Science.gov

Sample records for bileptons see-saw type

  1. Large and almost maximal neutrino mixing within the type II see-saw mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, Manfred; Rodejohann, Werner

    2007-05-01

    Within the type II see-saw mechanism the light neutrino mass matrix is given by a sum of a direct (or triplet) mass term and the conventional (type I) see-saw term. Both versions of the see-saw mechanism explain naturally small neutrino masses, but the type II scenario offers interesting additional possibilities to explain large or almost maximal or vanishing mixings which are discussed in this paper. We first introduce ``type II enhancement'' of neutrino mixing, where moderate cancellations between the two terms can lead to large neutrino mixing even if all individual mass matrices and terms generate small mixing. However, nearly maximal or vanishing mixings are not naturally explained in this way, unless there is a certain initial structure (symmetry) which enforces certain elements of the matrices to be identical or related in a special way. We therefore assume that the leading structure of the neutrino mass matrix is the triplet term and corresponds to zero Ue3 and maximal θ23. Small but necessary corrections are generated by the conventional see-saw term. Then we assume that one of the two terms corresponds to an extreme mixing scenario, such as bimaximal or tri-bimaximal mixing. Deviations from this scheme are introduced by the second term. One can mimic Quark-Lepton Complementarity in this way. Finally, we note that the neutrino mass matrix for tri-bimaximal mixing can be—depending on the mass hierarchy—written as a sum of two terms with simple structure. Their origin could be the two terms of type II see-saw.

  2. Double Higgs production at LHC, see-saw type-II and Georgi-Machacek model

    SciTech Connect

    Godunov, S. I. Vysotsky, M. I. Zhemchugov, E. V.

    2015-03-15

    The double Higgs production in the models with isospin-triplet scalars is studied. It is shown that in the see-saw type-II model, the mode with an intermediate heavy scalar, pp → H + X → 2h + X, may have the cross section that is comparable with that in the Standard Model. In the Georgi-Machacek model, this cross section could be much larger than in the Standard Model because the vacuum expectation value of the triplet can be large.

  3. See-Saw Jeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Charlotte D.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the following case: Pete Wilmington, Vice President of Sales for See-Saw Jeans for Kids, has wrapped up a deal with Wal-Mart to carry See-Saw Jeans for Kids in all Wal-Mart stores on a trial basis for the next year. See-Saw Jeans for Kids is a clothing manufacturer with sales of $41 million, but the Wal-Mart account has the…

  4. See-Saw Jeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Charlotte D.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the following case: Pete Wilmington, Vice President of Sales for See-Saw Jeans for Kids, has wrapped up a deal with Wal-Mart to carry See-Saw Jeans for Kids in all Wal-Mart stores on a trial basis for the next year. See-Saw Jeans for Kids is a clothing manufacturer with sales of $41 million, but the Wal-Mart account has the…

  5. See-saw nystagmus and brainstem infarction: MRI findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanter, D. S.; Ruff, R. L.; Leigh, R. J.; Modic, M.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with see-saw nystagmus had a lesion localized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to the paramedian ventral midbrain with involvement of the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal. This the first MRI study of see-saw nystagmus associated with a presumed brainstem vascular event. Our findings support animal and human studies suggesting that dysfunction of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or its connections is central in this disorder.

  6. See-saw nystagmus and brainstem infarction: MRI findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanter, D. S.; Ruff, R. L.; Leigh, R. J.; Modic, M.

    1987-01-01

    A patient with see-saw nystagmus had a lesion localized by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to the paramedian ventral midbrain with involvement of the right interstitial nucleus of Cajal. This the first MRI study of see-saw nystagmus associated with a presumed brainstem vascular event. Our findings support animal and human studies suggesting that dysfunction of the interstitial nucleus of Cajal or its connections is central in this disorder.

  7. Naturalness in see-saw mechanism and Bogoliubov transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Kazuo; Tureanu, Anca

    2017-04-01

    We present an alternative perspective on the see-saw mechanism for the neutrino mass, according to which the small neutrino mass is given as a difference of two large masses. This view emerges when an analogue of the Bogoliubov transformation is used to describe Majorana neutrinos in the Lagrangian of the see-saw mechanism, which is analogous to the BCS theory. The Bogoliubov transformation clarifies the natural appearance of Majorana fermions when C is strongly violated by the right-handed neutrino mass term with good CP in the single flavor model. Analyzing typical models with mR =104 to 1015 GeV, it is shown that a hitherto unrecognized fine tuning of the order mν /mR =10-15 to 10-26 is required to make the commonly perceived see-saw mechanism work in a natural setting, namely, when none of the dimensionless coupling constants are very small.

  8. Bilepton signatures at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corcella, Gennaro; Corianò, Claudio; Costantini, Antonio; Frampton, Paul H.

    2017-10-01

    We discuss the main signatures of the Bilepton Model at the Large Hadron Collider, focusing on its gauge boson sector. The model is characterised by five additional gauge bosons, four charged and one neutral, beyond those of the Standard Model, plus three exotic quarks. The latter turn into ordinary quarks with the emission of bilepton doublets (Y++ ,Y+) and (Y- ,Y-) of lepton number L = - 2 and L = + 2 respectively, with the doubly-charged bileptons decaying into same-sign lepton pairs. We perform a phenomenological analysis investigating processes with two doubly-charged bileptons and two jets at the LHC and find that, setting suitable cuts on pseudorapidities and transverse momenta of final-states jets and leptons, the model yields a visible signal and the main Standard Model backgrounds can be suppressed. Compared to previous studies, our investigation is based on a full Monte Carlo implementation of the model and accounts for parton showers, hadronization and an actual jet-clustering algorithm for both signal and Standard Model background, thus providing an optimal framework for an actual experimental search.

  9. Congenital Achiasma and See-Saw Nystagmus in VACTERL Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Saurabh; Dumoulin, Serge; Fischbein, Nancy; Wandell, Brian A.; Liao, Yaping Joyce

    2013-01-01

    A 29-year-old man with vertebral defects, anal atresia, cardiac defects, tracheoesophageal fistula, renal defects, and limb defects (VACTERL) presented with headache, photophobia, and worsening nystagmus. He had near-normal visual acuity and visual fields, absent stereopsis, and see-saw nystagmus. Brain MRI revealed a thin remnant of the optic chiasm but normal-sized optic nerves. Functional MRI during monocular visual stimulation demonstrated non-crossing of the visual evoked responses in the occipital cortex, confirming achiasma. These findings have not previously been reported in VACTERL. PMID:20182207

  10. See-saw masses for quarks and leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpoot, S.

    1987-09-01

    An ambidextrous electroweak interaction model with SU(2)L×SU(2)R×U(1) gauge symmetry is described in which the conventional quarks and leptons are accompanied by a set of new fermions that transform as singlets of SU(2)L and SU(2)R. Only two doublets of Higgs scalars are introduced to break the gauge symmetry SU(2)L×SU(2)R×U(1) to U(1) of electromagnetism. The masses of all known quarks and leptons result from the Gell-Mann, Ramond, and Slansky ``see-saw mechanism'' between the conventional fermions and the new ``singlet'' fermions. The definition of the Fermi coupling constant and neutrino neutral-current interactions are identical to those of the standard SU(2)L×U(1) model. The singlet fermion masses lie in the 100-GeV to 1-TeV range to be probed by the oncoming accelerators of the 1990s.

  11. Tests of See-saw Mechnisms at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tao

    2015-04-01

    The origin of the neutrino masses remains to be one of the most puzzling mysteries in particle physics. Even with the milestone discovery of the Higgs boson, neutrinos are the only class of particles in the SM that allow a mass source that is not due to the Higgs mechanism. In this talk, I will briefly recollect the renormalizable theoretical formulation for the three-types of neutrino mass generation, emphasize their characteristic features, and discuss the direct probe of those scenarios at hadron colliders.

  12. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. ERS Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the functioning of the safety net provided by U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) food assistance programs for low-income families in time of need. Low-income families may be on a see-saw of income changes that make it difficult for program administrators to accurately target benefits and to define sensible…

  13. Is there a see-saw over an ice-free Arctic Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stendel, Martin; Yang, Shuting; Langen, Peter; Rodehacke, Christian; Mottram, Ruth; Hesselbjerg Christensen, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The "see-saw" in winter temperatures between western Greenland and the Canadian Arctic on one side and northern Europe on the other has been described by Loewe already in 1937, but actually this behaviour was at least known since the Danish colonization of Greenland in the early 18th century. The see-saw is associated with pressure anomalies not only near the region of interest, but as remote as the Mediterranean and the North Pacific. Recent research has pointed out the role of sea ice in maintaining the see-saw in either its warm or its cold phase over extended periods, which strongly affects European winter temperatures. What would happen to the seesaw if Arctic sea ice were to disappear suddenly? In the framework of the FP7-funded project ice2ice, we try to answer this and related questions. We have conducted a very long global simulation with a global climate model interactively coupled to a Greenland ice sheet component, covering the period 1850-3250 at a horizontal resolution of approximately 125 km. Up to 2005, the forcing is from observed greenhouse gas concentrations, and from 2006 onward it follows the extended RCP8.5 scenario, in which greenhouse gas concentrations continue to increase and eventually level out around 2250. With such a strong forcing, all Arctic sea ice has completely disappeared by roughly the same time, and the surface mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet becomes strongly negative. We investigate how the see-saw behaves in such an ice-free world and which implications circulation changes have in the Arctic and over Europe. To further elucidate the role of sea ice distribution on the atmospheric flow and the role of surface fluxes in maintaining the Greenland-European see-saw, we intend at a later time to expand our analysis to include a contrasting simulation with both western Greenland and northern Europe covered by ice during the Last Glacier Maximum.

  14. See-Saw Masses for Quarks and Leptons in AN Ambidextrous Electroweak Interaction Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpoot, S.

    An ambidextrous electroweak interaction model with SU(2)L×SU(2)R×U(1) gauge symmetry is described in which the conventional quarks and leptons are accompanied by a set of new fermions that transform as singlets of SU(2)L×SU(2)R. The model has only two doublets of Higgs scalars. The masses of all known quarks and leptons result from the see-saw mechanism between the conventional fermions and the new “singlet” fermions. Neutrino neutral current interactions are identical to those of the standard SU(2)L×U(1) model. The singlet fermion masses lie in the 100-GeV to 1-TeV range to be probed by the oncoming accelerators of the 1990’s.

  15. See-saw masses for quarks and leptons in an ambidextrous electroweak interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpoot, S.

    1987-06-01

    An ambidextrous electroweak interaction model with SU(2) L× SU(2) R×U(1) gauge symmetry is described in which the conventional quarks and leptons are accompanied by a set of new fermions that transform as singlets of SU(2) L×SU(2) R. The model has only two doublets of Higgs scalars. The masses of all known quarks and leptons result from the see-saw mechanism between the conventional fermions and the new “singles” fermions. Neutrino neutral current interactions are identical to those of the standard SU(2) L×U(1) model. The singlet fermion masses lie in the 100 GeV to 1 TeV range, to be probed by the oncoming accelerators of the 1990's.

  16. See-saw relationship of the Holocene East Asian-Australian summer monsoon.

    PubMed

    Eroglu, Deniz; McRobie, Fiona H; Ozken, Ibrahim; Stemler, Thomas; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Breitenbach, Sebastian F M; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-09-26

    The East Asian-Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon (EAIASM) links the Earth's hemispheres and provides a heat source that drives global circulation. At seasonal and inter-seasonal timescales, the summer monsoon of one hemisphere is linked via outflows from the winter monsoon of the opposing hemisphere. Long-term phase relationships between the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) and the Indonesian-Australian summer monsoon (IASM) are poorly understood, raising questions of long-term adjustments to future greenhouse-triggered climate change and whether these changes could 'lock in' possible IASM and EASM phase relationships in a region dependent on monsoonal rainfall. Here we show that a newly developed nonlinear time series analysis technique allows confident identification of strong versus weak monsoon phases at millennial to sub-centennial timescales. We find a see-saw relationship over the last 9,000 years-with strong and weak monsoons opposingly phased and triggered by solar variations. Our results provide insights into centennial- to millennial-scale relationships within the wider EAIASM regime.

  17. See-saw rocking: an in vitro model for mechanotransduction research

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, R. P.; Henningsson, P.; Franklin, S. L.; Chen, D.; Ventikos, Y.; Bomphrey, R. J.; Thompson, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    In vitro mechanotransduction studies, uncovering the basic science of the response of cells to mechanical forces, are essential for progress in tissue engineering and its clinical application. Many varying investigations have described a multitude of cell responses; however, as the precise nature and magnitude of the stresses applied are infrequently reported and rarely validated, the experiments are often not comparable, limiting research progress. This paper provides physical and biological validation of a widely available fluid stimulation device, a see-saw rocker, as an in vitro model for cyclic fluid shear stress mechanotransduction. This allows linkage between precisely characterized stimuli and cell monolayer response in a convenient six-well plate format. Models of one well were discretized and analysed extensively using computational fluid dynamics to generate convergent, stable and consistent predictions of the cyclic fluid velocity vectors at a rocking frequency of 0.5 Hz, accounting for the free surface. Validation was provided by comparison with flow velocities measured experimentally using particle image velocimetry. Qualitative flow behaviour was matched and quantitative analysis showed agreement at representative locations and time points. Maximum shear stress of 0.22 Pa was estimated near the well edge, and time-average shear stress ranged between 0.029 and 0.068 Pa. Human tenocytes stimulated using the system showed significant increases in collagen and GAG secretion at 2 and 7 day time points. This in vitro model for mechanotransduction provides a versatile, flexible and inexpensive method for the fluid shear stress impact on biological cells to be studied. PMID:24898022

  18. First results on bilepton production based on LHC collision data and predictions for run II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nepomuceno, A. A.; Eccard, F. L.; Meirose, B.

    2016-09-01

    The LHC potential for discovering doubly charged vector bileptons is investigated considering the measurable process p p →μ+μ+μ-μ-X . The study is performed assuming different bilepton and leptoquark masses. The process cross section is calculated at leading order using the Calchep package. Combining the calculation with the latest ATLAS experiment results at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV, bounds on bilepton masses based on LHC data are derived for the first time. The results exclude bilepton masses in the range of 250 GeV to 500 GeV at 95% C.L., depending on the leptoquark mass. Moreover, minimal LHC integrated luminosities needed for discovering and for setting limits on bilepton masses are obtained for 13 TeV center-of-mass energy. Simulated events are passed through a fast parametric detector simulation using the Delphes package.

  19. A solar variability driven monsoon see-saw: switching relationships of the Holocene East Asian-Australian summer monsoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eroglu, Deniz; Ozken, Ibrahim; McRobie, Fiona; Stemler, Thomas; Marwan, Norbert; Wyrwoll, Karl-Heinz; Kurths, Juergen

    2016-04-01

    The East Asian-Indonesian-Australian monsoon is the predominant low latitude monsoon system, providing a major global scale heat source. Here we apply newly developed non-linear time series techniques on speleothem climate proxies, from eastern China and northwestern Australia and establish relationships between the two summer monsoon regimes over the last ˜9000 years. We identify significant variations in monsoonal activity, both dry and wet phases, at millennial to multi-centennial time scales and demonstrate for the first time the existence of a see-saw antiphase relationship between the two regional monsoon systems. Our analysis attributes this inter-hemispheric linkage to the solar variability that is effecting both monsoon systems.

  20. TALSPEAK CURVE: AN ILLUSTRATION OF A SEE-SAW EFFECT IN SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Zalupski; Leigh Martin

    2010-11-01

    A superbly balanced thermodynamic struggle for metal ion coordination by aqueous aminopolycarboxylate reagent, DTPA, and non-aqueous organophosphorous phase transfer reagent, HDEHP, affords the separation of trivalent actinides from trivalent lanthanides under the umbrella of the Talspeak liquid-liquid distribution process. This thermodynamic relationship has been linked to an analogous “see-saw” behavior, where the balance is distorted when either of the key complexing players is subject to adverse conditions that interfere with their optimal operation. The thermodynamic balance is tipped in favour of HDEHP whenever increased acidity of the aqueous solution out-competes the metal ion complexation by aqueous complexing agent. Also enhanced steric crowding may switch-off efficient coordination of the metal ion. When HDEHP is depolymerised due to the presence of aliphatic alcohol in the organic phase its phase transferring power is diminished. Such complication paves way for DTPA to establish its dominance on the distribution of trivalent metal ions in the 2-phase system. The illustrated sensitivity of the thermodynamic balance between DTPA and HDEHP in Talspeak-type systems may serve as informative tool when studying less-predictable realms of Talspeak chemistry.

  1. Palaeolimnological evidence for an east-west climate see-saw in the Mediterranean since AD 900

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Neil; Moreno, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Corella, Juan Pablo; Jones, Matthew; Allcock, Samantha; Woodbridge, Jessie; Morellón, Mario; Luterbacher, Juerg; Xoplaki, Elena; Türkeş, Murat

    2012-03-01

    During the period of instrumental records, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has strongly influenced inter-annual precipitation variations in the western Mediterranean, while some eastern parts of the basin have shown an anti-phase relationship in precipitation and atmospheric pressure. Here we explore how the NAO and other atmospheric circulation modes operated over the longer timescales of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and Little Ice Age (LIA). High-resolution palaeolimnological evidence from opposite ends of the Mediterranean basin, supplemented by other palaeoclimate data, is used to track shifts in regional hydro-climatic conditions. Multiple geochemical, sedimentological, isotopic and palaeoecological proxies from Estanya and Montcortés lakes in northeast Spain and Nar lake in central Turkey have been cross-correlated at decadal time intervals since AD 900. These dryland lakes capture sensitively changes in precipitation/evaporation (P/E) balance by adjustments in water level and salinity, and are especially valuable for reconstructing variability over decadal-centennial timescales. Iberian lakes show lower water levels and higher salinities during the 11th to 13th centuries synchronous with the MCA and generally more humid conditions during the ‘LIA' (15th-19th centuries). This pattern is also clearly evident in tree-ring records from Morocco and from marine cores in the western Mediterranean Sea. In the eastern Mediterranean, palaeoclimatic records from Turkey, Greece and the Levant show generally drier hydro-climatic conditions during the LIA and a wetter phase during the MCA. This implies that a bipolar climate see-saw has operated in the Mediterranean for the last 1100 years. However, while western Mediterranean aridity appears consistent with persistent positive NAO state during the MCA, the pattern is less clear in the eastern Mediterranean. Here the strongest evidence for higher winter season precipitation during the MCA comes from central

  2. An east-west climate see-saw in the Mediterranean during the last 2.6 ka: evidence and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, C.; Moreno-Caballud, A.; Valero-Garces, B. L.; Luterbacher, J.; Xoplaki, E.; Allcock, S. L.

    2012-12-01

    Global precipitation anomalies during the Common Era show a spatial coherency that appears to be about an order of magnitude lower (i.e. smaller) than for temperature changes, as some areas became wetter while others experienced drought (Seager et al., 2007, Quat. Sci. Rev. 26, 2322-36). The Mediterranean basin (10°W-40°E; 30°-45°N) is influenced by some of the main mechanisms acting upon the global climate system and its regional water resources are sensitive to hydro-climatic variations. Reconstructing the timing, intensity, and patterns of hydrological variability in the Mediterranean is important for testing spatial-temporal coherency in palaeo-precipitation, and for understanding underlying climate forcing mechanisms. The region offers a broad spectrum of documentary information and natural archives which allow high-resolution climate reconstructions (Luterbacher et al., 2012, In: Lionello et al. (eds) The Mediterranean Climate: from past to future. Elsevier, pp. 87-185). During the period of instrumental records, the NAO has strongly influenced inter-annual precipitation variations in the western Mediterranean, while parts of the eastern basin have shown an anti-phase relationship in precipitation and atmospheric pressure. A wide array of proxy-climate data from Iberia and Morocco indicate overall drier conditions during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and a generally wetter climate in the Little Ice Age (LIA)(Moreno et al., 2012, Quat. Sci. Rev. 43, 16-32). This pattern is consistent with strong NAO forcing of western Mediterranean climate over the last 1.1 ka (Trouet et al., 2009; Science 324, 78-80). High-resolution palaeolimnological evidence from central Anatolia exhibit an opposite pattern, implying that an east-west climate see-saw operated in the Mediterranean basin during the LIA and MCA (Roberts et al., 2012; Glob. Planet. Change 84-85, 23-34). However, the strongest evidence for higher (lower) winter season precipitation during the MCA (LIA

  3. Bilepton effects on the WWV* vertex in the 331 model with right-handed neutrinos via a SUL(2)×UY(1) covariant quantization scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Zavaleta, F.; Tavares-Velasco, G.; Toscano, J. J.

    2007-04-01

    In a recent paper [J. Montano, F. Ramírez-Zavaleta, G. Tavares-Velasco, and J. J. Toscano, Phys. Rev. D 72, 055023 (2005).PRVDAQ0556-282110.1103/PhysRevD.72.055023], we investigated the effects of the massive charged gauge bosons (bileptons) predicted by the minimal 331 model on the off-shell vertex WWV* (V=γ, Z) using a SUL(2)×UY(1) covariant gauge-fixing term for the bileptons. We proceed along the same lines and calculate the effects of the gauge bosons predicted by the 331 model with right-handed neutrinos. It is found that the bilepton effects on the WWV* vertex are of the same order of magnitude as those arising from the standard model and several of its extensions, provided that the bilepton mass is of the order of a few hundred of GeVs. For heavier bileptons, their effects on the WWV* vertex are negligible. The behavior of the form factors at high energies is also discussed as it is a reflection of the gauge invariance and gauge independence of the WWV* Green function obtained via our quantization method.

  4. Bi-polar freshwater flux see-saw anomalies impacting the north atlantic thermohaline circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, M.

    2016-02-01

    We present three scenarios using a global 1/8 degree eddy-permitting ocean, land and sea-ice general circulation model forced with hourly MERRA GEOS-5 atmospheric data from 1992-2014. In all cases, dense water production in the northern Labrador and Norwegian Seas is fairly well represented during the first decade of the simulation. In the reference case, after the turn of the century, surface haloclines pervade these dense water formation regions, and the overturning of deep North Atlantic watermasses becomes unrealistically weak. In a second case, we attempted to de-stabilize the overturning circulation by reducing precipitation North of 40N. The AMOC index at this latitude increases by roughly 23% for a 15% decrease in net North Atlantic freshwater forcing. A freshwater flux adjustment is used in order to maintain model sea-ice concentrations closer to observations. Of the 0.54 Sv of Atlantic freshwater forcing between 40N and Bering Strait in the reference simulation , 27% is externally applied in order to insulate sea-ice from warmer underlying watermasses, mainly on the continental shelves. In a third experiment, static Antarctic ice shelves are thermodynamically coupled to the ocean. Meltwater injection, in ice shelf cavities, facilitates sea-ice production on nearby continental shelves. The amount of external freshwater required to maintain warm season Antarctic sea-ice reduces by 26% to 0.17 Sv in the presence of a time-average meltwater contribution of 0.06 Sv. Significant changes occur on most high-latitude shelf regions, including in the North Atlantic. Inter-hemispheric propagation of coastally-trapped anomalies results in increased ventilation near deepwater formation sites in the Norwegian and Labrador Seas, and a roughly 20% increase in time-average AMOC strength at 40N, relative to the reference case, for a less than 10% increase in freshwater forcing south of 60S. These case studies demonstrate strong oceanic teleconections between the poles, as well as the degree to which freshwater forcing bias, including contributions from glaciers, may be limiting our ability to accurately simulate AMOC in general circulation models.

  5. Gauge see-saw: A mechanism for a light gauge boson

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hye-Sung; Seo, Min-Seok

    2017-04-01

    There has been rapidly growing interest in the past decade in a new gauge boson which is considerably lighter than the standard model Z boson. A well-known example of this kind is the so-called dark photon, and it is actively searched for in various experiments nowadays. It would be puzzling to have a new gauge boson which is neither massless nor electroweak scale, but possesses a rather small yet nonzero mass. We present a mechanism that can provide a light gauge boson as a result of a mass matrix diagonalization.

  6. The see-saw a vertical-lift incubator designed for channel catfish egg masses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Channel catfish egg masses are typically incubated in baskets that are suspended in water that is agitated with rotating or oscillating paddles. We designed and tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish egg masses. Preliminary research in commercial hatcheries...

  7. Coherent tropical-subtropical Holocene see-saw moisture patterns in the Eastern Hemisphere monsoon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yongbo; Bekeschus, Benjamin; Handorf, Dörthe; Liu, Xingqi; Dallmeyer, Anne; Herzschuh, Ulrike

    2017-08-01

    The concept of a Global Monsoon (GM) has been proposed based on modern precipitation observations, but its application over a wide range of temporal scales is still under debate. Here, we present a synthesis of 268 continental paleo-moisture records collected from monsoonal systems in the Eastern Hemisphere, including the East Asian Monsoon (EAsM), the Indian Monsoon (IM), the East African Monsoon (EAfM), and the Australian Monsoon (AuM) covering the last 18,000 years. The overall pattern of late Glacial to Holocene moisture change is consistent with those inferred from ice cores and marine records. With respect to the last 10,000 years (10 ka), i.e. a period that has high spatial coverage, a Fuzzy c-Means clustering analysis of the moisture index records together with ;Xie-Beni; index reveals four clusters of our data set. The paleoclimatic meaning of each cluster is interpreted considering the temporal evolution and spatial distribution patterns. The major trend in the tropical AuM, EAfM, and IM regions is a gradual decrease in moisture conditions since the early Holocene. Moisture changes in the EAsM regions show maximum index values between 8 and 6 ka. However, records located in nearby subtropical areas, i.e. in regions not influenced by the intertropical convergence zone, show an opposite trend compared to the tropical monsoon regions (AuM, EAfM and IM), i.e. a gradual increase. Analyses of modern meteorological data reveal the same spatial patterns as in the paleoclimate records such that, in times of overall monsoon strengthening, lower precipitation rates are observed in the nearby subtropical areas. We explain this pattern as the effect of a strong monsoon circulation suppressing air uplift in nearby subtropical areas, and hence hindering precipitation. By analogy to the modern system, this would mean that during the early Holocene strong monsoon period, the intensified ascending airflows within the monsoon domains led to relatively weaker ascending or even descending airflows in the adjacent subtropical regions, resulting in a precipitation deficit compared to the late Holocene. Our conceptual model therefore integrates regionally contrasting moisture changes into the Global Monsoon hypothesis.

  8. Supporting Professionalism: See-Saw Politics and the Paradox of Deregulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Yvonne; Appleby, Yvon

    2012-01-01

    How can one capture the good practice within the further education sector and identify how best to develop the workforce? This conundrum has taxed government and professionals within the sector for decades. The introduction of Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector (PTLLS), the Certificate (CTLLS) and Diploma (DTLLS) in 2007 was the…

  9. Soft see-saw: Radiative origin of neutrino masses in SUSY theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megrelidze, Luka; Tavartkiladze, Zurab

    2017-01-01

    Radiative neutrino mass generation within supersymmetric (SUSY) construction is studied. The mechanism is considered where the lepton number violation is originating from the soft SUSY breaking terms. This requires MSSM extensions with states around the TeV scale. We present several explicit realizations based on extensions either by MSSM singlet or SU(2)w triplet states. Besides some novelties of the proposed scenarios, various phenomenological implications are also discussed.

  10. The Income Volatility See-Saw: Implications for School Lunch. Economic Research Report Number 23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Constance

    2006-01-01

    Income volatility challenges the effectiveness of the safety net that USDA food assistance programs provide low-income families. This study examines income volatility among households with children and the implications of volatility for eligibility in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP). The results show that income volatility was higher for…

  11. Interesting differences between CH4 and d18Oatm records of bipolar see-saw activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severinghaus, Jeffrey; Baggenstos, Daniel; Rhodes, Rachael; Brook, Edward

    2014-05-01

    Abrupt changes in atmospheric methane concentration have long been used to infer changes in low-latitude hydrology. A lesser-used tracer is the oxygen-18 content of atmospheric dioxygen (d18Oatm), which is produced by photosynthesis and records the O-18 content of chloroplast water among other variables. Observations from ice core trapped air records suggest that strong Asian monsoons produce dioxygen with a relatively negative d18Oatm, whereas periods of weak Asian monsoon rainfall and strong southern hemisphere monsoons are characterized by relatively positive d18Oatm (Severinghaus et al., 2009, Science). Generally, CH4 and d18Oatm are anticorrelated, with high CH4 and negative d18Oatm during times of northern hemisphere warmth, strong Asian monsoons, and the bipolar seesaw in its "warm north" mode. However, interesting exceptions to this pattern occur during Heinrich Stadials and during the initial phases of the last deglaciation. Here, ice core data suggest episodes in which CH4 rise is not associated with negative d18Oatm, but instead positive d18Oatm. It is suggested that these intervals can be explained as being times of strong southern hemisphere low-latitude rainfall, which creates the positive values in d18Oatm. We hypothesize that dioxygen produced in southern hemisphere locales generally has higher O-18 content, due to the higher O-18 content of chloroplast water and the prevailing precipitation O-18 in those regions. In summary, we hypothesize that d18O of photosynthetic O2 is a more monotonic function of latitude, compared with methane production, which can be bimodally produced in the low latitudes of both hemispheres.

  12. μ → eγ decay versus the μ → eee bound and lepton flavor violating processes in supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lychkovskiy, O. V.; Vysotsky, M. I.

    2012-03-01

    Even tiny lepton flavor violation (LFV) due to some New Physics is able to alter the conditions inside a collapsing supernova core and probably to facilitate the explosion. LFV emerges naturally in a see-saw type-II model of neutrino mass generation. Experimentally, the LFV beyond the Standard Model is constrained by rare lepton decay searches. In particular, strong bounds are imposed on the μ → eee branching ratio and on the μ- e conversion in muonic gold. Currently, the μ→ eγ is under investigation in the MEG experiment that aims at a dramatic increase in sensitivity in the next three years. We seek a see-saw type-II LFV pattern that fits all the experimental constraints, leads to Br(μ → eγ) ≳ Br(μμ → eee), and ensures a rate of LFV processes in supernova high enough to modify the supernova physics. These requirements are sufficient to eliminate almost all freedom in the model. In particular, they lead to the prediction 0.4 × 10-12 ≲ Br(μ → eγ) ≲ 6 × 10-12, which will be testable by MEG in the nearest future. The considered scenario also constrains the neutrino mass-mixing pattern and provides lower and upper bounds on τ-lepton LFV decays. We also briefly discuss a model with a single bilepton in which the μ → eee decay is absent at the tree level.

  13. The "See-saw" - A High-intensity Catfish Egg Incubator Designed to Save Space and Conserve Water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Catfish spawns (egg masses) have been incubated and hatched in much the same way for nearly a century. Spawns are placed in ¼”-mesh hardware cloth baskets suspended in metal troughs and water is circulated with paddles placed between the baskets. While this practical system has apparently worked wel...

  14. Channel catfish hatchery production efficiency using a vertical-lift incubator the see-saw at various egg loading densities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Channel catfish spawns are typically incubated in ¼-in mesh baskets suspended in water that is agitated with paddles positioned between baskets. We tested a new vertical-lift incubator (the “See-Saw”) to incubate channel catfish spawns. Previous research demonstrated that when loaded with spawns at...

  15. Balancing the See-Saw: A Kaleidoscopic Paradigm Shift of Know-How (21st Century Education and Training Priorities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenaghan, Donna D.

    The information and service industries are and will remain the largest areas of growth/employment. Among current/projected changes in the work environment are the following: greater competition within/beyond the continental borders of the United States; increasing reliance on new equipment/processes; more/constantly changing information to be…

  16. A see-saw of pre-Columbian boom regions in southern Peru, determined by large-scale circulation changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mächtle, B.; Schittek, K.; Forbriger, M.; Schäbitz, F.; Eitel, B.

    2012-04-01

    Environmental changes and cultural transitions during several periods of Peruvian history show a strong coincidence between humid and dry climatic oscillations and the rise and decline of cultures. It is noteworthy, that alternating periods of geo-ecological fragility and stability occurred in time and space between the coastal Nasca region (14.5° S) and the high Andean northern Titicaca basin, just a few hundred kilometers to the east. Based on a multi-proxy palynological and sedimentological approach to reconstruct palaeoenvironmental changes, we found that the Nasca region received a maximum of precipitation during the archaeological boom times of the Early Horizon and the Early Intermediate Period (800 BC - 650 AD, Paracas and Nasca cultures) as well as during the late intermediate period (1150-1450 AD), whereas, in contrast, the Titicaca region further to the south-east experienced drought and cultural depression during that times. During the Middle Horizon (650 - 1150 AD), the Tiwanaku agronomy and culture boomed in the Titicaca region and expanded to the west, contemporaneous with a raised lake level and more humid conditions. In the Nasca region, runoff for irrigation purposes was reduced and less reliable due to drought. Considering a coincidence between environmental and cultural changes, we state that success and decline of civilizations were controlled by hydrological oscillations, triggering fertility as well as a critical loss of natural resources. In response to spatial changing resources, cultural foci were shifted. Therefore, the success of pre-Columbian civilizations was closely coupled to areas of geo-ecological favorability, which were directly controlled by distinct regional impacts of large-scale circulation mechanisms, including El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Changes in the position of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) and the Bolivian anticyclone determined meridional shifts in moisture transport across the Andes, which directly triggered human migration to the respective granaries.

  17. {mu} {yields} e{gamma} decay versus the {mu} {yields} eee bound and lepton flavor violating processes in supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Lychkovskiy, O. V. Vysotsky, M. I.

    2012-03-15

    Even tiny lepton flavor violation (LFV) due to some New Physics is able to alter the conditions inside a collapsing supernova core and probably to facilitate the explosion. LFV emerges naturally in a see-saw type-II model of neutrino mass generation. Experimentally, the LFV beyond the Standard Model is constrained by rare lepton decay searches. In particular, strong bounds are imposed on the {mu} {yields} eee branching ratio and on the {mu}-e conversion in muonic gold. Currently, the {mu}{yields}e{gamma} is under investigation in the MEG experiment that aims at a dramatic increase in sensitivity in the next three years. We seek a see-saw type-II LFV pattern that fits all the experimental constraints, leads to Br({mu} {yields}e{gamma}) Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To Br({mu}{mu} {yields}eee), and ensures a rate of LFV processes in supernova high enough to modify the supernova physics. These requirements are sufficient to eliminate almost all freedom in the model. In particular, they lead to the prediction 0.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To Br({mu} {yields} e{gamma}) Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12}, which will be testable by MEG in the nearest future. The considered scenario also constrains the neutrino mass-mixing pattern and provides lower and upper bounds on {tau}-lepton LFV decays. We also briefly discuss a model with a single bilepton in which the {mu} {yields} eee decay is absent at the tree level.

  18. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... FIND A BLOOD DRIVE Blood Types and the Population O positive is the most common blood type. ... of the different blood types in the U.S. population is: Caucasian African- American Latino-American Asian O + ...

  19. Blood typing

    MedlinePlus

    A blood sample is needed. The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood. Then, the sample is checked to see whether ...

  20. Histocompatibility Typing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    framework residues of the DR molecule; Genox 3.53 is a murine monoclonal antibody which * - - - ~. binds cells bearing HLA - DR1 , DR2 or DRw6 and may be...Histocompatibility typing, ID typing, bone marrow transplantation, homozygous cells, HLA -D, human hsooptblymxdlymphocytecutrpie lymphocyte test, T...significant progress in understanding the genetics of the human major histocompatibility complex LI ( HLA ). Ten new homozygous typing cells (HTCs) were

  1. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... low blood pressure. It can even lead vital body systems — like breathing or kidneys — to fail. Here's an ... in Type B or AB blood) enter your body, your Type A immune system gets fired up against them. That means you ...

  2. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... cells (and A antibody in the plasma) Group AB – has both A and B antigens on red ... 9% 25% B - 2% 1% 1% 0.4% AB + 3% 4% 2% 7% AB - 1% 0.3% 0.2% 0.1% Some ... Whether your blood group is type A, B, AB or O is based on the blood types ...

  3. Blood Types

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wrong blood type, the antibodies immediately set out to destroy the invading cells. This aggressive, whole-body response can give someone a fever, chills, and low blood pressure. It can even lead ...

  4. Blood Typing

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Group; Rh Factor Formal name: ABO Group and Rh Type Related ... mother's and baby's ABO blood groups, not the Rh factor. However, ABO grouping cannot be used to predict ...

  5. Pollutant Types

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Describes the types of air pollutants, including common or criteria pollutants, and hazardous air pollutants and links to additional information. Also links to resources on other air pollution issues.

  6. Double Higgs boson production in the models with isotriplets

    SciTech Connect

    Godunov, S. I. Vysotsky, M. I. Zhemchugov, E. V.

    2015-12-15

    The enhancement of double Higgs boson production in the extensions of the Standard Model with extra isotriplets is studied. It is found that in see-saw type II model decays of new heavy Higgs can contribute to the double Higgs production cross section as much as Standard Model channels. In Georgi–Machacek model the cross section can be much larger since the custodial symmetry is preserved and the strongest limitation on triplet parameters is removed.

  7. Histocompatibility Typing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-28

    Oslo, New York, NY Norway Maryline Sasportes, Institute de Recherches Susan Hsu, Johns Hopkins University, sur Les Maladies du iang, Paris, France...from PLT cells primed initially series of critical values obtained from with lymphoblastoid cells were highly Harter’s tables ( Harter 1960). Critical...M. L., Wink. Harter , H. L (1960) Critical tables for Duncan’s R. & Bach, F. H. (1975) HLA-LD Typing: new multiple range test. Biometrics 16. A rapid

  8. Types of hormone therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of hormone therapy; Hormone replacement therapy - types; Menopause - types of hormone therapy; HT - types; Menopausal hormone ... Menopause symptoms include: Hot flashes Night sweats Sleep problems Vaginal dryness Anxiety Moodiness Less interest in sex ...

  9. Blood Type Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  10. Types of Blood Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Double Red Cell Plasma Platelets Red Cells What blood donation type is best for me? **If you do not ... blood type, a whole blood donation is recommended** Blood Donation Types: Volunteer Donations The standard or most common type ...

  11. Types of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems What is Diabetes? Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your ... is serious. What are the different types of diabetes? The most common types of diabetes are type ...

  12. Types of Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes, formerly called juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, ... in children, teenagers or young adults. Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes taking insulin shots or using an insulin ...

  13. Petrov type of linearly perturbed type-D spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araneda, Bernardo; Dotti, Gustavo

    2015-10-01

    We show that a spacetime satisfying the linearized vacuum Einstein equations around a type-D background is generically of type I, and that the splittings of the principal null directions (PNDs) and of the degenerate eigenvalue of the Weyl tensor are non-analytic functions of the perturbation parameter of the metric. This provides a gauge-invariant characterization of the effect of the perturbation on the underlying geometry, without appealing to differential curvature invariants. This is of particular interest for the Schwarzschild solution, for which there are no signatures of the even perturbations on the algebraic curvature invariants. We also show that, unlike the general case, the unstable even modes of the Schwarzschild naked singularity deform the Weyl tensor into a type-II one.

  14. Moving beyond Type I and Type II neuron types.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Frances K

    2013-01-01

    In 1948, Hodgkin delineated different classes of axonal firing.  This has been mathematically translated allowing insight and understanding to emerge.  As such, the terminology of 'Type I' and 'Type II' neurons is commonplace in the Neuroscience literature today.  Theoretical insights have helped us realize that, for example, network synchronization depends on whether neurons are Type I or Type II.  Mathematical models are precise with analyses (considering Type I/II aspects), but experimentally, the distinction can be less clear.  On the other hand, experiments are becoming more sophisticated in terms of distinguishing and manipulating particular cell types but are limited in terms of being able to consider network aspects simultaneously.   Although there is much work going on mathematically and experimentally, in my opinion it is becoming common that models are either superficially linked with experiment or not described in enough detail to appreciate the biological context.  Overall, we all suffer in terms of impeding our understanding of brain networks and applying our understanding to neurological disease.  I suggest that more modelers become familiar with experimental details and that more experimentalists appreciate modeling assumptions. In other words, we need to move beyond our comfort zones.

  15. Custodial Teacher Social Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Joseph W.

    Two types of teacher behavior were elicited from student responses to the Pupil Control Behavior Form (PCB). Two custodial teacher types emerged from the data: the "screamer" type, described as a teacher who controlled pupil behavior with verbal methods that expressed anger or frustration; and the "cold fish" type, depicted as a teacher who…

  16. Advances in Blood Typing.

    PubMed

    Quraishy, N; Sapatnekar, S

    The clinical importance of blood group antigens relates to their ability to evoke immune antibodies that are capable of causing hemolysis. The most important antigens for safe transfusion are ABO and D (Rh), and typing for these antigens is routinely performed for patients awaiting transfusion, prenatal patients, and blood donors. Typing for other blood group antigens, typically of the Kell, Duffy, Kidd, and MNS blood groups, is sometimes necessary, for patients who have, or are likely to develop antibodies to these antigens. The most commonly used typing method is serological typing, based on hemagglutination reactions against specific antisera. This method is generally reliable and practical for routine use, but it has certain drawbacks. In recent years, molecular typing has emerged as an alternative or supplemental typing method. It is based on detecting the polymorphisms and mutations that control the expression of blood group antigens, and using this information to predict the probable antigen type. Molecular typing methods are useful when traditional serological typing methods cannot be used, as when a patient has been transfused and the sample is contaminated with red blood cells from the transfused blood component. Moreover, molecular typing methods can precisely identify clinically significant variant antigens that cannot be distinguished by serological typing; this capability has been exploited for the resolution of typing discrepancies and shows promise for the improved transfusion management of patients with sickle cell anemia. Despite its advantages, molecular typing has certain limitations, and it should be used in conjunction with serological methods.

  17. Haemophilus Influenzae Type b

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size Email Print Share Haemophilus Influenzae type b Page Content Article Body If you’re like ... may have been unfamiliar with Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infections until your pediatrician recommended a vaccine ...

  18. Unlocking Personality Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieger, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines some of the intricacies of personality types and their effect on career choices. Proposes that knowing students' Myers-Briggs personality types can help school counselors guide them down the right career path. (GCP)

  19. Types of chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000910.htm Types of chemotherapy To use the sharing features on this page, ... or on cancer cells. How Doctors Choose Your Chemotherapy The type and dose of chemotherapy your doctor ...

  20. Types of Stem Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stem Cell Glossary Search Toggle Nav Types of Stem Cells Stem cells are the foundation from which all ... Learn About Stem Cells > Types of Stem Cells Stem cells Stem cells are the foundation for every organ ...

  1. Types of Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Types of Anesthesia KidsHealth > For Teens > Types of Anesthesia A A ... I Get? en español Tipos de anestesia About Anesthesia Anesthesia is broken down into three main categories: ...

  2. Different Types of Lupus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Different types of lupus Lupus Foundation of America February 24, 2017 Resource ... lupus. Learn more about each type below. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Systemic lupus is the most common form ...

  3. Types of Cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Cardiomyopathy The types of cardiomyopathy include: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy Dilated ... cardiomyopathy Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy Unclassified ... Cardiomyopathy Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is very common and can affect ...

  4. Blood Type Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  5. Unlocking Personality Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tieger, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines some of the intricacies of personality types and their effect on career choices. Proposes that knowing students' Myers-Briggs personality types can help school counselors guide them down the right career path. (GCP)

  6. Types of Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... the exercises even count in all three categories! Fitness types and tips Confused about the types of ... injuries. Some ways to increase flexibility are ballet, yoga, martial arts, or pilates (say: puh-LAH-teez) . ...

  7. Blood Type Puzzle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Presents a blood type puzzle that provides a visual, hands-on mechanism by which students can examine blood group reactions. Offers students an opportunity to construct their own knowledge about blood types. (JRH)

  8. Different Types of Lupus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Facebook Pinterest Email Print Different types of lupus Lupus Foundation of America September 18, 2017 Resource ... lupus. Learn more about each type below. Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus is the most common form ...

  9. Diabetes Type 2

    MedlinePlus

    Diabetes means your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. With type 2 diabetes, the more common type, your body does not ... You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, obese, have a family ...

  10. Types of Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Tate; Nicholas, Amy; Ruggiero, Tony; Blandford, William; Thayer, Sara; Bull, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    There are several types of data systems that support data from Part C/619 programs. Although the system types have similarities, each has its own unique characteristics and purposes. The attributes that make one type of data system a particularly good fit for one data-related need or function can be less desirable for another need or function. In…

  11. Types of Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Tate; Nicholas, Amy; Ruggiero, Tony; Blandford, William; Thayer, Sara; Bull, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    There are several types of data systems that support data from Part C/619 programs. Although the system types have similarities, each has its own unique characteristics and purposes. The attributes that make one type of data system a particularly good fit for one data-related need or function can be less desirable for another need or function. In…

  12. Types of Neutralization and Types of Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Dodder, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Neutralization theory was tested with questionnaires administered to a random sample of public high school students (N-298) and institutionalized male delinquents (N-53). Neutralization acceptance technique patterns were similar across subsamples; however, correlations between each technique and each type of delinquency were statistically…

  13. Types of Neutralization and Types of Delinquency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Jim; Dodder, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Neutralization theory was tested with questionnaires administered to a random sample of public high school students (N-298) and institutionalized male delinquents (N-53). Neutralization acceptance technique patterns were similar across subsamples; however, correlations between each technique and each type of delinquency were statistically…

  14. R type anion channel

    PubMed Central

    Diatloff, Eugene; Peyronnet, Rémi; Colcombet, Jean; Thomine, Sébastien; Barbier-Brygoo, Hélène

    2010-01-01

    Plant genomes code for channels involved in the transport of cations, anions and uncharged molecules through membranes. Although the molecular identity of channels for cations and uncharged molecules has progressed rapidly in the recent years, the molecular identity of anion channels has lagged behind. Electrophysiological studies have identified S-type (slow) and R-type (rapid) anion channels. In this brief review, we summarize the proposed functions of the R-type anion channels which, like the S-type, were first characterized by electrophysiology over 20 years ago, but unlike the S-type, have still yet to be cloned. We show that the R-type channel can play multiple roles. PMID:21051946

  15. A simple motivated completion of the standard model below the Planck scale: Axions and right-handed neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvio, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    We study a simple Standard Model (SM) extension, which includes three families of right-handed neutrinos with generic non-trivial flavor structure and an economic implementation of the invisible axion idea. We find that in some regions of the parameter space this model accounts for all experimentally confirmed pieces of evidence for physics beyond the SM: it explains neutrino masses (via the type-I see-saw mechanism), dark matter, baryon asymmetry (through leptogenesis), solves the strong CP problem and has a stable electroweak vacuum. The last property may allow us to identify the Higgs field with the inflaton.

  16. Types of biological variables.

    PubMed

    Mayya, Shreemathi S; Monteiro, Ashma D; Ganapathy, Sachit

    2017-06-01

    Identification and description of variables used in any study is a necessary component in biomedical research. Statistical analyses rely on the type of variables that are involved in the study. In this short article, we introduce the different types of biological variables. A researcher has to be familiar with the type of variable he/she is dealing with in his/her research to decide about appropriate graphs/diagrams, summary measures and statistical analysis.

  17. Type 2 and type 3 burst theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, D. F.

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the theory of type 3 bursts is reviewed by dividing the problem into the exciting agency, radiation source, and propagation of radiation between the source and the observer. In-situ measurements indicate that the excitors are electron streams of energy about 40 keV which are continuously relaxing. An investigation of neutralization of an electron stream indicates that n sub s is much less than 100,000 n sub e, where n sub s is the stream density and n sub e the coronal electron density. In situ observations are consistent with this result. An analysis of propagation of electrons in the current sheets of coronal streamers shows that such propagation at heights greater than 1 solar radius is impossible. The mechanisms for radiation are reviewed; it is shown that fundamental radiation at high frequencies (approximately 100 MHz) is highly beamed in the radial direction and that near the earth second harmonic radiation must be dominant. Because of beaming of the fundamental at high frequencies, it can often be quite weak near the limb so that the second harmonic is dominant. In considering propagation to the observer, the results of scattering of radiation are discussed. The present state of the theory of type 2 bursts is reviewed in the same manner as type 3 bursts.

  18. Molecular Typing and Differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, general background and bench protocols are provided for a number of molecular typing techniques in common use today. Methods for the molecular typing and differentiation of microorganisms began to be widely adopted following the development of the polymerase chai...

  19. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  20. Central hardwood forest types

    Treesearch

    Ivan L. Sander; Burnell C. Fischer

    1989-01-01

    Each of the four broad forest types, often called associations, that you will read about in these Notes is a complex, highly variable mixture of trees, shrubs, and herbs. This Note describes the species you will generally find in each type.

  1. Types of Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bone marrow have at least one certain chromosome abnormality that is only seen in MDS or leukemia. The number of blasts in the bone marrow is less than 5%. Because this type ... this type of MDS, the chromosomes of the bone marrow cells are normal except ...

  2. Molecular Typing and Differentiation

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this chapter, general background and bench protocols are provided for a number of molecular typing techniques in common use today. Methods for the molecular typing and differentiation of microorganisms began to be widely adopted following the development of the polymerase chai...

  3. Tension type headache

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Debashish

    2012-01-01

    Tension type headaches are common in clinical practice. Earlier known by various names, the diagnosis has had psychological connotations. Recent evidence has helped clarify the neurobiological basis and the disorder is increasingly considered more in the preview of neurologists. The classification, clinical features, differential diagnosis and treatment of tension type headache are discussed in this paper. PMID:23024570

  4. [Tension-type headaches].

    PubMed

    Trkanjec, Zlatko; Aleksić-Shihabi, Anka

    2008-05-01

    Tension-type headache is one of the most common and most significant primary headaches. Tension-type headache is a very heterogeneous disorder. It can be divided into episodic and chronic tension-type headache. The pain is a dull, pressing, tightening, typically band-like sensation. The pain is of non-pulsating quality, the location is bilateral, and there is no nausea, vomiting, phonophobia or photophobia. There are no prodromal symptoms or aura. The pain is mild to moderate and it does not aggravate with routine physical activities. Some patients have increased tenderness of pericranial muscles. Psychological factors are common in tension-type headache. Nitric oxide has an important role in the pathophysiology of chronic tension-type headache. Probably it promotes central sensitization and therefore increases nociception. In differential diagnosis of tension type-headache, all structural and metabolic diseases causing headache have to be ruled out, as well as all other primary headaches. All comorbid and coexistent states should also be considered. In the treatment of tension-type headache, pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods are employed. Analgesics, myorelaxants, anxiolytics and antidepressants are most commonly used, as well as physical therapy, massage, acupuncture, behavioral therapy and psychotherapy. Recently, the applications of botulinum toxin and acupuncture have been described in the treatment and prophylaxis of tension-type headache.

  5. Blood-type distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Beom Jun; Myeong Lee, Dong; Hun Lee, Sung; Gim, Wan-Suk

    2007-01-01

    We statistically verify the Hardy-Weinberg principle in genetics by investigating the independence of ABO-blood types of married couples. The allelic frequencies derived from the phenotypic frequencies in ethnic groups via the Hardy-Weinberg principle are used to define a genetic distance (called the blood distance in this work) between two groups. The blood distances are compared with the geographic distances, and then used to construct a network of ethnic groups. We also investigate the relationship between the ABO blood types and the human personalities, gauged by the Myers-Briggs-type indicator (MBTI) psychological test. The statistical χ2-test reveals the independence between the blood types and MBTI results with an exception of type B males. A psychological implication is discussed.

  6. Personality types of entrepreneurs.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter F; Gappisch, Cathrin

    2005-06-01

    85 German entrepreneurs were psychometrically assessed on 12 primary trait characteristics. The sample consisted of 49 men and 36 women whose mean age was 45.6 yr. (SD= 10.3). Occupational domains were production (40%) and services (60%). The mean duration of entrepreneurship within these domains was 13.1 yr. (SD=9.3). By factor analysis five personality types of entrepreneurs could be identified: Creative Acquisitor, Controlled Perseverator, Distant Achiever, Rational Manager, and Egocentric Agitator. These types correspond with types found in research by Miner and with the Myer-Briggs Indicator. In addition, correlations between general type potential and both job and life satisfaction of entrepreneurs were found. The results are discussed with regard to intercultural stability of personality types and implications for research and application.

  7. New mutation type in pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rebollo, Eduardo; Barrio, Raquel; Pérez-Nanclares, Gustavo; Carcavilla, Atilano; Garin, Intza; Castaño, Luis; de Nanclares, Guiomar Pérez

    2008-11-01

    The GNAS gene encodes the alpha-subunit of the stimulatory G proteins, which play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction of peptide and neurotransmitter receptors. Heterozygous inactivating maternally inherited mutations of GNAS (including translation initiation mutations, amino acid substitutions, nonsense mutations, splice site mutations and small insertions or deletions) lead to a phenotype in which Albright hereditary osteodystrophy is associated with pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia. We sought to identify the molecular defect in a patient who was thought to have PHP-Ia. The GNAS gene of a 5-year-old boy with brachydactily, mental retardation, pseudohypoparathyroidism and congenital hypothyroidism was investigated. We found a heterozygous inversion of exon 2 and part of intron 1 of de novo origin. Molecular studies of cDNA from blood RNA demonstrated that both the normal and the mutant variants were stable and that new splice-sites were generated. This report demonstrates the first evidence for an inversion at the GNAS gene responsible of pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia.

  8. Griscelli syndrome type-3

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Bela J.; Jagati, Ashish K.; Katrodiya, Nilesh K.; Patel, Sonal M.

    2016-01-01

    Griscelli syndrome (GS) is a rare autosomal recessive multisystem disorder of pigmentary dilution of skin, silver gray hair, variable immunodeficiency, neurological impairment, and abnormal accumulation of melanosomes in melanocytes. GS type 3 is characterized by hypomelanosis with no immunological and neurological manifestation. Prognosis is very good in type 3 GS and usually require no active intervention, as opposed to type 1 and 2 where early diagnosis and treatment plays a crucial role in patient's survival. The characteristic phenotypic appearance, especially the pigment dilution of the patient's hair, is emphasized here. PMID:27990386

  9. Types of Dementia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Normal pressure hydrocephalus Huntington's disease Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Alzheimer's disease Most common type of dementia; accounts for an ... and death in the brain. Learn more about Alzheimer's disease . Vascular dementia back to top Previously known as ...

  10. Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... viruses, may trigger the disease. The role of insulin Once a significant number of islet cells are ... sugar level as close to normal as possible. Insulin and other medications Anyone who has type 1 ...

  11. Diabetes Type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... type 1 diabetes, your pancreas does not make insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose get into your cells to give them energy. Without insulin, too much glucose stays in your blood. Over ...

  12. Type VI secretion system.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Dor; Orth, Kim

    2015-03-30

    Bacteria employ a variety of tools to survive in a competitive environment. Salomon and Orth describe one such tool-the Type 6 Secretion Systems used by bacteria to deliver a variety of toxins into competing cells.

  13. Types of Hearing Aids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  14. Type I diabetes (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... high levels of glucose in the blood, the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas secrete the hormone insulin. Type I diabetes occurs when these cells are destroyed by the body's own immune system.

  15. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

  16. Types of Crude Oil

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The petroleum industry often classifies these types by geographical source, but the classification scheme here is more useful in a spill cleanup scenario. It indicates general toxicity, physical state, and changes caused by time and weathering.

  17. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  18. Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark A; Eisenbarth, George S; Michels, Aaron W

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, knowledge of the pathogenesis and natural history of type 1 diabetes has grown substantially, particularly with regard to disease prediction and heterogeneity, pancreatic pathology, and epidemiology. Technological improvements in insulin pumps and continuous glucose monitors help patients with type 1 diabetes manage the challenge of lifelong insulin administration. Agents that show promise for averting debilitating disease-associated complications have also been identified. However, despite broad organisational, intellectual, and fiscal investments, no means for preventing or curing type 1 diabetes exists, and, globally, the quality of diabetes management remains uneven. This Seminar discusses current progress in epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of type 1 diabetes, and prospects for an improved future for individuals with this disease. PMID:23890997

  19. Types of Contact Lenses

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Devices Consumer Products Contact Lenses Types of Contact Lenses Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Orthokeratology (Ortho-K) Decorative (Plano) Contact Lenses Soft Contact Lenses Soft contact lenses are made of soft, ...

  20. Tissue types (image)

    MedlinePlus

    There are 4 basic types of tissue: connective tissue, epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue. Connective tissue supports other tissues and binds them together (bone, blood, and lymph tissues). ...

  1. New K type asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Granahan, James C.; Smith, Greg; Bell, Jeffrey F.

    1993-01-01

    Several new K type asteroids were identified during near infrared spectral observations on July 30, 1992 at NASA's infrared telescope facility (IRTF) at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. These K asteroids are 513 Centesima, 633 Zelima, 1129 Neujmina, 1416 Renauxa, 1799 Koussevitzky, and 1883 Rauma. A K asteroid is an asteroid which possesses a S type spectra in visible wavelengths and a C type spectra visible in near-infrared wavelengths. These objects are usually misclassified as S asteroids on the basis of visible spectra alone. This type was first detected by the 52 infrared color asteroid survey also conducted at the IRTF. Our observations utilized a new seven color infrared asteroid filter system which allows near-infrared data to be collected from asteroids as faint as 16th 5 magnitude.

  2. Types of Hypotension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Children often outgrow NMH. Severe Hypotension Linked to Shock Shock is a life-threatening condition in which blood ... work well. Blood pressure drops much lower in shock than in other types of hypotension. Many factors ...

  3. Type 2 diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the ... stomach. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells. Inside the cells, glucose is stored ...

  4. Conditional Belief Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-19

    game-theoretic application of our work , strategies are not taken as primitive objects, but are instead constructed from players’ conditional beliefs...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: We study type spaces where a player’s type at a state is a conditional probability on the space. We axiomatize these spaces...using conditional belief operators, examining three additional axioms of increasing strength. First, introspection, which requires the agent to be

  5. Type E botulism.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, B Zane

    2010-11-01

    There are seven known serotypes of botulism, designated A through G; almost all human cases of botulism are caused by types A, B, and E. Botulism type E is the predominant serotype causing disease associated with native Arctic foods. In the circumpolar regions of the world, the coastal soils are rich in botulism type E, and consumption of fish and marine animals in these areas are the sources of clusters of botulism. Unlike spores of type A and B, botulism type E can withstand freezing down to 3.5°C. Alaskan native fermentation of fish heads, fish eggs, and beaver tail allow proper anaerobic conditions for botulinum toxin to be elaborated from Clostridium botulinum. The consumption of whale meat, "muktuk" has also been associated with outbreaks of botulism in Alaska and the Canadian Arctic. Elsewhere in the Arctic regions, type E botulism has been associated with Norwegian "rakfisk" prepared by a process similar to fermented Alaskan foods. Outbreaks in Egypt with the salted gray mullet "faseikh", in Israel and New York linked to salted uneviscerated whitefish "kapchunka", in Iran from eating "ashbal" an uncooked salmon, and in Japan with "izushi" a traditional fermented fish preserved in rice have occurred. Importation of vacuum-packed whitefish from Alaska and Canada has also been associated with sporadic cases of botulism type E in Europe. In March 2010, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention released the heptavalent antitoxin (H-BAT) for use in the USA, under an Investigational New Drug program, as the preferred treatment for food-borne botulism, including type E, which had not been covered by the bivalent antitoxin, the prior approved antitoxin product in the USA.

  6. Hyperbolic type transport equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Colín, L. S.; Olivares-Robles, M. A.

    1995-02-01

    In recent years hyperbolic type transport equations have acquired a great deal of importance in problems ranging from theoretical physics to biology. In spite of their greater mathematical difficulty as compared with their parabolic type analogs arising from the framework of Linear Irreversible Thermodynamics, they have, in many ways, superseded the latter ones. Although the use of this type of equations is well known since the last century through the telegraphist equation of electromagnetic theory, their use in studying several problems in transport theory is hardly fifty years old. In fact the first appearance of a hyperbolic type transport equation for the problem of heat conduction dates back to Cattaneos' work in 1948. Three years later, in 1951 S. Goldstein showed how in the theory of stochastic processes this type of an equation is obtained in the continuous limit of a one-dimensional persistent random walk problem. After that, other phenomenological derivations have been offered for such equations. The main purpose of this paper is to critically discuss a derivation of a hyperbolic type Fokker-Planck equation recently presented using the same ideas as M.S. Green did in 1952 to provide the stochastic foundations of irreversible statistical mechanics. Arguments are given to show that such an equation as well as transport equations derived from it by taking appropriate averages are at most approximate and that a much more detailed analysis is required before asserting their validity.

  7. [Type 2 diabetes complications].

    PubMed

    Schlienger, Jean-Louis

    2013-05-01

    People with type 2 diabetes are at increased risk of many complications, which are mainly due to complex and interconnected mechanisms such as hyperglycemia, insulino-resistance, low-grade inflammation and accelerated atherogenesis. Cardi-cerebrovascular disease are frequently associated to type 2 diabetes and may become life threatening, particularly coronaropathy, stroke and heart failure. Their clinical picture are sometimes atypical and silencious for a long time. Type 2 diabetes must be considered as an independent cardiovascular risk factor. Nephropathy is frequent in type 2 diabetes but has a mixed origin. Now it is the highest cause of end-stage renal disease. Better metabolic and blood pressure control and an improved management of microalbuminuria are able to slowdown the course of the disease. Retinopathy which is paradoxically slightly progressive must however be screened and treated in these rather old patients which are globally at high ophthalmologic risk. Diabetic foot is a severe complication secondary to microangiopathy, microangiopathy and neuropathy. It may be considered as a super-complication of several complications. Its screening must be done on a routine basis. Some cancer may be considered as an emerging complication of type 2 diabetes as well as cognitive decline, sleep apnea syndrome, mood disorders and bone metabolism impairments. Most of the type 2 diabetes complications may be prevented by a strategy combining a systematic screening and multi-interventional therapies.

  8. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  9. Type 4 cardiorenal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro da Silva, Ana Luísa; Vaz da Silva, Manuel Joaquim

    2016-11-01

    The Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative consensus conference proposed a classification of cardiorenal syndrome (CRS), aiming for a better delineation of each subtype. Although the exact pathophysiology of type 4 CRS is not completely understood, the mechanisms involved are probably multifactorial. There is growing evidence that oxidative stress is a major connector in the development and progression of type 4 CRS. Giving its complexity, poor prognosis and increasing incidence, type 4 CRS is becoming a significant public health problem. Patients with chronic kidney disease are particularly predisposed to cardiac dysfunction, due to the high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors in this population, but the contribution of risk factors specific to chronic kidney disease should also be taken into account. Much remains to be elucidated about type 4 CRS: despite progress over the last decade, there are still significant questions regarding its pathophysiology and there is as yet no specific therapy. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved may provide potential targets for intervention. The present review will provide a brief description of the definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, biomarkers and management strategies of type 4 CRS, and the pathophysiological mechanisms and risk factors presumably involved in its development will be particularly highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Type III burst pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zongjun; Fu, Qijun; Lu, Quankang

    2000-05-01

    We present a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0-2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory (BAO). Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. We call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is a nice interpretation of type III burst pair since the plasma beta β~=0.01 is much less than 1 and the beams have velocity of about 1.07×10^8 cm s^-1 after leaving the reconnection region if we assume that the ambient magnetic field strength is about 100 G.

  11. Type III burst pair.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongjun, Ning; Fu, Qijun; Quankang, Lu

    2000-05-01

    Presents a special solar radio burst detected on 5 January 1994 using the multi-channel (50) spectrometer (1.0 - 2.0 GHz) of the Beijing Astronomical Observatory. Sadly, the whole event could not be recorded since it had a broader bandwidth than the limit range of the instrument. The important part was obtained, however. The event is composed of a normal drift type III burst on the lower frequency side and a reverse drift type III burst appearing almost simultaneously on the high side. The authors call the burst type III a burst pair. It is a typical characteristic of two type III bursts that they are morphologically symmetric about some frequency from 1.64 GHz to 1.78 GHz on the dynamic spectra records, which indicates that there are two different electron beams from the same acceleration region travelling simultaneously in opposite directions (upward and downward). A magnetic reconnection mode is an interpretation of type III burst pair.

  12. Neurofibromatosis type 2

    PubMed Central

    Asthagiri, Ashok R; Parry, Dilys M; Butman, John A; Kim, H Jeffrey; Tsilou, Ekaterini T; Zhuang, Zhengping; Lonser, Russell R

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 2 is an autosomal-dominant multiple neoplasia syndrome that results from mutations in the NF2 tumour suppressor gene located on chromosome 22q. It has a frequency of one in 25 000 livebirths and nearly 100% penetrance by 60 years of age. Half of patients inherit a germline mutation from an affected parent and the remainder acquire a de novo mutation for neurofibromatosis type 2. Patients develop nervous system tumours (schwannomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, astrocytomas, and neurofibromas), peripheral neuropathy, ophthalmological lesions (cataracts, epiretinal membranes, and retinal hamartomas), and cutaneous lesions (skin tumours). Optimum treatment is multidisciplinary because of the complexities associated with management of the multiple, progressive, and protean lesions associated with the disorder. We review the molecular pathogenesis, genetics, clinical findings, and management strategies for neurofibromatosis type 2. PMID:19476995

  13. [Types of pathological gamblers].

    PubMed

    Balázs, Hedvig; Kun, Bernadette; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2009-01-01

    Beginning with the end of the total and later on the partial state ban on gambling in Hungary, an increasingly intensive revival of gambling can be observed together with a widening scope of offers. Parallel to the growing popularity of controlled, social and recreational forms of gambling, the spread of excessive, problematic and pathological gambling requiring therapeutic intervention is also present. Both from the perspective of research and clinical practice the following questions are raised. Whether there exist subtypes of problematic or pathological gamblers with specific personality characteristics and therefore needs for specific types of treatment, and if it is worth differentiating between gamblers according to their preferences towards specific types of gambling. One stream of research with the objective of finding subtypes of gambling examines pathological gamblers in general, independent of their gambling preferences. These authors describe subgroups with typical psychological characteristics and they present various possible functions of gambling. On the other hand, data is available supporting that persons with unlike dominant preferences towards different types of gambling can be characterized by dissimilar demographic and psychological indices as well. Authors in these studies present typologies created according to various different aspects in details. Based on studies aiming to create a typology of gambling addicted patients and discover their motives, we can assume that the escape gambler and the impulsive gambler types can most unequivocally be differentiated. Besides these, studies suggest the existence of two other types of gamblers; normal and ones seeking the experience of dissociation. On the personality characteristics of gamblers playing specific types of games, however, there is little data available yet.

  14. Types of quantum information

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2007-12-15

    Quantum, in contrast to classical, information theory, allows for different incompatible types (or species) of information which cannot be combined with each other. Distinguishing these incompatible types is useful in understanding the role of the two classical bits in teleportation (or one bit in one-bit teleportation), for discussing decoherence in information-theoretic terms, and for giving a proper definition, in quantum terms, of 'classical information.' Various examples (some updating earlier work) are given of theorems which relate different incompatible kinds of information, and thus have no counterparts in classical information theory.

  15. Other Types Of LCDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Shunsuke; Mochizuki, Akihiro

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * TUNABLE BIREFRINGENCE LCDs * Nematic Device with Homogeneous Alignment * Nematic Device with Homeotropic Alignment * ELECTRICALLY CONTROLLED BIREFRINGENCE EFFECT LCDs WITH A COMPENSATING CELL OR POLYMER LAYERS * Super Homeotropic LCDs * Black and White STN LCDs * Optical mode interference * Guest-host mode * Double-layered STN * Retardation film compensated STN * DUAL FREQUENCY ADDRESSING LCDs * Application for DSM LCDs * Application for TN LCDs * PI-CELL * CHOLESTERIC-NEMATIC PHASE CHANGE LCDs * Storage Mode LCDs * Stabilized Hysteresis Mode LCDs * THERMALLY ADDRESSED LCDs (CHOLESTERIC) * BISTABLE LCD * WIDE VIEWING ANGLE TN LCDs USING RETARDATION SHEETS * Type 1 Cells * Type 2 Cells * REFERENCES

  16. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  17. Type IA Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, J. Craig

    1992-01-01

    Spectral calculations show that a model based on the thermonuclear explosion of a degenerate carbon/oxygen white dwarf provides excellent agreement with observations of Type Ia supernovae. Identification of suitable evolutionary progenitors remains a severe problem. General problems with estimation of supernova rates are outlined and the origin of Type Ia supernovae from double degenerate systems are discussed in the context of new rates of explosion per H band luminosity, the lack of observed candidates, and the likely presence of H in the vicinity of some SN Ia events. Re-examination of the problems of triggering Type Ia by accretion of hydrogen from a companion shows that there may be an avenue involving cataclysmic variables, especially if extreme hibernation occurs. Novae may channel accreting white dwarfs to a unique locus in accretion rate/mass space. Systems that undergo secular evolution to higher mass transfer rates could lead to just the conditions necessary for a Type Ia explosion. Tests involving fluorescence or absorption in a surrounding circumstellar medium and the detection of hydrogen stripped from a companion, which should appear at low velocity inside the white dwarf ejecta, are suggested. Possible observational confirmation of the former is described.

  18. Blood Typing--Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, W. T., Jr.

    This instructional packet deals with the study of hematology. It is recommended for all high school students of biology. A general understanding of antigen-antibody reactions is necessary before attempting this learning activity. Behavioral objectives place emphasis on the techniques of and understanding of blood typing. The equipment and…

  19. Neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Gutmann, David H; Ferner, Rosalie E; Listernick, Robert H; Korf, Bruce R; Wolters, Pamela L; Johnson, Kimberly J

    2017-02-23

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 is a complex autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutations in the NF1 tumour suppressor gene. Nearly all individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 develop pigmentary lesions (café-au-lait macules, skinfold freckling and Lisch nodules) and dermal neurofibromas. Some individuals develop skeletal abnormalities (scoliosis, tibial pseudarthrosis and orbital dysplasia), brain tumours (optic pathway gliomas and glioblastoma), peripheral nerve tumours (spinal neurofibromas, plexiform neurofibromas and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours), learning disabilities, attention deficits, and social and behavioural problems, which can negatively affect quality of life. With the identification of NF1 and the generation of accurate preclinical mouse strains that model some of these clinical features, therapies that target the underlying molecular and cellular pathophysiology for neurofibromatosis type 1 are becoming available. Although no single treatment exists, current clinical management strategies include early detection of disease phenotypes (risk assessment) and biologically targeted therapies. Similarly, new medical and behavioural interventions are emerging to improve the quality of life of patients. Although considerable progress has been made in understanding this condition, numerous challenges remain; a collaborative and interdisciplinary approach is required to manage individuals with neurofibromatosis type1 and to develop effective treatments.

  20. Types of Timberland Ownership

    Treesearch

    William C. Siegel

    1999-01-01

    The form of ownership in which you hold your woodland is important from a tax standpoint. Further, if your forest property is structured as a business, the type of business organization chosen also has significant tax implications. Additionally, non-tax factors bear on choosing an ownership and/or business format. These include forest management goals, size of the...

  1. Gesture Types for Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbert, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the different gesture types employed by twenty-three Year 10 students as they endeavoured to explain their understanding of rate of change associated with the functions resulting from two different computer simulations. These gestures also have application to revealing students' understanding of functions. However,…

  2. [C4 type photosynthesis].

    PubMed

    Drozak, Anna; Wasilewska, Wioleta; Buczyńska, Alicja; Romanowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    C4 photosynthesis includes several anatomical and biochemical modifications that allow plants to concentrate CO2 at the site of Rubisco. The photorespiratory pathway is repressed in C4 plants, since the rates of photosynthesis and biomass production are increased. This is an adaptation to high light intensities, high temperatures and dryness. C4 plants contain two distinct types of photosynthetic cells, mesophyll and bundle sheath. The processes of assimilation and reduction of CO2 are separated spatiality and catayzed by two different enzymes. Only the bundle sheath chloroplasts perform the reactions of the Calvin-Benson cycle with the help of the Rubisco enzyme present exclusively in this cell type. The primary CO2 fixation occurs in mesophyll cells through the action of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The light-dependent reactions of the photosynthesis occur exclusively in the latter cell type. These differences in photochemistry lead to distinct redox profiles in both types of cells. C4 plants are divided into three biochemical subtypes on the basis of differences in the mechanisms of decarboxylation of the C4 acids. C4 plants will provide the main source of food for humans and animals in the nearest decade.

  3. Teaching to the Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    Before she became an art teacher, the author relates that she worked at a graphic design agency and there she learned to fully appreciate typefaces and how they influence messages. In the years that she taught middle school art, the author has incorporated some basics of type design into her graphics unit, along with calligraphy, printmaking, and…

  4. Types of CMT

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meet our Partners How to Get Involved Donate Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Share print email share facebook twitter google ... get involved? Contact Us Get Our Emails About Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Types Of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) ...

  5. Types of Insight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stadler, Holly

    1984-01-01

    Presents a conceptual model of insight that is distinct from any theory or philosophy. Six types of insight are described: associative, aggregate, discrete process, ontogenetic process, phylogenetic process, and transcendent process. The model offers counselors a method for the enhancement of empathy and the development of client insight…

  6. Chemistry of Blood Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  7. Teaching to the Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    Before she became an art teacher, the author relates that she worked at a graphic design agency and there she learned to fully appreciate typefaces and how they influence messages. In the years that she taught middle school art, the author has incorporated some basics of type design into her graphics unit, along with calligraphy, printmaking, and…

  8. Type B drum packages

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The Type B drum packages (TBD) are conceptualized as a family of containers in which a single 208 L or 114 L (55 gal or 30 gal) drum containing Type B quantities of radioactive material (RAM) can be packaged for shipment. The TBD containers are being developed to fill a void in the packaging and transportation capabilities of the U.S. Department of Energy as no container packaging single drums of Type B RAM exists offering double containment. Several multiple-drum containers currently exist, as well as a number of shielded casks, but the size and weight of these containers present many operational challenges for single-drum shipments. As an alternative, the TBD containers will offer up to three shielded versions (light, medium, and heavy) and one unshielded version, each offering single or optional double containment for a single drum. To reduce operational complexity, all versions will share similar design and operational features where possible. The primary users of the TBD containers are envisioned to be any organization desiring to ship single drums of Type B RAM, such as laboratories, waste retrieval activities, emergency response teams, etc. Currently, the TBD conceptual design is being developed with the final design and analysis to be completed in 1995 to 1996. Testing and certification of the unshielded version are planned to be completed in 1996 to 1997 with production to begin in 1997 to 1998.

  9. Contrasting Extraction Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postal, Paul M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper grounds a novel typology yielding three major types of English (L(eft)-extraction, defined by their relationship to resumptive pronouns (RPs): (1) B-extractions, which require RPs in their extraction sites, (2) A1-extractions, which allow RPs in their extraction sites, and (3) A2-extractions, which forbid RPs in their extraction sites.…

  10. Chromomycosis: Subcutaneous cystic type.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, S N; Bhise, P R; Sony, P R

    2000-01-01

    A 38-year -old male farmer presented with a solitary, asymptomatic, cystic lesion on the palm since last four years. He underwent excision of this cyst two times during this period but the lesion recurred near the same site. The histopathology and the microbiological examination led to the diagnosis of the rare subcutaneous cystic type of chromomycosis.

  11. Different Types of Lupus

    MedlinePlus

    ... lupus. Learn more about each type below. Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic lupus is the most common form of lupus—it’s ... it is likely that these people already had systemic lupus, with the skin rash as their ... lupus erythematosus Drug-induced lupus is a lupus-like disease ...

  12. Chemistry of Blood Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, William F.

    2005-01-01

    The molecule of December 2005 comes from the paper by Rose, Palcic and Evans on structural factors determining the blood type. The structure was previously reported by Palcic and Evans and is presented without the water molecule that is determined in the crystal structure.

  13. Trocar types in laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    la Chapelle, Claire F; Swank, Hilko A; Wessels, Monique E; Mol, Ben Willem J; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Jansen, Frank Willem

    2015-12-16

    Laparoscopic surgery has led to great clinical improvements in many fields of surgery; however, it requires the use of trocars, which may lead to complications as well as postoperative pain. The complications include intra-abdominal vascular and visceral injury, trocar site bleeding, herniation and infection. Many of these are extremely rare, such as vascular and visceral injury, but may be life-threatening; therefore, it is important to determine how these types of complications may be prevented. It is hypothesised that trocar-related complications and pain may be attributable to certain types of trocars. This systematic review was designed to improve patient safety by determining which, if any, specific trocar types are less likely to result in complications and postoperative pain. To analyse the rates of trocar-related complications and postoperative pain for different trocar types used in people undergoing laparoscopy, regardless of the condition. Two experienced librarians conducted a comprehensive search for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, CDSR and DARE (up to 26 May 2015). We checked trial registers and reference lists from trial and review articles, and approached content experts. RCTs that compared rates of trocar-related complications and postoperative pain for different trocar types used in people undergoing laparoscopy. The primary outcomes were major trocar-related complications, such as mortality, conversion due to any trocar-related adverse event, visceral injury, vascular injury and other injuries that required intensive care unit (ICU) management or a subsequent surgical, endoscopic or radiological intervention. Secondary outcomes were minor trocar-related complications and postoperative pain. We excluded trials that studied non-conventional laparoscopic incisions. Two review

  14. [Definition of shock types].

    PubMed

    Adams, H A; Baumann, G; Gänsslen, A; Janssens, U; Knoefel, W; Koch, T; Marx, G; Müller-Werdan, U; Pape, H C; Prange, W; Roesner, D; Standl, T; Teske, W; Werner, G; Zander, R

    2001-11-01

    Definitions of shock types. Hypovolaemic shock is a state of insufficient perfusion of vital organs with consecutive imbalance of oxygen supply and demand due to an intravascular volume deficiency with critically impaired cardiac preload. Subtypes are haemorrhagic shock, hypovolaemic shock in the narrow sense, traumatic-haemorrhagic shock and traumatic-hypovolaemic shock. Cardiac shock is caused by a primary critical cardiac pump failure with consecutive inadequate oxygen supply of the organism. Anaphylactic shock is an acute failure of blood volume distribution (distributive shock) and caused by IgE-dependent, type-I-allergic, classical hypersensibility, or a physically, chemically, or osmotically induced IgE-independent anaphylactoid hypersensibility. The septic shock is a sepsis-induced distribution failure of the circulating blood volume in the sense of a distributive shock. The neurogenic shock is a distributive shock induced by generalized and extensive vasodilatation with consecutive hypovolaemia due to an imbalance of sympathetic and parasympathetic regulation of vascular smooth muscles.

  15. Cell types, circuits, computation.

    PubMed

    Azeredo da Silveira, Rava; Roska, Botond

    2011-10-01

    How does the connectivity of a neuronal circuit, together with the individual properties of the cell types that take part in it, result in a given computation? We examine this question in the context of retinal circuits. We suggest that the retina can be viewed as a parallel assemblage of many small computational devices, highly stereotypical and task-specific circuits afferent to a given ganglion cell type, and we discuss some rules that govern computation in these devices. Multi-device processing in retina poses conceptual problems when it is contrasted with cortical processing. We lay out open questions both on processing in retinal circuits and on implications for cortical processing of retinal inputs.

  16. P Cygni type profiles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peraiah, A.; Srinivasa Rao, M.

    The authors present a series of P Cygni type profiles of spectral lines computed by employing different velocity laws of expansion in a spherically symmetric atmosphere. A comparison has been made with those of Beals classification. They have employed the line transfer equation in comoving frame in certain test cases, to obtain the source function which is being used to calculate the profiles observed at infinity.

  17. Types of Ubiquitin Ligases.

    PubMed

    Morreale, Francesca Ester; Walden, Helen

    2016-03-24

    Ubiquitination is a post-translational modification of proteins involved in a variety of cellular processes. Ubiquitination requires the sequential action of three enzymes: E1 (ubiquitin-activating enzymes), E2 (ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes), and E3 (ubiquitin ligases). This SnapShot highlights the main types of E3 ubiquitin ligases, which can be classified in three families depending on the presence of characteristic domains and on the mechanism of ubiquitin transfer to the substrate protein.

  18. ARA type protograph codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An apparatus and method for encoding low-density parity check codes. Together with a repeater, an interleaver and an accumulator, the apparatus comprises a precoder, thus forming accumulate-repeat-accumulate (ARA codes). Protographs representing various types of ARA codes, including AR3A, AR4A and ARJA codes, are described. High performance is obtained when compared to the performance of current repeat-accumulate (RA) or irregular-repeat-accumulate (IRA) codes.

  19. Atelosteogenesis type 2.

    PubMed Central

    Newbury-Ecob, R

    1998-01-01

    Atelosteogenesis type 2 (AO2) (MIM 256050) is a neonatally lethal chondrodysplasia characterised by severe limb shortening and deficient ossification of parts of the skeleton. Other features include facial dysmorphism, cleft palate, talipes, and abducted thumbs and toes. Phenotypic overlap with non-lethal diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) suggested a common aetiology and it has recently been confirmed that both syndromes result from mutations in the DTDST (diastrophic dysplasia sulphate transporter) gene. Images PMID:9475095

  20. Beyond trial types.

    PubMed

    Dyrholm, Mads; Vangkilde, Signe; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-05-01

    Conventional wisdom on psychological experiments has held that when one or more independent variables are manipulated it is essential that all other conditions are kept constant such that confounding factors can be assumed negligible (Woodworth, 1938). In practice, the latter assumption is often questionable because it is generally difficult to guarantee that all other conditions are constant between any two trials. Therefore, the most common way to check for confounding violations of this assumption is to split the experimental conditions in terms of "trial types" to simulate a reduction of unintended trial-by-trial variation. Here, we pose a method which is more general than the use of trial types: use of mathematical models treating measures of potentially confounding factors and manipulated variables as equals on the single-trial level. We show how the method can be applied with models that subsume under the generalized linear item response theory (GLIRT), which is the case for most of the well-known psychometric models (Mellenbergh, 1994). As an example, we provide a new analysis of a single-letter recognition experiment using a nested likelihood ratio test that treats manipulated and measured variables equally (i.e., in exactly the same way) on the single-trial level. The test detects a confounding interaction with time-on-task as a single-trial measure and yields a substantially better estimate of the effect size of the main manipulation compared with an analysis made in terms of trial types.

  1. Tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Diamond, S

    1999-01-01

    Tension-type headaches, the most prevalent form of headache, are differentiated as being either episodic or chronic. The episodic form is a physiologic response to stress, anxiety, depression, emotional conflicts, fatigue, or repressed hostility. Treatment focuses on the use of over-the-counter or prescribed simple analgesics for pain relief. Successful treatment of the chronic form depends on recognition of depression or persistent anxiety states. Primary care physicians can effectively manage most of these patients with nonhabituating anxiolytic or antidepressant medications; however, referrals for psychotherapy may be required in some cases. When tension-type headaches occur in children and adolescents, the physician must explore the patient's family and social relationships as well as school performance. In addition to nonhabituating drug therapies, family counseling and biofeedback may be helpful. In coexisting migraine and tension-type headaches, nonhabituating analgesics may be used for the relief of acute pain; the use of ergotamine and triptans should be restricted to relief of the hard or sick headache. Tricyclic antidepressants or monoamine oxidase inhibitors are the gold standards for prophylaxis, although the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be indicated in less severe cases. Several forms of biofeedback have also proved effective. Nonetheless, some patients with this form of headache may require psychiatric treatment for severe depression.

  2. Dependent Types in Practical Programming

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-12-06

    to developing a type theory with dependent types and then designing upon it a functional programming language, we study practical methods for extending...developing a type theory with dependent types and then designing upon it a functional programming language, we study practical methods for extend- ing the...1 Introduction Types play a pivotal rôle in the design and implementation of programming languages. The use of types for catching program errors at

  3. Macular telangiectasia type 2

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Peter Charbel; Gillies, Mark C.; Chew, Emily Y.; Bird, Alan C.; Heeren, Tjebo F.C.; Peto, Tunde; Holz, Frank G.; Scholl, Hendrik P.N.

    2013-01-01

    Macular telangiectasia type 2 is a bilateral disease of unknown cause with characteristic alterations of the macular capillary network and neurosensory atrophy. Its prevalence may be underestimated and has recently been shown to be as high as 0.1% in persons 40 years and older. Biomicroscopy may show reduced retinal transparency, crystalline deposits, mildly ectatic capillaries, blunted venules, retinal pigment plaques, foveal atrophy, and neovascular complexes. Fluorescein angiography shows telangiectatic capillaries predominantly temporal to the foveola in the early phase and a diffuse hyperfluorescence in the late phase. High-resolution optical coherence tomography (OCT) may reveal disruption of the photoreceptor inner segment–outer segment border, hyporeflective cavities at the level of the inner or outer retina, and atrophy of the retina in later stages. Macular telangiectasia type 2 shows a unique depletion of the macular pigment in the central retina and recent therapeutic trials showed that such depleted areas cannot re-accumulate lutein and zeaxanthin after oral supplementation. There have been various therapeutic approaches with limited or no efficacy. Recent clinical trials with compounds that block vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have established the role of VEGF in the pathophysiology of the disease, but have not shown significant efficacy, at least for the nonneovascular disease stages. Recent progress in structure–function correlation may help to develop surrogate outcome measures for future clinical trials. In this review article, we summarize the current knowledge on macular telangiectasia type 2, including the epidemiology, the genetics, the clinical findings, the staging and the differential diagnosis of the disease. Findings using retinal imaging are discussed, including fluorescein angiography, OCT, adaptive optics imaging, confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and fundus autofluorescence, as are the findings using visual

  4. Square Source Type Diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aso, N.; Ohta, K.; Ide, S.

    2014-12-01

    Deformation in a small volume of earth interior is expressed by a symmetric moment tensor located on a point source. The tensor contains information of characteristic directions, source amplitude, and source types such as isotropic, double-couple, or compensated-linear-vector-dipole (CLVD). Although we often assume a double couple as the source type of an earthquake, significant non-double-couple component including isotropic component is often reported for induced earthquakes and volcanic earthquakes. For discussions on source types including double-couple and non-double-couple components, it is helpful to display them using some visual diagrams. Since the information of source type has two degrees of freedom, it can be displayed onto a two-dimensional flat plane. Although the diagram developed by Hudson et al. [1989] is popular, the trace corresponding to the mechanism combined by two mechanisms is not always a smooth line. To overcome this problem, Chapman and Leaney [2012] developed a new diagram. This diagram has an advantage that a straight line passing through the center corresponds to the mechanism obtained by a combination of an arbitrary mechanism and a double-couple [Tape and Tape, 2012], but this diagram has some difficulties in use. First, it is slightly difficult to produce the diagram because of its curved shape. Second, it is also difficult to read out the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components, which we want to obtain from the estimated moment tensors, because they do not appear directly on the horizontal or vertical axes. In the present study, we developed another new square diagram that overcomes the difficulties of previous diagrams. This diagram is an orthogonal system of isotropic and deviatoric axes, so it is easy to get the ratios among isotropic, double-couple, and CLVD components. Our diagram has another advantage that the probability density is obtained simply from the area within the diagram if the probability density

  5. Type III Hyperlipoproteinaemia

    PubMed Central

    Borrie, Peter

    1969-01-01

    Eighteen patients with type III hyperlipoproteinaemia, diagnosed on the basis of skin lesions, serum lipids, and lipoprotein electrophoresis, have been fully investigated over a period of 15 years. The incidence of coronary artery disease was only slightly increased, and was not increased at all among first-degree relatives. Peripheral occlusive arterial disease was probably more common. An increased incidence of carbohydrate intolerance was found in neither the patients nor their relatives. The effects of treatment on the skin were uniformly good. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:5783124

  6. WOLF; automatic typing program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenden, G.I.

    1982-01-01

    A FORTRAN IV program for the Hewlett-Packard 1000 series computer provides for automatic typing operations and can, when employed with manufacturer's text editor, provide a system to greatly facilitate preparation of reports, letters and other text. The input text and imbedded control data can perform nearly all of the functions of a typist. A few of the features available are centering, titles, footnotes, indentation, page numbering (including Roman numerals), automatic paragraphing, and two forms of tab operations. This documentation contains both user and technical description of the program.

  7. Ghosal Type Hematodiaphyseal Dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Jeevan, Amrit; Doyard, Mathilde; Kabra, Madhulika; Daire, Valerie Cormier; Gupta, Neerja

    2016-04-01

    Ghosal Type Hematodiaphyseal Dysplasia is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by refractory anemia and diaphyseal bone dysplasia. A 3 y 9 mo-old male child presented with progressive anemia and bowing of thighs. Child was found to have a previously reported homozygous point mutation c.1238G>A, (p.Arg413Glu) in Exon 16 of TBXAS1 gene. Low dose steroid therapy resulted in normalization of hemoglobin and prevented further progression of bony changes. Refractory anemia in association with bony deformities should prompt pediatricians to investigate for inherited bony dysplasia.

  8. Type/Token-Taken Informetrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, Leo

    2003-01-01

    Explains Type/Token-Taken informetrics as a new part of informetrics that studies the use of items rather than the items themselves. Highlights include the frequency distribution of Type/Token-Taken informetrics; the Lotka frequency law; linguistics; a comparison of Type/Token with Type/Token-Taken informetrics; and proofs of theorems. (Author/LRW)

  9. Encoding Ownership Types in Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Nicholas; Noble, James

    Ownership types systems organise the heap into a hierarchy which can be used to support encapsulation properties, effects, and invariants. Ownership types have many applications including parallelisation, concurrency, memory management, and security. In this paper, we show that several flavours and extensions of ownership types can be entirely encoded using the standard Java type system.

  10. Efficient Type Representation in TAL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying compilers generate proofs for low-level code that guarantee safety properties of the code. Type information is an essential part of safety proofs. But the size of type information remains a concern for certifying compilers in practice. This paper demonstrates type representation techniques in a large-scale compiler that achieves both concise type information and efficient type checking. In our 200,000-line certifying compiler, the size of type information is about 36% of the size of pure code and data for our benchmarks, the best result to the best of our knowledge. The type checking time is about 2% of the compilation time.

  11. Plasma malondialdehyde in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Gallou, G; Ruelland, A; Legras, B; Maugendre, D; Allannic, H; Cloarec, L

    1993-02-28

    Malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in 117 diabetic patients and 53 controls. Patients were divided into groups and subgroups according to the type of diabetes (type 1 and type 2) and the existence or not of vascular complication (macro- or micro-angiopathy). Results showed that TBARS concentrations were significantly higher in type 1 (P < 0.0001) and type 2 (P < 0.001) diabetic patients than in the control group. The plasma TBARS concentrations in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients did not differ significantly. Among the patients with vascular disease, type 2 diabetic patients with macroangiopathy had significantly higher TBARS concentrations than patients with no vascular complication (P < 0.05). Whichever the type of diabetes, there was no correlation between TBARS concentrations and glycaemic control: glycosylated haemoglobin, fasting blood glucose. This study confirmed the existence of lipid peroxidation disorders in diabetic patients.

  12. Models of Neutrino Masses: Anarchy versus Hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altarelli, Guido; Feruglio, Ferruccio; Masina, Isabella

    2003-01-01

    We present a quantitative study of the ability of models with different levels of hierarchy to reproduce the solar neutrino solutions, in particular the LA solution. As a flexible testing ground we consider models based on SU(5) × U(1)F. In this context, we have made statistical simulations of models with different patterns from anarchy to various types of hierarchy: normal hierarchical models with and without automatic suppression of the 23 (sub)determinant and inverse hierarchy models. We find that, not only for the LOW or VO solutions, but even in the LA case, the hierarchical models have a significantly better success rate than those based on anarchy. The normal hierarchy and the inverse hierarchy models have comparable performances in models with see-saw dominance, while the inverse hierarchy models are particularly good in the no see-saw versions. As a possible distinction between these categories of models, the inverse hierarchy models favour a maximal solar mixing angle and their rate of success drops dramatically as the mixing angle decreases, while normal hierarchy models are far more stable in this respect.

  13. Neurofibromatosis type 1

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Kevin P.; Korf, Bruce R.; Theos, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominant, multisystem disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3500 people. Significant advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of NF1 have been made in the last decade. While no medical therapies are currently available, trials are ongoing to discover and test medical treatments for the various manifestations of NF1, primarily plexiform neurofibromas, learning disabilities, and optic pathway gliomas. Additionally, mutational analysis has become available on a clinical basis and is useful for diagnostic confirmation in individuals who do not fulfill diagnostic criteria or when prenatal diagnosis is desired. There are several disorders which may share overlapping features with NF1; in 2007, a disorder with cutaneous findings similar to NF1 was described. This paper addresses the dermatologist's role in diagnosis and management of NF1 and describes the variety of cutaneous and extracutaneous findings in NF1 to which the dermatologist may be exposed. PMID:19539839

  14. Type tunable asymmetric interleaver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Xiheng; Liu, Bing; Sun, Xin; Chen, Lixiang; Liu, Zhe; Wu, Xingxing

    2016-11-01

    A type of an interleaver with tunable bandwidth ratio for a dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is proposed, which integrates a nested ring resonator with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The merits of the interleaver are its structure simplicity and the ultralarge tunability on bandwidth ratio. Based on the coupled-mode theory, the effects of essential parameter changes on the output waveforms have been analyzed. According to the theoretical analysis and simulation results, the bandwidth ratio is more determined by the coupling efficiency while the bandwidth is controlled by the optical length of the ring resonator. It was found that the bandwidth ratio is adjustable and varies between 1.5 and 10.5. Therefore, the interleaver can provide important implications for the DWDM system.

  15. Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Katsarou, Anastasia; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Rawshani, Araz; Dabelea, Dana; Bonifacio, Ezio; Anderson, Barbara J; Jacobsen, Laura M; Schatz, Desmond A; Lernmark, Åke

    2017-03-30

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), also known as autoimmune diabetes, is a chronic disease characterized by insulin deficiency due to pancreatic β-cell loss and leads to hyperglycaemia. Although the age of symptomatic onset is usually during childhood or adolescence, symptoms can sometimes develop much later. Although the aetiology of T1DM is not completely understood, the pathogenesis of the disease is thought to involve T cell-mediated destruction of β-cells. Islet-targeting autoantibodies that target insulin, 65 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase, insulinoma-associated protein 2 and zinc transporter 8 - all of which are proteins associated with secretory granules in β-cells - are biomarkers of T1DM-associated autoimmunity that are found months to years before symptom onset, and can be used to identify and study individuals who are at risk of developing T1DM. The type of autoantibody that appears first depends on the environmental trigger and on genetic factors. The pathogenesis of T1DM can be divided into three stages depending on the absence or presence of hyperglycaemia and hyperglycaemia-associated symptoms (such as polyuria and thirst). A cure is not available, and patients depend on lifelong insulin injections; novel approaches to insulin treatment, such as insulin pumps, continuous glucose monitoring and hybrid closed-loop systems, are in development. Although intensive glycaemic control has reduced the incidence of microvascular and macrovascular complications, the majority of patients with T1DM are still developing these complications. Major research efforts are needed to achieve early diagnosis, prevent β-cell loss and develop better treatment options to improve the quality of life and prognosis of those affected.

  16. Quantifying Anderson's fault types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simpson, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    Anderson [1905] explained three basic types of faulting (normal, strike-slip, and reverse) in terms of the shape of the causative stress tensor and its orientation relative to the Earth's surface. Quantitative parameters can be defined which contain information about both shape and orientation [Ce??le??rier, 1995], thereby offering a way to distinguish fault-type domains on plots of regional stress fields and to quantify, for example, the degree of normal-faulting tendencies within strike-slip domains. This paper offers a geometrically motivated generalization of Angelier's [1979, 1984, 1990] shape parameters ?? and ?? to new quantities named A?? and A??. In their simple forms, A?? varies from 0 to 1 for normal, 1 to 2 for strike-slip, and 2 to 3 for reverse faulting, and A?? ranges from 0?? to 60??, 60?? to 120??, and 120?? to 180??, respectively. After scaling, A?? and A?? agree to within 2% (or 1??), a difference of little practical significance, although A?? has smoother analytical properties. A formulation distinguishing horizontal axes as well as the vertical axis is also possible, yielding an A?? ranging from -3 to +3 and A?? from -180?? to +180??. The geometrically motivated derivation in three-dimensional stress space presented here may aid intuition and offers a natural link with traditional ways of plotting yield and failure criteria. Examples are given, based on models of Bird [1996] and Bird and Kong [1994], of the use of Anderson fault parameters A?? and A?? for visualizing tectonic regimes defined by regional stress fields. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Pragmatic phenomenological types.

    PubMed

    Goranson, Ted; Cardier, Beth; Devlin, Keith

    2015-12-01

    We approach a well-known problem: how to relate component physical processes in biological systems to governing imperatives in multiple system levels. The intent is to further practical tools that can be used in the clinical context. An example proposes a formal type system that would support this kind of reasoning, including in machines. Our example is based on a model of the connection between a quality of mind associated with creativity and neuropsychiatric dynamics: constructing narrative as a form of conscious introspection, which allows the manipulation of one's own driving imperatives. In this context, general creativity is indicated by an ability to manage multiple heterogeneous worldviews simultaneously in a developing narrative. 'Narrative' in this context is framed as the organizing concept behind rational linearization that can be applied to metaphysics as well as modeling perceptive dynamics. Introspection is framed as the phenomenological 'tip' that allows a perceiver to be within experience or outside it, reflecting on and modifying it. What distinguishes the approach is the rooting in well founded but disparate disciplines: phenomenology, ontic virtuality, two-sorted geometric logics, functional reactive programming, multi-level ontologies and narrative cognition. This paper advances the work by proposing a type strategy within a two-sorted reasoning system that supports cross-ontology structure. The paper describes influences on this approach, and presents an example that involves phenotype classes and monitored creativity enhanced by both soft methods and transcranial direct-current stimulation. The proposed solution integrates pragmatic phenomenology, situation theory, narratology and functional programming in one framework. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pediatric obesity & type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Dea, Tara L

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on (a) identifying obesity and other risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes, (b) differentiating between pediatric type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, and (c) treating pediatric type 2 diabetes. Obesity has significant implications on a child's health, including an increased risk for insulin resistance and progression to type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes in children, characterized by insulin resistance and relative pancreatic b-cell failure due to the increased demand for insulin production, has now reached epidemic proportions. Longitudinal research on pediatric type 2 diabetes, however, is lacking because this epidemic is relatively new. Treatment of type 2 diabetes in children is focused on lifestyle modification with weight management/increased physical activity, and pharmacological management through oral medication or insulin therapy. Because children with type 2 diabetes are at risk for developing diabetes-related complications earlier in life, they need to be closely monitored for comorbidities.

  19. Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoiding Pregnancy Articles Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes and Pregnancy Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Problems of Diabetes in Pregnancy Blood sugar that is not well ...

  20. 3. View of collapsed structure (type A) next to type ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of collapsed structure (type A) next to type B structure, facing east-northeast - Nevada Test Site, Japanese Village, Area 4, Yucca Flat, 4-04 Road near Rainier Mesa Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  1. Two types of urgency.

    PubMed

    Blaivas, Jerry G; Panagopoulos, Georgia; Weiss, Jeffrey P; Somaroo, Chandra

    2009-01-01

    To determine whether urinary urgency, as defined by the International Continence Society, is an intensification of the normal sensation that occurs when micturition must be delayed once the urge to void is felt (Type 1 urgency) or a discrete, pathologic symptom different from the normal urge (Type 2 urgency). Forty-eight consecutive patients who complained of urinary urgency completed two different questionnaires designed to answer the question posed above. The patients were divided into two groups of 24. For the test-retest, group 1 completed questionnaire 1 twice within 3-10 days and group 2 did the same with questionnaire 2. On the second administration of the questionnaire, each subject crossed over and answered the other questionnaire. For the test-retest, since the data set is dichotomous (yes/no), the degree of agreement between the two sets of data was assessed by calculating the kappa coefficient. There were 37 women and 11 men ranging in age from 54 to 87 years. There was no difference in age and sex between the two groups (P = 0.19). There was excellent agreement in the test-retest responses for both questionnaires (kappa = 1.0, P < 0.001). For questionnaire 1, the urge sensation was an intensification of the normal sensation in 33 (68.8%) and it was a different sensation in 15 (31.3%). Similarly, for questionnaire 2, it was an intensification of the normal urge in 34 (70.8%) and different in 14 (29.2%). The differences in patient responses between the two groups were not significant. In the crossover section, only 1 of 48 subjects changed their response, resulting in a very high degree of agreement (kappa = .95, p < .001). Combining the two groups, urgency was perceived as an intensification of the normal urge to void in 33/48 patients (69%), a different sensation in 14/48 (29%) and 1/48 (2%) was not sure. Urgency is comprised of at least two different sensations. One is an intensification of the normal urge to void and the other is a different

  2. Updating signal typing in voice: addition of type 4 signals.

    PubMed

    Sprecher, Alicia; Olszewski, Aleksandra; Jiang, Jack J; Zhang, Yu

    2010-06-01

    The addition of a fourth type of voice to Titze's voice classification scheme is proposed. This fourth voice type is characterized by primarily stochastic noise behavior and is therefore unsuitable for both perturbation and correlation dimension analysis. Forty voice samples were classified into the proposed four types using narrowband spectrograms. Acoustic, perceptual, and correlation dimension analyses were completed for all voice samples. Perturbation measures tended to increase with voice type. Based on reliability cutoffs, the type 1 and type 2 voices were considered suitable for perturbation analysis. Measures of unreliability were higher for type 3 and 4 voices. Correlation dimension analyses increased significantly with signal type as indicated by a one-way analysis of variance. Notably, correlation dimension analysis could not quantify the type 4 voices. The proposed fourth voice type represents a subset of voices dominated by noise behavior. Current measures capable of evaluating type 4 voices provide only qualitative data (spectrograms, perceptual analysis, and an infinite correlation dimension). Type 4 voices are highly complex and the development of objective measures capable of analyzing these voices remains a topic of future investigation.

  3. Two types of fetishism.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Seto, M C; Kuban, M

    1996-09-01

    This study attempted to differentiate two clinical types of fetishism-fetishism proper and tranvestism-and to determine if tranvestites are truly fetishistic. The transvestites were further divided into gender-conforming and gender-noncomforming groups according to their score on a gender identity scale. These groups were compared using a self-report scale measuring fetishistic interests, and a set of questionnaire items regarding their childhood history, parental characteristics, and their emotional closeness with their parents. In addition, the penile responses of a subset of fetishists and tranvestites were recorded while they were presented with visual depictions of female and male public regions and potentially fetishistic objects (nylon stockings, female and male shoes, panties, male underwear, female and male feet). The fetishists proper and the transvestite subgroups did not differ from each other in terms of self-reported fetishistic interest or childhood and family histories. Moreover, there were no differences between these groups in their penile response to the potentially fetishistic stimulus they were most aroused by, relative to the depictions of the pubic region of their preferred gender. These results suggest that transvestites are in fact fetishistic, and that they are difficult to distinguish from fetishists proper.

  4. Tornado type wind turbines

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting

    1984-01-01

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  5. Types of radical hysterectomies

    PubMed Central

    Marin, F; Plesca, M; Bordea, CI; Moga, MA; Blidaru, A

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The treatment for cervical cancer is a complex, multidisciplinary issue, which applies according to the stage of the disease. The surgical elective treatment of cervical cancer is represented by the radical abdominal hysterectomy. In time, many surgeons perfected this surgical technique; the ones who stood up for this idea were Thoma Ionescu and Ernst Wertheim. There are many varieties of radical hysterectomies performed by using the abdominal method and some of them through vaginal and mixed way. Each method employed has advantages and disadvantages. At present, there are three classifications of radical hysterectomies which are used for the simplification of the surgical protocols: Piver-Rutledge-Smith classification which is the oldest, GCG-EORTC classification and Querlow and Morrow classification. The last is the most evolved and recent classification; its techniques can be adapted for conservative operations and for different types of surgical approaches: abdominal, vaginal, laparoscopic or robotic. Abbreviations: GCG-EORTC = Gynecologic Cancer Group of the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer; LEEP = loop electrosurgical excision procedure; I.O.B. = Institute of Oncology Bucharest; PRS = Piver-Rutledge-Smith PMID:25408722

  6. Variable venturi type carburetor

    SciTech Connect

    Tahata, M.

    1986-09-02

    A variable venturi type carburetor is described comprising a carburetor body provided with a suction passage therein for flow of air through the passage, a slide valve supported by the body for slidable movement across the suction passage to serve as a variable venturi, a butterfly throttle valve pivotably supported by the carburetor body downstream of the slide valve, interlocking means connecting the slide valve and the butterfly throttle valve together for operating in correspondence with one another, operating means connected to one of the valves for operating the same by application of an external force thereto. A low-speed fuel nozzle opens into the suction passage in the vicinity of the butterfly throttle valve, an intermediate and a high speed main fuel nozzle opens into the suction passage opposite the slide valve, and a low and intermediate-speed primary fuel nozzle opens into the suction passage between the slide valve and the butterfly throttle valve. The slide valve includes a bottom portion having a front side surface facing upstream in the suction passage and a rear side surface facing downstream in the suction passage, the front and rear side surfaces having lower edges which are located in the same horizontal plane, the rear side surface being provided with an inverted cutaway.

  7. Tornado type wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Ch.-T.

    1984-06-05

    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  8. Comparative Photochemistry of Animal Type 1 and Type 4 Cryptochromes†

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Cryptochromes (CRYs) are blue-light photoreceptors with known or presumed functions in light-dependent and light-independent gene regulation in plants and animals. Although the photochemistry of plant CRYs has been studied in some detail, the photochemical behavior of animal cryptochromes remains poorly defined in part because it has been difficult to purify animal CRYs with their flavin cofactors. Here we describe the purification of type 4 CRYs of zebrafish and chicken as recombinant proteins with full flavin complement and compare the spectroscopic properties of type 4 and type 1 CRYs. In addition, we analyzed photoinduced proteolytic degradation of both types of CRYs in vivo in heterologous systems. We find that even though both types of CRYs contain stoichiometric flavin, type 1 CRY is proteolytically degraded by a light-initiated reaction in Drosophila S2, zebrafish Z3, and human HEK293T cell lines, but zebrafish CRY4 (type 4) is not. In vivo degradation of type 1 CRYs does not require continuous illumination, and a single light flash of 1 ms duration leads to degradation of about 80% of Drosophila CRY in 60 min. Finally, we demonstrate that in contrast to animal type 2 CRYs and Arabidopsis CRY1 neither insect type 1 nor type 4 CRYs have autokinase activities. PMID:19663499

  9. [Types of medical lasers].

    PubMed

    Takac, S; Stojanović, S; Muhi, B

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge about different types of lasers and their potential use in medicine is presented. A very rapid development of laser technology in the world imposes a need for up-to-date information about the characteristics of different laser instruments. Without this kind of information it would be difficult to keep in touch with the latest developments in the world's technology. Different types of lasers have different indication range in the medical practice. An inquiry into the fundamental principles of lasers physics is an important prerequisite for successful application of this technology in medicine. Laser as a surgical knife has shown certain advantages over scalpel, electrocautery and cryosurgery, as the laser surgery is a noncontact method, bloodless, precise, with better visualization, minimal postoperative edema, painless healing, without complications. Although laser cannot entirely replace conventional surgical instruments, it is still the instrument of choice for treatment of numerous pathological conditions. The carbon dioxide laser is a highly precise, bloodless light scalpel used for incising and excising tissues and sealing small blood vessels. The infrared beam at 10,600 nm wavelength is absorbed by water and tissue destruction is due to the instantaneous vaporization at relatively low temperature of 100 degrees C. The beam seals blood vessels of up to 0.5 mm in diameter and if the beam is defocused, larger vessels may be controlled. The beam also seals lymphatics, possibly reducing the spread of tumour cells by this route, and seals nerve endings: there is no incidence of neuroma formation. Carbon dioxide laser has shown a great efficiency in otorhinolaryngology, in maxillo-facial surgery and plastic surgery, in urology and gynecology. Provides true "no touch" surgery, and is used increasingly in neurosurgery for the precise atraumatic removal of tissue and for creation of precise lesions for the control of pain. The carbon dioxide laser beam

  10. Sharpen Your Skills: Large Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knisely, Phyllis

    1983-01-01

    Three short articles about large type transcribing are provided for braille transcribers and teachers of the visually handicapped. The first article explains section IV-B-2 of the National Braille Association Manual for Large Type Transcribing. The second article presents the results of a survey on the kinds of typewriters, types of…

  11. Sharpen Your Skills: Large Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knisely, Phillis; Wickham, Marian

    1984-01-01

    Three short articles about large type transcribing are provided for braille transcribers and teachers of the visually handicapped. The first article lists general suggestions for simple typewriter maintenance. The second article reviews the guidelines for typing fractions in large type for mathematics exercises. The third article describes a…

  12. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  13. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  14. Sharpen Your Skills: Large Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knisely, Phillis; Wickham, Marian

    1984-01-01

    Three short articles about large type transcribing are provided for braille transcribers and teachers of the visually handicapped. The first article lists general suggestions for simple typewriter maintenance. The second article reviews the guidelines for typing fractions in large type for mathematics exercises. The third article describes a…

  15. Mucopolysaccharidosis type I.

    PubMed

    Wraith, J E; Jones, Simon

    2014-09-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I) is caused by a deficiency of the lysosomal hydrolase a-L-Iduronidase leading to accumulation of the GAGs, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulphate, The disease spectrum includes a disorder with severe involvement and CNS disease Hurler disease (HPS I H) a chronic disease without CNS disease Scheie disease (HPS I S5) and the intermediate Hurler/Scheie disease(HPS I HIS).The urine GAGs pattern. confirmed by Iduronidase enzyme assay is diagnostic. Over 200 mutations exist. Genotype / phenotype correlation is poor but two nonsense mutations results in Hurler disease.The skeletal disease dysostosis multiplex (DM) is seen in severe variants of MPS I. The hypoplastic odontoid putting these patients at high risk of cervical cord damage. MPS IH (Hurler Disease) affected infants develop a spinal 'gibbus' deformity, persistent nasal discharge, middle ear effusions and frequent upper respiratory infection. They have "coarse", facial features, and an enlarged tongue. . Progressive upper airway disease leads to obstructive sleep apnoea. Corneal clouding and cognitive impairment appears, growth ceases. Joint stiffness and contractures limit mobility. Cardiac disease is universal. Death occurs before 10 years. SCHEIE patients are diagnosed as teenagers with hepatomegaly, joint contractures, cardiac valve abnormalities and corneal clouding . Prolonged survival with considerable disability without cognitive impairment is usual. MPS IH/S Hurler/Scheie. is diagnosed by 6.5 years, with variable skeletal and visceral manifestations without cognitive involvement. Joint stiffness, corneal clouding, , umbilical hernia, abnormal facies, hepatomegaly, joint contractures, and cervical myelopathy occur. Patients die in their 20s .Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) the standard treatment of MPS IH for 30 years is unpredictable .When performed before 2 years it can stabilize cognitive impairment. Hepatosplenomegaly, urine GAGs excretion, upper

  16. Lectin typing of Campylobacter isolates.

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, N; Benjamin, J; Skirrow, M B

    1990-01-01

    Isolates of Campylobacter jejuni, C coli, C fetus and C laridis were tested for agglutination reactions with a panel of five lectins: Arachis hypogaea, Bauhinia purpurea, Solanum tuberosum, Triticum vulgaris and Wisteria floribunda. Twenty three patterns of agglutination (lectin types) were recorded among 376 isolates. Patterns were consistent and reproducible. Only 4.5% of isolates were untypable because of autoagglutination. Some lectin types were found exclusively or predominantly in a species, but others were shared between species. Forty two per cent of C jejuni and 35% of C coli isolates belonged to lectin type 4. There was no apparent correlation between lectin type and serotype; different lectin types were found among strains of single Penner and Lior serotypes. Lectin typing is a simple and economical procedure suitable for use in non-specialist laboratories, either as an adjunct to serogrouping or, after further development, as a sole typing scheme. PMID:2262570

  17. Headache and Decompression Sickness: Type I or Type II?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Defense Technical Information Center Compilation Part Notice ADPO 11060 TITLE: Headache and Decompression Sickness: Type I or Type II...The following component part numbers comprise the compilation report: ADPO11059 thru ADP011100 UNCLASSIFIED 2-1 Headache and Decompression Sickness...while Type II necessitates recompression with 100% oxygen (7). Headache associated with DCS is not new. Ryles and Pilmanis reported an eleven-year

  18. Spectral types for early-type stars observed by Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, N. G.

    1978-01-01

    MK spectral types are presented for 246 early-type stars observed with the S-019 ultraviolet stellar astronomy experiment on Skylab. K-line types are also given where applicable, and various peculiar stars are identified. The peculiar stars include five silicon stars, a shell star, a helium-rich star, a silicon-strontium star, a chromium-europium star, and two marginal metallic-line stars.

  19. Typing is writing: Linguistic properties modulate typing execution.

    PubMed

    Pinet, Svetlana; Ziegler, Johannes C; Alario, F-Xavier

    2016-12-01

    Typing is becoming our preferred way of writing. Perhaps because of the relative recency of this change, very few studies have investigated typing from a psycholinguistic perspective. In addition, and despite obvious similarities between typing and handwriting, typing research has remained rather disconnected from handwriting research. The current study aimed at bridging this gap by evaluating how typing is affected by a number of psycholinguistic variables defined at the word, syllable, and letter levels. In a writing-to-dictation task, we assessed typing performance by measuring response accuracy, onset latencies - an index of response preparation and initiation - and interkeystroke intervals (IKIs) - an index of response execution processes. The lexical and sublexical factors revealed a composite pattern of effects. Lexical frequency improved response latencies and accuracy, while bigram frequency speeded up IKIs. Sound-spelling consistency improved latencies, but had an inhibitory effect on IKI. IKIs were also longer at syllable boundaries. Together, our findings can be fit within a framework for typed production that combines the previously developed theories of spelling and typing execution. At their interface, we highlight the need for an intermediate hierarchical stage, perhaps in the form of a graphemic buffer for typing.

  20. Comparison of Type I, Type III, and Type VI Collagen Binding Assays in Diagnosis of VWD

    PubMed Central

    Flood, Veronica H.; Gill, Joan Cox; Christopherson, Pamela A.; Wren, Jeffrey S.; Friedman, Kenneth D.; Haberichter, Sandra L.; Hoffmann, Raymond G.; Montgomery, Robert R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Von Willebrand factor (VWF) plays a key role in coagulation by tethering platelets to injured subendothelium through binding sites for collagen and platelet GPIb. Collagen binding assays (VWF:CB), however, are not part of the routine workup for von Willebrand disease (VWD). Objectives This study presents data on collagen binding for healthy controls and VWD subjects to compare three different collagens. Patients/Methods VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF ristocetin cofactor activity, and VWF:CB with types I, III, and VI collagen were examined for samples obtained from the Zimmerman Program. Results Mean VWF:CB in healthy controls was similar and highly correlated for types I, III, and VI collagen. The mean VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios for types I, III, and VI collagen were 1.31, 1.19, and 1.21 respectively. In type 1 VWD subjects, VWF:CB was similar to VWF:Ag with mean VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios for types I, III, and VI collagen of 1.32, 1.08, and 1.1 respectively. For type 2A and 2B subjects, VWF:CB was uniformly low, with mean ratios of 0.62 and 0.7 for type I collagen, 0.38 and 0.4 for type III collagen, and 0.5 and 0.47 for type VI collagen. Conclusions Normal ranges for type I, III, and VI collagen are correlated, but higher values were obtained with type I collagen as compared to types III and VI. The low VWF:CB in type 2A and 2B subjects suggests that VWF:CB may also supplement analysis of multimer distribution. However, these results reflect only one set of assay conditions per collagen type and therefore may not be generalizable to all collagen assays. PMID:22507643

  1. Physical Symptom Reporting in Type A and Type B Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiken, Lewis; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined developmental origins of one coronary-prone component of Type A pattern, tendency to suppress attention to physical symptoms. Studied symptom-reporting behavior of 85 children between ages of 5 and 14. Type A children underreported variety of symptoms, independent of gender and age; missed less school following surgery; and were…

  2. Pneumococcal Disease: Types of Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs Related Pages Global Pneumococcal Vaccination World Health Organization National Foundation for Infectious Diseases Sepsis Types of Infection Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ...

  3. Florence Nightingale: her personality type.

    PubMed

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    This article casts new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities.

  4. DIORAMA Location Type User's Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, James Russell

    2015-01-29

    The purpose of this report is to present the current design and implementation of the DIORAMA location type object (LocationType) and to provide examples and use cases. The LocationType object is included in the diorama-app package in the diorama::types namespace. Abstractly, the object is intended to capture the full time history of the location of an object or reference point. For example, a location may be speci ed as a near-Earth orbit in terms of a two-line element set, in which case the location type is capable of propagating the orbit both forward and backward in time to provide a location for any given time. Alternatively, the location may be speci ed as a xed set of geodetic coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude), in which case the geodetic location of the object is expected to remain constant for all time. From an implementation perspective, the location type is de ned as a union of multiple independent objects defi ned in the DIORAMA tle library. Types presently included in the union are listed and described in subsections below, and all conversions or transformation between these location types are handled by utilities provided by the tle library with the exception of the \\special-values" location type.

  5. Spectral Types of Field and Cluster O-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Bergh, Sidney

    2004-10-01

    The recent catalog of spectral types of Galactic O-type stars by Maíz-Apellániz et al. is used to study the differences between the frequencies of various subtypes of O-type stars in the field, in OB associations, and among runaway stars. At a high level of statistical significance, the data show that O stars in clusters and associations have earlier types (and, hence, presumably larger masses or younger ages) than those that are situated in the general field. Furthermore, it is found that the distribution of spectral subtypes among runaway O stars is indistinguishable from that among field stars and differs significantly from that of the O-type stars that are situated in clusters and associations. The difference is in the sense that runaway O stars, on average, have later subtypes than do those that are still located in clusters and associations.

  6. AN INFRARED COMPARISON OF TYPE-1 AND TYPE-2 QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Hiner, Kyle D.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Lacy, Mark; Armus, Lee; Storrie-Lombardi, Lisa; Sajina, Anna; Ridgway, Susan E-mail: gabriela.canalizo@ucr.ed E-mail: lee@ipac.caltech.ed E-mail: asajina@haverford.ed

    2009-11-20

    We model the optical to far-infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of a sample of six type-1 and six type-2 quasars selected in the mid-infrared. The objects in our sample are matched in mid-IR luminosity and selected based on their Spitzer IRAC colors. We obtained new targeted Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer observations and used archival photometry to examine the optical to far-IR SEDs. We investigate whether the observed differences between samples are consistent with orientation-based unification schemes. The type-1 objects show significant emission at 3 mum. They do not show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission and have less far-IR emission on average when compared to the type-2 objects. The SEDs of the type-2 objects show a wide assortment of silicate features, ranging from weak emission to deep silicate absorption. Some also show strong PAH features. In comparison, silicate is only seen in emission in the type-1 objects. This is consistent with some of the type-2's being reddened by a foreground screen of cooler dust, perhaps in the host galaxy itself. We investigate the active galactic nucleus contribution to the far-IR emission and find it to be significant. We also estimate the star formation rate (SFR) for each of the objects by integrating the modeled far-IR flux and compare this with the SFR found from PAH emission. We find that the type-2 quasars have a higher average SFR than the type-1 quasars based on both methods, though this could be due to differences in bolometric luminosities of the objects. While we find pronounced differences between the two types of objects, none of them are inconsistent with orientation-based unification schemes.

  7. Discriminating the reaction types of plant type III polyketide synthases.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yugo; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Goto, Susumu

    2017-07-01

    Functional prediction of paralogs is challenging in bioinformatics because of rapid functional diversification after gene duplication events combined with parallel acquisitions of similar functions by different paralogs. Plant type III polyketide synthases (PKSs), producing various secondary metabolites, represent a paralogous family that has undergone gene duplication and functional alteration. Currently, there is no computational method available for the functional prediction of type III PKSs. We developed a plant type III PKS reaction predictor, pPAP, based on the recently proposed classification of type III PKSs. pPAP combines two kinds of similarity measures: one calculated by profile hidden Markov models (pHMMs) built from functionally and structurally important partial sequence regions, and the other based on mutual information between residue positions. pPAP targets PKSs acting on ring-type starter substrates, and classifies their functions into four reaction types. The pHMM approach discriminated two reaction types with high accuracy (97.5%, 39/40), but its accuracy decreased when discriminating three reaction types (87.8%, 43/49). When combined with a correlation-based approach, all 49 PKSs were correctly discriminated, and pPAP was still highly accurate (91.4%, 64/70) even after adding other reaction types. These results suggest pPAP, which is based on linear discriminant analyses of similarity measures, is effective for plant type III PKS function prediction. pPAP is freely available at ftp://ftp.genome.jp/pub/tools/ppap/. goto@kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  8. Solar Type II Radio Bursts and IP Type II Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V.; Erickson, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined radio data from the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft in conjunction with ground-based data in order to investigate the relationship between the shocks responsible for metric type II radio bursts and the shocks in front of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The bow shocks of fast, large CMEs are strong interplanetary (IP) shocks, and the associated radio emissions often consist of single broad bands starting below approx. 4 MHz; such emissions were previously called IP type II events. In contrast, metric type II bursts are usually narrowbanded and display two harmonically related bands. In addition to displaying complete dynamic spectra for a number of events, we also analyze the 135 WAVES 1 - 14 MHz slow-drift time periods in 2001-2003. We find that most of the periods contain multiple phenomena, which we divide into three groups: metric type II extensions, IP type II events, and blobs and bands. About half of the WAVES listings include probable extensions of metric type II radio bursts, but in more than half of these events, there were also other slow-drift features. In the 3 yr study period, there were 31 IP type II events; these were associated with the very fastest CMEs. The most common form of activity in the WAVES events, blobs and bands in the frequency range between 1 and 8 MHz, fall below an envelope consistent with the early signatures of an IP type II event. However, most of this activity lasts only a few tens of minutes, whereas IP type II events last for many hours. In this study we find many examples in the radio data of two shock-like phenomena with different characteristics that occur simultaneously in the metric and decametric/hectometric bands, and no clear example of a metric type II burst that extends continuously down in frequency to become an IP type II event. The simplest interpretation is that metric type II bursts, unlike IP type II events, are not caused by shocks driven in front of CMEs.

  9. Phonation Types in Amerindian Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Melissa A.; Ladefoged, Peter

    This paper lays out techniques for investing different types of phonation from acoustic data. Nearly all the world's languages distinguish between voiced and voiceless phonation. Many languages use other phonation types, such as the breathy voice--also described as speaking while sighing. Another kind of voice quality, one frequently found in…

  10. Mapping School Types in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The number and range of school types in England is increasing rapidly in response to a neoliberal policy agenda aiming to expand choice of provision as a mechanism for raising educational standards. In this paper, I seek to undertake a mapping of these school types in order to describe and explain what is happening. I capture this busy terrain…

  11. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... for signing up! engagement en -- Have Type 2 Diabetes? - 2017-03-lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? ... 1-800-DIABETES (800-342-2383) Copyright 1995-2017. American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved. Use of this website ...

  12. Living with Type 1 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Online Chat Closed engagement en -- Have Type 2 Diabetes? - 2017-03-lwt2d-en.html Have Type 2 Diabetes? ... 1-800-DIABETES (800-342-2383) Copyright 1995-2017. American Diabetes Association. All rights reserved. Use of this website ...

  13. Forest habitat types of Montana

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Pfister; Bernard L. Kovalchik; Stephen F. Arno; Richard C. Presby

    1977-01-01

    A land-classification system based upon potential natural vegetation is presented for the forests of Montana. It is based on an intensive 4-year study and reconnaissance sampling of about 1,500 stands. A hierarchical classification of forest sites was developed using the habitat type concept. A total of 9 climax series, 64 habitat types, and 37 additional phases of...

  14. Type 1 Diabetes and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Farabi, Sarah S

    2016-02-01

    IN BRIEF In people with type 1 diabetes, sleep may be disrupted as a result of both behavioral and physiological aspects of diabetes and its management. This sleep disruption may negatively affect disease progression and development of complications. This review highlights key research findings regarding sleep in people with type 1 diabetes.

  15. Types of Juvenile Sex Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Sheri

    2002-01-01

    Although juvenile sex offenders (JSOs) account for a significant percentage of sex crimes committed in this country, researchers have only recently begun to study this population. One line of inquiry has been to investigate sub-types of offenders, in order to determine whether different types of offenders have different personality profiles and…

  16. Mapping School Types in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    The number and range of school types in England is increasing rapidly in response to a neoliberal policy agenda aiming to expand choice of provision as a mechanism for raising educational standards. In this paper, I seek to undertake a mapping of these school types in order to describe and explain what is happening. I capture this busy terrain…

  17. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  18. Heterosexuality and Sex-Typing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allgeier, Elizabeth R.

    Previous research (Bem, 1976) has shown that sex-typed and androgynous persons differ in their behavior in a variety of situations. The present paper describes four studies of the relationship of sex-typing to sexual socialization and to heterosexual attitudes and behavior. This program of research indicates that persons do differ in their sexual…

  19. Type-2 fuzzy fractional derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazandarani, Mehran; Najariyan, Marzieh

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce two definitions of the differentiability of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions of fractional order. The definitions are in the sense of Riemann-Liouville and Caputo derivative of order β ɛ (0, 1), and based on type-2 Hukuhara difference and H2-differentiability. The existence and uniqueness of the solutions of type-2 fuzzy fractional differential equations (T2FFDEs) under Caputo type-2 fuzzy fractional derivative and the definition of Laplace transform of type-2 fuzzy number-valued functions are also given. Moreover, the approximate solution to T2FFDE by a Predictor-Evaluate-Corrector-Evaluate (PECE) method is presented. Finally, the approximate solutions of two examples of linear and nonlinear T2FFDEs are obtained using the PECE method, and some cases of T2FFDEs applications in some sciences are presented.

  20. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  1. Nonlinear equations of 'variable type'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, N. A.; Novikov, V. A.; Ianenko, N. N.

    In this monograph, new scientific results related to the theory of equations of 'variable type' are presented. Equations of 'variable type' are equations for which the original type is not preserved within the entire domain of coefficient definition. This part of the theory of differential equations with partial derivatives has been developed intensively in connection with the requirements of mechanics. The relations between equations of the considered type and the problems of mathematical physics are explored, taking into account quasi-linear equations, and models of mathematical physics which lead to equations of 'variable type'. Such models are related to transonic flows, problems involving a separation of the boundary layer, gasdynamics and the van der Waals equation, shock wave phenomena, and a combustion model with a turbulent diffusion flame. Attention is also given to nonlinear parabolic equations, and nonlinear partial differential equations of the third order.

  2. [Phage typing and lysogen typing of Staphylococcus aureus].

    PubMed

    Witte, W; Khatenever, M L; Akatov, A K

    1979-11-01

    A comparison was made between the results of phage and lysogenic typing of S. aureus strains isolated during several outbreaks of staphylococcal infection and S. aureus cultures isolated from the same carriers at different periods. The study of the groups of strains having the same origin showed that the differences in the number of reactions were more pronounced in lysogenic typing than in phage typing. For this reason lysogenic typing can be recommended only for the identification of those strains which cannot be identified with the use of the phages of the International Basic Set. The results of the experiments with induced phages proliferating in a restriction-defective strain indicated that restriction and modification were mainly responsible for the specificity of lytic reactions.

  3. Theoretical models for Type I and Type II supernova

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.

    1985-01-01

    Recent theoretical progress in understanding the origin and nature of Type I and Type II supernovae is discussed. New Type II presupernova models characterized by a variety of iron core masses at the time of collapse are presented and the sensitivity to the reaction rate /sup 12/C(..cap alpha..,..gamma..)/sup 16/O explained. Stars heavier than about 20 M/sub solar/ must explode by a ''delayed'' mechanism not directly related to the hydrodynamical core bounce and a subset is likely to leave black hole remnants. The isotopic nucleosynthesis expected from these massive stellar explosions is in striking agreement with the sun. Type I supernovae result when an accreting white dwarf undergoes a thermonuclear explosion. The critical role of the velocity of the deflagration front in determining the light curve, spectrum, and, especially, isotopic nucleosynthesis in these models is explored. 76 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Theory of Type 3 and Type 2 Solar Radio Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Cairns, I. H.

    2000-01-01

    The main features of some current theories of type III and type II bursts are outlined. Among the most common solar radio bursts, type III bursts are produced at frequencies of 10 kHz to a few GHz when electron beams are ejected from solar active regions, entering the corona and solar wind at typical speeds of 0.1c. These beams provide energy to generate Langmuir waves via a streaming instability. In the current stochastic-growth theory, Langmuir waves grow in clumps associated with random low-frequency density fluctuations, leading to the observed spiky waves. Nonlinear wave-wave interactions then lead to secondary emission of observable radio waves near the fundamental and harmonic of the plasma frequency. Subsequent scattering processes modify the dynamic radio spectra, while back-reaction of Langmuir waves on the beam causes it to fluctuate about a state of marginal stability. Theories based on these ideas can account for the observed properties of type III bursts, including the in situ waves and the dynamic spectra of the radiation. Type 11 bursts are associated with shock waves propagating through the corona and interplanetary space and radiating from roughly 30 kHz to 1 GHz. Their basic emission mechanisms are believed to be similar to those of type III events and radiation from Earth's foreshock. However, several sub-classes of type II bursts may exist with different source regions and detailed characteristics. Theoretical models for type II bursts are briefly reviewed, focusing on a model with emission from a foreshock region upstream of the shock for which observational evidence has just been reported.

  5. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis in Type Erasure Semantics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    and tags, and defining an interpre- tation function to map between the two, is related to the ideas proposed by Crary and Weirich for the language LX...Science, 1995. 11 [2] K. Crary and S. Weirich . Flexible type analysis. In Proc. 1999 ACM SIGPLAN International Conference on Functional Programming, pages...233–248. ACM Press, Sept. 1999. [3] K. Crary, S. Weirich , and G. Morrisett. Intensional polymorphism in type-erasure semantics. In Proc. 1998 ACM

  6. P-type gallium nitride

    DOEpatents

    Rubin, M.; Newman, N.; Fu, T.; Ross, J.; Chan, J.

    1997-08-12

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5{times}10{sup 11} /cm{sup 3} and hole mobilities of about 500 cm{sup 2} /V-sec, measured at 250 K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al. 9 figs.

  7. P-type gallium nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan; Fu, Tracy; Ross, Jennifer; Chan, James

    1997-01-01

    Several methods have been found to make p-type gallium nitride. P-type gallium nitride has long been sought for electronic devices. N-type gallium nitride is readily available. Discovery of p-type gallium nitride and the methods for making it will enable its use in ultraviolet and blue light-emitting diodes and lasers. pGaN will further enable blue photocathode elements to be made. Molecular beam epitaxy on substrates held at the proper temperatures, assisted by a nitrogen beam of the proper energy produced several types of p-type GaN with hole concentrations of about 5.times.10.sup.11 /cm.sup.3 and hole mobilities of about 500 cm.sup.2 /V-sec, measured at 250.degree. K. P-type GaN can be formed of unintentionally-doped material or can be doped with magnesium by diffusion, ion implantation, or co-evaporation. When applicable, the nitrogen can be substituted with other group III elements such as Al.

  8. Definitions of histocompatibility typing terms.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Eduardo; Heslop, Helen; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Taves, Cynthia; Wagenknecht, Dawn R; Eisenbrey, A Bradley; Fischer, Gottfried; Poulton, Kay; Wacker, Kara; Hurley, Carolyn Katovich; Noreen, Harriet; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2011-12-01

    Histocompatibility testing for stem cell and solid organ transplantation has become increasingly complex as newly discovered HLA alleles are described. HLA typing assignments reported by laboratories are used by physicians and donor registries for matching donors and recipients. To communicate effectively, a common language for histocompatibility terms should be established. In early 2010, representatives from Clinical, Registry, and Histocompatibility organizations joined together as the Harmonization of Histocompatibility Typing Terms Working Group to define a consensual language for laboratories, physicians, and registries to communicate histocompatibility typing information. The Working Group defined terms for HLA typing resolution, HLA matching, and a format for reporting HLA assignments. In addition, definitions of verification typing and extended typing were addressed. The original draft of the Definitions of Histocompatibility Typing Terms was disseminated to colleagues from each organization to gain feedback and create a collaborative document. Commentary gathered during this 90-day review period were discussed and implemented for preparation of this report. Histocompatibility testing continues to evolve; thus, the definitions agreed on today probably will require refinement and perhaps additional terminology in the future.

  9. Type-1.5 superconductivity.

    PubMed

    Moshchalkov, Victor; Menghini, Mariela; Nishio, T; Chen, Q H; Silhanek, A V; Dao, V H; Chibotaru, L F; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J

    2009-03-20

    We demonstrate the existence of a novel superconducting state in high quality two-component MgB2 single crystalline superconductors where a unique combination of both type-1 (lambda{1}/xi{1}<1/sqrt[2]) and type-2 (lambda{2}/xi{2}>1/sqrt[2]) superconductor conditions is realized for the two components of the order parameter. This condition leads to a vortex-vortex interaction attractive at long distances and repulsive at short distances, which stabilizes unconventional stripe- and gossamerlike vortex patterns that we have visualized in this type-1.5 superconductor using Bitter decoration and also reproduced in numerical simulations.

  10. Dermatomyositis and Type 1 Interferons

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Dermatomyositis is a poorly understood multisystem disease predominantly affecting skin and muscle. This review focuses on the potential role of a group of related cytokines, the type 1 interferons, in the pathogenesis of dermatomyositis. Type 1 interferon–inducible transcripts and proteins are uniquely elevated in dermatomyositis muscle compared with all other muscle diseases studied to date. The endothelial cell tubuloreticular inclusions present in affected dermatomyositis muscle are biomarkers of type 1 interferon exposure. The cell-poor lichenoid reaction in skin with predominant involvement of the basal epidermal cell layer and its topologic equivalent in muscle, perifascicular atrophy, may be lesions that develop directly in response to type 1 interferon signaling. PMID:20425524

  11. UX Ori-Type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinin, V.

    2017-06-01

    The brief review of the properties of the UX Ori type stars is presented. A special attention is given to the results of the Crimean program of the multi-year photometric and polarimetric observations of these stars.

  12. Sarcoid type reaction: medical hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Tchernev, G; Chokoeva, A A; Patterson, J W; Wollina, U; Lotti, T

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoid-type reactions could not always be clearly distinct from the independent disease sarcoidosis. Particular attention should be paid to paraneoplastic type of sarcoid reaction which until recent literature was characterized as 1) sarcoidosis associated with tumor disease or 2) sarcoidosis classified and presented as paraneoplastic disease. The analogy between sarcoidosis and paraneoplastic type of sarcoid reaction are the pure epithelioid cell granulomas. The role of molecular mimicry in paraneoplastic type of reaction is probably significant but not yet fully proven and understood. Future studies on this issue should be directed to identify the genetic defects (regarding the inflammasome and those recently established at EOS and Blau Syndrome) as well as screening programs for early detection of cancers, with a view to optimization of the subsequent therapy.

  13. Cranial mononeuropathy III - diabetic type

    MedlinePlus

    ... diabetic type of cranial mononeuropathy III is a complication of diabetes . It causes double vision and eyelid drooping . ... Cooper ME, Vinik AI, Plutzky J, Boulton AJM. Complications of diabetes mellitus. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg ...

  14. Definitions and Types of Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Pain Defining Pain Pain is a perception that signals the individual that tissue damage has ... in the body that are involved in the perception of pain are called "nociception." Basic and clinical ...

  15. Types of Cancer Teens Get

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bone marrow and interfere with the body's production of other important types of cells in the bloodstream, like red blood cells (which carry oxygen) and platelets (which help blood to clot). Leukemia ...

  16. New type of trifunctional alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    New type of trifunctional alcohol was synthesized from commercially available trimer acid. Trifunctional alcohol is hydrocarbon with widely separated terminal hydroxyl groups, and was expressly developed as crosslinking agent for preparation of polyurethane propellants, binders and case liners.

  17. A new type of achondrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, K; Tsuruta, T; Taki, N; Tsunoda, I; Ozawa, H; Hasegawa, T; Sillence, D

    1986-01-01

    A new type of neonatal death dwarfism, resembling the achondrogenesis syndromes on clinical examination but presenting distinctive radiographic and microscopic features has been described. It presents another, new form of achondrogenesis.

  18. Types of muscle tissue (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The 3 types of muscle tissue are cardiac, smooth, and skeletal. Cardiac muscle cells are located in ... heart, appear striated, and are under involuntary control. Smooth muscle fibers are located in walls of hollow ...

  19. Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Multimedia Related Links Global Hib Vaccination Hib Vaccination Meningitis Pneumonia Sepsis Types of Haemophilus influenzae Infections Recommend ... infection, but can also cause severe illnesses like meningitis (an infection of the covering of the brain ...

  20. Diabetes Type 2 - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Section Diabetes Type 2: MedlinePlus Health Topic - English Diabetes tipo 2: Tema de salud de MedlinePlus - español (Spanish) National Library of Medicine Diabetes: Are You at Risk? - English Diabetes: Are You ...

  1. Flame retardant spandex type polyurethanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howarth, J. T.; Sheth, S.; Sidman, K. R.; Massucco, A. A. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    Flame retardant elastomeric compositions were developed, comprised of: (1) spandex type polyurethane having incorporated into the polymer chain, halogen containing polyols; (2) conventional spandex type polyurethanes in physical admixture flame retardant additives; and (3) fluoroelastomeric resins in physical admixture with flame retardant additives. Methods of preparing fibers of the flame retardant elastomeric materials are presented and articles of manufacture comprised of the elastomeric materials are mentioned.

  2. Intensional Analysis of Quantified Types

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Programming Language Design and Implementation. ACM Press, 81–91. MORRISETT, G., WALKER, D., CRARY, K., AND GLEW, N. 1998. From System F to typed assembly...SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation. ACM Press, 227–236. PFENNING, F. AND PAULIN-MOHRING, C. 1989. Inductively defined...type-based compiler for Standard ML. In Proceedings of the 1995 ACM SIGPLAN Conference on Programming Language Design and Implementation. ACM Press, 116

  3. Mycobacterium abscessus multispacer sequence typing

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mycobacterium abscessus group includes antibiotic-resistant, opportunistic mycobacteria that are responsible for sporadic cases and outbreaks of cutaneous, pulmonary and disseminated infections. However, because of their close genetic relationships, accurate discrimination between the various strains of these mycobacteria remains difficult. In this report, we describe the development of a multispacer sequence typing (MST) analysis for the simultaneous identification and typing of M. abscessus mycobacteria. We also compared MST with the reference multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) typing method. Results Based on the M. abscessus CIP104536T genome, eight intergenic spacers were selected, PCR amplified and sequenced in 21 M. abscessus isolates and analysed in 48 available M. abscessus genomes. MST and MLSA grouped 37 M. abscessus organisms into 12 and nine types, respectively; four formerly “M. bolletii” organisms and M. abscessus M139 into three and four types, respectively; and 27 formerly “M. massiliense” organisms grouped into nine and five types, respectively. The Hunter-Gaston index was off 0.912 for MST and of 0.903 for MLSA. The MST-derived tree was similar to that based on MLSA and rpoB gene sequencing and yielded three main clusters comprising each the type strain of the respective M. abscessus sub-species. Two isolates exhibited discordant MLSA- and rpoB gene sequence-derived position, one isolate exhibited discordant MST- and rpoB gene sequence-derived position and one isolate exhibited discordant MST- and MLSA-derived position. MST spacer n°2 sequencing alone allowed for the accurate identification of the different isolates at the sub-species level. Conclusions MST is a new sequencing-based approach for both identifying and genotyping M. abscessus mycobacteria that clearly differentiates formerly “M. massiliense” organisms from other M. abscessus subsp. bolletii organisms. PMID:23294800

  4. Integrable oscillator type and Schrödinger type dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khare, Avinash; Saxena, Avadh

    2017-02-01

    A PT-symmetric dimer is a two-site nonlinear oscillator dimer or a two-site nonlinear Schrödinger dimer where one site loses and the other site gains energy at the same rate. We present a wide class of integrable oscillator type dimers whose Hamiltonian is of arbitrary even order. Further, we also present a wide class of integrable nonlinear Schrödinger type dimers where again the Hamiltonian is of arbitrary even order. Finally, we consider a recently discussed complex dimer model and point out a few integrable cases in that model.

  5. Distinguishing cell type using epigenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wytock, Thomas; Motter, Adilson E.

    Recently, researchers have proposed that unique cell types are attractors of their epigenetic dynamics including gene expression and chromatin conformation patterns. Traditionally, cell types have been classified by their function, morphology, cytochemistry, and other macroscopically observable properties. Because these properties are the result of many proteins working together, it should be possible to predict cell types from gene expression or chromatin conformation profiles. In this talk, I present a maximum entropy approach to identify and distinguish cell type attractors on the basis of correlations within these profiles. I will demonstrate the flexibility of this method through its separate application to gene expression and chromatin conformation datasets. I show that our method out-performs other machine-learning techniques and uncorrelated benchmarks. We adapt our method to predict growth rate from gene expression in E. coli and S. cerevisiae and compare our predictions with those from metabolic models. In addition, our method identifies a nearly convex region of state-space associated with each cell type attractor basin. Estimates of the growth rate and attractor basin make it possible to rationally control gene regulatory networks independent of a model. This research was supported by NSF-GRFP, NSF-GK12, GAANN, and Northwestern's NIH-NIGMS Molecular Biophysics Training Grant.

  6. Weather types and traffic accidents.

    PubMed

    Klaić, Z B

    2001-06-01

    Traffic accident data for the Zagreb area for the 1981-1982 period were analyzed to investigate possible relationships between the daily number of accidents and the weather conditions that occurred for the 5 consecutive days, starting two days before the particular day. In the statistical analysis of low accident days weather type classification developed by Poje was used. For the high accident days a detailed analyses of surface and radiosonde data were performed in order to identify possible front passages. A test for independence by contingency table confirmed that conditional probability of the day with small number of accidents is the highest, provided that one day after it "N" or "NW" weather types occur, while it is the smallest for "N1" and "Bc" types. For the remaining 4 days of the examined periods dependence was not statistically confirmed. However, northern ("N", "NE" and "NW") and anticyclonic ("Vc", "V4", "V3", "V2" and "mv") weather types predominated during 5-days intervals related to the days with small number of accidents. On the contrary, the weather types with cyclonic characteristics ("N1", "N2", "N3", "Bc", "Dol1" and "Dol"), that are generally accompanied by fronts, were the rarest. For 85% days with large number of accidents, which had not been caused by objective circumstances (such as poor visibility, damaged or slippery road etc.), at least one front passage was recorded during the 3-days period, starting one day before the day with large number of accidents.

  7. Competency Based Vocational Education Typing I and Typing II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Lee; Mahan, Louise

    Materials are provided for two competency-based educational courses in Typing I and II for the community college level. The first course covers the touch method operation of the typewriter; the second covers the extension of the touch method and develops such skills as production of business letters, manuscripts, carbon copies, tabulation, tables,…

  8. Competency Based Vocational Education Typing I and Typing II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Lee; Mahan, Louise

    Materials are provided for two competency-based educational courses in Typing I and II for the community college level. The first course covers the touch method operation of the typewriter; the second covers the extension of the touch method and develops such skills as production of business letters, manuscripts, carbon copies, tabulation, tables,…

  9. [Type I interferonopathies].

    PubMed

    Munoz, J; Marque, M; Dandurand, M; Meunier, L; Crow, Y-J; Bessis, D

    2015-11-01

    Type I interferonopathies are a group of Mendelian disorders characterized by a common physiopathology: the up-regulation of type I interferons. To date, interferonopathies include Aicardi-Goutières syndrome, familial chilblain lupus, spondyenchondromatosis, PRoteasome-associated auto-inflammatory syndrome (PRAAS) and Singleton-Merten syndrome. These diseases present phenotypic overlap including cutaneous features like chilblain lupus, that can be inaugural or present within the first months of life. This novel set of inborn errors of immunity is evolving rapidly, with recognition of new diseases and genes. Recent and improved understanding of the physiopathology of overexpression of type I interferons has allowed the development of targeted therapies, currently being evaluated, like Janus-kinases or reverse transcriptase inhibitors.

  10. Nature of type 1 Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shklovskiy, I. S.

    1980-01-01

    The nature of type 1 supernovae (SN 1) is discussed through a comparison of observational evidence and theoretical perspectives relating to both type 1 and 2 supernovae. In particular two hypotheses relating to SN 1 phenomenon are examined: the first proposing that SN 1 are components of binary systems in which, at a comparatively late stage of evolution, overflow of the mass occurs; the second considers pre-SN 1 to be recently evolved stars with a mass greater than 1.4 solar mass (white dwarfs). In addition, an explanation of the reduced frequency of flares of SN 1 in spiral galaxies as related to that in elliptical galaxies is presented.

  11. Models for Type I supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S.E.; Weaver, T.A.; Taam, R.E.

    1980-06-17

    Two rather disjoint scenarios for Type I supernovae are presented. One is based upon mass accretion by a white dwarf in a binary system. The second involves a star having some 8 to 10 times the mass of the sun which may or may not be a solitary star. Despite the apparent dissimilarities in the models it may be that each occurs to some extent in nature for they both share the possibility of producing substantial quantities of /sup 56/Ni and explosions in stars devoid of hydrogen envelopes. These are believed to be two properties that must be shared by any viable Type I model.

  12. Multiple Strongly Typed Evaluation Phases.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    is precisehy te purpose of the unusual (check-) const rcts of Static-IL listed in Section 4 2.3: the\\ take pe -chccKec I programs (in the form of ERTs...et al. [ Schooler 841 takes a very attractive approach to this: where possible, they do type checking before runtime; if a type cannot be determined... need more. so, as with funtype, we take the maximum. Also note that subexpressions el and e2 are implicitly inside an eval; hence the "n+1"s. Count( (el

  13. Ameloblastoma, Solid/Multicystic Type

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, Angela M.

    2009-01-01

    The ameloblastoma, particularly the solid/multicystic type, is the most clinically significant odontogentic tumor. The tumor is often locally aggressive and has a significant impact and may have a patient’s morbidity and mortality. In this report, we present a case of a large ameloblastoma that presented with the typical radiographic features of variably sized radiolucent loculations. Microscopically the tumor showed a variety of histologic types, with plexiform and follicular predominating. The tumor was treated with a partial resection of the mandible. PMID:20596851

  14. Blood metals concentration in type 1 and type 2 diabetics.

    PubMed

    Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice; Peruzzu, Angela; Tolu, Francesco; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Oggiano, Riccardo; Madeddu, Roberto

    2013-12-01

    Mechanisms for the onset of diabetes and the development of diabetic complications remain under extensive investigations. One of these mechanisms is abnormal homeostasis of metals, as either deficiency or excess of metals, can contribute to certain diabetic outcomes. Therefore, this paper will report the blood levels of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) in subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 192, mean age 48.8 years, mean disease duration 20.6 years), type 2 diabetes (n = 68, mean age 68.4 years, mean disease duration 10.2 years), and in control subjects (n = 59, mean age 57.2 years), and discuss the results indicating their possible role in diabetes. The metal concentrations were measured by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-induced acid digestion of blood samples. The accuracy was checked using a blood-based certified reference material, and recoveries of all elements were in the range of 92-101 % of certified values. Type 1 diabetes was found to be associated with Cr (p = 0.02), Mn (p < 0.001), Ni (p < 0.001), Pb (p = 0.02), and Zn (p < 0.001) deficiency, and type 2 diabetes with Cr (p = 0.014), Mn (p < 0.001), and Ni (p < 0.001) deficiency. These deficiencies were appreciated also subdividing the understudied patients for gender and age groups. Furthermore, in type 1 diabetes, there was a positive correlation between Pb and age (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.400) and Pb and BMI (p < 0.001, ρ = 0.309), while a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.002, ρ = -0.218). In type 2 diabetes, there was a negative correlation between Fe and age (p = 0.017, ρ = -0.294) and Fe and BMI (p = 0.026, ρ = -0.301). Thus, these elements may play a role in both forms of diabetes and combined mineral supplementations could have beneficial effects.

  15. Imagery of Errors in Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Martina; Martinez, Fanny; Wenke, Dorit

    2011-01-01

    Using a typing task we investigated whether insufficient imagination of errors and error corrections is related to duration differences between execution and imagination. In Experiment 1 spontaneous error imagination was investigated, whereas in Experiment 2 participants were specifically instructed to imagine errors. Further, in Experiment 2 we…

  16. Bacteriophage typing of Shigella sonnei.

    PubMed

    Pruneda, R C; Farmer, J J

    1977-01-01

    A bacteriophage-typing schema was developed for differentiating strains of Shigella sonnei. Sixty-seven bacteriophages were obtained from other collections, and 36 bacteriophages were isolated from sewage. From these 103 bacteriophages, a provisional set of 12 was chosen by computer analysis as being the most sensitive in differentiating strains of S. sonnei isolated in the United States. The provisional schema was used to type 265 strains from different geographical areas. It divided them into 87 different lysis patterns, and all 265 strains were typable. Smooth and rough colonial variants of the same strain had different lysis patterns, so the technique was standardized to type rough colonies only. Reproducibility was difficult to obtain until all conditions were carefully standardized. Changes in results were noted even on different lot numbers of Trypticase soy agar, which was defined as the standard medium. So that the medium would not be a variable, 100 pounds (ca 453.5 kg) of the same lot number was purchased. Bacteriophage typing was very useful in differentiating strains, and work should continue on establishing a standarized schema.

  17. Typing for human platelet alloantigens.

    PubMed

    Juji, T; Saji, H; Satake, M; Tokunaga, K

    1999-01-01

    Antibodies to platelet alloantigens, and sometimes to isoantigens, induce severe clinical problems such as neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT), post-transfusion purpura (PTP) and refractoriness to platelet transfusions (PTR). For example, NAIT affects approximately 1 in 5,000 live births. It is essential, therefore, to screen pregnant women for platelet antibodies in order to save babies' lives. Almost 40 years ago, two platelet alloantigen systems were discovered using relatively simple methods, namely the platelet agglutination test and the complement fixation test. However, these methods were not sensitive enough to identify all antibodies in mothers and patients, even in those with severe clinical problems. Tremendous effort has been devoted to establish more sensitive and reliable methods. In recent years, excellent new serological and immunochemical methods have been established and several new platelet antigen systems have been discovered. Simultaneously, newly developed molecular genetic techniques have been introduced for the typing and analysis of human platelet alloantigen systems. These methods allow DNA typing for cases in which serological typing is not available. In this article, the history of studies on human platelet alloantigen systems and isoantigens, the nomenclature of platelet alloantigen systems and their alleles, the present status of antibody detection and typing techniques and, finally, ethnic variations in platelet antigen profiles are reviewed.

  18. Ladder-Type Circuits Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sung Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Ladder-type circuits where a given unit is repeated infinitely many times are dealt with in many textbooks on electromagnetism as examples of filter circuits. Determining the impedance of such circuits seems to be regarded as simple, which may be due to the fact that the invariance of the infinite system under the operation of adding one more unit…

  19. Fibre typing of intrafusal fibres

    PubMed Central

    Thornell, Lars-Eric; Carlsson, Lena; Eriksson, Per-Olof; Liu, Jing-Xia; Österlund, Catharina; Stål, Per; Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    The first descriptions of muscle spindles with intrafusal fibres containing striated myofibrils and nervous elements were given approximately 150 years ago. It took, however, another 100 years to establish the presence of two types of intrafusal muscle fibres: nuclear bag and nuclear chain fibres. The present paper highlights primarily the contribution of Robert Banks in fibre typing of intrafusal fibres: the confirmation of the principle of two types of nuclear bag fibres in mammalian spindles and the variation in occurrence of a dense M-band along the fibres. Furthermore, this paper summarizes how studies from the Umeå University group (Laboratory of Muscle Biology in the Department of Integrative Medical Biology) on fibre typing and the structure and composition of M-bands have contributed to the current understanding of muscle spindle complexity in adult humans as well as to muscle spindle development and effects of ageing. The variable molecular composition of the intrafusal sarcomeres with respect to myosin heavy chains and M-band proteins gives new perspectives on the role of the intrafusal myofibrils as stretch-activated sensors influencing tension/stiffness and signalling to nuclei. PMID:26179023

  20. Algebraic invariants for homotopy types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, David

    1999-11-01

    We define a sequence of purely algebraic invariants - namely, classes in the Quillen cohomology of the [Pi]-algebra [pi][low asterisk]X - for distinguishing between different homotopy types of spaces. Another sequence of such cohomology classes allows one to decide whether a given abstract [Pi]-algebra can be realized as the homotopy [Pi]-algebra of a space.

  1. Skilled Finger Movements in Typing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentner, Donald R.

    Six skilled typists were studied while they transcribed English text. The typists showed stable patterns of performance, but with significant individual differences among themselves. Inter-keypress latencies for two-finger digraphs (typed by two fingers on the same hand) were particularly variable among typists. Two typists showed large…

  2. Achondrogenesis type II with polydactyly.

    PubMed

    Rittler, M; Orioli, I M

    1995-11-06

    We report on a newborn male infant who presented the typical findings of achondrogenesis type II (Langer-Saldino), and who also showed postaxial polydactyly on both feet and bilateral microtia. Polydactyly is frequently part of the short-rib syndromes, but has not been reported in achondrogenesis. The hypothesis of polydactyly as part of a contiguous gene syndrome is discussed.

  3. Rijke-Type Thermoacoustic Oscillations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability can appear in any thermal device when the unsteady heat transfer is favourably coupled with the fluctuations of acoustic pressure. In this paper, we present a project type of physical measuring and modelling task; the aim of our project is to help our students increase their knowledge of thermoacoustics. Our paper…

  4. Ladder-Type Circuits Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Sung Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Ladder-type circuits where a given unit is repeated infinitely many times are dealt with in many textbooks on electromagnetism as examples of filter circuits. Determining the impedance of such circuits seems to be regarded as simple, which may be due to the fact that the invariance of the infinite system under the operation of adding one more unit…

  5. Typing: What Matters Is How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Erma

    The text is a series of minilessons that were developed for high school students with special learning needs. The emphasis is on how to type with interesting messages, illustrations, and analogies used to attract the attention of the learner. Repetition and review are provided for emphasis, reinforcement, and achievement. The student manual is…

  6. Headache (chronic tension-type).

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Anita; Silver, Nicholas

    2009-07-22

    Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is a disorder that evolves from episodic tension-type headache, with daily or very frequent episodes of headache lasting minutes to days. It affects 4.1% of the general population in the USA, and is more prevalent in women (up to 65% of cases). We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache? What are the effects of non-drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2007 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 50 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture; amitriptyline; analgesics; anticonvulsant drugs; benzodiazepines; botulinum toxin; chiropractic and osteopathic manipulations; cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT); Indian head massage; mirtazapine; relaxation and electromyographic biofeedback; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants (SSRIs); and tricyclic antidepressants (other than amitriptyline).

  7. Headache (chronic tension-type).

    PubMed

    Silver, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Chronic tension-type headache (CTTH) is a disorder that evolves from episodic tension-type headache, with daily or very frequent episodes of headache lasting minutes to days. It affects 4.1% of the general population in the USA, and is more prevalent in women (up to 65% of cases). We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache? What are the effects of non-drug treatments for chronic tension-type headache? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2005 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). We found 38 systematic reviews, RCTs or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, amitriptyline, benzodiazepines, botulinum toxin, cognitive behavioural therapy, Indian head massage, mirtazapine, regular acute pain relief medication, relaxation and electromyographic biofeedback, serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, and tricyclic antidepressants (other than amitriptyline).

  8. Test Purpose and Item Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Geoffrey P.

    1979-01-01

    Distinguishing between two types of test questions, constructed-response (essay/completion) and selected-response (multiple-choice/true-false), the author considers both in relation to the specificity of learning outcomes being tested, the use of criterion or norm-referenced measurement, and the formative or summative nature of the evaluation.…

  9. [Obesity and type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Toplak, Hermann; Hoppichler, Friedrich; Wascher, Thomas C; Schindler, Karin; Ludvik, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes are nowadays summarized as "diabesity". That is due to the fact that obesity is frequently preceding and the most important risk factor in the increase of Type 2 Diabetes. The body mass index (BMI) is a crude measure of body fatness. Even normal weight persons can have lack in muscles (sarcopenia), which leads to the recommendation to measure waist und body fatness (e.g. BIA). Lifestyle management including nutrition and physical activity are important for diabetes prevention. In the therapy of Type 2 Diabetes body weight is increasingly used as secondary target. Also the choice of the anti-diabetic medication and concomitant medications is increasingly influenced by body weight. The significance of anti-obesity medications in the therapy of type 2 diabetes will have to be clarified by future studies. Bariatric surgery is at present indicated with a BMI above BMI > 35 kg/m(2) and can lead at least to partial diabetes remission but has to be part of a lifelong care concept.

  10. Rijke-Type Thermoacoustic Oscillations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke, Tamas

    2011-01-01

    Thermoacoustic instability can appear in any thermal device when the unsteady heat transfer is favourably coupled with the fluctuations of acoustic pressure. In this paper, we present a project type of physical measuring and modelling task; the aim of our project is to help our students increase their knowledge of thermoacoustics. Our paper…

  11. Type V hyperlipoproteinaemia in neonates.

    PubMed

    Thompson, G N; Knight, A J; Craig, I H; Bresson, J L

    1987-09-01

    A boy investigated for neonatal jaundice was noted to have lipaemic serum and was subsequently shown to have type V hyperlipoproteinaemia. Dietary treatment was maintained for five years and he followed a typical clinical course. Circumstantial evidence suggested an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern.

  12. Leptoquark mechanism of neutrino masses within the grand unification framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doršner, Ilja; Fajfer, Svjetlana; Košnik, Nejc

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the viability of the one-loop neutrino mass mechanism within the framework of grand unification when the loop particles comprise scalar leptoquarks (LQs) and quarks of the matching electric charge. This mechanism can be implemented in both supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric models and requires the presence of at least one LQ pair. The appropriate pairs for the neutrino mass generation via the up-type and down-type quark loops are S_3-R_2 and S_{1, 3}-\\tilde{R}_2, respectively. We consider two distinct regimes for the LQ masses in our analysis. The first regime calls for very heavy LQs in the loop. It can be naturally realized with the S_{1, 3}-\\tilde{R}_2 scenarios when the LQ masses are roughly between 10^{12} and 5 × 10^{13} GeV. These lower and upper bounds originate from experimental limits on partial proton decay lifetimes and perturbativity constraints, respectively. Second regime corresponds to the collider accessible LQs in the neutrino mass loop. That option is viable for the S_3-\\tilde{R}_2 scenario in the models of unification that we discuss. If one furthermore assumes the presence of the type II see-saw mechanism there is an additional contribution from the S_3-R_2 scenario that needs to be taken into account beside the type II see-saw contribution itself. We provide a complete list of renormalizable operators that yield necessary mixing of all aforementioned LQ pairs using the language of SU(5). We furthermore discuss several possible embeddings of this mechanism in SU(5) and SO(10) gauge groups.

  13. Studies of Typing from the LNR Typing Research Group.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    transient signals having identical energy spectra. February, 1970. 11. Donald A. Norman. Remembrance of things past. June, 1970. 12. Norman I. Anderson...Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation Donald R. Gentner F-’ Jonathan Grudin Serge Larochelle __ Donald A. Norman...Group: The Role of Context, Differences in Skill Level, Errors, Hand Movements, and a Computer Simulation The LNI Typing Research Group: Donald R

  14. A Type System For Certified Runtime Type Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    some features designed for program extraction [Pau89] which are not required in our case (where proofs are only used as specifications for the...flint.cs.yale.edu. [MSS01] Stefan Monnier, Bratin Saha, and Zhong Shao. Principled scavenging. In Proc. 2001 ACM SIGPLAN Programming Language Design and...and Mark P. Jones. Implementing type classes. In Programming Language Design and Implementation, New York, 1993. ACM Press. [PL89] Frank Pfenning and

  15. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type... retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale is...

  16. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type... retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale is...

  17. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type... retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale...

  18. 29 CFR 779.329 - Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Effect of type of customer and type of goods or services... customer and type of goods or services. In some industries the type of goods or services sold or the type... retail regardless of the type of goods or services sold or the type of customer. Where a sale...

  19. Photometry of late type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Broad band filter photometry for 57 bright stars of spectral type A2 discussed with peak instrument responses at 3320, 2980, 2460 and 1910 A. The data include nearly all usable filter observations of G, K and M types. Sampling is nearly complete for A and F giants and supergiants, with the exception of Cepheid variables. The basic results presented are relative digital counting rates obtained with a field-stop aperture of 10 minutes of arc. Characteristics of the four filter-photometer combinations and errors are discussed. Some observations require substantial correction if they are to represent the visually brightest star in the field. These corrections and the effects of interstellar reddening are discussed. The adjusted counts are then used to construct color-color diagrams and are compared to the recent SAO grid of model atmospheres.

  20. [Trophic types of the nematodes].

    PubMed

    Kornobis, Franciszek Wojciech

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present trophic types (i.e non-systematic groups feeding on the same kind of food) of the nematodes. Seven trophic types (covering all known species) are described: (1) microbivores (nematodes feeding on unicellular microorganisms) with two examples: C. elegans and the nematodes of two families: Steinernematidae and Heterorhabditidae, (2) parasites of Vertebrates, (3) parasites of Invertebrates with example of the family Acugutturidae, (4) parasites of plants with two examples: Tylenchorhynchus dubius and Heterodera schachtii, (5) parasites of fungi, (6) predatory nematodes, (7) omnivores (nematodes feeding on different kinds of food). Basic information on the anatomy of the alimentary canal and feeding behaviour of the nematodes are also provided.

  1. A Wolter type I LAMAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catura, R. C.; Joki, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    Observational objectives for the LAMAR and their influence on the instrument design are discussed. It is concluded that the most important design parameter is the angular resolution of the LAMAR modules since it so strongly influences sensitivity, optical identifications, source confusion, spectral resolution for objective gratings and the ability to resolve small extended sources. A high resolution Wolter Type I LAMAR module is described, its hardware status discussed, and the performance of a LAMAR observatory presented. A promising technique for enhancing the reflectivity of Wolter Type I X-ray optics in a selected bandpass at high energy has been investigated and the performance of the LAMAR module, utilizing this method, has been calculated.

  2. Jovian type III radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Scarf, F. L.

    1989-01-01

    Radio bursts have been observed in the Voyager plasma wave data from Jupiter that bear a striking resemblance to solar type III radio bursts. The emissions lie in the frequency range near 10 kHz, have durations of a minute or so, and occur in a set of periodically spaced bursts. The spacing between primary bursts is typically 15 min, but the bursts may have additional components which recur on time scales of about 3 min. The similarity with solar type III radio bursts suggests a source mechanism involving the movement of energetic electrons through a density gradient in the plasma surrounding Jupiter. The periodicity of bursts suggests Io may be involved in the generation of waves, since the timing is similar to the Alfven wave travel time from one hemisphere to the other through the Io torus.

  3. Modern Graywacke-Type Sands.

    PubMed

    Hollister, C D; Heezen, B C

    1964-12-18

    A preliminary study of more than 100 deep-sea cores from abyssal plains has revealed two examples of recent muddy sands of the graywacke type which, together with the microcrystalline matrix, form a bimodal-size distribution sands have a well-sorted framework of quartz, feldspar, and rock fragments which, together with the microcrystalline matrix, form a bimodal-size distribution that is also typical of ancient graywackes. The matrix is considered to be primary.

  4. IMPROVED TYPE OF FUEL ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Monson, H.O.

    1961-01-24

    A radiator-type fuel block assembly is described. It has a hexagonal body of neutron fissionable material having a plurality of longitudinal equal- spaced coolant channels therein aligned in rows parallel to each face of the hexagonal body. Each of these coolant channels is hexagonally shaped with the corners rounded and enlarged and the assembly has a maximum temperature isothermal line around each channel which is approximately straight and equidistant between adjacent channels.

  5. Pyrochlore-type tin niobate.

    PubMed

    Cruz, L P; Savariault, J M; Rocha, J

    2001-09-01

    A single crystal of Sn(1.59)Nb(1.84)O(6.35) was grown at 1273 K from a mixture of sodium niobate and tin(II) chloride. The structure is of pyrochlore type A(2)B(2)O(7). The tin is partially oxidized to tin(IV) and competes with niobium for the occupation of site B. The stereoactivity of the Sn(2+) lone pair induces displacement of tin towards the O atoms of the tunnel.

  6. Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis of cesioflammea type*

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Leal, Fabiano

    2016-01-01

    Phacomatosis pigmentovascularis is a rare syndrome, defined as the simultaneous presence of vascular nevus and melanocytic nevus in the same patient. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman presented with dermal melanosis and extensive vascular nevus, which match the typical manifestations of phakomatosis pigmetovascularis of cesioflammea type, according to Happle's classification. The rare occurrence of this genodermatosis and the clinical exuberance of the skin lesions motivated this case report. PMID:28300894

  7. Fully Reflexive Intensional Type Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Programming Language Design and Implementa- tion, pages 227–236. ACM Press, June 1993. [17] F. Pfenning and C. Paulin-Mohring. Inductively defined...compiler for Standard ML. In Proc. ACM SIGPLAN ’95 Conf. on Programming Language Design and Implementation, pages 116–129, New York, 1995. ACM Press...Lee. TIL: A type-directed optimizing compiler for ML. In Proc. ACM SIGPLAN ’96 Conf. on Programming Language Design and Imple- mentation, pages 181

  8. Exercise and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Colberg, Sheri R.; Sigal, Ronald J.; Fernhall, Bo; Regensteiner, Judith G.; Blissmer, Bryan J.; Rubin, Richard R.; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Albright, Ann L.; Braun, Barry

    2010-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is a key element in the prevention and management of type 2 diabetes, many with this chronic disease do not become or remain regularly active. High-quality studies establishing the importance of exercise and fitness in diabetes were lacking until recently, but it is now well established that participation in regular PA improves blood glucose control and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes, along with positively affecting lipids, blood pressure, cardiovascular events, mortality, and quality of life. Structured interventions combining PA and modest weight loss have been shown to lower type 2 diabetes risk by up to 58% in high-risk populations. Most benefits of PA on diabetes management are realized through acute and chronic improvements in insulin action, accomplished with both aerobic and resistance training. The benefits of physical training are discussed, along with recommendations for varying activities, PA-associated blood glucose management, diabetes prevention, gestational diabetes mellitus, and safe and effective practices for PA with diabetes-related complications. PMID:21115758

  9. Rare types of diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Mihai, B; Mihai, Cătălina; Cijevschi-Prelipcean, Cristina; Lăcătuşu, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a heterogenous disorder characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and induced by a large number of etiopathogenic conditions. Beside type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which account for almost 90% of all cases, practitioners may encounter patients with more infrequent forms of diabetes, as those induced by mutations of a single gene, atypical immune disorders or neonatal diabetes. Monogenic diabetes is represented by genetic disorders in the structure of the beta-cell (the MODY syndromes and the mutations of mitochondrial DNA) or in the insulin's action (type A insulin resistance syndrome, Rabson-Mendenhall syndrome, leprechaunism, lipodystrophies). The rare forms of immune diabetes are determined by antibodies against insulin or insulin receptor or appear as a component of the "stiff man syndrome". Neonatal diabetes is induced by mutations in genes that control beta-cell development and function and may have a transient or permanent nature. Knowledge of the uncommon forms of diabetes mellitus enables physicians to apply the optimal treatment, to estimate the evolution of the patient and to apply a complete family screening in order to diagnose all other blood relatives as soon as possible.

  10. Light echoes - Type II supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Bradley E.

    1987-01-01

    Type II supernovae (SNs) light curves show a remarkable range of shapes. Data have been collected for the 12 Type II SNs that have light curve information for more than four months past maximum. Contrary to previous reports, it is found that (1) the decay rate after 100 days past maximum varies by almost an order of magnitude and (2) the light curve shapes are not bimodally distributed, but actually form a continuum. In addition, it is found that the extinctions to the SNs are related to the light curve shapes. This implies that the absorbing dust is local to the SNs. The dust is likely to be part of a circumstellar shell emitted by the SN progenitor that Dwek (1983) has used to explain infrared echoes. The optical depth of the shell can get quite large. In such cases, it is found that the photons scattered and delayed by reflection off dust grains will dominate the light curve several months after peak brightness. This 'light echo' offers a straightforward explanation of the diversity of Type II SN light curves.

  11. Atelosteogenesis type I: autopsy findings.

    PubMed

    Wessels, Annasu; Wainwright, Helen C; Beighton, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We have documented the clinical, radiologic, and autopsy findings of 2 fetuses with atelosteogenesis type I, aged 22 and 17 weeks. This rare autosomal dominant lethal skeletal dysplasia is caused by mutation in the FNLB gene. The 17-week-old fetus had some features of atelosteogenesis type II, notably "hitchhiker thumbs," a cleft palate, and midfacial flattening. The histologic demonstration of giant cells in the growth plate cartilage confirmed the diagnosis of atelosteogenesis type I in both fetuses, thereby facilitating accurate prediction of recurrence risks for the parents of the affected fetuses. Autopsy findings included tracheal narrowing and stenosis with pulmonary hypoplasia in both fetuses. Renal microcysts and abnormal branching of the pancreatic duct were also present in 1 of the fetuses, and malrotation of the caecum and retinal dysplasia involving the optic nerve were identified in the other. Postmortem and histologic investigations play an important role in the elucidation of the genetic micromelic skeletal disorders that are lethal in the fetus and neonate.

  12. Niger Delta play types, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Akinpelu, A.O.

    1995-08-01

    Exploration databases can be more valuable when sorted by play type. Play specific databases provide a system to organize E & P data used in evaluating the range of values of parameters for reserve estimation and risk assessment. It is important both in focusing the knowledge base and in orienting research effort. A play in this context is any unique combination of trap, reservoir and source properties with the right dynamics of migration and preservation that results in hydrocarbon accumulation. This definitions helps us to discriminate the subtle differences found with these accumulation settings. About 20 play types were identified around the Niger Delta oil province in Nigeria. These are grouped into three parts: (1) The proven plays-constituting the bulk of exploration prospects in Nigeria today. (2) The unproven or semi-proven plays usually with some successes recorded in a few tries but where knowledge is still inadequate. (3) The unproven or analogous play concept. These are untested but geologically sound ideas which may or may not have been tried elsewhere. With classification and sub grouping of these play types into specific databases, intrinsic attributes and uniqueness of each of them with respect to the four major risk elements and the eight parameters for reserve estimation can be better understood.

  13. Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... En español Take Steps to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Browse Sections The Basics Overview Types of Diabetes ... 1 of 9 sections The Basics: Types of Diabetes What is diabetes? Diabetes is a disease. People ...

  14. 46 CFR 164.015-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape § 164.015-2 Types. (a..., polymer or copolymer plastic foam shall be of three types as follows: Type A—for life preservers,...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: spastic paraplegia type 8

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hereditary spastic paraplegias are divided into two types: pure and complex. The pure types involve only the nerves and muscles controlling ... the body. Spastic paraplegia type 8 is a pure hereditary spastic paraplegia. Like all hereditary spastic paraplegias, ...

  16. 46 CFR 164.015-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL MATERIALS Plastic Foam, Unicellular, Buoyant, Sheet and Molded Shape § 164.015-2 Types. (a..., polymer or copolymer plastic foam shall be of three types as follows: Type A—for life preservers,...

  17. 7 CFR 29.3559 - Type 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3559 Type 36. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Green River, Green River... Green River section of Kentucky....

  18. 7 CFR 29.3559 - Type 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3559 Type 36. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Green River, Green River... Green River section of Kentucky....

  19. A Data Type for Efficient Representation of Other Data Types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A self-organizing, monomorphic data type denoted a sequence has been conceived to address certain concerns that arise in programming parallel computers. A sequence in the present sense can be regarded abstractly as a vector, set, bag, queue, or other construct. Heretofore, in programming a parallel computer, it has been necessary for the programmer to state explicitly, at the outset, what parts of the program and the underlying data structures must be represented in parallel form. Not only is this requirement not optimal from the perspective of implementation; it entails an additional requirement that the programmer have intimate understanding of the underlying parallel structure. The present sequence data type overcomes both the implementation and parallel structure obstacles. In so doing, the sequence data type provides unified means by which the programmer can represent a data structure for natural and automatic decomposition to a parallel computing architecture. Sequences exhibit the behavioral and structural characteristics of vectors, but the underlying representations are automatically synthesized from combinations of programmers advice and execution use metrics. Sequences can vary bidirectionally between sparseness and density, making them excellent choices for many kinds of algorithms. The novelty and benefit of this behavior lies in the fact that it can relieve programmers of the details of implementations. The creation of a sequence enables decoupling of a conceptual representation from an implementation. The underlying representation of a sequence is a hybrid of representations composed of vectors, linked lists, connected blocks, and hash tables. The internal structure of a sequence can automatically change from time to time on the basis of how it is being used. Those portions of a sequence where elements have not been added or removed can be as efficient as vectors. As elements are inserted and removed in a given portion, then different methods are

  20. [A new type of flagellar structure. Type 9+n

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    The ultrastructural study of the Eoacanthocephala sperm cell shows a variation from 0 to 5 in the number of the axial fibers in the axoneme. All the species of the order Eoacanthocephala available to us show this variation; moreover, every individual possesses simultaneously several different structural types. So, we are dealing with a new flagellar organization: 9+n, with 0 less than or equal to n less than or equal to 5. In the Quadrigyridae and the Tenuisentidae families, n varies from 0 to 4, with a maximum of 2 for most individuals, exceptionally at 1 for some individuals. In the Neoechinorhynchidae family, n varies from 0 to 5 with a conspicuous prevalence of 3 (from 84 to 99%, according to the individual). These results prompted us to reexamine the two other orders of Acanthocephala in which the structural types 9+2 or 9+0 have been considered as fixed. Indeed, we have found a few flagella the structure of which is different from the prevalent one. It seems, therefore, that the number of the central fibers of the axoneme in the Acanthocephala sperm cell is never absolutely fixed. PMID:557042

  1. A new colonial type of N. gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, K; Wiseman, G M

    1975-01-01

    A new variant of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, designated Type 1(1), is described. Colonies of the new type resemble those of Types 1 and 2 in physical characteristics but are granular with a slightly crenated edge and are a deeper gold in colour. The virulence of Type 1(1) in the chick embryo is in keeping with that of Types 1 and 2 but is significantly different from Types 3, 4, and 5. Type 1(1) could be maintained in the laboratory for 6 months, provided that daily selective subcultures were performed. In the absence of this, Type 1(1) reverted to Type 5. It was also possible to preserve the stability of Type 1(1) for long periods by immersion in liquid nitrogen. Pili have been demonstrated on the new type. Images PMID:808249

  2. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  3. [Zinc and type 2 diabetes].

    PubMed

    Fukunaka, Ayako; Fujitani, Yoshio

    2016-07-01

    Pancreatic β cells contain the highest amount of zinc among cells within the human body, and hence, the relationship between zinc and diabetes has been a topic of great interest. While many studies demonstrating possible involvement of zinc deficiency in diabetes have been reported, precise mechanisms how zinc regulates glucose metabolism are still far from understood. Recent studies revealed that zinc can transmit signals that are driven by a variety of zinc transporters in a tissue and cell-type specific manner and deficiency in some zinc transporters may cause human diseases. Here, we review the role of zinc in metabolism particularly focusing on the emerging role of zinc transporters in diabetes.

  4. Dust around Type Ia supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lifan

    2005-10-20

    An explanation is given of the low value of R lambda triple bond A lambda/E(B - V), the ratio of absolute to selective extinction deduced from Type Ia supernova observations. The idea involves scattering by dust clouds located in the circumstellar environment, or at the highest velocity shells of the supernova ejecta. The scattered light tends to reduce the effective R lambda in the optical, but has an opposite effect in the ultraviolet. The presence of circumstellar dust can be tested by ultraviolet to near infrared observations and by multi-epoch spectropolarimetry of SNe Ia.

  5. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  6. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOEpatents

    Barclay, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  7. SOHC type internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, N.; Iwata, T.; Oikawa, T.

    1989-01-10

    An SOHC type internal combustion engine is described comprising a cylinder head which has a combustion chamber defined therein, a camshaft carried thereon, an ignition plug mounting hole opening to a center portion of a top surface of the combustion chamber and a protecting cylinder formed therein with an ignition plug insertion hole. The journal for the camshaft has a diameter larger than a path of rotation of a lobe of a cam on the camshaft and is supported by a bearing hole formed in a camshaft receiving wall which is provided on the cylinder head. The protecting cylinder and the camshaft receiving wall are formed in a single piece.

  8. [Femicides: concepts, types and scenarios].

    PubMed

    Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Portella, Ana Paula

    2017-09-01

    This text is a theoretical essay that discusses the concepts, types and scenarios of feminicides, and presents some proposals for the prevention of these premature, unjust and avoidable deaths. The text revisits the original concept of femicide proposed by Diana Russell and Jane Caputti and shows new and old scenarios where these crimes occur. It points to patriarchy, understood as being a hierarchical system of power between men and women, as one of the main determinants of these deaths. It ends by presenting actions and proposals to prevent and combat these gender crimes.

  9. Type 1 diabetes pathogenesis - Prevention???

    PubMed

    Krishna, C S Muralidhara; Srikanta, S

    2015-04-01

    Pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes is multi-faceted, including, autoimmunity, genetics and environment. Autoimmunity directed against pancreatic islet cells results in slowly progressive selective beta-cell destruction ("Primary autoimmune insulitis"), culminating over years in clinically manifested insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Circulating serum autoantibodies directed against the endocrine cells of the islets of Langerhans (Islet cell autoantibodies - ICAb) are an important hallmark of this disease. Assays for islet cell autoantibodies have facilitated the investigation and understanding of several facets in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. Their applications have extended into clinical practice and have opened new avenues for early preclinical prediction and preventive prophylaxis in IDDM/type 1 DM. Recently, surprisingly, differences in insulin content between T1DM islets, as well as, 'patchy' or 'lobular' destruction of islets have been described. These unique pathobiological phenomena, suggest that beta cell destruction may not always be inexorable and inevitably complete/total, and thus raise hopes for possible therapeutic interruption of beta cell autoimmunity - destruction and cure of type 1 diabetes. "Recurrent or secondary autoimmune insulitis" refers to the rapid reappearance of islet cell autoantibodies post pancreas transplant, and selective islet beta cell destruction in the grafted pancreas [never forgetting or "anamnestic" beta cell destructive memory], in the absence of any graft pancreas rejection [monozygotic twin to twin transplantation]. The one definite environmental factor is congenital rubella, because of which a subset of children subsequently develop type 1 diabetes. The putative predisposing factors are viruses, gluten and cow's milk. The putative protective factors include gut flora, helminths, viral infections, and Vitamin D. Prevention of T1DM can include: Primary prevention strategies before the development of

  10. Myopia in neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Garty, B Z; Laor, A; Danon, Y L

    1996-05-01

    We studied the prevalence of myopia in 17-year-old Israeli military recruits with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Twenty-four percent of the youngsters with neurofibromatosis had myopia, compared to 19% of the controls; this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.03). The recruits with NF1 had a slightly lower IQ, fewer years of education, and lower height and weight than the controls. Thus, these factors, which have been reported to be associated with myopia, did not significantly influence the high prevalence of myopia in the neurofibromatosis subjects. A high prevalence of myopia seems to be an additional feature of NF1.

  11. Adiabatic Wankel type rotary engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamo, R.; Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1988-01-01

    This SBIR Phase program accomplished the objective of advancing the technology of the Wankel type rotary engine for aircraft applications through the use of adiabatic engine technology. Based on the results of this program, technology is in place to provide a rotor and side and intermediate housings with thermal barrier coatings. A detailed cycle analysis of the NASA 1007R Direct Injection Stratified Charge (DISC) rotary engine was performed which concluded that applying thermal barrier coatings to the rotor should be successful and that it was unlikely that the rotor housing could be successfully run with thermal barrier coatings as the thermal stresses were extensive.

  12. [New insulin types in type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Mesa, Jordi

    2015-07-20

    Since its discovery almost a century ago, insulin remains the mainstay of treatment of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Although progress in the synthesis of new formulations has been remarkable, the physiological profile of insulin is still different from that observed with preparations available nowadays. In the last decade, the introduction into clinical practice of insulin analogues has allowed significantly improvement in glycemic control and has facilitated the spread of basal/bolus patterns, the most physiological ones until now. Despite the benefits of basal analogues, glycemia often varies considerably when used as a single daily injection and this is why new molecules have been further investigated. Improvement has been achieved especially in terms of duration and rate of hypoglycemia, the main limiting factor of intensive therapy. This article reviews the available data concerning the new basal insulin analogues, degludec, pegylated lispro and glargine U300, and new formulations currently under development.

  13. Molecular Typing of Borrelia burgdorferi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiqing; Liveris, Dionysios; Mukherjee, Priyanka; Jungnick, Sabrina; Margos, Gabriele; Schwartz, Ira

    2014-08-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato is a group of spirochetes belonging to the genus Borrelia in the family of Spirochaetaceae. The spirochete is transmitted between reservoirs and hosts by ticks of the family Ixodidae. Infection with B. burgdorferi in humans causes Lyme disease or Lyme borreliosis. Currently, 20 Lyme disease-associated Borrelia species and more than 20 relapsing fever-associated Borrelia species have been described. Identification and differentiation of different Borrelia species and strains is largely dependent on analyses of their genetic characteristics. A variety of molecular techniques have been described for Borrelia isolate speciation, molecular epidemiology, and pathogenicity studies. In this unit, we focus on three basic protocols, PCR-RFLP-based typing of the rrs-rrlA and rrfA-rrlB ribosomal spacer, ospC typing, and MLST. These protocols can be employed alone or in combination for characterization of B. burgdorferi isolates or directly on uncultivated organisms in ticks, mammalian host reservoirs, and human clinical specimens.

  14. Personality types in academic medicine.

    PubMed

    Wallick, M M; Cambre, K M

    1999-07-01

    Based on Swiss physician-scholar Carl G. Jung's theory of psychological types proposed in the 1920s, Kathleen Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers developed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) three decades later. They applied Jung's dynamic theory to determine how persons take in information, make decisions, and communicate thoughts and feelings. Medical students were of special interest to their research and much has been written since then about the use of the MBTI in medicine. In this study, results of MBTIs administered to 1797 freshmen students at Louisiana State University School of Medicine--New Orleans from 1988 to 1998 are compared with those reported by the MBTI developers and others over the years and throughout the United States. Findings indicate some noteworthy shifts in the psychological profile of medical students over time and among schools that may be due to changes in the delivery of health care, the increase in technology in the practice of medicine, and the dramatic increase of women in medicine.

  15. Caldera types and collapse styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre-Diaz, G. J.

    2008-12-01

    Three main types of collapse calderas can be defined, 1) summit caldera, 2) classic caldera, and 3) graben caldera. Summit calderas are those formed at the top of large volcanoes and are related to relatively small- volume pyroclastic products that include plinian fallouts and ignimbrites, such as Crater Lake, Las Cañadas, and Somma-Vesuvio. Classic calderas are semi-circular to irregular-shaped large structures, several km in diameter that are related to relatively large-volume pyroclastic products including pumice fallouts and widespread ignimbrites, such as Long-Valley, Campi Flegrei, and Los Humeros. Graben calderas are explosive volcano-tectonic collapse structures from which large-volume, ignimbrite-forming eruptions occurred through several vents along the graben walls and the intra-graben block faults causing the collapse of the graben or of a sector of the graben. The main products of graben calderas are surge-deposits and large-volume widespread ignimbrite sheets. Pumice fallouts are practically absent. Examples include the Sierra Madre Occidental in Mexico, La Pacana (Andes), Catalan Pyrenees, and perhaps Scafell (United Kingdom). Any of the three caldera types mentioned above could have collapsed at least in three different ways, 1) piston, when the collapse occurs as a single crustal block; 2) trap-door, when collapse occurs unevenly along one side while the opposite side remains with no collapse; 3) piece-meal, when collapse occurs as broken pieces of the crust on top of the magma chamber.

  16. Semantics and types of cough

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kian Fan; Bolser, Don; Davenport, Paul; Fontana, Giovanni; Morice, Alyn; Widdicombe, John

    2010-01-01

    The panel considered the different types of cough in terms of basic mechanisms and clinical manifestations; both experimentally and clinically cough could occur in single efforts and as ‘bouts’ or ‘epochs’. There were different definitions of cough but, provided the definition used was clear, this did not seem to be a major concern. The methods available for determining the nature or type of clinical cough were discussed, in particular automated cough counting in the clinic and more sophisticated methods available in the laboratory. With regard to semantics, there has been great variation in the names used; this applies to nervous sensors for cough, to cough reflexes and epochs, to clinical names for cough, and to cough sounds. Some simplification and uniformity of nomenclature seemed desirable although, provided the use of a name was clear, little confusion probably existed. The panel felt that the cough nomenclature would evolve with time and would prove to be useful for investigators, clinicians and coughers. PMID:19136069

  17. Different type of maser star

    SciTech Connect

    Dickinson, D.F.; Dinger, A.S.C.

    1982-03-01

    A systematic survey of short-period, semiregular variable stars has been made resulting in the detection of six new water masers. Of the 14 short-period maser stars now known, nine are classified as SRb variables. All are very late spectral type SRb's typically M7, while the overwhelming majority of normal SRb stars is M4 to M6. Their (2.2 ..mu..)--(11 ..mu..) colar indices are among the lowest of any known maser stars. They are presumably less dusty as well. Four of the SRb stars and two of the remainder do not obey the correlation between period and velocity spread of the emission features that is found for the Mira and long-period, semiregular variables. Finally, high galactic latitudes dominate; 13 of the 14 are in excess of 13/sup 0/, and nine of these are greater than 25/sup 0/. These facts suggest that the short-period semiregular variables: particularly the SRb stars: may be a very different type of maser star than the Mira and long-period semiregular variables.

  18. Treatment of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Scheen, André J

    2003-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a heterogeneous disease resulting from a dynamic interaction between defects in insulin secretion and insulin action. As most subjects are overweighted or obese, the initial treatment is optimization of the meal plan and enhancement of physical activity in order to obtain sustained weight reduction. In case of failure of life-style changes, various oral antihyperglycaemic agents may be used. Some are targeting defective insulin secretion (sulphonylureas, glinides) while others are targeting insulin resistance (metformin, thiazolidinediones). Criteria of drug selection should include both patient's characteristics (body weight, age, degree of hyperglycaemia, comorbidities) and pharmacological properties of the compound (mode of action, safety profile, cost). Monotherapy is usually recommended first, but combined therapy using drugs with additive or synergistic effects may be required to obtain appropriate blood glucose control. As the natural history of the disease is characterized by a progressive exhaustion of beta cells, exogenous insulin may be required in the long term, usually in combination with oral agents. Finally, as patients with type 2 diabetes are insulin-resistant and often have a metabolic syndrome, a multifactorial intervention including aggressive treatment of arterial hypertension and dyslipidaemia is recommended in order to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular complications.

  19. Microseismic sources of rotational type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; He, Junxian

    2017-04-01

    Traditionally the sources of seismic and microseismic events are related to shear fractures. The analysis of the seismic moment tensors of the sources associated with rock fracturing and hydraulic fracturing in the laboratory experiments and in-situ reveals that while there exist tensile and compressive sources, the shear sources prevail. The appearance of multiple shear sources, accompanied rock fracturing contradicts the results of the direct experiments suggesting that the rock as well as other materials not exhibiting clear plastic flow fail in tension. This contradiction is conventionally resolved by assuming the presence of multiple pre-existing shear fractures (faults or microfaults) whose sudden sliding provides microseismic events of shear type. We consider alternative mechanisms associated with bending of links between rotating particles and fragments of geomaterial and bending of bridges connecting opposite sides of hydraulic fractures. In both cases the fracturing is caused by the action of moments (or moment stresses) leading to bending, while at microscale the failure is associated with tensile microstresses leading to formation of tensile microcracks. In other words, at microscale the moment-related failure is failure in tension, as routinely observed in materials even in compression. It is easy to demonstrate that from a distance the sources of rotational type are equivalent to a standard double couple, similar to the one associated with shear fracturing. In other words what is currently interpreted as shear microseismic sources can in fact be rotational sources. This calls for new methods of detecting and interpreting microseismic sources; some possible methods are discussed.

  20. Moderately luminous Type II supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inserra, C.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.; Pumo, M. L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Botticella, M. T.; Bufano, F.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Harutyunyan, A.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Zampieri, L.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Core-collapse Supernovae (CC-SNe) descend from progenitors more massive than about 8 M⊙. Because of the young age of the progenitors, the ejecta may eventually interact with the circumstellar medium (CSM) via highly energetic processes detectable in the radio, X-ray, ultraviolet (UV) and, sometimes, in the optical domains. Aims: In this paper we present ultraviolet, optical and near infrared observations of five Type II SNe, namely SNe 2009dd, 2007pk, 2010aj, 1995ad, and 1996W. Together with few other SNe they form a group of moderately luminous Type II events. We investigate the photometric similarities and differences among these bright objects. We also attempt to characterise them by analysing the spectral evolutions, in order to find some traces of CSM-ejecta interaction. Methods: We collected photometry and spectroscopy with several telescopes in order to construct well-sampled light curves and spectral evolutions from the photospheric to the nebular phases. Both photometry and spectroscopy indicate a degree of heterogeneity in this sample. Modelling the data of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad allows us to constrain the explosion parameters and the properties of the progenitor stars. Results: The light curves have luminous peak magnitudes (-16.95 < MB < -18.70). The ejected masses of 56Ni for three SNe span a wide range of values (2.8 × 10-2 M⊙ < M(56Ni)< 1.4 × 10-1 M⊙), while for a fourth (SN 2010aj) we could determine a stringent upper limit (7 × 10-3 M⊙). Clues of interaction, such as the presence of high velocity (HV) features of the Balmer lines, are visible in the photospheric spectra of SNe 2009dd and 1996W. For SN 2007pk we observe a spectral transition from a Type IIn to a standard Type II SN. Modelling the observations of SNe 2009dd, 2010aj and 1995ad with radiation hydrodynamics codes, we infer kinetic plus thermal energies of about 0.2-0.5 foe, initial radii of 2-5 × 1013 cm and ejected masses of ~5.0-9.5 M⊙. Conclusions: These

  1. 14 CFR 21.31 - Type design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Type design. 21.31 Section 21.31... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.31 Type design. The type design consists of— (a) The... configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of this...

  2. 14 CFR 21.31 - Type design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Type design. 21.31 Section 21.31... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.31 Type design. The type design consists of— (a) The... configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of this...

  3. 14 CFR 21.31 - Type design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Type design. 21.31 Section 21.31... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.31 Type design. The type design consists of— (a) The... configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of this...

  4. 46 CFR 160.077-4 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices § 160.077-4 Type. (a) A hybrid... approval tests in this subpart require each Type V hybrid PFD to have at least the same performance as a Type I, II, or III PFD for adult and youth sizes or Type I or II PFD for child sizes. (c) A hybrid...

  5. 46 CFR 160.077-4 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices § 160.077-4 Type. (a) A hybrid... approval tests in this subpart require each Type V hybrid PFD to have at least the same performance as a Type I, II, or III PFD for adult and youth sizes or Type I or II PFD for child sizes. (c) A hybrid...

  6. 46 CFR 160.077-4 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices § 160.077-4 Type. (a) A hybrid... approval tests in this subpart require each Type V hybrid PFD to have at least the same performance as a Type I, II, or III PFD for adult and youth sizes or Type I or II PFD for child sizes. (c) A hybrid...

  7. 46 CFR 160.077-4 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices § 160.077-4 Type. (a) A hybrid... approval tests in this subpart require each Type V hybrid PFD to have at least the same performance as a Type I, II, or III PFD for adult and youth sizes or Type I or II PFD for child sizes. (c) A hybrid...

  8. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  10. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish...

  11. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels of...

  12. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish...

  13. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  14. 7 CFR 29.3561 - Type 95.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3561 Type 95. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Foreign-grown Dark...

  15. Accounting Students' Performance and Personality Types.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nourayi, Mahmoud M.; Cherry, Alan A.

    1993-01-01

    Completion of the Myers Briggs Type Inventory by 103 accounting majors revealed no significant differences among personality types in achievement, except that sensing types perform better in accounting in general. Results seem to belie the suggestion that accounting attracts introverts and that the intuitive type is best suited to accounting in…

  16. Psychological Types of Academically Gifted Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Tracy L.; Neumeister, Kristie L. Speirs; Cassady, Jerrell C.

    2007-01-01

    This study provides descriptive information about the psychological types of a sample of 931 gifted adolescents who attended a public residential academy. Psychological types are assessed with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The MBTI reports on four pairs of personality types: Extraversion/Introversion (E/I), Sensing/Intuition (S/N),…

  17. 7 CFR 29.3561 - Type 95.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3561 Type 95. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Foreign-grown Dark Air-cured produced in countries other than the United States. [49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3561 - Type 95.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3561 Type 95. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Foreign-grown Dark Air-cured produced in countries other than the United States. ...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3561 - Type 95.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3561 Type 95. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Foreign-grown Dark Air-cured produced in countries other than the United States. [49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3561 - Type 95.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign Type 95) § 29.3561 Type 95. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Foreign-grown Dark Air-cured produced in countries other than the United States. ...

  1. 14 CFR 21.31 - Type design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Type design. 21.31 Section 21.31... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.31 Type design. The type design consists of— (a) The... configuration and the design features of the product shown to comply with the requirements of that part of...

  2. 14 CFR 21.41 - Type certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Type certificate. 21.41 Section 21.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates § 21.41 Type certificate. Each type certificate...

  3. The origin and evolution of cell types.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Detlev; Musser, Jacob M; Baker, Clare V H; Bergman, Aviv; Cepko, Connie; Erwin, Douglas H; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Schlosser, Gerhard; Widder, Stefanie; Laubichler, Manfred D; Wagner, Günter P

    2016-12-01

    Cell types are the basic building blocks of multicellular organisms and are extensively diversified in animals. Despite recent advances in characterizing cell types, classification schemes remain ambiguous. We propose an evolutionary definition of a cell type that allows cell types to be delineated and compared within and between species. Key to cell type identity are evolutionary changes in the 'core regulatory complex' (CoRC) of transcription factors, that make emergent sister cell types distinct, enable their independent evolution and regulate cell type-specific traits termed apomeres. We discuss the distinction between developmental and evolutionary lineages, and present a roadmap for future research.

  4. MOUSE TRANSGENIC LINES THAT SELECTIVELY LABEL TYPE I, TYPE IIA AND TYPES IIX+B SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Chakkalakal, Joe V.; Kuang, Shihuan; Buffelli, Mario; Lichtman, Jeff W.; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers vary in contractile and metabolic properties. Four main fiber types are present in mammalian trunk and limb muscles; they are called I, IIA, IIX and IIB, ranging from slowest- to fastest-contracting. Individual muscles contain stereotyped proportions of two or more fiber types. Fiber type is determined by a combination of nerve-dependent and –independent influences, leading to formation of “homogeneous motor units” in which all branches of a single motor neuron form synapses on fibers of a single type. Fiber type composition of muscles can be altered in adulthood by multiple factors including exercise, denervation, hormones and aging. To facilitate analysis of muscle development, plasticity and innervation, we generated transgenic mouse lines in which Type I, Type IIA, and Type IIX+B fibers can be selectively labeled with distinguishable fluorophores. We demonstrate their use for motor unit reconstruction and live imaging of nerve-dependent alterations in fiber type. PMID:21898764

  5. Quantum games as quantum types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delbecque, Yannick

    In this thesis, we present a new model for higher-order quantum programming languages. The proposed model is an adaptation of the probabilistic game semantics developed by Danos and Harmer [DH02]: we expand it with quantum strategies which enable one to represent quantum states and quantum operations. Some of the basic properties of these strategies are established and then used to construct denotational semantics for three quantum programming languages. The first of these languages is a formalisation of the measurement calculus proposed by Danos et al. [DKP07]. The other two are new: they are higher-order quantum programming languages. Previous attempts to define a denotational semantics for higher-order quantum programming languages have failed. We identify some of the key reasons for this and base the design of our higher-order languages on these observations. The game semantics proposed in this thesis is the first denotational semantics for a lambda-calculus equipped with quantum types and with extra operations which allow one to program quantum algorithms. The results presented validate the two different approaches used in the design of these two new higher-order languages: a first one where quantum states are used through references and a second one where they are introduced as constants in the language. The quantum strategies presented in this thesis allow one to understand the constraints that must be imposed on quantum type systems with higher-order types. The most significant constraint is the fact that abstraction over part of the tensor product of many unknown quantum states must not be allowed. Quantum strategies are a new mathematical model which describes the interaction between classical and quantum data using system-environment dialogues. The interactions between the different parts of a quantum system are described using the rich structure generated by composition of strategies. This approach has enough generality to be put in relation with other

  6. Progenitors of Supernovae Type Ia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toonen, S.; Nelemans, G.; Bours, M.; Portegies Zwart, S.; Claeys, J.; Mennekens, N.; Ruiter, A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the significance of Type Ia supernovae (SNeIa) in many fields in astrophysics, SNeIa lack a theoretical explanation. The standard scenarios involve thermonuclear explosions of carbon/oxygen white dwarfs approaching the Chandrasekhar mass; either by accretion from a companion or by a merger of two white dwarfs. We investigate the contribution from both channels to the SNIa rate with the binary population synthesis (BPS) code SeBa in order to constrain binary processes such as the mass retention efficiency of WD accretion and common envelope evolution. We determine the theoretical rates and delay time distribution of SNIa progenitors and in particular study how assumptions affect the predicted rates.

  7. Prevention of type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Wherrett, Diane K.; Daneman, Denis

    2009-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Prevention of loss of β cells in type 1 diabetes is a major goal of current research. Knowledge of the genetic susceptibility, the increasing ability to predict who may be at risk, the recognition of the potential clinical impact of residual insulin secretion after diagnosis and the development of new immunomodulatory agents have supported an increasing number of clinical trials to prevent β cell loss. Interventions can be targeted at three stages: prior to the development of autoimmunity – primary prevention, after autoimmunity is recognized – secondary prevention or after diagnosis when significant numbers of β cells remain- tertiary prevention. Thus far a number of agents show promise when given shortly after diagnosis but no interventions prior to diagnosis have shown benefit. Knowledge in this area has grown quickly in recent years and will continue to grow rapidly with a number of international collaborative efforts underway. PMID:19944292

  8. Carnitine and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Randall L

    2009-09-01

    Studies in humans and animals demonstrate that "lipid over supply" causes or worsens insulin resistance via multiple mechanisms involving the accumulation of intracellular lipids in multiple tissues. In particular, the accumulation of fatty acyl CoA derivatives/metabolites in muscle inhibits both insulin signaling and glucose oxidation. Therefore agents that ameliorate the accumulation of fatty acyl CoA derivatives and/or their metabolites would be beneficial in the treatment or prevention of insulin resistance and T2D. Hyperinsulemic/euglycemic clamp studies in humans and carnitine supplementation studies in rodents provide "proof-of-concept" that carnitine is effective at improving insulin-stimulated glucose utilization and in reversing abnormalities of fuel metabolism associated with T2D. Carefully controlled clinical trials are warranted to determine the efficacy dietary carnitine supplementation as an adjunctive treatment for type 2 diabetes.

  9. Chandra Early Type Galaxy Atals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Woo; Anderson, Craig; Burke, Douglas J.; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Fruscione, Antonella; Lauer, Jennifer; McCollough, Michael; Morgan, Douglas; Mossman, Amy; O'Sullivan, Ewan; Paggi, Alessandro; Vrtilek, Saeqa Dil; Trinchieri, Ginevra

    2017-08-01

    The hot gas in early type galaxies (ETGs) plays a crucial role in understanding their formation and evolution. As the hot gas is often extended to the outskirts beyond the optical size, the large scale structural features identified by Chandra (including jets, cavities, cold fronts, filaments and tails) point to key evolutionary mechanisms, e.g., AGN feedback, merging history, accretion, stripping and star formation and its quenching. We have systematically analyzed the archival Chandra data of ~100 ETGs to study the hot ISM. We produce the uniformly derived data products with spatially resolved spectral information and will make them accessible via a public web site. With 2D spectral infomation, we further discuss gas morphology, scaling relations, X-ray based mass profiles and their implications related to various physical mechanisms (e.g., stellar and AGN feedback).

  10. Student selection and preference types.

    PubMed

    Gaskey, N J

    1982-02-01

    The use of paper and pencil tests for the selection of candidates and to identify individual differences should be approached cautiously because the interpretations of the tests can be very subjective. Although personal preferences do tend to become more stable as we grow older, they may vary from one day to the next. No one is an absolute extrovert or introvert; we all have tendencies toward one or the other depending on the particular situation and the mitigating circumstances. The preference type indicator is not recommended for use in selecting candidates for entrance into a nurse anesthesia program; but, rather, to make members of the department aware of the similarities and differences among people. It is helpful in making individuals aware of the other person's preferences. It is also useful in making them aware of the need to examine their own areas of weakness and to improve them before attempting to change someone else.

  11. Two types of psychological hedonism.

    PubMed

    Garson, Justin

    2016-04-01

    I develop a distinction between two types of psychological hedonism. Inferential hedonism (or "I-hedonism") holds that each person only has ultimate desires regarding his or her own hedonic states (pleasure and pain). Reinforcement hedonism (or "R-hedonism") holds that each person's ultimate desires, whatever their contents are, are differentially reinforced in that person's cognitive system only by virtue of their association with hedonic states. I'll argue that accepting R-hedonism and rejecting I-hedonism provides a conciliatory position on the traditional altruism debate, and that it coheres well with the neuroscientist Anthony Dickinson's theory about the evolutionary function of hedonic states, the "hedonic interface theory." Finally, I'll defend R-hedonism from potential objections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Strut type suspension for automobile

    SciTech Connect

    Sakata, M.; Minakawa, M.

    1986-11-04

    This patent describes a strut type suspension for automobiles having a chassis. The suspension comprises a support member for rotatably supporting a wheel, a lower control arm extending in the widthwise direction of the chassis and connected pivotably at its outer ends and extending substantially in a longitudinal direction of the chassis with the one end thereof pivotably connected to the chassis, and a brake unit in the wheel. The brake unit is in a central portion of the wheel with a recess opened to an inner side of the chassis, the support member having an integral member extending inwardly and downwardly of the chassis and connected with the other end of the radius rod. The outer end of the lower control arm is pivoted to the support member extending into the recess so that the pivot is located close to the center line contact of the wheel with the ground.

  13. Rashba-type plasmonic metasurface.

    PubMed

    Shitrit, Nir; Maayani, Shai; Veksler, Dekel; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez

    2013-11-01

    Observation of the plasmonic Rashba effect manifested by a polarization helicity degeneracy removal in a surface wave excitation via an inversion asymmetric metamaterial is reported. By designing the metasurface symmetry using anisotropic nanoantennas with space-variant orientations, we govern the light-matter interaction via the local field distribution arising in a wavelength and a photon spin control. The broken spatial inversion symmetry is experimentally manifested by a directional excitation of surface wave jets observed via a decoupling slit as well as by the quantum dot fluorescence. Rashba-type plasmonic metasurfaces provide a route for spin-based nanoscale devices controlled by the metamaterial symmetry and usher in a new era of light manipulation.

  14. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) is an autosomal-dominant cancer syndrome characterized by variable penetrance of medullary thyroid carcinoma(MTC), pheochromocytoma (PHEO), and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). MEN2 consists of two clinical subtypes, MEN2A and MEN2B. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is now viewed as a phenotypic variant of MEN2A with decreased penetrance for PHEO and PHPT rather than a distinct entity. All subtypes are caused by gain-of-function mutations of the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. Recognition of the clinical entity in individuals and families at risk of harboring a germline RET mutation is crucial for the management and prevention of associated malignancies. Recent guidelines released by the American Thyroid Association regarding the management of MTC will be summarized in this chapter.

  15. [Mucolipidoses type II. Case report].

    PubMed

    Aracena, Mariana; Mabe, Paulina; Mena, María; Andreani, Silvia; Daza, Claudio

    2003-03-01

    We report a female newborn with type II mucolipidoses. This condition is characterized clinically by Hurler like features, progressive psychomotor retardation and death during the first or second year of life. Most cases present during the first year of life, with poor weight gain and coarse facies features. The cause of this rare autosomal recessive hereditary disease is the deficiency of the enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase, required for the synthesis of mannose-6-phosphate, the ligand that allows the transport of acid hydrolases into lysosomes. The patient had clinical features commonly found in mucolipidosis II, including disproportionate dwarfism, retarded psychomotor development, coarse facies features, gibbous and restricted joint mobility. The diagnosis was proved by an extremely elevated activity of lysosomal enzymes in the serum, secondary to non-regulated secretion and subsequent intracellular depletion of these proteins. The child suffered recurrent pneumonia and died at 22 months of age.

  16. Nanomechanics of Type I Collagen.

    PubMed

    Varma, Sameer; Orgel, Joseph P R O; Schieber, Jay D

    2016-07-12

    Type I collagen is the predominant collagen in mature tendons and ligaments, where it gives them their load-bearing mechanical properties. Fibrils of type I collagen are formed by the packing of polypeptide triple helices. Higher-order structures like fibril bundles and fibers are assembled from fibrils in the presence of other collagenous molecules and noncollagenous molecules. Curiously, however, experiments show that fibrils/fibril bundles are less resistant to axial stress compared to their constituent triple helices-the Young's moduli of fibrils/fibril bundles are an order-of-magnitude smaller than the Young's moduli of triple helices. Given the sensitivity of the Young's moduli of triple helices to solvation environment, a plausible explanation is that the packing of triple helices into fibrils perhaps reduces the Young's modulus of an individual triple helix, which results in fibrils having smaller Young's moduli. We find, however, from molecular dynamics and accelerated conformational sampling simulations that the Young's modulus of the buried core of the fibril is of the same order as that of a triple helix in aqueous phase. These simulations, therefore, suggest that the lower Young's moduli of fibrils/fibril bundles cannot be attributed to the specific packing of triple helices in the fibril core. It is not the fibril core that yields initially to axial stress. Rather, it must be the portion of the fibril exposed to the solvent and/or the fibril-fibril interface that bears the initial strain. Overall, this work provides estimates of Young's moduli and persistence lengths at two levels of collagen's structural assembly, which are necessary to quantitatively investigate the response of various biological factors on collagen mechanics, including congenital mutations, posttranslational modifications and ligand binding, and also engineer new collagen-based materials.

  17. Carnitine in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Mingrone, Geltrude

    2004-11-01

    Carnitine, the L-beta-hydroxy-gamma-N-trimethylaminobutyric acid, is synthesized primarily in the liver and kidneys from lysine and methionine. Carnitine covers an important role in lipid metabolism, acting as an obligatory cofactor for beta-oxidation of fatty acids by facilitating the transport of long-chain fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane as acylcarnitine esters. Furthermore, since carnitine behaves as a shuttle for acetyl groups from inside to outside the mitochondrial membrane, it covers also a key role in glucose metabolism and assists in fuel-sensing. A reduction of the fatty acid transport inside the mitochondria results in the cytosolic accumulation of triglycerides, which is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Acute hypercarnitinemia stimulates nonoxidative glucose disposal during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp in healthy volunteers. Similar results were obtained in type 2 diabetic patients. The above findings were confirmed in healthy volunteers using the minimal modeling of glucose kinetics. The total end-clamp glucose tissue uptake was significantly increased by the administration of doses of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) from 3.8 to 5.2 mg/kg/min, without a significant dose-response effect. In conclusion, both L-carnitine and ALC are effective in improving insulin-mediated glucose disposal either in healthy subjects or in type 2 diabetic patients. Two possible mechanisms might be invoked in the metabolic effect of carnitine and its derivative: the first is a regulation of acetyl and acyl cellular trafficking for correctly meeting the energy demand; the second is a control action in the synthesis of key glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes.

  18. Hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Amiel, S A; Dixon, T; Mann, R; Jameson, K

    2008-03-01

    The primary cause of hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes is diabetes medication-in particular, those which raise insulin levels independently of blood glucose, such as sulphonylureas (SUs) and exogenous insulin. The risk of hypoglycaemia is increased in older patients, those with longer diabetes duration, lesser insulin reserve and perhaps in the drive for strict glycaemic control. Differing definitions, data collection methods, drug type/regimen and patient populations make comparing rates of hypoglycaemia difficult. It is clear that patients taking insulin have the highest rates of self-reported severe hypoglycaemia (25% in patients who have been taking insulin for > 5 years). SUs are associated with significantly lower rates of severe hypoglycaemia. However, large numbers of patients take SUs in the UK, and it is estimated that each year > 5000 patients will experience a severe event caused by their SU therapy which will require emergency intervention. Hypoglycaemia has substantial clinical impact, in terms of mortality, morbidity and quality of life. The cost implications of severe episodes-both direct hospital costs and indirect costs-are considerable: it is estimated that each hospital admission for severe hypoglycaemia costs around pound1000. Hypoglycaemia and fear of hypoglycaemia limit the ability of current diabetes medications to achieve and maintain optimal levels of glycaemic control. Newer therapies, which focus on the incretin axis, may carry a lower risk of hypoglycaemia. Their use, and more prudent use of older therapies with low risk of hypoglycaemia, may help patients achieve improved glucose control for longer, and reduce the risk of diabetic complications.

  19. A Type-S radiation thermometer for steel mills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, G. Raymond

    2003-04-01

    The need for standardization in infrared radiation thermometry has never been more significant than now, particularly in the US Steel industry. The situation must be similar to that faced by thermocouple users and makers in the last century. The technology is mature and the applications well understood by pyrometry and instrumentation specialists. Yet, neither is well understood by the majority of mill engineers. Selection of optimum devices for various mill applications requires specialized knowledge. The steel companies have trimmed staff to the point that vendors are becoming the default technology specialists. Yet the companies have no means to evaluate the competence of competing vendors and their devices. They thus default to devices & practices believed adequate instead of proven optimums. One solution is to develop a comprehensive set of standards, similar to those for thermocouples. These would include terminology, used in device specifications, along with recommended practices for use of certain device types in specific mill conditions and finally recommended practices for ancillary equipment & utilities, installation, commissioning, maintenance and periodic calibration verification.

  20. PCR for capsular typing of Haemophilus influenzae.

    PubMed Central

    Falla, T J; Crook, D W; Brophy, L N; Maskell, D; Kroll, J S; Moxon, E R

    1994-01-01

    A PCR method for the unequivocal assignment of Haemophilus influenzae capsular type (types a to f) was developed. PCR primers were designed from capsule type-specific DNA sequences cloned from the capsular gene cluster of each of the six capsular types. PCR product was amplified only from the capsular type for which the primers were designed. Product was confirmed by using either an internal oligonucleotide or restriction endonuclease digestion. A total of 172 H. influenzae strains of known capsular type (determined genetically) comprising all capsular types and noncapsulate strains were tested by PCR capsular typing. In all cases the PCR capsular type corresponded to the capsular genotype determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the cap region. When used in conjunction with PCR primers derived from the capsular gene bexA, capsulate, noncapsulate, and capsule-deficient type b mutant strains could be differentiated. PCR capsular typing overcomes the problems of cross-reaction and autoagglutination associated with the serotyping of H. influenzae strains. The rapid and unequivocal capsular typing method that is described will be particularly important for typing invasive H. influenzae strains isolated from recipients of H. influenzae type b vaccine. Images PMID:7814470

  1. Ignimbrite types and ignimbrite problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, George P. L.

    1983-09-01

    A spectrum of ignimbrite emplacement types exists, ranging from the "conventional" high-aspect ratio (H.A.R.I.) type, emplaced relatively quietly and passively in valleys, to the low-aspect ratio (L.A.R.I.) type, emplaced cataclysmically. Features of the L.A.R.I., such as a remarkable ability to scale mountains and cross open water and a strong fines-depletion of part of their deposits, stem from a high flow velocity which may result from an extremely high magma discharge rate. Being less rare than large-volume H.A.R.I. eruptions covering the same area, L.A.R.I. eruptions are a much more immediate volcanic hazard. Being thin and inconspicuous, a L.A.R.I. may easily be overlooked when determining the past record of a volcano. Another ignimbrite spectrum depends on variations in particle viscosity during emplacement and extends from the low-grade (water-cooled?) ignimbrite which is totally non-welded even if >50 m thick, to the high-grade (superheated?) one which is densely welded even if <50 m thick. Problems of air-cooling and water-cooling of ash flows need to be tackled, and it may be necessary to recognize strongly cooled ash flows which were emplaced in part at <100°C. One problem of ignimbrite eruptions is the origin of the extensive associated ash fall, comparable in volume to the ignimbrite. This ash may be: (a) pre-ignimbrite Plinian pumice; (b) co-ignimbrite ash, containing material lost from both the eruptive column and ash flow; (c) phreatoplinian, due to the entry of significant amounts of water into the vent; (d) phreatoplinian co-ignimbrite, due to explosions at rootless vents where ash flows enter water from land. Another problem is the origin of associated well-sorted and sometimes wavy-bedded deposits. These deposits may be from: (a) base surges, related to either the collapsing column or entry of water to the vent; (b) base surges, due to explosions at rootless vents where ash flows enter water from land; (c) fines depletion in, and deposition

  2. Temperature anisotropy and beam type whistler instabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Matsumoto, H.

    1976-01-01

    Whistler instabilities have been investigated for two different types; i.e., a temperature-anisotropy type instability and a beam-type instability. A comparison between the two types of whistler instabilities is made within the framework of linear theory. A transition from one type to the other is also discussed, which is an extension of the work on electrostatic beam and Landau instabilities performed by O'Neil and Malmberg (1968) for electromagnetic whistler instabilities. It is clarified that the essential source of the whistler instability is not beam kinetic energy but a temperature anisotropy, even for the beam-type whistler instability.

  3. Type 1 diabetes associated autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Kahaly, George J; Hansen, Martin P

    2016-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is increasing in prevalence worldwide. The economic costs are considerable given the cardiovascular complications and co-morbidities that it may entail. Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the loss of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. The pathogenesis of T1D is complex and multifactorial and involves a genetic susceptibility that predisposes to abnormal immune responses in the presence of ill-defined environmental insults to the pancreatic islets. Genetic background may affect the risk for autoimmune disease and patients with T1D exhibit an increased risk of other autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune thyroid disease, Addison's disease, autoimmune gastritis, coeliac disease and vitiligo. Approximately 20%-25% of patients with T1D have thyroid antibodies, and up to 50% of such patients progress to clinical autoimmune thyroid disease. Approximately 0.5% of diabetic patients have concomitant Addison's disease and 4% have coeliac disease. The prevalence of autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia is 5% to 10% and 2.6% to 4%, respectively. Early detection of antibodies and latent organ-specific dysfunction is advocated to alert physicians to take appropriate action in order to prevent full-blown disease. Patients and family members should be educated to be able to recognize signs and symptoms of underlying disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards new Grangier type experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2012-07-01

    The experiment on coincidence detection which was done by Grangier in 1986 [18] played a crucial role in rejection of (semi-)classical field models in favour of quantum mechanics (QM). QM predicts that the relative probability of coincidence detection, the degree of second order coherence, g(0) is zero (for one photon states), but in (semi-)classical models g(0)≥1. We present a purely wave model (based on classical random field) which reproduces quantum probabilities given by the fundamental law of quantum mechanics (Born's rule). The crucial point of our approach is that the presence of a detector's threshold has to be treated not as simply an experimental technicality, but as the basic counterpart of the theoretical model. We call this approach the threshold signal detection model (TSD). In TSD, the degree of second order coherence g(0) decreases as 1/Ed2, where Ed is the detection threshold. Hence, by increasing this threshold an experimenter can make g(0) essentially less than 1. The TSD-prediction can be tested experimentally in new Grangier type experiments presenting a detailed monitoring of dependence of the degree of second order coherence g(0) on the detection threshold.

  5. Capacitor-type micrometeoroid detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortman, J. J.; Griffis, D. P.; Bryan, S. R.; Kinard, W.

    1986-01-01

    The metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor micrometeroid detector consists of a thin dielectric capacitor fabricated on a silicon wafer. In operation, the device is charged to a voltage level sufficiently near breakdown that micrometeoroid impacts will cause dielectric deformation or heating and subsequent arc-over at the point of impact. Each detector is capable of recording multiple impacts because of the self-healing characteristics of the device. Support instrumentation requirements consist of a voltage source and pulse counters that monitor the pulse of recharging current following every impact. An investigation has been conducted in which 0.5 to 5 micron diameter carbonized iron spheres traveling at velocities of 4 to 10 Km/sec were impacted on to detectors with either a dielectric thickness of 0.4 or 1.0 micron. This study demonstrated that an ion microprobe tuned to sufficiently high resolution can detect Fe remaining on the detector after the impact. Furthermore, it is also possible to resolve Fe ion images free of mass interferences from Si, for example, giving its spatial distribution after impact. Specifically this technique has shown that significant amounts of impacting particles remain in the crater and near it which can be analyzed for isotopic content. Further testing and calibration could lead to quantitive analysis. This study has shown that the capacitor type micrometeroid detector is capable of not only time and flux measurements but can also be used for isotopic analysis.

  6. Sugar and Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lean, Michael E J; Te Morenga, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    Consumption of sugar, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages, has been widely held responsible by the media for the global rise in Type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Systematic reviews and dietary guidelines relating dietary sugars to T2DM. Weight gain and T2DM incidence are associated with diet and lifestyle patterns characterized by high consumptions of any sweetened beverages. High sugar intakes impair risk factors for macrovascular complications of T2DM. Much of the association between sugars and T2DM is eliminated by adjusting data for body mass index (BMI). However, BMI adjustment does not fully account for adiposity (r(2)=0.65-0.75). Excess sugar can promote weight gain, thus T2DM, through extra calories, but has no unique diabetogenic effect at physiological levels. Ethical concerns about caffeine added to sweetened beverages, undetectable by consumers, to increase consumption. Evidence needed for limiting dietary sugar below 10% energy intake. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. [Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Okopień, Bogusław

    2012-04-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 syndrome (MEN-2) is a rare hereditary cancer syndrome with autosomal dominant trait of inheritance. The most characteristic feature of this syndrome is a complete penetrance of medullary thyroid cancer. On the basis of differences in variable expression of pheochromocytomas, hyperparathyroidism, and other clinical features, MEN-2 is divided into three clinical variants, referred to as MEN-2A, MEN-2B and familial medullary thyroid cancer. In the most frequent variant, MEN-2A syndrome, apart from thyroid carcinoma, this syndrome includes also unilateral or bilateral pheochromocytoma and hyperparathyroidism. In less common MEN-2B, medullary thyroid cancer and pheochromocytoma occur together with complex nervous and skeletal abnormalities. Familial medullary thyroid cancer is a variant of MEN-2 in which individuals affected develop only this neoplasm without other manifestations of MEN-2. It is well known that MEN-2 is caused by mutations of different codons of the RET proto-oncogene. The identification of mutations associated with this syndrome has led to genetic testing to identify patients at risk for MEN-2. There is a significant genotype-phenotype correlation, which allows a more individualised approach to the timing of prophylactic thyroidectomy. In this paper, we review the current views on the etiopathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of MEN-2.

  8. [The new types of addiction].

    PubMed

    Semaille, P

    2009-09-01

    Addiction is characterized by the inability to control his consumption of product or control certain behaviors, and the continuation of the behavior despite knowledge of its adverse effects. Addictions to substances like heroin, cocaine, etc., are well known. But other substances potentially addictive are getting more common in Belgium: MDMA, GHB / GBL, Cristal, etc. The existence of addictions without substance (called also behavioral addiction) is well recognized now: gambling addiction seems to be the most common and has been recognized as a disease by WHO, but we can also observe cyberaddiction, addiction to sex, workalholic, addiction to shopping, etc. The screening of poly-addiction or to one substance or one behavior should be systematized in the history of every patient. This screening should be facilitated through the development and validation of a cross scale. Particular attention will be paid to certain groups, both in primary prevention and screening: men, adolescents and young adults, university students or high schools, clubbers, sporting people, prisoners, ethnic minorities, people with mental disorders like depression. Primary care workers, and especially general practitioners, are at the first place to detect those different forms of addiction, can affort appropriate care according to patient's characteristics and type addiction, and to identify high-risk situations for relapse.

  9. Novel type of micromachined retroreflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundvall, Axel; Lindstroem, Tomas; Nikolajeff, Fredrik K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on the manufacturing of a novel type of retroreflecting sheeting material. The geometry presented has high reflection efficiency even at large incident angles, and it can be manufactured at low cost through polymer replication techniques. The paper consists of two parts. A theoretical section outlining the design parameters and their impact on the optical performance, and secondly, an experimental part comprising both manufacturing and optical evaluation for a candidate retroreflecting sheet material in traffic control devices. Experimental data show that the retroreflecting properties are promising. The retroreflector consists of a front layer of densely packed spherical microlenses, a back surface of densely packed spherical micromirrors, and a transparent spacer layer with a thickness equal or not equal to the focal length of the lens. The master structures for the lens and mirror sides of the retroreflector were produced by thermal reflow of photoresist pads on silicon wafers. The silicon master structures were transferred into metallic counterparts by electroforming. The casting of the retroreflector was then done in a cavity being limited by the respective mould inserts for the lens and mirror sides.

  10. Botulinum toxin type B micromechanosensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, W.; Montana, Vedrana; Chapman, Edwin R.; Mohideen, U.; Parpura, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) types A, B, E, and F are toxic to humans; early and rapid detection is essential for adequate medical treatment. Presently available tests for detection of BoNTs, although sensitive, require hours to days. We report a BoNT-B sensor whose properties allow detection of BoNT-B within minutes. The technique relies on the detection of an agarose bead detachment from the tip of a micromachined cantilever resulting from BoNT-B action on its substratum, the synaptic protein synaptobrevin 2, attached to the beads. The mechanical resonance frequency of the cantilever is monitored for the detection. To suspend the bead off the cantilever we use synaptobrevin's molecular interaction with another synaptic protein, syntaxin 1A, that was deposited onto the cantilever tip. Additionally, this bead detachment technique is general and can be used in any displacement reaction, such as in receptor-ligand pairs, where the introduction of one chemical leads to the displacement of another. The technique is of broad interest and will find uses outside toxicology. PMID:14573702

  11. Diversity in Type Ibn supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Valenti, Stefano; Arcavi, Iair; Howell, Dale Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Iptf, Pessto

    2015-01-01

    Type Ibn supernovae (SNe Ibn) are rare explosions of massive stars whose spectra exhibit narrow helium emission lines but no hydrogen lines. The narrow lines are thought to indicate interaction between the SN ejecta and circumstellar material from previous episodes of mass loss. Only a handful of SNe Ibn have been observed, and even fewer have been caught near the time of explosion. However, in the single case where a SN Ibn had multiple observations during the rising phase (iPTF13beo), its light curve exhibited a double peak. Here we present well-sampled multi-band photometry and spectroscopy of another SN Ibn, iPTF14aki, combining data from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF), the Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT), and the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey of Transient Objects (PESSTO). We compare this object to other published and previously unpublised SNe Ibn and find that not all such events have a double-peaked light curve. We also discuss constraints on prior episodes of mass loss and the properties of the group as a whole.

  12. Membrane-type Acoustic Metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guancong

    Resonant-base membrane-type acoustic metamaterials (MAMs) are investigated with experiments and simulations. Three exotic phenomena, including negative effective mass density, negative effective bulk modulus, and total absorption are demonstrated. As a start, a single-membrane resonator, which consists of a tightened piece of elastic membrane with a relatively rigid weight attached to the center, is studied in detail. It is shown that due to the anti-resonance, such structure is capable of totally reflecting low-frequency airborne sound. With the help of the simulations, we further reveal that the anti-resonance results in extremely large effective mass density, further explaining the large transmission loss. By establishing coupling between two MAMs via a sealed section of air, we discovered that the system displays clear monopolar resonance. Consequently, negativity in effective bulk modulus is achieved. The third kind of MAM is intended to be a perfect absorber for low-frequency sound. The task is accomplished by using asymmetric rigid platelets. We show that the eigenmodes' displacement profiles have large curvatures around the platelets' perimeters, implying highly concentrated elastic bending energy. Also, the broken symmetry introduces rotational freedom into our MAM. Consequently, the eigenmodes' coupling to far-field radiation is effectively reduced, thereby giving rise to strong absorption.

  13. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type I.

    PubMed

    Beukes, E; Dent, D M; De Villiers, J C; Miller, J L

    1985-08-17

    During the 13-year period 1970-1983 only 7 cases of multiple endocrine neoplasia type I (MEN I) were seen at Groote Schuur Hospital, suggesting that the associated gene is rare in this area. Only 1 of these patients was black. Endocrine associations were as follows: hyperparathyroidism--6 cases, pituitary hypersecretion--6 cases (3 each involving growth hormone and prolactin), and pancreatic hypersecretion--3 cases (2 of gastrinoma and 1 of insulinoma). The presenting features were predictably diverse and depended on the component which manifested first. There was little difficulty in reaching a diagnosis on routine investigation. All patients with hyperparathyroidism underwent a 3 1/2-gland parathyroidectomy as the first treatment procedure, normocalcaemia being achieved in 5 cases, but persistent hypercalcaemia in the 6th suggested a supernumerary gland. A pituitary adenoma was removed in 4 cases, but persistent prolactinaemia necessitated bromocriptine therapy in 3. Successful distal pancreatectomy was undertaken in a patient with insulinoma and a patient with gastrinoma, and a further patient with gastrinoma awaits surgery. The overall prognosis in cases of MEN I appears to depend on the most aggressive component, often the pancreatic lesion; our patients have run a surprisingly benign course with only 1 late death, from hypertensive heart disease.

  14. Immunogenetics of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mimi S; Polychronakos, Constantin

    2005-01-01

    The T-cell mediated autoimmune process that destroys pancreatic beta cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a complex phenotype influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) accounts for about half of the genetic susceptibility, through a large variety of protective and predisposing haplotypes. Other important loci associated with T1D, with much smaller effects than HLA, include the insulin variable number of tandem repeats, PTPN22, and CTLA-4. Detecting the association and confirming it beyond doubt is only the first step. Identifying the functional variant from among a block of polymorphisms in tight linkage disequilibrium and determining its biological consequences can be an even more challenging task. It is hoped that the identification of additional loci and functional analysis of known ones, no matter how small each individual effect is, will provide: (1) pathophysiological insights necessary for the development of preventive interventions; (2) risk prediction to identify individuals that can benefit from them, and (3) potentially, identification of distinct subgenotypes, with different immune dysregulation pathways leading to the common disease phenotype that may respond to different preventive interventions. (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. New types of lanthanide complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Kahwa, I.A.K.

    1986-01-01

    Three new types of lanthanide (Ln) complexes, namely, the first examples of homodinuclear macrocyclic lanthanide complexes, novel binary and ternary gaseous polyatomic lanthanide oxides and new lanthanide oxalato complexes are described in chapters one, two and three respectively. The homodinuclear complexes are 2:2 condensation products of 2,6-diformyl-p-cresol and triethylenetetramine templated by Ln(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ and Ln(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 3/. The complexes are dimorphic, and are off-white (the more stable form) when they are obtained from dilute solutions and orange if they arise from more concentrated reactants. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB MS), electronic absorption and IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetry along with preliminary spectroscopic studies using electron paramagnetic resonance, magnetic susceptibility and luminescence. The orange complexes exhibit more antiferromagnetic exchange interactions, low Ln/sup 3 +/magnetic moments and multi-exponential luminescence decay kinetics, whereas the off-white complexes show single exponential luminescence decay and free ion magnetic moments. At low temperatures and in presence of excess triethylenetetramine, solvated light lanthanide mononuclear complexes of a 1:1 acyclic Schiff base acetal were isolated and the structure of one of these was confirmed by single crystal x-ray diffraction crystallography.

  16. Critical Differences between the Type-A Prone and Type-A Personalitites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1984-01-01

    Type-A Prone and Type-A personalities were assessed on the basis of the Cassel Type-A Personality Assessment Profile. Statistical data analysis indicated differences in positive lifestyle, blood pressure, and self-control and no differences in negative lifestyle, pulse rate, or peripheral temperature. Type-A Prone and Type-A norm profiles were…

  17. Irreversible inhibition of type I dehydroquinase by substrates for type II dehydroquinase.

    PubMed

    Bello, C G; Harris, J M; Manthey, M K; Coggins, J R; Abell, C

    2000-03-06

    Mechanistic differences between type I and type II dehydroquinases have been exploited in the design of type specific inhibitors. (2R)-2-Bromo-3-dehydroquinic acid (3), (2R)-2-fluoro-3-dehydroquinic acid (5) and 2-bromo-3-dehydroshikimic acid (4), all excellent substrates for type II dehydroquinase, are shown to be irreversible inhibitors of type I dehydroquinase.

  18. Critical Differences between the Type-A Prone and Type-A Personalitites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1984-01-01

    Type-A Prone and Type-A personalities were assessed on the basis of the Cassel Type-A Personality Assessment Profile. Statistical data analysis indicated differences in positive lifestyle, blood pressure, and self-control and no differences in negative lifestyle, pulse rate, or peripheral temperature. Type-A Prone and Type-A norm profiles were…

  19. 46 CFR 160.053-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-2 Type. (a) Unicellular plastic foam work vests specified by this subpart shall be of the type described in Military Specification...

  20. 46 CFR 160.057-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-2 Type. (a) Floating orange. smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  1. 46 CFR 160.022-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (5 Minutes) § 160.022-2 Type. (a) Floating orange smoke distress signals, specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  2. 46 CFR 160.022-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (5 Minutes) § 160.022-2 Type. (a) Floating orange smoke distress signals, specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  3. 46 CFR 160.057-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-2 Type. (a) Floating orange. smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall...

  4. Delaying or Preventing Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Preventing Type 2 Diabetes Perhaps you have learned that you have a ... I lower my chances of developing type 2 diabetes? Research such as the Diabetes Prevention Program shows ...

  5. 46 CFR 160.053-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-2 Type. (a) Unicellular plastic foam work vests specified by this subpart shall be of the type described in Military...

  6. Gardasil 9 Protects against Additional HPV Types

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from a large randomized clinical trial that shows a new human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine effectively prevented infection and disease caused by seven HPV types that cause cancer and two HPV types that cause genital warts.

  7. 46 CFR 160.053-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Work Vests, Unicellular Plastic Foam § 160.053-2 Type. (a) Unicellular plastic foam work vests specified by this subpart shall be of the type described in Military...

  8. 46 CFR 160.023-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-2 Type. (a) Hand combination flare and smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of the type described in...

  9. 46 CFR 160.023-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-2 Type. (a) Hand combination flare and smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of the type described in...

  10. 7 CFR 30.6 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.6 Type. A subdivision of a class of leaf tobacco, having certain common characteristics which permit of its being divided into a...

  11. 7 CFR 30.6 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.6 Type. A subdivision of a class of leaf tobacco, having certain common characteristics which permit of its being divided into a...

  12. 7 CFR 30.6 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.6 Type. A subdivision of a class of leaf tobacco, having certain common characteristics which permit of its being divided into a...

  13. 7 CFR 30.6 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.6 Type. A subdivision of a class of leaf tobacco, having certain common characteristics which permit of its being divided into a...

  14. 46 CFR 161.006-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Searchlights, Motor Lifeboat, for Merchant Vessels § 161.006-2 Type. (a) The motor lifeboat searchlight shall be of the incandescent type equipped with a lamp of approximately 90... radio storage battery. (b) ...

  15. 46 CFR 161.006-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Searchlights, Motor Lifeboat, for Merchant Vessels § 161.006-2 Type. (a) The motor lifeboat searchlight shall be of the incandescent type equipped with a lamp of approximately 90... radio storage battery. (b) ...

  16. 46 CFR 161.006-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Searchlights, Motor Lifeboat, for Merchant Vessels § 161.006-2 Type. (a) The motor lifeboat searchlight shall be of the incandescent type equipped with a lamp of approximately 90... radio storage battery. (b) ...

  17. 46 CFR 161.006-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Searchlights, Motor Lifeboat, for Merchant Vessels § 161.006-2 Type. (a) The motor lifeboat searchlight shall be of the incandescent type equipped with a lamp of approximately 90... radio storage battery. (b) ...

  18. 46 CFR 161.006-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT Searchlights, Motor Lifeboat, for Merchant Vessels § 161.006-2 Type. (a) The motor lifeboat searchlight shall be of the incandescent type equipped with a lamp of approximately 90... radio storage battery. (b) ...

  19. 46 CFR 160.023-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-2 Type. (a) Hand combination flare and smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of the type described...

  20. 46 CFR 160.023-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-2 Type. (a) Hand combination flare and smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of the type described...

  1. 46 CFR 160.023-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Combination Flare and Smoke Distress Signals § 160.023-2 Type. (a) Hand combination flare and smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of the type described...

  2. Identifying Southern Forest Types on Aerial Photographs

    Treesearch

    Gene Avery

    1960-01-01

    This booklet has been prepared to assist photo interpreters in recognizing broad forest types on aerial photographs of the South, and to illustrate primary differences between panchromatic and infrared photography from the standpoint of timber type-mapping.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: atelosteogenesis type 1

    MedlinePlus

    ... atelosteogenesis, type i Orphanet: Atelosteogenesis type I Patient Support and Advocacy Resources (3 links) International Skeletal Dysplasia Registry, UCLA March of Dimes: Loss and Grief The Compassionate Friends GeneReviews (1 link) FLNB-Related ...

  4. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Type 2 Diabetes Widespread in Adults Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table ... pre-diabetes have an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes, the most common form of diabetes, and for ...

  5. Who Needs Ten-Finger Typing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Holly

    1984-01-01

    Issues related to the teaching of typing are discussed, focusing on the need for typing skills when using computers. Also compares use of the "QWERTY" to the Dvorak keyboards, considering the advantages and disadvantages of each. (JN)

  6. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting There are several types of coronary ... for you based on your needs. Traditional Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Traditional CABG is used when at ...

  7. Discussion and Other Types of Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furner, Mary O.

    1971-01-01

    The author considers the various types of talk--recitation, inductive questioning, and discussion--a teacher can employ in the classroom to achieve various objectives. She urges a judicious mixture of these types. (Author/JB)

  8. Type 2 Diabetes and TZDs (Thiazolidinediones)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs ... Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs ...

  9. Types of Faculty Scholars in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Toby J.; Braxton, John M.; Lyken-Segosebe, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes three empirically derived types of faculty scholars in community colleges: Immersed Scholars, Scholars of Dissemination, and Scholars of Pedagogical Knowledge. This chapter discusses these types and offers a recommendation.

  10. Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Type II Endoleaks

    PubMed Central

    Kuziez, Mohamed S; Sanchez, Luis A; Zayed, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    Type II endoleaks occur commonly following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Although they remain enigmatic, multiples studies have evaluated preoperative risk factors and strategies for prevention of type II endoleaks. Prophylactic treatment of type II endoleaks can include embolization of accessory arteries, as well as complete aneurysmal sac occlusion. Regular post-operative surveillance and screening for type II endoleaks with triple-phase CTA is the standard of care. Aneurysm size and growth rate are factors that predict whether a persistence type II endoleak is hemodynamically significant, and whether it requires treatment with percutaneous trans-lumbar or trans-arterial embolization techniques. Less commonly, type II endoleaks can be repaired using laparoscopic or open surgical ligation of feeder arterial branches. Emerging methods using endovascular aneurysm sac sealing technology may continue to alter the incidence and long-term management strategies of type II endoleaks. Here we review the latest strategies in the treatment of Type II endoleaks following EVAR. PMID:27857945

  11. A Pilot Study of Personality Type Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lee

    1980-01-01

    Used the Myers Briggs Type Indicator to measure personality type changes in three developmentally disabled adolescents before and after token economy treatment was conducted in a half-way house. (Author/DB)

  12. 46 CFR 160.057-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-2 Type. (a) Floating orange. smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall consist...

  13. 46 CFR 160.057-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-2 Type. (a) Floating orange. smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall consist...

  14. 46 CFR 160.022-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (5 Minutes) § 160.022-2 Type. (a) Floating orange smoke distress signals, specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall consist...

  15. 46 CFR 160.022-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (5 Minutes) § 160.022-2 Type. (a) Floating orange smoke distress signals, specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall consist...

  16. 46 CFR 160.057-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (15 Minutes) § 160.057-2 Type. (a) Floating orange. smoke distress signals specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall consist...

  17. 46 CFR 160.022-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Floating Orange Smoke Distress Signals (5 Minutes) § 160.022-2 Type. (a) Floating orange smoke distress signals, specified by this subpart shall be of one type which shall consist...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3071 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) §...

  19. 46 CFR 160.038-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Magazine Chests, Portable, for Merchant Vessels § 160.038-2 Type. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be of a type suitable for stowage of pyrotechnic distress signals,...

  20. 46 CFR 160.038-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Magazine Chests, Portable, for Merchant Vessels § 160.038-2 Type. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be of a type suitable for stowage of pyrotechnic distress signals,...

  1. 46 CFR 160.038-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Magazine Chests, Portable, for Merchant Vessels § 160.038-2 Type. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be of a type suitable for stowage of pyrotechnic distress signals,...

  2. 46 CFR 160.038-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Magazine Chests, Portable, for Merchant Vessels § 160.038-2 Type. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be of a type suitable for stowage of pyrotechnic distress signals,...

  3. 46 CFR 160.038-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Magazine Chests, Portable, for Merchant Vessels § 160.038-2 Type. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be of a type suitable for stowage of pyrotechnic distress signals, rockets...

  4. Corrosion Protection by Calcite-Type Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    CORROSION PROTECTION BY CALCITE -TYPE COATINGS OCTOBER, 1989 Prepared by: OCEAN CITY RESEARCH CORPORATION Tennessee Avenue & Beach Thorofare Ocean...REPORT DATE OCT 1989 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Corrosion Protection by Calcite -Type Coatings 5a. CONTRACT... calcite -type coatings to segregated seawater ballast tanks. If perfected, a calcite coating approach could substantially reduce the cost of corrosion

  5. Autoimmune diseases associated with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Arti

    2008-01-01

    Associations of autoimmune diseases with neurofibromatosis type 1 have been rarely described. In the present report, we describe two patients of neurofibromatosis type 1 having an association with vitiligo in one, and alopecia areata and autoimmune thyroiditis in another. The associations of neurofibromatosis type 1 with vitiligo, alopecia areata, and autoimmune thyroiditis have not been reported earlier. Whether these associations reflect a causal relationship with neurofibromatosis type 1 or are coincidental needs to be settled.

  6. Type Ia Supernova Carbon Footprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. C.; Aldering, G.; Antilogus, P.; Aragon, C.; Bailey, S.; Baltay, C.; Bongard, S.; Buton, C.; Canto, A.; Childress, M.; Chotard, N.; Copin, Y.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Gangler, E.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Kowalski, M.; Loken, S.; Nugent, P.; Paech, K.; Pain, R.; Pecontal, E.; Pereira, R.; Perlmutter, S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Rigault, M.; Rubin, D.; Runge, K.; Scalzo, R.; Smadja, G.; Tao, C.; Weaver, B. A.; Wu, C.; Brown, P. J.; Milne, P. A.; Nearby Supernova Factory

    2011-12-01

    We present convincing evidence of unburned carbon at photospheric velocities in new observations of five Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) obtained by the Nearby Supernova Factory. These SNe are identified by examining 346 spectra from 124 SNe obtained before +2.5 days relative to maximum. Detections are based on the presence of relatively strong C II λ6580 absorption "notches" in multiple spectra of each SN, aided by automated fitting with the SYNAPPS code. Four of the five SNe in question are otherwise spectroscopically unremarkable, with ions and ejection velocities typical of SNe Ia, but spectra of the fifth exhibit high-velocity (v > 20, 000 km s-1) Si II and Ca II features. On the other hand, the light curve properties are preferentially grouped, strongly suggesting a connection between carbon-positivity and broadband light curve/color behavior: three of the five have relatively narrow light curves but also blue colors and a fourth may be a dust-reddened member of this family. Accounting for signal to noise and phase, we estimate that 22+10 - 6% of SNe Ia exhibit spectroscopic C II signatures as late as -5 days with respect to maximum. We place these new objects in the context of previously recognized carbon-positive SNe Ia and consider reasonable scenarios seeking to explain a physical connection between light curve properties and the presence of photospheric carbon. We also examine the detailed evolution of the detected carbon signatures and the surrounding wavelength regions to shed light on the distribution of carbon in the ejecta. Our ability to reconstruct the C II λ6580 feature in detail under the assumption of purely spherical symmetry casts doubt on a "carbon blobs" hypothesis, but does not rule out all asymmetric models. A low volume filling factor for carbon, combined with line-of-sight effects, seems unlikely to explain the scarcity of detected carbon in SNe Ia by itself.

  7. Convection in Type 2 supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Douglas Scott

    1993-10-15

    Results are presented here from several two dimensional numerical calculations of events in Type II supernovae. A new 2-D hydrodynamics and neutrino transport code has been used to compute the effect on the supernova explosion mechanism of convection between the neutrinosphere and the shock. This convection is referred to as exterior convection to distinguish it from convection beneath the neutrinosphere. The model equations and initial and boundary conditions are presented along with the simulation results. The 2-D code was used to compute an exterior convective velocity to compare with the convective model of the Mayle and Wilson 1-D code. Results are presented from several runs with varying sizes of initial perturbation, as well as a case with no initial perturbation but including the effects of rotation. The M&W code does not produce an explosion using the 2-D convective velocity. Exterior convection enhances the outward propagation of the shock, but not enough to ensure a successful explosion. Analytic estimates of the growth rate of the neutron finger instability axe presented. It is shown that this instability can occur beneath the neutrinosphere of the proto-neutron star in a supernova explosion with a growth time of ~ 3 microseconds. The behavior of the high entropy bubble that forms between the shock and the neutrinosphere in one dimensional calculations of supernova is investigated. It has been speculated that this bubble is a site for γ-process generation of heavy elements. Two dimensional calculations are presented of the time evolution of the hot bubble and the surrounding stellar material. Unlike one dimensional calculations, the 2D code fails to achieve high entropies in the bubble. When run in a spherically symmetric mode the 2-D code reaches entropies of ~ 200. When convection is allowed, the bubble reaches ~60 then the bubble begins to move upward into the cooler, denser material above it.

  8. Syncytial-Type Cell Plates

    PubMed Central

    Otegui, Marisa; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Cell wall formation in the syncytial endosperm of Arabidopsis was studied by using high-pressure-frozen/freeze-substituted developing seeds and immunocytochemical techniques. The endosperm cellularization process begins at the late globular embryo stage with the synchronous organization of small clusters of oppositely oriented microtubules (∼10 microtubules in each set) into phragmoplast-like structures termed mini-phragmoplasts between both sister and nonsister nuclei. These mini-phragmoplasts produce a novel kind of cell plate, the syncytial-type cell plate, from Golgi-derived vesicles ∼63 nm in diameter, which fuse by way of hourglass-shaped intermediates into wide (∼45 nm in diameter) tubules. These wide tubules quickly become coated and surrounded by a ribosome-excluding matrix; as they grow, they branch and fuse with each other to form wide tubular networks. The mini-phragmoplasts formed between a given pair of nuclei produce aligned tubular networks that grow centrifugally until they merge into a coherent wide tubular network with the mini-phragmoplasts positioned along the network margins. The individual wide tubular networks expand laterally until they meet and eventually fuse with each other at the sites of the future cell corners. Transformation of the wide tubular networks into noncoated, thin (∼27 nm in diameter) tubular networks begins at multiple sites and coincides with the appearance of clathrin-coated budding structures. After fusion with the syncytial cell wall, the thin tubular networks are converted into fenestrated sheets and cell walls. Immunolabeling experiments show that the cell plates and cell walls of the endosperm differ from those of the embryo and maternal tissue in two features: their xyloglucans lack terminal fucose residues on the side chain, and callose persists in the cell walls after the cell plates fuse with the parental plasma membrane. The lack of terminal fucose residues on xyloglucans suggests that these cell wall

  9. Entablature: fracture types and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, A. E. S.; Blake, S.; Tuffen, H.

    2014-05-01

    Entablature is the term used to describe zones or tiers of irregular jointing in basaltic lava flows. It is thought to form when water from rivers dammed by the lava inundates the lava flow surface, and during lava-meltwater interaction in subglacial settings. A number of different fracture types are described in entablature outcrops from the Búrfell lava and older lava flows in Þjórsárdalur, southwest Iceland. These are: striae-bearing, column-bounding fractures and pseudopillow fracture systems that themselves consist of two different fracture types—master fractures with dimpled surface textures and subsidiary fractures with curved striae. The interaction of pseudopillow fracture systems and columnar jointing in the entablature produces the chevron fracture patterns that are commonly observed in entablature. Cube-jointing is a more densely fractured version of entablature, which likely forms when more coolant enters the hot lava. The entablature tiers display closely spaced striae and dendritic crystal shapes which indicate rapid cooling. Master fracture surfaces show a thin band with an evolved composition at the fracture surface; mineral textures in this band also show evidence of quenching of this material. This is interpreted as gas-driven filter pressing of late-stage residual melt that is drawn into an area of low pressure immediately preceding or during master fracture formation by ductile extensional fracture of hot, partially crystallised lava. This melt is then quenched by an influx of water and/or steam when the master fracture fully opens. Our findings suggest that master fractures are the main conduit for coolant entering the lava flow during entablature formation.

  10. Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Falchetti, Alberto; Monte, Francesca Del; Sala, Silvia Carbonell; Gozzini, Alessia; Luzi, Ettore; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2006-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is a rare autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome presented mostly by tumours of the parathyroids, endocrine pancreas and anterior pituitary, and characterised by a very high penetrance and an equal sex distribution. It occurs in approximately one in 30,000 individuals. Two different forms, sporadic and familial, have been described. The sporadic form presents with two of the three principal MEN1-related endocrine tumours (parathyroid adenomas, entero-pancreatic tumours and pituitary tumours) within a single patient, while the familial form consists of a MEN1 case with at least one first degree relative showing one of the endocrine characterising tumours. Other endocrine and non-endocrine lesions, such as adrenal cortical tumours, carcinoids of the bronchi, gastrointestinal tract and thymus, lipomas, angiofibromas, collagenomas have been described. The responsible gene, MEN1, maps on chromosome 11q13 and encodes a 610 aminoacid nuclear protein, menin, with no sequence homology to other known human proteins. MEN1 syndrome is caused by inactivating mutations of the MEN1 tumour suppressor gene. This gene is probably involved in the regulation of several cell functions such as DNA replication and repair and transcriptional machinery. The combination of clinical and genetic investigations, together with the improving of molecular genetics knowledge of the syndrome, helps in the clinical management of patients. Treatment consists of surgery and/or drug therapy, often in association with radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Currently, DNA testing allows the early identification of germline mutations in asymptomatic gene carriers, to whom routine surveillance (regular biochemical and/or radiological screenings to detect the development of MEN1-associated tumours and lesions) is recommended. PMID:17014705

  11. 7 CFR 29.3559 - Type 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3559 Type 36. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Green River, Green River... Green River section of Kentucky. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984] ...

  12. 46 CFR 160.062-2 - Types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Types. 160.062-2 Section 160.062-2 Shipping COAST GUARD... APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Releases. Lifesaving Equipment, Hydraulic and Manual § 160.062-2 Types. (a) The hydraulic releases referred to under § 160.062-1(a)(1) are of the diaphram-spring plunger type...

  13. Windchill-201 - Custom Soft-Type Construction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will explain Windchill soft-types-what they are, how they work, and how to construct custom ones, configured specifically for your system. The process and particulars of creating and implementing a WTDocument soft-type will be discussed, and the interaction between soft-types and Windchill objects will be shown.

  14. Effects of silo type on ensiling alfalfa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various silo types are used on dairy farms, but there is uncertainty as to how silo type affects losses and silage quality. The objective of this study was to compare three silo types, filled with alfalfa from the same fields and emptied simultaneously, relative to filling rates, dry matter (DM) los...

  15. Filter type rotor for multistation photometer

    DOEpatents

    Shumate, II, Starling E.

    1977-07-12

    A filter type rotor for a multistation photometer is provided. The rotor design combines the principle of cross-flow filtration with centrifugal sedimentation so that these occur simultaneously as a first stage of processing for suspension type fluids in an analytical type instrument. The rotor is particularly useful in whole-blood analysis.

  16. Forest habitat types of central Idaho

    Treesearch

    Robert Steele; Robert D. Pfister; Russell A. Ryker; Jay A. Kittams

    1981-01-01

    A land-classification system based upon potential natural vegetation is presented for the forests of central Idaho. It is based on reconnaissance sampling of about 800 stands. A hierarchical taxonomic classification of forest sites was developed using the habitat type concept. A total of eight climax series, 64 habitat types, and 55 additional phases of habitat types...

  17. Aspen community types of the Intermountain Region

    Treesearch

    Walter F. Mueggler

    1988-01-01

    This vegetation classification is based upon existing community structure and composition in the aspen-dominated forests of the Intermountain Region of the Forest Service. The 56 community types occur within eight tree-cover types. A diagnostic key using indicator species facilitates field identification of the community types. Vegetational composition, productivity,...

  18. 7 CFR 29.3560 - Type 37.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3560 Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured of Virginia, and produced principally in the...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3560 - Type 37.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3560 Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured of Virginia, and produced principally in the...

  20. 7 CFR 29.3560 - Type 37.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3560 Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured of Virginia, and produced principally in the...

  1. 7 CFR 29.3560 - Type 37.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3560 Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured of Virginia, and produced principally in the...

  2. 7 CFR 29.3560 - Type 37.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 95) § 29.3560 Type 37. That type of air-cured or sun-cured tobacco commonly known as Virginia Sun-cured, Virginia Sun and Air-cured, or Dark Air-cured of Virginia, and produced principally in the...

  3. 7 CFR 29.3559 - Type 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3559 Type 36. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Green River, Green River... Green River section of Kentucky. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984]...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3559 - Type 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Type 95) § 29.3559 Type 36. That type of air-cured tobacco commonly known as Green River, Green River... Green River section of Kentucky. [30 FR 9207, July 23, 1965. Redesignated at 49 FR 16759, Apr. 20, 1984]...

  5. Automatic Keypress Activation in Skilled Typing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieger, Martina

    2004-01-01

    The assumption that letters automatically activate corresponding keypresses in skilled typing was investigated. Participants responded to the color of letters (congruent condition: responding finger was the one usually used to type the letter). Participants skilled in typing showed a congruency effect: unskilled participants did not (Experiment…

  6. 7 CFR 201.11 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11 Type. (a) When type is designated, such designation may be associated... percentage, which may be shown as “pure seed”, shall apply only to the type designated. If separate...

  7. 7 CFR 201.11 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11 Type. (a) When type is designated, such designation may be associated... percentage, which may be shown as “pure seed”, shall apply only to the type designated. If separate...

  8. 7 CFR 201.11 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11 Type. (a) When type is designated, such designation may be associated... percentage, which may be shown as “pure seed”, shall apply only to the type designated. If separate...

  9. 7 CFR 201.11 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11 Type. (a) When type is designated, such designation may be associated... percentage, which may be shown as “pure seed”, shall apply only to the type designated. If separate...

  10. 7 CFR 201.11 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling Agricultural Seeds § 201.11 Type. (a) When type is designated, such designation may be associated... percentage, which may be shown as “pure seed”, shall apply only to the type designated. If separate...

  11. Comparison of type I, type III and type VI collagen binding assays in diagnosis of von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Flood, V H; Gill, J C; Christopherson, P A; Wren, J S; Friedman, K D; Haberichter, S L; Hoffmann, R G; Montgomery, R R

    2012-07-01

    von Willebrand factor (VWF) plays a key role in coagulation by tethering platelets to injured subendothelium through binding sites for collagen and platelet GPIb. Collagen binding assays (VWF:CB), however, are not part of the routine work-up for von Willebrand disease (VWD). This study presents data on collagen binding for healthy controls and VWD subjects to compare three different collagens. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), VWF ristocetin cofactor activity and VWF:CB with types I, III and VI collagen were examined for samples obtained from the Zimmerman Program. Mean VWF:CB in healthy controls was similar and highly correlated for types I, III and VI collagen. The mean VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios for types I, III and VI collagen were 1.31, 1.19 and 1.21, respectively. In type 1 VWD subjects, VWF:CB was similar to VWF:Ag with mean VWF:CB/VWF:Ag ratios for types I, III and VI collagen of 1.32, 1.08 and 1.1, respectively. For type 2A and 2B subjects, VWF:CB was uniformly low, with mean ratios of 0.62 and 0.7 for type I collagen, 0.38 and 0.4 for type III collagen, and 0.5 and 0.47 for type VI collagen. Normal ranges for type I, III and VI collagen are correlated, but higher values were obtained with type I collagen as compared with types III and VI. The low VWF:CB in type 2A and 2B subjects suggests that VWF:CB may also supplement analysis of multimer distribution. However, these results reflect only one set of assay conditions per collagen type and therefore may not be generalizable to all collagen assays. © 2012 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  12. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    PubMed

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-03-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  13. Revisiting Parametric Types and Virtual Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Anders Bach; Ernst, Erik

    This paper presents a conceptually oriented updated view on the relationship between parametric types and virtual classes. The traditional view is that parametric types excel at structurally oriented composition and decomposition, and virtual classes excel at specifying mutually recursive families of classes whose relationships are preserved in derived families. Conversely, while class families can be specified using a large number of F-bounded type parameters, this approach is complex and fragile; and it is difficult to use traditional virtual classes to specify object composition in a structural manner, because virtual classes are closely tied to nominal typing. This paper adds new insight about the dichotomy between these two approaches; it illustrates how virtual constraints and type refinements, as recently introduced in gbeta and Scala, enable structural treatment of virtual types; finally, it shows how a novel kind of dynamic type check can detect compatibility among entire families of classes.

  14. Type-2 fuzzy Bezier curve modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Rozaimi; Wahab, Abd Fatah; Gobithaasan, R. U.

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, the development of type-2 fuzzy set theory (T2FST) in geometric modeling which type-2 fuzzy Bezier curve is discussed. This theory development is the extension from type-1 fuzzy set theory (T1FST) which was adapted in Bezier curve modeling. Point's data that have the complex uncertainty behave is defined based on type-2 fuzzy number (T2FN) concepts which constructed from the T2FST. Then, the alpha-cut operation is applied towards type-2 fuzzy data (T2FD) to obtain an interval fuzzy solution. Also, type-reduction method is discussed, which is used to reduce T2FD to become type-1 fuzzy data (T1FD). Then, the defuzzification process is carried out for finding the crisp fuzzy solution of data points.

  15. Comparing the host galaxies of type Ia, type II, and type Ibc supernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, X.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, X. Y.; Zhong, G. H.; Deng, L. C.; Zhang, B.; Shi, W. B.; Zhou, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Hammer, F.; Flores, H. E-mail: ycliang@bao.ac.cn

    2014-08-10

    We compare the host galaxies of 902 supernovae (SNe), including SNe Ia, SNe II, and SNe Ibc, which are selected by cross-matching the Asiago Supernova Catalog with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 7. We selected an additional 213 galaxies by requiring the light fraction of spectral observations to be >15%, which could represent well the global properties of the galaxies. Among these 213 galaxies, 135 appear on the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich diagram, which allows us to compare the hosts in terms of whether they are star-forming (SF) galaxies, active galactic nuclei (AGNs; including composites, LINERs, and Seyfert 2s) or absorption-line galaxies (Absorps; i.e., their related emission lines are weak or non-existent). The diagrams related to the parameters D{sub n}(4000), Hδ{sub A}, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFRs), and specific SFRs for the SNe hosts show that almost all SNe II and most of the SNe Ibc occur in SF galaxies, which have a wide range of stellar masses and low D{sub n}(4000). The SNe Ia hosts as SF galaxies following similar trends. A significant fraction of SNe Ia occurs in AGNs and absorption-line galaxies, which are massive and have high D{sub n}(4000). The stellar population analysis from spectral synthesis fitting shows that the hosts of SNe II have a younger stellar population than hosts of SNe Ia. These results are compared with those of the 689 comparison galaxies where the SDSS fiber captures less than 15% of the total light. These comparison galaxies appear biased toward higher 12+log(O/H) (∼0.1 dex) at a given stellar mass. Therefore, we believe the aperture effect should be kept in mind when the properties of the hosts for different types of SNe are discussed.

  16. Type 1 Diabetes and Interferon Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kan; Kawasaki, Eiji; Imagawa, Akihisa; Awata, Takuya; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Uchigata, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Shimada, Akira; Nakanishi, Koji; Makino, Hideichi; Maruyama, Taro; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Interferon therapy can trigger induction of several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. To assess the clinical, immunologic, and genetic characteristics of type 1 diabetes induced by interferon therapy, we conducted a nationwide cross-sectional survey. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Clinical characteristics, anti-islet autoantibodies, and HLA-DR typing were examined in 91 patients for whom type 1 diabetes developed during or shortly after interferon therapy. RESULTS Median age at the onset of type 1 diabetes was 56 (interquartile range 48–63) years and mean ± SD BMI was 20.8 ± 2.7 kg/m2. The time period from the initiation of interferon therapy to type 1 diabetes onset in patients receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin was significantly shorter than that in patients with nonpegylated interferon single therapy (P < 0.05). Anti-islet autoantibodies were detected in 94.5% of patients at diabetes onset. Type 1 diabetes susceptibility HLA-DRs in the Japanese population, DR4 and DR9, were also associated with interferon treatment–related type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, the prevalence of HLA-DR13 was significantly higher in interferon treatment–related type 1 diabetes than in healthy control subjects (odds ratio 3.80 [95% CI 2.20–7.55]; P < 0.0001) and classical type 1 diabetes (2.15 [1.17–3.93]; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Anti-islet autoantibodies should be investigated before and during interferon therapy to identify subjects at high risk of type 1 diabetes. Stronger antiviral treatment may induce earlier development of type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, patients who develop interferon-induced type 1 diabetes are genetically susceptible. PMID:21775762

  17. CONCEPT IDENTIFICATION AS A FUNCTION OF INSTRUCTIONS, LABELS, SEQUENCE, CONCEPT TYPE, AND TEST ITEM TYPE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LYNCH, DANIEL O.

    THE EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONS, TYPE OF LABEL, TYPE OF CONCEPT, AND SEQUENCE OF CONCEPTS BY TYPE UPON CONCEPT IDENTIFICATION WERE INVESTIGATED IN THIS STUDY. PERFORMANCE WAS ANALYZED IN TERMS OF FOUR TYPES OF TEST ITEMS. INSTRUCTION, FOCUSING ON THE CONCEPT TO BE ATTAINED AND THE CONCEPT NATURE, WAS FOUND TO FACILITATE CONCEPT IDENTIFICATION…

  18. TypingSuite: Integrated Software for Presenting Stimuli, and Collecting and Analyzing Typing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Erin L.; Marchand, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Research into typing patterns has broad applications in both psycholinguistics and biometrics (i.e., improving security of computer access via each user's unique typing patterns). We present a new software package, TypingSuite, which can be used for presenting visual and auditory stimuli, collecting typing data, and summarizing and analyzing the…

  19. TypingSuite: Integrated Software for Presenting Stimuli, and Collecting and Analyzing Typing Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazerolle, Erin L.; Marchand, Yannick

    2015-01-01

    Research into typing patterns has broad applications in both psycholinguistics and biometrics (i.e., improving security of computer access via each user's unique typing patterns). We present a new software package, TypingSuite, which can be used for presenting visual and auditory stimuli, collecting typing data, and summarizing and analyzing the…

  20. Thermal inactivation of mouse brain monoamine oxidase type A and type B.

    PubMed

    Hall, T R; Figueroa, H R; Newton, D K; Yurgens, P B

    1983-01-01

    Mouse brain monoamine oxidase (MAO) type A and type B were incubated at 54 degrees C and samples removed for up to 60 min, and remaining MAO activity was determined. Total MAO activity, type A activity and type B activity all disappeared, presumably due to thermal denaturation, in a time-dependent fashion. The rate of disappearance of MAO type B was faster than that of type A both at pH 7.4 and at pH 9.2, though both types denatured faster at the higher pH compared to the lower pH.

  1. Muscle adiposity and body fat distribution in type 1 and type 2 diabetes: varying relationships according to diabetes type.

    PubMed

    Dubé, M C; Joanisse, D R; Prud'homme, D; Lemieux, S; Bouchard, C; Pérusse, L; Lavoie, C; Weisnagel, S J

    2006-12-01

    To compare the relationships between markers of total and regional adiposity with muscle fat infiltration in type 1 diabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects and their respective nondiabetic controls, and to document these relationships in type 1 diabetic subjects. Cross-sectional study. In total, 86 healthy, with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes or control subjects. Each diabetic group was matched for age, sex and body mass index with its respective nondiabetic control group. Measures of body composition (hydrodensitometry), fat distribution (waist circumference, abdominal and mid-thigh computed tomography scans) and blood lipid profiles were assessed. Low attenuation mid-thigh muscle surface correlated similarly with markers of adiposity and body composition in all groups, regardless of diabetes status, except for visceral adipose tissue and waist circumference. Indeed, relationships between visceral adiposity and muscle adiposity were significantly stronger in type 2 vs type 1 diabetic subjects (P<0.05 for comparison of slopes). In addition, in well-controlled type 1 diabetic subjects (mean HbA(1c) of 6.8%), daily insulin requirements tended to correlate with low attenuation mid-thigh muscle surface, a specific component of fat-rich muscle (r=0.36, P=0.08), but not with glycemic control (HbA(1c)). This study suggests that the relationship of central adiposity and muscle adiposity is modulated by diabetes status and is stronger in the insulin resistant diabetes type (type 2 diabetes). In well-controlled nonobese type 1 diabetic subjects, the relationship between muscle fat accumulation and insulin sensitivity was also maintained.

  2. Prenatal diagnosis of type 2 Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, P S; Gross, S J; Cohen, D J; Tiller, G R; Shanske, A L; Bombard, A T; Marion, R W

    1996-12-01

    Pfeiffer syndrome is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder consisting of craniosynostosis, a flattened midface with a beaked nose and ocular proptosis, and broad and medially deviated thumbs and great toes. Recently, based on clinical findings, the disorder has been divided into three subtypes: type 1, characterized by mild expression; type 2, in which clover leaf skull deformity and multiple congenital anomalies are present at birth; and type 3, which is similar to type 2, but lacks the presence of the clover leaf skull at birth. We describe a fetus in whom sonographic findings of clover leaf skull deformity, ocular hypertelorism, and varus deformity of the great toe led to the prenatal diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome type 2. We believe this is the second prenatal diagnosis of Pfeiffer syndrome, and the first time type 2 has been definitely identified in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  3. Type A behaviour pattern: a concept revisited.

    PubMed Central

    Rose, M I

    1987-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the type A behaviour pattern is a risk factor in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD). Type A people have been characterized as hard-driving, competitive, aggressive and hurried. A number of investigators have attempted to correlate these facets of type A behaviour with increased risks of CAD. However, there have been conflicting results, primarily owing to differences in methods and CAD outcomes and inconsistencies associated with measuring the type A behaviour pattern. As a result, researchers have begun to focus on subcomponents of the type A behaviour pattern, particularly hostility and anger, that appear to be more reliable predictors of CAD outcome. A reconceptualization of the type A behaviour pattern is required. PMID:3815195

  4. Type Ibn Supernovae: Not a Single Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin; Arcavi, Iair; Howell, Dale Andrew; McCully, Curtis; Valenti, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Type Ibn supernovae are a small yet diverse class of explosions whose spectra are characterized by low-velocity helium emission lines. The prevailing theory has been that these are the core-collapse explosions of very massive stars embedded in helium-rich circumstellar material. However, unlike the more common Type IIn supernovae, whose interaction with hydrogen-rich circumstellar material has been shown to generate a wide variety of light curve shapes, we find that light curves of Type Ibn supernovae are more homogeneous and faster evolving. Spectroscopically, we find that Type Ibn supernovae divide cleanly into two classes, only one of which resembles the archetypal Type Ibn SN 2006jc. We explore various photometric and spectroscopic parameter spaces in order to characterize these two classes. We consider the possibility that not all objects classified as Type Ibn have the same physical origin.

  5. Fermion masses, flavour mixing and CP violation

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, G. G.

    2008-11-23

    The pattern of neutrino masses and mixings is characteristically different from those observed in the quark sector. I discuss how this can be elegantly explaned through a combination of an underlying family symmetry and the see-saw mechanism.

  6. [Transforming growth factor of beta-type].

    PubMed

    Stoĭka, R S

    1988-01-01

    Recent data about the structure and properties of the beta-type transforming growth factor as well as evidence about its influence on different target cells are presented. The regulatory action of the factor is shown to depend mainly on the type of tested cells, conditions of their culturing and the presence of other bioregulators of cell proliferation in the medium. The prospects of the beta-type transforming growth factor use in practice are considered.

  7. Legendre transformations and Clairaut-type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrov, Peter M.; Merzlikin, Boris S.

    2016-05-01

    It is noted that the Legendre transformations in the standard formulation of quantum field theory have the form of functional Clairaut-type equations. It is shown that in presence of composite fields the Clairaut-type form holds after loop corrections are taken into account. A new solution to the functional Clairaut-type equation appearing in field theories with composite fields is found.

  8. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jakes, Adam Daniel; Baynes, Kevin; Nelson-Piercy, Catherine

    2016-03-17

    We describe the clinical course of renal tubular acidosis (RTA) type 4 in pregnancy, which has not been previously published. Renal tubular acidosis type 4 is a condition associated with increased urinary ammonia secondary to hypoaldosteronism or pseudohypoaldosteronism. Pregnancy may worsen the hyperkalaemia and acidosis of renal tubular acidosis type 4, possibly through an antialdosterone effect. We advise regular monitoring of potassium and pH throughout pregnancy to ensure safe levels are maintained.

  9. A new linear type hydraulic motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dong; Zhang, Tong; Li, Wenhua; Chen, Xinyang

    2017-08-01

    This paper proposes the design of liner type hydraulic motor on the base of inner curved radial piston hydraulic motor. The hydraulic cylinders of the new type motor are in the straight line which will improve the utilization of the axial space and different out power can be supplied by changes the number of cylinders. In this paper, the structure and working principle of the liner type hydraulic motor is introduced.

  10. Covariant action for type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    Taking clues from the recent construction of the covariant action for type II and heterotic string field theories, we construct a manifestly Lorentz covariant action for type IIB supergravity, and discuss its gauge fixing maintaining manifest Lorentz invariance. The action contains a (non-gravitating) free 4-form field besides the usual fields of type IIB supergravity. This free field, being completely decoupled from the interacting sector, has no physical consequence.

  11. A Quantitative Model of Expert Transcription Typing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-08

    monitoring the accuracy of the typing...the deterioration of typing rate that occurs as the text is modified from normal prose to non -language or random...letters...for] non -alphabetical keys. (p. 6) Rumelhart and Norman also do not attempt to make zero-parameter quantitative predictions of typing...Salthouse’s two-choice reaction time task was somewhat non - standard: Stimuli were uppercase and lowercase versions of the letters L and R, and responses

  12. 46 CFR 172.085 - Hull type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hull type. 172.085 Section 172.085 Shipping COAST GUARD... of This Chapter § 172.085 Hull type. If a cargo listed in Table 151.05 of part 151 of this chapter is to be carried, the tank barge must be at least the hull type specified in Table 151.05 of this...

  13. Are there two types of quasars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, B. C.; Morrison, P.; Sartori, L.

    1973-01-01

    Two types of quasars are postulated: type I, the vast majority of quasars, which are highly luminous and cosmologically distant, as shown by their redshifts; type II, a dwarf branch, that are products of a few remarkable explosions in nearby galaxies. It is shown that this hypothesis is consistent with redshift statistics and suggests a possible interpretation of such objects as BL Lac and OJ 287.

  14. 47 CFR 95.631 - Emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emission types. 95.631 Section 95.631... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.631 Emission types. (a) A GMRS transmitter must transmit only emission types A1D, F1D, G1D, H1D, J1D, R1D, A3E, F3E, G3E, H3E, J3E or R3E. A...

  15. 47 CFR 95.631 - Emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emission types. 95.631 Section 95.631... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.631 Emission types. (a) A GMRS transmitter must transmit only emission types A1D, F1D, G1D, H1D, J1D, R1D, A3E, F3E, G3E, H3E, J3E or R3E. A...

  16. 47 CFR 95.631 - Emission types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Emission types. 95.631 Section 95.631... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.631 Emission types. (a) A GMRS transmitter must transmit only emission types A1D, F1D, G1D, H1D, J1D, R1D, A3E, F3E, G3E, H3E, J3E or R3E. A...

  17. Human papillomavirus type 56-associated Bowen disease.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, A; Tamura, A; Abe, M; Amano, H; Motegi, S; Nakatani, Y; Hoshino, H; Ishikawa, O

    2012-11-01

    Some cases of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 56 infection in Bowen disease have been reported. However, the incidence and clinical characteristics are still unclear. To clarify the prevalence of HPV type 56-positive Bowen disease in our department and to characterize the clinical manifestations. Sixty-eight specimens of Bowen disease were examined by polymerase chain reaction using HPV consensus primers, and the amplified products were subjected to DNA sequence analyses. Moreover, positive samples were investigated by in situ hybridization. These findings were used to clarify the clinical characteristics of HPV-positive Bowen disease. Eight out of 68 specimens (12%) of Bowen disease were HPV-positive, of which six specimens were HPV type 56-positive. The HPV type 56-positive lesions were characterized by a longitudinal melanonychia or a deeply pigmented keratotic lesion. The remaining two specimens were genital Bowen disease in which HPV type 16 was detected. In situ hybridization demonstrated the positive cells in the upper layer of epidermis. The HPV type 56 detected in the samples of longitudinal melanonychia can be divided into at least into two types. This study determined the prevalence of HPV type 56-positive Bowen disease. Longitudinal melanonychia is the most characteristic manifestation of HPV type 56-associated Bowen disease. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Decameter Type III-Like Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, V. N.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Rutkevych, B. P.; Rucker, H. O.; Dorovskyy, V. V.; Abranin, E. P.; Lecacheux, A.; Brazhenko, A. I.; Stanislavskyy, A. A.

    2007-12-01

    Starting from 1960s Type III-like bursts (Type III bursts with high drift rates) in a wide frequency range from 300 to 950MHz have been observed. These new bursts observed at certain frequency being compared to the usual Type III bursts at the same frequency show similar behaviour but feature frequency drift 2-6 times higher than the normal bursts. In this paper we report the first observations of Type III-like bursts in decameter range, carried out during summer campaigns 2002 - 2004 at UTR-2 radio telescope. The circular polarization of the bursts was measured by the radio telescope URAN-2 in 2004. The observed bursts are analyzed and compared with usual Type III bursts in the decameter range. From the analysis of over 1100 Type III-like bursts, their main parameters have been found. Characteristic feature of the observed bursts is similar to Type III-like bursts at other frequencies, i.e. measured drift rates (5-10 MHz/s) of this bursts are few times larger than that for usual Type III bursts, and their durations (1-2 s) are few times smaller than that for usual Type III bursts in this frequency band.

  19. Types of habitat in the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cockell, Charles S.

    2014-04-01

    From a biological point of view, all environments in the Universe can be categorized into one of three types: uninhabitable, uninhabited habitat or inhabited habitat. This paper describes and defines different habitat types in the Universe with a special focus on environments not usually encountered on the Earth, but which might be common on other planetary bodies. They include uninhabited habitats, subtypes of which are sterile habitats and organic-free habitats. Examples of the different types of environments are provided with reference to the Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. These habitat types are used to identify testable hypotheses on the abundance of different habitats and the distribution of life in the Universe.

  20. Chronic spinal muscular atrophy of facioscapulohumeral type.

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, T; Toyokura, Y

    1976-01-01

    Chronic spinal muscular atrophy of FSH type affecting a mother and her son and daughter is reported. The relevant literature is reviewed and the relation between this conditon and Kugelberg-Welander (K-W) disease is discussed. Chronic spinal muscular atrophy of FSH type is considered to be a different entity from the eponymous K-W disease. Each type of muscular dystrophy, e.g. limb-girdle, FSH, distal, ocular, or oculopharyngeal type, has its counterpart of nuclear origin. A classification of the chronic spinal muscular atrophies is suggested following the classification of muscular dystrophy. Images PMID:957378

  1. Craniopharyngiomas : Radiological Differentiation of Two Types

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Elcin; Bell, W. Robert; Burger, Peter C.; Sung, Heejong; Yousem, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine imaging features that may separate adamantinomatous and papillary variants of craniopharyngiomas given that tumors with adamantinomatous signature features are associated with higher recurrence rates, morbidity, and mortality. We specifically reviewed calcification on CT, T1 bright signal intensity, and cystic change on T2 weighted images for differentiating these two types. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the MRI and CT studies in 38 consecutive patients with pathologically proven craniopharyngiomas between January 2004 and February 2014 for the presence of calcification on CT scans, bright signal intensity on T1 weighted images, and cystic change on T2 weighted images. Results Of the 38 craniopharyngiomas, 30 were adamantinomatous type and 8 were papillary type. On CT scans, calcification was present in 25 of 38 tumors. All calcified tumors were adamantinomatous type. Twenty four of 38 tumors had bright signal intensity on T1 weighted images. Of these 24 tumors, 22 (91.7%) were adamantinomatous and 2 were papillary type. Cystic change on T2 weighted images was noted in 37 of 38 tumors; only 1 tumor with papillary type did not show cystic change. Conclusion T1 bright signal intensity and calcification on CT scans uniformly favor the adamantinomatous type over papillary type of craniopharyngioma in children. However, these findings are more variable in adults where calcification and T1 bright signal intensity occur in 70.6% and 58.8% respectively of adult adamantinomatous types of craniopharyngiomas. PMID:27651864

  2. 7 CFR 2903.6 - Project types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Program Description § 2903.6 Project types. OEPNU intends to award continuation grants to successful Biodiesel Fuel Education Program applicants. A continuation...

  3. 7 CFR 2903.6 - Project types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM Program Description § 2903.6 Project types. OEPNU intends to award continuation grants to successful Biodiesel Fuel Education Program applicants. A continuation...

  4. Is type-D personality trait(s) or state? An examination of type-D temporal stability in older Israeli adults in the community.

    PubMed

    Zohar, Ada H

    2016-01-01

    Background. Type D personality was suggested as a marker of poorer prognosis for patients of cardiovascular disease. It is defined by having a score of 10 or more on both sub-scales of the DS14 questionnaire, Social Inhibition (SI) and Negative Affectivity (NA). As Type D was designed to predict risk, its temporal stability is of prime importance. Methods. Participants in the current study were 285 community volunteers, who completed the DS14, and other personality scales, at a mean interval of six years. Results. The prevalence of Type D did not change. The component traits of Type D showed rank order stability. Type D caseness temporal stability was improved by using the sub-scales product as a criterion. Logistic hierarchical regression predicting Type D classification from Time1 demonstrated that the best predictors were Time1 scores on NA and SI, with the character trait of Cooperation, and the alexithymia score adding some predictive power. Conclusions. The temporal stability of the component traits, and of the prevalence of Type D were excellent. Temporal stability of Type D caseness may be improved by using a product threshold, rather than the current rule. Research is required in order to formulate the optimal timing for Type D measurement for predictive purposes.

  5. Two types of classification in female alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Traber, Rafael; Würmle, Othmar; Modestin, Jiri

    2009-10-01

    Two types of alcoholism with distinct clinical features and mode of inheritance have been identified in male alcoholics. The relevant studies, however, have given consistent results in men but not in women. The current study tested the hypothesis that the type I and II classification is also valid in women. A sample of 103 hospitalised alcohol-dependent women were given face-to-face structured interviews considering four different classification criteria sets devised for differentiation of alcoholism type I and II and type A and B along with SCID I and II. The two types of classification could be replicated with three of the four criteria sets, 73 women being allocated to the larger cluster C1, and 30 women to a smaller cluster C2. Comparing the patients from both clusters with each other, eight variables were identified which excellently discriminate between the groups. The two types of classification for alcoholism could also be found in a female sample. A type II of female alcohol-dependent patient was identified, characterized by parental alcoholism and paternal and patient's tendency for violent behavior. Type I lacks these characteristics. Early identification of the type II female alcoholic may be clinically important.

  6. Yawning in morning and evening types.

    PubMed

    Zilli, Iole; Giganti, Fiorenza; Salzarulo, Piero

    2007-06-08

    Yawning occurs more frequently in the early morning and in the late evening, close to sleep onset and after the awakening, and it might be linked to sleep propensity. We aimed to study yawning and its temporal distribution in morning and evening subjects who display different sleep-wake and sleepiness rhythms. Sixteen healthy young adults (8 evening-types and 8 morning-types, matched for age and gender) have been selected and instructed to keep their habitual sleep schedules and to signal every yawning occurrence for three consecutive days. Results show that evening-types yawn more frequently than morning-types, particularly during morning hours. Yawning frequency decreases across daytime in evening-types reaching its lowest level in the early evening and increases thereafter. Instead, in morning-types, yawning frequency remains quite low during daytime and increases in the evening. Moreover, both morning and evening types show a progressive increase of yawning frequency in the hours preceding sleep onset, whereas they differ after the awakening. Evening-types show a higher yawning frequency that remains quite stable in the hours following the awakening, while morning-types display a decline in yawning frequency. Our findings show that the temporal distribution of yawning frequency differs between chronotypes, supporting the hypothesis that differences in sleep-wake rhythm affect yawning, which could represent a behavioural sign of sleep propensity.

  7. Utility of CSP typing to sub-type clinical Aspergillus fumigatus isolates and proposal for a new CSP type nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Corné H W; de Valk, Hanneke A; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Meis, Jacques F G M

    2009-06-01

    CSP typing is a newly developed sub-typing strategy that employs comparative DNA sequence analysis of the 12-mer tandem repeat region of the AFUA_3G08890 gene. In order to allow standardization of analysis and exchange of results between laboratories, we propose a new nomenclature for individual CSP repeats as well as for CSP types. A collection of 209 clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus recovered from various hospitals throughout The Netherlands was analyzed by using CSP typing and this newly proposed nomenclature. Eighteen different CSP types were recognized, positioning the CSP gene as a typing target between the relatively low discriminatory MLST loci and the highly discriminatory microsatellite markers. CSP typing may be a welcome addition to the existing molecular methods to study the diversity of A. fumigatus at the sub-population level. The results also show the presence of lineages of closely related CSP types within the A. fumigatus population, adding unique and valuable information about the population structure of A. fumigatus.

  8. Cantilever-type Thermal Microactuators Fabricated by SOI-MUMPs with U-type and I-type Configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osada, Takahiro; Ochiai, Kuniyuki; Osada, Kazuki; Muro, Hideo

    Recently, the micro fluid systems have been extensively studied, where microactuators such as micro valves fabricated by MEMS technology are essential for realizing these systems. In this paper thermal microactuators with U-type and I-type shapes fabricated by SOI-MUMPs technology have been investigated for optimizing their configurations.

  9. 7 CFR 52.3182 - Varietal types of dried prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Types, Sizes, Grades § 52.3182 Varietal types of dried prunes. (a) Type I. French; or Robe; or a mixture of French and Robe. (b) Type II. Italian. (c) Type III. Imperial; or Sugar; or a mixture of Imperial...

  10. Ionic currents underlying difference in light response between type A and type B photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, K T

    2006-05-01

    In Hermissenda crassicornis, the memory of light associated with turbulence is stored as changes in intrinsic and synaptic currents in both type A and type B photoreceptors. These photoreceptor types exhibit qualitatively different responses to light and current injection, and these differences shape the spatiotemporal firing patterns that control behavior. Thus the objective of the study was to identify the mechanisms underlying these differences. The approach was to develop a type B model that reproduced characteristics of type B photoreceptors recorded in vitro, and then to create a type A model by modifying a select number of ionic currents. Comparison of type A models with characteristics of type A photoreceptors recorded in vitro revealed that type A and type B photoreceptors have five main differences, three that have been characterized experimentally and two that constitute hypotheses to be tested with experiments in the future. The three differences between type A and type B photoreceptors previously characterized include the inward rectifier current, the fast sodium current, and conductance of calcium-dependent and transient potassium channels. Two additional changes were required to produce a type A photoreceptor model. The very fast firing frequency observed during the first second after light onset required a faster time constant of activation of the delayed rectifier. The fast spike adaptation required a fast, noninactivating calcium-dependent potassium current. Because these differences between type A and type B photoreceptors have not been confirmed in comparative experiments, they constitute hypotheses to be tested with future experiments.

  11. PIDs, Types and the Semantic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwardmann, Ulrich

    2017-04-01

    PID Information Types are becoming a crucial role in scientific data management because they can provide state (what) and binding (where) information about digital objects as attributes of the PID. This is a similar but much more flexible approach than the well known mime type characterization, because both of these types concepts allow to decide about preconditions for processes in advance and before touching the data. One aspect of this is the need for standards and correctness of the used types to ensure reliability for the processes operating on the digital objects. This requires registries and schemas for PID InfoTypes and suggests an automated schema generation process. Such a process in combination with data type registries will be described in more detail in the intended talk. Another aspect of PID InfoTypes is its intrinsic grammar as subject-predicate-object triple, with the PID as subject, the type as predicate and its value (often again a PID) as object in this relation. Given the registration of types and the proposed syntactical rigidness of the value, guaranteed by the schema, together with the use of PIDs in subject and predicate, the type concept has the ability to overcome the fuzziness and lack of reliability of semantic web categories with its URL references and possibly changing locations and content. The intended talk will also describe this approach in more detail, discusses the differences to linked data and describes some necessary technological developments for the type concept to keep up with the possibilities currently provided by the semantic web.

  12. Type-D personality and body image in men: the role of exercise status.

    PubMed

    Borkoles, Erika; Polman, Remco; Levy, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The 'Distressed' or Type-D personality is described by the interaction between high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. This study investigated the prevalence of Type-D personality in men of different exercise status, the association between Type-D and body image perceptions, and the moderating effect of exercise status. Participants were 564 British males aged between 18 and 55 years. Of these 200 were classified as sedentary, 148 as active and 216 as weight trainers. Participants completed the DS14 and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Results showed that more individuals were classified as Type-D in the sedentary group (45%) than the two active groups, and in the weight training (24.5%) than the active (14.2%) group. Both Type-D and a sedentary lifestyle were associated with a significantly poorer body image. However, exercise mode was not associated with body image differences. Sedentary Type-D men scored significantly lower in Body Areas Satisfaction and higher in Self-Classified Weight than both active groups. Regular exercise might provide a pathway for Type-D men to develop a more positive body image.

  13. Virulence gene typing of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a complement in epidemiological typing.

    PubMed

    Nowrouzian, Forough L; Karami, Nahid; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Ahrén, Christina

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has widely spread to all parts of the world. For surveillance and effective infection control molecular typing is required. We have evaluated the utility of virulence gene determination as a complementary tool for epidemiological typing of MRSA in relation to spa-typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). We assessed 63 community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) isolates detected in the West part of Sweden for 30 virulence factor genes (VF) and agr allele variations by serial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. These isolates belonged to sequence types (ST) 8, 80, 45 and 30 as classified by multilocus sequence typing. The isolates in each spa-type and PFGE-type were examined over an extended time-period and constituted a varying number of PFGE-subtypes (5-14) and spa-types (3-11) within four major PFGE types. Each ST had a unique VF profile. For isolates within a major PFGE type showing high diversity both in PFGE subtypes and spa the VF profile varied as well in contrast to those with low diversity where no alterations were seen. Thus, the accuracy of each typing method does not only vary by the method per se but is rather dependent on the genetic repertoire of the typed strains and genes evaluated. For strains demonstrating high diversity VF typing may be a useful complement in the epidemiological investigations, and may highlight the accurate discriminatory power of spa or PFGE typing.

  14. Human muscle fiber type-specific insulin signaling: impact of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Albers, Peter H; Pedersen, Andreas J T; Birk, Jesper B; Kristensen, Dorte E; Vind, Birgitte F; Baba, Otto; Nøhr, Jane; Højlund, Kurt; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2015-02-01

    Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue composed of different fiber types. Studies suggest that insulin-mediated glucose metabolism is different between muscle fiber types. We hypothesized that differences are due to fiber type-specific expression/regulation of insulin signaling elements and/or metabolic enzymes. Pools of type I and II fibers were prepared from biopsies of the vastus lateralis muscles from lean, obese, and type 2 diabetic subjects before and after a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Type I fibers compared with type II fibers have higher protein levels of the insulin receptor, GLUT4, hexokinase II, glycogen synthase (GS), and pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α (PDH-E1α) and a lower protein content of Akt2, TBC1 domain family member 4 (TBC1D4), and TBC1D1. In type I fibers compared with type II fibers, the phosphorylation response to insulin was similar (TBC1D4, TBC1D1, and GS) or decreased (Akt and PDH-E1α). Phosphorylation responses to insulin adjusted for protein level were not different between fiber types. Independently of fiber type, insulin signaling was similar (TBC1D1, GS, and PDH-E1α) or decreased (Akt and TBC1D4) in muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes compared with lean and obese subjects. We conclude that human type I muscle fibers compared with type II fibers have a higher glucose-handling capacity but a similar sensitivity for phosphoregulation by insulin.

  15. 7 CFR 51.1997 - Similar type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... round type shall not be mixed with those of the long type in the same container....

  16. C-type lectins facilitate tumor metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dongbing; Yao, Yao; Zhang, Songbai; Su, Chunjie; Zhang, Yonglian

    2017-01-01

    Metastasis, a life-threatening complication of cancer, leads to the majority of cases of cancer-associated mortality. Unfortunately, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of cancer metastasis remain to be fully elucidated. C-type lectins are a large group of proteins, which share structurally homologous carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs) and possess diverse physiological functions, including inflammation and antimicrobial immunity. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated the contribution of C-type lectins in different steps of the metastatic spread of cancer. Notably, a substantial proportion of C-type lectins, including selectins, mannose receptor (MR) and liver and lymph node sinusoidal endothelial cell C-type lectin, are important molecular targets for the formation of metastases in vitro and in vivo. The present review summarizes what has been found regarding C-type lectins in the lymphatic and hematogenous metastasis of cancer. An improved understanding the role of C-type lectins in cancer metastasis provides a comprehensive perspective for further clarifying the molecular mechanisms of cancer metastasis and supports the development of novel C-type lectins-based therapies the for prevention of metastasis in certain types of cancer. PMID:28123516

  17. Vegetation types on acid soils of Micronesia

    Treesearch

    Marjorie C. Falanruw; Thomas G.. Cole; Craig D. Whitesell

    1987-01-01

    The soils and vegetation of the Caroline high islands, Federated States of Micronesia, are being mapped by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service and Soil Conservation Service. By the end of 1987, vegetation maps and reports on Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap, four Truk Islands, and Palau are expected to be available. To compare soil types with vegetation types...

  18. 46 CFR 160.037-2 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Type. 160.037-2 Section 160.037-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hand Orange Smoke Distress Signals § 160.037-2 Type. (a) Hand orange...

  19. Types of thermal plumes in coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, T.; Madding, R.; Scarpace, F.

    1977-01-01

    A large number of thermal images of the surface temperatures of the thermal plumes associated with the once-through cooling of electric power plants show that four kinds of plume occur sufficiently often to be classified as distinct plume types. Each type has implications for both numerical models and measurement strategies.

  20. Serum markers for type II diabetes mellitus

    DOEpatents

    Metz, Thomas O; Qian, Wei-Jun; Jacobs, Jon M; Polpitiya, Ashoka D; Camp, II, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2014-03-18

    A method for identifying persons with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus utilizing selected biomarkers described hereafter either alone or in combination. The present invention allows for broad based, reliable, screening of large population bases and provides other advantages, including the formulation of effective strategies for characterizing, archiving, and contrasting data from multiple sample types under varying conditions.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: glutaric acidemia type II

    MedlinePlus

    ... experience the most severe symptoms of glutaric acidemia type II . Mutations that allow the enzyme to retain some activity may result in milder forms of the disorder. Learn more about the genes associated with glutaric acidemia type II ETFA ETFB ETFDH Related Information What is ...

  2. Personality Type and Clinical Supervision Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Janine M.; Clingerman, Tamara L.; Gilbride, Dennis D.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated personality type of supervisors and supervisees and interventions chosen by supervisors for 78 supervisory dyads from 9 different counselor education programs. Gender effects were also investigated. Results indicated that interventions were not influenced by supervisor personality type as measured by the…

  3. Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the Internet Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > For Parents > Type 1 Diabetes: What Is It? Print A A A What's in this article? ... pancreas to make the hormone insulin and release it into the bloodstream. But in people with diabetes, ...

  4. Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It?

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the Internet Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? KidsHealth > For Parents > Type 2 Diabetes: What Is It? Print A A A What's in this article? ... pancreas to make the hormone insulin and release it into the bloodstream. But in people with diabetes, ...

  5. 48 CFR 3437.670 - Contract type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract type. 3437.670... SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Performance-Based Acquisition 3437.670 Contract type. Award-term contracting may be used for performance-based contracts and task orders that provide...

  6. Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

  7. 7 CFR 51.2853 - One type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... type. One type means that the onions are within the same general color category. Metric...

  8. 46 CFR 160.077-4 - Type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type. 160.077-4 Section 160.077-4 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Hybrid Inflatable Personal Flotation Devices § 160.077-4 Type. (a) A...

  9. 46 CFR 169.539 - Type required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Type required. 169.539 Section 169.539 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Lifesaving and Firefighting Equipment Personal Flotation Devices § 169.539 Type required. All personal...

  10. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Childhood Interstitial Lung Disease The broad term "childhood interstitial lung disease" (chILD) ... therapeutic intervention Lung and bone marrow transplant-associated lung diseases Diffuse alveolar damage of unknown cause The various types ...

  11. Delivery of QTIiv2 Question Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Gary B.; Davis, Hugh C.; Gilbert, Lester; Hare, Jonathon; Howard, Yvonne; Jeyes, Steve; Millard, David; Sherratt, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The IMS Question and Test Interoperability (QTI) standard identifies 16 different question types which may be used in online assessment. While some partial implementations exist, the R2Q2 project has developed a complete solution that renders and responds to all 16 question types as specified. In addition, care has been taken in the R2Q2 project…

  12. Retail Florist: Designing Basic Types of Arrangements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    This retail florist unit guide is provided to help teachers teach a unit on designing basic types of flower arrangements. Topics covered are principles of design, foundation materials used, foundation securing methods, tints and flower dyes, wire and ribbon sizes, color harmony, and basic types of arrangements. Learning activities include choosing…

  13. Neurofibromatosis type II: a rare neurocutaneous syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sultan, Tipu; Khan, Ashfa Ameer; Malik, Muhammad Akbar; Nadeem, Malik Muhammad; Rahman, Mahfooz-Ur-; Khan, Malik Muhammad Nazir

    2007-06-01

    Neurocutaneous syndromes are heterogeneous group of disorders with abnormalities of central as well as peripheral nervous system. Neurofibromatosis type II (NF-II) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous syndrome rarely diagnosed in pediatric population. Diagnosis is based on clinical history and radioimaging. We present a 14 years old boy with headache and decreased hearing, who turned to be a case of neurofibromatosis type II.

  14. Forest type mapping with satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, A. G., Jr.; Bryant, E. S.

    1976-01-01

    Computer classification of data from Landsat, an earth-orbiting satellite, has resulted in measurements and maps of forest types for two New Hampshire counties. The acreages of hardwood and softwood types and total forested areas compare favorably with Forest Service figures for the same areas. These techniques have advantages for field application, particularly in states having forest taxation laws based on general productivity.

  15. A user's guide to nursery stock types

    Treesearch

    R. Kasten Dumroese; Peyton W. Owston

    2003-01-01

    Foresters must consider many factors when selecting nursery stock types for their planting projects. Forest nurseries can now produce a vast array of stock types to meet any challenge in the field - these target seedlings can be defined for particular sites. It is important that foresters work with a nursery that is known from experience or reputation to provide a...

  16. Panel Discussion: Trends in Container Types

    Treesearch

    Eric Stuewe

    2006-01-01

    Container types and sizes vary depending on the requirements of the target seedling and the nursery culturing regime. Containers designed specifically for root pruning are available, as well as different types, sizes, and shapes for various species and objectives. With more options accessible to the grower, container use has changed over time.

  17. Hearing Restoration in Neurofibromatosis Type II Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeon Mi; Chang, Jin Woo; Choi, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type II will eventually succumb to bilateral deafness. For patients with hearing loss, modern medical science technology can provide efficient hearing restoration through a number of various methods. In this article, several hearing restoration methods for patients with neurofibromatosis type II are introduced. PMID:27189272

  18. Multilocus Sequence Typing Tool for Cyclospora cayetanensis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yaqiong; Roellig, Dawn M.; Li, Na; Tang, Kevin; Frace, Michael; Ortega, Ynes; Arrowood, Michael J.; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Wang, Lin; Moss, Delynn M.; Zhang, Longxian; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Because the lack of typing tools for Cyclospora cayetanensis has hampered outbreak investigations, we sequenced its genome and developed a genotyping tool. We observed 2 to 10 geographically segregated sequence types at each of 5 selected loci. This new tool could be useful for case linkage and infection/contamination source tracking. PMID:27433881

  19. Community Types and Mortality in Georgia Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Frank W.

    2012-01-01

    Using an "ecological regional analysis" methodology for defining types of communities and their associated mortality rates, this study of Georgia's 159 counties finds that the suburban and town centered counties have low mortality while the city-centered type predicts low mortality for the whites. The military-centered counties do not…

  20. Intravenous pamidronate in osteogenesis imperfecta type VII.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Moira S; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

    2009-03-01

    Cyclical intravenous treatment with pamidronate is widely used to treat osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) types I, III, and IV, which are due to dominant mutations affecting collagen type I alpha chains. There is no information about the effects of pamidronate in children with OI type VII, an autosomal-recessive form of OI caused by a mutation in the cartilage-associated protein gene. In this retrospective single-center study, we compared the effects of pamidronate in four girls with OI type VII (age range 3.9-12.7 years) to those in eight girls with OI types caused by collagen type I mutations who were matched for age and disease severity. During 3 years of pamidronate therapy, lumbar spine areal bone mineral density increased and lumbar vertebral bodies improved in shape in patients with OI type VII. Other outcomes such as fracture rates and mobility scores did not show statistically significant changes in this small study cohort. There were no significant side effects noted during the time of follow-up. Thus, intravenous treatment with pamidronate seems to be safe and of some benefit in patients with OI type VII.