b) First aid. A first aid kit shall be available at...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.93 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2... Conditions. § 1918.93 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (See also § 1918.2). (a) Purpose and scope. This section covers areas in which the employer knows, or has reason to believe, that a hazardous atmosphere...

  18. Conservation of the Ustilago maydis effector See1 in related smuts.

    PubMed

    Redkar, Amey; Villajuana-Bonequi, Mitzi; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic fungus that induces formation of tumors in maize (Zea mays L). In a recent study we identified See1 (Seedling efficient effector 1) as an U. maydis organ-specific effector required for tumor formation in leaves. See1 is required for U. maydis induced reactivation of plant DNA synthesis during leaf tumor progression. The protein is secreted from biotrophic hyphae and localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus of plant cell. See1 interacts with maize SGT1, a cell cycle and immune regulator, interfering with its MAPK-triggered phosphorylation. Here, we present new data on the conservation of See1 in other closely related smuts and experimental data on the functionality of See1 ortholog in Ustilago hordei, the causal agent of barley covered smut disease. PMID:26357869

  19. Conservation of the Ustilago maydis effector See1 in related smuts

    PubMed Central

    Redkar, Amey; Villajuana- Bonequi, Mitzi; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic fungus that induces formation of tumors in maize (Zea mays L). In a recent study we identified See1 (Seedling efficient effector 1) as an U. maydis organ-specific effector required for tumor formation in leaves. See1 is required for U. maydis induced reactivation of plant DNA synthesis during leaf tumor progression. The protein is secreted from biotrophic hyphae and localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus of plant cell. See1 interacts with maize SGT1, a cell cycle and immune regulator, interfering with its MAPK-triggered phosphorylation. Here, we present new data on the conservation of See1 in other closely related smuts and experimental data on the functionality of See1 ortholog in Ustilago hordei, the causal agent of barley covered smut disease. PMID:26357869

  20. Seeing the body produces limb-specific modulation of skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Sadibolova, Renata; Longo, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Vision of the body, even when non-informative about stimulation, affects somatosensory processing. We investigated whether seeing the body also modulates autonomic control in the periphery by measuring skin temperature while manipulating vision. Using a mirror box, the skin temperature was measured from left hand dorsum while participants: (i) had the illusion of seeing their left hand, (ii) had the illusion of seeing an object at the same location or (iii) looked directly at their contralateral right hand. Skin temperature of the left hand increased when participants had the illusion of directly seeing that hand but not in the other two view conditions. In experiment 2, participants viewed directly their left or right hand, or the box while we recorded both hand dorsum temperatures. Temperature increased in the viewed hand but not the contralateral hand. These results show that seeing the body produces limb-specific modulation of thermal regulation.

  1. Conservation of the Ustilago maydis effector See1 in related smuts.

    PubMed

    Redkar, Amey; Villajuana-Bonequi, Mitzi; Doehlemann, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    Ustilago maydis is a biotrophic fungus that induces formation of tumors in maize (Zea mays L). In a recent study we identified See1 (Seedling efficient effector 1) as an U. maydis organ-specific effector required for tumor formation in leaves. See1 is required for U. maydis induced reactivation of plant DNA synthesis during leaf tumor progression. The protein is secreted from biotrophic hyphae and localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus of plant cell. See1 interacts with maize SGT1, a cell cycle and immune regulator, interfering with its MAPK-triggered phosphorylation. Here, we present new data on the conservation of See1 in other closely related smuts and experimental data on the functionality of See1 ortholog in Ustilago hordei, the causal agent of barley covered smut disease.

  2. Volcano-tectonic structures and CO2-degassing patterns in the Laacher See basin, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goepel, Andreas; Lonschinski, Martin; Viereck, Lothar; Büchel, Georg; Kukowski, Nina

    2015-07-01

    The Laacher See Volcano is the youngest (12,900 year BP) eruption center of the Quarternary East-Eifel Volcanic Field in Germany and has formed Laacher See, the largest volcanic lake in the Eifel area. New bathymetric data of Laacher See were acquired by an echo sounder system and merged with topographic light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data of the Laacher See Volcano area to form an integrated digital elevation model. This model provides detailed morphological information about the volcano basin and results of sediment transport therein. Morphological analysis of Laacher See Volcano indicates a steep inner crater wall (slope up to 30°) which opens to the south. The Laacher See basin is divided into a deep northern and a shallower southern part. The broader lower slopes inclined with up to 25° change to the almost flat central part (maximum water depth of 51 m) with a narrow transition zone. Erosion processes of the crater wall result in deposition of volcaniclastics as large deltas in the lake basin. A large subaqueous slide was identified at the northeastern part of the lake. CO2-degassing vents (wet mofettes) of Laacher See were identified by a single-beam echo sounder system through gas bubbles in the water column. These are more frequent in the northern part of the lake, where wet mofettes spread in a nearly circular-shaped pattern, tracing the crater rim of the northern eruption center of the Laacher See Volcano. Additionally, preferential paths for gas efflux distributed concentrically inside the crater rim are possibly related to volcano-tectonic faults. In the southern part of Laacher See, CO2 vents occur in a high spatial density only within the center of the arc-shaped structure Barschbuckel possibly tracing the conduit of a tuff ring.

  3. Seeing Rust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The rust color of the Martian landscape is apparent in this low-resolution thumbnail image taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. This image is part of a larger image currently stored onboard the rover in its memory.

  4. See Attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. Scott

    2003-01-01

    Since e-mail generates itself on a round-the-clock, daily basis, it's not unusual for me to receive an average of fifty e-mails a day, or more than 300 a week. That s a lot of e-mail. I have spoken with many of my fellow project managers about my relationship with e-mail. In my case, reading and responding to it is a temptation almost too hard to resist. When I receive an e-mail I tend to want to stop everything I m doing, and open and answer it. Indeed, in my life you could say e-mail is a force to be reckoned with. Interestingly, my fascination with mail began a long time ago. I trace it back to my days as a young boy when I started receiving my first letters from friends and family. Walking home from school, I was often filled with curiosity, wondering if I had received any mail that day. In college, I knew the exact time the mail was delivered, and I headed for my mailbox as close to that hour as I could. After that, I served in an Army Reserve Post Office Unit, where I came to realize how important a postal unit was to the military. There were many others like myself, far from home, who relied on the written word to stay connected to the people in their lives. Over the years I have changed in many ways, and so has the mail. But the same sense of connection, and the same urge to respond to someone who has written me, remains. The 24/7 nature of e-mail has compounded the situation. It is relentless in its pursuit of my time and attention-and, as such, e-mail has become something I have had to manage in a variety of situations

  5. Seeing Red

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galuszka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study by the National Association of College and University Business Officers and Commonfund Institute that reveals increasing debt further threatens the financial security of U.S. colleges and universities in the aftermath of the recession. Debt increases rapidly as endowments drop and deficit-racked state governments…

  6. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  7. Seeing rainbows.

    PubMed

    Hunt, D M

    2001-04-01

    Mammals generally have colour vision inferior to that of other vertebrates. This is partially redressed in primates, but the underlying mechanisms differ in Old World and New World primate groups. How has this occurred and what were the key events in the molecular evolution of primate colour vision? PMID:11313537

  8. 5. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, NITROGEN MACHINERY, MACHINERY ROOM (SEE N4) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, NITROGEN MACHINERY, MACHINERY ROOM (SEE N-4) FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE, LOOKING EAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  9. A high-resolution optical see-through head-mounted display with eyetracking capability.

    PubMed

    Hua, Hong; Hu, Xinda; Gao, Chunyu

    2013-12-16

    A head-mounted display system with fully-integrated eyetracking capability offers multi-fold benefits, not only to fundamental scientific research but also to emerging applications of such technology. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art eyetracked head-mounted display (ET-HMD) technology is the lack of compactness and portability. In this paper, we present an innovative design of a high resolution optical see-through ET-HMD system based on freeform optical technology. A prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view and true high-definition image resolution for the virtual display. The see-through view, via the combination of a freeform prism and corrector, achieved better than 0.5 arc minute of angular resolution for the central region of approximately 40-degrees to ensure minimal impacts on the see-through vision of an HMD user.

  10. 76 FR 16851 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Seeing Gertrude Stein...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Seeing Gertrude Stein: Five Stories... Gertrude Stein: Five Stories,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States,...

  11. Children's working understanding of the knowledge gained from seeing and feeling.

    PubMed

    Robinson, E J; Haigh, S N; Pendle, J E C

    2008-03-01

    In three experiments (N = 48 3- to 4-year olds; 100 3- to 5-year olds; 54 4-year-olds), children who could see or feel a target toy, recognized when they had sufficient information to answer 'Which one is it?' and when they needed additional access. They were weaker at taking the informative modality of access when the choice was between seeing more of a partially visible toy and feeling it; at doing so when the target was completely hidden; and at reporting seeing or feeling as their source of knowledge of the target's identity having experienced both. Working understanding of the knowledge gained from seeing and feeling (identifying the target efficiently) was not necessarily in advance of explicit understanding (reporting the informative source). PMID:18333983

  12. Respect: What You See Is What He Gets. Listening and Learning in East Harlem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmberg, David

    2001-01-01

    Describes the work of legally blind gym teacher Steve Sloan, asserting that he sees and shares the big picture in teaching and molding his elementary school students. In his class, challenges are viewed as opportunities. (EV)

  13. Does the HIPAA Privacy Rule Allow Parents the Right to See Their Children's Medical Records?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does the HIPAA Privacy Rule allow parents the right to see their children’s medical records? Answer: Yes, ... your contact information below. Email Office for Civil Rights Headquarters U.S. Department of Health & Human Services 200 ...

  14. 29 CFR 1918.25 - Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86). 1918.25... Means of Access § 1918.25 Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86). (a) Bridge and car plates (dockboards). Bridge and car plates used afloat shall be well maintained and shall: (1) Be strong enough...

  15. 29 CFR 1918.25 - Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86). 1918.25... Means of Access § 1918.25 Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86). (a) Bridge and car plates (dockboards). Bridge and car plates used afloat shall be well maintained and shall: (1) Be strong enough...

  16. 29 CFR 1918.25 - Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86). 1918.25... Means of Access § 1918.25 Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86). (a) Bridge and car plates (dockboards). Bridge and car plates used afloat shall be well maintained and shall: (1) Be strong enough...

  17. 29 CFR 1918.25 - Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86). 1918.25... Means of Access § 1918.25 Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86). (a) Bridge and car plates (dockboards). Bridge and car plates used afloat shall be well maintained and shall: (1) Be strong enough...

  18. 29 CFR 1918.25 - Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86). 1918.25... Means of Access § 1918.25 Bridge plates and ramps (See also § 1918.86). (a) Bridge and car plates (dockboards). Bridge and car plates used afloat shall be well maintained and shall: (1) Be strong enough...

  19. Preliminary Report on Optical Seeing Tests at Mt. Lemmon, March - June 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyne, G. V.

    1972-01-01

    One of the Lick Observatory Polaris telescopes was used to test seeing conditions at Mt. Lemmon. The preliminary results indicate that the seeing is not unlike that at Kitt Peak. Soundings of the air flow patterns across Mt. Lemmon under winter conditions were also made by flying smoke pots on tethered ballons to elevations of 500 feet. There does not appear to be any serious local turbulence.

  20. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER21DE12.003...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER07JA04.007...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER21DE12.003...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER07JA04.007...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 23 to Part 679 - Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) 23 Figure 23 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND... ALASKA Pt. 679, Fig. 23 Figure 23 to Part 679—Salmon Management Area (see § 679.2) ER07JA04.007...

  5. Study abroad experience is related to Japanese doctors' behavior to see foreign patients.

    PubMed

    Tamamaki, Kinko; Nishio, Hisahide

    2013-01-01

    Globalization in Japan involves increases in the number of foreign residents. While there are some English-speaking Japanese doctors that are willing to see foreign patients, many are reluctant to do so. In this study, we attempted to clarify the factors that encourage Japanese doctors to see foreign patients. We conducted a questionnaire survey among medical doctors in Kobe City, Japan. The questionnaire was distributed to 172 doctors, and we received 139 responses. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the frequency of seeing foreign patients and having the experience of studying abroad (p<0.05), confirming our hypothesis. There was also a significant correlation between having the experience of studying abroad and the doctors' self-evaluations of their English ability (p<0.05). There was no significant correlation found, however, between the frequency of seeing foreign patients and that of reading English research articles. These data suggested that the experience of living abroad rather than the exposure to English research articles was more highly correlated with seeing greater numbers of foreign patients. In conclusion, greater exposure to colloquial English was one of the determinants of the doctors' greater willingness to see foreign patients. In the Japanese medical education curriculum, therefore, it would be necessary to offer alternatives to studying abroad for those students who do not have such opportunities. PMID:23756658

  6. Study abroad experience is related to Japanese doctors' behavior to see foreign patients.

    PubMed

    Tamamaki, Kinko; Nishio, Hisahide

    2013-04-17

    Globalization in Japan involves increases in the number of foreign residents. While there are some English-speaking Japanese doctors that are willing to see foreign patients, many are reluctant to do so. In this study, we attempted to clarify the factors that encourage Japanese doctors to see foreign patients. We conducted a questionnaire survey among medical doctors in Kobe City, Japan. The questionnaire was distributed to 172 doctors, and we received 139 responses. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the frequency of seeing foreign patients and having the experience of studying abroad (p<0.05), confirming our hypothesis. There was also a significant correlation between having the experience of studying abroad and the doctors' self-evaluations of their English ability (p<0.05). There was no significant correlation found, however, between the frequency of seeing foreign patients and that of reading English research articles. These data suggested that the experience of living abroad rather than the exposure to English research articles was more highly correlated with seeing greater numbers of foreign patients. In conclusion, greater exposure to colloquial English was one of the determinants of the doctors' greater willingness to see foreign patients. In the Japanese medical education curriculum, therefore, it would be necessary to offer alternatives to studying abroad for those students who do not have such opportunities.

  7. Bistable light shutter using dye-doped liquid crystals for a see-through display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huh, Jae-Won; Heo, Joon; Yu, Byeong-Huh; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2016-03-01

    See-through displays have got high attention as one of the next generation display devices. Especially, see-through displays that use organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been actively studied. However, a see-through display using OLEDs cannot provide black color because of their see-through area. Although a see-through display using LCDs can provide black color with crossed polarizers, it cannot block the background. This inevitable problem can be solved by placing a light shutter at the back of a see-through display. To maintain the transparent or opaque state, an electric field must be applied to a light shutter. To achieve low power consumption, a bistable light shutter using polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) has been proposed. It is switchable between the translucent and transparent states only. Therefore, it cannot provide black color. Moreover, it cannot block the background perfectly because of poor performance in the translucent state. In this work we will introduce a bistable light shutter using dye-doped CLCs. To improve the electro-optic characteristics in the opaque state, we employed a crossed electrode structure instead of a parallel one. We will demonstrate that the light shutter can exhibit stable bistable operation between the transparent homeotropic and opaque focal-conic states thanks to polymer stabilization.

  8. Early changes in system [Formula: see text] and glutathione in the retina of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Carpi-Santos, Raul; Ferreira, Marcos Josf; Pereira Netto, Annibal Duarte; Giestal-de-Araujo, Elizabeth; Ventura, Ana Lucia Marques; Cossenza, Marcelo; Calaza, Karin C

    2016-05-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR), the main cause of blindness among diabetic patients, affects both neuronal and vascular cells of the retina. Studies show that neuronal cell death begins after 4 weeks of diabetes and could be related with an increase in oxidative stress. System [Formula: see text] is a glutamate/cystine exchanger, formed by a catalytic subunit called xCT and a regulatory subunit 4F2hc, whose activity is crucial to the synthesis of glutathione, which is a key antioxidant molecule for cells. Although some studies have shown that glutamate transport mediated by excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) in diabetic rats is downregulated, there are no studies investigating system [Formula: see text] in this context. To evaluate whether system [Formula: see text] is modified by early onset of diabetes, primary retinal cell culture exposed to high glucose and retinas of rats 3 weeks after streptozotocin injection were used. We observed that xCT subunit protein expression both in cultures and in vivo were diminished. Furthermore, system [Formula: see text] activity and GSH levels were also decreased whereas oxidative stress was increased in retinas of diabetic animals. Therefore, this study raises the possibility that alterations in system [Formula: see text] expression and activity could occur during early onset of diabetes. In that way, system [Formula: see text] modifications could be related to increased ROS in diabetic retinopathy. PMID:26706282

  9. Real-Time Radiometric Compensation for Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    PubMed

    Langlotz, Tobias; Cook, Matthew; Regenbrecht, Holger

    2016-11-01

    Optical see-through head-mounted displays are currently seeing a transition out of research labs towards the consumer-oriented market. However, whilst availability has improved and prices have decreased, the technology has not matured much. Most commercially available optical see-through head mounted displays follow a similar principle and use an optical combiner blending the physical environment with digital information. This approach yields problems as the colors for the overlaid digital information can not be correctly reproduced. The perceived pixel colors are always a result of the displayed pixel color and the color of the current physical environment seen through the head-mounted display. In this paper we present an initial approach for mitigating the effect of color-blending in optical see-through head-mounted displays by introducing a real-time radiometric compensation. Our approach is based on a novel prototype for an optical see-through head-mounted display that allows the capture of the current environment as seen by the user's eye. We present three different algorithms using this prototype to compensate color blending in real-time and with pixel-accuracy. We demonstrate the benefits and performance as well as the results of a user study. We see application for all common Augmented Reality scenarios but also for other areas such as Diminished Reality or supporting color-blind people. PMID:27479973

  10. Seeing How Children See Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb; Baird, Lorrie

    2011-01-01

    Children have laser-like attention for everything teachers do and say. They are skillful social scientists, learning about themselves, relationships, and the world by carefully observing the people around them. As keen observers, children notice the smallest details of a teacher's body language, tone of voice, and movements. Teachers' interactions…

  11. Test Methodology for Characterizing the SEE Sensitivity of a Commercial IEEE 1394 Serial Bus (FireWire)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seidleck, C.; Kim, H.; Buchner, S.; Marshall, P. W.; LaBel, K.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Single Event Effect (SEE) responses of two FireWire serial buses based on the IEEE 1394 standard were tested with heavy ions and protons. A unique approach to testing and categorizing the SEEs is presented.

  12. Preliminary DIMM and MASS Nighttime Seeing Measurements at PEARL in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbring, Eric; Millar-Blanchaer, Max; Ngan, Wayne; Murowinski, Rick; Leckie, Brian; Carlberg, Ray

    2013-07-01

    Results of deploying a differential image motion monitor (DIMM) and a DIMM combined with a multiaperture scintillation sensor (MASS/DIMM) are reported for campaigns in 2011 and 2012 on the roof of the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL). This facility is on a 610 m high ridge at latitude 80°N, near the Eureka weather station on Ellesmere Island, Canada. The median seeing at 8 m elevation is 0''.85 or better based on DIMM data alone, but is dependent on wind direction and likely includes a component due to the PEARL building itself. Results with MASS/DIMM yield a median seeing less than 0''.76. A semiempirical model of seeing versus ground wind speed is introduced which allows agreement between these datasets, and with previous boundary-layer profiling by lunar scintillometry from the same location. This further suggests that best 20th percentile seeing reaches 0''.53, of which typically 0''.30 is due to the free atmosphere. Some discussion for guiding future seeing instrumentation and characterization at this site is provided.

  13. ClearSee: a rapid optical clearing reagent for whole-plant fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kurihara, Daisuke; Mizuta, Yoko; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Imaging techniques for visualizing and analyzing precise morphology and gene expression patterns are essential for understanding biological processes during development in all organisms. With the aid of chemical screening, we developed a clearing method using chemical solutions, termed ClearSee, for deep imaging of morphology and gene expression in plant tissues. ClearSee rapidly diminishes chlorophyll autofluorescence while maintaining fluorescent protein stability. By adjusting the refractive index mismatch, whole-organ and whole-plant imaging can be performed by both confocal and two-photon excitation microscopy in ClearSee-treated samples. Moreover, ClearSee is applicable to multicolor imaging of fluorescent proteins to allow structural analysis of multiple gene expression. Given that ClearSee is compatible with staining by chemical dyes, the technique is useful for deep imaging in conjunction with genetic markers and for plant species not amenable to transgenic approaches. This method is useful for whole imaging for intact morphology and will help to accelerate the discovery of new phenomena in plant biological research. PMID:26493404

  14. Development of COTS ADC SEE Test System for the ATLAS LArCalorimeter Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xue -Ye; Chen, Hu -Cheng; Chen, Kai; Mead, Joseph; Liu, Shu -Bin; An, Qi

    2014-12-01

    Radiation-tolerant, high speed, high density and low power commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are planned to be used in the upgrade to the Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter front end (FE) trigger readout electronics. Total ionization dose (TID) and single event effect (SEE) are two important radiation effects which need to be characterized on COTS ADCs. In our initial TID test, Texas Instruments (TI) ADS5272 was identified to be the top performer after screening a total 17 COTS ADCs from different manufacturers with dynamic range and sampling rate meeting the requirements of the FE electronics. Another interesting feature of ADS5272 is its 6.5 clock cycles latency, which is the shortest among the 17 candidates. Based on the TID performance, we have designed a SEE evaluation system for ADS5272, which allows us to further assess its radiation tolerance. In this paper, we present a detailed design of ADS5272 SEE evaluation system and show the effectiveness of this system while evaluating ADS5272 SEE characteristics in multiple irradiation tests. According to TID and SEE test results, ADS5272 was chosen to be implemented in the full-size LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) demonstrator, which will be installed on ATLAS calorimeter during the 2014 Long Shutdown 1 (LS1).

  15. Development of COTS ADC SEE Test System for the ATLAS LArCalorimeter Upgrade

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Xue -Ye; Chen, Hu -Cheng; Chen, Kai; Mead, Joseph; Liu, Shu -Bin; An, Qi

    2014-12-01

    Radiation-tolerant, high speed, high density and low power commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) are planned to be used in the upgrade to the Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeter front end (FE) trigger readout electronics. Total ionization dose (TID) and single event effect (SEE) are two important radiation effects which need to be characterized on COTS ADCs. In our initial TID test, Texas Instruments (TI) ADS5272 was identified to be the top performer after screening a total 17 COTS ADCs from different manufacturers with dynamic range and sampling rate meeting the requirements of the FE electronics. Another interesting feature of ADS5272more » is its 6.5 clock cycles latency, which is the shortest among the 17 candidates. Based on the TID performance, we have designed a SEE evaluation system for ADS5272, which allows us to further assess its radiation tolerance. In this paper, we present a detailed design of ADS5272 SEE evaluation system and show the effectiveness of this system while evaluating ADS5272 SEE characteristics in multiple irradiation tests. According to TID and SEE test results, ADS5272 was chosen to be implemented in the full-size LAr Trigger Digitizer Board (LTDB) demonstrator, which will be installed on ATLAS calorimeter during the 2014 Long Shutdown 1 (LS1).« less

  16. You are so beautiful... to me: seeing beyond biases and achieving accuracy in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Brittany C; Vazire, Simine

    2014-09-01

    Do romantic partners see each other realistically, or do they have overly positive perceptions of each other? Research has shown that realism and positivity co-exist in romantic partners' perceptions (Boyes & Fletcher, 2007). The current study takes a novel approach to explaining this seemingly paradoxical effect when it comes to physical attractiveness--a highly evaluative trait that is especially relevant to romantic relationships. Specifically, we argue that people are aware that others do not see their partners as positively as they do. Using both mean differences and correlational approaches, we test the hypothesis that despite their own biased and idiosyncratic perceptions, people have 2 types of partner-knowledge: insight into how their partners see themselves (i.e., identity accuracy) and insight into how others see their partners (i.e., reputation accuracy). Our results suggest that romantic partners have some awareness of each other's identity and reputation for physical attractiveness, supporting theories that couple members' perceptions are driven by motives to fulfill both esteem- and epistemic-related needs (i.e., to see their partners positively and realistically). PMID:25133729

  17. Quantitative evaluation on internal seeing induced by heat-stop of solar telescope.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yangyi; Gu, Naiting; Rao, Changhui

    2015-07-27

    heat-stop is one of the essential thermal control devices of solar telescope. The internal seeing induced by its temperature rise will degrade the imaging quality significantly. For quantitative evaluation on internal seeing, an integrated analysis method based on computational fluid dynamics and geometric optics is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the temperature field of the heat-affected zone induced by heat-stop temperature rise is obtained by the method of computational fluid dynamics calculation. Secondly, the temperature field is transformed to refractive index field by corresponding equations. Thirdly, the wavefront aberration induced by internal seeing is calculated by geometric optics based on optical integration in the refractive index field. This integrated method is applied in the heat-stop of the Chinese Large Solar Telescope to quantitatively evaluate its internal seeing. The analytical results show that the maximum acceptable temperature rise of heat-stop is up to 5 Kelvins above the ambient air at any telescope pointing directions under the condition that the root-mean-square of wavefront aberration induced by internal seeing is less than 25nm. Furthermore, it is found that the magnitude of wavefront aberration gradually increases with the increase of heat-stop temperature rise for a certain telescope pointing direction. Meanwhile, with the variation of telescope pointing varying from the horizontal to the vertical direction, the magnitude of wavefront aberration decreases at first and then increases for the same heat-stop temperature rise.

  18. ClearSee: a rapid optical clearing reagent for whole-plant fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Daisuke; Mizuta, Yoko; Sato, Yoshikatsu; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2015-12-01

    Imaging techniques for visualizing and analyzing precise morphology and gene expression patterns are essential for understanding biological processes during development in all organisms. With the aid of chemical screening, we developed a clearing method using chemical solutions, termed ClearSee, for deep imaging of morphology and gene expression in plant tissues. ClearSee rapidly diminishes chlorophyll autofluorescence while maintaining fluorescent protein stability. By adjusting the refractive index mismatch, whole-organ and whole-plant imaging can be performed by both confocal and two-photon excitation microscopy in ClearSee-treated samples. Moreover, ClearSee is applicable to multicolor imaging of fluorescent proteins to allow structural analysis of multiple gene expression. Given that ClearSee is compatible with staining by chemical dyes, the technique is useful for deep imaging in conjunction with genetic markers and for plant species not amenable to transgenic approaches. This method is useful for whole imaging for intact morphology and will help to accelerate the discovery of new phenomena in plant biological research. PMID:26493404

  19. The Upper Laacher See Tephra in Lake Geneva sediments: Paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatological implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moscariello, A.; Costa, F.

    1997-01-01

    Microstratigraphical analysis of Late glacial lacustrine sediments from Geneva Bay provided evidence of a tephra layer within the upper Aller??d biozone. The layer consists of alkali feldspar, quartz, plagioclase. amphibole, pyroxene, opaques, titanite and glass shards. Electron microprobe analyses and morphological study of glass shards allowed correlation with the upper part of the Laacher See Tephra of the Laacher See volcano (Eifel Mountains, Germany). Sedimentological features of enclosing lacustrine sediments suggest that a momentary decrease in precipitation occurred in the catchment area and consequent reduction in detrital supply in the lake, after the ash fall-out. This has been interpreted as the environmental response to a momentary cooling following the Laacher See Tephra aerosols emission. Comparison with Sedimentological features characterizing the Aller??d-Younger Dryas transition highlights the sensitivity of Lake Geneva system in recording both short and long-terms climate-induced environmental changes.

  20. The first see-through frog created by breeding: description, inheritance patterns, and dermal chromatophore structure.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Masayuki; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Igawa, Takeshi; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Furukawa, Yukari; Sano, Naomi; Fujii, Tamotsu; Yoshizaki, Norio

    2016-04-15

    We have succeeded in creating see-through frogs from natural color mutants of the Japanese brown frog Rana japonica, which usually possesses an ochre or brown back; this coloration enables the organs, blood vessels, and eggs to be observed through the skin without performing dissection. We crossed two kinds of recessive color mutant (black-eyed and gray-eyed) frogs through artificial insemination, and F2 offspring produced frogs whose skin is translucent throughout the life cycle. Three kinds of dermal chromatophores--xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores--are observed in a layered arrangement in the skin of wild-type frogs, but few chromatophores were present in the skin of the see-through frogs. The translucent skin enables observation of organ growth and cancer formation and progression in the animal, which can be monitored over its entire life without the need for dissection. See-through frogs thus provide a useful animal model for environmental, medical, and biological research.

  1. SEE: structured representation of scientific evidence in the biomedical domain using Semantic Web techniques

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Accounts of evidence are vital to evaluate and reproduce scientific findings and integrate data on an informed basis. Currently, such accounts are often inadequate, unstandardized and inaccessible for computational knowledge engineering even though computational technologies, among them those of the semantic web, are ever more employed to represent, disseminate and integrate biomedical data and knowledge. Results We present SEE (Semantic EvidencE), an RDF/OWL based approach for detailed representation of evidence in terms of the argumentative structure of the supporting background for claims even in complex settings. We derive design principles and identify minimal components for the representation of evidence. We specify the Reasoning and Discourse Ontology (RDO), an OWL representation of the model of scientific claims, their subjects, their provenance and their argumentative relations underlying the SEE approach. We demonstrate the application of SEE and illustrate its design patterns in a case study by providing an expressive account of the evidence for certain claims regarding the isolation of the enzyme glutamine synthetase. Conclusions SEE is suited to provide coherent and computationally accessible representations of evidence-related information such as the materials, methods, assumptions, reasoning and information sources used to establish a scientific finding by adopting a consistently claim-based perspective on scientific results and their evidence. SEE allows for extensible evidence representations, in which the level of detail can be adjusted and which can be extended as needed. It supports representation of arbitrary many consecutive layers of interpretation and attribution and different evaluations of the same data. SEE and its underlying model could be a valuable component in a variety of use cases that require careful representation or examination of evidence for data presented on the semantic web or in other formats. PMID:25093070

  2. (See symbol in text) in early modern discussions of the passions: Stoicism, Christianity and natural history.

    PubMed

    Kraye, Jill

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions.

  3. From LDEF to a national Space Environment and Effects (SEE) program: A natural progression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, David E.; Calloway, Robert L.; Funk, Joan G.; Kinard, William H.; Levine, Arlene S.

    1995-01-01

    As the LDEF program draws to a close, it leaves in place the fundamental building blocks for a Space Environment and Effects (SEE) program. Results from LDEF data analyses and investigations now form a substantial core of knowledge on the long term effects of the space environment on materials, system and structures. In addition, these investigations form the basic structure of a critically-needed SEE archive and database system. An agency-wide effort is required to capture all elements of a SEE program to provide a more comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment, determining the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, updating the models which predict both the environments and those effects on subsystems and spacecraft, and, finally, ensuring that this multitudinous information is properly maintained, and inserted into spacecraft design programs. Many parts and pieces of a SEE program already exist at various locations to fulfill specific needs. The primary purpose of this program, under the direction of the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in NASA Headquarters, is to take advantage of these parts; apply synergisms where possible; identify and when possible fill-in gaps; coordinate and advocate a comprehensive SEE program. The SEE program must coordinate and support the efforts of well-established technical communities wherein the bulk of the work will continue to be done. The SEE program will consist of a NASA-led SEE Steering Committee, consisting of government and industry users, with the responsibility for coordination between technology developers and NASA customers; and Technical Working Groups with primary responsibility for program technical content in response to user needs. The Technical Working Groups are as follows: Materials and Processes; Plasma and Fields; Ionizing Radiation; Meteoroids and Orbital Debris; Neutral External Contamination; Thermosphere, Thermal, and Solar

  4. Spacecraft Charging Calculations: NASCAP-2K and SEE Spacecraft Charging Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, V. A.; Neergaard, L. F.; Mandell, M. J.; Katz, I.; Gardner, B. M.; Hilton, J. M.; Minor, J.

    2002-01-01

    For fifteen years NASA and the Air Force Charging Analyzer Program for Geosynchronous Orbits (NASCAP/GEO) has been the workhorse of spacecraft charging calculations. Two new tools, the Space Environment and Effects (SEE) Spacecraft Charging Handbook (recently released), and Nascap-2K (under development), use improved numeric techniques and modern user interfaces to tackle the same problem. The SEE Spacecraft Charging Handbook provides first-order, lower-resolution solutions while Nascap-2K provides higher resolution results appropriate for detailed analysis. This paper illustrates how the improvements in the numeric techniques affect the results.

  5. From LDEF to a national Space Environment and Effects (SEE) program: A natural progression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowles, David E.; Calloway, Robert L.; Funk, Joan G.; Kinard, William H.; Levine, Arlene S.

    1995-02-01

    As the LDEF program draws to a close, it leaves in place the fundamental building blocks for a Space Environment and Effects (SEE) program. Results from LDEF data analyses and investigations now form a substantial core of knowledge on the long term effects of the space environment on materials, system and structures. In addition, these investigations form the basic structure of a critically-needed SEE archive and database system. An agency-wide effort is required to capture all elements of a SEE program to provide a more comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment, determining the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, updating the models which predict both the environments and those effects on subsystems and spacecraft, and, finally, ensuring that this multitudinous information is properly maintained, and inserted into spacecraft design programs. Many parts and pieces of a SEE program already exist at various locations to fulfill specific needs. The primary purpose of this program, under the direction of the Office of Advanced Concepts and Technology (OACT) in NASA Headquarters, is to take advantage of these parts; apply synergisms where possible; identify and when possible fill-in gaps; coordinate and advocate a comprehensive SEE program. The SEE program must coordinate and support the efforts of well-established technical communities wherein the bulk of the work will continue to be done. The SEE program will consist of a NASA-led SEE Steering Committee, consisting of government and industry users, with the responsibility for coordination between technology developers and NASA customers; and Technical Working Groups with primary responsibility for program technical content in response to user needs. The Technical Working Groups are as follows: Materials and Processes; Plasma and Fields; Ionizing Radiation; Meteoroids and Orbital Debris; Neutral External Contamination; Thermosphere, Thermal, and Solar

  6. Berberine Preconditioning Protects Neurons Against Ischemia via Sphingosine-1-Phosphate and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1[Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qichun; Bian, Huimin; Guo, Liwei; Zhu, Huaxu

    2016-01-01

    Berberine exerts neuroprotective and modulates hypoxia inducible factor-1-alpha (HIF-1[Formula: see text]. Based on the role of HIF-1[Formula: see text] in hypoxia preconditioning and association between HIF-1[Formula: see text] and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), we hypothesized that berberine preconditioning (BP) would ameliorate the cerebral injury induced by ischemia through activating the system of HIF-1[Formula: see text] and S1P. Adult male rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and rat primary cortical neurons treated with oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) with BP at 24[Formula: see text]h (40[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and 2[Formula: see text]h (10[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]mol/L), respectively, were used to determine the neuroprotective effects. The HIF-1[Formula: see text] accumulation, and S1P metabolism were assayed in the berberine-preconditioned neurons, and the HIF-1[Formula: see text]-mediated transcriptional modulation of sphingosine kinases (Sphk) 1 and 2 was analyzed using chromatin immunoprecipitation and real-time polymerase chain reaction. BP significantly prevented cerebral ischemic injury in the MCAO rats at 24[Formula: see text]h and 72[Formula: see text]h following ischemia/reperfusion. In OGD-treated neurons, BP enhanced HIF-1[Formula: see text] accumulation with activation of PI3K/Akt, and induced S1P production by activating Sphk2 via the promotion of HIF-1[Formula: see text]-mediated Sphk2 transcription. In conclusion, BP activated endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms associated with the S1P/HIF-1 pathway and helped protect neuronal cells against hypoxia/ischemia.

  7. Berberine Preconditioning Protects Neurons Against Ischemia via Sphingosine-1-Phosphate and Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1[Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qichun; Bian, Huimin; Guo, Liwei; Zhu, Huaxu

    2016-01-01

    Berberine exerts neuroprotective and modulates hypoxia inducible factor-1-alpha (HIF-1[Formula: see text]. Based on the role of HIF-1[Formula: see text] in hypoxia preconditioning and association between HIF-1[Formula: see text] and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), we hypothesized that berberine preconditioning (BP) would ameliorate the cerebral injury induced by ischemia through activating the system of HIF-1[Formula: see text] and S1P. Adult male rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and rat primary cortical neurons treated with oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) with BP at 24[Formula: see text]h (40[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and 2[Formula: see text]h (10[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]mol/L), respectively, were used to determine the neuroprotective effects. The HIF-1[Formula: see text] accumulation, and S1P metabolism were assayed in the berberine-preconditioned neurons, and the HIF-1[Formula: see text]-mediated transcriptional modulation of sphingosine kinases (Sphk) 1 and 2 was analyzed using chromatin immunoprecipitation and real-time polymerase chain reaction. BP significantly prevented cerebral ischemic injury in the MCAO rats at 24[Formula: see text]h and 72[Formula: see text]h following ischemia/reperfusion. In OGD-treated neurons, BP enhanced HIF-1[Formula: see text] accumulation with activation of PI3K/Akt, and induced S1P production by activating Sphk2 via the promotion of HIF-1[Formula: see text]-mediated Sphk2 transcription. In conclusion, BP activated endogenous neuroprotective mechanisms associated with the S1P/HIF-1 pathway and helped protect neuronal cells against hypoxia/ischemia. PMID:27430910

  8. "I'm thrilled that you see that": guiding parents to see success in interactions with children with deafness and autistic spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Pilnick, Alison; James, Deborah

    2013-12-01

    Children with deafness who are also on the autistic spectrum are a group with complex support needs. Carers worry about their ability to communicate with them, and are often uncertain about what constitutes 'good' communication in this context. This paper analyses the use of a therapeutic intervention, Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), which originates in developmental psychology and focuses on the relational foundations of communication. We draw on a single case using an ethnomethodological/conversation analytic framework, and in particular Goodwin's (1994) work on 'professional vision', to show how the ability to see 'success' is a socially situated activity. Since what counts as success in this setting is often far removed from everyday ideas of good communication, how guiders facilitate particular 'ways of seeing' are critical for both the support of carers and the impact of the intervention. We argue that this work has implications in three areas: for the practice of VIG itself; for the role of qualitative, interactional research addressing the way in which interaction-based interventions are protocolised, enacted and assessed; and for the way in which expertise is conceptualised in professional/client interactions in health and social care. PMID:24355475

  9. ['See and Treat' in the Emergency Department: legal aspects and professional nursing responsibility].

    PubMed

    Radice, Cristiano; Ghinaglia, Monica; Doneda, Renzo; Bollini, Giovanna

    2013-01-01

    The article aim to analyze the legal aspects of professional responsibility in the autonomous nursing care of a patient with a minor health problem treated in a See and Treat area of the Emergency Department through a literature review and an analyses of the Italian legislation about professional exercise. Recent studies have shown that the treatment of the emergency patients affected by minor health problems in separated areas of the A&E by skilled nurses proved to be effective in reducing time to medical examination and the overall time spent in the Emergency Department. Several studies have shown the positive effects of the Emergency Nurse Practitioner (ENP) in terms of reduction of time to medical examination with an increase in patient satisfaction, maintaining an adequate level of quality in the care of patients with minor health problems. The introduction of a See and Treat area, together with the institution of advanced post-triage protocols, represents a possible answer to the overcrowding of the Emergency Department. The aim is the reduction of waiting times and proper allocation of both material and professional resources. The "See and Treat" nurse represents an expert nurse, with an adequate level of competence, who acts in respect to the clinical protocols shared between physicians and nurses. The Italian legislation is not in contrast with the introduction of the See and Treat nurse, on the contrary it offers opportunities for further professional development. PMID:24083498

  10. Scientific Visualization: The Modern Oscilloscope for "Seeing the Unseeable" (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E Wes

    2008-06-24

    Summer Lecture Series 2008: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in both experimental and computational sciences. Wes Bethel, who heads the Scientific Visualization Group in the Computational Research Division, presents an overview of visualization and computer graphics, current research challenges, and future directions for the field.

  11. Reading and Psycholinguistic Processes of Partially Seeing Children. CEC Research Monograph, Series A, Number 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Barbara D.

    To investigate the effects of visual defect on the reading and psycholinguistic processes, results were obtained for partially seeing children (grades 1 to 4, mean IQ 100) on the Monroe Reading Examination, Gates Speed and Accuracy Tests, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), and Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale. Reading scores were…

  12. Sally L. Smith: A Genius at Seeing the Potential in People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgerton, Mary Allen

    2010-01-01

    What this author admired most about Sally Smith was the fact that she was a visionary about people and what they could accomplish. She saw more potential in a person--young or old--than anybody or even they themselves, frankly, had ever even considered possible. She was a genius at seeing the potential in people, expecting them to find it in…

  13. An Overview of Program Development for NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minor, Jody L.; Newton, Robby

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes many of the changes affecting NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program since the initiation of the Vision for Space Exploration. Programmatic and procedural changes are discussed, six new technical tasks applicable to any return to the Moon or onward towards Mars are highlighted, and personnel changes and new contact information is given.

  14. Seeing the Unseen: Attention to Daily Encounters with Sexism as Way to Reduce Sexist Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Julia C.; Swim, Janet K.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in the United States and Germany to test whether women and men endorse sexist beliefs because they are unaware of the prevalence of different types of sexism in their personal lives. Study 1 (N = 120) and Study 2 (N = 83) used daily diaries as a method to encourage individuals "to see the unseen." Results revealed…

  15. Bridging the Divide--Seeing Mathematics in the World through Dynamic Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Hatice; Monaghan, John

    2011-01-01

    In TMA, Oldknow (2009, "TEAMAT", 28, 180-195) called for ways to unlock students' skills so that they increase learning about the world of mathematics and the objects in the world around them. This article examines one way in which we may unlock the student skills. We are currently exploring the potential for students to "see" mathematics in the…

  16. Space Environmental Effects (SEE) Testing Capability: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeWittBurns, H.; Crave, Paul; Finckenor, Miria; Finchum, Charles; Nehls, Mary; Schneider, Todd; Vaughn, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the effects of the space environment on materials and systems is fundamental and essential for mission success. If not properly understood and designed for, the space environment can lead to materials degradation, reduction of functional lifetime, and system failure. Ground based testing is critical in predicting performance NASA/MSFC's expertise and capabilities make up the most complete SEE testing capability available.

  17. Research Sees Potential to Make Bone, Muscle from Human Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159885.html Research Sees Potential to Make Bone, Muscle From Human Stem Cells Could be a major advance for regenerative medicine, ... and chemical signals needed to make bone, heart muscle and 10 other cells types from human stem cells within a matter of days. The researchers ...

  18. Seeing White: Children of Color and the Disney Fairy Tale Princess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Dorothy L.

    2005-01-01

    The children's self-image is affected by the ways in which they see themselves in texts both verbal and visual which plays an important role in building self-image and the belief-system of the children. The development of critical literacy skills in children and teachers and the importance of exposing the children to transcultural literature are…

  19. Preliminary numerical simulation of mirror seeing for the Chinese Future Giant Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, En-Peng; Cui, Xiang-Qun; Li, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Jian-Rong; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2016-06-01

    Mirror seeing will be one of the key factors influencing image quality of an extremely large ground-based optical telescope (ELT). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to estimate the mirror seeing and the effects of ventilation. In this paper, we present a simplified approach to simulation of mirror seeing for the Chinese Future Giant Telescope (CFGT, 30 m in diameter) with the CFD software ANSYS Icepak. We get the FWHM of the image and the distribution of refractive index structure function (C 2 N) above the mirror. We demonstrate that thermal control and ventilation are effective ways to improve the image quality. Our simulation results agree with those of other authors for the ELT. To reduce the mirror seeing to a level of 0.5″, the suggested temperature excess of the primary mirror above the ambient air for thermal control of the CFGT is 0 - 2 K according to the present results of weakly forced convection. The limitations of the method are also discussed.

  20. Seeing Tornado: How Video Traces Mediate Visitor Understandings of (Natural?) Phenomena in a Science Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Reed; Hall, Rogers

    1997-01-01

    Reports on an exploratory study of how people see and explain a prominent exhibit (Tornado) at an interactive science museum (the Exploratorium). Data was assembled using a novel, technically mediated activity system (Video Traces). Argues that Video Traces is an effective tool and discusses an expanded Video Traces system. (Author/DKM)

  1. SOME SUGGESTED SOURCES OF EQUIPMENT AND TEACHER AIDS FOR PARTIALLY SEEING CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BOWERS, ROBERT

    THIS PAMPHLET LISTS SOURCES WHICH PRODUCE (1) PRINTED MATERIAL SUCH AS BOOKS, TESTS, AND SHEET MUSIC USING APPROXIMATELY 18 TO 24 POINT PRINT SIZE, (2) FURNITURE AND SUCH MECHANICAL DEVICES AS EQUIPMENT TO FACILITATE THE EDUCATION OF PARTIALLY SEEING CHILDREN, AND (3) AUDIOVISUAL AIDS INCLUDING EQUIPMENT, RECORDINGS, AND FILMS. INCLUDED IS A…

  2. Seeing to Hear Better: Evidence for Early Audio-Visual Interactions in Speech Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Jean-Luc; Berthommier, Frederic; Savariaux, Christophe

    2004-01-01

    Lip reading is the ability to partially understand speech by looking at the speaker's lips. It improves the intelligibility of speech in noise when audio-visual perception is compared with audio-only perception. A recent set of experiments showed that seeing the speaker's lips also enhances "sensitivity" to acoustic information, decreasing the…

  3. See-through dye-sensitized solar cells: photonic reflectors for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Heiniger, Leo-Philipp; O'Brien, Paul G; Soheilnia, Navid; Yang, Yang; Kherani, Nazir P; Grätzel, Michael; Ozin, Geoffrey A; Tétreault, Nicolas

    2013-10-25

    See-through dye-sensitized solar cells with 1D photonic crystal Bragg reflector photoanodes show an increase in peak external quantum efficiency of 47% while still maintaining high fill factors, resulting in an almost 40% increase in power conversion efficiency. These photoanodes are ideally suited for tandem and building integrated photovoltaics.

  4. Promoting Justice in the Classroom: Looking beyond the Label to See the Individual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Christian educators are faced with the task of promoting and encouraging justice from the viewpoint of Christ as they encounter the broad strokes of diversity within their classrooms and schools. Following Christ means that the Christian educator must look beyond the labels that have been applied by the religious and secular to see each student as…

  5. The see-saw a vertical-lift incubator designed for channel catfish egg masses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended in water that is agitated with rotating or oscillating paddles. We designed and tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Preliminary research in commercial hatcheries...

  6. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. ERS Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the functioning of the safety net provided by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) food assistance programs for low-income families in time of need. Low-income families may be on a see-saw of income changes that make it difficult for program administrators to accurately target benefits and to define sensible…

  7. Preliminary numerical simulation of mirror seeing for the Chinese Future Giant Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, En-Peng; Cui, Xiang-Qun; Li, Guo-Ping; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Jian-Rong; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2016-06-01

    Mirror seeing will be one of the key factors influencing image quality of an extremely large ground-based optical telescope (ELT). Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be used to estimate the mirror seeing and the effects of ventilation. In this paper, we present a simplified approach to simulation of mirror seeing for the Chinese Future Giant Telescope (CFGT, 30 m in diameter) with the CFD software ANSYS Icepak. We get the FWHM of the image and the distribution of refractive index structure function (C 2 N) above the mirror. We demonstrate that thermal control and ventilation are effective ways to improve the image quality. Our simulation results agree with those of other authors for the ELT. To reduce the mirror seeing to a level of 0.5″, the suggested temperature excess of the primary mirror above the ambient air for thermal control of the CFGT is 0 – 2 K according to the present results of weakly forced convection. The limitations of the method are also discussed.

  8. 40 CFR 122.4 - Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Prohibitions (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.4 Section 122.4 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... degradation of the waters of the territorial seas, the contiguous zone, and the oceans) unless the...

  9. "The Art of Seeing": Promoting Design in Education in 1930s England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosvenor, Ian

    2005-01-01

    We teach them the craft of word-spinning. The damage is done, we should be teaching them the art of seeing. (Frank Pick) In 1937 the Council for Art and Industry sponsored a national exhibition in London of materials "for use in connection with teaching in elementary schools." Local Education Authorities were encouraged to send representatives to…

  10. Child Rearing: Passivity and Being Able to Go on. Wittgenstein on Shared Practices and Seeing Aspects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaekers, Stefan; Smeyers, Paul

    2008-01-01

    It is not uncommon to hear parents say in discussions they have with their children "Look at it this way". And called upon for their advice, counsellors too say something to adults with the significance of "Try to see it like this". The change of someone's perspective in the context of child rearing is the focus of this paper. Our interest in this…

  11. Seeing-Ourselves-in-the-World: Developing Global Citizenship through International Mobility and Campus Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killick, David

    2012-01-01

    Taking a model of global citizenship that is primarily a matter of seeing the self-in-the-world as one dwelling among others, this article focuses on experiences of students with individual "significant others" and among international student communities, drawing on a 3-year study into U.K. undergraduate students participating in international…

  12. SeeDB: Efficient Data-Driven Visualization Recommendations to Support Visual Analytics

    PubMed Central

    Vartak, Manasi; Rahman, Sajjadur; Madden, Samuel; Parameswaran, Aditya; Polyzotis, Neoklis

    2015-01-01

    Data analysts often build visualizations as the first step in their analytical workflow. However, when working with high-dimensional datasets, identifying visualizations that show relevant or desired trends in data can be laborious. We propose SeeDB, a visualization recommendation engine to facilitate fast visual analysis: given a subset of data to be studied, SeeDB intelligently explores the space of visualizations, evaluates promising visualizations for trends, and recommends those it deems most “useful” or “interesting”. The two major obstacles in recommending interesting visualizations are (a) scale: evaluating a large number of candidate visualizations while responding within interactive time scales, and (b) utility: identifying an appropriate metric for assessing interestingness of visualizations. For the former, SeeDB introduces pruning optimizations to quickly identify high-utility visualizations and sharing optimizations to maximize sharing of computation across visualizations. For the latter, as a first step, we adopt a deviation-based metric for visualization utility, while indicating how we may be able to generalize it to other factors influencing utility. We implement SeeDB as a middleware layer that can run on top of any DBMS. Our experiments show that our framework can identify interesting visualizations with high accuracy. Our optimizations lead to multiple orders of magnitude speedup on relational row and column stores and provide recommendations at interactive time scales. Finally, we demonstrate via a user study the effectiveness of our deviation-based utility metric and the value of recommendations in supporting visual analytics. PMID:26779379

  13. Bundled payment: hospitals see the advantages, but face big challenges too.

    PubMed

    Burns, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    What you need to know about bundled payment. While most hospital leaders see the advantages of moving to bundled payments for an episode of care, many are unprepared either for the mindset or the mechanics required to implement the emerging reimbursement model. Here the concers and possible strategies you should consider.

  14. A Short History of Cardiac Inspection: A Quest "To See with a Better Eye".

    PubMed

    Evans, William N

    2015-08-01

    Cardiac examination has evolved over centuries. The goal of cardiac evaluation, regardless the era, is to "see" inside the heart to diagnose congenital and acquired intra-cardiac structural and functional abnormalities. This article briefly reviews the history of cardiac examination and discusses contemporary best, evidence-based methods of cardiac inspection.

  15. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 1: Corners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2014-01-01

    In Part 1 of their article, Erin Host, Emily Baynham and Heather McMaster use a combination of digital technology and concrete materials to explore the concept of "corners". They provide a practical, easy to follow sequence of activities that builds on students' understandings. [For "Using Digital Technology to See Angles from…

  16. Seeing Like PISA: A Cautionary Tale about the Performativity of International Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorur, Radhika

    2016-01-01

    PISA is an extremely influential large-scale assessment, and its "policy lessons" are being incorporated in a range of nations all over the world. In this paper I argue that not only is PISA influencing policies and practices, but also that "seeing like PISA" is becoming a widespread phenomenon. Globally, education…

  17. Heavy-Ions induced SEE effects measurements for the STRURED ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Robertis, G.; Ranieri, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Candelori, A.; Mattiazzo, S.; Pantano, D.; Tessaro, M.

    2011-06-01

    With the aim of developing a radiation-tolerant circuit, a digital test microelectronic device has been designed and fabricated by using a standard-cell library of a 130-nm CMOS technology, including three different architectures to correct circuit malfunctions induced by the occurrence of Single-Event Effects (SEE's). SEE's are one of the main reasons of failures affecting electronic circuits operating in harsh radiation environments, such as in experiments performed at High Energy Physics (HEP) colliders or in apparatus to be operated in Space. On the same digital circuit specifically designed, three redundant architectures added to a basic scheme have been implemented in order to evaluate their effectiveness to prevent SEE. This may give an indication on their usage in future digital circuits specifically designed for the above mentioned applications. We present the results of SEE cross section measurements performed on a test digital device exposed to a high energy heavy ion beam at the SIRAD irradiation facility of the INFN National Laboratories of Legnaro (Padova Italy).

  18. Seeing and Playing as Labor: Toward a Visual Materialist Pedagogy of Video Games through Walter Benjamin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulut, Ergin

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author draws specifically on the work of Walter Benjamin and engages with the world of video games by focusing on the constitution of labor as it unfolds in modding practices, as well as approaching the very act of seeing labor in a highly visual culture where value is extracted not just through the labor process but also…

  19. Review of features of stimulated electromagnetic emission (see): Recent results obtained at the ``sura'' heating facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. L.; Kagan, L. M.; Sergeev, E. N.

    1999-07-01

    We present a short review of the features of the main components (DM, UM, NC, BC, BUM, and BUS) of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE). We discuss variations of these components in the case where additional X-mode heating is used. The experiments were performed at the “Sura” heating facility (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia) during the last few years.

  20. Against the Narrowing of Perspectives: How Do We See Learning, Prisons and Prisoners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    In order to offer some context for themes set for this conference, alternative answers to the three-part question are explored. Ways of seeing learning, prisons and prisoners are each looked at in turn, and in each case an argument against a narrowing of perspective is made. We can view learning in the adult education tradition as geared to "the…

  1. 29 CFR 1918.97 - First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this part).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false First aid and lifesaving facilities. (See appendix V of this part). 1918.97 Section 1918.97 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING General Working Conditions. § 1918.97...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.28 - Hazard communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi)).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazard communication (See also § 1917.1(a)(2)(vi)). 1917.28 Section 1917.28 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.28...

  3. Seeing White through Rap: A Classroom Exercise for Examining Race Using a Hip-Hop Video

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Robert

    2011-01-01

    When discussing race in the classroom, getting students--including, importantly, white students--to see that all people have racial identities can be a challenge. This classroom exercise employs a rap video as a tool for helping to reveal white as a racial identity and for exploring the concept of white privilege--the idea that economic, social,…

  4. Do Children Have Similar Models of Understanding for Seeing, Hearing, and Smelling?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthbert, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Some research indicates that a number of children understand vision as an outreaching of the sense, and that they are the originator of the process (Eaton, Anderson, & Smith, 1983; Guesne, 1985). The children draw arrows or rays that point out of the eyes, sometimes returning to the head, and write that vision involves the eyes seeing or…

  5. Scientific Visualization: The Modern Oscilloscope for "Seeing the Unseeable" (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    ScienceCinema

    Bethel, E Wes

    2016-07-12

    Summer Lecture Series 2008: Scientific visualization transforms abstract data into readily comprehensible images, provide a vehicle for "seeing the unseeable," and play a central role in both experimental and computational sciences. Wes Bethel, who heads the Scientific Visualization Group in the Computational Research Division, presents an overview of visualization and computer graphics, current research challenges, and future directions for the field.

  6. Reading and Seeing Themselves: Boys of Color and Textual (Non-)Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciurba, Katie

    2011-01-01

    The discourse on multicultural literature has focused on providing children of color opportunities to "see themselves" in the texts they read. Since the 1920s, advocates like W.E.B. DuBois have stressed that "visibility" in literature fosters positive psychological development among underrepresented groups of children, in addition to promoting…

  7. 8. Interior view of control panels' (see CO88C6) detail on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior view of control panels' (see CO-88-C-6) detail on wall of the signal transfer room on the west side of the Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  8. 7. Interior view of control panels' (see CO88C6) detail on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Interior view of control panels' (see CO-88-C-6) detail on wall of the signal transfer room on the west side of the Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  9. 9. Interior view of control panels' (see CO88C6) detail and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Interior view of control panels' (see CO-88-C-6) detail and control junction box on wall of the signal transfer room on the west side of the Signal Transfer Building (T-28A). - Air Force Plant PJKS, Systems Integration Laboratory, Signal Transfer Building, Waterton Canyon Road & Colorado Highway 121, Lakewood, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Seeing the United States Education System through the Prism of International Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schleicher, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    In this globalized world, individuals and countries that invest heavily in education increasingly benefit socially and economically from that choice. Among the 30 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries with the largest expansion of college education over the last decades, most still see rising earnings differentials…

  11. An Investigation of Preschool Teachers' Ways of Seeing Action Research Using Phenomenography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Ho Cheong

    2016-01-01

    One of the purposes of introducing the use of action research in schools is to bring about educational change in policy and practice. To make this happen, it is of paramount importance to look into how teachers actually see action research. We, the writers of this paper, are teacher educators, teaching preschool teachers courses related to action…

  12. Beyond Black and White: How White, Male, College Students See Their Asian American Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabrera, Nolan L.

    2014-01-01

    This research is a cross-site analysis of how white, male, college students see their Asian American peers. Semi-structured interviews with 43 white males were conducted at two universities that differed substantially in their representation of Asian American students. The interviews were theoretically framed by Critical Whiteness Studies and Bobo…

  13. Are Current SEE Test Procedures Adequate for Modern Devices and Electronics Technologies?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Cohn, Lewis M.; Ladbury, Ray

    2008-01-01

    Believe it or not, this has been a simplistic look at starting a checklist for SEE testing. Given a memory that has 68 operating modes, when a SEU occurs that changes the mode, just how do you determine what's going on? Laser and microbeam tests can help, but not easily for modern packaged devices. Expanding this approach to other more complex devices such as ADCs or processors as well as analog devices should be considered. The recommendation is to use the existing text standards as the starting point. Just make your own checklist for the device/technology/issues being considered. At HEART 2007, we presented some of the burgeoning challenges associated with single event effect(SEE) testing of modern commercial memories: a) Package, device complexity, test fixture, and data analysis issues were discussed; b) "Complete" SEE Characterization would take 15 years; c) Qualification test costs have a greater than 4 times increase over the last decade. In this talk, we continue to explore the roles of technology with an emphasis on the existing SEE Test Procedures and some of the concerns related to modern devices. The primary objective of the briefing is to provide some overarching guidance concerning the many considerations involved in the formulation of a SEE test plan provided in a " Checklist" format.we note that there is no such thing as a complete check list and that the best approach is to develop a flexible test plan that takes into account the device type and functions, the device technology, circuit and package design, and, of course, test facility and beam characteristics.

  14. Recent Observations and Modeling of Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs at HAARP and EISCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, W.; Mahmoudian, A.; Fu, H.; Bordikar, M. R.; Samimi, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Briczinski, S. J., Jr.; Kosch, M. J.; Senior, A.; Isham, B.

    2014-12-01

    There has been significant interest in so-called narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission SEE over the past several years due to recent discoveries at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program HAARP facility near Gakone, Alaska. Narrowband SEE (NSEE) has been defined as spectral features in the SEE spectrum typically within 1 kHz of the transmitter (or pump) frequency. SEE is due to nonlinear processes leading to re-radiation at frequencies other than the pump wave frequency during heating the ionospheric plasma with high power HF radio waves. Although NSEE exhibits a richly complex structure, it has now been shown after a substantial number of observations at HAARP, that NSEE can be grouped into two basic classes. The first are those spectral features, associated with Stimulated Brillouin Scatter SBS, which typically occur when the pump frequency is not close to electron gyro-harmonic frequencies. Typically, these spectral features are within roughly 50 Hz of the pump wave frequency where it is to be noted that the O+ ion gyro-frequency is roughly 50 Hz. The second class of spectral features corresponds to the case when the pump wave frequency is typically within roughly 10 kHz of electron gyro-harmonic frequencies. In this case, spectral features ordered by harmonics of ion gyro-frequencies are typically observed, and termed Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter SIBS. This presentation will first provide an overview of the recent NSEE experimental observations at HAARP. Both Stimulated Brillouin Scatter SBS and Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter SIBS observations will be discussed as well as their relationship to each other. Possible theoretical formulation in terms of parametric decay instabilities and computational modeling will be provided. Possible applications of NSEE will be pointed out including triggering diagnostics for artificial ionization layer formation, proton precipitation event diagnostics, electron temperature measurements in the heated

  15. SEE Observations of Ionospheric Heating from HAARP Using Orbital Angular Momentum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briczinski, S. J.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Siefring, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    High power HF radio waves exciting the ionosphere provide aeronomers with a unique space-based laboratory capability. The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaksa is the world's largest heating facility, providing effective radiated powers in the gigawatt range. Experiments performed at HAARP have allowed researchers to study many non-linear effects of wave-plasma interactions. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) is of interest to the ionospheric community for its diagnostic purposes. Typical SEE experiments at HAARP have focused on characterizing the parametric decay of the electromagnetic pump wave into several different wave modes such as upper and lower hybrid, ion acoustic, ion-Bernstein and electron-Bernstein. These production modes have been extensively studied at HAARP using traditional beam heating patterns and SEE detection. New results are present from HAARP experiments using an excitation mode that attempts to impart orbital angular momentum (OAM) into the heating region. This OAM mode is also referred to as a 'twisted beam.' Previous analysis of twisted beam heating shows that the SEE results obtained are nearly identical to the modes without OAM. Recent twisted beam heating experiments have produced SEE modes not previously characterized. These new modes are presented and discussed. One difference in the twisted beam mode is the heating region produced is in the shape of a ring as opposed to the more traditional 'solid spot' region. The ring heating pattern may be more conducive to the creation of artificial ionization clouds. The results of these runs include artificial ionization creation and evolution as pertaining to the twisted beam pattern.

  16. Framework See-Think as a Tool for Crowdsourcing Support - Case Study on Crisis Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netek, R.; Panek, J.

    2016-06-01

    See-Think-Do is a framework originally used as an approach focused on a service and product marketing on the Internet. Customers can be classified into three groups according to their involvement from potential users to real customers. The article presents an idea of public involvement in community mapping in three levels: "See"—almost any user; "Think"—potential contributors; and "Do"—interested users. The case study implements the See-Think-Do framework as an awareness-based approach used for The Crisis Map of the Czech Republic. It is an Ushahidi-based crowdsourcing platform for sharing spatial and multimedia information during crisis situations, e.g. disaster floods in 2013. While the current crisis projects use public mapping just at the onset of the disaster, according to See-Think-Do any user can be considered as a potential contributor even during the dormant period. The focus is put on the "See" and "Think" groups of contributors, which are currently ignored. The objective of this paper is to summarize approaches (social networks, mass-media, emailing, gamification, …) and tools (GIT/GIS, ICT, multimedia) for increasing the awareness about the project within the resting phase. That recruits a higher number of both active and passive users during the disaster. It allows the training in ICT, cartographical, spatial and GIS skills in a non-stressful way and the targeting on specific operators. Volunteers from the "Think" group may be used for data processing or rectification, GIS professionals from the "Do" group for data verification. The results refer that contributors with already established skills and required literacy (interface, data uploading) provide data faster and more accurate, the usability of the project increases based on users' comments.

  17. Modeling of [Formula: see text]-mediated calcium signaling in vascular endothelial cells induced by fluid shear stress and ATP.

    PubMed

    Li, Long-Fei; Xiang, Cheng; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2015-10-01

    The calcium signaling plays a vital role in flow-dependent vascular endothelial cell (VEC) physiology. Variations in fluid shear stress and ATP concentration in blood vessels can activate dynamic responses of cytosolic-free [Formula: see text] through various calcium channels on the plasma membrane. In this paper, a novel dynamic model has been proposed for transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 [Formula: see text]-mediated intracellular calcium dynamics in VECs induced by fluid shear stress and ATP. Our model includes [Formula: see text] signaling pathways through P2Y receptors and [Formula: see text] channels (indirect mechanism) and captures the roles of the [Formula: see text] compound channels in VEC [Formula: see text] signaling in response to fluid shear stress (direct mechanism). In particular, it takes into account that the [Formula: see text] compound channels are regulated by intracellular [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] concentrations. The simulation studies have demonstrated that the dynamic responses of calcium concentration produced by the proposed model correlate well with the existing experimental observations. We also conclude from the simulation studies that endogenously released ATP may play an insignificant role in the process of intracellular [Formula: see text] response to shear stress.

  18. GreenView and GreenLand Applications Development on SEE-GRID Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihon, Danut; Bacu, Victor; Gorgan, Dorian; Mészáros, Róbert; Gelybó, Györgyi; Stefanut, Teodor

    2010-05-01

    The GreenView and GreenLand applications [1] have been developed through the SEE-GRID-SCI (SEE-GRID eInfrastructure for regional eScience) FP7 project co-funded by the European Commission [2]. The development of environment applications is a challenge for Grid technologies and software development methodologies. This presentation exemplifies the development of the GreenView and GreenLand applications over the SEE-GRID infrastructure by the Grid Application Development Methodology [3]. Today's environmental applications are used in vary domains of Earth Science such as meteorology, ground and atmospheric pollution, ground metal detection or weather prediction. These applications run on satellite images (e.g. Landsat, MERIS, MODIS, etc.) and the accuracy of output results depends mostly of the quality of these images. The main drawback of such environmental applications regards the need of computation power and storage power (some images are almost 1GB in size), in order to process such a large data volume. Actually, almost applications requiring high computation resources have approached the migration onto the Grid infrastructure. This infrastructure offers the computing power by running the atomic application components on different Grid nodes in sequential or parallel mode. The middleware used between the Grid infrastructure and client applications is ESIP (Environment Oriented Satellite Image Processing Platform), which is based on gProcess platform [4]. In its current format, gProcess is used for launching new processes on the Grid nodes, but also for monitoring the execution status of these processes. This presentation highlights two case studies of Grid based environmental applications, GreenView and GreenLand [5]. GreenView is used in correlation with MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) satellite images and meteorological datasets, in order to produce pseudo colored temperature and vegetation maps for different geographical CEE (Central

  19. Simultaneous seeing measurement through the Subaru Telescope in the visible and near-infrared bands for the wavelength dependence evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oya, Shin; Terada, Hiroshi; Hayano, Yutaka; Watanabe, Makoto; Hattori, Masayuki; Minowa, Yosuke

    2016-08-01

    Stellar images have been obtained under natural seeing at visible and near-infrared wavelengths simultaneously through the Subaru Telescope at Mauna Kea. The image quality is evaluated by the full-width at the half-maximum (FWHM) of the stellar images. The observed ratio of FWHM in the V-band to the K-band is 1.54 ± 0.17 on average. The ratio shows tendency to decrease toward bad seeing as expected from the outer scale influence, though the number of the samples is still limited. The ratio is important for simulations to evaluate the performance of a ground-layer adaptive optics system at near-infrared wavelengths based on optical seeing statistics. The observed optical seeing is also compared with outside seeing to estimate the dome seeing of the Subaru Telescope.

  20. SeeHaBITaT: A server on bioinformatics applications for Tospoviruses and other species.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Seethalakshmi; Habeeb, S K M

    2016-06-01

    Plant viruses are important limiting factors in agricultural productivity. Tospovirus is one of the severe plant pathogens, causing damage to economically important food and ornamental crops worldwide through thrips as vectors. Database application resources exclusively on this virus would help to design better control measures, which aren't available. SeeHaBITaT is a unique and exclusive web based server providing work bench to perform computational research on tospoviruses and its species. SeeHaBITaT hosts Tospoviruses specific database Togribase, MOLBIT, SRMBIT and SS with PDB. These applications would be of immense help to the Tospovirus scientific community. The server could be accessed at http://bit.srmuniv.ac.in/. PMID:27354938

  1. See-through multi-projection three-dimensional display using transparent anisotropic diffuser.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jong-Young; Park, Soon-Gi; Lee, Chang-Kun; Moon, Seokil; Kim, Sun-Je; Hong, Jisoo; Kim, Youngmin; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-06-27

    We propose a see-through multi-projection three-dimensional (3D) display using a transparent anisotropic diffuser. By immersing a metal-coated anisotropic diffuser into index matching oil which has the same refractive index of anisotropic diffuser, a transparent anisotropic diffuser is implemented. The reflectance of the transparent anisotropic diffuser is analyzed with the transfer matrix. Two multi-projection methods are proposed based on reflection type integral imaging and multi-view method. Especially, the reflection type multi-view-based system is realized with a curved anisotropic diffuser. High resolution see-through 3D display can be realized with the proposed methods. They can be used in various applications with the two multi-projection methods. In order to show the augmented reality features, real objects and virtual 3D images are presented at the same time in the experimental setup. PMID:27410572

  2. Operational helmet-mounted display model: prediction of visible grayshades and see-through spectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Thomas H.; Klymenko, Victor; Martin, John S.; Rash, Clarence E.

    2002-08-01

    Combat developers and aviation program managers require knowledge of helmet-mounted display (HMD) performance under operational conditions in order to determine HMD luminance and contrast requirements. In order to ease this problem, we developed a computer model that predicts available gray-shades based on hardware, ambient light condition, and HMD properties. Included in the model are windscreens, visors, laser protection devices, and properties of developed and fielded HMDs. A graphical user interface and user variables specification allow the developer/manager to model HMDs in specific aircraft. Included with the model is a color model that predicts see-through color imagery. The model produces a visualization of see-through imagery superimposed with HMD symbology based upon model predictions. This allows the user to view simulated imagery as though he were wearing the HMD.

  3. Overview of NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program Technology Development Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, Billy; Hardage, Donna; Minor, Jody

    2003-01-01

    Reducing size and weight of spacecraft, along with demanding increased performance capabilities, introduces many uncertainties in the engineering design community on how spacecraft and spacecraft systems will perform in space. The engineering design community is forever behind on obtaining and developing new tools and guidelines to mitigate the harmful effects of the space environment. Adding to this complexity is the push to use Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) and shrinking microelectronics behind less shielding utilizing new materials. The potential usage of unproven technologies such as large solar sail structures and nuclear electric propulsion introduces new requirements to develop new engineering tools. In order to drive down these uncertainties, NASA s SEE Program provides resources for technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on spacecraft. This paper will describe the current SEE Program's, currently funded activities and possible future developments.

  4. Seeing the forest and the trees: increasing nurse practitioner students' observational and mindfulness skills.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Sheila; Deupi, Jill; Leitao, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Accurate, objective observation is a critical component of clinical diagnosis and patient management, which in turn is essential for successful diagnostic reasoning by advanced practice nurses. The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to enhance nurse practitioner students' observation and reflective thinking skills using Looking Is Not Seeing, a reflective practice/experiential learning technique that uses art objects to teach observation (Pellico, Friedlaender, & Fennie, 2009). Students' posttest observation and interpretation scores showed statistically significant improvement over pretest scores. Students' mindfulness scores and their own perceived observational and interpretive ability were statistically significantly higher after participating in the study. Building on the established record of successful visual literacy programs for nursing and medical students at other institutions, this research can help educators implement the Looking Is Not Seeing pedagogy.

  5. Does Seeing Faces of Young Black Boys Facilitate the Identification of Threatening Stimuli?

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew R; Thiem, Kelsey C; Neel, Rebecca

    2016-03-01

    Pervasive stereotypes linking Black men with violence and criminality can lead to implicit cognitive biases, including the misidentification of harmless objects as weapons. In four experiments, we investigated whether these biases extend even to young Black boys (5-year-olds). White participants completed sequential priming tasks in which they categorized threatening and nonthreatening objects and words after brief presentations of faces of various races (Black and White) and ages (children and adults). Results consistently revealed that participants had less difficulty (i.e., faster response times, fewer errors) identifying threatening stimuli and more difficulty identifying nonthreatening stimuli after seeing Black faces than after seeing White faces, and this racial bias was equally strong following adult and child faces. Process-dissociation-procedure analyses further revealed that these effects were driven entirely by automatic (i.e., unintentional) racial biases. The collective findings suggest that the perceived threat commonly associated with Black men may generalize even to young Black boys. PMID:26833757

  6. Seeing your way to health: the visual pedagogy of Bess Mensendieck's physical culture system.

    PubMed

    Veder, Robin

    2011-01-01

    This essay examines the images and looking practices central to Bess M. Mensendieck's (c.1866-1959) 'functional exercise' system, as documented in physical culture treatises published in Germany and the United States between 1906 and 1937. Believing that muscular realignment could not occur without seeing how the body worked, Mensendieck taught adult non-athletes to see skeletal alignment and muscular movement in their own and others' bodies. Three levels of looking practices are examined: didactic sequences; penetrating inspection and appreciation of physiological structures; and ideokinetic visual metaphors for guiding movement. With these techniques, Mensendieck's work bridged the body cultures of German Nacktkultur (nudism), American labour efficiency and the emerging physical education profession. This case study demonstrates how sport historians could expand their analyses to include practices of looking as well as questions of visual representation.

  7. TRAP/SEE Code Users Manual for Predicting Trapped Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    2000-01-01

    TRAP/SEE is a PC-based computer code with a user-friendly interface which predicts the ionizing radiation exposure of spacecraft having orbits in the Earth's trapped radiation belts. The code incorporates the standard AP8 and AE8 trapped proton and electron models but also allows application of an improved database interpolation method. The code treats low-Earth as well as highly-elliptical Earth orbits, taking into account trajectory perturbations due to gravitational forces from the Moon and Sun, atmospheric drag, and solar radiation pressure. Orbit-average spectra, peak spectra per orbit, and instantaneous spectra at points along the orbit trajectory are calculated. Described in this report are the features, models, model limitations and uncertainties, input and output descriptions, and example calculations and applications for the TRAP/SEE code.

  8. Monocular 3D see-through head-mounted display via complex amplitude modulation.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiankun; Liu, Juan; Han, Jian; Li, Xin

    2016-07-25

    The complex amplitude modulation (CAM) technique is applied to the design of the monocular three-dimensional see-through head-mounted display (3D-STHMD) for the first time. Two amplitude holograms are obtained by analytically dividing the wavefront of the 3D object to the real and the imaginary distributions, and then double amplitude-only spatial light modulators (A-SLMs) are employed to reconstruct the 3D images in real-time. Since the CAM technique can inherently present true 3D images to the human eye, the designed CAM-STHMD system avoids the accommodation-convergence conflict of the conventional stereoscopic see-through displays. The optical experiments further demonstrated that the proposed system has continuous and wide depth cues, which enables the observer free of eye fatigue problem. The dynamic display ability is also tested in the experiments and the results showed the possibility of true 3D interactive display. PMID:27464184

  9. Morfology of SEE spectral features in a wide pump wave frequency range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, E. N.; Frolov, V. L.; Grach, S. M.; Kotov, P. V.

    Systematic study of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) stationary spectrum dependence on the pump wave (PW) frequency f_0 was continued. Investigations were performed at the SURA facility for the PW frequency range 4.3≤ f_0 ≤ 9.5 MHz with stepping of ≈ 5-50 kHz including the vicinities of the electron gyroharmonics nfce from n=4 to n=7 for most prominent SEE features like downshifted maximum (DM) and its satellites, narrow and broad continua (NC and BC), upshifted maximum (UM), broad upshifted maximum (BUM), and broad upshifted structure (BUS) (for references see, e.g., Leyser et al., J. Geophys. Res., 1993, v. 98, p. 17597, 1994, Frolov et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2001, v. 28, p. 3103). Main attention was paid to maximal and integral intensities of the SEE features and their frequency shifts Δ f from f_0. The results can be summarized as follows. (i) While the SEE qualitative behaviour periodically repeats between successive gyroharmonics, maximal intensity for all of the SEE features is observed for 4fce5fce (except of narrow range below 6 and 7fce) the BC is replaced by a set of DM satellites in the SEE spectrum. (iii) DM intensity decreases with f_0 and DM peak frequency shift increases with f_0 as Δ fDM ˜ 2 f_0\\cdot10-3 across the whole f_0 frequency range, except of narrow ranges near f_0 ≃ nfce, where the DM intensity falls up to the noise level, and Δ fDM decreases up to ≈ 9 kHz. (iv) The UM behaviour is similar for the DM one, but for f_0≃ nfce the maximal UM and minimal DM intensities occur for the same f_0, while the minimal UM is observed for f_0 less by 10-20 kHz in comparison with f_0 for the minimal DM. (v) Maximal BUM intensity is observed for f_0 just above nfce where the frequency shift of BUM peak Δ fBUM ≃ 20 kHz; for f_0 ≳ nfce+30 kHz Δ f

  10. Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing of Embedded DSP Cores within Microsemi RTAX4000D Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez, Christopher E.; Berg, Melanie D.; Friendlich, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Motivation for this work is: (1) Accurately characterize digital signal processor (DSP) core single-event effect (SEE) behavior (2) Test DSP cores across a large frequency range and across various input conditions (3) Isolate SEE analysis to DSP cores alone (4) Interpret SEE analysis in terms of single-event upsets (SEUs) and single-event transients (SETs) (5) Provide flight missions with accurate estimate of DSP core error rates and error signatures.

  11. ETR BASEMENT, TRA642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE INTERIOR (SEE PHOTOS ID33G101 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ETR BASEMENT, TRA-642, INTERIOR. BASEMENT. CUBICLE INTERIOR (SEE PHOTOS ID-33-G-101 AND ID-33-G-102) WITH TANK AND SODIUM-RELATED APPARATUS. CAMERA STANDS BEFORE ROLL-UP DOOR SHOWN IN PHOTO ID-33-G-101. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD24-3-3. Mike Crane, Photographer, 11/2000 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Proton Single Event Effects (SEE) Testing of the Myrinet Crossbar Switch and Network Interface Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, James W., Jr.; LaBel, Kenneth A.; Carts, Martin A.; Stattel, Ronald; Irwin, Timothy L.; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    As part of the Remote Exploration and Experimentation Project (REE), work was performed to do a proton SEE (Single Event Effect) evaluation of the Myricom network protocol system (Myrinet). This testing included the evaluation of the Myrinet crossbar switch and the Network Interface Card (NIC). To this end, two crossbar switch devices and five components in the NIC were exposed to the proton beam at the University of California at Davis Crocker Nuclear Laboratory (CNL).

  13. MetaSee: An Interactive and Extendable Visualization Toolbox for Metagenomic Sample Analysis and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Song, Baoxing; Su, Xiaoquan; Xu, Jian; Ning, Kang

    2012-01-01

    The NGS (next generation sequencing)-based metagenomic data analysis is becoming the mainstream for the study of microbial communities. Faced with a large amount of data in metagenomic research, effective data visualization is important for scientists to effectively explore, interpret and manipulate such rich information. The visualization of the metagenomic data, especially multi-sample data, is one of the most critical challenges. The different data sample sources, sequencing approaches and heterogeneous data formats make robust and seamless data visualization difficult. Moreover, researchers have different focuses on metagenomic studies: taxonomical or functional, sample-centric or genome-centric, single sample or multiple samples, etc. However, current efforts in metagenomic data visualization cannot fulfill all of these needs, and it is extremely hard to organize all of these visualization effects in a systematic manner. An extendable, interactive visualization tool would be the method of choice to fulfill all of these visualization needs. In this paper, we have present MetaSee, an extendable toolbox that facilitates the interactive visualization of metagenomic samples of interests. The main components of MetaSee include: (I) a core visualization engine that is composed of different views for comparison of multiple samples: Global view, Phylogenetic view, Sample view and Taxa view, as well as link-out for more in-depth analysis; (II) front-end user interface with real metagenomic models that connect to the above core visualization engine and (III) open-source portal for the development of plug-ins for MetaSee. This integrative visualization tool not only provides the visualization effects, but also enables researchers to perform in-depth analysis of the metagenomic samples of interests. Moreover, its open-source portal allows for the design of plug-ins for MetaSee, which would facilitate the development of any additional visualization effects. PMID:23145044

  14. Observers, objects, and the embedded eye; or, seeing and knowing in Ptolemy and Galen.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Daryn

    2007-09-01

    This essay explores the ways in which theories and entities are culturally and intellectually embedded in historical and disciplinary contexts by looking at the development of a set of related theories of perception that emerged in response to contemporary Sceptical criticisms of the very possibility of doing empirical science. At the same time, it attempts to bring into focus a puzzle about precisely how (and how deeply) seeing itself is conditioned.

  15. SeeCoast: persistent surveillance and automated scene understanding for ports and coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, Bradley J.; Bomberger, Neil A.; Freyman, Todd M.; Kreamer, William; Kirschner, Linda; L'Italien, Adam C.; Mungovan, Wendy; Stauffer, Chris; Stolzar, Lauren; Waxman, Allen M.; Seibert, Michael

    2007-04-01

    SeeCoast is a prototype US Coast Guard port and coastal area surveillance system that aims to reduce operator workload while maintaining optimal domain awareness by shifting their focus from having to detect events to being able to analyze and act upon the knowledge derived from automatically detected anomalous activities. The automated scene understanding capability provided by the baseline SeeCoast system (as currently installed at the Joint Harbor Operations Center at Hampton Roads, VA) results from the integration of several components. Machine vision technology processes the real-time video streams provided by USCG cameras to generate vessel track and classification (based on vessel length) information. A multi-INT fusion component generates a single, coherent track picture by combining information available from the video processor with that from surface surveillance radars and AIS reports. Based on this track picture, vessel activity is analyzed by SeeCoast to detect user-defined unsafe, illegal, and threatening vessel activities using a rule-based pattern recognizer and to detect anomalous vessel activities on the basis of automatically learned behavior normalcy models. Operators can optionally guide the learning system in the form of examples and counter-examples of activities of interest, and refine the performance of the learning system by confirming alerts or indicating examples of false alarms. The fused track picture also provides a basis for automated control and tasking of cameras to detect vessels in motion. Real-time visualization combining the products of all SeeCoast components in a common operating picture is provided by a thin web-based client.

  16. Observers, objects, and the embedded eye; or, seeing and knowing in Ptolemy and Galen.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Daryn

    2007-09-01

    This essay explores the ways in which theories and entities are culturally and intellectually embedded in historical and disciplinary contexts by looking at the development of a set of related theories of perception that emerged in response to contemporary Sceptical criticisms of the very possibility of doing empirical science. At the same time, it attempts to bring into focus a puzzle about precisely how (and how deeply) seeing itself is conditioned. PMID:17970421

  17. Investigation of Upshifted Emission Lines in the SEE Spectra near Second Gyro-harmonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordikar, M. R.; Scales, W.; Bernhardt, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    One of the most prominent features in the SEE spectrum is the so-called down-shifted maximum or DM and broad upshifted maximum or BUM. The DM is believed to be produced from a three-way parametric decay instability from the pump electromagnetic wave into an upper hybrid wave UH and a lower hybrid LH wave. The BUM is believed to be produced from a four-way parametric decay instability which decays the pump into lower hybrid mode together with frequency-upshifted upper hybrid side-band and frequency-downshifted electron Bernstein side-band. Its interesting behavior near third or higher electron gyroharmonics has been well studied and documented now for two decades and it has become important for ionospheric diagnostic purposes. Recent experiments of frequency step around the second gyroharmonic were performed at HAARP to investigate structures developed in the SEE spectra. Some preliminary measurements taken during this frequency stepping around second gyroharmonic experiment are shown in figure below. When the pump frequency is above the second gyro-harmonic an emission of broad upshifted structures is seen. The BUM has been previously observed at third or higher cyclotron harmonic. The objective is to look at the possibilities of previous theory and model of the SEE of higher order of gyro-harmonics applied to the second gyroharmonic SEE. The four wave theoretical and computational model will be used to investigate the upshifted emission lines observed when the pump is above the second gyroharmonic and compare its characteristics with the classic BUM.

  18. Treatment outcome of supraglottoplasty vs. wait-and-see policy in patients with laryngomalacia.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Martijn; Dikkers, Frederik G; Halmos, Gyorgy B

    2016-06-01

    In most cases, laryngomalacia presents as a mild disease, and the symptoms resolve after wait-and-see policy. Up to 20 % of patients present with severe laryngomalacia and may require surgery (i.e. supraglottoplasty); however, the indication for surgery is not firmly established yet. The goal of this study is to determine whether supraglottoplasty results in a better outcome than wait-and-see and to investigate how different comorbidities influence outcome. A retrospective study of pediatric cases of in a tertiary referral center was performed. Photo and video documentation was available and revised in all cases. Electronic and paper charts were reviewed for the following variables: gender, sex, gestational age, birth weight, symptoms, comorbidity, date of endoscopy, severity and type of laryngomalacia, treatment modality and technique and follow-up data and a total 89 patients were included. Supraglottoplasty was found to lead to significantly faster complete improvement of laryngomalacia than wait-and-see policy (5 weeks vs. 29, p = 0.026). Synchronous airway lesions (SALs) were present in 40.4 % of patients and were associated with prolonged symptoms of laryngomalacia (38.5 weeks vs. 14.5, p = 0.043). Supraglottoplasty is safe and effective in treatment of severe laryngomalacia. SALs and comorbidities are frequently found in patients with laryngomalacia and are responsible for longer onset of complaints. PMID:26924742

  19. Eyetracked optical see-through head-mounted display as an AAC device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Hong; Hu, Xinda; Gao, Chunyu; Qin, Xiao

    2014-06-01

    An eye-tracked head-mounted display (ET-HMD) system is able to display virtual images as a classical headmounted display (HMD) does, while additionally tracking the gaze direction of the user. An HMD with fullyintegrated eyetracking capability offers multi-fold benefits, not only to fundamental scientific research but also to emerging applications of such technology. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art ET-HMD technology is the lack of compactness and portability. In this paper, we present an innovative design of a high resolution optical see-through ET-HMD system based on freeform optical technology. A prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, true high-definition image resolution for the virtual display, and better than 0.5 arc minute of angular resolution for the see-through view. We will demonstrate the application of the technology as an assistive and augmentative communication (AAC) device.

  20. The unique characteristics of the Neusiedler See: special area for climate change effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinka, Mária; Ágoston-Szabó, Edit; Berczik, Árpád

    2013-04-01

    It is evident that among the surface waters the extremely shallow lakes (1-5 m) are exposed particularly intensive to the effects of climate change. Among the European greater shallow lakes, the Austrian-Hungarian cross-border Lake Fertő/Neusiedler See, with an area of 309 km2, is expected to respond spatially in different ways and with different consequences to the climate change. The continuous water body of Lake Fertő/Neusiedler See (except of the shoreline reeds) is characterised by inner reed stands with variable extension, braking up the water surface into the large open water areas, inner ponds, varied channels/connections. The investigation series of our more than three decades research, conducted on the 75 km2 Hungarian part of the lake, revealed that these water areas separated by reeds have different physical features as well as different water- and sediment chemical characterisitcs, which is tipically reflected in the biological diversity and community compositions. All of these, of course undergoes on almost continuous status change under the influence of seasonal dynamics and the actual changes in the weather. This very rare, unique mosaicity exhibiting on a larger water surface needs a special attention in the climate change impact assesments and it promises the recognition of basic hydrobiological knowleges and of more possibilities with applied orientation. Therefore shows this poster the mosaicity of Lake Fertő/Neusiedler See revealed by our research.

  1. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  2. SEE: improving nurse-patient communications and preventing software piracy in nurse call applications.

    PubMed

    Unluturk, Mehmet S

    2012-06-01

    Nurse call system is an electrically functioning system by which patients can call upon from a bedside station or from a duty station. An intermittent tone shall be heard and a corridor lamp located outside the room starts blinking with a slow or a faster rate depending on the call origination. It is essential to alert nurses on time so that they can offer care and comfort without any delay. There are currently many devices available for a nurse call system to improve communication between nurses and patients such as pagers, RFID (radio frequency identification) badges, wireless phones and so on. To integrate all these devices into an existing nurse call system and make they communicate with each other, we propose software client applications called bridges in this paper. We also propose a window server application called SEE (Supervised Event Executive) that delivers messages among these devices. A single hardware dongle is utilized for authentication and copy protection for SEE. Protecting SEE with securities provided by dongle only is a weak defense against hackers. In this paper, we develop some defense patterns for hackers such as calculating checksums in runtime, making calls to dongle from multiple places in code and handling errors properly by logging them into database.

  3. The first see-through frog created by breeding: description, inheritance patterns, and dermal chromatophore structure

    PubMed Central

    Sumida, Masayuki; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Igawa, Takeshi; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Furukawa, Yukari; Sano, Naomi; Fujii, Tamotsu; Yoshizaki, Norio

    2016-01-01

    We have succeeded in creating see-through frogs from natural color mutants of the Japanese brown frog Rana japonica, which usually possesses an ochre or brown back; this coloration enables the organs, blood vessels, and eggs to be observed through the skin without performing dissection. We crossed two kinds of recessive color mutant (black-eyed and gray-eyed) frogs through artificial insemination, and F2 offspring produced frogs whose skin is translucent throughout the life cycle. Three kinds of dermal chromatophores—xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores—are observed in a layered arrangement in the skin of wild-type frogs, but few chromatophores were present in the skin of the see-through frogs. The translucent skin enables observation of organ growth and cancer formation and progression in the animal, which can be monitored over its entire life without the need for dissection. See-through frogs thus provide a useful animal model for environmental, medical, and biological research. PMID:27080918

  4. When seeing is more than looking: Intentional gaze modulates object desirability.

    PubMed

    Manera, Valeria; Elena, Marco R; Bayliss, Andrew P; Becchio, Cristina

    2014-08-01

    Objects in the environment have a perceived value that can be changed through social influence. A subtle way to influence object evaluation is through eye gaze: Objects looked at by others are perceived as more likable than objects that are not looked at. In 3 experiments, we directly tested the hypothesis that this liking effect depends on the processing of the intentional relation between other's eye gaze and the object being looked at. To this end, we used a novel paradigm in which participants observed a face looking left or right behind an opaque barrier. Under all tested conditions, we found a gaze cueing effect on attention: Looked-at objects were categorized faster than looked-away objects. In contrast, observed gaze only led to a boost in affective evaluation for the target object when observers had the impression that the face could see the object behind the barrier, but not when observers had the impression that the face could not see the object. These findings indicate that observers make a sophisticated use of social gaze cues in the affective evaluation of objects: Objects looked at by others are liked more than objects looked away but only when others can see the objects. PMID:24749635

  5. Polarotaxis in Nature: If they can see it, why can't we?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tynes, Hatcher; Kattawar, George

    2000-03-01

    Like most creatures in nature, we rely on vision in order to gain information about the world around us. However, while we may all be looking at the same things, some of our neighbors appear to be seeing more than we. What are we missing and why? The answer to both questions lies in the discovery that, while we see only the intensity of light, many creatures possess the ability to detect not only its intensity but its polarization state as well. Wehner et al. have shown that insects such as bees and ants use the polarization of the sky to navigate. Recently, Shashar et al. have shown that squid use polarized light to detect transparent food and to send secret signals to one another. Such findings have generated increasing interest in the study and use of polarized light as a remote sensing tool. In this talk I will briefly review polarization and describe how some creatures have adapted in order to use the polarization of natural light fields in their environments. Using several striking images, I will show how polarization imaging, using circularly polarized light in particular, can let us see what we have been missing all this time.

  6. A 3D integral imaging optical see-through head-mounted display.

    PubMed

    Hua, Hong; Javidi, Bahram

    2014-06-01

    An optical see-through head-mounted display (OST-HMD), which enables optical superposition of digital information onto the direct view of the physical world and maintains see-through vision to the real world, is a vital component in an augmented reality (AR) system. A key limitation of the state-of-the-art OST-HMD technology is the well-known accommodation-convergence mismatch problem caused by the fact that the image source in most of the existing AR displays is a 2D flat surface located at a fixed distance from the eye. In this paper, we present an innovative approach to OST-HMD designs by combining the recent advancement of freeform optical technology and microscopic integral imaging (micro-InI) method. A micro-InI unit creates a 3D image source for HMD viewing optics, instead of a typical 2D display surface, by reconstructing a miniature 3D scene from a large number of perspective images of the scene. By taking advantage of the emerging freeform optical technology, our approach will result in compact, lightweight, goggle-style AR display that is potentially less vulnerable to the accommodation-convergence discrepancy problem and visual fatigue. A proof-of-concept prototype system is demonstrated, which offers a goggle-like compact form factor, non-obstructive see-through field of view, and true 3D virtual display.

  7. Evidence for magma mixing within the Laacher See magma chamber (East Eifel, Germany)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Worner, G.; Wright, T.L.

    1984-01-01

    The final pyroclastic products of the late Quaternary phonolitic Laacher See volcano (East Eifel, W.-Germany) range from feldspar-rich gray phonolite to dark olivine-bearing rocks with variable amounts of feldspar and Al-augite megacrysts. Petrographically and chemically homogeneous clasts occur along with composite lapilli spanning the compositional range from phonolite (MgO 0.9%) to mafic hybrid rock (MgO 7.0%) for all major and trace elements. Both a basanitic and a phonolitic phenocryst paragenesis occur within individual clasts. The phonolite-derived phenocrysts are characterized by glass inclusions of evolved composition, rare inverse zoning and strong resorption indicating disequilibrium with the mafic hybrid matrix. Basanitic (magnesian) clinopyroxene and olivine, in contrast, show skeletal (normally zoned) overgrowths indicative of post-mixing crystallization. In accord with petrographical and other chemical evidence, mass balance calculations suggest mixing of an evolved Laacher See phonolite containing variable amounts of mineral cumulates and a megacryst-bearing basanite magma. Magma mixing occurred just prior to eruption (hours) of the lowermost magma layer of the Laacher See magma chamber but did not trigger the volcanic activity. ?? 1984.

  8. The first see-through frog created by breeding: description, inheritance patterns, and dermal chromatophore structure.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Masayuki; Islam, Mohammed Mafizul; Igawa, Takeshi; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Furukawa, Yukari; Sano, Naomi; Fujii, Tamotsu; Yoshizaki, Norio

    2016-01-01

    We have succeeded in creating see-through frogs from natural color mutants of the Japanese brown frog Rana japonica, which usually possesses an ochre or brown back; this coloration enables the organs, blood vessels, and eggs to be observed through the skin without performing dissection. We crossed two kinds of recessive color mutant (black-eyed and gray-eyed) frogs through artificial insemination, and F2 offspring produced frogs whose skin is translucent throughout the life cycle. Three kinds of dermal chromatophores--xanthophores, iridophores, and melanophores--are observed in a layered arrangement in the skin of wild-type frogs, but few chromatophores were present in the skin of the see-through frogs. The translucent skin enables observation of organ growth and cancer formation and progression in the animal, which can be monitored over its entire life without the need for dissection. See-through frogs thus provide a useful animal model for environmental, medical, and biological research. PMID:27080918

  9. NASA's Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: Contamination Engineering Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Steven D.; Clifton, K. Stuart

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT The return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in 1990 brought a wealth of space exposure data on materials, paints, solar cells, etc. and data on the many space environments. The effects of the harsh space environments can provide damaging or even disabling effects on spacecraft, its materials, and its instruments. In partnership with industry, academia, and other government agencies, National Aeronautics & Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Environments & Effects (SEE) Program defines the space environments and provides technology development to accommodate or mitigate these harmful environments on the spacecraft. This program provides a very comprehensive and focused approach to understanding the space environment, to define the best techniques for both flight and ground-based experimentation, to update the models which predict both the environments and the environmental effects on spacecraft, and finally to ensure that this information is properly maintained and inserted into spacecraft design programs. This paper will describe the current SEE Program and will present SEE contamination engineering technology development and risk mitigation for future spacecraft design.

  10. SEE HYDROPOWER Project, targeted to improve water resource management for a growing renewable energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peviani, Maximo; Alterach, Julio; Danelli, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The three years SEE HYDROPOWER project started on June 2009, financed by the South-East Transnational Cooperation Programme (EU), aims to a sustainable exploitation of water concerning hydropower production in SEE countries, looking up to renewable energy sources development, preserving environmental quality and preventing flood risk. Hydropower is the most important renewable resource for energy production in the SEE countries but creates ecological impacts on a local scale. If on one hand, hydroelectric production has to be maintained and likely increased following the demand trend and RES-e Directive, on the other hand, hydropower utilisation often involves severe hydrological changes, damages the connectivity of water bodies and injures river ecosystems. The project gives a strong contribution to the integration between the Water Frame and the RES-e Directives in the involved countries. The SEE HYDROPOWER project promotes the optimal use of water, as multiple natural resources, in order to face the increasing regional electrical-energy demand. Furthermore, SEE HYDROPOWER defines specific needs and test methodologies & tools, in order to help public bodies to take decisions about planning and management of water and hydropower concessions, considering all multi-purposes uses, taking into account the environmental sustainability of natural resources and flooding risks. Investigations is carried on to define common strategies & methods for preserving river with particular concerns to aquatic ecosystems, considering the required Minimum Environmental Flow, macro-habitat quality, migratory fishes and related environmental issues. Other problem addressed by the Project is the contrast between Public Administration and Environmental associations on one side and the Hydropower producers on the other side, for the exploitation of water bodies. Competition between water users (for drinking, irrigation, industrial processes, power generation, etc.) is becoming a serious

  11. Isotopic constraints on open system evolution of the Laacher See magma chamber (Eifel, West Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörner, G.; Staudigel, H.; Zindler, A.

    1985-09-01

    The Laacher See phonolite tephra sequence (11,000 years B.P.) of the Quaternary East Eifel volcanic field (West Germany) represents an inverted, chemically zoned magma column. Mafic and differentiated phonolites, respectively, represent the lowermost and uppermost erupted portion of the Laacher See magma chamber. Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of whole rocks, matrices and phenocrysts have been analyzed in order to provide constraints for open versus closed system evolution of the Laacher See magma chamber. 87Sr/ 86Sr isotope ratios of mafic phonolites and their phenocrysts are slightly more radiogenic than parental East Eifel basanite magmas. Bulk rock samples show a drastic increase in 87Sr/ 86Sr from mafic towards the most differentiated compositions that were erupted from the top of the magma chamber. Glass matrix separates show a parallel, but less pronounced, increase in 87Sr/ 86Sr . Phenocrysts, in contrast, show a narrow range in 87Sr/ 86Sr with a slight, but significant, increase towards the top of the magma chamber. Phenocrysts from the uppermost portion of the magma column were not in isotopic (or chemical) equilibrium with their host matrices. 143Nd/ 144Nd isotope ratios for whole rocks, matrices, and phenocrysts fall within a restricted range similar to that of East Eifel mafic magmas. A representative suite of crustal rocks (lower crustal granulites, quartzo-feldspathic gneisses, mica schists, Devonian slates and graywacke) was also analyzed in order to permit an evaluation of possible assimilation models. Our results are consistent with chemical evolution of the zoned Laacher See magma chamber mainly through crystal fractionation accompanied by minor amounts of assimilation. Slight contamination of the magma system may have involved (a) the assimilation of gneisses (?) and mica schists during the initial stage of magma chamber evolution (basanite-mafic phonolite), (b) combined assimilation-fractional crystallization (AFC) concurrent with the second

  12. “I'm thrilled that you see that”: Guiding parents to see success in interactions with children with deafness and autistic spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pilnick, Alison; James, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Children with deafness who are also on the autistic spectrum are a group with complex support needs. Carers worry about their ability to communicate with them, and are often uncertain about what constitutes ‘good’ communication in this context. This paper analyses the use of a therapeutic intervention, Video Interaction Guidance (VIG), which originates in developmental psychology and focuses on the relational foundations of communication. We draw on a single case using an ethnomethodological/conversation analytic framework, and in particular Goodwin's (1994) work on ‘professional vision’, to show how the ability to see ‘success’ is a socially situated activity. Since what counts as success in this setting is often far removed from everyday ideas of good communication, how guiders facilitate particular ‘ways of seeing’ are critical for both the support of carers and the impact of the intervention. We argue that this work has implications in three areas: for the practice of VIG itself; for the role of qualitative, interactional research addressing the way in which interaction-based interventions are protocolised, enacted and assessed; and for the way in which expertise is conceptualised in professional/client interactions in health and social care. PMID:24355475

  13. OHIO PROGRAMS FOR VISUALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN, A REPORT ON THE 1964-65 COLUMBUS, OHIO STUDY OF PARTIALLY SEEING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GROVER, EDWARD C.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY INVESTIGATED THE DECLINING ENROLLMENT IN OHIO'S PROGRAMS FOR PARTIALLY SEEING CHILDREN AND THE PROBLEMS OF INCIDENCE, VISUAL FUNCTIONING, AND MULTIPLE HANDICAPS. PARTIALLY SEEING CHILDREN IDENTIFIED BY THE STUDY HAD A VISUAL ACUITY AFTER CORRECTION OF 20/70 OR LESS AND/OR CORRECTION OF MORE THAN 10 DIOPTERS OF MYOPIA. THE SCHOOL NURSES…

  14. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 404 permit (See 33 CFR 209.120 and part 233). (2) Rock crushing and gravel washing facilities means facilities which process crushed and broken stone, gravel, and riprap (See 40 CFR part 436, subpart B... whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with...

  15. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 404 permit (See 33 CFR 209.120 and part 233). (2) Rock crushing and gravel washing facilities means facilities which process crushed and broken stone, gravel, and riprap (See 40 CFR part 436, subpart B... whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with...

  16. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 404 permit (See 33 CFR 209.120 and part 233). (2) Rock crushing and gravel washing facilities means facilities which process crushed and broken stone, gravel, and riprap (See 40 CFR part 436, subpart B... whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with...

  17. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 404 permit (See 33 CFR 209.120 and part 233). (2) Rock crushing and gravel washing facilities means facilities which process crushed and broken stone, gravel, and riprap (See 40 CFR part 436, subpart B... whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with...

  18. 40 CFR 122.27 - Silvicultural activities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 404 permit (See 33 CFR 209.120 and part 233). (2) Rock crushing and gravel washing facilities means facilities which process crushed and broken stone, gravel, and riprap (See 40 CFR part 436, subpart B... whose discharges result from the holding of unprocessed wood, for example, logs or roundwood with...

  19. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  20. 29 CFR 1917.25 - Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fumigant manufacturer or by Table Z-1 of 29 CFR 1910.1000, whichever is lower, all employees shall be... preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.25 Section 1917.25..., insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  2. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  3. 29 CFR 1917.25 - Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fumigant manufacturer or by Table Z-1 of 29 CFR 1910.1000, whichever is lower, all employees shall be... preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.25 Section 1917.25..., insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  5. 29 CFR 1917.25 - Fumigants, pesticides, insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fumigant manufacturer or by Table Z-1 of 29 CFR 1910.1000, whichever is lower, all employees shall be... preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.25 Section 1917.25..., insecticides and hazardous preservatives (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.23 - Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also § 1917.2 Hazardous cargo, material, substance or atmosphere). 1917.23 Section 1917.23 Labor Regulations Relating to... TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.23 Hazardous atmospheres and substances (see also §...

  7. Frequency Comparison of [Formula: see text] Ion Optical Clocks at PTB and NPL via GPS PPP.

    PubMed

    Leute, J; Huntemann, N; Lipphardt, B; Tamm, Christian; Nisbet-Jones, P B R; King, S A; Godun, R M; Jones, J M; Margolis, H S; Whibberley, P B; Wallin, A; Merimaa, M; Gill, P; Peik, E

    2016-07-01

    We used precise point positioning, a well-established GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer method to perform a direct remote comparison of two optical frequency standards based on single laser-cooled [Formula: see text] ions operated at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), U.K. and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. At both institutes, an active hydrogen maser serves as a flywheel oscillator which is connected to a GPS receiver as an external frequency reference and compared simultaneously to a realization of the unperturbed frequency of the (2)S1/2(F=0)-(2)D3/2(F=2) electric quadrupole transition in [Formula: see text] via an optical femtosecond frequency comb. To profit from long coherent GPS-link measurements, we extrapolate the fractional frequency difference over the various data gaps in the optical clock to maser comparisons which introduces maser noise to the frequency comparison but improves the uncertainty from the GPS-link instability. We determined the total statistical uncertainty consisting of the GPS-link uncertainty and the extrapolation uncertainties for several extrapolation schemes. Using the extrapolation scheme with the smallest combined uncertainty, we find a fractional frequency difference [Formula: see text] of -1.3×10(-15) with a combined uncertainty of 1.2×10(-15) for a total measurement time of 67 h. This result is consistent with an agreement of the frequencies realized by both optical clocks and with recent absolute frequency measurements against caesium fountain clocks within the corresponding uncertainties.

  8. Frequency Comparison of [Formula: see text] Ion Optical Clocks at PTB and NPL via GPS PPP.

    PubMed

    Leute, J; Huntemann, N; Lipphardt, B; Tamm, Christian; Nisbet-Jones, P B R; King, S A; Godun, R M; Jones, J M; Margolis, H S; Whibberley, P B; Wallin, A; Merimaa, M; Gill, P; Peik, E

    2016-07-01

    We used precise point positioning, a well-established GPS carrier-phase frequency transfer method to perform a direct remote comparison of two optical frequency standards based on single laser-cooled [Formula: see text] ions operated at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), U.K. and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Germany. At both institutes, an active hydrogen maser serves as a flywheel oscillator which is connected to a GPS receiver as an external frequency reference and compared simultaneously to a realization of the unperturbed frequency of the (2)S1/2(F=0)-(2)D3/2(F=2) electric quadrupole transition in [Formula: see text] via an optical femtosecond frequency comb. To profit from long coherent GPS-link measurements, we extrapolate the fractional frequency difference over the various data gaps in the optical clock to maser comparisons which introduces maser noise to the frequency comparison but improves the uncertainty from the GPS-link instability. We determined the total statistical uncertainty consisting of the GPS-link uncertainty and the extrapolation uncertainties for several extrapolation schemes. Using the extrapolation scheme with the smallest combined uncertainty, we find a fractional frequency difference [Formula: see text] of -1.3×10(-15) with a combined uncertainty of 1.2×10(-15) for a total measurement time of 67 h. This result is consistent with an agreement of the frequencies realized by both optical clocks and with recent absolute frequency measurements against caesium fountain clocks within the corresponding uncertainties. PMID:26863657

  9. The Lateglacial and Holocene history of annually laminated Lake Tiefer See

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Martin; Dräger, Nadine; Lampe, Reinhard; Lorenz, Sebastian; Kienel, Ulrike; Schult, Manuela; Słowiński, Michał; Wulf, Sabine; Zawiska, Izabela; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Lake Tiefer See (N 53.59, E 12.53) is one of the rare lakes with a long sequence of annually laminated Holocene sediments in northern Central Europe. The lake is a valuable link between laminated lakes in more oceanic climates of the Eifel region and NW Germany and laminated lakes in the more continental climate of Poland. It thus provides great potential to study past climate, vegetation and human land use along that climate transition. The sediments of Lake Tiefer See show repeated changes in varve quality and composition. To disentangle in how far these changes relate to either past climate change, lake water level fluctuations or to changes in the local environment caused by e.g. human activity, we studied 16 sediment cores taken mainly from the lake margin. Almost all cores show interruptions in sedimentation namely during the mid-Holocene, suggesting that the lake water level has been lowered during this period. However, peat-gyttia alternations point at lake level fluctuations also during the early and late Holocene. Discontinuous sedimentation in cores from intermediate depth points at recurring slumping events. The pollen record additionally indicates prominent alternations in land use intensity throughout the late Holocene. By testing correlation between the hydrological changes, changes in land use intensity and changes in the sediment record we discuss effects of climate change and further factors on varve formation in Lake Tiefer See. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analysis -ICLEA- of the Helmholtz Association; grant number VH-VI-415.

  10. Field of view of limitations in see-through HMD using geometric waveguides.

    PubMed

    DeHoog, Edward; Holmstedt, Jason; Aye, Tin

    2016-08-01

    Geometric waveguides are being integrated into head-mounted display (HMD) systems, where having see-through capability in a compact, lightweight form factor is required. We developed methods for determining the field of view (FOV) of such waveguide HMD systems and have analytically derived the FOV for waveguides using planar and curved geometries. By using real ray-tracing methods, we are able to show how the geometry and index of refraction of the waveguide, as well as the properties of the coupling optics, impact the FOV. Use of this analysis allows one to determine the maximum theoretical FOV of a planar or curved waveguide-based system.

  11. Global [Formula: see text] stabilization of fractional-order memristive neural networks with time delays.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Wu, Ailong; Song, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    This article is concerned with the global [Formula: see text] stabilization for a class of fractional-order memristive neural networks with time delays (FMDNNs). Two kinds of control scheme (i.e., state feedback control law and output feedback control law) are employed to stabilize a class of FMDNNs. Several stabilization conditions in form of algebraic criteria are presented based on a new fractional-order Lyapunov function method and Leibniz rule. Some examples are given to substantiate the effectiveness of the presented theoretical results.

  12. Significance of anisotropy and the outer scale of turbulence for optical and radio seeing.

    PubMed

    Coulman, C E; Vernin, J

    1991-01-01

    The small value found for the outer scale of turbulence (namely, seeing measurements are analyzed in support of a proposed turbulence spectrum which exhibits a spectral gap for scales (and hence interferometer baselines) between approximately 10 and 1500 m but which obeys a 5/3 power law between 1500 and 20,000 m. The implications for forecasting the performance of optical and radio telescopes and interferometers are important.

  13. Recent Observations and Modeling of Narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs at the HAARP Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, Wayne; Bernhardt, Paul; McCarrick, Michael; Briczinski, Stanley; Mahmoudian, Alireza; Fu, Haiyang; Ranade Bordikar, Maitrayee; Samimi, Alireza

    There has been significant interest in so-called narrowband Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission SEE over the past several years due to recent discoveries at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program HAARP facility near Gakone, Alaska. Narrowband SEE (NSEE) has been defined as spectral features in the SEE spectrum typically within 1 kHz of the transmitter (or pump) frequency. SEE is due to nonlinear processes leading to re-radiation at frequencies other than the pump wave frequency during heating the ionospheric plasma with high power HF radio waves. Although NSEE exhibits a richly complex structure, it has now been shown after a substantial number of observations at HAARP, that NSEE can be grouped into two basic classes. The first are those spectral features, associated with Stimulated Brillouin Scatter SBS, which typically occur when the pump frequency is not close to electron gyro-harmonic frequencies. Typically, these spectral features are within roughly 50 Hz of the pump wave frequency where it is to be noted that the O+ ion gyro-frequency is roughly 50 Hz. The second class of spectral features corresponds to the case when the pump wave frequency is typically within roughly 10 kHz of electron gyro-harmonic frequencies. In this case, spectral features ordered by harmonics of ion gyro-frequencies are typically observed, and termed Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter SIBS. There is also important parametric behavior on both classes of NSEE depending on the pump wave parameters including the field strength, antenna beam angle, and electron gyro-harmonic number. This presentation will first provide an overview of the recent NSEE experimental observations at HAARP. Both Stimulated Brillouin Scatter SBS and Stimulated Ion Bernstein Scatter SIBS observations will be discussed as well as their relationship to each other. Possible theoretical formulation in terms of parametric decay instabilities will be provided. Computer simulation model results will be presented

  14. Field of view of limitations in see-through HMD using geometric waveguides.

    PubMed

    DeHoog, Edward; Holmstedt, Jason; Aye, Tin

    2016-08-01

    Geometric waveguides are being integrated into head-mounted display (HMD) systems, where having see-through capability in a compact, lightweight form factor is required. We developed methods for determining the field of view (FOV) of such waveguide HMD systems and have analytically derived the FOV for waveguides using planar and curved geometries. By using real ray-tracing methods, we are able to show how the geometry and index of refraction of the waveguide, as well as the properties of the coupling optics, impact the FOV. Use of this analysis allows one to determine the maximum theoretical FOV of a planar or curved waveguide-based system. PMID:27505372

  15. Monolithic light guide optics enabling new user experience for see-through AR glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarayeddline, K.; Mirza, K.; Benoit, P.; Hugel, X.

    2014-09-01

    This paper describes the performances of mold light guide based see-through optics for the production of AR glasses for commercial and professional applications. A monolithic thin mold light guide with surface structure mirror array extracts and project bright and large virtual image into the user eye of sight. The light guide thin form factor allows a new user experience with two possible positions for the virtual image in front of the user eye. A wireless AR glasses based on this concept will be described and demonstrated. A comparison with others light guide based technologies in term of Safety, Brightness efficiency and form factor will be presented and discussed.

  16. Seeing illness in art and medicine: a patient and printmaker collaboration.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Devan; Stahl, Darian Goldin

    2016-09-01

    For many patients, viewing one's illness through medical imaging technology can be an unsettling experience. Patients are likely not to see themselves represented in medical images and may find it difficult to reconcile this new image with their own body image. In this article, a patient with multiple sclerosis and a printmaker describe a collaborative project they have developed, wherein the patient's medical images are incorporated into pieces of fine art. The aim of the project is to open up the interpretation of the ill-body to persons outside the medical field, so as to do justice to the multiple dimensions of the body chronically ill persons often inhabit. PMID:27001596

  17. Excitation threshold of Stimulated Electromagnetic Emissions SEEs generated at pump frequency near the third electron gyroharmonic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, A.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Scales, W.

    2012-12-01

    The High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) in Gakona, Alaska provides effective radiated powers in the megawatt range that have allowed researchers to study many non-linear effects of wave-plasma interactions. Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) is of interest to the ionospheric community for its diagnostic purposes. In recent HAARP heating experiments, it has been shown that during the Magnetized Stimulated Brillouin Scattering MSBS instability, the pumped electromagnetic wave may decay into an electromagnetic wave and a low frequency electrostatic wave (either ion acoustic IA wave or electrostatic ion cyclotron EIC wave). Using Stimulated Electromagnetic Emission (SEE) spectral features, side bands which extend above and below the pump frequency can yield significant diagnostics for the modified ionosphere. It has been shown that the IA wave frequency offsets can be used to measure electron temperature in the heated ionosphere and EIC wave offsets can be used as a sensitive method to determine the ion species by measuring ion mass using the ion gyro-frequency offset. The threshold of each emission line has been measured by changing the amplitude of pump wave. The experimental results aimed to show the threshold for transmitter power to excite IA wave propagating along the magnetic field lines as well as for EIC wave excited at an oblique angle relative to the background magnetic field. Another parametric decay instability studied is the ion Bernstein decay instability that has been attributed to the simultaneous parametric decay of electron Bernstein waves into multiple electron Bernstein and ion Bernstein waves. The SIB process is thought to involve mode conversion from EM to EB waves followed by parametric decay of the EB wave to multiple EB and IB waves. The parametric decay instability of ion Bernstein modes has been observed simultaneously for the first time at the third electron gyroharmonics during 2011 Summer Student Research

  18. Double Higgs production at LHC, see-saw type-II and Georgi-Machacek model

    SciTech Connect

    Godunov, S. I. Vysotsky, M. I. Zhemchugov, E. V.

    2015-03-15

    The double Higgs production in the models with isospin-triplet scalars is studied. It is shown that in the see-saw type-II model, the mode with an intermediate heavy scalar, pp → H + X → 2h + X, may have the cross section that is comparable with that in the Standard Model. In the Georgi-Machacek model, this cross section could be much larger than in the Standard Model because the vacuum expectation value of the triplet can be large.

  19. Theoretical Study of Intramolecular, CH [Formula: see text] X (X = N, O, Cl), Hydrogen Bonds in Thiazole Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Castro, Miguel; Nicolás-Vázquez, Inés; Zavala, Jesús I; Sánchez-Viesca, F; Berros, Martha

    2007-05-01

    CH [Formula: see text] X (X = N, O, or Cl) hydrogen bonds formed intramolecularly in 2-methyl-4-(2-chloro-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl)thiazole (Ia), 2-amino-4-(2-chloro-4,5-dimethoxy phenyl)thiazole (Ib), 2-amino-4-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)thiazole (Ic), and 2-methyl-4-(2,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)thiazole (Id) were studied by means of all-electron calculations performed with the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. Computed ground states, in the gas phase, show the presence of a single H-bond, CH [Formula: see text] Cl, in each Ia and Ib moiety, and two H-bonds, CH [Formula: see text] N and CH [Formula: see text] O, for each Ic and Id molecule. H [Formula: see text] Cl, H [Formula: see text] N, and H [Formula: see text] O distances are shorter than the sum of the X and H van der Waals radii. H-bond energies of ≅2.0 kcal/mol were estimated for Ia and Ib and ≅4.0 kcal/mol for Ic and Id. These results agree with those of the theory of atoms in molecules, since bond critical points were found for these H [Formula: see text] X bonds. Finally, the chemical shifts in the (1)H NMR were calculated by the GIAO method; in Ia and Ib they are merely due to the different topological positions of the H atoms. But in Ic and Id the shifts of H [Formula: see text] N and H [Formula: see text] O have signatures of H-bond formations.

  20. On the use of time-averaging restraints when deriving biomolecular structure from [Formula: see text]-coupling values obtained from NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lorna J; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Hansen, Niels

    2016-09-01

    Deriving molecular structure from [Formula: see text]-couplings obtained from NMR experiments is a challenge due to (1) the uncertainty in the Karplus relation [Formula: see text] connecting a [Formula: see text]-coupling value to a torsional angle [Formula: see text], (2) the need to account for the averaging inherent to the measurement of [Formula: see text]-couplings, and (3) the sampling road blocks that may emerge due to the multiple-valuedness of the inverse function [Formula: see text] of the function [Formula: see text]. Ways to properly handle these issues in structure refinement of biomolecules are discussed and illustrated using the protein hen egg white lysozyme as example.

  1. "Wait and see" vaccinating behaviour during a pandemic: a game theoretic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, Chris T

    2011-07-26

    During the 2009 H1N1 pandemic, many individuals did not seek vaccination immediately but rather decided to "wait and see" until further information was available on vaccination costs. This behaviour implies two sources of strategic interaction: as more individuals become vaccinated, both the perceived vaccination cost and the probability that susceptible individuals become infected decline. Here we analyze the outcome of these two strategic interactions by combining game theory with a disease transmission model during an outbreak of a novel influenza strain. The model exhibits a "wait and see" Nash equilibrium strategy, with vaccine delayers relying on herd immunity and vaccine safety information generated by early vaccinators. This strategic behaviour causes the timing of the epidemic peak to be strongly conserved across a broad range of plausible transmission rates, in contrast to models without such adaptive behaviour. The model exhibits not only feedback mechanisms but also a feed-forward mechanism: a high initial perceived vaccination cost perpetuates high perceived vaccine costs (and lower vaccine coverage) throughout the remainder of the outbreak. This suggests that any effect of risk communication at the start of a pandemic outbreak will be amplified compared to the same amount of risk communication effort distributed throughout the outbreak.

  2. Discovery of new [Formula: see text] proteasome inhibitors using a knowledge-based computational screening approach.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Rukmankesh; Chib, Reena; Munagala, Gurunadham; Yempalla, Kushalava Reddy; Khan, Inshad Ali; Singh, Parvinder Pal; Khan, Farrah Gul; Nargotra, Amit

    2015-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria cause deadly infections in patients [Corrected]. The rise of multidrug resistance associated with tuberculosis further makes the situation worse in treating the disease. M. tuberculosis proteasome is necessary for the pathogenesis of the bacterium validated as an anti-tubercular target, thus making it an attractive enzyme for designing Mtb inhibitors. In this study, a computational screening approach was applied to identify new proteasome inhibitor candidates from a library of 50,000 compounds. This chemical library was procured from the ChemBridge (20,000 compounds) and the ChemDiv (30,000 compounds) databases. After a detailed analysis of the computational screening results, 50 in silico hits were retrieved and tested in vitro finding 15 compounds with [Formula: see text] values ranging from 35.32 to 64.15 [Formula: see text]M on lysate. A structural analysis of these hits revealed that 14 of these compounds probably have non-covalent mode of binding to the target and have not reported for anti-tubercular or anti-proteasome activity. The binding interactions of all the 14 protein-inhibitor complexes were analyzed using molecular docking studies. Further, molecular dynamics simulations of the protein in complex with the two most promising hits were carried out so as to identify the key interactions and validate the structural stability.

  3. Sir Nicholas Harold Ridley. He changed the world, so that we might better see it.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Rupal H; Apple, David J; Pandey, Suresh K; Werner, Liliana; Izak, Andrea M; Vasavada, Abhay R; Ram, Jagat

    2003-09-01

    Cataract surgery with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation has become the most common and most successful of all operations in medicine. Sir Harold Ridley's first cataract extraction with implantation of an IOL marked the beginning of a major change in the practice of ophthalmology. Millions of patients worldwide have benefited from Sir Ridley's invention, and are likely to continue to derive benefit from this device. However, the development of the IOL was not without its share of ups and downs. Sir Harold Ridley, the inventor of IOL, died at the age of 94, on 25 May 2001, and ophthalmology lost one of its greatest and most influential practitioners. We are happy that he lived to enjoy the fruits of his labour--to see the amazing improvements and the expansive growth that evolved in the cataract-IOL technique, from early and unsatisfactory operations in previous decades, to the superb results attainable today. The invention of the IOL has not been just the addition of one new form of treatment, but rather, Sir Harold's tiny disc-shaped sliver of plastic has changed the world so that our patients may better see it. This article presents a brief biographical sketch of Sir Harold and lists his major inventions and contributions to ophthalmology. PMID:14601845

  4. A Real-Time Augmented Reality System to See-Through Cars.

    PubMed

    Rameau, Francois; Ha, Hyowon; Joo, Kyungdon; Choi, Jinsoo; Park, Kibaek; Kweon, In So

    2016-11-01

    One of the most hazardous driving scenario is the overtaking of a slower vehicle, indeed, in this case the front vehicle (being overtaken) can occlude an important part of the field of view of the rear vehicle's driver. This lack of visibility is the most probable cause of accidents in this context. Recent research works tend to prove that augmented reality applied to assisted driving can significantly reduce the risk of accidents. In this paper, we present a real-time marker-less system to see through cars. For this purpose, two cars are equipped with cameras and an appropriate wireless communication system. The stereo vision system mounted on the front car allows to create a sparse 3D map of the environment where the rear car can be localized. Using this inter-car pose estimation, a synthetic image is generated to overcome the occlusion and to create a seamless see-through effect which preserves the structure of the scene. PMID:27479969

  5. Hydrogenated soy ethyl ester (HySEE) from ethanol and waste vegetable oil

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Reece, D.; Thompson, J.

    1995-11-01

    Biodiesel is gaining recognition in the United States as a renewable fuel which may be used as an alternative to diesel fuel without any modifications to the engine. Currently the cost of this fuel is the factor that limits its use. One way to reduce the cost of biodiesel is to use a less expensive form of vegetable oil such as waste oil from a processing plant. These operations use mainly hydrogenated soybean oil, some tallow and some Canola as their frying oils. It is estimated that there are several million pounds of waste vegetable oil from these operations. Additional waste frying oil is available from smaller processors, off-grade oil seeds and restaurants. This paper reports on developing a process to produce the first 945 liters (250 gallons) of HySEE using recipes developed at the University of Idaho; fuel characterization tests on the HySEE according to the ASAE proposed Engineering Practice for Testing of Fuels from Biological Materials, X552; short term injector coking tests and performance tests in a turbocharged, DI, CI engine; and a 300 hour screening test in a single cylinder, IDI, CI engine.

  6. Is this car looking at you? How anthropomorphism predicts fusiform face area activation when seeing cars.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R; Müller, Barbara C N; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts.

  7. Oculomotor behavior of blind patients seeing with a subretinal visual implant.

    PubMed

    Hafed, Ziad M; Stingl, Katarina; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl-Ulrich; Gekeler, Florian; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2016-01-01

    Electronic implants are able to restore some visual function in blind patients with hereditary retinal degenerations. Subretinal visual implants, such as the CE-approved Retina Implant Alpha IMS (Retina Implant AG, Reutlingen, Germany), sense light through the eye's optics and subsequently stimulate retinal bipolar cells via ∼1500 independent pixels to project visual signals to the brain. Because these devices are directly implanted beneath the fovea, they potentially harness the full benefit of eye movements to scan scenes and fixate objects. However, so far, the oculomotor behavior of patients using subretinal implants has not been characterized. Here, we tracked eye movements in two blind patients seeing with a subretinal implant, and we compared them to those of three healthy controls. We presented bright geometric shapes on a dark background, and we asked the patients to report seeing them or not. We found that once the patients visually localized the shapes, they fixated well and exhibited classic oculomotor fixational patterns, including the generation of microsaccades and ocular drifts. Further, we found that a reduced frequency of saccades and microsaccades was correlated with loss of visibility. Last, but not least, gaze location corresponded to the location of the stimulus, and shape and size aspects of the viewed stimulus were reflected by the direction and size of saccades. Our results pave the way for future use of eye tracking in subretinal implant patients, not only to understand their oculomotor behavior, but also to design oculomotor training strategies that can help improve their quality of life.

  8. An automated calibration method for non-see-through head mounted displays

    PubMed Central

    Gilson, Stuart J.; Fitzgibbon, Andrew W.; Glennerster, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Accurate calibration of a head mounted display (HMD) is essential both for research on the visual system and for realistic interaction with virtual objects. Yet, existing calibration methods are time consuming and depend on human judgements, making them error prone, and are often limited to optical see-through HMDs. Building on our existing approach to HMD calibration Gilson et al. (2008), we show here how it is possible to calibrate a non-see-through HMD. A camera is placed inside a HMD displaying an image of a regular grid, which is captured by the camera. The HMD is then removed and the camera, which remains fixed in position, is used to capture images of a tracked calibration object in multiple positions. The centroids of the markers on the calibration object are recovered and their locations re-expressed in relation to the HMD grid. This allows established camera calibration techniques to be used to recover estimates of the HMD display's intrinsic parameters (width, height, focal length) and extrinsic parameters (optic centre and orientation of the principal ray). We calibrated a HMD in this manner and report the magnitude of the errors between real image features and reprojected features. Our calibration method produces low reprojection errors without the need for error-prone human judgements. PMID:21620891

  9. Is This Car Looking at You? How Anthropomorphism Predicts Fusiform Face Area Activation when Seeing Cars

    PubMed Central

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R.; Müller, Barbara C. N.; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts. PMID:25517511

  10. Single-event Effect Report for EPC Series eGaN FETs: Proton Testing for SEE and TNID Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheick, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Previous testing of the Enhanced Power Conversion (EPC) eGaN FETs showed sensitivity to destructive single-event effects (SEE) effects to heavy ions. The presence of tungsten plugs in the gate area raises concerns that the device may be vulnerable to SEE from protons. Irradiation of biased and unbiased devices with heavy ion has results in some damage suspected of being due to total non-ionizing dose (TNID). Proton irradiation is a better radiation type to study this effect. This study presents the results of testing device with protons for SEE and TNID. No SEE in the EPC2012 device, the most sensitive device to SEE, were seen with 53 MeV protons at several angles. The devices continued to function after 1.5 Mrad (Si) of proton dose with only a slight shift in parameters. These results suggest that gross TNID will not be a factor in using these devices nor suffer from SEE due to protons. However, the device should be tested at with 500 MeV protons to guarantee to immunity proton SEE.

  11. Esterase SeE of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi is a Novel Non-specific Carboxylic Ester Hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Liu, Mengyao; Zhu, Hui; Lei, Benfang

    2009-01-01

    Extracellular carboxylic ester hydrolases are produced by many bacterial pathogens and have been shown recently to be important for virulence of some pathogens. However, these hydrolases are poorly characterized in enzymatic activity. This study prepared and characterized the secreted ester hydrolase of Streptococcus equi ssp. equi (designated SeE for S. equi esterase). SeE hydrolyzes ethyl acetate, acetylsalicylic acid, and tributyrin but not ethyl butyrate. This substrate specificity pattern does not match those of the three conventional types of non-specific carboxylic ester hydrolases (carboxylesterases, arylesterases, and acetylesterases). To determine whether SeE has lipase activity, a number of triglycerides and vinyl esters were tested in SeE-catalyzed hydrolysis. SeE does not hydrolyze triglycerides and vinyl esters of long chain carboxylic acids nor display interfacial activation, indicating that SeE is not a lipase. Like the conventional carboxylesterases, SeE is inhibited by diisopropylfluorophosphate. These findings indicate that SeE is a novel non-specific carboxylic ester hydrolase that has broader substrate specificity than the conventional carboxylesterases. PMID:19054107

  12. Seeing to the Event Horizon: Probing Accretion Physics with X-ray Reflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Dan

    2015-09-01

    Accretion onto supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei is known to power some of the most luminous objects we see in the Universe, which through their vast energy outputs must have played an important role in shaping the large scale structure of the Universe we see today. Much remains unknown, however, about the fine details of this process; exactly how energy is liberated from accretion flows onto black holes, how the 'corona' that produces the intense X-ray continuum is formed and what governs this process over time. I will outline how the detection of X-rays reflected from the discs of accreting material around black holes by the present generation of large X-ray observatories, shifted in energy and blurred by relativistic effects in the strong gravitational field close to the black hole, has enabled measurements of the inner regions of the accretion flow in unprecedented detail. In particular, exploiting the shift in energy of atomic emission lines by relativistic effects as a function of location on the disc has enabled the measurement of the illumination pattern of the accretion flow by the X-ray continuum from which the geometry of the emitting region can be inferred and how the detection of time lags between the primary and reflected X-rays owing to the additional path the reflected rays must travel between the corona and the disc places further constraints on the nature of the emitting corona. These techniques allow the evolution of the corona that accompanies transitions from high to low X-ray flux to be studied, giving clues to the physical process that forms and powers the intense X-ray source and uncovering evidence for the potential launching of jets. I will discuss the great steps forward in understanding accretion physics that can be made with the Athena X-ray observatory, combining detailed analysis of observations with predictions and models from general relativistic ray tracing simulations. In particular, I will discuss how high

  13. Late-Glacial to early Holocene basin development of annually laminated Lake Tiefer See

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theuerkauf, Martin; Lorenz, Sebastian; Schult, Manuela; Lampe, Reinhard; Dräger, Nadine; Wulf, Sabine; Brauer, Achim

    2014-05-01

    Lake Tiefer See (N 53.59°, E 12.53°) is one of the rare lakes with a long sequence of annually laminated Holocene sediments in northern Central Europe. The lake is thus of great potential for past climate, vegetation and human land use studies. It furthermore provides a valuable link between laminated lakes in more oceanic climates of the Eifel region and NW Germany and laminated lakes in the more continental climate of Poland. The sediments of Lake Tiefer See are not uniform but show repeated changes in varve composition and include several non-varved sequences. Interpreting these changes requires a sound understanding of the deposition processes in the lake and the development of the lake basin itself. While modern sediment deposition is studied in an extensive monitoring program, we explore lake basin development using numerous cores from the lake margins down to the bottom of the lake. The lake is exceptionally deep (62 m) with steep slopes and may thus be susceptible to sediment re-deposition and focusing. Most marginal cores, which reach down to 10 m water depth, show a prominent basal peat layer. This peat layer indicates that basin development started by paludification of an originally flat surface following dead-ice melting. However, even in neighboring cores the timing of the onset of peat formation appears to differ substantially. While in some cores, the prominent Laacher See Tephra (12.880 cal. BP) is found at the bottom of the peat layer, it is found well above the peat basis in other cores. Dead-ice melting may thus initially have produced a pattern of shallow depressions with ongoing peat formation within a still terrestrial surface. The formation of the deep lake is than indicated by an abrupt shift to calcareous gyttjas, which show an initially increased silicate content. The lake obviously only developed long after first peat deposition, possibly in the early Holocene. Further dates to verify this hypothesis are expected. In several marginal

  14. Measurement of seeing in Bogotá by Differential Images Monitoring Movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Londoño, S. P.; Pinzón, G.

    2011-10-01

    The search for a suitable site for the location of an observatory in the torrid zone is a task that requires time and effort. We present a project wich aims to search such place along three phases: (1) A careful analysis of temporal series of meteorological variables available in the literature and databases (IDEAM), (2) The use of a meteorological model and satellite images in order to filter only a few places and (3) The use of the DIMM technique to determine the optical seeing in the places selected in (2). The DIMM techique is currently working with the instrumentation available at the Observatorio Astronómico at Universidad Nacional de Colombia in Bogotá.

  15. Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: Spacecraft Charging Technology Development Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, Billy; Hardage, Donna; Minor, Jody

    2003-01-01

    Reducing size and weight of spacecraft, along with demanding increased performance capabilities, introduces many uncertainties in the engineering design community on how materials and spacecraft systems will perform in space. The engineering design community is forever behind on obtaining and developing new tools and guidelines to mitigate the harmful effects of the space environment. Adding to this complexity is the continued push to use Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) microelectronics, potential usage of unproven technologies such as large solar sail structures and nuclear electric propulsion. In order to drive down these uncertainties, various programs are working together to avoid duplication, save what resources are available in this technical area and possess a focused agenda to insert these new developments into future mission designs. This paper will introduce the SEE Program, briefly discuss past and currently sponsored spacecraft charging activities and possible future endeavors.

  16. Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Program: Spacecraft Charging Technology Development Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kauffman, B.; Hardage, D.; Minor, J.

    2004-01-01

    Reducing size and weight of spacecraft, along with demanding increased performance capabilities, introduces many uncertainties in the engineering design community on how materials and spacecraft systems will perform in space. The engineering design community is forever behind on obtaining and developing new tools and guidelines to mitigate the harmful effects of the space environment. Adding to this complexity is the continued push to use Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) microelectronics, potential usage of unproven technologies such as large solar sail structures and nuclear electric propulsion. In order to drive down these uncertainties, various programs are working together to avoid duplication, save what resources are available in this technical area and possess a focused agenda to insert these new developments into future mission designs. This paper will introduce the SEE Program, briefly discuss past and currently sponsored spacecraft charging activities and possible future endeavors.

  17. Coronal streamers revealed during solar eclipses: Seeing is not believing, and pictures can lie

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Richard

    2011-01-01

    For those fortunate enough to have personally witnessed and photographed the visible corona surrounding the Sun during a solar eclipse, pictures are usually a let down for not living up to the visual view. After 150 years of investigating the corona, we understand it more fully and now know this difference to be real. The difference stems from our inability to either see or image the true distribution of simultaneous brightness because of its large dynamic range (eg, Rodriguez, Woods, 2008 Digital Image Processing, Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall). Brightness in the corona is unprecedented, as it falls by three orders of magnitude over a distance of only one solar radius from the Sun. PMID:23145245

  18. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Lunar Remote Sensing: Seeing the Big Picture" contained the following reports:Approaches for Approximating Topography in High Resolution, Multispectral Data; Verification of Quality and Compatibility for the Newly Calibrated Clementine NIR Data Set; Near Infrared Spectral Properties of Selected Nearside and Farside Sites ; Global Comparisons of Mare Volcanism from Clementine Near-Infrared Data; Testing the Relation Between UVVIS Color and TiO2 Composition in the Lunar Maria; Color Reflectance Trends in the Mare: Implications for Mapping Iron with Multispectral Images ; The Composition of the Lunar Megaregolith: Some Initial Results from Global Mapping; Global Images of Mg-Number Derived from Clementine Data; The Origin of Lunar Crater Rays; Properties of Lunar Crater Ejecta from New 70-cm Radar Observations ; Permanent Sunlight at the Lunar North Pole; and ESA s SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals, Status and First Results.

  19. New Horizons Sees Pluto (Animation) Note: There is debate within the science community as to whether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on New Horizons acquired images of the Pluto field three days apart in late September 2006, in order to see Pluto's motion against a dense background of stars. LORRI took three frames at 1-second exposures on both Sept. 21 and Sept. 24. Because it moved along its predicted path, Pluto was detected in all six images.

    These images are displayed using false-color to represent different intensities: the lowest intensity level is black, different shades of red mark intermediate intensities, and the highest intensity is white.

    The images appear pixilated because they were obtained in a mode that compensates for the drift in spacecraft pointing over long exposure times. LORRI also made these observations before operators uploaded new flight-control software in October; the upgraded software package includes an optical navigation capability that will make LORRI approximately three times more sensitive still than for these Pluto observations.

  20. Coronal streamers revealed during solar eclipses: Seeing is not believing, and pictures can lie.

    PubMed

    Woo, Richard

    2011-01-01

    For those fortunate enough to have personally witnessed and photographed the visible corona surrounding the Sun during a solar eclipse, pictures are usually a let down for not living up to the visual view. After 150 years of investigating the corona, we understand it more fully and now know this difference to be real. The difference stems from our inability to either see or image the true distribution of simultaneous brightness because of its large dynamic range (eg, Rodriguez, Woods, 2008 Digital Image Processing, Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall). Brightness in the corona is unprecedented, as it falls by three orders of magnitude over a distance of only one solar radius from the Sun. PMID:23145245

  1. Chimpanzees really know what others can see in a competitive situation.

    PubMed

    Bräuer, Juliane; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2007-10-01

    Chimpanzee's perspective-taking abilities are currently disputed. Here we show that in some food competition contexts, subordinate chimpanzees do take the visual perspective of dominant individuals, preferentially targeting a hidden piece of the food that the dominant cannot see over a piece that is visible to both individuals. However, the space where the animals compete is critical in determining whether subjects demonstrate this skill. We suggest that competition intensity, as mediated by these spatial factors, may play an important role in determining the strategy chimpanzees utilize in competitive contexts. Since some strategies may not require visual perspective taking in order to be successful, chimpanzees may not always demonstrate this skill. Differences in spatial arrangement may therefore account for the conflicting results of past studies.

  2. Coronal streamers revealed during solar eclipses: Seeing is not believing, and pictures can lie.

    PubMed

    Woo, Richard

    2011-01-01

    For those fortunate enough to have personally witnessed and photographed the visible corona surrounding the Sun during a solar eclipse, pictures are usually a let down for not living up to the visual view. After 150 years of investigating the corona, we understand it more fully and now know this difference to be real. The difference stems from our inability to either see or image the true distribution of simultaneous brightness because of its large dynamic range (eg, Rodriguez, Woods, 2008 Digital Image Processing, Upper Saddle River: Pearson Prentice Hall). Brightness in the corona is unprecedented, as it falls by three orders of magnitude over a distance of only one solar radius from the Sun.

  3. Development of anoxia during the last 90 years in Lake Tiefer See, NE Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groß-Schmölders, Miriam; Dräger, Nadine; Kienel, Ulrike; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    The sediments from the deepest part of the lake basin (62 m) of Lake Tiefer See, an elongated lake formed in a sub-glacial channel during the last glaciation in NE Germany, have been proven to be annually laminated (calcite varves) since AD 1924 (KIENEL ET AL. 2013). Possible explanations for the onset of varve formation are either eutrophication caused by increased nutrient influx through the use of fertilizers in agriculture and/or the modern climatic warming. Since varves can only form under predominantly anoxic conditions it is hypothesized that the development of the anoxic water body in Lake Tiefer See can be reconstructed by determining the onset of varve formation in different parts and at different water depths of the lake basin. Therefore, we investigated: eleven short cores (length from 49 cm (TSK 14 S 2) to 121 cm (TSK 13 QP5)) from a depth of 19, 4 m up to 62 m water depth, mainly along a N-S and a W-E transect. The onset of varve preservation was investigated on all cores by varve counting. Counting and characterization of varves has been obtained by micro-facies analyses of large-scale thin sections μXRF-element scanning. In result we found a good correlation between the onset of varve formation/preservation and water depth. Whereas varves at the deepest point of Lake Tiefer See are developed since 1924 the onset of varve formation began successively later at more shallow water depths. The latest development of varves since 1981 occurs in the northern part of the basin at a water depth of 30 meters and in the East in a depth of 19 meters. In addition to the onset of varve formation, further differences between deep and shallow water cores have been observed. (1) The number of sub-layers per year: two or three layers in the shallow areas in the east, up to seven layers in the deeper part. (2) Better preservation of varves in the northern than in the eastern part of the basin. (3) Different diatom assemblages related to the water depth: Stephanodiscus

  4. New NASA SEE LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines: How to Survive in LEO Rather Than GEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    2003-01-01

    It has been almost two solar cycles since the 1984 GEO Guidelines of Purvis, Garrett, Whittlesey, and Stevens were published. In that time, interest in high voltage LEO systems has increased. Correct and conventional wisdom has been that LEO conditions are sufficiently different from GEO that the GEO Guidelines (and other GEO and POLAR documents produced since then) should not be used for LEO spacecraft. Because of significant recent GEO spacecraft failures that have been shown in ground testing to be likely to also occur on LEO spacecraft, the SEE program commissioned the production of the new LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines. Now available in CD-ROM form, the LEO Guidelines highlight mitigation techniques to prevent spacecraft arcing on LEO solar arrays and other systems. We compare and contrast the mitigation techniques for LEO and GEO in this paper. We also discuss the extensive bibliography included in the LEO Guidelines, so results can be found in their primary sources.

  5. Seeing the Moon: A Series of Inquiry Activities Using Light to Investigate the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupla, Christine; Runyon, C.; Shipp, S.; Tremain, A. H.

    2007-12-01

    Seeing the Moon: Using Light to Investigate the Moon is a series of educational activity modules created for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument aboard the Chandrayaan-1. In these modules, classroom students investigate light and the geologic history of the Moon. Through the hands-on inquiry based activities, 5th to 8th grade students experiment with light and color, collect and analyze authentic data from rock samples using an ALTA reflectance spectrometer, map the rock types of the Moon, and develop theories of the Moon's history. This poster will describe the activities and share the location of the modules. This poster will also share information on the availability of loaner kits which including rock samples and sets of the ALTA reflectance spectrometer.

  6. Stimulated electromagnetic terahertz emissions (SEE) from laser-induced plasma filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isham, Brett; Kunhardt, Erich

    2016-07-01

    Advances in terawatt laser technology have made it possible to ionize the troposphere in long (centimeters to kilometers), narrow (less than 1 mm), wire-like plasma filaments. These filaments emit high-power stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE) at terahertz (submillimeter) frequencies, a frontier in the electromagnetic spectrum lying between the microwave and far infrared bands. Using an accepted model for the plasma oscillations in the filament and a thin-wire approximation, we have calculated the current density and the resulting pattern of terahertz radiation emitted by the filament. The conical shape and opening angle of the calculated radiation pattern match those of recent measurements. Future work could include measurements of both the radiation pattern and of the frequency spectrum, for comparison with detailed calculations of filament plasma processes. Potential applications include high-resolution imaging and remote spectroscopic identification of chemical substances.

  7. See It First: Interactively and Visually Discovering Interesting Satellite Data with NASA Worldview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boller, R. A.; Joshi, T.; McGann, J. M.; Ilavajhala, S.; Timmons, E.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Murphy, K. J.; Cechini, M.; Davies, D.

    2013-12-01

    Complementing NASA's traditional method to data discovery via "metadata-first" searching, the Worldview web mapping client takes a "see it first" approach for visually discovering interesting satellite data. It uses the responsive Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) to provide an interactive interface for browsing 90+ products from Terra, Aqua, and Aura in full resolution and generally within three hours of observation. Launched at Fall 2011 AGU, Worldview's original domain was near-real time applications such as monitoring wildfires and flooding events. Since then, its scope and available imagery have expanded to include science applications and functionality such as the ability to download full-resolution image representations of the data and the original data granules. Worldview is also mobile-friendly and can be used on most tablet and smartphone devices.

  8. Energy balance in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere as revealed by SABER, SEE, and SORCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Mast, J. C.; Mertens, C. J.; Marshall, B. T.; Russell, J. M.; Thompson, R. E.; Gordley, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    We examine the annual energy budget of the mesosphere using measurements from the SABER and SEE instruments on the TIMED satellite and from the SORCE satellite. Rates of heating due to absorption of solar radiation by ozone and molecular oxygen, rates of heating due to seven exothermic chemical reactions, and rates of cooling due to infrared emission by carbon dioxide and ozone are presented. A time series of radiative cooling by carbon dioxide in the mesosphere for the past decade is also included. While uncertainties, particularly in the rates of heating by exothermic chemical reactions, place limits on the exact knowledge of these parameters, we can show approximate balance in heating and cooling rates on annual timescales.

  9. [Studies on the marker compounds for standardization of traditional Chinese medicine "polyporus sclerotium ([symbol: see text])"].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dan; Yamamoto, Kei-ichi; Bi, Kaishun; Zhang, Ping; Liu, Fang; Kano, Yoshihiro

    2003-02-01

    Natural products have been used for healthcare and pharmacotherapy. Because difficulties in quality control affect their production, processing, and marketing, it is necessary to establish adequate marker compounds for their effective application. Ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one(I) was studied in the screening of the marker compounds for the standardization of Polyporus Sclerotium ([symbol: see text]), which has the advantage of easy qualitative and quantitative analysis because of its fluorescence. Its applicability in the standardization of Polyporus Sclerotium is discussed based on comparative studies of 30 crude samples of Polyporus Sclerotium and some other fungi herbs using TLC and HPLC analysis with I it as the marker compound, as well as its chemical synthesis.

  10. Dopaminergic stimulation enhances confidence and accuracy in seeing rapidly presented words.

    PubMed

    Lou, Hans C; Skewes, Joshua C; Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Overgaard, Morten; Lau, Hakwan C; Mouridsen, Kim; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-02-23

    Liberal acceptance, overconfidence, and increased activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine have been proposed to account for abnormal sensory experiences, for instance, hallucinations in schizophrenia. In normal subjects, increased sensory experience in Yoga Nidra meditation is linked to striatal dopamine release. We therefore hypothesize that the neurotransmitter dopamine may function as a regulator of subjective confidence of visual perception in the normal brain. Although much is known about the effect of stimulation by neurotransmitters on cognitive functions, their effect on subjective confidence of perception has never been recorded experimentally before. In a controlled study of 24 normal, healthy female university students with the dopamine agonist pergolide given orally, we show that dopaminergic activation increases confidence in seeing rapidly presented words. It also improves performance in a forced-choice word recognition task. These results demonstrate neurotransmitter regulation of subjective conscious experience of perception and provide evidence for a crucial role of dopamine.

  11. Measuring Small Debris - What You Can't See Can Hurt You

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, Mark

    2016-01-01

    While modeling gives us a tool to better understand the Earth orbit debris environment, it is measurements that give us "ground truth" about what is happening in space. Assets that can detect orbital debris remotely from the surface of the Earth, such as radars and telescopes, give us a statistical view of how debris are distributed in space, how they are being created, and how they are evolving over time. In addition, in situ detectors in space are giving us a better picture of how the small particle environment is actually damaging spacecraft today. IN addition, simulation experiments on the ground help us to understand what we are seeing in orbit. This talk will summarize the history of space debris measurements, how it has changed our view of the Earth orbit environment, and how we are designing the experiments of tomorrow.

  12. Seeing Blue As Red: A Hypnotic Suggestion Can Alter Visual Awareness of Colors.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Sakari; Koivisto, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Some highly hypnotizable individuals have reported changes in objects' color with suggestions given in normal waking state. However, it is not clear whether this occurs only in their imagination. The authors show that, although subjects could imagine colors, a posthypnotic suggestion was necessary for seeing altered colors, even for a hypnotic virtuoso. She reported posthypnotic color alterations also selectively in response to specific target shapes in briefly presented object arrays. Surprisingly, another highly hypnotizable person showed a very different pattern of results. The control participants could not simulate virtuosos' results by applying cognitive strategies. The results imply that hypnosis can alter the functioning of automatic visual processes but only in some of the most hypnotizable individuals. PMID:27267673

  13. The company we keep: why physicians should refuse to see pharmaceutical representatives.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard

    2005-01-01

    Whether physicians ought to interact with pharmaceutical sales representatives (reps) is a question worthy of careful ethical analysis. The issue presents a challenge to both professional integrity and time management. Empirical data suggest that interactions with pharmaceutical reps increase the chances that the physician will act contrary to duties owed to the patient. Ideally, a physician might both interact with reps and also do the research necessary to counteract the commercial bias in their messages. But a physician who actually did that research would, in turn, be devoting a good deal of time that might better be spent in other activities. The counterargument, that one is obligated to see representatives to obtain free samples to best serve one's patients, can be shown in most practice settings not to be compelling. Physicians ought to refuse to visit with representatives as a matter of both professional integrity and sensible time management.

  14. A survey of autonomous vision-based See and Avoid for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcfadyen, Aaron; Mejias, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the vision-based See and Avoid problem for unmanned aircraft. The unique problem environment and associated constraints are detailed, followed by an in-depth analysis of visual sensing limitations. In light of such detection and estimation constraints, relevant human, aircraft and robot collision avoidance concepts are then compared from a decision and control perspective. Remarks on system evaluation and certification are also included to provide a holistic review approach. The intention of this work is to clarify common misconceptions, realistically bound feasible design expectations and offer new research directions. It is hoped that this paper will help us to unify design efforts across the aerospace and robotics communities.

  15. Forecasting seeing and parameters of long-exposure images by means of ARIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilov, Matwey V.

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric turbulence is the one of the major limiting factors for ground-based astronomical observations. In this paper, the problem of short-term forecasting seeing is discussed. The real data that were obtained by atmospheric optical turbulence (OT) measurements above Mount Shatdzhatmaz in 2007-2013 have been analysed. Linear auto-regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models are used for the forecasting. A new procedure for forecasting the image characteristics of direct astronomical observations (central image intensity, full width at half maximum, radius encircling 80 % of the energy) has been proposed. Probability density functions of the forecast of these quantities are 1.5-2 times thinner than the respective unconditional probability density functions. Overall, this study found that the described technique could adequately describe temporal stochastic variations of the OT power.

  16. Optical see-through head-mounted display with occlusion capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chunyu; Lin, Yuxiang; Hua, Hong

    2013-05-01

    Lack of mutual occlusion capability between computer-rendered and real objects is one of fundamental problems for most existing optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMD). Without the proper occlusion management, the virtual view through an OST-HMD appears "ghost-like", floating in the real world. To address this challenge, we have developed an innovative optical scheme that uniquely combines the eyepiece and see-through relay optics to achieve an occlusion-capable OST-HMD system with a very compelling form factor and high optical performances. The proposed display system was based on emerging freeform optical design technologies and was designed for highly efficient liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) type spatial light modulator (SLM) and bright Organic LED (OLED) microdisplay. The proposed display technology was capable of working in both indoor and outdoor environments. Our current design offered a 1280x1024 color resolution based on 0.8" microdisplay and SLM. The MTF values for the majority of the fields at the cutoff frequency of 40lps/mm, which is determined by the pixel size of the microdisplay, are better than 15%. The design achieved a diagonal FOV of 40 degrees, 31.7 degrees horizontally and 25.6 degrees vertically, an exit pupil diameter of 8mm (non-vignetted), and an eye clearance of 18mm. The optics weights about 20 grams per eye. Our proposed occlusion capable OST-HMD system can easily find myriads of applications in various military and commercial sectors such as military training, gaming and entertainment.

  17. Do Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) perceive what conspecifics do and do not see?

    PubMed Central

    Piraux, Emilie; Poulin, Nicolas; Meunier, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the visual perception of others, also named visual perspective taking, is a component of Theory of Mind. Although strong evidence of visual perspective taking has been reported in great apes, the issue is more open to discussion in monkeys. We investigated whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) know what conspecifics do and do not see, using a food competition paradigm originally developed in great apes. We tested individuals in pairs, after establishing the dominance relationship within each pair. Twenty-one pairs were tested in four different conditions. In one condition, the subordinate had the choice between two pieces of food, one that was visible only to it and another that was also visible to the dominant. It was predicted that if the subordinate understands that the dominant cannot see both pieces of food because one is hidden from its view, the subordinate should preferentially go for the food visible only to itself. In the three other conditions, we varied the temporal and visual access to food for both individuals, to control for alternative explanations based on dominance. We recorded the first movement direction chosen by subjects, i.e. towards a) visible food b) hidden food or c) elsewhere; and the outcome of the test, i.e. the quantity of food obtained. Results showed that subordinates moved preferentially for the hidden food when released simultaneously with the dominant and also with a head start on the dominant. By contrast, dominants’ choices of the two pieces of food were random. We also describe and discuss some of the strategies used by subordinates in these tests. According to the whole of our results, Tonkean macaques seem capable of visual perspective taking despite the fact that a low-level explanation as behavior reading has not been totally excluded. PMID:26925323

  18. Do Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) perceive what conspecifics do and do not see?

    PubMed

    Canteloup, Charlotte; Piraux, Emilie; Poulin, Nicolas; Meunier, Hélène

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the visual perception of others, also named visual perspective taking, is a component of Theory of Mind. Although strong evidence of visual perspective taking has been reported in great apes, the issue is more open to discussion in monkeys. We investigated whether Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana) know what conspecifics do and do not see, using a food competition paradigm originally developed in great apes. We tested individuals in pairs, after establishing the dominance relationship within each pair. Twenty-one pairs were tested in four different conditions. In one condition, the subordinate had the choice between two pieces of food, one that was visible only to it and another that was also visible to the dominant. It was predicted that if the subordinate understands that the dominant cannot see both pieces of food because one is hidden from its view, the subordinate should preferentially go for the food visible only to itself. In the three other conditions, we varied the temporal and visual access to food for both individuals, to control for alternative explanations based on dominance. We recorded the first movement direction chosen by subjects, i.e. towards a) visible food b) hidden food or c) elsewhere; and the outcome of the test, i.e. the quantity of food obtained. Results showed that subordinates moved preferentially for the hidden food when released simultaneously with the dominant and also with a head start on the dominant. By contrast, dominants' choices of the two pieces of food were random. We also describe and discuss some of the strategies used by subordinates in these tests. According to the whole of our results, Tonkean macaques seem capable of visual perspective taking despite the fact that a low-level explanation as behavior reading has not been totally excluded.

  19. Application of See One, Do One, Teach One Concept in Surgical Training

    PubMed Central

    Kotsis, Sandra V.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background The traditional method of teaching in Surgery is known as “See One, Do One, Teach One.” However, many have argued that this method is no longer applicable mainly because of concerns for patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to show that the basis of the traditional teaching method is still valid in surgical training if it is combined with various adult learning principles. Methods We reviewed literature regarding the history of the formation of the surgical residency program, adult learning principles, mentoring, and medical simulation. We provide examples for how these learning techniques can be incorporated into a surgical resident training program. Results The surgical residency program created by Dr. William Halsted remained virtually unchanged until recently with reductions in resident work hours and changes to a competency-based training system. Such changes have reduced the teaching time between attending physicians and residents. Learning principles such as “Experience, Observation, Thinking and Action” as well as deliberate practice can be used to train residents. Mentoring is also an important aspect in teaching surgical technique. We review the different types of simulators: standardized patients, virtual reality applications, and high-fidelity mannequin simulators and the advantages and disadvantages of using them. Conclusions The traditional teaching method of “see one, do one, teach one” in surgical residency programs is simple but still applicable. It needs to evolve with current changes in the medical system to adequately train surgical residents and also provide patients with safe, evidence-based care. PMID:23629100

  20. THE zCOSMOS-SINFONI PROJECT. I. SAMPLE SELECTION AND NATURAL-SEEING OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mancini, C.; Renzini, A.; Foerster Schreiber, N. M.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L.; Davies, R.; Cresci, G.; Peng, Y.; Lilly, S.; Carollo, M.; Oesch, P.; Vergani, D.; Pozzetti, L.; Zamorani, G.; Daddi, E.; McCracken, H. J.; Bouche, N.; Shapiro, K.; and others

    2011-12-10

    The zCOSMOS-SINFONI project is aimed at studying the physical and kinematical properties of a sample of massive z {approx} 1.4-2.5 star-forming galaxies, through SINFONI near-infrared integral field spectroscopy (IFS), combined with the multiwavelength information from the zCOSMOS (COSMOS) survey. The project is based on one hour of natural-seeing observations per target, and adaptive optics (AO) follow-up for a major part of the sample, which includes 30 galaxies selected from the zCOSMOS/VIMOS spectroscopic survey. This first paper presents the sample selection, and the global physical characterization of the target galaxies from multicolor photometry, i.e., star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, age, etc. The H{alpha} integrated properties, such as, flux, velocity dispersion, and size, are derived from the natural-seeing observations, while the follow-up AO observations will be presented in the next paper of this series. Our sample appears to be well representative of star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2, covering a wide range in mass and SFR. The H{alpha} integrated properties of the 25 H{alpha} detected galaxies are similar to those of other IFS samples at the same redshifts. Good agreement is found among the SFRs derived from H{alpha} luminosity and other diagnostic methods, provided the extinction affecting the H{alpha} luminosity is about twice that affecting the continuum. A preliminary kinematic analysis, based on the maximum observed velocity difference across the source and on the integrated velocity dispersion, indicates that the sample splits nearly 50-50 into rotation-dominated and velocity-dispersion-dominated galaxies, in good agreement with previous surveys.

  1. [Formula: see text]-regularized recursive total least squares based sparse system identification for the error-in-variables.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jun-Seok; Pang, Hee-Suk

    2016-01-01

    In this paper an [Formula: see text]-regularized recursive total least squares (RTLS) algorithm is considered for the sparse system identification. Although recursive least squares (RLS) has been successfully applied in sparse system identification, the estimation performance in RLS based algorithms becomes worse, when both input and output are contaminated by noise (the error-in-variables problem). We proposed an algorithm to handle the error-in-variables problem. The proposed [Formula: see text]-RTLS algorithm is an RLS like iteration using the [Formula: see text] regularization. The proposed algorithm not only gives excellent performance but also reduces the required complexity through the effective inversion matrix handling. Simulations demonstrate the superiority of the proposed [Formula: see text]-regularized RTLS for the sparse system identification setting. PMID:27652035

  2. Recruitment of Occipital Cortex during Sensory Substitution Training Linked to Subjective Experience of Seeing in People with Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Tomás; Poch, Joaquín; Santos, Juan M.; Requena, Carmen; Martínez, Ana M.; Ortiz-Terán, Laura; Turrero, Agustín; Barcia, Juan; Nogales, Ramón; Calvo, Agustín; Martínez, José M.; Córdoba, José L.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Over three months of intensive training with a tactile stimulation device, 18 blind and 10 blindfolded seeing subjects improved in their ability to identify geometric figures by touch. Seven blind subjects spontaneously reported ‘visual qualia’, the subjective sensation of seeing flashes of light congruent with tactile stimuli. In the latter subjects tactile stimulation evoked activation of occipital cortex on electroencephalography (EEG). None of the blind subjects who failed to experience visual qualia, despite identical tactile stimulation training, showed EEG recruitment of occipital cortex. None of the blindfolded seeing humans reported visual-like sensations during tactile stimulation. These findings support the notion that the conscious experience of seeing is linked to the activation of occipital brain regions in people with blindness. Moreover, the findings indicate that provision of visual information can be achieved through non-visual sensory modalities which may help to minimize the disability of blind individuals, affording them some degree of object recognition and navigation aid. PMID:21853098

  3. Measuring seeing with a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor during an active-optics experiment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Yang, Dehua; Cui, Xiangqun

    2004-02-01

    We describe the measurement of atmospheric enclosure seeing along a 120-m light path by use of a Shack-Hartmann wave-front sensor (S-H WFS) for the first time to our knowledge in the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) outdoor active-optics experiment system, based on the differential image motion method and a S-H WFS. Seeing estimates that were gained with the S-H WFS were analyzed and found to be in close agreement with the actual seeing conditions, the estimates of refractive-index structure constant, and the thin-mirror active optics results, which usually include the shape sensing precision and the active correction precision of the experimental system. Finally, some countermeasures against poor seeing conditions were considered and adopted.

  4. Optimal [Formula: see text] ratio for predicting 15 km performance among elite male cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Tomas; Carlsson, Magnus; Hammarström, Daniel; Rønnestad, Bent R; Malm, Christer B; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was 1) to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal. oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2) to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation]) completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their [Formula: see text]. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classical-technique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach) was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that [Formula: see text] divided by the square root of body mass (mL · min(-1) · kg(-0.5)) should be used when elite male skiers' performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race) compared to that of lighter skiers.

  5. The NASA Space Environments and Effects Program (SEE): Over a Decade of Useful Products for Spacecraft Designers and Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    SEE program management originated at LaRC in the early 1990's but was transferred to MSFC in FY 1995 and has remained at Marshall since that time, SEE uses 5 technical working groups and NRA's (three since 1994) to achieve its technical objectives. The SEE vision is to develop and maintain a preeminent program in SPACE ENVIRONMENTS AND EFFECTS which provides a coordinated national focus for innovative technology development to support design, development, and operation of spacecraft systems that will accommodate or mitigate effects due to the presence of the space environment. In working toward that goal, SEE has produced, through the years, over 30 major Space Environments and Effects Models and Databases, over 75 major Space Environments and Effects Publications, a website that has had over 112,000 hits since its inception (http://see.msfc.nasa.gov/), distribution of physical products that amounts to over a total of over 260 product deliveries, sponsorship of the last four international Spacecraft Charging Technology Conferences (the major subject matter conference in the world), and sponsorship of numerous technical standards and guidelines in the Space Environments area. Among the recent popular SEE products are the Electric Propulsion Interactions Code (EPIC), the NASA/Air Force Spacecraft Charging Analysis Program (NASCAP-2K), the Interactive Spacecraft Charging Handbook, the Cosmic Ray Effects on Microelectronics Code (CREME 96), the Spacecraft Contamination and Materials Outgassing Effects Knowledge base (SCMOEK), and the Lunar E-Library.

  6. Linking diatom deposition in a deep lake with the spring temperature gradient (Tiefer See, NE Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienel, Ulrike; Kirillin, Georgiy; Brademann, Brian; Plessen, Birgit; Brauer, Achim

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring of deep Lake Tiefer See showed a much larger deposition of diatoms following ice out and a rapid spring stratification in mid April 2013 compared to that following the gradual warming and stratification in mid April 2012. The manifold of diatom individuals in 2013 compared to 2012 amounted to calculated 2.0 compared to 0.15 g silica per square meter and day. The striking difference was the two orders of magnitude larger number of Stephanodiscus sp. in 2013, which were only a minor component in 2012. The monitored weather and lake conditions suggest the 2013-spring bloom was boosted by a quick succession of ice breakup, spring turnover, and stratification leading to nutrient recycling and rapidly improved light conditions. The comparatively longer mixing in spring 2012, calculated using the lake-temperature model FLake, caused population losses that impeded bloom development. To verify the exemplified inverse relation of diatom deposition and mixing duration in spring we use the subannually laminated, recent sediment record of Lake Tiefer See (AD 1924 - 2008), the instrumental series from the meteorological station in Schwerin, and model simulations of the spring mixing. The mixing duration was calculated as the period between water temperatures of 4°C and a mixing depth of 6 m were reached for the period 1951 - 2008. To cover the full sediment record a simple estimate of the mixing period was calculated from mean temperatures, i.e. the temperature duration from the first 5°C-day to the first of ≥5°C days. The annual diatom deposition was calculated as the annual average µXRF-counts of Si in the sediment record (AD 1924-2008), based on negligible amounts of detrital Si, low deposition of inorganic matter during winter, and a striking balance of IM deposition and Si deposition calculated from the diatom frustules deposited. We find support for the linear and inverse relation of diatom silica deposition with the duration of spring mixing using the

  7. The 'I see you' prey-predator signal of Apis cerana is innate.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ken; Wang, Zhenwei; Chen, Weiweng; Hu, Zongwen; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2013-03-01

    An 'I see you' (ISY) prey-predator signal can co-evolve when such a signal benefits both prey and predator. The prey benefits if, by producing the signal, the predator is likely to break off an attack. The predator benefits if it is informed by the signal that the prey is aware of its presence and can break off what is likely to be an unsuccessful and potentially costly hunt. Because the signal and response co-evolve in two species, the behaviour underlying an ISY signal is expected to have a strong genetic component and cannot be entirely learned. An example of an ISY signal is the 'shimmering' behaviour performed by Asian hive bee workers in the presence of their predator Vespa velutina. To test the prediction that bee-hornet signalling is heritable, we let honey bee workers of two species emerge in an incubator so that they had never been exposed to V. velutina. In Apis cerana, the shimmering response developed 48 h post-emergence, was strong after 72 h and increased further over 2 weeks. In contrast, A. mellifera, which has evolved in the absence of Asian hornets, did not produce the shimmering signal. In control tests, A. cerana workers exposed to a non-threatening butterfly did not respond with the shimmering signal.

  8. See-through obscurants via compressive sensing in degraded visual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Richard C.; Woodward, T. K.

    2015-05-01

    This paper proposes a new approach for seeing through obscurants in a severe degraded visual environment (DVE). The proposed method allows extraction of hidden information from the raw sensor data via computational imaging technologies. We show that although to the human eye a sensor captures a zero-visibility view of an object through dense obscurants, it is possible to recover the hidden visual information of the object and display its visual cue to the aircraft pilot to aid in landing and maneuvering. The proposed approach uses a compressive sensing algorithm incorporating an over-complete dictionary composed of pose transformation of the targeted object. Information on the recovered image is used in a feedback loop to further remove perception noise and maintain tracking of the object from a moving aircraft. The proposed algorithm is sensor agnostic and can be applied to images taken from Infrared, LIDAR, or RF imagery sensors. We quantify the upper bound of the DVE noise in which the proposed method is effective via simulation results.

  9. Semi-parametric color reproduction method for optical see-through head-mounted displays.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuta; Dzitsiuk, Maksym; Amano, Toshiyuki; Klinker, Gudrun

    2015-11-01

    The fundamental issues in Augmented Reality (AR) are on how to naturally mediate the reality with virtual content as seen by users. In AR applications with Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays (OST-HMD), the issues often raise the problem of rendering color on the OST-HMD consistently to input colors. However, due to various display constraints and eye properties, it is still a challenging task to indistinguishably reproduce the colors on OST-HMDs. An approach to solve this problem is to pre-process the input color so that a user perceives the output color on the display to be the same as the input. We propose a color calibration method for OST-HMDs. We start from modeling the physical optics in the rendering and perception process between the HMD and the eye. We treat the color distortion as a semi-parametric model which separates the non-linear color distortion and the linear color shift. We demonstrate that calibrated images regain their original appearance on two OST-HMD setups with both synthetic and real datasets. Furthermore, we analyze the limitations of the proposed method and remaining problems of the color reproduction in OST-HMDs. We then discuss how to realize more practical color reproduction methods for future HMD-eye system.

  10. How to See a Diagram: A Visual Anthropology of Chemical Affinity.

    PubMed

    Eddy, Matthew Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In 1766, Thomas Cochrane entered the Edinburgh classroom of Joseph Black (1728-99) to learn chemistry for the first time. Cochrane was studying medicine, and, like so many of Black's students, he dutifully recorded several diagrams in his notebooks. These visualizations were not complex. They were, in fact, simple. One of them, reproduced in this essay, was a single "X" a chiasm. Black used it to illustrate ratios of chemical attraction. This diagram is particularly important for the history of chemistry because it is often held to be the first chemical formula, and, as such, historians have endeavored to explain why it was unique and how Black invented it. In this essay, I wish to turn the foregoing premise on its head by arguing that Black's chiasm was neither visually unique nor invented by him. I do this by approaching a number of his diagrams via a visual anthropology that allows me to examine how students learned to attach meaning to patterns that were already familiar to them. In the end, we will see that Black's diagrams were successful because their visual simplicity and familiarity made them ideally suited to represent the chemical theories that he so skillfully attached to them.

  11. People see what papers show! Psychiatry's stint with print media: A pilot study from Mumbai, India

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Shivanshu; Kalra, Gurvinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak

    2015-01-01

    Mass media including television, internet, and newspapers influences public views about various issues by means of how it covers an issue. Newspapers have a wider reach and may affect the impact that a news story has on the reader by factors such as placement of the story within the different pages. We did a pilot study to see how two English newspapers from Mumbai, India were covering psychiatry related news stories. The study was done over a period of 3 months. We found a total of 870 psychiatry related news stories in the two newspapers over 3 months with the majority of them being covered in the main body of the newspapers. Sex-related crime stories and/or sexual dysfunction stories received the highest coverage among all the news while treatment and/or recovery related stories received very little coverage. It is crucial that the print media takes more efforts in improving reporting of psychiatry-related stories and help in de-stigmatizing psychiatry as a discipline. PMID:26816431

  12. Oxytocin reduces neural activity in the pain circuitry when seeing pain in others

    PubMed Central

    Hermans, Erno J.; Keysers, Christian; van Honk, Jack

    2015-01-01

    Our empathetic abilities allow us to feel the pain of others. This phenomenon of vicarious feeling arises because the neural circuitry of feeling pain and seeing pain in others is shared. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is considered a robust facilitator of empathy, as intranasal OXT studies have repeatedly been shown to improve cognitive empathy (e.g. mind reading and emotion recognition). However, OXT has not yet been shown to increase neural empathic responses to pain in others, a core aspect of affective empathy. Effects of OXT on empathy for pain are difficult to predict, because OXT evidently has pain-reducing properties. Accordingly, OXT might paradoxically decrease empathy for pain. Here, using functional neuroimaging we show robust activation in the neural circuitry of pain (insula and sensorimotor regions) when subjects observe pain in others. Crucially, this empathy-related activation in the neural circuitry of pain is strongly reduced after intranasal OXT, specifically in the left insula. OXT on the basis of our neuroimaging data thus remarkably decreases empathy for pain, but further research including behavioral measures are necessary to draw definite conclusions. PMID:25818690

  13. About the sediment temperature changing of the Lake Fertö/Neusiedler See

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sztakó, Anna; Dinka, Mária; Bartholy, Judit

    2013-04-01

    Lake Fertö/Neusiedler See (309 km2) situated on the Hungarian-Austrian border, is the westernmost steppe lake in Eurasia. The mean water depth is 1.1 m. In this shallow lake the radiation (heat and light penetration) directly influence the sediment surface. The Hungarian part of the lake is 75 km2 and 86 % of it is covered by reed stands. The typical water bodies of the Hungarian part of the lake are open waters, reed stands and open water areas enclosed by reed, the so-called inner ponds. The temperature measurements of sediment of different water bodies took place for each cm from sediment surface till 20 cm sediment depth. The measuring period was between 1987 and 1992 and it followed in 2012. The sediment temperature of the various water bodies reached its maximum in August between 1987 and 1992, but in 2012 its maximum was in September. There was nearly 10 °C difference between sediment temperatures taken in summer and in autumn. During the year, sediment warmed slowly and to different degrees, reached its maximum at every depth in August, and afterwards cooling of the sediment in the subsequent part of the year was faster than its warming. In consequence of climate change the thermic conditions of the sediment and ist microbiological processes are altered. keywords: shallow lake, sediment, temperature, seasonal difference

  14. Seeing better - Evidence based recommendations on optimizing colonoscopy adenoma detection rate

    PubMed Central

    Aranda-Hernández, Javier; Hwang, Jason; Kandel, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the three most frequent causes of cancer deaths in men and women in Europe and North America. Diagnosis and resection of adenomas has convincingly demonstrated its utility in diminishing colorectal cancer incidence. Therefore, colonoscopy is now the gold standard for colorectal cancer screening. But it is also known that colonoscopy effectiveness varies among endoscopists. Among different quality indicators, the most used is the adenoma detection rate (ADR) which is the percentage of average-risk patients for colorectal cancer who are found to have at least one adenoma or adenocarcinoma during a screening colonoscopy. There is compelling evidence supporting an inverse correlation between ADR and interval colorectal cancer (cancer found after a screening colonoscopy). Many factors such as quality of precolonoscopy preparation, additional observers, manoeuvres with the endoscope (second view, retroflexion, water inflation rather than air), time spent during withdrawal, changes in patient position, fold-flattener devices, new imaging or endoscopic modalities and use of intravenous or through the scope sprayed drugs, have been studied and developed with the aim of increasing the ADR. This reviews discusses these factors, and the current evidence, to “see better” in the colon and optimize ADR. PMID:26855536

  15. New NASA SEE LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines: How to Survive in LEO Rather than GEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    2004-01-01

    It has been almost two solar cycles since the GEO Guidelines of Purvis et al (1984) were published. In that time, interest in high voltage LEO systems has increased. The correct and conventional wisdom has been that LEO conditions are sufficiently different from GEO that the GEO Guidelines (and other GEO and POLAR documents produced since then) should not be used for LEO spacecraft. Because of significant recent GEO spacecraft failures that have been shown in ground testing to be likely to also occur on LEO spacecraft, the SEE program commissioned the production of the new LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines (hereafter referred to as the LEO Guidelines). Now available in CD-ROM form, the LEO Guidelines highlight mitigation techniques to prevent spacecraft arcing on LEO solar arrays and other systems. We compare and contrast the mitigation techniques for LEO and GEO in this paper. We also discuss the extensive bibliography included in the LEO Guidelines, so results can be found in their primary sources.

  16. Oxytocin reduces neural activity in the pain circuitry when seeing pain in others.

    PubMed

    Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Hermans, Erno J; Keysers, Christian; van Honk, Jack

    2015-06-01

    Our empathetic abilities allow us to feel the pain of others. This phenomenon of vicarious feeling arises because the neural circuitry of feeling pain and seeing pain in others is shared. The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is considered a robust facilitator of empathy, as intranasal OXT studies have repeatedly been shown to improve cognitive empathy (e.g. mind reading and emotion recognition). However, OXT has not yet been shown to increase neural empathic responses to pain in others, a core aspect of affective empathy. Effects of OXT on empathy for pain are difficult to predict, because OXT evidently has pain-reducing properties. Accordingly, OXT might paradoxically decrease empathy for pain. Here, using functional neuroimaging we show robust activation in the neural circuitry of pain (insula and sensorimotor regions) when subjects observe pain in others. Crucially, this empathy-related activation in the neural circuitry of pain is strongly reduced after intranasal OXT, specifically in the left insula. OXT on the basis of our neuroimaging data thus remarkably decreases empathy for pain, but further research including behavioral measures is necessary to draw definite conclusions. PMID:25818690

  17. Expression of the bipolar see-saw in Antarctic climate records during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenni, B.; Buiron, D.; Frezzotti, M.; Albani, S.; Barbante, C.; Bard, E.; Barnola, J. M.; Baroni, M.; Baumgartner, M.; Bonazza, M.; Capron, E.; Castellano, E.; Chappellaz, J.; Delmonte, B.; Falourd, S.; Genoni, L.; Iacumin, P.; Jouzel, J.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Landais, A.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Maggi, V.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Mazzola, C.; Minster, B.; Montagnat, M.; Mulvaney, R.; Narcisi, B.; Oerter, H.; Parrenin, F.; Petit, J. R.; Ritz, C.; Scarchilli, C.; Schilt, A.; Schüpbach, S.; Schwander, J.; Selmo, E.; Severi, M.; Stocker, T. F.; Udisti, R.

    2011-01-01

    Ice-core records of climate from Greenland and Antarctica show asynchronous temperature variations on millennial timescales during the last glacial period. The warming during the transition from glacial to interglacial conditions was markedly different between the hemispheres, a pattern attributed to the thermal bipolar see-saw. However, a record from the Ross Sea sector of East Antarctica has been suggested to be synchronous with Northern Hemisphere climate change. Here we present a temperature record from the Talos Dome ice core, also located in the Ross Sea sector. We compare our record with ice-core analyses from Greenland, based on methane synchronization, and find clearly asynchronous temperature changes during the deglaciation. We also find distinct differences in Antarctic records, pointing to differences in the climate evolution of the Indo-Pacific and Atlantic sectors of Antarctica. In the Atlantic sector, we find that the rate of warming slowed between 16,000 and 14,500years ago, parallel with the deceleration of the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and with a slight cooling over Greenland. In addition, our chronology supports the hypothesis that the cooling of the Antarctic Cold Reversal is synchronous with the Bølling-Allerød warming in the northern hemisphere 14,700years ago.

  18. Observations of a Two-Stage Solar Eruptive Event (SEE): Evidence for Secondary Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Yang; Dennis, Brian R.; Holman, Gordon D.; Wang, Tongjiang; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Savage, Sabrina; Veronig, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    We present RHESSI, SDO/AIA, SOHO/LASCO, STEREO, and GOES observations of a partially occulted solar eruptive event (SEE) that occurred at the South-West limb on 8 March, 2011. The GOES X-ray light curve shows two peaks separated by almost two hours that we interpret as two stages of a single event associated with the delayed eruption of a CME. A hot flux rope formed during the first stage and continued expanding and rising throughout the event. The speed of the flux rope decreased from approx.120 to 14 km/s during the decay phase of the first stage and increased again during the second stage to become the CME with a speed of approx.516 km/s. RHESSI and GOES data analyses show that the plasma temperature reached over 20 MK in the first stage, then decreased to approx.10 MK and increased to 15 MK in the second stage. This event provides clear evidence for a secondary heating phase. The enhanced EUV and X-ray emission came from the high corona ( approx.60 arcsec above the limb) in the second stage, approx.40 arcsec higher than the site of the initial flare emission. STEREO-A on-disk observations indicate that the post-flare loops during this stage were of larger scale sizes and spatially distinct from those in the first stage.

  19. Do Tengmalm's owls see vole scent marks visible in ultraviolet light?

    PubMed

    Koivula; Korpimäki; Viitala

    1997-10-01

    Scent markings (urine and faeces) of small mammals are visible in ultraviolet (UV) light. Diurnal kestrels, Falco tinnunculususe them as a cue to find areas of food abundance. We studied whether vole-eating, nocturnal Tengmalm's owls, Aegolius funereuscan see vole scent marks using UV-vision. In a laboratory experiment, 14 young (less than 6 months old) and 14 adult (more than 6 months old) owls were individually given a choice between four adjacent arenas: (1) an arena with vole urine and faeces in UV light; (2) an arena with vole urine and faeces in visible light; (3) a clean arena in UV light; and (4) a clean arena in visible light. Owls did not prefer any of the four arenas. Our results suggest that Tengmalm's owls probably do not use UV light as a cue to detect vole scent marks.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour PMID:9344440

  20. Seeing the Moon In a New Light: Educational Resources Developed in Association with M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyon, C. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S. S.; Hallau, K.; Boyce, K.; Pieters, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    M3 is a high spatial and spectral resolution spectrometer designed to help scientists better understand the compositional variation of the Moon’s surface. Flown on India’s first spacecraft to the Moon, Chandrayaan-1, M3 collected over 4.6 billion spectra! To facilitate student awareness and understanding of these data and resulting imagery, our team co-sponsors an on-line course, Geology of the Moon, for pre- and in-service teachers through Montana State University and has generated an educator guide: Seeing the Moon: Using Light to Investigate the Moon. This guide is a series of educational inquiry-based and hands-on activity modules created in support of the M3 science. In these modules, students investigate the physics of light and the geologic history of the Moon. Through these dynamic activities, 5th to 8th grade students experiment with light and color; collect and analyze authentic spectral data from rock samples using an ALTA hand-held reflectance spectrometer; map the rock types of the Moon; and develop theories of the Moon's history. M3 classroom loaner kits that include a lunar globe, rock samples, sets of the ALTA reflectance spectrometers, and more are available upon request.

  1. Holographic display for see-through augmented reality using mirror-lens holographic optical element.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Lee, Dukho; Jeong, Youngmo; Cho, Jaebum; Lee, Byoungho

    2016-06-01

    A holographic display system for realizing a three-dimensional optical see-through augmented reality (AR) is proposed. A multi-functional holographic optical element (HOE), which simultaneously performs the optical functions of a mirror and a lens, is adopted in the system. In the proposed method, a mirror that is used to guide the light source into a reflection type spatial light modulator (SLM) and a lens that functions as Fourier transforming optics are recorded on a single holographic recording material by utilizing an angular multiplexing technique of volume hologram. The HOE is transparent and performs the optical functions just for Bragg matched condition. Therefore, the real-world scenes that are usually distorted by a Fourier lens or an SLM in the conventional holographic display can be observed without visual disturbance by using the proposed mirror-lens HOE (MLHOE). Furthermore, to achieve an optimized optical recording condition of the MLHOE, the optical characteristics of the holographic material are measured. The proposed holographic AR display system is verified experimentally. PMID:27244395

  2. Are we closer to seeing carcinoma in situ in the upper urinary tract?

    PubMed Central

    Aboumarzouk, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is observed increase in detection rate of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer worldwide. This is a result of improved imaging as well as implementation of novel technologies of direct visualization of upper urinary tract. Standard techniques still remain insufficient to diagnose flat urothelial lesions. Carcinoma in situ is characterized by flat disordered proliferation of urothelial cells with marked cytologic abnormality, which occur within one cell layer as well as full thickness urothelium and therefore requires a better technology to pick up early and subtle mucosal changes. Material and methods The review presents available diagnostic tools in detection of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer and their ability to depict carcinoma in situ. Results Ureterorenoscopy is an investigation of choice as various promising techniques are under pilot investigations to enhance visualization of upper urinary tract carcinoma in situ. So far only photodynamic diagnosis has been reported to be as effective in detection of carcinoma in situ in the upper as within the lower urinary tract. Conclusions Although we are close to see upper urinary tract carcinoma in situ all new promising diagnostic techniques still require further validation in multicenter clinical trials to indicate any change to current recommendations. PMID:27551552

  3. Drop-ANd-See: a simple, real-time, and noninvasive technique for assaying plasmodesmal permeability.

    PubMed

    Cui, Weier; Wang, Xu; Lee, Jung-Youn

    2015-01-01

    Gating of plasmodesmata (PD) is a highly dynamic cellular process spatiotemporally controlled by various physiological, developmental, and environmental conditions. Here, we describe a quantitative approach named Drop-ANd-See (DANS), which allows for a real-time, in situ assessment of plasmodesmal permeability in an array of comparative studies. The power of the DANS assay lies in its simplicity: a membrane-permeable, non-fluorescent dye is loaded onto the adaxial epidermis of an intact leaf; the absorbed dye is cleaved by cellular esterases and become fluorescent yet membrane-impermeable; this symplasmic form then diffuses via PD through the mesophyll and into the abaxial epidermis, where the extent of fluorescent dye spreading can be imaged and quantified by confocal microscopy as a measure of cell-to-cell permeability. By employing this DANS assay, rapid changes in PD permeability upon chemical, biological, or environmental treatments can be easily analyzed. Furthermore, PD permeability as a phenotype or a trait of interest can be evaluated using various genetic backgrounds or mutants. We provide hereby an easy-to-follow visual guide of the DANS assay using Arabidopsis plants as an example along with a description of the step-by-step protocol.

  4. ESA's XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 715 Kb Credits: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital ESA’s XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole Click here for animation in MOV format Movie still in TIFF format (9761 Kb) Movie still in JPG format (715 Kb) This animation depicts three hot chunks of matter orbiting a black hole. If placed in our Solar System, this black hole would appear like a dark abyss spread out nearly as wide as Mercury's orbit. And the three chunks (each as large as the Sun) would be as far out as Jupiter. They orbit the black hole in a lightning-quick 30 000 kilometres per second, over a tenth of the speed of light. hi-res Size hi-res: 220 Kb Credits: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital ESA’s XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole Click here for animation in MPG format Movie still in TIFF format (2553 Kb) Movie still in JPG format (220 Kb) This is a simplified illustration of two hot chunks of matter orbiting a black hole, showing how scientists tracked the blobs by observing their Doppler shift. First, we see one blob. Note how the energy emitted from this orbiting material rises to about 6.5 kilo-electron volt (an energy unit) as it moves towards us, and then falls to about 5.8 kilo-electron volt as it moves away. This is the 'Doppler effect' and a similar phenomenon happens with the changing pitch of a police siren. If it is approaching, the frequency of the sound is higher, but if it is receding the frequency is lower. Matter goes round and round; energy goes up and down. About 14 seconds into the animation, a second blob is added, which also displays a rise and fall in energy during its orbit. The observation, made with ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory, marks the first time scientists could trace individual blobs of shredded matter on a complete journey around a black hole. This provides a crucial measurement that has long been missing from black hole studies: an orbital period. Knowing this, scientists can measure black hole mass and

  5. Binocular Convergence and Errors in Judged Distance While Using Head-mounted See-through Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Stephen R.; Bucher, Urs J.; Menges, Brian M.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Previous observations have shown that optical superposition of a physical backdrops at the judged depth of a stereoscopic virtual image moves the judged depth closer to the observer. This effect was more pronounced for slowly moving physical backdrops and was not enhanced when the virtual image was rendered as a flat shaded solid object rather than a open wire-frame. Since this change in rendering making the virtual image more completely occlude the backdrop did not effect its judged depth and since the motion of the backdrop which would have attracted visual attention and binocular convergence did Increase its perceptual displacement, it was concluded that the change In Judged depth was not due to the perceived occlusion. Rather it was concluded to be due to an increase in binocular convergence. An experimental test of this hypothesis using a unobtrusive nonius technique to detect absolute and relative convergence has confirmed the presence of convergence correlated with the magnitude of the change in judged position of this virtual Image. The practical implications of this cause are demonstrated by a second study using monocular, biocular and stereoscopic viewing conditions and the consequences for the design of head-mounted see-through displays for near work are discussed.

  6. Limits to Seeing High-Redshift Galaxies Due to Planck-Scale-Induced Blurring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbring, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Carefully accounting for cosmological surface-brightness dimming and K-corrections are two important steps in teasing out the underlying properties of evolving high-z galaxy populations. Another potential effect is worthy of scrutiny simply because of its profound physical implications, if seen. In the last decade or so there has been debate over the possibility that the fuzzy quantum nature of spacetime might decohere wavefronts emanating from very distant sources. Consequences of that could be "blurred" or "faded" images of compact structures in galaxies, primarily at z>1 for their emitted X-rays and gamma-rays, but perhaps even in UV through optical light at higher redshift. So far there are only inconclusive hints of this from z~4 active-galactic nucleii and gamma-ray bursts viewed with Fermi and Hubble Space Telescope. If correct though, that would impose a significant, fundamental resolution limit for galaxies out to z~8 in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope and the next generation of ground-based telescopes using adaptive optics. I consider what to look for (and maybe not see).

  7. See-saw relationship of the Holocene East Asian-Australian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Deniz; McRobie, Fiona H.; Ozken, Ibrahim; Stemler, Thomas; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Breitenbach, Sebastian F. M.; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The East Asian-Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon (EAIASM) links the Earth's hemispheres and provides a heat source that drives global circulation. At seasonal and inter-seasonal timescales, the summer monsoon of one hemisphere is linked via outflows from the winter monsoon of the opposing hemisphere. Long-term phase relationships between the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and the Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon (IASM) are poorly understood, raising questions of long-term adjustments to future greenhouse-triggered climate change and whether these changes could `lock in' possible IASM and EASM phase relationships in a region dependent on monsoonal rainfall. Here we show that a newly developed nonlinear time series analysis technique allows confident identification of strong versus weak monsoon phases at millennial to sub-centennial timescales. We find a see-saw relationship over the last 9,000 years--with strong and weak monsoons opposingly phased and triggered by solar variations. Our results provide insights into centennial- to millennial-scale relationships within the wider EAIASM regime.

  8. Dynamics of the plinian eruptive phase of Laacher See Volcano (Eifel, West Germany)

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaard, P.V.D.; Schmincke, H.U.

    1985-01-01

    Phonolitic tuffs, erupted by Laacher See Volcano 11,000 a B.P., cover some 700,000 km/sup 2/ in Central and Northern Europe, form an important marker in Late Glacial sedimentary sections, and comprise some 5 km/sup 3/ phonolite magma (DRE). Some 80% of the magma was erupted during two major Plinian eruptive phases, which produced an airfall pumice bed and an overlying sequence of ash flow deposits and intercalated fallout pumice and are separated by a minor phreatomagmatic eruptive phase (MLST A). Ballistic blocks up to 1.5 m in diameter are abundant in near-vent deposits from most eruptive phases. With transport ranges up to 2.5 km, the ballistic blocks indicate initial velocities of the Plinian eruption columns of c. 300-350 m/s, which fits magmatic gas releases of 2-2.5 wt.-% (H/sub 2/O). Mass eruption rates are estimated as 3x10/sup 8/ to 4x10/sup 8/ kg/s, corresponding to vent radii of 200-250 m. The change in eruption style from a sustained Plinian column to repeatedly collapsing and recovering Plinian eruption columns is interpreted in terms of an interplay of vent erosion and volcanotectonic faulting during a 1 km lateral displacement of the eruptive vent.

  9. New ways of seeing: Nursing students' experiences of a pilot service learning program in Australia.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Lisa; Gray, Joanne; Forber, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate pre-registration nursing students' experiences of a pilot program that placed them in community based non-government organisations for clinical placement as part of a core mental health subject. Clinical placements that adopt a Service Learning model in primary health care environments are valuable to nursing students but are not commonly available in Australia. In order to enhance student exposure to primary health care models and support experiential learning about the social determinants of health, a pilot Service Learning program was designed to provide clinical placements in non-government organisations. Qualitative data were collected through one focus group with program participants. The focus group was audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis of transcribed data was undertaken. The overarching theme identified was 'new ways of seeing'. Three sub-themes - 'learning outside the box', 'confronting the real world' and 'transformative experiences' - were also identified. The authors have concluded that nursing students in community organisations for clinical practicum facilitated valuable learning and generated professional and personal insight leading to increased understanding of the social determinants of health and increased awareness of mental health nursing in the community. PMID:26494303

  10. People see what papers show! Psychiatry's stint with print media: A pilot study from Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Shivanshu; Kalra, Gurvinder; Ajinkya, Shaunak

    2015-01-01

    Mass media including television, internet, and newspapers influences public views about various issues by means of how it covers an issue. Newspapers have a wider reach and may affect the impact that a news story has on the reader by factors such as placement of the story within the different pages. We did a pilot study to see how two English newspapers from Mumbai, India were covering psychiatry related news stories. The study was done over a period of 3 months. We found a total of 870 psychiatry related news stories in the two newspapers over 3 months with the majority of them being covered in the main body of the newspapers. Sex-related crime stories and/or sexual dysfunction stories received the highest coverage among all the news while treatment and/or recovery related stories received very little coverage. It is crucial that the print media takes more efforts in improving reporting of psychiatry-related stories and help in de-stigmatizing psychiatry as a discipline. PMID:26816431

  11. Pathways to seeing music: enhanced structural connectivity in colored-music synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Zamm, Anna; Schlaug, Gottfried; Eagleman, David M; Loui, Psyche

    2013-07-01

    Synesthesia, a condition in which a stimulus in one sensory modality consistently and automatically triggers concurrent percepts in another modality, provides a window into the neural correlates of cross-modal associations. While research on grapheme-color synesthesia has provided evidence for both hyperconnectivity-hyperbinding and disinhibited feedback as potential underlying mechanisms, less research has explored the neuroanatomical basis of other forms of synesthesia. In the current study we investigated the white matter correlates of colored-music synesthesia. As these synesthetes report seeing colors upon hearing musical sounds, we hypothesized that they might show unique patterns of connectivity between visual and auditory association areas. We used diffusion tensor imaging to trace the white matter tracts in temporal and occipital lobe regions in 10 synesthetes and 10 matched non-synesthete controls. Results showed that synesthetes possessed hemispheric patterns of fractional anisotropy, an index of white matter integrity, in the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), a major white matter pathway that connects visual and auditory association areas to frontal regions. Specifically, white matter integrity within the right IFOF was significantly greater in synesthetes than controls. Furthermore, white matter integrity in synesthetes was correlated with scores on audiovisual tests of the Synesthesia Battery, especially in white matter underlying the right fusiform gyrus. Our findings provide the first evidence of a white matter substrate of colored-music synesthesia, and suggest that enhanced white matter connectivity is involved in enhanced cross-modal associations.

  12. Seeing photos makes us read between the lines: the influence of photos on memory for inferences.

    PubMed

    Henkel, Linda A

    2012-01-01

    Three studies examined how photos accompanying stories could contribute to people drawing inferences about outcomes from the stories and subsequently claiming that they had read what had actually only been inferred. Subjects read short stories designed to induce inferences about their conclusions (e.g., "Sabrina dropped the delicate vase" invites the inference that the vase broke) accompanied by a photo depicting the likely conclusion (the broken vase), a photo depicting a detail of the story but not the conclusion (the vase before it was dropped), or no photo. Results showed that seeing photographs consistent with inferred conclusions led people to falsely claim that they read those conclusions. Photo-boosted inferences were held with high confidence and were robust over time. Falsely recalled inferences were sometimes accompanied by false claims to have seen a photo depicting the inferred events when another photo or no photo had actually be seen. These findings support the source monitoring framework's prediction that people can mistakenly attribute their internally generated inferences about what occurred to externally derived sources when they have photographic "evidence" consistent with the inferred conclusions.

  13. Ocular media transmission of coral reef fish--can coral reef fish see ultraviolet light?

    PubMed

    Siebeck, U E; Marshall, N J

    2001-01-15

    Many coral reef fish are beautifully coloured and the reflectance spectra of their colour patterns may include UVa wavelengths (315-400 nm) that are largely invisible to the human eye (Losey, G. S., Cronin, T. W., Goldsmith, T. H., David, H., Marshall, N. J., & McFarland, W.N. (1999). The uv visual world of fishes: a review. Journal of Fish Biology, 54, 921-943; Marshall, N. J. & Oberwinkler, J. (1999). The colourful world of the mantis shrimp. Nature, 401, 873-874). Before the possible functional significance of UV patterns can be investigated, it is of course essential to establish whether coral reef fishes can see ultraviolet light. As a means of tackling this question, in this study the transmittance of the ocular media of 211 coral reef fish species was measured. It was found that the ocular media of 50.2% of the examined species strongly absorb light of wavelengths below 400 nm, which makes the perception of UV in these fish very unlikely. The remaining 49.8% of the species studied possess ocular media that do transmit UV light, making the perception of UV possible. PMID:11163849

  14. TALSPEAK CURVE: AN ILLUSTRATION OF A SEE-SAW EFFECT IN SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Zalupski; Leigh Martin

    2010-11-01

    A superbly balanced thermodynamic struggle for metal ion coordination by aqueous aminopolycarboxylate reagent, DTPA, and non-aqueous organophosphorous phase transfer reagent, HDEHP, affords the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides under the umbrella of the Talspeak liquid-liquid distribution process. This thermodynamic relationship has been linked to an analogous “see-saw” behavior, where the balance is distorted when either of the key complexing players is subject to adverse conditions that interfere with their optimal operation. The thermodynamic balance is tipped in favour of HDEHP whenever increased acidity of the aqueous solution out-competes the metal ion complexation by aqueous complexing agent. Also enhanced steric crowding may switch-off efficient coordination of the metal ion. When HDEHP is depolymerised due to the presence of aliphatic alcohol in the organic phase its phase transferring power is diminished. Such complication paves way for DTPA to establish its dominance on the distribution of trivalent metal ions in the 2-phase system. The illustrated sensitivity of the thermodynamic balance between DTPA and HDEHP in Talspeak-type systems may serve as informative tool when studying less-predictable realms of Talspeak chemistry.

  15. Seeing Circles and Drawing Ellipses: When Sound Biases Reproduction of Visual Motion.

    PubMed

    Thoret, Etienne; Aramaki, Mitsuko; Bringoux, Lionel; Ystad, Sølvi; Kronland-Martinet, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The perception and production of biological movements is characterized by the 1/3 power law, a relation linking the curvature and the velocity of an intended action. In particular, motions are perceived and reproduced distorted when their kinematics deviate from this biological law. Whereas most studies dealing with this perceptual-motor relation focused on visual or kinaesthetic modalities in a unimodal context, in this paper we show that auditory dynamics strikingly biases visuomotor processes. Biologically consistent or inconsistent circular visual motions were used in combination with circular or elliptical auditory motions. Auditory motions were synthesized friction sounds mimicking those produced by the friction of the pen on a paper when someone is drawing. Sounds were presented diotically and the auditory motion velocity was evoked through the friction sound timbre variations without any spatial cues. Remarkably, when subjects were asked to reproduce circular visual motion while listening to sounds that evoked elliptical kinematics without seeing their hand, they drew elliptical shapes. Moreover, distortion induced by inconsistent elliptical kinematics in both visual and auditory modalities added up linearly. These results bring to light the substantial role of auditory dynamics in the visuo-motor coupling in a multisensory context.

  16. Simultanagnosia: when all you can see are trees, the forest still rules.

    PubMed

    Shenker, Joel I; Roberts, Matthew H

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the nature of covertly processed visual elements in a patient with simultanagnosia, a disorder characterized by the inability to perceive multiple aspects of a visual scene all at once. Using the first letter of the color words red, green, or blue, we created a novel testing paradigm that combined Navon global-local stimuli with a single-letter Stroop task. The letters R, G, or B were arranged in the overall configuration of a large R, G, or B. The patient never could report seeing the larger letter, and always could name the smaller letters. But, when asked to name ink color only, and ignore letter identity, the large letter covertly affected responding. That is, when the large letter was the same as the first letter of the ink color, the patient named ink color more quickly and accurately than when the large letter was incongruent with the correct response. Moreover, when the covert global and overt local visual processing conflicted, the global letter always dominated over the local letters, despite the patient's inability to perceive it consciously. These data show that the covert processing of global visual information in simultanagnosia can dominate overt local information, even across different streams of information processing. PMID:26878160

  17. We see more than we can report: "cost free" color phenomenality outside focal attention.

    PubMed

    Bronfman, Zohar Z; Brezis, Noam; Jacobson, Hilla; Usher, Marius

    2014-07-01

    The distinction between access consciousness and phenomenal consciousness is a subject of intensive debate. According to one view, visual experience overflows the capacity of the attentional and working memory system: We see more than we can report. According to the opposed view, this perceived richness is an illusion-we are aware only of information that we can subsequently report. This debate remains unresolved because of the inevitable reliance on report, which is limited in capacity. To bypass this limitation, this study utilized color diversity-a unique summary statistic-which is sensitive to detailed visual information. Participants were shown a Sperling-like array of colored letters, one row of which was precued. After reporting a letter from the cued row, participants estimated the color diversity of the noncued rows. Results showed that people could estimate the color diversity of the noncued array without a cost to letter report, which suggests that color diversity is registered automatically, outside focal attention, and without consuming additional working memory resources. PMID:24815608

  18. The `I see you' prey-predator signal of Apis cerana is innate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ken; Wang, Zhenwei; Chen, Weiweng; Hu, Zongwen; Oldroyd, Benjamin P.

    2013-03-01

    An `I see you' (ISY) prey-predator signal can co-evolve when such a signal benefits both prey and predator. The prey benefits if, by producing the signal, the predator is likely to break off an attack. The predator benefits if it is informed by the signal that the prey is aware of its presence and can break off what is likely to be an unsuccessful and potentially costly hunt. Because the signal and response co-evolve in two species, the behaviour underlying an ISY signal is expected to have a strong genetic component and cannot be entirely learned. An example of an ISY signal is the `shimmering' behaviour performed by Asian hive bee workers in the presence of their predator Vespa velutina. To test the prediction that bee-hornet signalling is heritable, we let honey bee workers of two species emerge in an incubator so that they had never been exposed to V. velutina. In Apis cerana, the shimmering response developed 48 h post-emergence, was strong after 72 h and increased further over 2 weeks. In contrast, A. mellifera, which has evolved in the absence of Asian hornets, did not produce the shimmering signal. In control tests, A. cerana workers exposed to a non-threatening butterfly did not respond with the shimmering signal.

  19. Seeing scenes: topographic visual hallucinations evoked by direct electrical stimulation of the parahippocampal place area.

    PubMed

    Mégevand, Pierre; Groppe, David M; Goldfinger, Matthew S; Hwang, Sean T; Kingsley, Peter B; Davidesco, Ido; Mehta, Ashesh D

    2014-04-16

    In recent years, functional neuroimaging has disclosed a network of cortical areas in the basal temporal lobe that selectively respond to visual scenes, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA). Beyond the observation that lesions involving the PPA cause topographic disorientation, there is little causal evidence linking neural activity in that area to the perception of places. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings to delineate place-selective cortex in a patient implanted with stereo-EEG electrodes for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy. Bipolar direct electrical stimulation of a cortical area in the collateral sulcus and medial fusiform gyrus, which was place-selective according to both fMRI and iEEG, induced a topographic visual hallucination: the patient described seeing indoor and outdoor scenes that included views of the neighborhood he lives in. By contrast, stimulating the more lateral aspect of the basal temporal lobe caused distortion of the patient's perception of faces, as recently reported (Parvizi et al., 2012). Our results support the causal role of the PPA in the perception of visual scenes, demonstrate that electrical stimulation of higher order visual areas can induce complex hallucinations, and also reaffirm direct electrical brain stimulation as a tool to assess the function of the human cerebral cortex.

  20. What do cyclists need to see to avoid single-bicycle crashes?

    PubMed

    Schepers, Paul; den Brinker, Berry

    2011-04-01

    The number of single-bicycle crash victims is substantial in countries with high levels of cycling. To study the role of visual characteristics of the infrastructure, such as pavement markings, in single-bicycle crashes, a study in two steps was conducted. In Study 1, a questionnaire study was conducted among bicycle crash victims (n = 734). Logistic regression was used to study the relationship between the crashes and age, light condition, alcohol use, gaze direction and familiarity with the crash scene. In Study 2, the image degrading and edge detection method (IDED-method) was used to investigate the visual characteristics of 21 of the crash scenes. The results of the studies indicate that crashes, in which the cyclist collided with a bollard or road narrowing or rode off the road, were related to the visual characteristics of bicycle facilities. Edge markings, especially in curves of bicycle tracks, and improved conspicuity of bollards are recommended. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Elevated single-bicycle crash numbers are common in countries with high levels of cycling. No research has been conducted on what cyclists need to see to avoid this type of crash. The IDED-method to investigate crash scenes is new and proves to be a powerful tool to quantify 'visual accessibility'. PMID:21491274

  1. Seeing Circles and Drawing Ellipses: When Sound Biases Reproduction of Visual Motion

    PubMed Central

    Aramaki, Mitsuko; Bringoux, Lionel; Ystad, Sølvi; Kronland-Martinet, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The perception and production of biological movements is characterized by the 1/3 power law, a relation linking the curvature and the velocity of an intended action. In particular, motions are perceived and reproduced distorted when their kinematics deviate from this biological law. Whereas most studies dealing with this perceptual-motor relation focused on visual or kinaesthetic modalities in a unimodal context, in this paper we show that auditory dynamics strikingly biases visuomotor processes. Biologically consistent or inconsistent circular visual motions were used in combination with circular or elliptical auditory motions. Auditory motions were synthesized friction sounds mimicking those produced by the friction of the pen on a paper when someone is drawing. Sounds were presented diotically and the auditory motion velocity was evoked through the friction sound timbre variations without any spatial cues. Remarkably, when subjects were asked to reproduce circular visual motion while listening to sounds that evoked elliptical kinematics without seeing their hand, they drew elliptical shapes. Moreover, distortion induced by inconsistent elliptical kinematics in both visual and auditory modalities added up linearly. These results bring to light the substantial role of auditory dynamics in the visuo-motor coupling in a multisensory context. PMID:27119411

  2. Astroclimate at Jbel Aklim site in Moroccan anti-atlas: 2008-2010 seeing and isoplanatic angle statistics from the E-ELT site testing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabil, M.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Lazrek, M.; Habib, A.; Hach, Y.; Benhida, A.; Jabiri, A.; Elazhari, Y.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the statistical and temporal properties of seeing and isoplanatic angle measurements obtained with combined Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) and Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) at Jbel Aklim candidate site for the Eauropean Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). These data have been collected from February 2008 to Jun 2010. The overall seeing statistics for Jbel Aklim site are presented, broken into total seeing, free atmosphere seeing and isoplanatic angle, and ground-layer seeing (difference between the total and free-atmosphere seeing). We examine the statistical distributions of seeing measurements and investigate annual and nightly behavior. The properties of the seeing measurements are discussed in terms of the geography and meteorological conditions at Jbel Aklim site.

  3. ESA's XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    hi-res Size hi-res: 715 Kb Credits: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital ESA’s XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole Click here for animation in MOV format Movie still in TIFF format (9761 Kb) Movie still in JPG format (715 Kb) This animation depicts three hot chunks of matter orbiting a black hole. If placed in our Solar System, this black hole would appear like a dark abyss spread out nearly as wide as Mercury's orbit. And the three chunks (each as large as the Sun) would be as far out as Jupiter. They orbit the black hole in a lightning-quick 30 000 kilometres per second, over a tenth of the speed of light. hi-res Size hi-res: 220 Kb Credits: NASA/Dana Berry, SkyWorks Digital ESA’s XMM-Newton sees matter speed-racing around a black hole Click here for animation in MPG format Movie still in TIFF format (2553 Kb) Movie still in JPG format (220 Kb) This is a simplified illustration of two hot chunks of matter orbiting a black hole, showing how scientists tracked the blobs by observing their Doppler shift. First, we see one blob. Note how the energy emitted from this orbiting material rises to about 6.5 kilo-electron volt (an energy unit) as it moves towards us, and then falls to about 5.8 kilo-electron volt as it moves away. This is the 'Doppler effect' and a similar phenomenon happens with the changing pitch of a police siren. If it is approaching, the frequency of the sound is higher, but if it is receding the frequency is lower. Matter goes round and round; energy goes up and down. About 14 seconds into the animation, a second blob is added, which also displays a rise and fall in energy during its orbit. The observation, made with ESA’s XMM-Newton observatory, marks the first time scientists could trace individual blobs of shredded matter on a complete journey around a black hole. This provides a crucial measurement that has long been missing from black hole studies: an orbital period. Knowing this, scientists can measure black hole mass and

  4. Correlation Between the "seeing FWHM" of Satellite Optical Observations and Meteorological Data at the OWL-Net Station, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Young-Ho; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Young-Sik; Park, Sun-Youp; Moon, Hong Kyu; Choi, Young-Jun; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Roh, Dong-Goo; Choi, Jin; Park, Maru; Cho, Sungki; Kim, Myung-Jin; Choi, Eun-Jung; Park, Jang-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The correlation between meteorological data collected at the optical wide-field patrol network (OWL-Net) Station No. 1 and the seeing of satellite optical observation data was analyzed. Meteorological data and satellite optical observation data from June 2014 to November 2015 were analyzed. The analyzed meteorological data were the outdoor air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and cloud index data, and the analyzed satellite optical observation data were the seeing full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) data. The annual meteorological pattern for Mongolia was analyzed by collecting meteorological data over four seasons, with data collection beginning after the installation and initial set-up of the OWL-Net Station No. 1 in Mongolia. A comparison of the meteorological data and the seeing of the satellite optical observation data showed that the seeing degrades as the wind strength increases and as the cloud cover decreases. This finding is explained by the bias effect, which is caused by the fact that the number of images taken on the less cloudy days was relatively small. The seeing FWHM showed no clear correlation with either temperature or relative humidity.

  5. Iodine-catalyzed [Formula: see text] C-H bond activation by selenium dioxide: synthesis of diindolylmethanes and di(3-indolyl)selanides.

    PubMed

    Naidu, P Seetham; Majumder, Swarup; Bhuyan, Pulak J

    2015-11-01

    An efficient reaction protocol was developed for the synthesis of several diindolylmethane derivatives via the [Formula: see text] C-H bond activation of aryl methyl ketones by [Formula: see text] and indoles in the presence of catalytic amounts of [Formula: see text] at 80 [Formula: see text] using dioxane as solvent. Unexpectedly, an interesting class of di(3-indolyl)selenide compounds was isolated when the reaction was carried out at room temperature.

  6. Delay decomposition approach to [Formula: see text] filtering analysis of genetic oscillator networks with time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Revathi, V M; Balasubramaniam, P

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the [Formula: see text] filtering problem is treated for N coupled genetic oscillator networks with time-varying delays and extrinsic molecular noises. Each individual genetic oscillator is a complex dynamical network that represents the genetic oscillations in terms of complicated biological functions with inner or outer couplings denote the biochemical interactions of mRNAs, proteins and other small molecules. Throughout the paper, first, by constructing appropriate delay decomposition dependent Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with reciprocal convex approach, improved delay-dependent sufficient conditions are obtained to ensure the asymptotic stability of the filtering error system with a prescribed [Formula: see text] performance. Second, based on the above analysis, the existence of the designed [Formula: see text] filters are established in terms of linear matrix inequalities with Kronecker product. Finally, numerical examples including a coupled Goodwin oscillator model are inferred to illustrate the effectiveness and less conservatism of the proposed techniques.

  7. Astronomers See First Stages of Planet-Building Around Nearby Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-06-01

    Interstellar travelers might want to detour around the star system TW Hydrae to avoid a messy planetary construction site. Astronomer David Wilner of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) and his colleagues have discovered that the gaseous protoplanetary disk surrounding TW Hydrae holds vast swaths of pebbles extending outward for at least 1 billion miles. These rocky chunks should continue to grow in size as they collide and stick together until they eventually form planets. Dust Disk Graphic Artist's Conception of Dusty Disk Around Young Star TW Hydrae CREDIT: Bill Saxton, NRAO/AUI/NSF (Click on image for larger version 1.8 MB) "We're seeing planet building happening right before our eyes," said Wilner. "The foundation has been laid and now the building materials are coming together to make a new solar system." Wilner used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array to measure radio emissions from TW Hydrae. He detected radiation from a cold, extended dust disk suffused with centimeter-sized pebbles. Such pebbles are a prerequisite for planet formation, created as dust collects together into larger and larger clumps. Over millions of years, those clumps grow into planets. "We're seeing an important step on the path from interstellar dust particles to planets," said Mark Claussen (NRAO), a co-author on the paper announcing the discovery. "No one has seen this before." A dusty disk like that in TW Hydrae tends to emit radio waves with wavelengths similar to the size of the particles in the disk. Other effects can mask this, however. In TW Hydrae, the astronomers explained, both the relatively close distance of the system and the stage of the young star's evolution are just right to allow the relationship of particle size and wavelength to prevail. The scientists observed the young star's disk with the VLA at several centimeter-range wavelengths. "The strong emission at wavelengths of a few centimeters is convincing evidence that particles of

  8. Low-wind summers promote blooms of cyanobacteria in Lake Tiefer See, NE Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kienel, Ulrike; Kirillin, Georgiy; Brademann, Brian; Plessen, Brigit; Dräger, Nadine; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    Low-wind summers promote blooms of cyanobacteria in Lake Tiefer See, NE Germany Monitoring in three successive but meteorologically different summer seasons in 2012 to 2014 revealed a major impact of the duration of low-wind periods in summer on the outcome of cyanobacteria blooms. During summer 2014, the period from mid-June to mid-September with wind speeds below the average of 3.5 m s-1 promoted a bloom of Limnothrix redekekei with up to 12 mg particulate matter per liter. This bloom from June to September 2014 led to an enrichment of 13C in the organic matter deposited, and terminated a weak diatom spring bloom. The shorter low-wind period from mid-July to mid-September 2012 caused a less strong 13C enrichment by a weak bloom of cyanobacteria, which coexisted with diatoms, while no such bloom occurred during generally windier summer 2013. The validity of the observed relation of 13C enrichment by cyanobacteria blooms during extended low-wind periods in summer was tested using annual measurements of delta13Corg in the varved sediments deposited between AD1924 and 2008 and the mixing depth as derived from FLake-model calculations based on meteorological data from Schwerin (for 1951-2008). Accordingly, the duration of mixing depth less than 3.5 m water depth explains 25% of the variability of 13C enrichment by cyanobacteria blooms for the full period from 1951 - 2006. The explained variability increases to 53% when the period with increased nutrient load from1970 onwards is considered. In terms of explained variability of lake production, this relation is supplementary to the inverse relation of diatom silica determined by the duration of lake mixing in spring, which is suppressed during the period of increased nutrient load.

  9. ProSeeK: A web server for MLPA probe design

    PubMed Central

    Pantano, Lorena; Armengol, Lluís; Villatoro, Sergi; Estivill, Xavier

    2008-01-01

    Background The technological evolution of platforms for detecting genome-wide copy number imbalances has allowed the discovery of an unexpected amount of human sequence that is variable in copy number among individuals. This type of human variation can make an important contribution to human diversity and disease susceptibility. Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) is a targeted method to assess copy number differences for up to 40 genomic loci in one single experiment. Although specific MLPA assays can be ordered from MRC-Holland (the proprietary company of the MLPA technology), custom designs are also developed in many laboratories worldwide. After our own experience, an important drawback of custom MLPA assays is the time spent during the design of the specific oligonucleotides that are used as probes. Due to the large number of probes included in a single assay, a number of restrictions need to be met in order to maximize specificity and to increase success likelihood. Results We have developed a web tool for facilitating and optimising custom probe design for MLPA experiments. The algorithm only requires the target sequence in FASTA format and a set of parameters, that are provided by the user according to each specific MLPA assay, to identify the best probes inside the given region. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first available tool for optimizing custom probe design of MLPA assays. The ease-of-use and speed of the algorithm dramatically reduces the turn around time of probe design. ProSeeK will become a useful tool for all laboratories that are currently using MLPA in their research projects for CNV studies. PMID:19040730

  10. Corneal-Imaging Calibration for Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays.

    PubMed

    Plopski, Alexander; Itoh, Yuta; Nitschke, Christian; Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi; Klinker, Gudrun; Takemura, Haruo

    2015-04-01

    In recent years optical see-through head-mounted displays (OST-HMDs) have moved from conceptual research to a market of mass-produced devices with new models and applications being released continuously. It remains challenging to deploy augmented reality (AR) applications that require consistent spatial visualization. Examples include maintenance, training and medical tasks, as the view of the attached scene camera is shifted from the user's view. A calibration step can compute the relationship between the HMD-screen and the user's eye to align the digital content. However, this alignment is only viable as long as the display does not move, an assumption that rarely holds for an extended period of time. As a consequence, continuous recalibration is necessary. Manual calibration methods are tedious and rarely support practical applications. Existing automated methods do not account for user-specific parameters and are error prone. We propose the combination of a pre-calibrated display with a per-frame estimation of the user's cornea position to estimate the individual eye center and continuously recalibrate the system. With this, we also obtain the gaze direction, which allows for instantaneous uncalibrated eye gaze tracking, without the need for additional hardware and complex illumination. Contrary to existing methods, we use simple image processing and do not rely on iris tracking, which is typically noisy and can be ambiguous. Evaluation with simulated and real data shows that our approach achieves a more accurate and stable eye pose estimation, which results in an improved and practical calibration with a largely improved distribution of projection error. PMID:26357098

  11. A Concept for Seeing-Limited Near-IR Spectroscopy on the Giant Magellan Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simcoe, Robert A.; Furesz, Gabor; Egan, Mark; Malonis, Andrew; Hellickson, Tim

    2016-09-01

    We present a simple seeing-limited IR spectrometer design for the Giant Magellan Telescope, with continuous R = 6000 coverage from 0.87-2.50 microns for a 0:7" slit. The instrument's design is based on an asymmetric white pupil echelle layout, with dichroics splitting the optical train into yJ, H, and K channels after the pupil transfer mirror. A separate low-dispersion mode offers single-object R ~ 850 spectra which also cover the full NIR bandpass in each exposure. Catalog gratings and H2RG detectors are used to minimize cost, and only two cryogenic rotary mechanisms are employed, reducing mechanical complexity. The instrument dewar occupies an envelope of 1:8×1:5×1:2 meters, satisfying mass and volume requirements for GMT with comfortable margin. We estimate the system throughput at ~35% including losses from the atmosphere, telescope, and instrument (i.e. all coatings, gratings, and sensors). This optical efficiency is comparable to the FIRE spectrograph on Magellan, and we have specified and designed fast cameras so the GMT instrument will have an almost identical pixel scale as FIRE. On the 6.5 meter Magellan telescopes, FIRE is read-noise limited in the y and J bands, similar to other existing near-IR spectrometers and also to JWST/NIRSPEC. GMT's twelve-fold increase in collecting area will therefore offer gains in signal-to-noise per exposure that exceed those of moderate resolution optical instruments, which are already sky-noise limited on today's telescopes. Such an instrument would allow GMT to pursue key early science programs on the Epoch of Reionization, galaxy formation, transient astronomy, and obscured star formation environments prior to commissioning of its adaptive optics system. This design study demonstrates the feasibility of developing relatively affordable spectrometers at the ELT scale, in response to the pressures of joint funding for these telescopes and their associated instrument suites.

  12. Seeing Jesus in toast: neural and behavioral correlates of face pareidolia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangang; Li, Jun; Feng, Lu; Li, Ling; Tian, Jie; Lee, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Face pareidolia is the illusory perception of non-existent faces. The present study, for the first time, contrasted behavioral and neural responses of face pareidolia with those of letter pareidolia to explore face-specific behavioral and neural responses during illusory face processing. Participants were shown pure-noise images but were led to believe that 50% of them contained either faces or letters; they reported seeing faces or letters illusorily 34% and 38% of the time, respectively. The right fusiform face area (rFFA) showed a specific response when participants "saw" faces as opposed to letters in the pure-noise images. Behavioral responses during face pareidolia produced a classification image (CI) that resembled a face, whereas those during letter pareidolia produced a CI that was letter-like. Further, the extent to which such behavioral CIs resembled faces was directly related to the level of face-specific activations in the rFFA. This finding suggests that the rFFA plays a specific role not only in processing of real faces but also in illusory face perception, perhaps serving to facilitate the interaction between bottom-up information from the primary visual cortex and top-down signals from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Whole brain analyses revealed a network specialized in face pareidolia, including both the frontal and occipitotemporal regions. Our findings suggest that human face processing has a strong top-down component whereby sensory input with even the slightest suggestion of a face can result in the interpretation of a face.

  13. Seeing Jesus in toast: Neural and behavioral correlates of face pareidolia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiangang; Li, Jun; Feng, Lu; Li, Ling; Tian, Jie; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Face pareidolia is the illusory perception of non-existent faces. The present study, for the first time, contrasted behavioral and neural responses of face pareidolia with those of letter pareidolia to explore face-specific behavioral and neural responses during illusory face processing. Participants were shown pure-noise images but were led to believe that 50% of them contained either faces or letters; they reported seeing faces or letters illusorily 34% and 38% of the time, respectively. The right fusiform face area (rFFA) showed a specific response when participants “saw” faces as opposed to letters in the pure-noise images. Behavioral responses during face pareidolia produced a classification image that resembled a face, whereas those during letter pareidolia produced a classification image that was letter-like. Further, the extent to which such behavioral classification images resembled faces was directly related to the level of face-specific activations in the right FFA. This finding suggests that the right FFA plays a specific role not only in processing of real faces but also in illusory face perception, perhaps serving to facilitate the interaction between bottom-up information from the primary visual cortex and top-down signals from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Whole brain analyses revealed a network specialized in face pareidolia, including both the frontal and occipito-temporal regions. Our findings suggest that human face processing has a strong top-down component whereby sensory input with even the slightest suggestion of a face can result in the interpretation of a face. PMID:24583223

  14. Hearing faces: how the infant brain matches the face it sees with the speech it hears.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Davina; Dehaene-Lambertz, Ghislaine; Mattout, Jeremie; Soares, Catherine; Gliga, Teodora; Baillet, Sylvain; Mangin, Jean-François

    2009-05-01

    Speech is not a purely auditory signal. From around 2 months of age, infants are able to correctly match the vowel they hear with the appropriate articulating face. However, there is no behavioral evidence of integrated audiovisual perception until 4 months of age, at the earliest, when an illusory percept can be created by the fusion of the auditory stimulus and of the facial cues (McGurk effect). To understand how infants initially match the articulatory movements they see with the sounds they hear, we recorded high-density ERPs in response to auditory vowels that followed a congruent or incongruent silently articulating face in 10-week-old infants. In a first experiment, we determined that auditory-visual integration occurs during the early stages of perception as in adults. The mismatch response was similar in timing and in topography whether the preceding vowels were presented visually or aurally. In the second experiment, we studied audiovisual integration in the linguistic (vowel perception) and nonlinguistic (gender perception) domain. We observed a mismatch response for both types of change at similar latencies. Their topographies were significantly different demonstrating that cross-modal integration of these features is computed in parallel by two different networks. Indeed, brain source modeling revealed that phoneme and gender computations were lateralized toward the left and toward the right hemisphere, respectively, suggesting that each hemisphere possesses an early processing bias. We also observed repetition suppression in temporal regions and repetition enhancement in frontal regions. These results underscore how complex and structured is the human cortical organization which sustains communication from the first weeks of life on. PMID:18702595

  15. Optimal design of photoreceptor mosaics: why we do not see color at night.

    PubMed

    Manning, Jeremy R; Brainard, David H

    2009-01-01

    While color vision mediated by rod photoreceptors in dim light is possible (Kelber & Roth, 2006), most animals, including humans, do not see in color at night. This is because their retinas contain only a single class of rod photoreceptors. Many of these same animals have daylight color vision, mediated by multiple classes of cone photoreceptors. We develop a general formulation, based on Bayesian decision theory, to evaluate the efficacy of various retinal photoreceptor mosaics. The formulation evaluates each mosaic under the assumption that its output is processed to optimally estimate the image. It also explicitly takes into account the statistics of the environmental image ensemble. Using the general formulation, we consider the trade-off between monochromatic and dichromatic retinal designs as a function of overall illuminant intensity. We are able to demonstrate a set of assumptions under which the prevalent biological pattern represents optimal processing. These assumptions include an image ensemble characterized by high correlations between image intensities at nearby locations, as well as high correlations between intensities in different wavelength bands. They also include a constraint on receptor photopigment biophysics and/or the information carried by different wavelengths that produces an asymmetry in the signal-to-noise ratio of the output of different receptor classes. Our results thus provide an optimality explanation for the evolution of color vision for daylight conditions and monochromatic vision for nighttime conditions. An additional result from our calculations is that regular spatial interleaving of two receptor classes in a dichromatic retina yields performance superior to that of a retina where receptors of the same class are clumped together.

  16. The sub-clinical see-saw nystagmus embedded in infantile nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Dell'Osso, L F; Jacobs, J B; Serra, A

    2007-02-01

    A transient, decompensated vertical phoria in an individual with infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS) resulted in two images that oscillated vertically-a diplopic oscillopsia. Ocular motor studies during the vertical oscillopsia recreated by vertical prisms, led to the identification of a sub-clinical see-saw nystagmus (SSN), present under the prism-induced diplopic condition. Retrospective analysis of ocular motor recordings made prior to the above episode of vertical diplopia revealed the presence of that same sub-clinical SSN. The SSN had not been detected previously despite extensive observations and recordings of this subject's pendular IN over a period of forty years. Three- dimensional search-coil data from fourteen additional INS subjects (with pendular and jerk waveforms) confirmed the existence of sub-clinical SSN embedded within the clinically detectable horizontal-torsional IN in seven of the fifteen and a sub-clinical, conjugate, vertical component in the remaining eight. Unlike the clinically visible SSN found in achiasma, the cause of this sub-clinical SSN is hypothesized to be due to a failure of the forces of the oblique muscles (responsible for the torsional component of the IN) to balance out the associated forces of the vertical recti; the net result is a small, sub-clinical SSN. Thus, so-called "horizontal" IN is actually a horizontal-torsional oscillation with a secondary, sub-clinical SSN or conjugate vertical component. The suppression of oscillopsia by efference copy in INS appears to be accomplished for each eye individually, even in a binocular individual. However, failure to fuse the two images results in oscillopsia of one of them.

  17. See-saw rocking: an in vitro model for mechanotransduction research

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, R. P.; Henningsson, P.; Franklin, S. L.; Chen, D.; Ventikos, Y.; Bomphrey, R. J.; Thompson, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro mechanotransduction studies, uncovering the basic science of the response of cells to mechanical forces, are essential for progress in tissue engineering and its clinical application. Many varying investigations have described a multitude of cell responses; however, as the precise nature and magnitude of the stresses applied are infrequently reported and rarely validated, the experiments are often not comparable, limiting research progress. This paper provides physical and biological validation of a widely available fluid stimulation device, a see-saw rocker, as an in vitro model for cyclic fluid shear stress mechanotransduction. This allows linkage between precisely characterized stimuli and cell monolayer response in a convenient six-well plate format. Models of one well were discretized and analysed extensively using computational fluid dynamics to generate convergent, stable and consistent predictions of the cyclic fluid velocity vectors at a rocking frequency of 0.5 Hz, accounting for the free surface. Validation was provided by comparison with flow velocities measured experimentally using particle image velocimetry. Qualitative flow behaviour was matched and quantitative analysis showed agreement at representative locations and time points. Maximum shear stress of 0.22 Pa was estimated near the well edge, and time-average shear stress ranged between 0.029 and 0.068 Pa. Human tenocytes stimulated using the system showed significant increases in collagen and GAG secretion at 2 and 7 day time points. This in vitro model for mechanotransduction provides a versatile, flexible and inexpensive method for the fluid shear stress impact on biological cells to be studied. PMID:24898022

  18. Seeing Jesus in toast: neural and behavioral correlates of face pareidolia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiangang; Li, Jun; Feng, Lu; Li, Ling; Tian, Jie; Lee, Kang

    2014-04-01

    Face pareidolia is the illusory perception of non-existent faces. The present study, for the first time, contrasted behavioral and neural responses of face pareidolia with those of letter pareidolia to explore face-specific behavioral and neural responses during illusory face processing. Participants were shown pure-noise images but were led to believe that 50% of them contained either faces or letters; they reported seeing faces or letters illusorily 34% and 38% of the time, respectively. The right fusiform face area (rFFA) showed a specific response when participants "saw" faces as opposed to letters in the pure-noise images. Behavioral responses during face pareidolia produced a classification image (CI) that resembled a face, whereas those during letter pareidolia produced a CI that was letter-like. Further, the extent to which such behavioral CIs resembled faces was directly related to the level of face-specific activations in the rFFA. This finding suggests that the rFFA plays a specific role not only in processing of real faces but also in illusory face perception, perhaps serving to facilitate the interaction between bottom-up information from the primary visual cortex and top-down signals from the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Whole brain analyses revealed a network specialized in face pareidolia, including both the frontal and occipitotemporal regions. Our findings suggest that human face processing has a strong top-down component whereby sensory input with even the slightest suggestion of a face can result in the interpretation of a face. PMID:24583223

  19. From stereogram to surface: how the brain sees the world in depth.

    PubMed

    Fang, Liang; Grossberg, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    When we look at a scene, how do we consciously see surfaces infused with lightness and color at the correct depths? Random-Dot Stereograms (RDS) probe how binocular disparity between the two eyes can generate such conscious surface percepts. Dense RDS do so despite the fact that they include multiple false binocular matches. Sparse stereograms do so even across large contrast-free regions with no binocular matches. Stereograms that define occluding and occluded surfaces lead to surface percepts wherein partially occluded textured surfaces are completed behind occluding textured surfaces at a spatial scale much larger than that of the texture elements themselves. Earlier models suggest how the brain detects binocular disparity, but not how RDS generate conscious percepts of 3D surfaces. This article proposes a neural network model that predicts how the layered circuits of visual cortex generate these 3D surface percepts using interactions between visual boundary and surface representations that obey complementary computational rules. The model clarifies how interactions between layers 4, 3B and 2/3A in V1 and V2 contribute to stereopsis, and proposes how 3D perceptual grouping laws in V2 interact with 3D surface filling-in operations in V1, V2 and V4 to generate 3D surface percepts in which figures are separated from their backgrounds. The model explanations of 3D surface percepts raised by various RDS are demonstrated by computer simulations. The model hereby unifies the explanation of data about stereopsis and data about 3D figure-ground separation and completion of partially occluded object surfaces. It shows how these model mechanisms convert the complementary rules for boundary and surface formation into consistent visual percepts of 3D surfaces.

  20. On the use of time-averaging restraints when deriving biomolecular structure from [Formula: see text]-coupling values obtained from NMR experiments.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lorna J; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F; Hansen, Niels

    2016-09-01

    Deriving molecular structure from [Formula: see text]-couplings obtained from NMR experiments is a challenge due to (1) the uncertainty in the Karplus relation [Formula: see text] connecting a [Formula: see text]-coupling value to a torsional angle [Formula: see text], (2) the need to account for the averaging inherent to the measurement of [Formula: see text]-couplings, and (3) the sampling road blocks that may emerge due to the multiple-valuedness of the inverse function [Formula: see text] of the function [Formula: see text]. Ways to properly handle these issues in structure refinement of biomolecules are discussed and illustrated using the protein hen egg white lysozyme as example. PMID:27627888

  1. Solar seeing monitor MISOLFA: A new method for estimating atmospheric turbulence parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irbah, A.; Borgnino, J.; Djafer, D.; Damé, L.; Keckhut, P.

    2016-07-01

    Aims: Daily observation conditions are needed when observing the Sun at high angular resolution. MISOLFA is a daytime seeing monitor developed for this purpose that allows the estimation of the spatial and temporal parameters of atmospheric turbulence. This information is necessary, for instance, for astrometric measurements of the solar radius performed at Calern Observatory (France) with SODISM II, the ground-based version of the SODISM instrument of the PICARD mission. Methods: We present a new way to estimate the spatial parameters of atmospheric turbulence for daily observations. This method is less sensitive to vibrations and guiding defaults of the telescope since it uses short-exposure images. It is based on the comparison of the optical transfer function obtained from solar data and the theoretical values deduced from the Kolmogorov and Von Kàrmàn models. This method, previously tested on simulated solar images, is applied to real data recorded at Calern Observatory in July 2013 with the MISOLFA monitor. Results: First, we use data recorded in the pupil plane mode of MISOLFA and evaluate the turbulence characteristic times of angle-of-arrival fluctuations: between 5 and 16 ms. Second, we use the focal plane mode of MISOLFA to simultaneously record solar images to obtain isoplanatic angles: ranging from 1 to 5 arcsec (in agreement with previously published values). These images and our new method allow Fried's parameter to be measured; it ranges from 0.5 cm to 4.7 cm with a mean value of 1.5 cm when Kolmogorov's model is considered, and from less than 0.5 to 2.6 cm with a mean value of 1.3 cm for the Von Kàrmàn model. Measurements of the spatial coherence outer scale parameter are also obtained when using the Von Kàrmàn model; it ranges from 0.25 to 13 m with a mean value of 3.4 m for the four days of observation that we analyzed. We found that its value can undergo large variations in only a few hours and that more data analysis is needed to better

  2. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  3. Dynamics of living matter: can we ``see'' collective motions in proteins?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hekstra, Doeke

    2015-03-01

    Proteins are ideal model systems for quantitative study of the interplay of physical and evolutionary forces. Collective, anharmonic motions of amino acid residues within proteins are thought to be central to their function, and to explain, in large part, the complex dependence of protein function on its constituent parts. Currently, the experimental characterization of such motions poses a major stumbling block on the way to a physical understanding of protein function and evolution. We are addressing this problem in two ways. First, alternate conformations of protein residues can often be distinguished in the electron density estimated from room-temperature X-ray crystallography. The dense packing of residues in the folded protein requires that such conformational variations must propagate through networks of amino acids to preclude local steric clashes. Fraser and colleagues showed that such steric conflicts can be used to extract contact networks of residues collectively switching conformation. We ask if these networks are conserved over homologous sequences and connected to the functional reaction coordinate, both of which would demonstrate their fundamental importance. I will describe initial results for the family of PDZ domains: small ligand-binding proteins for which a network of energetically and conformationally coupled residues controlling ligand affinity has been demonstrated previously by a range of methods. Second, the analysis of collective motions in proteins, by nearly any means, is indirect: nothing is seen moving. To directly induce and ``see'' motions on a range of time scales, we developed a new approach based on (a) electric field pulses to induce motions within a protein crystal and (b) time-resolved crystallography to observe these motions. Since proteins generically have a heterogeneous, modifiable charge distribution, this method could provide a powerful, general way of probing the collective motions, and excited states, of proteins in

  4. Diagnostics of a see-through hollow cathode discharge by emission, absorption, and fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Nicholas

    Atomic line filters have been suggested to be attractive in areas of Doppler velocimetry, resonance fluorescence detection, and resonance ionization detection. They are based on the resonant absorption of photons by an atomic vapor, and allow all other radiation to pass. This allows the detection of very low levels of light superimposed on a large optical background. Several elements have been studied for use as atomic line filters, such as the alkali metals, alkaline earths, and thallium. As previously recognized, thallium is especially attractive since the 535.046 nm metastable transition overlaps with the second harmonic output of an Nd:La2Be2O 5 (BEL) laser (1070 nm). This makes thallium ideal for certain applications as an atomic line filter. Recently a see-through hollow cathode lamp, or galvatron (Hamamatsu), was made commercially available. The galvatron geometry is unique compared to traditional hollow cathode lamps since the cathode and cell are oriented in a T-shape, with the cathode bored completely through to allow the propagation of a light source through the cathode. This allows multi-step excitation of the atomic vapor, not easily accomplished with a traditional hollow cathode lamp. The advantages that a galvatron offers over conventional atomic reservoirs make it an attractive candidate for the application as an atomic line filter; however, little spectroscopic data have been found in the literature. For this reason, Doppler temperatures, number densities, quantum efficiencies, and lifetimes have been determined in order to characterize this atomic reservoir as a potential atomic line filter. These parameters are determined by use of various spectroscopic techniques which include emission, absorption, time-resolved fluorescence, and time-resolved laser-induced saturated fluorescence spectroscopy. From these measurements, it has been demonstrated that a galvatron is an attractive atomic reservoir for applications as an atomic line filter. The

  5. 4th Rare Disease South Eastern Europe (See) Meeting Skopje, Macedonia (November 14th, 2015).

    PubMed

    Gucev, Zoran; Tasic, Velibor; Polenakovic, Momir

    2015-01-01

    The 4th meeting on rare diseases in South Eastern Europe (SEE) was held in Skopje, at the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts (MASA) on the 14(th) of November 2015. The focuses were metabolic, rare brain diseases as well as the rare dysmorphic syndrome. The authors of the report are particularly keen on stating that one of the main goals of the meeting, namely to help the treatment of patients with rare disease has begun to bear fruits. The talk on an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound as a drug candidate for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB (Morquio disease type B) was enlightening. To date, there is no treatment available to be offered to patients, but chaperones lead mutated proteins to adopt a native-like conformation and to successfully traffic to their normal cellular destination. DORPHAN is developing an iminosugar-based pharmacological chaperone compound for the treatment of GM1-gangliosidosis and mucopolysaccharidosis IVB. A talk on recent developments in the laboratory diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) was particularly interesting, covering the laboratory diagnosis of the MPS diseases by a strategy of clinical examination, biochemical analysis of urine samples, enzyme tests and genetic characterization of underlying mutations. New techniques were developed, including analysis of urinary glycosaminoglycans with tandem mass spectrometry, miniaturized enzyme tests or novel synthetic substrates for enzyme assays using mass spectrometry detection of products using dried blood spots. Feasibility and cost-effectiveness of these methods in newborn screening programs have been demonstrated. Neuromuscular RDs, and especially familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) were a topic of the Bulgarian colleagues. Diagnosis, screening and the role of microglia were also topics of particular interest. In summary, this year RD meeting was exciting and productive on a wide range of diseases and on a novel insights on

  6. The study of the aspect angle dependence for some SEE components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V.; Nedzvedski, D.

    We discuss measurements of stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) features made at the Sura heating facility (Russia) in experiments when the direction of the HF pump beam was scanned in the geomagnetic field plane in 2-degrees steps between 12 - 20 degrees south and 12 - 20 degrees north. This angle range includes geographic zenith (vertical), geomagnetic zenith (˜ 19), and the critical (Spitze) angle (˜ 6 under conditions of measurements). It has been revealed that the greatest emission intensity for such its components as down-shifted maximum (DM) and broad continuum (BC) was observed when the pump wave beam was pointed at 8 -- 12 southward from vertical. Earlier the greatest intensity of small-scale irregularities at angles of about of 10 -- 16 was observed in field-aligned scattering experiments [Bud'ko et al., Geomagn. and Aeronom., v.29, pp. 973-980 (1989) (in Russian)]. These results give an important additional evidence that field-aligned small-scale irregularities (striations) play important role in mechanisms of DM and BC generation. In the paper [Frolov et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., v.81, pp.1630-1631 (1998)] it was stated that the broad up-shifted maximum (BUM) actually consists of two separate components, BUM1 and BUM2, the first of which is generated in the immediate vicinity of an electron cyclotron harmonic frequency when suppression of striation generation takes place. Basing on experimental results obtained in our pump beam scanning experiments in the cases when pump wave frequency was close to or slightly higher than 4th or 5th electron cyclotron harmonic frequency and generation of the BUM is observed, it was found that the BUM1 is generated only if the angle of the pump beam is not larger than 8 from vertical. Taking into account 10-degree pump beam width, this angle is in reasonable good agreement with the critical angle. The latter gives strong ground to suppose that the BUM1 is generated if an O-mode pump wave reaches the plasma resonance

  7. How do honeybees use their magnetic compass? Can they see the North?

    PubMed

    Válková, T; Vácha, M

    2012-08-01

    While seeking food sources and routes back to their hive, bees make use of their advanced nervous and sensory capacities, which underlie a diverse behavioral repertoire. One of several honeybee senses that is both exceptional and intriguing is magnetoreception - the ability to perceive the omnipresent magnetic field (MF) of the Earth. The mechanism by which animals sense MFs has remained fascinating as well as elusive because of the intricacies involved, which makes it one of the grand challenges for neural and sensory biology. However, investigations in recent years have brought substantial progress to our understanding of how such magneto-receptor(s) may work. Some terrestrial animals (birds) are reported to be equipped even with a dual perception system: one based on diminutive magnetic particles - in line with the original model which has also always been hypothesized for bees - and the other one, as the more recent model describes, based on a sensitivity of some photochemical reactions to MF (radical-pair or chemical mechanism). The latter model postulates a close link to vision and supposes that the animals can see the position of the geomagnetic North as a visible pattern superimposed on the picture of the environment. In recent years, a growing body of evidence has shown that radical-pair magnetoreception might also be used by insects. It is realistic to expect that such evidence will inspire a re-examination and extension or confirmation of established views on the honeybee magnetic-compass mechanism. However, the problem of bee magnetoreception will not be solved at the moment that a receptor is discovered. On the contrary, the meaning of magnetoreception in insect life and its involvement in the orchestration of other senses is yet to be fully understood. The crucial question to be addressed in the near future is whether the compass abilities of the honeybee could suffer from radio frequency (RF) smog accompanying modern civilization and whether the

  8. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... device or system, used in the storage treatment, recycling, and reclamation of municipal or domestic... discharge associated with industrial activity (see § 122.26(a)(4)); (iii) A discharge from a large municipal separate storm sewer system; (iv) A discharge from a medium municipal separate storm sewer system; (v)...

  9. 40 CFR 122.24 - Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Concentrated aquatic animal production facilities (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25). 122.24 Section 122.24 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL POLLUTANT DISCHARGE...

  10. NASA Education: Using Inquiry in the Classroom so that Students See Learning in a Whole New Light

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loston, Adena Williams; Steffen, Peggy L.; McGee, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This article addresses how NASA uses inquiry in the classroom so that students can see learning in a whole new light. The goal is to increase scientific literacy among Americans and to entice a greater number of students to pursue careers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics. Although NASA offers a diverse array of programs that…

  11. E-ELT seeing and isoplanatic angle: comparison of Aklim site and El Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabil, M.; Benkhaldoun, Z.; Lazrek, M.; Habib, A.; Benhida, A.; Hach, Y.; Elazhari, Y.; Elhalkouj, T.

    2014-07-01

    The new Extremely Large Telescope projects need accurate evaluation of the candidate sites. In this work we present the seeing, free seeing and isoplanatic angle comparison between Aklim site located in Moroccan Anti- Atlas at the geographic coordinates 30°7'39" N, 08 18'39" W, and the Observatorio del Roque de Los Muchachos (ORM), located in La Palma, Canary Islands, at 28°45'00 N, 17°53"10 W, the both sites are pre-selected to house the E-ELT. In this work we present the seeing statistics of (Ɛ), the free seeing (Ɛ free) and the isoplanatic angle ϴ0 measurements at each site, statistics of the mentioned parameters are obtained from the whole data recorded from 09 May 2008 to 09 November 2009 using the Multi Aperture Scintillation Sensor (MASS) - Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) system, compare the common data between the tow sites, more representative results and statistics are shown hereafter.

  12. Physical Aspects of Light--"Seeing Parameters". Lighting Techniques in Architecture (Madison, December 9-10, 1969).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turek, Robert W.

    In order to judge or design the lighting of an interior a person must be able to understand and take into account many aspects of seeing and illumination. Important areas of consideration are--(1) factors that contribute to the visibility of an object: size, brightness, contrast, and time, (2) radiant energy with regard to the visible spectrums of…

  13. 36 CFR 1280.8 - May I bring a seeing-eye dog or other assistance animal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I bring a seeing-eye dog or other assistance animal? 1280.8 Section 1280.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... dog or other assistance animal? Yes, persons with disabilities may bring guide dogs or other...

  14. Coming to See Objects of Knowledge: Guiding Student Conceptualization through Teacher Embodied Instruction in a Robotics Programming Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwah, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the questions of how a teacher guides students to see concepts, and the role of gesture and gesture viewpoints in mediating the process of guidance. To examine these questions, two sociocultural theoretical frameworks--Radford's cultural-semiotic theory of knowledge objectification (e.g., 2003), and Goldman's Points of Viewing…

  15. Channel catfish hatchery production efficiency using a vertical-lift incubator the see-saw at various egg loading densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish spawns are typically incubated in ¼-in mesh baskets suspended in water that is agitated with paddles positioned between baskets. We tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish spawns. Previous research demonstrated that when loaded with spawns at...

  16. 77 FR 26015 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Seeing My World through a Safer Lens: What...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... Registration for ``Seeing My World through a Safer Lens: What Does Injury and Violence Look Like in My... Lens: What Does Injury and Violence Look Like in My Community? video contest. The CDC National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (Injury Center) is reaching out to students, injury and...

  17. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Number 703, Predicting Soil Erosion by Water: A Guide to Conservation Planning With the Revised Universal... waters of the United States as defined at 40 CFR 122.2. (B) The size of the discharge; (C) The quantity... discharge is eligible for funding under title II, title III or title VI of the Clean Water Act. See 40...

  18. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Erosion by Water: A Guide to Conservation Planning With the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE... waters of the United States as defined at 40 CFR 122.2. (B) The size of the discharge; (C) The quantity... discharge is eligible for funding under title II, title III or title VI of the Clean Water Act. See 40...

  19. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Erosion by Water: A Guide to Conservation Planning With the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE... waters of the United States as defined at 40 CFR 122.2. (B) The size of the discharge; (C) The quantity... discharge is eligible for funding under title II, title III or title VI of the Clean Water Act. See 40...

  20. 40 CFR 122.26 - Storm water discharges (applicable to State NPDES programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Number 703, Predicting Soil Erosion by Water: A Guide to Conservation Planning With the Revised Universal... waters of the United States as defined at 40 CFR 122.2. (B) The size of the discharge; (C) The quantity... discharge is eligible for funding under title II, title III or title VI of the Clean Water Act. See 40...

  1. Lesson Learned from Leading an Anger Management Group Using the "Seeing Red" Curriculum within an Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sportsman, Emily L.; Carlson, John S.; Guthrie, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Four fourth-grade boys participated in an anger management group using "Seeing Red: An Anger Management and Peacemaking Curriculum for Kids" facilitated by a school psychology intern and her supervisor (J. Simmonds, 2003). The group met for 30 min weekly for a total of 14 sessions. Lessons consisted of practicing skills and strategies related to…

  2. Guiding Empiric Treatment for Serious Bacterial Infections via Point of Care [Formula: see text]-Lactamase Characterization.

    PubMed

    Palanisami, Akilan; Khan, Shazia; Erdem, Sultan Sibel; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-01-01

    Fever is one of the most common symptoms of illness in infants and represents a clinical challenge due to the potential for serious bacterial infection. As delayed treatment for these infections has been correlated with increased morbidity and mortality, broad-spectrum [Formula: see text]-lactam antibiotics are often prescribed while waiting for microbiological lab results (1-3 days). However, the spread of antibiotic resistance via the [Formula: see text]-lactamase enzyme, which can destroy [Formula: see text]-lactam antibiotics, has confounded this paradigm; empiric antibiotic regimens are increasingly unable to cover all potential bacterial pathogens, leaving some infants effectively untreated until the pathogen is characterized. This can lead to lifelong sequela or death. Here, we introduce a fluorescent, microfluidic assay that can characterize [Formula: see text]-lactamase derived antibiotic susceptibility in 20 min with a sensitivity suitable for direct human specimens. The protocol is extensible, and the antibiotic spectrum investigated can be feasibly adapted for the pathogens of regional relevance. This new assay fills an important need by providing the clinician with hitherto unavailable point of care information for treatment guidance in an inexpensive and simple diagnostic format. PMID:27602307

  3. 29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere). 1917.153 Section 1917.153 Labor Regulations Relating to... of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere). (a) Scope. This section covers...

  4. 29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere). 1917.153 Section 1917.153 Labor Regulations Relating to... of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere). (a) Scope. This section covers...

  5. 29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere). 1917.153 Section 1917.153 Labor Regulations Relating to... of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere). (a) Scope. This section covers...

  6. 29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere). 1917.153 Section 1917.153 Labor Regulations Relating to... of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere). (a) Scope. This section covers...

  7. 36 CFR 1280.8 - May I bring a seeing-eye dog or other assistance animal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I bring a seeing-eye dog or other assistance animal? 1280.8 Section 1280.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... dog or other assistance animal? Yes, persons with disabilities may bring guide dogs or other...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.8 - May I bring a seeing-eye dog or other assistance animal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I bring a seeing-eye dog or other assistance animal? 1280.8 Section 1280.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... dog or other assistance animal? Yes, persons with disabilities may bring guide dogs or other...

  9. 36 CFR 1280.8 - May I bring a seeing-eye dog or other assistance animal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I bring a seeing-eye dog or other assistance animal? 1280.8 Section 1280.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... dog or other assistance animal? Yes, persons with disabilities may bring guide dogs or other...

  10. 36 CFR 1280.8 - May I bring a seeing-eye dog or other assistance animal?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I bring a seeing-eye dog or other assistance animal? 1280.8 Section 1280.8 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL... dog or other assistance animal? Yes, persons with disabilities may bring guide dogs or other...

  11. 21 CFR 1404.425 - When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? 1404.425 Section 1404.425 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug Control...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.430 - How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How do I check to see if a person is excluded or disqualified? 1404.430 Section 1404.430 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Responsibilities of Office of National Drug Control...

  13. Commentary on "Lessons Learned from Leading an Anger Management Group Using the "Seeing Red" Curriculum in an Elementary School"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walcott, Christy M.

    2010-01-01

    This is a commentary on the article by E. L. Sportsman, J. S. Carlson, and K. M. Guthrie (2010/this issue) on the application and evaluation of a specific anger management group intervention called "Seeing Red." The author discusses issues of implementation and use, how practitioners choose and judge evidence-based interventions, and methods for…

  14. Commentary on "Lessons Learned from Leading an Anger Management Group Using the "Seeing Red" Curriculum in an Elementary School"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This commentary responds to "Lessons Learned From Leading an Anger Management Group Using the "Seeing Red" Curriculum in an Elementary School," E. L. Sportsman, J. S. Carlson, and K. M. Guthrie's (2010/this issue) account of an anger control intervention's implementation and effectiveness in an elementary school setting. The accompanying article…

  15. 40 CFR 122.41 - Conditions applicable to all permits (applicable to State programs, see § 123.25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conditions applicable to all permits (applicable to State programs, see § 123.25). 122.41 Section 122.41 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS EPA ADMINISTERED PERMIT PROGRAMS: THE NATIONAL...

  16. 29 CFR 1917.50 - Certification of marine terminal material handling devices (See also mandatory appendix I, of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certification of marine terminal material handling devices (See also mandatory appendix I, of this part). 1917.50 Section 1917.50 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Cargo Handling Gear and Equipment...

  17. 29 CFR 1917.153 - Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Spray painting (See also § 1917.2, definition of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere). 1917.153 Section 1917.153 Labor Regulations Relating to... of Hazardous cargo, materials, substance, or atmosphere). (a) Scope. This section covers...

  18. 24th Seah Cheng Siang Lecture: Seeing better, doing better--evolution and application of gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Goh, Khean Lee

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy has evolved tremendously from the early days when candlelight was used to illuminate scopes to the extent that it has now become an integral part of the practice of modern gastroenterology. The first gastroscope was a rigid scope first introduced by Adolf Kussmaul in 1868. However this scope suffered from the 2 drawbacks of poor illumination and high risk of instrumental perforation. Rudolf Schindler improved on this by inventing the semiflexible gastroscope in 1932. But it was Basil Hirschowitz, using the principle of light conduction in fibreoptics, who allowed us to "see well" for the first time when he invented the flexible gastroscopy in 1958. With amazing speed and innovation, instrument companies, chiefly Japanese, had improved on the Hirschowitz gastroscope and invented a flexible colonoscope. Walter McCune introduced the technique of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in 1968 which has now evolved into a sophisticated procedure. The advent of the digital age in the 1980s saw the invention of the videoendoscope. Videoendoscopes have allowed us to start seeing the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) "better" with high magnification and resolution and optical/digital enhancements. Fusing confocal and light microscopy with endoscopy has allowed us to perform an "optical biopsy" of the GI mucosa. Development of endoscopic ultrasonography has allowed us to see "beyond" the GIT lumen. Seeing better has allowed us to do better. Endoscopists have ventured into newer procedures such as the resection of mucosal and submucosal tumours and the field of therapeutic GI endoscopy sees no end in sight. PMID:25703498

  19. Seeing What We Can't See

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohana, Chris

    2005-01-01

    While observation is critical to science, sometimes things cannot be observed directly. Sometimes things happened long ago (in paleontology, for example) or are too small to observe (like atoms). Many students believe that science progresses only through direct observation. Students may also believe that giant microscopes provide insight into…

  20. To See Ourselves as Others See Us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilhaus, Fred

    2005-03-01

    Earth and space scientists and the 2004 AGU Fall Meeting were the subject of a recent column in The Washington Post Magazine (30 January 2005) by Post writer Joel Achenbach. Eos is taking the unusual step of reprinting the entire article to stimulate discussion of our role in society. Are we doing what we should to inform the public of what we know and don't know about looming natural hazards, resource shortages, and threats to the environment? If not, what more could and should we do within our purview and appropriate role as scientists? Achenbach is a long-time observer of AGU. He is the recipient of the 1990 AGU Walter Sullivan Award for journalism, the second writer to be given this award for making geophysical information accessible and interesting to the general public. This Union award is named for the renowned New York Times science writer who was its first recipient in 1989. Achenbach won the award for an article titled ``Second Thoughts,'' which was reprinted in Eos (vol. 71, no. 25, 19 June 1990).