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Sample records for biliary sphincterotomy dilation

  1. Limited precut sphincterotomy combined with endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for common bile duct stone removal in patients with difficult biliary cannulation.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chung-Mou; Chiu, Yi-Chun; Liang, Chih-Ming; Lu, Lung-Sheng; Tai, Wei-Chen; Kuo, Yuan-Hung; Wu, Cheng-Kun; Chuah, Seng-Kee; Changchien, Chi-Sin; Kuo, Chung-Huang

    2016-07-12

    Difficult biliary cannulation in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) can result in failure of common bile duct (CBD) stone removal and pancreatitis. The present study aimed to report the efficacy and safety of limited precut sphincterotomy (PS) combined with endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) for CBD stone removal in patients with difficult biliary cannulation, and the complications associated with this combined procedure. A total of 3305 patients underwent ERCP in our hospital between October 2009 and September 2014 and 258 were diagnosed with difficult biliary cannulation. Of these 258 patients, 58 underwent limited PS combined with EPBD for CBD stone removal, and these 58 patients were included in this retrospective study. The overall success rate was 94.8 % (55/58), and the success rate for single-session removal was 87.9 % (51/58). The mean procedure time was 41 ± 11.48 min (range, 20-72 min). Mechanical lithotripsy was needed in 10.3 % (6/58) of patients. Procedure-related complications included bleeding in 3.4 % (2/58), pancreatitis in 8.6 % (5/58) and biliary tract infection (BTI) in 1.7 % (1/58) of patients. The therapeutic outcome of limited PS combined with EPBD for CBD stone removal in patients with difficult biliary cannulation was good with an acceptable complication rate. It could be an alternative to PS and "early" limited PS should be used for prompt identification of the bile duct. Limited PS combined with EPBD is safe and effective for CBD stone removal in patients with difficult biliary cannulation.

  2. Safety and efficacy of minimal biliary sphincterotomy with papillary balloon dilation (m-EBS+EPBD) in patients using clopidogrel or anticoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Shaffer R. S.; Arif, Murtaza; Diehl, David L; Khara, Harshit S; Ho, Henry C; Elfant, Adam B

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EBS) or endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) are common techniques of biliary decompression. Potential risks include gastrointestinal hemorrhage, which can be increased by antiplatelet agents, anticoagulants (AC) and/or novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) (ie. apixaban, dabigatran and rivaroxaban). The study aim is to evaluate the safety/efficacy of an alternative technique, minimal-EBS plus EPBD (m-EBS + EPBD), in individuals for whom clopidogrel, AC, and/or NOACs cannot be interrupted due to high cardiovascular or thromboembolic risk. Patients and methods Patients undergoing m-EBS + EPBD while taking clopidogrel and/or AC were retrospectively evaluated at two United States tertiary care centers for efficacy, GIB and procedure-related, cardiovascular and thromboembolic adverse events (AE). Results Ninety-five patients were identified [55 = clopidogrel and 45 = AC (31.1 % NOACs)]. The main indication for ERCP was choledocholithiasis (34 %). 100 % clinical improvement and 97.9 % endoscopic success were found. The incidence of AE was 5.3 %. There was a 4.2 % incidence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage (2 cases requiring endoscopic intervention). Both severe gastrointestinal hemorrhages also experienced the cases of post-ERCP pancreatitis, and 2 /3 of cholangitis (all aspirin + AC). There was 1cardiovascular event (non-ST elevation myocardial infarction), and no thromboembolic events. Conclusions Minimal-EBS + EPBD is an effective and safe therapy with an incidence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage of 4.2 %, (2.1 % requiring endoscopic intervention), for patients on clopidogrel and/or AC, with a high risk for cardiovascular/thromboembolic events. PMID:28337485

  3. Post-biliary sphincterotomy bleeding despite covered metallic stent deployment

    PubMed Central

    Donatelli, Gianfranco; Cereatti, Fabrizio; Dumont, Jean-Loup; Dhumane, Parag; Tuszynski, Thierry; Vergeau, Bertrand Marie; Meduri, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Several endoscopic techniques have been proposed for the management of post-sphincterotomy bleeding. Lately, self-expandable metal stents deployment has gained popularity especially as a rescue therapy when other endoscopic techniques fail. Methods-results: We report the case report of a massive post-sphincterotomy bleeding in a patient with a self-expandable metal stent in the biliary tree. Despite the presence of a correctly positioned self-expandable metal stent, a new endoscopic session was required to control the bleeding. Conclusions: Self-expandable metal stent may be useful to manage post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding. However, up to now there is no specifically designed self-expandable metal stent for such complication. Large new designed self-expandable metal stent may be a useful tool for biliary endoscopist. PMID:27489716

  4. Huge biloma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Alkhateeb, Harith M.; Aljanabi, Thaer J.; Al-azzawi, Khairallh H.; Alkarboly, Taha A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biliary leak can occur as a complication of biliary surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography manipulations and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy. Consequently, bile may collect in the abdominal cavity, a condition called biloma. Rarely, it may reach a massive size. Case presentation A 72-year-old man presented with gastric upset with gradual abdominal distension reaching a large size due to intra-abdominal bile collection (biloma) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plus endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and stenting for post laparoscopic cholecystectomy common bile duct stricture. This huge biloma was treated by percutaneous insertion of a tube drain for a few days, evacuating the collection successfully without recurrence. Discussion This patient might sustain injury to the common bile duct either by the guide wire or stent, or the injury occurred at the angle between the common bile duct and duodenum during sphincterotomy of the ampulla. Although any of these rents may lead to a bile leak, causing a huge biloma, they could be successfully treated by percutaneous drainage. Conclusions (1) Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2) A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3) Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective. PMID:26402876

  5. How do we ensure that trainees learn to perform biliary sphincterotomy safely, appropriately, and effectively?

    PubMed

    Leung, Joseph; Foster, Erina

    2008-04-01

    Sphincterotomy is a high-risk procedure with considerable complications. Trainees should learn and understand the basics of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and sphincterotomy to ensure good clinical outcomes. Teaching of sphincterotomy usually involves supervised hands-on clinical practice with patients. Proper positioning of the endoscope allows for correct orientation with the papilla, and performing the cut along the "ideal" biliary axis optimizes results and reduces complications. Learning and practicing sphincterotomy can be supplemented by simulator models. The Neo-Papilla model uses a modified chicken heart attached to the porcine ex vivo model and allows for cutting of actual tissue. The mechanical simulator allows trainees to practice cutting an artificial papilla marked with the "perfect" axis to understand the proper sphincterotomy technique. Understanding the indications and contraindications helps with appropriate application of sphincterotomy. Objective criteria should be available for assessing performance. Improved technique and avoiding a deviated cut may improve overall results and prevent complications.

  6. Is endoscopic papillary large balloon dilatation without endoscopic sphincterotomy effective?

    PubMed Central

    Omuta, Shigefumi; Maetani, Iruru; Saito, Michihiro; Shigoka, Hiroaki; Gon, Katsushige; Tokuhisa, Junya; Naruki, Mieko

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilatation (EPLBD) without endoscopic sphincterotomy in a prospective study. METHODS: From July 2011 to August 2013, we performed EPLBD on 41 patients with naïve papillae prospectively. For sphincteroplasty of EPLBD, endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) was not performed, and balloon diameter selection was based on the distal common bile duct diameter. The balloon was inflated to the desired pressure. If the balloon waist did not disappear, and the desired pressure was satisfied, we judged the dilatation as complete. We used a retrieval balloon catheter or mechanical lithotripter (ML) to remove stones and assessed the rates of complete stone removal, number of sessions, use of ML and adverse events. Furthermore, we compared the presence or absence of balloon waist disappearance with clinical characteristics and endoscopic outcome. RESULTS: The mean diameters of the distal and maximum common bile duct were 13.5 ± 2.4 mm and 16.4 ± 3.1 mm, respectively. The mean maximum transverse-diameter of the stones was 13.4 ± 3.4 mm, and the mean number of stones was 3.0 ± 2.4. Complete stone removal was achieved in 97.5% (40/41) of cases, and ML was used in 12.2% (5/41) of cases. The mean number of sessions required was 1.2 ± 0.62. Pancreatitis developed in two patients and perforation in one. The rate of balloon waist disappearance was 73.1% (30/41). No significant differences were noted in procedure time, rate of complete stone removal (100% vs 100%), number of sessions (1.1 vs 1.3, P = 0.22), application of ML (13% vs 9%, P = 0.71), or occurrence of pancreatitis (3.3% vs 9.1%, P = 0.45) between cases with and without balloon waist disappearance. CONCLUSION: EST before sphincteroplasty may be unnecessary in EPLBD. Further investigations are needed to verify the relationship between the presence or absence of balloon waist disappearance. PMID:26109817

  7. Diagnostic criteria for congenital biliary dilatation 2015.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Yoshinori; Ando, Hisami; Kamisawa, Terumi; Itoi, Takao; Urushihara, Naoto; Koshinaga, Tsugumichi; Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Hideki; Morotomi, Yoshiki

    2016-06-01

    The Diagnostic Criteria for Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction 2013 were published by the Japanese Study Group on Pancreaticobiliary Maljunction (JSGPM) in 2014. The committee of JSGPM for diagnostic criteria for pancreaticobiliary maljunction has established the standard diameter of the bile duct, and a definition of dilatation of the bile duct was proposed in 2014. The committee of JSGPM prepared the diagnostic criteria for congenital biliary dilatation in 2014, and a final revised version was approved in 2015. Congenital biliary dilatation is defined as a congenital malformation involving both local dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct, including the common bile duct, and pancreaticobiliary maljunction. However, cases associated with intrahepatic bile duct dilatation can also be included. Various kinds of pathological conditions can occur on hepatobiliary systems and pancreas by bile duct dilatation and pancreaticobiliary maljunction. For a diagnosis of congenital biliary dilatation, both abnormal dilatation of the bile duct and pancreaticobiliary maljunction must be evident by either imaging test or anatomical examination. Acquired or secondary dilatation of the bile duct by obstruction due to biliary stones or malignancy should be strictly excluded. Diagnostic criteria for congenital biliary dilatation 2015 were established from Japan representing a world first. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  8. Post-endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy bleeding: an interventional radiology approach.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Ruth; McCarthy, Eoghan; Joyce, Eimear; McEniff, Niall; Guiney, Michael; Ryan, J Mark; Beddy, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is an integral component of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Post-sphincterotomy hemorrhage is a recognized complication. First line treatment involves a variety of endoscopic techniques performed at the time of sphincterotomy. If these are not successful, transcatheter arterial embolization or open surgical vessel ligation are therapeutic considerations. To evaluate the technical and clinical success of transcatheter arterial embolization via micro coils in the management of bleeding post-endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES). An 8-year retrospective review of all patients referred for transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) for management of post-ES bleeding not controlled by endoscopy was performed. We analyzed the findings at endoscopy, angiography, interventional procedure, and the technical and clinical success. Twelve embolization procedures were performed in 11 patients. Technical success was achieved in 11 of 12 procedures. Branches embolized included the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) in 11 cases, the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery (SPDA) in one case, and the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA) in four cases. Clinical success was achieved in 10 of 11 patients. One patient was referred for surgical intervention due to rebleeding from the IPDA. Our experience demonstrates that TAE can effectively control bleeding post-ES avoiding the need for invasive surgery in most patients.

  9. Guidewire-assisted transpancreatic sphincterotomy for difficult biliary cannulation: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zang, Jinfeng; Zhang, Chi; Gao, Junye

    2014-10-01

    Precut techniques have been used to facilitate biliary cannulation during difficult endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Presently, needle-knife sphincterotomy (NKS) is a commonly used precut technique. Since its first description, transpancreatic sphincterotomy, as an alternative method for bile duct entry when conventional biliary cannulation failed, has been debated on its success rate of cannulation and its complications, such as increased incidence of pancreatitis. Guidewire techniques are another effective method to improve the success rate of selective bile duct cannulation. This is a single-center prospective randomized controlled trial aimed to compare success rate, cannulation time, and complications of guidewire-assisted transpancreatic sphincterotomy (GATS) and NKS for difficult biliary cannulation. Between July 2010 and October 2013, consecutive patients who failed in the standard biliary cannulation were randomly assigned to the GATS and NKS groups. The outcome measures included success rate, cannulation time, and complications. A total of 149 patients were enrolled and analyzed: 73 in the GATS group and 79 in the NKS group. The characteristics of the 2 groups were similar. Bile duct cannulation was successful in 70 patients (95.9%) in the GATS group and 64 (84.2%) in the NKS group (P=0.018). The median cannulation time spent in precut was 193 seconds in the GATS group and 485 seconds in the NKS group (P<0.001). There was no difference between the groups for the incidence of complications, pancreatitis, and hemorrhage (9.6% vs. 10.5%, 6.8% vs. 6.6%, 1.4% vs. 3.9%, respectively). No perforation occurred. GATS compared with NKS increases biliary cannulation rate and requires less cannulation time during difficult biliary access. This technique is not associated with an increased risk for complications. It seems to be an effective and safe alternative for biliary access during difficult endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

  10. Comparison of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation and sphincterotomy in young patients with CBD stones and gallstones.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu Ri; Moon, Jong Ho; Choi, Hyun Jong; Kim, Dong Choon; Ha, Ji Su; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cha, Sang-Woo; Cho, Young Deok; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2014-05-01

    Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy (EBS) results in permanent loss of sphincter function and its long-term complications are unknown. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is an alternative procedure that preserves sphincter function, although it is associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis than is EBS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and outcomes of EPBD with limited indications for removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones combined with gallstones in patients younger than 40 years. Young (age < 40 years) patients who had CBD stones combined with gallstones on imaging studies were enrolled in this study. A total of 132 patients were randomly divided into the EPBD group (n = 62) or the EBS group (n = 70) for extraction of CBD stones. The ballooning size of EPBD ranged from 6 to 10 mm. Complete bile duct clearance was achieved in 98.4 % (61/62) of the EPBD group and 100 % (70/70) of the EBS group. Mechanical lithotripsy was required in 8.1 % (5/62) of the EPBD group and 8.6 % (6/70) of the EBS group. The early complication rates were 8.1 % (5/62) (five pancreatitis) in the EPBD group and 11.4 % (8/70) (five [7.1 %] pancreatitis, two bleeding and one perforation) in the EBS group. The recurrence rates of CBD stones were 1.6 % (1/62) in the EPBD group and 5.7 % (4/70) in the EBS group. EPBD with limited indications was safe and effective as EBS for removal of CBD stones combined with gallstones in young patients who had a longer life expectancy.

  11. Early and late complications after endoscopic sphincterotomy for biliary lithiasis with and without the gall bladder 'in situ'.

    PubMed Central

    Escourrou, J; Cordova, J A; Lazorthes, F; Frexinos, J; Ribet, A

    1984-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy has gained wide acceptance in the treatment of biliary lithiasis. We attempted endoscopic sphincterotomy in 443 patients and were successful in 407 (92%). Sphincterotomy was carried out with the gall bladder in situ in 234 cases (57%) of advanced age or high surgical risk. Immediate complications occurred in 7%, of which haemorrhage was the most frequent. The mortality rate was 1.5%. Three hundred and sixteen endoscopic sphincterotomies were performed more than six months before writing and follow up was available for 226 (72%) from six to 78 months. Late complications were observed in 16 patients with gall bladder 'in situ' (12%); the most frequent was cholecystitis in 6%. In five patients of the group without gall bladder, four had cholangitis related to retained or recurrent stones, and one restenosed . No episodes of cholangitis were observed in patients without stones despite reflux of barium up the biliary tree as observed during a barium meal examination. PMID:6735245

  12. Effects of endoscopic sphincterotomy on biliary epithelium: A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Kalaitzis, John; Vezakis, Antonios; Fragulidis, George; Anagnostopoulou, Irene; Rizos, Spyros; Papalambros, Efstathios; Polydorou, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study the long-term effects of endoscopic sphincterotomy on biliary epithelium. METHODS: This is a prospective case-control study. A total of 25 patients with a median age of 71 years (range 49-89 years) and prior endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) for benign disease formed the first group. The median time from ES was 42 mo (range 8-144 mo). Another 25 patients with a median age of 76 years (range 44-94 mo) and similar characteristics who underwent current endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and ES for benign disease formed the second group (control group). Brush cytology of the biliary tree with p53 immunocytology was performed in all patients of both groups. ERCPs and recruitment were conducted at the Endoscopic Unit of Aretaieion University Hospital and Tzaneio Hospital, Athens, from October 2006 to June 2010. RESULTS: No cases were positive or suspicious for malignancy. Epithelial atypia was higher in the first group (32% vs 8% in the second group, P = 0.034). Acute cholangitis and previous biliary operation rates were also higher in the first group (acute cholangitis, 60% vs 24% in the second group, P = 0.01; previous biliary operation, 76% vs 24% in the second group, P = 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that previous ES was the main causal factor for atypia, which was not related to the time interval from the ES (P = 0.407). Two patients (8%) with atypia in the first group were p53-positive. CONCLUSION: ES causes biliary epithelial atypia that represents mostly reactive/proliferative rather than premalignant changes. The role of p53 immunoreactivity in biliary atypia needs to be further studied. PMID:22371639

  13. One-Step Transpapillary Balloon Dilation under Cap-Fitted Endoscopy without a Preceding Sphincterotomy for the Removal of Bile Duct Stones in Billroth II Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Hwang, Jae Chul; Choi, Hyun Jong; Moon, Jong Ho; Cho, Young Deok; Yoo, Byung Moo; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Jin Hong; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy may be limited in Billroth II gastrectomy because of difficulty in orientating the duodenoscope and sphincterotome as a result of altered anatomy. This study was planned to investigate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic transpapillary large balloon dilation (EPBD) without preceding sphincterotomy for removal of large CBD stones in Billroth II gastrectomy. Between March 2010 and February 2011, one-step EPBD under cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy was performed in patients who had undergone Billroth II gastrectomy at two tertiary referral centers. Main outcome measurements were successful duct clearance and EPBD-related complications. Successful access to major duodenal papilla was performed in 13 patients, but successful selective CBD cannulation was achieved in 12 patients (92.3%). Median maximum transverse stone size was 11.5 mm (10 to 14 mm). The mean number of stones was 2 (1-5). The median CBD diameter was 15 mm (12 to 19 mm). Mean procedure time from successful biliary access to complete stone removal was 17.8 min. Complete duct clearance was achieved in all patients. Four patients (33.3%) needed one more session of ERCP for removal of remnant stones. Asymptomatic hyperamylasemia in two patients and minor bleeding in another occurred. Without preceding sphincterotomy, one-step EPBD (≥10 mm) under cap-fitted forward-viewing endoscopy may be safe and effective for the removal of large stones (≥10 mm) with CBD dilatation in Billroth II gastrectomy.

  14. Endoscopic pancreatic and biliary manometry in pancreatic, biliary, and papillary disease, and after endoscopic sphincterotomy and surgical sphincteroplasty.

    PubMed Central

    Gregg, J A; Carr-Locke, D L

    1984-01-01

    Endoscopic manometry was used to measure pancreatic duct, common bile duct, pancreatic duct sphincter and bile duct sphincter pressures in 43 healthy volunteers and 162 patients with a variety of papillary, pancreatic and biliary disorders. Common bile duct pressure was significantly raised after cholecystectomy, with common bile duct stones and papillary stenosis but pancreatic duct pressure only in papillary stenosis. After endoscopic sphincterotomy mean common bile duct pressure fell from 11.2 to 1.1 mmHg and pancreatic duct pressure from 18.0 to 11.2 mmHg. Distinct pancreatic duct sphincter and bile duct sphincter zones were identified as phasic pressures of 3-12 waves/minute on pull-through from pancreatic duct and common bile duct to duodenum. Pancreatic duct sphincter pressures were higher with common bile duct stones and stenosis whereas bile duct sphincter pressures were higher in pancreatitis and stenosis. Bile duct sphincter activity was present in 60% of patients after surgical sphincteroplasty but 21% of patients after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic manometry facilitated the diagnosis of papillary stenosis, has allowed study of papillary pathophysiology and has shown a functional inter-relationship between the two sphincteric zones. PMID:6500363

  15. Sequential Double-Guidewire Technique and Transpancreatic Precut Sphincterotomy for Difficult Biliary Cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang W.; Chang, Jae H.; Kim, Tae H.; Han, Sok W.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: The double-guidewire technique (DGT) and transpancreatic precut sphincterotomy (TPS) are introduced as alternative biliary cannulation techniques for difficult biliary cannulation. This study aimed to evaluate the sequential use of DGT and TPS compared with a needle-knife precut papillotomy (NK). Patients and Methods: Six hundred and thirty-five consecutive patients with naοve papilla and who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for biliary cannulation from March 2010 to April 2014 in a single institute were analyzed. When standard techniques were unsuccessful, DGT or NK was performed. TPS was sequentially performed if DGT failed. Results: DGT and NK were attempted in 65 and 58 patients, respectively. A sequential DGT-TPS was performed in 38 patients after a failed DGT. Biliary cannulations were successful in 42%, 74%, and 66% of the DGT, sequential DGT-TPS, and NK patients, respectively (P = 0.002). The cannulation rate was higher in the DGT ± TPS patients (85%) than in the NK patients (P = 0.014). Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) developed in 26% of the successful DGT patients, 37% of the sequential DGT-TPS patients, and 10% of the NK patients (P = 0.008). Of the sequential DGT-TPS patients, the incidence of PEP was significantly reduced in patients with a pancreatic duct (PD) stent compared with patients without a PD stent (24% vs. 62%, P = 0.023). Conclusions: Sequential DGT-TPS is a useful alternative method compared with NK for patients in whom biliary cannulation is difficult. In the sequential DGT-TPS patients, the incidence of PEP was significantly reduced with the use of a PD stent. PMID:25672234

  16. Sequential double-guidewire technique and transpancreatic precut sphincterotomy for difficult biliary cannulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chang W; Chang, Jae H; Kim, Tae H; Han, Sok W

    2015-01-01

    The double-guidewire technique (DGT) and transpancreatic precut sphincterotomy (TPS) are introduced as alternative biliary cannulation techniques for difficult biliary cannulation. This study aimed to evaluate the sequential use of DGT and TPS compared with a needle-knife precut papillotomy (NK). Six hundred and thirty-five consecutive patients with naοve papilla and who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for biliary cannulation from March 2010 to April 2014 in a single institute were analyzed. When standard techniques were unsuccessful, DGT or NK was performed. TPS was sequentially performed if DGT failed. DGT and NK were attempted in 65 and 58 patients, respectively. A sequential DGT-TPS was performed in 38 patients after a failed DGT. Biliary cannulations were successful in 42%, 74%, and 66% of the DGT, sequential DGT-TPS, and NK patients, respectively (P = 0.002). The cannulation rate was higher in the DGT ± TPS patients (85%) than in the NK patients (P = 0.014). Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) developed in 26% of the successful DGT patients, 37% of the sequential DGT-TPS patients, and 10% of the NK patients (P = 0.008). Of the sequential DGT-TPS patients, the incidence of PEP was significantly reduced in patients with a pancreatic duct (PD) stent compared with patients without a PD stent (24% vs. 62%, P = 0.023). Sequential DGT-TPS is a useful alternative method compared with NK for patients in whom biliary cannulation is difficult. In the sequential DGT-TPS patients, the incidence of PEP was significantly reduced with the use of a PD stent.

  17. Double guidewire technique vs transpancreatic precut sphincterotomy in difficult biliary cannulation

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Young Wook; Cha, Sang-Woo; Lee, Woong Cheul; Kim, Sae Hee; Kim, Anna; Cho, Young Deok

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To compare the outcomes between double-guidewire technique (DGT) and transpancreatic precut sphincterotomy (TPS) in patients with difficult biliary cannulation. METHODS: This was a prospective, randomized study conducted in single tertiary referral hospital in Korea. Between January 2005 and September 2010. A total of 71 patients, who bile duct cannulation was not possible and selective pancreatic duct cannulation was achieved, were randomized into DGT (n = 34) and TPS (n = 37) groups. DGT or TPS was done for selective biliary cannulation. We measured the technical success rates of biliary cannulation, median cannulation time, and procedure related complications. RESULTS: The distribution of patients after randomization was balanced, and both groups were comparable in baseline characteristics, except the higher percentage of endoscopic nasobiliary drainage in the DGT group (55.9% vs 13.5%, P < 0.001). Successful cannulation rate and mean cannulation times in DGT and TPS groups were 91.2% vs 91.9% and 14.1 ± 13.2 min vs 15.4 ± 17.9 min, P = 0.732, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups. The overall incidence of post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis was 38.2% vs 10.8%, P < 0.011 in the DGT group and the TPS group; post-procedure pancreatitis was significantly higher in the DGT group. But the overall incidence of post-ERCP hyperamylasemia was no significant difference between the two groups; DGT group vs TPS group: 14.7% vs 16.2%, P < 1.0. CONCLUSION: When free bile duct cannulation was difficult and selective pancreatic duct cannulation was achieved, DGT and TPS facilitated biliary cannulation and showed similar success rates. However, post-procedure pancreatitis was significantly higher in the DGT group. PMID:23326171

  18. Double guidewire technique vs transpancreatic precut sphincterotomy in difficult biliary cannulation.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young Wook; Cha, Sang-Woo; Lee, Woong Cheul; Kim, Sae Hee; Kim, Anna; Cho, Young Deok

    2013-01-07

    To compare the outcomes between double-guidewire technique (DGT) and transpancreatic precut sphincterotomy (TPS) in patients with difficult biliary cannulation. This was a prospective, randomized study conducted in single tertiary referral hospital in Korea. Between January 2005 and September 2010. A total of 71 patients, who bile duct cannulation was not possible and selective pancreatic duct cannulation was achieved, were randomized into DGT (n = 34) and TPS (n = 37) groups. DGT or TPS was done for selective biliary cannulation. We measured the technical success rates of biliary cannulation, median cannulation time, and procedure related complications. The distribution of patients after randomization was balanced, and both groups were comparable in baseline characteristics, except the higher percentage of endoscopic nasobiliary drainage in the DGT group (55.9% vs 13.5%, P < 0.001). Successful cannulation rate and mean cannulation times in DGT and TPS groups were 91.2% vs 91.9% and 14.1 ± 13.2 min vs 15.4 ± 17.9 min, P = 0.732, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups. The overall incidence of post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis was 38.2% vs 10.8%, P < 0.011 in the DGT group and the TPS group; post-procedure pancreatitis was significantly higher in the DGT group. But the overall incidence of post-ERCP hyperamylasemia was no significant difference between the two groups; DGT group vs TPS group: 14.7% vs 16.2%, P < 1.0. When free bile duct cannulation was difficult and selective pancreatic duct cannulation was achieved, DGT and TPS facilitated biliary cannulation and showed similar success rates. However, post-procedure pancreatitis was significantly higher in the DGT group.

  19. Endoscopic Papillary Balloon Dilation with Large Balloon after Limited Sphincterotomy for Retrieval of Choledocholithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Seungmin; Kim, Myoung Hwan; Park, Jeong Youp; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young

    2006-01-01

    Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EBD) for choledocholithiasis is known to be comparable to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) especially in cases of small stones. With larger stones, EBD with conventional balloon, which have a diameter of 6-8 mm, was reported as less effective for extraction of stones. We evaluated the efficacy and complications of EBD with large balloons (10-15 mm) after limited EST for retrieval of choledocholithiasis. From February 2005, we have performed EBD with limited EST for retrieval of common bile duct (CBD) stones. The patients who admitted with hyperamylasemia and gallstone pancreatitis were excluded. In cases without CBD dilation, EPBD with 12 mm for 40 seconds was performed. And in cases with CBD dilation, we dilated the sphincters with 15 mm sized balloon for 40 seconds. Total 22 patients (11 of male) were performed EBD with limited EST for retrieval of CBD stones. The median diameter of the stones was 10 mm (5-25 mm). Ten cases had multiple stones and 6 cases periampullary diverticuli. Successful stone removal in the initial session of ERCP with EBD was accomplished in 16 patients (72.7%). And complete retrieval of bile duct stones was achieved in all patients with repeated ERCP. In the aspect of complications, any episodes of perforation, bleeding was not developed. Only one case of mild grade of post-procedural pancreatitis was noted. However, post-procedural hyperamylasemia was developed in 16 cases (68.2%). EBD with larger balloon seems to be a feasible and safe alternative technique for conventional EST in CBD stone extraction. PMID:17191309

  20. Bleeding after endoscopic sphincterotomy or papillary balloon dilation among users of antithrombotic agents.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Yasunaga, Hideo; Nakai, Yousuke; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Hiroki; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    Severe bleeding is a potentially lethal complication after endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) for choledocholithiasis. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants on this complication. Patients who underwent EST and EPBD were identified in a Japanese nationwide administrative database covering 1090 hospitals. Adjusting for other potential risk factors, we evaluated the association between oral administration of antiplatelet agents and/or anticoagulants (continuation, discontinuation, and non-use) and clinically significant bleeding within 3 days of the procedure. In total, 61 002 patients were analyzed (EST, 54 493 patients; EPBD, 6509). The rate of severe bleeding was 0.8 % in both groups, but EPBD was performed more frequently than EST in patients with chronic renal failure, liver cirrhosis, and in those receiving antiplatelet agents or anticoagulants. The impact of continuation/discontinuation of antiplatelet agents on severe bleeding was not statistically significant in the EST or EPBD groups. The use of anticoagulants was associated with a statistically significant increase in severe bleeding compared with non-use for EST (1.6 % 27 of 1688 patients vs. 0.8 % 429 of 52 805 patients; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.70; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 1.10 - 2.63) and for EPBD (3.0 % [8 of 263 patients] vs. 0.7 % 46 of 6246 patients; adjusted OR 2.91; 95 %CI 1.36 - 6.24). EST and EPBD can be safely performed in patients receiving antiplatelet agents. Users of anticoagulants are at high risk of bleeding, and the periprocedural management of these should be further investigated. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Sphincterotomy with endoscopic biliary drainage for severe acute cholangitis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sawas, Tarek; Arwani, Noura; Al Halabi, Shadi; Vargo, John

    2017-01-01

    Aims To investigate the role of endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) in acute severe obstructive cholangitis management by performing a meta-analysis of controlled trials. Method We searched PubMed and Embase for controlled studies that compared endoscopic drainage with ES versus Non-ES in acute obstructive cholangitis. Two reviewers selected the studies and extracted the data. Disagreement was addressed by a third reviewer. Heterogeneity of the studies was analyzed by Cochran’s Q statistics. A Mantel–Haenszel risk ratio was calculated utilizing a random effects model. Results Four controlled studies met our inclusion criteria with 392 participants (201 ES, 191 Non-ES). The outcomes were drainage insertion success rate, drainage effectiveness, post drainage pancreatitis, bleeding, procedure duration, perforation, cholecystitis, and 30-day mortality. Drainage insertion success rate was identical in both groups (RR: 1.00, 95 %CI% 0.96 – 1.04). Effective drainage was not significantly different (RR: 1.11, 95 %CI 0.73 – 1.7). There was no significant difference in the incidence of pancreatitis post EBD between the ES and Non-ES groups at 3 % and 4 %, respectively (RR: 0.73, 95 %CI 0.24 – 2.27). However, there was a significant increase in post EBD bleeding with ES compared to Non-ES (RR: 8.58, 95 %CI 2.03 – 36.34). Thirty-day mortality was similar between ES and Non-ES groups at 0.7 % and 1 %, respectively (RR: 0.5, 95 %CI 0.05 – 5.28). Conclusion Our findings show that EBD without ES is an effective drainage technique and carries less risk for post procedure bleeding. Patients who are critically ill and have coagulopathy should be spared from undergoing ES in the acute phase. PMID:28229129

  2. Efficacy and safety of limited endoscopic sphincterotomy before self-expandable metal stent insertion for malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Hyung Wook; Choi, Cheol Woong; Park, Su Bum; Kim, Su Jin; Ryu, Dae Gon

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the safety and efficacy of limited endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) before placement of self-expandable metal stent (SEMS). METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of 244 consecutive patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction, who underwent placement of SEMSs following limited ES from December 2008 to February 2015. The diagnosis of malignant biliary obstruction and assessment of patient eligibility for the study was established by a combination of clinical findings, laboratory investigations, imaging and pathological results. All patients were monitored in the hospital for at least 24 h following endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP). The incidence of immediate or early post-ERCP complications such as post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and bleeding related to limited ES were considered as primary outcomes. Also, characteristics and complications according to the cancer type were classified. RESULTS Among the 244 patients included, the underlying diagnosis was cholangiocarcinoma in 118 patients, pancreatic cancer in 79, and non-pancreatic or non-biliary malignancies in the remaining 47 patients. Early post-ERCP complications occurred in 9 patients (3.7%), with PEP in 7 patients (2.9%; mild, 6; moderate, 1) and mild bleeding in 2 patients (0.8%). There was no significant association between the incidence of post-ERCP complications and the type of malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma vs pancreatic cancer vs others, P = 0.696) or the type of SEMS used (uncovered vs covered, P = 1.000). Patients who had more than one SEMS placed at the first instance were at a significantly higher risk of post-ERCP complications (one SEMS vs two SEMS, P = 0.031). No other factors were predictive of post-ERCP complications. CONCLUSION Limited ES is feasible and safe, and effectively facilitates the placement of SEMS, without any significant risk of PEP or severe bleeding. PMID:28321164

  3. Japanese clinical practice guidelines for congenital biliary dilatation.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Hiroki; Shimada, Mitsuo; Kamisawa, Terumi; Fujii, Hideki; Hamada, Yoshinori; Kubota, Masayuki; Urushihara, Naoto; Endo, Itaru; Nio, Masaki; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Ando, Hisami

    2017-01-01

    Until now, there have been no practical clinical guidelines for congenital biliary dilatation (CBD). In this review article, the Japanese Study Group on Congenital Biliary Dilatation (JSCBD) propose to establish clinical practice guidelines for CBD. Because the evidence-based literature is relatively small, we decided to create guidelines based on the consensus of experts, using the medical literature for reference. A total of 20 clinical questions (CQs) were considered by the members of the editorial committee responsible for the guidelines. The CQs included the distinct aspects of CBD: (1) Concepts and Pathology (three CQs); (2) Diagnosis (six CQs); (3) Pancreaticobiliary Complications (three CQs); Treatments and Prognosis (eight CQs). Each statements and comments for CQs were made by the guidelines committee members. CQs were finally approved after review by members of the editorial committee and the guidelines evaluation board of CBD. These guidelines were created to provide assistance in the clinical practice of CBD management; their contents focus on clinical utility, and they include general information on CBD to make this disease more widely recognized. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  4. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for the management of recurrent difficult bile duct stones after previous endoscopic sphincterotomy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyung Geun; Moon, Jong Ho; Choi, Hyun Jong; Kim, Dong Choon; Kang, Myung Soo; Lee, Tae Hoon; Cha, Sang-Woo; Cho, Young Deok; Park, Sang-Heum; Kim, Sun-Joo

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic management of recurrent bile duct stones after endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective and safe. However, repeat EST for extension of a previous EST for recurrent bile duct stones may involve substantial risk. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) without repeat EST for recurrent difficult bile duct stones after previous EST. From January 2006 to October 2010, a total of 52 patients were enrolled; all had undergone EPLBD (balloon diameter: 12-20 mm) to remove recurrent difficult bile duct stones after previous EST. In all patients, stone removal had failed with conventional methods using a basket and/or balloon. The size of the balloon for EPLBD was selected to fit the diameter of the common bile duct or the largest stone. The median interval between initial EST and stone recurrence was 2.2 years (range 1-10). Median diameters of thelargest stone and balloon were 20.1 mm (range 12-40) and 14.7 mm (range 12-20), respectively. Complete stone removal was achieved in all patients (100%). The median number of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography sessions needed for complete stone removal was 1.6 (range 1-3). Additional lithotripsy was required in 16 patients (30.7%). No procedure-related complications were documented, with the exception of four cases of asymptomatic hyperamylasemia. The recurrence rate of CBD stones after bile duct clearance was 17.3% (9/52) during the follow-up period (mean 27.0 ± 14.1 months). EPLBD without repeat EST is effective and relatively safe for the extraction of recurrent difficult bile duct stones after previous EST. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  5. Congenital choledochal dilatation with emphasis on pathophysiology of the biliary tract.

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, N; Yanagihara, J; Tokiwa, K; Shimotake, T; Nakamura, K

    1992-01-01

    Of 37 patients with congenital choledochal dilatation, aged 8 days to 12 years, who had undergone excision with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, 26 patients could be analyzed for morphologic abnormalities and pathophysiology of the biliary tract. Of the 26 patients with congenital choledochal dilatation, 25 (96.2%) had an abnormal choledochopancreaticoductal junction. Of the 12 patients with cystic-type choledochal dilatation, 10 had the C-P type of abnormal choledochopancreaticoductal junction, and of the 13 patients with fusiform-type choledochal dilatation, nine had the P-C type. The amylase levels in the choledochal cyst and the gallbladder were elevated regardless of the form of choledochal dilatation. An adenocarcinoma in a cystic choledochal dilatation was found in one child. Therefore, longstanding inflammation of the biliary tract caused by the reflux of pancreatic juice might be one of the factors in carcinogenesis in the biliary tract. This free reflux of pancreatic juice was demonstrated not only by amylase levels in the biliary tract but also by intraoperative biliary manometry. This reflux might be explained by the lack of sphincter function at the junction of the common bile and pancreatic ducts. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. PMID:1370603

  6. Intrahepatic biliary dilatation caused by a small simple hepatic cyst: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Naitoh, Hiroshi; Fukasawa, Takaharu; Fukuchi, Minoru; Kiriyama, Shinsuke; Tabe, Yuichi; Yamauchi, Hayato; Suzuki, Masaki; Yoshida, Tomonori; Sakurai, Shinji; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Biliary obstruction caused by small simple cysts is very rare. We present a case of biliary dilatation caused by a simple cyst with a 4-cm diameter. The patient was a 75-year-old woman referred to our hospital for evaluation of a cystic tumor associated with peripheral biliary duct dilatation in the left segment of the liver. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed that the cyst probably communicated with the intrahepatic bile duct. Malignant tumors, including intrahepatic papillary neoplasms of the bile duct, could not be ruled out; therefore, we performed surgery with the patient's consent. Histopathologic examination of the resected liver showed that the cystic lesion was a simple cyst. The finding that even small simple cysts can obstruct the biliary tract is important for the management of cystic lesions of the liver.

  7. Sphincter of Oddi Manometry: Reproducibility of Measurements and Effect of Sphincterotomy in the EPISOD Study

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Alejandro L; Pauls, Qi; Durkalski-Mauldin, Valerie; Cotton, Peter B

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The reproducibility of sphincter of Oddi manometry (SOM) measurements and results of SOM after sphincterotomy has not been studied sufficiently. The aim of our study is to evaluate the reproducibility of SOM and completeness of sphincter ablation. Methods The recently published Evaluating Predictors and Interventions in sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (EPISOD) study included 214 subjects with post-cholecystectomy pain, and fit the criteria of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction type III. They were randomized into 3 arms, irrespective of manometric findings: sham (no sphincterotomy), biliary sphincterotomy, and dual (biliary and pancreatic). Thirty-eight subjects had both biliary and pancreatic manometries performed twice, at baseline and at repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography after 1–11 months. Sham arm was examined to assess the reproducibility of manometry, and the treatment arms to assess whether the sphincterotomies were complete (elevated pressures were normalized). Results Biliary and pancreatic measurements were reproduced in 7/14 (50%) untreated subjects. All 12 patients with initially elevated biliary pressures in biliary and dual sphincterotomy groups normalized after biliary sphincterotomy. However, 2 of 8 subjects with elevated pancreatic pressures in the dual sphincterotomy group remained abnormal after pancreatic sphincterotomy. Paradoxically, normal biliary pressures became abnormal in 1 of 15 subjects after biliary sphincterotomy, and normal pancreatic pressures became abnormal in 5 of 15 patients after biliary sphincterotomy, and in 1 of 9 after pancreatic sphincterotomy. Conclusions Our data suggest that SOM measurements are poorly reproducible, and question whether we could adequately perform pancreatic sphincterotomy. PMID:26951046

  8. The Role of Endoscopic Biliary Drainage without Sphincterotomy in Gallstone Patients with Cholangitis and Suspected Common Bile Duct Stones Not Detected by Cholangiogram or Intraductal Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Goong, Hyeon Jeong; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Yun Nah; Choi, Hyun Jong; Choi, Seo-Youn; Choi, Moon Han; Kim, Min Jin; Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Hae Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Treatment for cholangitis without common bile duct (CBD) stones has not been established in patients with gallstones. We investigated the usefulness of endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) without endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in patients diagnosed with gallstones and cholangitis without CBD stones by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS). Methods EBD using 5F plastic stents without EST was performed prospectively in patients with gallstones and cholangitis if CBD stones were not diagnosed by ERCP and IDUS. After ERCP, all patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The primary outcomes were clinical and technical success. The secondary outcomes were recurrence rate of biliary events and procedure-related adverse events. Results Among 187 patients with gallstones and cholangitis, 27 patients without CBD stones according to ERCP and IDUS received EBD using 5F plastic stents without EST. The stents were maintained in all patients until laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and recurrence of cholangitis was not observed. After cholecystectomy, the stents were removed spontaneously in 12 patients and endoscopically in 15 patients. Recurrence of CBD stones was not detected during the follow-up period (median, 421 days). Conclusions EBD using 5F plastic stents without EST may be safe and effective for the management of cholangitis accompanied by gallstones in patients without CBD stones according to ERCP and IDUS. PMID:28104896

  9. Clinical Significance of Biliary Dilatation and Cholelithiasis after Subtotal Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Harry; Kwon, Chang Il; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Tae Hoon; Han, Joung Ho; Song, Tae Jun; Hwang, Jae Chul; Kim, Dae Jung

    2015-07-01

    The well-organized study to support that increased cholelithiasis and bile duct dilatation can occur after gastrectomy has not been reported. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of cholelithiasis and the degree of common bile duct (CBD) dilatation in patients undergoing subtotal gastrectomy, compared to those undergoing endoscopic treatment for gastric cancer. Patients who diagnosed with gastric cancer and received treatment at six academic referral centers were investigated for the incidence and time of cholelithiasis and the degree of CBD dilatation after treatment by analysis of 5-year follow-up CTs. The operation group underwent subtotal gastrectomy without vagotomy, while in the control group endoscopic treatment was administered for gastric cancer. A total of 802 patients were enrolled in 5-year analysis (735 patients in the operation group and 67 patients in the control group). Cholelithiasis occurred in 47 patients (6.39%) in the operation group and 3 patients (4.48%) in the control group (p=0.7909). The incidences of cholelithiasis were 4.28% in Billoth-I and 7.89% in Billoth-II (p=0.0487). The diameter of proximal CBD and distal CBD increased by 1.11 mm and 1.41 mm, respectively, in the operation group, compared to 0.4 mm and 0.38 mm, respectively, in the control group (pœ0.05). Patients with increased CBD dilatation more than 5 mm showed statistically significant increases in alkaline phosphatase and gamma-glutamyltransferase. The incidence of cholelithiasis was not increased due to subtotal gastrectomy without vagotomy, but the incidence was higher after Billoth-II compared to Billoth-I. In addition, significant change in the CBD diameter was observed after subtotal gastrectomy.

  10. Early Gastric Cancer Recurrence Following Curative Resection Presenting as Biliary Tract Dilatation, Pancreatic Duct Dilatation and Intestinal Wall Thickening.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hiroyuki; Ito, Yukiko; Tanaka, Eri; Noguchi, Kensaku; Yamamoto, Shinzo; Taniguchi, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Hideo; Kumasaka, Toshio; Nakata, Ryo

    2016-01-01

    Early gastric cancer, especially cancer confined to the mucosa (stage T1a), is known to have a high cure rate with rare recurrence. We herein report the case of a 40-year-old female who initially presented with biliary tract dilatation, pancreatic duct dilatation and intestinal wall thickening 3 years after curative resection of pT1aN0 stage gastric cancer. The intestinal resection specimen revealed tumor cells spreading through the subserosa to the submucosa sparing mucosal membrane, which made exploratory laparotomy the only approach to confirm the diagnosis. It is always important to be aware of malignancy recurrence and clinicians should not hesitate to choose exploratory laparotomy to avoid any delay in the diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Ketamine-induced biliary dilatation: from Hong Kong to New York.

    PubMed

    Gutkin, Ellen; Hussain, Syed A; Kim, Sang H

    2012-03-01

    Ketamine is a popular drug of abuse in China, especially for young adults between the 18 and 30 years. It produces desirable short-term sensations of excitement, dream-like states, hallucinations, and vivid imagery, but is also responsible for untoward effects of the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. Abusers often present with severe abdominal pain and dysuria. In addition to its excretion in urine, ketamine is also excreted in bile and can lead to biliary dilatation. Sixteen reports of this phenomenon have been described in the literature, mostly in China. To date, this phenomenon has not been described in the United States. We present 2 cases of ketamine-induced biliary dilatation in young adult Asian patients. It is a new entity in the United States but should be recognized early, as it may prevent unnecessary investigation with blood work, imaging, therapeutic endoscopy, or even surgery.

  12. Complications of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with dilated and nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts.

    PubMed

    Weber, Andreas; Gaa, Jochen; Rosca, Bogdan; Born, Peter; Neu, Bruno; Schmid, Roland M; Prinz, Christian

    2009-12-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) have been described as an effective technique to obtain biliary access. Between January 1996 and December 2006, a total of 419 consecutive patients with endoscopically inaccessible bile ducts underwent PTBD. The current retrospective study evaluated success and complication rates of this invasive technique. PTBD was successful in 410/419 patients (97%). The success rate was equal in patients with dilated and nondilated bile ducts (p=0.820). In 39/419 patients (9%) procedure related complications could be observed. Major complications occurred in 17/419 patients (4%). Patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts had significantly higher complication rates compared to patients with dilated intrahepatic bile ducts (14.5% vs. 6.9%, respectively [p=0.022]). Procedure related deaths were observed in 3 patients (0.7%). In conclusion, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is an effective procedure in patients with dilated and nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts. However, patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts showed a higher risk for procedure related complications.

  13. Endoscopic Papillary Large Balloon Dilatation Without Sphincterotomy for the Treatment of Large Common Bile Duct Stone: Long-Term Outcomes at a Single Center.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Seok; Jeong, Seok; Bang, Byung Wook; Kang, Ae Ra; Lee, Don Haeng

    2016-10-01

    Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilatation (EPLBD) without endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is an accepted, simplified endoscopic technique for large common bile duct (CBD) stone removal. However, little is known about the long-term outcomes of this technique. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of EPLBD without EST for the treatment of large CBD stones. This retrospective study of EPLBD without EST for a large CBD stone was conducted between June 2005 and October 2010. A total of 128 patients with a large CBD stone were included. The primary outcome measurement was complete CBD stone removal after EPLBD. Clinical data obtained from medical records were analyzed. The overall complete stone removal rate was 94.5 %. Mechanical lithotripsy was needed in 18 (14.1 %) patients. Post-procedural pancreatitis and asymptomatic hyperamylasemia occurred in 1 (0.8 %) and 11 (8.6 %) patients, respectively. One (0.8 %) patient experienced minor bleeding. The rate of stone recurrence was 13.1 %, and median time to stone recurrence was 600 days (range 144-2284 days). Over a half (64.3 %) of stone recurrences occurred during the 2 years following stone removal. Recurrence tended to be more frequent in patients with a large CBD diameter and in patients requiring multiple endoscopic sessions for complete CBD stone retrieval. EPLBD without EST may be safe and effective in patients with a large bile duct stone.

  14. For biliary dilatation, a negative endosonography needs additional image studies in weight loss suggesting malignancy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hua; Yang, Chi-Chieh; Yeh, Yung-Hsiang

    2013-08-01

    Biliary dilatation frequently raises concerns about the possibility of pancreatobiliary diseases. This study assessed the etiologic yield of endosonography (EUS) in this situation. A retrospective review was completed with 163 consecutive patients who had undergone EUS for a dilated common bile duct (CBD) without definite pathology on ultrasonography. Binary logistic regression analysis disclosed that malignancy was positively related to weight loss and was inversely related to abdominal pain; nevertheless, choledocholithiasis was positively related to fever and elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (p < 0.05). The accuracy of EUS was 95.1 % (155/163) for overall cause of biliary dilatation, 100 % (73/73) for no pathological finding, 96.3 % (26/27) for ampullary cancer, 84.6 % (11/13) for pancreatic cancer, 40.0 % (2/5) for CBD cancer, and 92.6 % (25/27) for choledocholithiasis, respectively. The accuracy of EUS decreased in the presence of malignancy (86.7 %, 39/45 vs. 98.3 %, 116/118, p = 0.006). EUS missed three CBD cancers, two pancreatic cancers, and one ampullary cancer; however, the diagnosis was rescued by computed tomography in two pancreatic cancers and one CBD cancer. EUS is accurate in patients with fever suggestive of choledocholithiasis. However, a negative EUS finding should call for additional image studies in patients with weight loss suggestive of malignancy.

  15. Comparison of controlled-intermittent anal dilatation and lateral internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic anal fissures: a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Yucel, Tayfun; Gonullu, Dogan; Oncu, Mahmut; Koksoy, Ferda Nihat; Ozkan, Sibel Gurdal; Aycan, Omer

    2009-06-01

    The results of controlled-intermittent anal dilatation (CIAD) or lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) in the treatment of chronic anal fissures are presented. Forty patients who were randomized to two groups underwent CIAD or a LIS. The pre- and post-operative mean anal canal resting pressures (MACRPs) and symptoms were recorded and the results were compared. Two months post-operatively, 18 patients in the CIAD group and 17 patients in the LIS group had healed completely, and had no anal incontinence or other complications. The post-operative improvement in pain, bleeding, and constipation did not differ significantly between the two groups. In the CIAD and LIS groups, the pre-operative MACRPs were 89.7+/-16.5 and 87.6+/-12.3 mmHg, respectively; 2 months post-operatively, the MACRPs had significantly decreased to 76.9+/-13.7 and 78.1+/-11.3 mmHg in the CIAD and LIS groups, respectively. No statistical difference existed in the pre- or post-treatment MACRPs between the groups. CIAD applied with a standardized technique reduced anal canal resting pressure and provided symptomatic healing that was equivalent to a LIS. Since there were no findings of incontinence, or situations which resulted in sphincter damage, we conclude that CIAD is suitable for patients with chronic anal fissures because it is less invasive than LIS, with equivalent efficacy and safety. In addition, the CIAD method may be an alternative procedure in older and multiparous women who has a higher risk of incontinence.

  16. Anomalous pancreatico-biliary ductal union with cystic dilatation of the bile duct.

    PubMed

    Richer, J P; Faure, J P; Morichau-Beauchant, M; Dugue, T; Maillot, N; Kamina, P; Carretier, M

    1998-01-01

    We report, in an adult, an asymptomatic association between cystic dilation of the bile duct (type IV A in Todani's classification) and anomalous pancreatico-biliary ductal union (APBD) with stones in a long common channel. In APBD, the connection between the common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct is located outside the duodenal wall andis therefore not under the influence of the sphincter of Boyden. An abnormally long common channel is in excess of 15 mm. Two types of convergence anomalies are defined according to whether the bile duct opens into the main pancreatic duct (BP) or the main pancreatic duct into the bile duct (PB). In APBD, there is probably a reverse pressure gradient between the bile and pancreatic ducts, with regurgitation of pancreatic juice into the bile duct, repeated attacks of cholangitis, stenosis and cystic dilatation. A long common channel is associated with a higher incidence of carcinoma of the gall bladder of the bile duct.

  17. Transhepatic Balloon Dilatation of Early Biliary Strictures in Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Successful Initial and Mid-Term Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Belenky, Alexander; Mor, Eytan; Bartal, Gabriel; Atar, Eli; Shapiro, Riki; Bar-Nathan, Nathan; Bachar, Gil N.

    2004-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the initial and mid-term outcomes of transhepatic balloon dilatation for the treatment of early biliary strictures in lateral left-segment liver transplants in young children.Methods: Between April 1997 and May 2001, seven children aged 9 months to 6 years with nine benign strictures in left-segment liver grafts were treated percutaneously. Sessions of two or three dilations were performed three or four times at average intervals of 10-20 days. In each session, the biliary stenoses were gradually dilated using balloons of 3-7 mm. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 54 months (mean 27 months, median 12 months). Clinical success was defined as resolution of the stenosis, normalization of liver enzymes and lack of clinical symptoms. Results: Technical success was achieved in all nine strictures. Hemobilia occurred in one patient and was successfully treated. On follow-up, all patients had complete clinical recovery with normalization of liver function and imaging of patent bile ducts. Conclusion: Balloon dilatation is an effective and relatively safe method for the treatment of early biliary strictures in left-segment liver transplantation in young children. We recommend this approach as the initial treatment for early strictures. Metal stents or surgery should be reserved for patients with late appearance of strictures or failure of balloon dilatation.

  18. Dilated common bile duct in opium addicts with and without biliary symptoms --implication for research in AIDS cholangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Chuah, S Y; Leong, C K; Pang, C W

    2003-05-01

    Opium addicts (OA) with no biliary symptoms have been shown to have dilated common bile duct (CBD). Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) without biliary drainage in such asymptomatic OA is hazardous. Hence it is not indicated unless there are clear clinical and laboratory evidences of biliary stasis. To show that even when matched with controls with the same clinical diagnosis of the biliary system, OA still have significantly larger CBD diameters and that OA with biliary symptoms should be treated no differently from non-OA with biliary symptoms. Seven OA (all Chinese males), four of whom had undergone ERCP (three for CBD stones and one for ampullary carcinoma), were compared, using t-test, to 7 age, sex, race and diagnosis-matched controls, four of whom had also undergone ERCP (three for CBD stones and one for ampullary carcinoma). When ERCP was not done, ultrasonography was used to assess the biliary system and measure the CBD diameter. The mean (SD) CBD diameters of OA and controls were 15.7 mm (5.65) and 8.3 mm (5.95) respectively (t = 2.399, p = 0.032). The mean (SD) weight of OA and controls were 55.8 kg (9.22) and 57.3 kg (9.21) respectively (t = -0.305, p = 0.763). Only two of the seven OA were born in China, the remaining five in Malaysia. OA do get CBD pathology like non-OA and if indicated there should be no qualms about performing ERCP in them. When matched for age, sex, race and clinical diagnosis, OA still have a significantly larger CBD despite no difference in body weight.

  19. Management of patients with biliary sphincter of Oddi disorder without sphincter of Oddi manometry

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The paucity of controlled data for the treatment of most biliary sphincter of Oddi disorder (SOD) types and the incomplete response to therapy seen in clinical practice and several trials has generated controversy as to the best course of management of these patients. In this observational study we aimed to assess the outcome of patients with biliary SOD managed without sphincter of Oddi manometry. Methods Fifty-nine patients with biliary SOD (14% type I, 51% type II, 35% type III) were prospectively enrolled. All patients with a dilated common bile duct were offered endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and sphincterotomy whereas all others were offered medical treatment alone. Patients were followed up for a median of 15 months and were assessed clinically for response to treatment. Results At follow-up 15.3% of patients reported complete symptom resolution, 59.3% improvement, 22% unchanged symptoms, and 3.4% deterioration. Fifty-one percent experienced symptom resolution/improvement on medical treatment only, 12% after sphincterotomy, and 10% after both medical treatment/sphincterotomy. Twenty percent experienced at least one recurrence of symptoms after initial response to medical and/or endoscopic treatment. Fifty ERCP procedures were performed in 24 patients with an 18% complication rate (16% post-ERCP pancreatitis). The majority of complications occurred in the first ERCP these patients had. Most complications were mild and treated conservatively. Age, gender, comorbidity, SOD type, dilated common bile duct, presence of intact gallbladder, or opiate use were not related to the effect of treatment at the end of follow-up (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions Patients with biliary SOD may be managed with a combination of endoscopic sphincterotomy (performed in those with dilated common bile duct) and medical therapy without manometry. The results of this approach with regards to symptomatic relief and ERCP complication rate are comparable

  20. A pilot proof-of-concept study of a modified device for one-step endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage in a new experimental biliary dilatation animal model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Choi, Jun Hyuck; Lee, Sang Soo; Cho, Hyun Deuk; Seo, Dong Wan; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Park, Do Hyun

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the technical feasibility of a modified tapered metal tip and low profile introducer for one-step endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) in a new experimental biliary dilatation porcine model. METHODS: A novel dedicated device for one-step EUS-guided biliary drainage system (DEUS) introducer has size 3F tapered catheter with size 4F metal tip for simple puncture of the intestinal wall and liver parenchyma without graded dilation. A self-expandable metal stent, consisting of both uncovered and nitinol-covered portions, was preloaded into DEUS introducer. After establishment of a biliary dilatation model using endoscopic hemoclips or band ligation with argon plasma coagulation in 9 mini-pigs, EUS-BD using a DEUS was performed following 19-G needle puncture without the use of fistula dilation devices. RESULTS: One-step EUS-BD was technically successful in seven pigs [7/9 (77.8%) as intention to treat] without the aid of devices for fistula dilation from the high body of stomach or far distal esophagus to the intrahepatic (n = 2) or common hepatic (n = 5) duct. Primary technical failure occurred in two cases that did not show adequate biliary dilatation. In seven pigs with a successful bile duct dilatation, the technical success rate was 100% (7/7 as per protocol). Median procedure time from confirmation of the dilated bile duct to successful placement of a metallic stent was 10 min (IQR; 8.9-18.1). There were no immediate procedure-related complications. CONCLUSION: Modified tapered metal tip and low profile introducer may be technically feasible for one-step EUS-BD in experimental porcine model. PMID:24914346

  1. Percutaneous Placement of Metallic Stents in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: One-Stage or Two-Stage Procedure? Pre-Dilate or Not?

    SciTech Connect

    Inal, Mehmet; Aksungur, Erol; Akguel, Erol; Oguz, Mahmut; Seydaoglu, Guelsah

    2003-02-15

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the necessity of percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation procedures performed before stent insertion. One hundred and twenty-six patients with unresectable malignant biliary obstruction underwent palliative therapy by means of percutaneous transhepatic placement of 183 metallic biliary endoprotheses. Forty-four (35%) patients underwent metallic stent insertion in a one-stage procedure and 82(65%) had undergone percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage before stent insertion. Balloon dilation of the stenosis before stent placement (pre-dilation) was performed in 53 (42%) of 126 patients. The rate of the 30-day mortality was 11%, with no procedure-related deaths. The total rate of early complications was 29%, and 84% of these complications were due to percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and pre-dilation procedures. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and pre-dilation had no clinical or statistically significant effect on the patients' survival and stent patency rate. Percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation increased the cost of stent placement 18% and 19%, respectively. Palliation of malignant biliary obstruction with percutaneous transhepatic stent insertion should be done directly, in the simplest way, without performing percutaneous transhepatic catheter drainage and balloon dilation before stent placement. It is more useful, safe, and cost-effective.

  2. Endoscopic management of biliary hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    Akkiz, Hikmet; Akinoglu, Alper; Çolakoglu, Salih; Demiryürek, Haluk; Yagmur, Özgür

    1996-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy in the management of biliary hydatid disease. Design A case study between January 1992 and December 1994. Setting A university-affiliated hospital in Adana, Turkey. Patients Five patients with biliary hydatid disease, in which the cyst had ruptured into the biliary tree. The follow-up ranged from 3 to 12 months. Intervention Endoscopic sphincterotomy. Main Outcome Measures Morbidity, mortality and recurrence of the disease. Results All patients underwent successful endoscopic sphincterotomy, including removal of daughter cysts. During the follow-up period, ultrasonography and laboratory investigations showed complete cure in all patients. There were no complications due to endoscopic sphincterotomy. Conclusion Endoscopic sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for the management of hydatid cysts that have ruptured into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice. PMID:8697318

  3. Peribiliary cysts mistaken for a biliary dilatation in a cirrhosis patient.

    PubMed

    Montoriol, Pierre François; Poincloux, Laurent; Petitcolin, Virginie; Da Ines, David

    2012-10-01

    Peribiliary cysts are common in patients with chronic liver disease. Ambiguous imaging features and association with cirrhosis-induced hyperbilirubinemia may lead to misdiagnose an obstructive jaundice. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) may be a useful sequence by showing small cystic structures with a specific periportal distribution on both sides of the portal veins, which do not communicate with the biliary ducts. These abnormalities may be recognized in order to avoid unnecessary endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Bile Flow Phantom Model and Animal Bile Duct Dilation Model for Evaluating Biliary Plastic Stents with Advanced Hydrophilic Coating.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Kim, Gwangil; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Won Seop; Lee, Don Haeng; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hong, Sung Pyo; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-07-15

    The efforts to improve biliary plastic stents (PSs) for decreasing biofilm formation and overcome short patency time have been continued. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of advanced hydrophilic coating for patency and biodurability of PS. Using an in vitro bile flow phantom model, we compared patency between prototype PS with hydrophilic coating (PS+HC) and prototype PS without hydrophilic coating (PS-HC). We performed an analysis of the degree of luminal narrowing by microscopic examination. Using an in vivo swine bile duct dilation model made by endoscopic papillary closure and stent insertion, we evaluated biodurability of hydrophilic coating. In the phantom model, PS+HC showed less biofilm formation and luminal narrowing than PS-HC at 8 weeks (p<0.05). A total of 31 stents were inserted into the dilated bile duct of seven swine models, and 24 stents were successfully retrieved 8 weeks later. There was no statistical difference of stent patency between the polyethylene PS+HC and the polyurethane PS+HC. The biodurability of hydrophilic coating was sustained up to 8 weeks, when assessing the coating layer by scanning electron microscopy examination. Advanced hydrophilic coating technology may extend the patency of PS compared to uncoated PS.

  5. Bile Flow Phantom Model and Animal Bile Duct Dilation Model for Evaluating Biliary Plastic Stents with Advanced Hydrophilic Coating

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Kim, Gwangil; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Won Seop; Lee, Don Haeng; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hong, Sung Pyo; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The efforts to improve biliary plastic stents (PSs) for decreasing biofilm formation and overcome short patency time have been continued. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of advanced hydrophilic coating for patency and biodurability of PS. Methods Using an in vitro bile flow phantom model, we compared patency between prototype PS with hydrophilic coating (PS+HC) and prototype PS without hydrophilic coating (PS−HC). We performed an analysis of the degree of luminal narrowing by microscopic examination. Using an in vivo swine bile duct dilation model made by endoscopic papillary closure and stent insertion, we evaluated biodurability of hydrophilic coating. Results In the phantom model, PS+HC showed less biofilm formation and luminal narrowing than PS−HC at 8 weeks (p<0.05). A total of 31 stents were inserted into the dilated bile duct of seven swine models, and 24 stents were successfully retrieved 8 weeks later. There was no statistical difference of stent patency between the polyethylene PS+HC and the polyurethane PS+HC. The biodurability of hydrophilic coating was sustained up to 8 weeks, when assessing the coating layer by scanning electron microscopy examination. Conclusions Advanced hydrophilic coating technology may extend the patency of PS compared to uncoated PS. PMID:27021507

  6. How Should Biliary Stones be Managed?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Minimally invasive therapy is currently invaluable for the treatment of biliary stones. Clinicians should be familiar with the various endoscopic modalities that have been evolving. I reviewed the treatment of biliary stones from the common practice to pioneering procedures, and here I also briefly summarize the results of many related studies. Lithotripsy involves procedures that fragment large stones, and they can be roughly classified into two groups: intracorporeal modalities and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Intracorporeal modalities are further divided into mechanical lithotripsy (ML), electrohydraulic lithotripsy, and laser lithotripsy. ESWL can break stones by focusing high-pressure shock-wave energy at a designated target point. Balloon dilation after minimal endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective for retrieving large biliary stones without the use of ML. Peroral cholangioscopy provides direct visualization of the bile duct and permits diagnostic procedures or therapeutic interventions. Biliary stenting below an impacted stone is sometimes worth considering as an alternative treatment in elderly patients. This article focuses on specialized issues such as lithotripsy rather than simple EST with stone removal in order to provide important information on state-of-the-art procedures. PMID:20559517

  7. Transduodenal sphincterotomy in laparoscopic era.

    PubMed

    Carboni, M; Negro, P; D'Amore, L; Proposito, D

    2001-10-01

    Indications for transduodenal sphincterotomy have been reduced in recent years, mainly because of the development of endoscopic sphincterotomy and laparoscopic procedures. Endoscopic treatment is effective, but it is necessary to carefully evaluate its indications because the incidence of early and late complications is not negligible. Laparoscopic procedures require advanced and expensive technologies and considerable laparoscopic experience. Transduodenal sphincterotomy is safe and effective, if correctly performed. Some risk factors appear to be related to the incidence of complications that do not significantly differ from those following endoscopic sphincterotomy. Transduodenal sphincterotomy may be still indicated in selected cases, and for this reason it should be considered an essential part of the knowledge of a general surgeon.

  8. Endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy in swine.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Provenza, J M; Doyle, J T; Bacon, B R

    1991-10-01

    Endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy was performed on four sedated pigs, ages 3-4 months, using a standard human duodenoscope and papillotome. Sphincterotomies, 1 cm in length, were well-tolerated, and all animals recovered promptly, spontaneously regained gastrointestinal function, and gained weight. The first three animals were sacrificed after one week, and autopsy revealed no complications. The fourth animal was sacrificed immediately following the procedure, and no evidence of perforation was found. These observations demonstrate that the pig is a valid experimental model for endoscopic sphincterotomy. Its use in training is limited by technical and anatomic differences from humans. Potential uses of this technique in research are discussed.

  9. [Endoscopic management of postoperative biliary fistulas].

    PubMed

    Farca, A; Moreno, M; Mundo, F; Rodríguez, G

    1991-01-01

    Biliary fistulas have been managed by surgical correction with no good results. From 1986 to 1990, endoscopic therapy was attempted in 24 patients with postoperative persistent biliary-cutaneous fistulas. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography demonstrated residual biliary stones in 19 patients (79%). The mean fistula drainage was 540 ml/day, and in 75% the site of the fistula was near the cistic duct stump. Sphincterotomy with or without biliary stent placement resulted in rapid resolution of the fistula in 23 patients (95.8%). In those patients treated with biliary stents the fistula healed spectacularly in 24-72 hrs.

  10. [The endoscopic management of postoperative biliary fistulae].

    PubMed

    Uribarrena, R; Simón, M A; Sebastián, J J; Gomollón, F; Bajador, E; Botella, M T; Cabrera, T

    1994-10-01

    We report a series of 15 patients with a postoperative biliary fistula treated by endoscopic sphincterotomy. The exact location of the bile leak was revealed by ERCP in 13 cases (87%): cystic duct remnant in 6 (39%), intrahepatic biliary tree in 4 (26%), and main bile duct in 3 (20%). In all cases a distal obstacle (ie: retained stones, hydatid material) to bile flow was also found in ERCP. Treatment consisted of endoscopic sphincterotomy and subsequent removal of the distal obstacle, and could be completed in 13 (87%) cases. In our experience the treatment of postoperative biliary fistula with a distal obstruction bile flow by endoscopic sphincterotomy is a safe and effective procedure, and should be recommended as the first option in those patients.

  11. Obstructive Biliary Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    White, Thomas Taylor

    1982-01-01

    The techniques that have come into general use for diagnosing problems of obstructive jaundice, particularly in the past ten years, have been ultrasonography, computerized tomography, radionuclide imaging, transhepatic percutaneous cholangiography using a long thin needle, transhepatic percutaneous drainage for obstructive jaundice due to malignancy, endoscopic retrograde cannulation of the papilla (ERCP), endoscopic sphincterotomy and choledochoscopy. It is helpful to review obstructive jaundice due to gallstones from a clinical point of view and the use of the directable stone basket for the retrieval of retained stones, choledochoscopy for the same purpose using the rigid versus flexible choledochoscopes and dissolution of stones using various fluids through a T tube. The use of dilation of the sphincter for the treatment of stenosis or stricture of the bile duct is now frowned on; rather, treatment choices are between the use of sphincteroplasty versus choledochoduodenostomy and choledochojejunostomy. Any patient with obstructive jaundice or anyone undergoing manipulation of the bile ducts should have prophylactic antibiotic therapy. The current literature regarding treatment of cancer of the bile ducts is principally devoted to the new ideas relative to treatment of tumors of the upper third, especially the bifurcation tumors that are now being resected rather than bypassed. Tumors of the distal bile duct are still being resected by focal operations. Finally, it is now felt that early operation for congenital biliary atresia and choledochal cysts gives the best prognosis, with preoperative diagnosis now possible with the use of ultrasonography and ERCP. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 8.Figure 9. PMID:7051569

  12. Optimal Use of Wire-Assisted Techniques and Precut Sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Sang-Heum

    2016-01-01

    Various endoscopic techniques have been developed to overcome the difficulties in biliary or pancreatic access during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, according to the preference of the endoscopist or the aim of the procedures. In terms of endoscopic methods, guidewire-assisted cannulation is a commonly used and well-known initial cannulation technique, or an alternative in cases of difficult cannulation. In addition, precut sphincterotomy encompasses a range of available rescue techniques, including conventional precut, precut fistulotomy, transpancreatic septotomy, and precut after insertion of pancreatic stent or pancreatic duct guidewire-guided septal precut. We present a literature review of guidewire-assisted cannulation as a primary endoscopic method and the precut technique for the facilitation of selective biliary access. PMID:27642848

  13. Safety and efficacy of pancreatic sphincterotomy in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ell, C; Rabenstein, T; Schneider, H T; Ruppert, T; Nicklas, M; Bulling, D

    1998-09-01

    Endoscopic pancreatic sphincterotomy (EPS) is being performed with increasing frequency as a prerequisite to interventional measures in the pancreatic duct. The aim of this study was to evaluate EPS with regard to technique, success, complications, and mortality in patients with chronic pancreatitis. Between January 1989 and September 1996, the results of all consecutive EPSs in patients with chronic pancreatitis were documented in a standardized form. Patients were followed by clinical investigation and blood sample analysis at 4, 24, and 48 hours after EPS. Complications were classified according to commonly accepted criteria. EPS was performed in 118 patients with chronic pancreatitis (men 75%, women 25%, 48+/-10 years). Ninety-four patients (80%) underwent guidewire-assisted EPS, and 24 patients (20%) underwent needle-knife EPS. Seventy-seven EPS procedures (65%) were primarily successful (guidewire EPS: 60 of 94, 64%; needle-knife EPS: 17 of 24, 71%). Additional endoscopic cutting techniques (needle-knife papillotomy, biliary endoscopic sphincterotomy) were required in 41 patients (35%). In total, EPS was successful in 116 patients (98%). The complication rate was 4.2% (4 cases of moderate pancreatitis, 1 severe bleeding, no deaths). All complications were managed nonoperatively. In patients with chronic pancreatitis, EPS with a standard sphincterotome or with a needle-knife offers an effective and reliable approach to the pancreatic duct system. Additional cutting techniques may be necessary in approximately one third of cases before an EPS can be successfully performed. The complication rate of EPS in patients with chronic pancreatitis appears to be lower than the complication rate of biliary sphincterotomy for other indications.

  14. [Endoscopic sphincterotomy as an out-patient procedure: is it safe?].

    PubMed

    Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Adalid-Martínez, Raúl; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, José A

    2003-01-01

    Patients have been routinely admitted for observation for potential complications after therapeutic ERCP; however, in this era of cost containment it may be more cost-effective to perform these procedures on an out-patient basis. The purpose of this study was to determine safety and complication rates of endoscopic sphincterotomy in out-patients. Over an 11-month period, 124 consecutive patient undergoing endoscopic sphincterotomy for biliary and pancreatic disease were enrolled in a prospective and randomized manner. Sixty patients (Group A) were observed 1-3 h post procedure before discharge with follow-up at 5 days. The other 62 patients (Group B) were admitted for observation. The statistical method was Fisher test and chi 2. Successful endoscopic sphincterotomy was achieved in 98.3% (122/124) of patients. Eighty five patients were female and 37 male. There were 60 outpatients and 62 in-patients; endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed by choledocholithiasis in 59.9% (70 cases) and papillary stenoses in 16.4% (20 cases). Complication rates were 3.27% (four patients): three pancreatitis and one bleeding. There were three in-patients and one outpatient (p. 313). We reduce costs $324,120.00 M.N. (Mexican pesos) without compromising patient safety and outcome. Endoscopic sphincterotomy may be performed safely on an outpatient basis, realizing significant savings in costs.

  15. Endoscopic sphincterotomy with sphincteroplasty for the management of choledocholithiasis: a single-centre experience.

    PubMed

    Ho, Simon; Rayzan, Daniel; Fox, Adrian; Kalogeropoulos, George; Mackay, Sean; Hassen, Sayed; Banting, Simon; Cade, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Balloon dilatation of the ampulla at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is increasingly utilized in the management of large bile duct stones. The aim of this study was to review and compare the outcomes of using endoscopic sphincterotomy with endoscopic balloon dilatation (sphincteroplasty) in a combined approach as a single-stage (immediate) or a two-stage procedure (delayed). A retrospective review of medical records for all patients undergoing ERCP and balloon dilatation for choledocholithiasis between January 2010 and December 2012 was undertaken. Outcomes measured included patient demographics, stone size, degree of dilatation performed, success of stone extraction, number of procedures required for duct clearance and procedure-related complications. One hundred and thirty-six ERCPs were performed with balloon sphincteroplasty. One hundred and four had a previous sphincterotomy with a delayed balloon dilatation and 32 had sphincterotomy with immediate dilatation. The overall clearance rate of the common bile duct for immediate and delayed groups was 93% (28/30) and 93% (81/87), respectively. Bile duct clearance after the first procedure was achieved in 70% (21/30) of patients in the immediate group and 74% (64/87) in the delayed group. There were six complications in the delayed group and four in the immediate group. The most frequently used balloon size was 10 mm for both groups with mean sizes of 10.34 (2.93) and 11.73 (2.87) in the immediate and delayed groups, respectively. Our study suggests that use of a combined approach is safe and effective and may provide benefits over using endoscopic balloon dilatation or endoscopic sphincterotomy alone in the treatment of choledocholithiasis. © 2015 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  16. Endoscopic management of biliary complications after liver transplantation: An evidence-based review

    PubMed Central

    Macías-Gómez, Carlos; Dumonceau, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Biliary tract diseases are the most common complications following liver transplantation (LT) and usually include biliary leaks, strictures, and stone disease. Compared to deceased donor liver transplantation in adults, living donor liver transplantation is plagued by a higher rate of biliary complications. These may be promoted by multiple risk factors related to recipient, graft, operative factors and post-operative course. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is the first-choice examination when a biliary complication is suspected following LT, in order to diagnose and to plan the optimal therapy; its limitations include a low sensitivity for the detection of biliary sludge. For treating anastomotic strictures, balloon dilatation complemented with the temporary placement of multiple simultaneous plastic stents has become the standard of care and results in stricture resolution with no relapse in > 90% of cases. Temporary placement of fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMSs) has not been demonstrated to be superior (except in a pilot randomized controlled trial that used a special design of FCSEMSs), mostly because of the high migration rate of current FCSEMSs models. The endoscopic approach of non-anastomotic strictures is technically more difficult than that of anastomotic strictures due to the intrahepatic and/or hilar location of strictures, and the results are less satisfactory. For treating biliary leaks, biliary sphincterotomy and transpapillary stenting is the standard approach and results in leak resolution in more than 85% of patients. Deep enteroscopy is a rapidly evolving technique that has allowed successful treatment of patients who were not previously amenable to endoscopic therapy. As a result, the percutaneous and surgical approaches are currently required in a minority of patients. PMID:26078829

  17. Is endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation really a risk factor for post-ERCP pancreatitis?

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Toshio; Kagawa, Koichi; Hisatomi, Kantaro; Kubota, Kensuke; Nakajima, Atsushi; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic papillary balloon dilatation (EPBD) is useful for decreasing early complications of endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP), including bleeding, biliary infection, and perforation, but it is generally avoided in Western countries because of a relatively high reported incidence of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP). However, as the efficacy of endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilatation (EPLBD) becomes widely recognized, EPBD is attracting attention. Here we investigate whether EPBD is truly a risk factor for PEP, and seek safer and more effective EPBD procedures by reviewing past studies. We reviewed thirteen randomised control trials comparing EPBD and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) and ten studies comparing direct EPLBD and EST. Three randomized controlled trials of EPBD showed significantly higher incidence of PEP than EST, but no study of EPLBD did. Careful analysis of these studies suggested that longer and higher-pressure inflation of balloons might decrease PEP incidence. The paradoxical result that EPBD with small-calibre balloons increases PEP incidence while EPLBD does not may be due to insufficient papillary dilatation in the former. Insufficient dilatation could cause the high incidence of PEP through the use of mechanical lithotripsy and stress on the papilla at the time of stone removal. Sufficient dilation of the papilla may be useful in preventing PEP. PMID:27468185

  18. Closure of a controlled biliary fistula complicating partial cholecystectomy with endoscopic biliary stenting.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Burton, F

    1992-02-01

    An elderly woman presented 2 months after partial cholecystectomy performed for gangrenous cholecystitis with choledocholithiasis and a controlled biliary fistula. Despite ductal clearance of stones via endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy and stone extraction, bilious drainage via the fistulous tract persisted. Endoscopic insertion of a 10F Amsterdam endoprosthesis resulted in complete closure of the fistula within 6 wk. This case represents the first example of closure of a biliary fistula after partial cholecystectomy.

  19. Early biliary decompression versus conservative treatment in acute biliary pancreatitis (APEC trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Schepers, Nicolien J; Bakker, Olaf J; Besselink, Marc G H; Bollen, Thomas L; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; van Eijck, Casper H J; Fockens, Paul; van Geenen, Erwin J M; van Grinsven, Janneke; Hallensleben, Nora D L; Hansen, Bettina E; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; Timmer, Robin; Anten, Marie-Paule G F; Bolwerk, Clemens J M; van Delft, Foke; van Dullemen, Hendrik M; Erkelens, G Willemien; van Hooft, Jeanin E; Laheij, Robert; van der Hulst, René W M; Jansen, Jeroen M; Kubben, Frank J G M; Kuiken, Sjoerd D; Perk, Lars E; de Ridder, Rogier J J; Rijk, Marno C M; Römkens, Tessa E H; Schoon, Erik J; Schwartz, Matthijs P; Spanier, B W Marcel; Tan, Adriaan C I T L; Thijs, Willem J; Venneman, Niels G; Vleggaar, Frank P; van de Vrie, Wim; Witteman, Ben J; Gooszen, Hein G; Bruno, Marco J

    2016-01-05

    Acute pancreatitis is mostly caused by gallstones or sludge. Early decompression of the biliary tree by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) with sphincterotomy may improve outcome in these patients. Whereas current guidelines recommend early ERC in patients with concomitant cholangitis, early ERC is not recommended in patients with mild biliary pancreatitis. Evidence on the role of routine early ERC with endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients without cholangitis but with biliary pancreatitis at high risk for complications is lacking. We hypothesize that early ERC with sphincterotomy improves outcome in these patients. The APEC trial is a randomized controlled, parallel group, superiority multicenter trial. Within 24 hours after presentation to the emergency department, patients with biliary pancreatitis without cholangitis and at high risk for complications, based on an Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE-II) score of 8 or greater, Modified Glasgow score of 3 or greater, or serum C-reactive protein above 150 mg/L, will be randomized. In 27 hospitals of the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group, 232 patients will be allocated to early ERC with sphincterotomy or to conservative treatment. The primary endpoint is a composite of major complications (that is, organ failure, pancreatic necrosis, pneumonia, bacteremia, cholangitis, pancreatic endocrine, or exocrine insufficiency) or death within 180 days after randomization. Secondary endpoints include ERC-related complications, infected necrotizing pancreatitis, length of hospital stay and an economical evaluation. The APEC trial investigates whether an early ERC with sphincterotomy reduces the composite endpoint of major complications or death compared with conservative treatment in patients with biliary pancreatitis at high risk of complications. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN97372133 (date registration: 17-12-2012).

  20. Computed tomography of primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Itai, Y.; Araki, T.; Furui, S.; Yashiro, N.; Ohtomo, K.; Iio, M.

    1983-05-01

    Fifteen patients with primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy (cholangiocarcinoma in 13, biliary cystadenocarcinoma in two) were examined by computed tomography (CT). The CT features were classified into three types: (A) a well-defined round cystic mass with internal papillary projections, (B) a localized intrahepatic biliary dilatation without a definite mass lesion, and (C) miscellaneous low-density masses. Intraphepatic biliary dilatation was noted in all cases of Types A and B and half of those of Type C; dilatation of extrahepatic bile ducts occurred in 4/4, 1/3, and 0/8, respectively. CT patterns, such as a well-defined round cystic mass with papillary projections or dilatation of intra- and extrahepatic ducts, give important clues leading to a correct diagnosis of primary intrahepatic biliary malignancy.

  1. Oldest biliary endoprosthesis in situ

    PubMed Central

    Consolo, Pierluigi; Scalisi, Giuseppe; Crinò, Stefano F; Tortora, Andrea; Giacobbe, Giuseppa; Cintolo, Marcello; Familiari, Luigi; Pallio, Socrate

    2013-01-01

    The advantages of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography over open surgery have made it the predominant method of treating patients with choledocholithiasis. After sphincterotomy, however, 10%-15% of common bile duct stones cannot be removed with a basket or balloon. The methods for managing “irretrievable stones” include surgery, mechanical lithotripsy, intraductal or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and biliary stenting. The case presented was a referred 82-year-old Caucasian woman with a 7-year-old plastic biliary endoprosthesis in situ. To the best of our knowledge the examined endoprosthesis is the oldest endoprosthesis in situ reported in the literature. Endoscopic biliary endoprosthesis placement remains a simple and safe procedure for patients with stones that are difficult to manage by conventional endoscopic methods and for patients who are unfit for surgery or who are high surgical risks. To date no consensus has been reached regarding how long a biliary prosthesis should remain in situ. Long-term biliary stenting may have a role in selected elderly patients if stones extraction has failed because the procedure may prevent stones impaction and cholangitis. PMID:23858381

  2. Percutaneous Transhepatic Endobiliary Drainage of Hepatic Hydatid Cyst with Rupture into the Biliary System: An Unusual Route for Drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Inal, Mehmet; Soyupak, Suereyya; Akguel, Erol; Ezici, Hueseyin

    2002-10-15

    The most common and serious complication of hydatid cyst of the liver is rupture into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice, cholangitis and abscess. The traditional treatment of biliary-cystic fistula is surgery and recently endoscopic sphincterotomy. We report a case of complex heterogeneous cyst rupture into the biliary tract causing biliary obstruction in which the obstruction and cyst were treated successfully by percutaneous transhepatic endobiliary drainage. Our case is the second report of percutaneous transbiliary internal drainage of hydatid cyst with rupture into the biliary duct in which the puncture and drainage were not performed through the cyst cavity.

  3. [Endoscopic cholangiography in mild acute biliary pancreatitis: when and for whom?].

    PubMed

    González-Huezo, María Sarai; Jeréz-González, Luis; Bobadilla-Díaz, Juan; Robles-Díaz, Guillermo; Uscanga, Luis

    2002-01-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), with or without sphincterotomy, has been widely used in patients with severe biliary acute pancreatitis (BAP) or those with cholangitis and/or obstruction of the biliary tree. Its use in subjects with mild BAP is more controversial. To optimize use of ERCP in patients with mild pancreatitis due to gallstones by identifying clinical and biochemical predictors of choledocholithiasis. The clinical and biochemical data, images, and outcomes of 83 patients with mild BAP hospitalized at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion "Salvador Zubiran" from January 1, 1988 to May 30, 2000 were retrospectively analyzed. All patients received elective cholecystectomy at hospital admission. In 35 cases, ERCP was performed before cholecystectomy (group A). The remaining 48 were operated on without ERCP (group B). In 30, transcystic-cholangiography was done. Forty-seven (57%) were female. Mean age was 47 years (19-90). Mean time between onset of AP and hospital admission was 2.2 days (1-15), and between clinical onset and cholecystectomy, eight days (1-26). Statistical differences were evaluated by non-parametric methods. An univariated and multivariated analysis was performed looking for data to identify choledocholithiasis. Choledocholithiasis was found in 27 cases (32%), 18 from group A (51%), and nine for group B (19%) (RR = 4.58, IC 95% = 1.7-12.25, p = 0.004). ERCP was performed in all cases because of clinical suspicion of choledocholithiasis (jaundice, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase alteration and/or choledochal dilation); however, none of the patients of group B in whom choledocholithiasis was operatively diagnosed showed biochemical or radiologic alterations. Subjects with choledocolithiasis presented more frequently a history of biliary pain (RR = 5.75, IC 95% = 1.76-18.7), jaundice (RR = 3.07, IC 95% = 1.15-8.16) and/or alkaline phosphatase elevation (RR = 4.11, IC 95% = 1.3-12.7). The high

  4. [Dilatation of the common bile duct without visible obstruction at endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Description and development].

    PubMed

    Seyrig, J A; Liguory, C; Buffet, C; Fabre, M; Fritsch, J; Choury, A; Ladouch-Badre, A; Liguory-Brunaud, M D; Etienne, J P

    1988-05-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the signs and course of patients with a dilated common bile duct without obstruction. We included patients with a dilated common bile duct of more than 12 mm on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, and we excluded patients with stones, tumor or other visible obstruction. Two hundred and seven patients (8.4 p. 100 of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography) were included. One hundred and nineteen (57.5 p. 100) had undergone cholecystectomy. Sixty-five p. 100 of patients had signs suggesting biliary tract disease, and 78 p. 100 had biological signs of cholestasis. The size of the common bile duct was not different whether the patient had been cholecystectomized (16.2 +/- 0.3 mm.M +/- SEM) or not (16.2 +/- 0.4 mm). Forty-one patients in the non cholecystectomized group had gallbladder stones. Thus, 47 of our 207 patients (23 p. 100) had neither gallbladder stones nor previous cholecystectomy. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was completed by endoscopic sphincterotomy in 130 patients, either in the intent of not missing obstruction, or for therapeutic purposes. Follow-up more than one month after endoscopic retrograde cholangiography was available for 159 patients (77 p. 100). The median survival was 73 months. One hundred and ten patients (69 p. 100) were asymptomatic, 36 (23 p. 100) had atypical abdominal pain while 13 (8 p. 100) patients had episodes of biliary colic and/or fever and/or jaundice. During follow-up, an initially unrecognized obstacle was discovered in 8 patients: 5 common bile duct stones, 2 ampullary tumors and one pancreatic tumor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Biliary system

    MedlinePlus

    The biliary system creates, moves, stores, and releases bile into the duodenum . This helps the body digest food. It also assists ... from the liver to the duodenum. The biliary system includes: The gallbladder Bile ducts and certain cells ...

  6. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmetal biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  7. Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphy in segmental biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Gold, J.A.; Gluck, L.; Caride, V.J.; Burrell, M.; Hoffer, P.B.

    1981-05-01

    Segmental biliary obstruction as a result of primary or secondary hepatic malignancy has been reported with increasing frequency. For two representative patients, the clinical and Tc-99m HIDA scintigraphic findings in segmental biliary obstruction are described. The presence of photon-deficient dilated bile ducts in one segment of the biliary tree is highly suggestive of localized biliary obstruction and should be considered in the patient with suspected or proven hepatic malignancy despite the absence of jaundice.

  8. External biliary fistula.

    PubMed

    Sharma, A K

    2001-01-01

    A biliary fistula is almost invariably related to gallstone disease and commonly follows a hurried cholecystectomy by an inexperienced surgeon. This catastrophy which is largely preventable, often necessitates repeated surgical intervention and accrues an estimated 5-year mortality rate approaching 30%. Published series only show a slight increase in the incidence (one per 150-200) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The injury results from imprecise dissection and inadequate demonstration of the anatomical structures. The diagnosis is usually obvious and persistent tachycardia and hypotension inspite of an adequate intravenous infusion and a normal central venous pressure is another well known indicator of subhepatic collection of bile, which indicates an urgent ultrasonographic scanning of the upper abodmen. ERCP is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool when the continuity of the extra-hepatic biliary system has not been disrupted. An endobiliary stent can be placed across the defect in the same sitting, to tide over the immediate crisis and perhaps treat the patient on a permanent basis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive technique of outlining both the intra and extrahepatic biliary tree, which can provide a better road map of the fistula than an ERCP. The management has to be tailored to the patient's condition and the expertise available. A bilio-enteric anastomosis, performed 4 to 6 months after the initial surgery on a dilated common hepatic duct is more likely to succeed than an operation on a septic, hypoproteinemic patient with sodden, friable, non-dilated bile ducts. On the other hand, waiting for the ducts to dilate in a patient with a complete transection of the bile ducts with complete biliary diversion only leads to depletion of the bile acid pool, severe electrolyte derangement and nutritional failure, leading on to sepsis and death.

  9. Efficacy of Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Evaluation of Undetermined Etiology of Common Bile Duct Dilatation on Abdominal Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Nejati, Naimeh; Farsinejad, Maryam; Kolahdoozan, Shadi

    2016-10-01

    BACKGROUND The cause of common bile duct (CBD) dilatation cannot be determined by imaging modalities in many patients. The aim of this study was to assess the value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in detecting the cause of CBD dilatation in patients in whom ultrasonography could not demonstrate the cause of dilation. METHODS Prospectively, 152 consecutive patients who were referred for evaluation of dilated CBD (diameter ≥7 mm) of undetermined origin by ultrasonography were included in this study. All the patients underwent EUS. Final diagnoses were determined by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA), surgical exploration, or follow-up for at least 10 months. Patients with choledocholithiasis were referred for ERCP and sphincterotomy, and patients with operable tumors were referred for surgery.Patients with inoperable tumors underwent biliary stenting with or without tchemoradiotherapy. RESULTS 152 patients (54% female) with dilated CBD were included. Mean (±SD) age of the patients was 60.4 (±17.3) years. The mean CBD diameter for all study group in transabdominal ultrasonography and EUS were 11.7 millimeter and 10.1 millimeter, respectively. Most of the patients with dilated CBD and abnormal liver function test (LFT) had an important finding in EUS and follow-up diagnosis including peri-ampullary tumors. Mean diameter of CBD in patients with and without abnormal LFT were 10.5 IU/L and 12.1 IU/L, respectively. Final diagnoses included choledocholithiasis in 32 (21.1%),passed CBD stone in 35 (23%), opium-induced CBD dilation in 14 (9.2%), post-cholecystectomy states in 20 (13.1%), ampullary adenoma/carcinoma in 15 (15.8%), cholangiocarcinoma in 14 (9.2%), and pancreatic head cancer in9 (5.9%) patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of EUS for patients with abnormal EUS were 89.5%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 91.2%, and 90.9%, respectively

  10. Efficacy of Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Evaluation of Undetermined Etiology of Common Bile Duct Dilatation on Abdominal Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Nejati, Naimeh; Farsinejad, Maryam; Kolahdoozan, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cause of common bile duct (CBD) dilatation cannot be determined by imaging modalities in many patients. The aim of this study was to assess the value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in detecting the cause of CBD dilatation in patients in whom ultrasonography could not demonstrate the cause of dilation. METHODS Prospectively, 152 consecutive patients who were referred for evaluation of dilated CBD (diameter ≥7 mm) of undetermined origin by ultrasonography were included in this study. All the patients underwent EUS. Final diagnoses were determined by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA), surgical exploration, or follow-up for at least 10 months. Patients with choledocholithiasis were referred for ERCP and sphincterotomy, and patients with operable tumors were referred for surgery.Patients with inoperable tumors underwent biliary stenting with or without tchemoradiotherapy. RESULTS 152 patients (54% female) with dilated CBD were included. Mean (±SD) age of the patients was 60.4 (±17.3) years. The mean CBD diameter for all study group in transabdominal ultrasonography and EUS were 11.7 millimeter and 10.1 millimeter, respectively. Most of the patients with dilated CBD and abnormal liver function test (LFT) had an important finding in EUS and follow-up diagnosis including peri-ampullary tumors. Mean diameter of CBD in patients with and without abnormal LFT were 10.5 IU/L and 12.1 IU/L, respectively. Final diagnoses included choledocholithiasis in 32 (21.1%),passed CBD stone in 35 (23%), opium-induced CBD dilation in 14 (9.2%), post-cholecystectomy states in 20 (13.1%), ampullary adenoma/carcinoma in 15 (15.8%), cholangiocarcinoma in 14 (9.2%), and pancreatic head cancer in9 (5.9%) patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of EUS for patients with abnormal EUS were 89.5%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 91.2%, and 90.9%, respectively

  11. Wire-assisted access sphincterotomy of the minor papilla.

    PubMed

    Maple, John T; Keswani, Rajesh N; Edmundowicz, Steven A; Jonnalagadda, Sreenivasa; Azar, Riad R

    2009-01-01

    Recommended techniques for minor papilla sphincterotomy include performing a standard pull-type sphincterotomy (PTS) or using a needle-knife over a stent. A wire-assisted access sphincterotomy (WAAS) technique may hold some technical advantages over these accepted methods, but has not been robustly described. To describe the safety and efficacy of WAAS compared with PTS in a series of patients from our institution. Retrospective audit of initial minor papilla sphincterotomies over a 6-year period. Demographic and procedural data were abstracted, and the medical record was reviewed for clinical follow-up. A large tertiary referral center. One hundred twenty-eight consecutive patients with pancreas divisum who underwent ERCPs between April 2001 and April 2007, 64 of whom underwent an initial minor papilla sphincterotomy. WAAS was performed by deeply cannulating the dorsal duct with a guidewire and then passing a needle-knife sphincterotome alongside the wire and cutting the minor papilla by inserting the needle-knife beside the wire and cutting away from the wire. Clinical procedural success and reported adverse events. Thirty-two patients had recurrent acute pancreatitis, 15 had pain only, and 13 had chronic pancreatitis. Thirty-two underwent WAAS, 24 had PTS, and 8 had other types of sphincterotomies. Patients undergoing WAAS (32) versus PTS (24) were similar in age, sex, and procedural indication. Mild post-ERCP pancreatitis and mild intraprocedural bleeding occurred more commonly in the WAAS group, although the differences were not statistically significant. Retrospective, nonrandomized study. WAAS is an effective technique that may be used either to begin a minor papilla sphincterotomy or to perform the entire sphincterotomy. Complications appear similar to those seen with conventional methods but require a larger patient sample to fully evaluate.

  12. Double-balloon enteroscopy for ERCP in patients with Billroth II anatomy: results of a large series of papillary large-balloon dilation for biliary stone removal

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chi-Liang; Liu, Nai-Jen; Tang, Jui-Hsiang; Yu, Ming-Chin; Tsui, Yi-Ning; Hsu, Fang-Yu; Lee, Ching-Song; Lin, Cheng-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Data on double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE)-assisted endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogrphy (ERCP) in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and the use of endoscopic papillary large-balloon dilation (EPLBD) for the removal of common bile duct stones in Billroth II anatomy are limited. The aims of the study were to evaluate the success of DBE-assisted ERCP in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy and examine the efficacy of EPLBD ( ≥ 10 mm) for the removal of common bile duct stones. Patients and methods: A total of 77 patients with Billroth II gastrectomy in whom standard ERCP had failed underwent DBE-assisted ERCP. DBE success was defined as visualizing the papilla and ERCP success as completing the intended intervention. The clinical results of EPLBD for the removal of common bile duct stones were analyzed. Results: DBE was successful in 73 of 77 patients (95 %), and ERCP success was achieved in 67 of these 73 (92 %). Therefore, the rate of successful DBE-assisted ERCP was 87 % (67 of a total of 77 patients). The reasons for ERCP failure (n = 10) included tumor obstruction (n = 2), adhesion obstruction (n = 2), failed cannulation (n = 3), failed stone removal (n = 2), and bowel perforation (n = 1). Overall DBE-assisted ERCP complications occurred in 5 of 77 patients (6.5 %). A total of 48 patients (34 male, mean age 75.5 years) with common bile duct stones underwent EPLBD. Complete stone removal in the first session was accomplished in 36 patients (75 %); mechanical lithotripsy was required in 1 patient. EPLBD-related mild perforation occurred in 2 patients (4 %). No acute pancreatitis occurred. Conclusions: DBE permits therapeutic ERCP in patients who have a difficult Billroth II gastrectomy with a high success rate and acceptable complication rates. EPLBD is effective and safe for the removal of common bile duct stones in patients with Billroth II anatomy. PMID:26171434

  13. [Biliary ascariasis].

    PubMed

    Mensing, M; Cruz y Rivero, M A; Alarcon Hernandez, C; Garcia Himmelstine, L; Vogel, H

    1986-06-01

    Biliary ascariasis is a complication of intestinal ascariasis. This results in characteristic findings in the intravenous cholangiocholecystogram and in the sonogram. Characteristic signs of biliary ascariasis are, in the longitudinal section, the "strip sign", "spaghetti sign", "inner tube sign", and in transverse section "a bull's eye in the triple O". The helminth can travel from out of the biliary duct system back into the intestines, so that control examinations can even be negative.

  14. Direct peroral cholangioscopy using an ultraslim upper endoscope for biliary lesions.

    PubMed

    Omuta, Shigefumi; Maetani, Iruru; Ukita, Takeo; Nambu, Tomoko; Gon, Katsushige; Shigoka, Hiroaki; Saigusa, Yoshinori; Saito, Michihiro

    2014-02-01

    The development of direct peroral cholangioscopy (DPOC) using an ultraslim endoscope simplifies biliary cannulation. The conventional techniques are cumbersome to perform and require advanced skills. The recent introduction of the guidewires and balloons has improved the therapeutic outcomes. Here we describe an effective and easier method for performing DPOC using an ultraslim upper endoscope. Indications for DPOC were the presence of stones on follow-up of patients who had previously undergone complete sphincteroplasty, including endoscopic sphincterotomy or endoscopic papillary large balloon dilatation. Fifteen patients underwent DPOC. An ultraslim endoscope was inserted perorally and was advanced into the major papilla. The ampulla of Vater was visualized by retroflexing the endoscope in the distal second portion of the duodenum, and then DPOC was performed using a wire-guided cannulation technique with an anchored intraductal balloon catheter. One patient failed in the treatment due to looping of the endoscope in the fornix of the stomach. Fourteen (93.3%) were successfully treated with our modified DPOC technique. Only one patient (6.7%) experienced an adverse event (pancreatitis) who responded well to conservative management. Residual stones of the common bile duct were completely removed in 3 patients. The modified method of DPOC is simple, safe and easy to access the bile duct.

  15. Successful treatment of intractable bronchobiliary fistula using long-term biliary stenting.

    PubMed

    Katsinelos, Panagiotis; Paroutoglou, George; Chatzimavroudis, Grigoris; Beltsis, Athanasios; Mimidis, Kostas; Katsinelos, Taxiarchis; Pilpilidis, Ioannis; Papaziogas, Basilis

    2007-06-01

    A bronchobiliary fistula (BBF) is an uncommon entity with bilioptysis being a pathognomonic sign. We describe the case of a 41-year-old man who had recurrent BBF, 6 months after resection of the anterior segment of the right lower pulmonary lobe and repair of a BBF due to hepatic hydatid disease. Magnetic resonance cholangiography revealed a communication between the biliary tree and the lower lobe of the right lung. Endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and repeated insertion of large size biliary plastic stents led to a successful resolution of the symptoms and closure of the fistula.

  16. The role of sonography in imaging of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Foley, W Dennis; Quiroz, Francisco A

    2007-06-01

    Sonography is the recommended initial imaging test in the evaluation of patients presenting with right upper quadrant pain or jaundice. Dependent upon clinical circumstances, the differential diagnosis includes choledocholithiasis, biliary stricture, or tumor. Sonography is very sensitive in detection of mechanical biliary obstruction and stone disease, although less sensitive for detection of obstructing tumors, including pancreatic carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. In patients with sonographically documented cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis, laparoscopic cholecystectomy with operative clearance of the biliary stone disease is usually performed. In patients with clinically suspected biliary stone disease, without initial sonographic documentation of choledocholithiasis, endoscopic ultrasound or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography is the next logical imaging step. Endoscopic ultrasound documentation of choledocholithiasis in a postcholecystectomy patient should lead to retrograde cholangiography, sphincterotomy, and clearance of the ductal calculi by endoscopic catheter techniques. In patients with clinical and sonographic findings suggestive of malignant biliary obstruction, a multipass contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examination to detect and stage possible pancreatic carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, or periductal neoplasm is usually recommended. Assessment of tumor resectability and staging can be performed by CT or a combination of CT and endoscopic ultrasound, the latter often combined with fine needle aspiration biopsy of suspected periductal tumor. In patients whose CT scan suggests hepatic hilar or central intrahepatic biliary tumor, percutaneous cholangiography and transhepatic biliary stent placement is usually followed by brushing or fluoroscopically directed fine needle aspiration biopsy for tissue diagnosis. Sonography is the imaging procedure of choice for biliary tract intervention, including cholecystostomy, guidance for

  17. A Novel Dry Model for Practicable Sphincterotomy and Precut Needle Knife Sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Katanuma, Akio; Itoi, Takao; Umeda, Junko; Tonozuka, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Gon, Katsushige

    2014-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to develop a simulation dry model for endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) and needle knife precut sphincterotomy (NKP) and to evaluate its usefulness as a training simulator. Materials and Methods. An endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography trainer was used as a duodenum, bile duct, and papilla simulator. A simulated papilla was created with a piece of rolled uncured ham, and ES and NKP were performed. Hands-on training was carried out using this model, and success and failure of the procedures were evaluated. A questionnaire survey was conducted among the participants to assess the performance and usefulness of the dry model for ES and NKP training. Results. Twenty-two endoscopists participated in the hands-on training using this dry model. ES was successful in 33 out of 34 attempts (97%) whereas NKP was successful in all 7 attempts (100%). Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, the median score for realism was 7 (range: 2–9) for ES and 8 for NKP on a scale of 1 to 10. Conclusions. The dry model using an uncured ham provides a condition closely similar to actual clinical practice and is useful as a training model for ES and NKP. PMID:25295058

  18. Management of patients after recovering from acute severe biliary pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Dedemadi, Georgia; Nikolopoulos, Manolis; Kalaitzopoulos, Ioannis; Sgourakis, George

    2016-01-01

    Cholelithiasis is the most common cause of acute pancreatitis, accounting 35%-60% of cases. Around 15%-20% of patients suffer a severe attack with high morbidity and mortality rates. As far as treatment is concerned, the optimum method of late management of patients with severe acute biliary pancreatitis is still contentious and the main question is over the correct timing of every intervention. Patients after recovering from an acute episode of severe biliary pancreatitis can be offered alternative options in their management, including cholecystectomy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and sphincterotomy, or no definitive treatment. Delaying cholecystectomy until after resolution of the inflammatory process, usually not earlier than 6 wk after onset of acute pancreatitis, seems to be a safe policy. ERCP and sphincterotomy on index admission prevent recurrent episodes of pancreatitis until cholecystectomy is performed, but if used for definitive treatment, they can be a valuable tool for patients unfit for surgery. Some patients who survive severe biliary pancreatitis may develop pseudocysts or walled-off necrosis. Management of pseudocysts with minimally invasive techniques, if not therapeutic, can be used as a bridge to definitive operative treatment, which includes delayed cholecystectomy and concurrent pseudocyst drainage in some patients. A management algorithm has been developed for patients surviving severe biliary pancreatitis according to the currently published data in the literature. PMID:27678352

  19. Predictors of re-bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis for delayed post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mu-Hsien; Tsou, Yung-Kuan; Lin, Cheng-Hui; Lee, Ching-Song; Liu, Nai-Jen; Sung, Kai-Feng; Cheng, Hao-Tsai

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To predict the re-bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis for delayed post-endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) bleeding. METHODS: Over a 15-year period, data from 161 patients with delayed post-ES bleeding were retrospectively collected from a single medical center. To identify risk factors for re-bleeding after initial successful endoscopic hemostasis, parameters before, during and after the procedure of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography were analyzed. These included age, gender, blood biochemistry, co-morbidities, endoscopic diagnosis, presence of peri-ampullary diverticulum, occurrence of immediate post-ES bleeding, use of needle knife precut sphincterotomy, severity of delayed bleeding, endoscopic features on delayed bleeding, and type of endoscopic therapy. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients (21.7%) had re-bleeding after initial successful endoscopic hemostasis for delayed post-ES bleeding. Univariate analysis revealed that malignant biliary stricture, serum bilirubin level of greater than 10 mg/dL, initial bleeding severity, and bleeding diathesis were significant predictors of re-bleeding. By multivariate analysis, serum bilirubin level of greater than 10 mg/dL and initial bleeding severity remained significant predictors. Re-bleeding was controlled by endoscopic therapy in a single (n = 23) or multiple (range, 2-7; n = 6) sessions in 29 of the 35 patients (82.9%). Four patients required transarterial embolization and one went for surgery. These five patients had severe bleeding when delayed post-ES bleeding occurred. One patient with decompensated liver cirrhosis died from re-bleeding. CONCLUSION: Re-bleeding occurs in approximately one-fifth of patients after initial successful endoscopic hemostasis for delayed post-ES bleeding. Severity of initial bleeding and serum bilirubin level of greater than 10 mg/dL are predictors of re-bleeding. PMID:27003996

  20. Duodenoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct stones in patients with gallbladder in situ.

    PubMed

    Saraswat, V A; Kapur, B M; Vashisht, S; Tandon, R K

    1991-01-01

    Duodenoscopic sphincterotomy (DS) is a well established treatment for common bile duct (CBD) stones in post-cholecystectomy patients, but not in patients with gallbladder in situ. The main argument against the procedure in the latter set of patients has been that by performing it, one is leaving behind the diseased gallbladder which may require further treatment. We have, however, performed 60 DS in 49 patients with gallbladder in situ. The clinical picture of these patients was characterized by abdominal pain in 79.6%, jaundice in 91.8%, history of cholangitis in 46.9%, severe acute cholangitis at the time of DS in 28.6% and a major associated illness in 10.2% of them. Adequate sphincterotomy was performed in 91.8% of the patients with successful stone extractions in 93.3% and an overall CBD clearance in 85.7%. One patient (2%) with severe acute cholangitis, who had presented in a moribund state, died despite adequate DS. Three patients (6%) experienced an exacerbation of acute cholangitis after DS, two of them requiring emergency surgery. During subsequent follow-up, elective cholecystectomy was performed in 26 (54%) patients. Five additional patients are awaiting surgery. Seventeen (36%) patients continue to have their gallbladders in situ and over a mean follow-up period of 12.8 months (range, 4-32 mos) they have remained asymptomatic except for brief episodes of biliary pain in 2 patients. It is concluded that DS relieves the symptoms of CBD stones even in patients with gallbladders in situ and may suffice for patients who are frail, elderly and who have major associated illnesses.

  1. Biliary atresia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 356. Suchy FJ. Anatomy, histology, embryology, developmental anomalies, and pediatric disorders of the biliary ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  2. Percutaneous management of postoperative anastomotic biliary strictures.

    PubMed

    Saad, Wael E A

    2008-06-01

    Postoperative anastomotic biliary strictures can occur after surgery in bile ducts belonging to transplanted or native (nontransplanted) livers. The majority of postoperative anastomotic strictures encountered by interventional radiologists are most likely in liver transplant recipients due to the large and growing liver transplant recipient population worldwide compared with patients with native livers and biliary enteric anastomoses. They occur after 2.5 to 13% of liver transplantations and they represent at least one-half of biliary strictures encountered after liver transplantation. Anastomotic biliary strictures are considered technical in nature, accentuated by fibrosis and scarring that may be secondary to, if not exacerbated by, graft ischemia. There are numerous variables in the percutaneous transhepatic balloon dilation protocols applied to treat anastomotic biliary strictures. These include (1) types of balloons, (2) how long balloons are inflated, (3) how frequently patients return for additional dilation sessions, and (4) the interval(s) at which they return. No alteration in these variables has proven to improve long-term patency. In addition, new technology such as cutting balloons and stents has not been fully evaluated to determine their effect on long-term patency. The current article describes the overall theme of balloon dilation protocols for the management of anastomotic biliary strictures and discusses possible future management of such strictures.

  3. [An unusual complication of hepatocellular carcinoma: the pleuro-biliary fistula].

    PubMed

    Tirotta, Daniela; Durante, Vittorio

    2009-02-01

    A patient with hepatocellular carcinoma had fever, cough, dyspnea. The analysis and the transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) showed leucocytosis, cholestasis and pleural viscous fluid with bilirubin. The patient was stabilized and two chest tube were placed. Abdomen CT demonstrated dilated bile duct and pleuro-biliary fistula: dilated bile duct, necrosis and portal thrombus were predictive for TACE-induced pleuro-biliary fistula.

  4. Management of Benign Biliary Strictures

    SciTech Connect

    Laasch, Hans-Ulrich; Martin, Derrick F.

    2002-12-15

    Benign biliary strictures are most commonly a consequence of injury at laparoscopic cholecystectomy or fibrosis after biliary-enteric anastomosis. These strictures are notoriously difficult to treat and traditionally are managed by resection and fashioning of acholedocho- or hepato-jejunostomy. Promising results are being achieved with newer minimally invasive techniques using endoscopic or percutaneous dilatation and/or stenting and these are likely to play an increasing role in the management. Even low-grade biliary obstruction carries the risks of stone formation, ascending cholangitis and hepatic cirrhosis and it is important to identify and treat this group of patients. There is currently no consensus on which patient should have what type of procedure, and the full range of techniques may not be available in all hospitals. Careful assessment of the risks and likely benefits have to be made on an individual basis. This article reviews the current literature and discusses the options available. The techniques of endoscopic and percutaneous dilatation and stenting are described with evaluation of the likely success and complication rates and compared to the gold standard of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

  5. Long-term follow-up of common bile duct diameter after endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Kolahdoozan, Shadi; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Khatibian, Morteza; Ali-Asgari, Ali; Shahraeeni, Shadi; Zeinali, Fatemeh

    2010-01-01

    To determine the time to normalization of common bile duct (CBD) diameter after endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction in patients with choledocholithiasis. Patients with CBD dilation due to choledocholithiasis were enrolled. CBD diameter was measured by transabdominal ultrasonography before, and repeated after one, three, six and twelve months after endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction, until normalization of CBD diameter. Of 115 cases enrolled over a 36-month period, CBD diameter reversed to normal in 71 (61.7%) patients after one month. Of the remaining 44 patients, CBD diameter reversed to normal in 36 patients (including 3 in whom repeat ERCP revealed choledocholithiasis) at the end of three months. CBD diameter had not reversed to normal diameter in 8 (18.2%) patients; none of these patients had symptoms. Two of them had asymptomatic dilated CBD after 6 months with no abnormal liver function tests (LFT); the duct reversed to normal at the last follow-up (month 12). Asymptomatic CBD dilation may persist in a minority of patients (18% at the end of 3 months) after removal of CBD stones. A dilated CBD can be attributed to retained choledocholithiasis within the first month, if it is associated with symptoms and abnormal LFT.

  6. Computed tomography of localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, T.; Itai Y.; Tasaka, A.

    1981-12-01

    Twenty-nine patients showed localized dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts on computed tomography, usually unaccompanied by jaundice. Congenital dilatation was diagnosed when associated with a choledochal cyst, while cholangiographic contrast material was helpful in differentiating such dilatation from a simple cyst by showing its communication with the biliary tract when no choledochal cyst was present. Obstructive dilatation was associated with intrahepatic calculi in 4 cases, hepatoma in 9, cholangioma in 5, metastatic tumor in 5, and polycystic disease in 2. Cholangioma and intrahepatic calculi had a greater tendency to accompany such localized dilatation; in 2 cases, the dilatation was the only clue to the underlying disorder.

  7. Lateral internal sphincterotomy for surgically recurrent chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jennifer; Church, James M

    2015-10-01

    Lateral internal sphincterotomy cures chronic anal fissure by preventing internal sphincter hypertonia. However, cutting sphincter predisposes to sphincter dysfunction, manifests as incontinence of gas, liquid, or stool. Surgeons, therefore, can be too cautious in its use, making ineffective superficial incisions or avoiding the operation altogether. This study is designed to confirm the role of redo lateral internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of surgically recurrent chronic anal fissure. Patients undergoing repeat lateral internal sphincterotomy for surgically recurrent chronic anal fissure were accessed from a prospectively maintained database. Chronicity was defined by symptoms persisting more than 3 weeks. Contralateral sphincterotomy was performed with electrocautery through a stab incision over the intersphincteric plane. The length of sphincter division was the same as the length of the fissure. Phone questionnaire was administered and fecal continence was assessed by modified Cleveland Clinic Incontinence Score. Patients were asked to rank their overall satisfaction with the operation, and pre- and postoperative quality of life. There were 57 patients, 24 women and 33 men; mean age was 47.9 ± 14.8 years. Mean follow-up was 12.5 ± 4.2 years (range 6.2 to 25.2 years). Presenting symptoms included pain (100%), bleeding (80%), pruritus ani (39%), constipation (26%), and diarrhea. Fifty patients (90%) presented with 1 fissure, and 40 were posterior. Most procedures were performed on an outpatient basis. Fissure healing rate was 98%, and 2 patients (4%) developed minor incontinence postoperatively (one of gas, the other, gas and seepage). Overall satisfaction was 9.7 ± .9 out of 10 with a significant improvement in the quality of life from 5.7 ± 2.4 out of 10 to 9.3 ± 1.4 out of 10 (P < .001). Judicious repeat lateral sphincterotomy cures recurrent chronic fissures with minimal risk of incontinence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endoanal ultrasonographic evaluation of an unhealed anal fissure after the lateral internal sphincterotomy.

    PubMed

    Yucel, E; Akin, M L; Sucullu, I; Filiz, A I; Ozdemir, Y; Yildiz, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of the lateral internal sphincterotomy in patients who had unhealed anal fissures using the endoanal ultrasonography. Lateral internal sphincterotomy is an effective method in treatment of chronic anal fissures, but it is associated with 1 to 5 % unhealing and recurrence rates. Endoanal ultrasonography can be used to evaluate the sphincterotomy and the efficiency of the treatment. Totally, 40 patients with unhealed anal fissures after the lateral internal sphincterotomy were enrolled consecutively. The fissures were diagnosed by proctologic examination in every patient. The results of sphincterotomy were evaluated by the endoanal ultrasonography. There were 23 men and 17 women with the median age 29.7 years (range, 20-44 years). Using the endoanal ultrasonography, an incomplete internal sphincterotomy was detected in 26 of patients. In 12 patients, while the internal sphincter was completely intact, a superficial (subcutaneous) external anal sphincterotomy was found. In two patients, although the internal sphincterotomy was observed to be sufficient, a localized abscess formation of less than 1 cm was detected at the anal crypts level. The use of endoanal ultrasonography in patients with unhealed or recurrent anal fissure is a beneficial diagnostic method in assessing the situations of sphincters after the lateral internal sphincterotomy. Although the lateral internal sphincterotomy is a successful surgical treatment and can be performed easily as an outpatient procedure, it should be performed with the correct and rigorously surgical technique (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 31).

  9. Biliary cystadenoma

    PubMed Central

    Bartolome, Miguel A Hernandez; Ruiz, Sagrario Fuerte; Romero, Israel Manzanedo; Lojo, Beatriz Ramos; Prieto, Ignacio Rodriguez; Alvira, Luis Gimenez; Carreño, Rosario Granados; Esteban, Manuel Limones

    2009-01-01

    The diagnosis of cystadenoma is rare, even more so when located in the extrahepatic bile duct. Unspecific clinical signs may lead this pathology to be misdiagnosed. The need for pathological anatomy in order to distinguish cystadenomas from simple biliary cysts is crucial. The most usual treatment nowadays is resection of the bile duct, together with cholecystectomy and Roux-en-Y reconstruction. PMID:19630118

  10. Biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Chardot, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    Biliary atresia (BA) is a rare disease characterised by a biliary obstruction of unknown origin that presents in the neonatal period. It is the most frequent surgical cause of cholestatic jaundice in this age group. BA occurs in approximately 1/18,000 live births in Western Europe. In the world, the reported incidence varies from 5/100,000 to 32/100,000 live births, and is highest in Asia and the Pacific region. Females are affected slightly more often than males. The common histopathological picture is one of inflammatory damage to the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with sclerosis and narrowing or even obliteration of the biliary tree. Untreated, this condition leads to cirrhosis and death within the first years of life. BA is not known to be a hereditary condition. No primary medical treatment is relevant for the management of BA. Once BA suspected, surgical intervention (Kasai portoenterostomy) should be performed as soon as possible as operations performed early in life is more likely to be successful. Liver transplantation may be needed later if the Kasai operation fails to restore the biliary flow or if cirrhotic complications occur. At present, approximately 90% of BA patients survive and the majority have normal quality of life. PMID:16872500

  11. [Conservative management of duodenal perforation following endoscopic sphincterotomy of papilla of Vater].

    PubMed

    Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Adalid-Martínez, Raúl; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, José A

    2003-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is an established procedure in treatment of diseases of the biliary tract; management of serious complications such as duodenal perforation remains controversial. Because mortality is high if sepsis is inadequately treated by no use of operative means, many surgeons advocate routine operative repair and drainage upon diagnosis. In surveys of large experiences, however, the majority patients initially were treated non-surgically, and the majority recovered. To evaluate our experience with non-surgical management in patients with duodenal perforation after ES. Retrospective chart review from January 1991 to December 2000 identified 12 instances of duodenal perforation. We reviewed endoscopic cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) findings, diagnostic methods, time to diagnosis, methods of management, length of patient stay, and outcome. Twelve patients with diagnosis of choledocholithiasis (5) papillary stenoses (4) and carcinoma of pancreas (3) had duodenal perforation among 1,510 ES performed (0.79%). In all cases during ES, retroperitoneal air on fluoroscopic examinations was observed and diagnosis was made. One patient was managed initially by surgery and death occurred due to pulmonary complications. Eleven patients were treated conservatively with nasogastric aspiration, none by mouth intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and somatostatin analog without mortality. Median length of stay was 6.7 days. Duodenal perforation after ES may be treated conservatively with success if identified during ES or early stage. Early diagnosis of duodenal perforation is essential for optimum outcome.

  12. Malignant Biliary Obstruction: Evidence for Best Practice

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Leonardo Zorrón Cheng Tao; Singh, Rajvinder; Loong, Cheong Kuan; de Moura, Eduardo Guimarães Hourneaux

    2016-01-01

    What should be done next? Is the stricture benign? Is it resectable? Should I place a stent? Which one? These are some of the questions one ponders when dealing with biliary strictures. In resectable cases, ongoing questions remain as to whether the biliary tree should be drained prior to surgery. In palliative cases, the relief of obstruction remains the main goal. Options for palliative therapy include surgical bypass, percutaneous drainage, and stenting or endoscopic stenting (transpapillary or via an endoscopic ultrasound approach). This review gathers scientific foundations behind these interventions. For operable cases, preoperative biliary drainage should not be performed unless there is evidence of cholangitis, there is delay in surgical intervention, or intense jaundice is present. For inoperable cases, transpapillary stenting after sphincterotomy is preferable over percutaneous drainage. The use of plastic stents (PS) has no benefit over Self-Expandable Metallic Stents (SEMS). In case transpapillary drainage is not possible, Endoscopic Ultrasonography- (EUS-) guided drainage is still an option over percutaneous means. There is no significant difference between the types of SEMS and its indication should be individualized. PMID:26981114

  13. Retained bile duct stones in a patient with Billroth II gastrectomy: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and papillary dilatation via T tube.

    PubMed Central

    Nitsche, R; Fölsch, U R

    1991-01-01

    A postoperative T tube cholangiogram after cholecystectomy in a 62 year old patient showed two retained calculi of 14 mm diameter each. Endoscopic sphincterotomy was not possible because of previous Billroth II gastrectomy. The stones were disintegrated by electromagnetically generated extracorporeal shock waves. The T tube was replaced by a balloon catheter and the papilla of Vater was dilatated allowing passage of stone fragments. We conclude that retained bile duct stones can be removed without sphincterotomy or percutaneous extraction by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and papillary dilatation. This method should be considered especially in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2013432

  14. Failed biliary cannulation: Clinical and technical outcomes after tertiary referral endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Michael P; Bourke, Michael J; Williams, Stephen J; Alexander, Sina; Moss, Alan; Hope, Rick; Ruppin, David

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Prospective evaluation of repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for failed Schutz grade 1 biliary cannulation in a high-volume center. METHODS: Prospective intention-to-treat analysis of patients referred for biliary cannulation following recent unsuccessful ERCP. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (35 female; mean age: 62.5 years; age range: 40-87 years) with previous failed biliary cannulation were referred for repeat ERCP. The indication for ERCP was primarily choledocholithiasis (45%) or pancreatic malignancy (18%). Successful biliary cannulation was 100%. The precut needle knife sphincterotomy (NKS) rate was 27.4%. Complications occurred in 3.9% (post-ERCP pancreatitis). An identifiable reason for initial unsuccessful biliary cannulation was present in 55% of cases. Compared to a cohort of 940 naïve papilla patients (female 61%; mean age: 59.9 years; age range: 18-94 years) who required sphincterotomy over the same time period, there was no statistical difference in the cannulation success rate (100% vs 98%) or post-ERCP pancreatitis (3.1% vs 3.9%). Precut NKS use was more frequent (27.4% vs 12.7%) (P = 0.017). CONCLUSION: Referral to a high-volume center following unsuccessful ERCP is associated with high technical success, with a favorable complication rate, compared to routine ERCP procedures. PMID:22174549

  15. Randomized trial of 1-minute versus 5-minute endoscopic balloon dilation for extraction of bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Liao, Wei-Chih; Lee, Ching-Tai; Chang, Chi-Yang; Leung, Joseph W; Chen, Jiann-Hwa; Tsai, Ming-Chang; Lin, Jaw-Town; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wang, Hsiu-Po

    2010-12-01

    Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) has a lower risk of hemorrhage than sphincterotomy and is easier to perform in altered/difficult anatomy. However, the sphincter of Oddi (SO) is only stretched but not cut after EPBD. Therefore, the biliary orifice is less opened, and failed stone extraction with EPBD alone occurs in up to 20% of patients. An uncut SO also may exacerbate pancreatic duct compression from edema after EPBD, and it increases the risk of pancreatitis. To determine whether a longer duration for EPBD (5-minute vs conventional 1-minute) can further weaken the SO and reduce the rates of failed stone extraction and pancreatitis. Prospective, randomized trial. Two tertiary-care referral centers. This study involved 170 consecutive patients with common bile duct stones. EPBD for 1 minute (n = 86) or 5 minutes (n = 84). Failed stone extraction with EPBD alone and post-ERCP pancreatitis. Failed stone extraction with EPBD alone was less frequent with 5-minute EPBD (6 of 84, 7.1%) than with 1-minute EPBD (17 of 86, 19.8%), with a relative risk (RR) of 0.36 (P = .024). The risk of pancreatitis was also lower with 5-minute EPBD (4 of 84, 4.8%) than with 1-minute EPBD (13 of 86, 15.1%), with an RR of 0.32 (P = .038). Multivariable logistic regression analyses reaffirmed that 5-minute EPBD reduced the risk of failure with EPBD alone (odds ratio [OR] 0.19, P = .010) and pancreatitis (OR 0.28, P = .035). Endoscopists could not be blinded after the dilation durations were randomly assigned. Compared with conventional 1-minute EPBD, 5-minute EPBD improves efficacy of stone extraction and reduces the risk of pancreatitis. ( NCT00451581). Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Internal sphincterotomy versus topical nitroglycerin ointment for chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Muhammad I; Pervaiz, Arif; Figueiredo, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    Anal fissure is a common benign condition. An anorectal problem is defined as a split in the anal canal mucosa that extends from the dentate line to the anal verge. Chronic anal fissure is defined by a history of symptoms present for more than 2 months' duration and with a triad of external skin tags, namely, a hypertrophied anal papilla, an ulcer with rolled edges, and a base exposing the internal sphincter. Because complications such as incontinence are associated with surgical treatment, chemical sphincterotomy is currently favored. The objective of this study is to compare the difference in outcome between open partial lateral anal sphincterotomy and application of topical 0.2% nitroglycerin ointment for the treatment of chronic anal fissure. This was a quasi-experimental study carried out between January 16, 2007 and January 15, 2008 in the Surgical Department of Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Sixty consecutive cases with a clinical diagnosis of chronic anal fissure were recruited in the study. All recruited patients met the study inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. Group A was managed conservatively using topical 0.2% nitroglycerin ointment, whereas Group B underwent open partial lateral anal sphincterotomy. Both groups were followed up at 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 6 weeks after the treatment. All the patients complained of pain. A total of 43 (71.7%) patients had pain with constipation, whereas 31 (51.7%) patients had bleeding per rectum. Upon clinically examining the anal area, tenderness was elicited in all 60 (100%) patients. Group A included 30 (11 females and 19 males) cases treated with topical 0.2% nitroglycerin ointment and Group B included 30 (11 females and 19 males) cases who underwent open partial lateral anal sphincterotomy. In Group A, only 15 patients with fissures were successfully treated (50%). By contrast, 28 (93%) patients with fissures in Group B were successfully treated, and only two (7

  17. LIVER FUNCTION TESTS IN PREDICTING CBD STONES IN ACUTE BILIARY PANCREATITIS.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J T; Smith, M D; Omoshoro-Jones, J A O; Devar, J D; Gaylard, P D; Khan, Z K; Jugmohan, B J

    2017-06-01

    Acute biliary pancreatitis is a significant cause of pancreatitis. The role and timing of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the setting of acute biliary pancreatitis is still controversial. Persistent choledocholithiasis in acute biliary pancreatitis occurs and establishing which patients require an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography based on liver function tests only can be challenging. Retrospective analysis of the Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital's ERCP database was performed. All ERCPs performed in patients with acute biliary pancreatitis were identified and analysed. A total of 2830 ERCPs were performed during the study period. In total 99 (3%) were performed for suspected choledocholithiasis in acute biliary pancreatitis with abnormal liver function tests. Thirty (30%) of the ERCPs confirmed choledocholithiasis while the remaining 69 (70%) yielded no choledocholithiasis. A significantly higher proportion of patients with choledocholithiasis required a needle knife sphincterotomy for deep biliary cannulation. The incidence of immediate complications, such as bleeding, false tract formation and perforation were comparable between the two groups. Two models were developed to determine specific cut-off values for conjugated bilirubin, ALP, GGT, AST and ALT. The calculated cut-off values yielded poor correlation between sensitivity and specificity. Determining persistent choledocholithiasis in acute biliary pancreatitis based on liver function test alone is not ideal. Using conjugated bilirubin, ALP, GGT, AST and ALT to guide one to perform an ERCP in acute biliary pancreatitis can be misleading.

  18. Endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct calculi in patients with gall bladder in situ considered unfit for surgery.

    PubMed

    Davidson, B R; Neoptolemos, J P; Carr-Locke, D L

    1988-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was attempted in 106 patients with common bile duct (CBD) calculi and gall bladders present, who were considered unfit for surgery on the grounds of age and frailty alone (35%) and/or the presence of major medical problems (65%). Endoscopic sphincterotomy was successful in 105 patients (99%). Early ES related complications occurred in 21 patients (19.8%). Twelve hospital deaths occurred (11.3%), although this was due to biliary causes in only five (4.7%) and one of these was moribund on admission. Complications were more frequent in those in whom initial ES did not clear the common bile duct (30.4%) compared with those in whom this was (11.7%; p = 0.0164). The mortality was also greater in patients in whom there was no ERCP proof of CBD clearance (p = 0.01) unless operated upon. Twelve patients developed gall bladder complications (11.3%) including five with empyema (4.7%). Analysis of clinical, haematological, and biochemical factors together with ERCP findings showed that the only factor which had any value in predicting gall bladder complications was pre-existing cholangitis. The present series was compared with another using ES as a definitive procedure, and with a surgical series. Although there were significant differences in outcome, differences with respect to medical risk factors and the incidence of complications of CBD stones (jaundice, cholangitis, and acute pancreatitis) were striking. Further analysis of these factors may allow a clearer definition of patients most likely to benefit from either ES or surgery.

  19. Endoscopic sphincterotomy for common bile duct calculi in patients with gall bladder in situ considered unfit for surgery.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, B R; Neoptolemos, J P; Carr-Locke, D L

    1988-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) was attempted in 106 patients with common bile duct (CBD) calculi and gall bladders present, who were considered unfit for surgery on the grounds of age and frailty alone (35%) and/or the presence of major medical problems (65%). Endoscopic sphincterotomy was successful in 105 patients (99%). Early ES related complications occurred in 21 patients (19.8%). Twelve hospital deaths occurred (11.3%), although this was due to biliary causes in only five (4.7%) and one of these was moribund on admission. Complications were more frequent in those in whom initial ES did not clear the common bile duct (30.4%) compared with those in whom this was (11.7%; p = 0.0164). The mortality was also greater in patients in whom there was no ERCP proof of CBD clearance (p = 0.01) unless operated upon. Twelve patients developed gall bladder complications (11.3%) including five with empyema (4.7%). Analysis of clinical, haematological, and biochemical factors together with ERCP findings showed that the only factor which had any value in predicting gall bladder complications was pre-existing cholangitis. The present series was compared with another using ES as a definitive procedure, and with a surgical series. Although there were significant differences in outcome, differences with respect to medical risk factors and the incidence of complications of CBD stones (jaundice, cholangitis, and acute pancreatitis) were striking. Further analysis of these factors may allow a clearer definition of patients most likely to benefit from either ES or surgery. PMID:3343004

  20. Internal sphincterotomy reduces postoperative pain after Milligan Morgan haemorrhoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Giuseppe; Guercio, Giovanni; Cudia, Bianca; Ricotta, Calogero

    2009-01-01

    Background Over the last few years, there has been increasing attention on surgical procedures to treat haemorrhoids. The Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy is still one of the most popular surgical treatments of haemorrhoids. The aim of the present work is to assess postoperative pain, together with other early and late complications, after Milligan-Morgan haemorrhoidectomy as we could observe in our experience before and after performing an internal sphincterotomy. Methods from January 1980 to May 2007, we operated 850 patients, but only 699 patients (median age 53) were included in the present study because they satisfied our inclusion criteria. The patients were divided into two groups: all the patients operated on before 1995 (group A); all the patients operated on after 1995 (group B). Since 1995 an internal sphincterotomy of about 1 cm has been performed at the end of the procedure. The data concerning the complications of these two groups were compared. All the patients received a check-up at one and six months after operation and a telephone questionnaire three years after operation to evalue medium and long term results. Results after one month 507 patients (72.5%) did not have any postoperative complication. Only 192 patients (27.46%) out of 699 presented postoperative complication and the most frequent one (23.03%) was pain. The number of patients who suffered from postoperative pain decreased significantly when performing internal sphincterotomy, going from 28.8% down to 10.45% (χ2: 10,880; p = 0,0001); 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 24.7 to 28.9 (group A) and 10.17 to 10.72 (group B). In 51 cases (7.29%) urinary retention was registered. Six cases of bleeding (0.85%) were registered. Medium and long term follow up did not show any difference among the two groups. Conclusion internal sphincterotomy: reduces significantly pain only in the first postoperative period, but not in the medium-long term follow up; does not increase the incidence of continence

  1. Pre-operative biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Yuan; Gurusamy, Kurinchi Selvan; Wang, Qin; Davidson, Brian R; Lin, He; Xie, Xiaodong; Wang, Chaohua

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with obstructive jaundice have various pathophysiological changes that affect the liver, kidney, heart, and the immune system. There is considerable controversy as to whether temporary relief of biliary obstruction prior to major definitive surgery (pre-operative biliary drainage) is of any benefit to the patient. Objectives To assess the benefits and harms of pre-operative biliary drainage versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (direct surgery) in patients with obstructive jaundice (irrespective of a benign or malignant cause). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2012. Selection criteria We included all randomised clinical trials comparing biliary drainage followed by surgery versus direct surgery, performed for obstructive jaundice, irrespective of the sample size, language, and publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and extracted data. We calculated the risk ratio (RR), rate ratio (RaR), or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) based on the available patient analyses. We assessed the risk of bias (systematic overestimation of benefit or systematic underestimation of harm) with components of the Cochrane risk of bias tool. We assessed the risk of play of chance (random errors) with trial sequential analysis. Main results We included six trials with 520 patients comparing pre-operative biliary drainage (265 patients) versus no pre-operative biliary drainage (255 patients). Four trials used percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and two trials used endoscopic sphincterotomy and stenting as the method of pre-operative biliary drainage. The risk of bias was high in all trials. The proportion of patients with malignant obstruction varied between 60

  2. Clinical significance of main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography: Single and double duct dilation

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Mark D; Hoteit, Maarouf; Patel, Amil P; Wang, Xiaoping; Baumgarten, Deborah A; Cai, Qiang

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the patients with main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography (CT) and thereby to provide the predictive criteria to identify patients at high risk of significant diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, and to avoid unnecessary work up for patients at low risk of such diseases. METHODS: Patients with dilation of the main pancreatic duct on CT at Emory University Hospital in 2002 were identified by computer search. Clinical course and ultimate diagnosis were obtained in all the identified patients by abstraction of their computer database records. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were identified in this study. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer were the most common causes of the main pancreatic duct dilation on CT. Although the majority of patients with isolated dilation of the main pancreatic duct (single duct dilation) had chronic pancreatitis, one-third of patients with single duct dilation but without chronic pancreatitis had pancreatic malignancies, whereas most of patients with concomitant biliary duct dilation (double duct dilation) had pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSION: Patients with pancreatic double duct dilation need extensive work up and careful follow-up since a majority of these patients are ultimately diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Patients with single duct dilation, especially such patients without any evidence of chronic pancreatitis, also need careful follow-up since the possibility of pancreatic malignancy, including adenocarcinoma and intraductal papillary mucinous tumors, is still high. PMID:17461473

  3. Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Mikelle D.; Murray, Karen F.

    2011-01-01

    Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA), an inflammatory sclerosing cholangiopathy, is the leading indication for liver transplantation in children. The cause is still unknown, although possible infectious, genetic, and immunologic etiologies have received much recent focus. These theories are often dependent on each other for secondary or coexisting mechanisms. Concern for EHBA is raised by a cholestatic infant, but the differential diagnosis is large and the path to diagnosis remains varied. Current treatment is surgical with an overall survival rate of approximately 90%. The goals of this article are to review the important clinical aspects of EHBA and to highlight some of the more recent scientific and clinical developments contributing to our understanding of this condition. PMID:18496390

  4. Portal biliopathy treated with endoscopic biliary stenting

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sung Jin; Min, Jae Ki; Kwon, So Young; Kim, Jun Hyun; Moon, Sun Young; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Hee Sun

    2016-01-01

    Portal biliopathy is defined as abnormalities in the extra- and intrahepatic ducts and gallbladder of patients with portal hypertension. This condition is associated with extrahepatic venous obstruction and dilatation of the venous plexus of the common bile duct, resulting in mural irregularities and compression of the biliary tree. Most patients with portal biliopathy remain asymptomatic, but approximately 10% of them advance to symptomatic abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently used as diagnostic tools because they are noninvasive and can be used to assess the regularity, length, and degree of bile duct narrowing. Management of portal biliopathy is aimed at biliary decompression and reducing the portal pressure. Portal biliopathy has rarely been reported in Korea. We present a symptomatic case of portal biliopathy that was complicated by cholangitis and successfully treated with biliary endoscopic procedures. PMID:27044769

  5. Portal biliopathy treated with endoscopic biliary stenting.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sung Jin; Min, Jae Ki; Kwon, So Young; Kim, Jun Hyun; Moon, Sun Young; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Hee Sun

    2016-03-01

    Portal biliopathy is defined as abnormalities in the extra- and intrahepatic ducts and gallbladder of patients with portal hypertension. This condition is associated with extrahepatic venous obstruction and dilatation of the venous plexus of the common bile duct, resulting in mural irregularities and compression of the biliary tree. Most patients with portal biliopathy remain asymptomatic, but approximately 10% of them advance to symptomatic abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently used as diagnostic tools because they are noninvasive and can be used to assess the regularity, length, and degree of bile duct narrowing. Management of portal biliopathy is aimed at biliary decompression and reducing the portal pressure. Portal biliopathy has rarely been reported in Korea. We present a symptomatic case of portal biliopathy that was complicated by cholangitis and successfully treated with biliary endoscopic procedures.

  6. Dorsal duct sphincterotomy is effective long-term treatment of acute pancreatitis associated with pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Keith, R G; Shapero, T F; Saibil, F G; Moore, T L

    1989-10-01

    Nonbiliary, nonalcoholic pancreatic inflammatory disease was investigated by biochemical investigation, ultrasonography, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and secretin tests. Twenty-five consecutive cases were followed up for 12 months to 10 years after treatment of disease associated with pancreas divisum, diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. Thirteen patients had no recurrence of acute pancreatitis after dorsal duct sphincterotomy alone, during long-term follow-up (mean, 54 months); one patient had recurrent pancreatitis during 33 months after failed sphincterotomy. Eight patients had variable results 12 months to 8 years (mean, 49 months) after dorsal duct sphincterotomy for pancreatic pain syndrome (without amylase elevation), three were pain free, and one had recurrent pancreatitis. For 10 years after dorsal duct sphincterotomy for chronic pancreatitis, one patient had no pain relief; after subtotal pancreatectomy and pancreaticojejunostomy of the dorsal duct, both for chronic pancreatitis, one patient each was pain free and normoglycemic after 54 and 12 months, respectively. Dorsal duct sphincterotomy alone is successful in achieving long-term freedom from recurrence of acute pancreatitis associated with pancreas divisum. Pancreatic pain syndrome is not consistently improved by dorsal duct sphincterotomy. Chronic pancreatitis associated with pancreas divisum should be treated by resection or drainage procedures, not by dorsal duct sphincterotomy.

  7. Sphincterotomy by triple lumen needle knife using guide wire in patients with Billroth II gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Park, Su Bum; Kim, Hyung Wook; Kang, Dae Hwan; Choi, Cheol Woong; Yoon, Ki Tae; Cho, Mong; Song, Byeong Jun

    2013-12-28

    To investigate the usefulness of a guide wire and triple lumen needle knife for removing stones in Billroth II (B-II) gastrectomy patients. Endoscopic sphincterotomy in patients with B-II gastrectomy is challenging. We used a new guide wire technique involving sphincterotomy by triple lumen needle knife through a forward-viewing endoscopy. This technique was performed in nine patients between August 2010 and June 2012. Sphincterotomy as described above was performed. Adequate sphincterotomy, successful stone removal, and complications were investigated prospectively. Sphincterotomy by triple lumen needle knife using guide wire was successful in all nine patients. Sphincterotomy started towards the 4-5 o'clock direction and continued to the upper margin of the papillary roof. Complete stone removal in one session was achieved in all patients. There were no procedure related complications, such as bleeding, pancreatitis, or perforation. In patients with B-II gastrectomy, guide wire using sphincterotomy by triple lumen needle knife through a forward-viewing endoscopy seems to be an effective and safe procedure for the removal of common bile duct stones.

  8. Plastic biliary stents for malignant biliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Huibregtse, Inge; Fockens, Paul

    2011-07-01

    Plastic biliary endoprostheses have not changed much since their introduction more than 3 decades ago. Although their use has been challenged by the introduction of metal stents, plastic stents still remain commonly used. Much work has been done to improve the problem of stent obstruction but without substantial clinical success. In this review, the authors discuss the history of plastic biliary stent development and the current use of plastic stents for malignant biliary diseases.

  9. Primary Biliary Cholangitis (Primary Biliary Cirrhosis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Disease & NASH Definition & Facts Symptoms & Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Biliary Atresia Cirrhosis Hemochromatosis Hepatitis A through E (Viral Hepatitis) Hepatitis ...

  10. Primary biliary cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000282.htm Primary biliary cirrhosis To use the sharing features on this page, ... and leads to scarring of the liver called cirrhosis. This is called biliary cirrhosis. Causes The cause ...

  11. Dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Robert G; Semsarian, Christopher; Macdonald, Peter

    2017-02-09

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is defined by the presence of left ventricular dilatation and contractile dysfunction. Genetic mutations involving genes that encode cytoskeletal, sarcomere, and nuclear envelope proteins, among others, account for up to 35% of cases. Acquired causes include myocarditis and exposure to alcohol, drugs and toxins, and metabolic and endocrine disturbances. The most common presenting symptoms relate to congestive heart failure, but can also include circulatory collapse, arrhythmias, and thromboembolic events. Secondary neurohormonal changes contribute to reverse remodelling and ongoing myocyte damage. The prognosis is worst for individuals with the lowest ejection fractions or severe diastolic dysfunction. Treatment of chronic heart failure comprises medications that improve survival and reduce hospital admission-namely, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and β blockers. Other interventions include enrolment in a multidisciplinary heart failure service, and device therapy for arrhythmia management and sudden death prevention. Patients who are refractory to medical therapy might benefit from mechanical circulatory support and heart transplantation. Treatment of preclinical disease and the potential role of stem-cell therapy are being investigated.

  12. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding: gallstone-induced auto-sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kalipershad, Sujala; Chung, Kin Tong; Jehangir, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    A 67-year-old gentleman with no significant medical history of note presented with sudden onset of epigastric pain, coffee ground vomiting and passing black tarry stool. A series of investigations including blood tests, ultrasound scan, CT abdomen and pelvis with contrast and endoscopy failed to reveal any site of active bleeding. The mystery remained and the patient continued to have upper gastrointestinal bleeding. A second CT abdomen and pelvis with contrast was carried out and showed evidence of contrast extravasation into the duodenum (figure 3). An exploratory laparotomy showed no obvious site of haemorrhage and a loop jejunostomy was performed. The diagnosis of gallstone-induced auto-sphincterotomy was only made, using gastroscope via jejunostomy, when a big gallstone was found in the third part of the duodenum and the papilla was ruptured (figure 5). PMID:22914239

  13. Delayed hemorrhage following endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Favrot, D; Vickers, B; Dies, D; Wilder, W

    1996-05-01

    To define the clinical significance of delayed postsphincterotomy hemorrhage, we reviewed 476 consecutive ERCP procedures performed over a three-year period. Of 250 patients who underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES), five (2%) developed postprocedure hemorrhage, two of whom had immediate, self-limited bleeding that resolved after endoscopic injection of epinephrine and did not require transfusion. The other three had delayed hemorrhage characterized by: onset 20-48 hr after the procedure, melena without hematemesis as the index clinical manifestation of bleeding, and atraumatic balloon extraction of common duct stones. Transfusion of 2-6 units of packed erythrocytes was necessary in each and one patient required surgical hemostasis. Delayed hemorrhage following ERS is an important, frequently severe complication to remember when contemplating performing ERS as an outpatient procedure.

  14. Management of Biliary Strictures After Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Nicolas A.

    2015-01-01

    Strictures of the bile duct are a well-recognized complication of liver transplant and account for more than 50% of all biliary complications after deceased donor liver transplant and living donor liver transplant. Biliary strictures that develop after transplant are classified as anastomotic strictures or nonanastomotic strictures, depending on their location in the bile duct. The incidence, etiology, natural history, and response to therapy of the 2 types vary greatly, so their distinction is clinically important. The imaging modality of choice for the diagnosis of biliary strictures is magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography because of its high rate of diagnostic accuracy and limited risk of complications. Biliary strictures that develop after liver transplant may be managed with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), or surgical revision, including retransplant. The initial treatment of choice for these strictures is ERC with progressive balloon dilation and the placement of increasing numbers of plastic stents. PTC and surgery are generally reserved for failures of endoscopic therapy or for anatomic variants that are not suitable for ERC. In this article, we discuss the classification of biliary strictures, their diagnosis, and the therapeutic strategies that can be used to manage these common complications of liver transplant. PMID:27482175

  15. Management of common bile duct stones with a biliary endoprosthesis. Report on 40 cases.

    PubMed

    Peters, R; Macmathuna, P; Lombard, M; Karani, J; Westaby, D

    1992-10-01

    Endoscopic placement of a biliary endoprosthesis has been proposed for the management of choledocholithiasis when stone extraction is difficult or considered hazardous. Over a two year period this approach was used in 40 such patients. There were 24 women and 16 men with a median age of 76 years. In seven patients with severe cholangitis no attempt was made to extract the stones. Twenty three (57.5%) patients underwent a sphincterotomy and four (10%) needle knife papillotomy. The endoprosthesis insertion was considered a temporary measure in 13 (32.5%) patients and definitive treatment in 27 (67.5%). Bile duct drainage was established in all patients. Early complications occurred in six patients (15%), but were without sequelae. Late complications developed in eight (20%) of the patients and included biliary colic (four), cholangitis (three), and cholecystitis (one). Two patients (one cholangitis and one cholecystitis) died as a consequence of the complication. Only patients without a sphincterotomy developed cholangitis. A total of eight patients (20%) underwent surgery (one as an emergency) and nine a repeat endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (two as an emergency) to clear the duct. The remaining 23 patients are asymptomatic at a median of 13 months (range five to 24 months). Biliary endoprosthesis insertion for choledocholithiasis is an important alternative means of establishing drainage in selected cases, and is probably the optimum method of management for the elderly and or debilitated patients with previous cholecystectomy. Caution must be exercised, however, in patients with an in situ gall bladder.

  16. Use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents for the management of benign biliary conditions.

    PubMed

    García-Cano, J; Taberna-Arana, L; Jimeno-Ayllón, C; Martínez-Fernández, R; Serrano-Sánchez, L; Reyes-Guevara, A K; Viñuelas-Chicano, M; Gómez-Ruiz, C J; Morillas-Ariño, M J; Pérez-García, J I; Pérez-Vigara, G; Pérez-Sola, A

    2010-09-01

    biliary self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) have the advantage of being inserted undeployed with very small sizes and provide, when fully opened, large diameters for biliary drainage. However, their use in benign conditions has been very limited, mainly because of difficulty in their extraction. We present our initial experience with a fully covered SEMS (Wallflex) for the management of benign problems of the bile duct. in a prospective study, stents of 8 mm in diameter and 4, 6 or 8 cm long were inserted by means of ERCP. These SEMS were chosen when according to medical judgement it was thought that diameters greater than 10 French (3.3 mm) were needed for proper biliary drainage. Stents were extracted also endoscopically, several months later when deemed clinically appropriate. twenty biliary SEMS were inserted. Reasons for insertion were: large intrahepatic biliary fistula after hydatid cyst surgery (1), perforation of the papillary area following endoscopic sphincterotomy (2), coaxial insertion to achieve patency in obstructed uncovered stents inserted in benign conditions (3), benign strictures (7), multiple and large common bile duct stones that could not be extracted because of tapering and stricturing of the distal common bile duct (7). In all cases, successful biliary drainage was achieved and there were no complications from insertion. Stents were easily extracted after a mean time of 132 days (36-270) in place. Complete resolution of biliary problems was obtained in 14 patients (70%). in our initial experience, the fully covered Wallflex biliary stent was removed without any complication after being in place in the common bile duct for a mean time of over four months. Therefore, it could be used in the management of benign biliary conditions.

  17. Pancreatitis of biliary origin, optimal timing of cholecystectomy (PONCHO trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background After an initial attack of biliary pancreatitis, cholecystectomy minimizes the risk of recurrent biliary pancreatitis and other gallstone-related complications. Guidelines advocate performing cholecystectomy within 2 to 4 weeks after discharge for mild biliary pancreatitis. During this waiting period, the patient is at risk of recurrent biliary events. In current clinical practice, surgeons usually postpone cholecystectomy for 6 weeks due to a perceived risk of a more difficult dissection in the early days following pancreatitis and for logistical reasons. We hypothesize that early laparoscopic cholecystectomy minimizes the risk of recurrent biliary pancreatitis or other complications of gallstone disease in patients with mild biliary pancreatitis without increasing the difficulty of dissection and the surgical complication rate compared with interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods/Design PONCHO is a randomized controlled, parallel-group, assessor-blinded, superiority multicenter trial. Patients are randomly allocated to undergo early laparoscopic cholecystectomy, within 72 hours after randomization, or interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 25 to 30 days after randomization. During a 30-month period, 266 patients will be enrolled from 18 hospitals of the Dutch Pancreatitis Study Group. The primary endpoint is a composite endpoint of mortality and acute re-admissions for biliary events (that is, recurrent biliary pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, symptomatic/obstructive choledocholithiasis requiring endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography including cholangitis (with/without endoscopic sphincterotomy), and uncomplicated biliary colics) occurring within 6 months following randomization. Secondary endpoints include the individual endpoints of the composite endpoint, surgical and other complications, technical difficulty of cholecystectomy and costs. Discussion The PONCHO trial is designed to show that early laparoscopic cholecystectomy

  18. Novel biliary self-expanding metal stents: indications and applications.

    PubMed

    Blero, Daniel; Huberty, Vincent; Devière, Jacques

    2015-03-01

    Endoscopic insertion of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS) through a malignant common bile duct stricture is the first line of palliation for malignant jaundice. Patency of these stents remains a major concern. SEMS dysfunction can result from tumor ingrowth, overgrowth and/or clogging. Initial SEMS modifications involved covering the central part of the stent in order to reduce ingrowth and ultimately increase patency. Fully covered stents became available shortly after reports of their use in human patients. The potential removability and radial strength of SEMS have led to evaluation of their use in new indications including benign biliary strictures, post sphincterotomy bleeding and perforation. Other aspects of development include the addition of features such as anti-reflux valves, drug elution and spontaneous biodegradability. These aspects and their clinical implications are reviewed and discussed.

  19. [Biliary atresia in children].

    PubMed

    Famulski, W; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M; Sulkowski, S; Ostapiuk, H; Kemona, A

    1989-05-01

    Congenital biliary tract atresia was found in 0.58% of children dying in the first year of life. Most frequently atresia included the extrahepatic bile ducts, among them the common bile duct. Five cases (35.7%) had atresia associated with other developmental anomalies, which may suggest a genetic determination of the atresia. The most frequent cause of death of the newborns and infants with congenital biliary tract atresia was bronchopneumonia with associated biliary cirrhosis of the liver.

  20. Pharmacological Sphincterotomy for Chronic Anal Fissures by Botulinum Toxin A

    PubMed Central

    Wollina, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a common proctologic disease. Botulinum toxin (BTX) can be used for temporary chemical denervation to treat this painful disorder. Its application is by intramuscular injections into either the external or internal anal sphincter muscle. The mode of action, application techniques, and possible complications or adverse effects of BTX therapy are discussed in this report. The healing rate is dependent on the BTX dosage. The short-term healing rate (≤ 6 months) is 60–90%, whereas about 50% of the patients show a complete response in long-term follow-up studies (> 1 year). Adverse effects are generally mild, but relapses occur more often than with surgery. Conservative therapy is currently considered as a first-line treatment. With increasing evidence for its efficacy, BTX can now be considered among the first-line nonsurgical treatements. Although, surgical management by lateral sphincterotomy is the most effective treatment, it shows a higher incidence of incontinence and greater general morbidity rate than BTX. BTX is a useful alternative to surgery and in many cases, surgery can be avoided with the use of BTX. PMID:20300345

  1. Pharmacological sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissures by botulinum toxin a.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe

    2008-07-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a common proctologic disease. Botulinum toxin (BTX) can be used for temporary chemical denervation to treat this painful disorder. Its application is by intramuscular injections into either the external or internal anal sphincter muscle. The mode of action, application techniques, and possible complications or adverse effects of BTX therapy are discussed in this report. The healing rate is dependent on the BTX dosage. The short-term healing rate ( 1 year). Adverse effects are generally mild, but relapses occur more often than with surgery. Conservative therapy is currently considered as a first-line treatment. With increasing evidence for its efficacy, BTX can now be considered among the first-line nonsurgical treatements. Although, surgical management by lateral sphincterotomy is the most effective treatment, it shows a higher incidence of incontinence and greater general morbidity rate than BTX. BTX is a useful alternative to surgery and in many cases, surgery can be avoided with the use of BTX.

  2. Short-term stenting using fully covered self-expandable metal stents for treatment of refractory biliary leaks, postsphincterotomy bleeding, and perforations.

    PubMed

    Canena, Jorge; Liberato, Manuel; Horta, David; Romão, Carlos; Coutinho, António

    2013-01-01

    Fully covered self-expandable metal stents (FCSEMS) have been used as a rescue therapy for several benign biliary tract conditions (BBC). Long-term stent placement commonly occurs, and prolonged FCSEMS placement is associated with the majority of the complications reported. This study evaluated the duration of stenting and the efficacy and safety of temporary FCSEMS placement for three BBCs: refractory biliary leaks, postsphincterotomy bleeding, and perforations. This was a retrospective case series with long-term follow-up of 25 patients who underwent FCSEMS placement for BBCs. This study included 17 patients with postcholecystectomy refractory biliary leaks who had previously undergone unsuccessful sphincterotomy and plastic stent placement, 4 patients with difficult-to-control postsphincterotomy bleeding, and 4 patients with a perforation following endoscopic sphincterotomy. Stents were removed according to clinical evidence of problem resolution. The review included stenting duration, safe FCSEMS removal, clinical efficacy, complications, and long-term outcomes. During the follow-up period, ERCP and cholangioscopy procedures were performed to exclude the possibility of bile duct lesion development. Complete resolution of the initial condition was achieved in all patients. Patients with biliary leaks had a median stent duration time of 16 days (range 7-28 days). Patients with bleeding had stents removed after a median time of 6 days (range 3-15 days). Patients with perforations had their stents removed after a median time of 29.5 days (range 21-30 days). There were no complications related to stenting. Temporary placement of a FCSEMS for 30 days or less is an effective rescue therapy for refractory biliary leaks, difficult-to-control post-endoscopic sphincterotomy bleeding, and perforations. Duration of stenting should be different for each type of condition. Stents can be safely removed, and short-term stenting is associated with the absence of early and late

  3. Use of fully covered self-expanding metal stents in benign biliary diseases

    PubMed Central

    García-Cano, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    Biliary fully covered self-expanding metal stents (FCSEMS) are now being used to treat several benign biliary conditions. Advantages include small predeployment and large postexpansion diameters in addition to an easy insertion technique. Lack of imbedding of the metal into the bile duct wall enables removability. In benign biliary strictures that usually require multiple procedures, despite the substantially higher cost of FCSEMS compared with plastic stents, the use of FCSEMS is offset by the reduced number of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography interventions required to achieve stricture resolution. In the same way, FCSEMS have also been employed to treat complex bile leaks, perforation and bleeding after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and as an aid to maintain permanent drainage tracts obtained by means of Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided biliary drainage. Good success rates have been achieved in all these conditions with an acceptable number of complications. FCSEMS were successfully removed in all patients. Comparative studies of FCSEMS and plastic stents are needed to demonstrate efficacy and cost-effectiveness PMID:22523615

  4. Superiority of 10-mm-wide Balloon over 8-mm-wide Balloon in Papillary Dilation for Bile Duct Stones: A Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Akiyama, Dai; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Tsujino, Takeshi; Umefune, Gyotane; Takahara, Naminatsu; Mohri, Dai; Kogure, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Saburo; Ito, Yukiko; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Sasahira, Naoki; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is a possible alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for common bile duct (CBD) stones. To date, 10- and 8-mm EPBD have not been fully compared. Patients and Methods: Patients who underwent EPBD for CBD stones at two Japanese tertiary care centers between May 1994 and January 2014 were identified. Matched pairs with 10- and 8-mm EPBD were generated. Short- and long-term outcomes were compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 869 patients were identified (61 and 808 patients for 10- and 8-mm EPBD, respectively), and 61 well-balanced pairs were generated. The rate of complete stone removal within a single session was higher in the 10-mm EPBD group than in the 8-mm EPBD group (69% vs. 44%, P < 0.001), and use of lithotripsy was less frequent in the 10-mm EPBD group (23% vs. 56%, P < 0.001). The rates of post-ERCP pancreatitis were similar between the 10- and 8-mm EPBD groups (11% vs. 8%). Cumulative biliary complication-free rates were not statistically different between the two groups: 88% [95% confidence interval (CI): 79–97%] and 94% (95% CI: 88–100%) at 1 year and 69% (95% CI: 56–85%) and 80% (95% CI: 69–93%) at 2 years in the 10- and 8-mm EPBD groups, respectively. In the 10-mm EPBD group, ascending cholangitis was not observed, and pneumobilia was found in 5% of cases during the follow-up period. Conclusions: EPBD using a 10-mm balloon for CBD stones is safe and more effective than 8-mm EPBD. The sphincter function is highly preserved after 10-mm EPBD. PMID:26228364

  5. Endoscopic diagnosis and management of biliary complications following orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Zibari, G; McDonald, J C

    1996-06-01

    Nonoperative management of biliary complications (BC) with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a natural sequel to the emergence of choledochocholedochostomy as the preferred biliary reconstruction for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Overall, therapeutic ERCP's efficacy for posttransplant BC is difficult to assess because most published data are retrospective, anecdotal, or in abstract form, and there are no prospective, randomized studies. Thus, endoscopic management of posttransplant BC must be individualized. While T-tube-related late bile leaks and ductal calculi are amenable to endoscopic therapy, its efficacy for strictures is more difficult to define. Refined surgical technique has prevented many unifocal anastomotic lesions, while multifocal strictures (for which endoscopic therapeutic experience is minimal) are increasingly prevalent. Whether endoscopic sphincterotomy is appropriate for posttransplant sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is controversial, because the disorder may be transient and the risk significant. Multicenter, prospective studies are needed to determine more accurately the optimal role of endoscopic therapy after OLT.

  6. Management of iatrogenic porto-biliary fistula following biliary stent.

    PubMed

    Chaitowitz, I M; Heng, R; Bell, K W

    2007-12-01

    We describe a case of cystic pancreatic disease causing biliary obstruction requiring percutaneous biliary stenting. The patient subsequently re-presented with severe melaena shown to be due to a rare complication of biliary stenting with development of a porto-biliary fistula from stent erosion, successfully managed with a 'stent-within-stent'.

  7. [Postoperative biliary stenosis: long-term results of endoscopic treatment].

    PubMed

    Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Adalid-Martínez, Raúl; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, José A

    2003-01-01

    Endoscopic stent placement is often the initial therapy in symptomatic patients with postoperative strictures because patients are usually diagnosed at the time of ERCP. Although stent insertion rapidly relieves symptoms of biliary obstruction and can even be live-saving in patients with cholangitis, all stents eventually clog, necessitating regular stent changes every 3 to 4 months. Results from several groups suggested that placing multiple stents for months to years could dilate the stricture permanently and thus also treat patients with postoperative biliary strictures palliatively. The outcome of temporary biliary stent placement for postoperative bile duct stenosis was retrospectively evaluated. This is a review of our experience with endoscopic dilation and stent placement in postoperative biliary strictures. Thirty patients with postoperative strictures diagnosed with ERCP were treated with long-term endoscopic stent placement. One 10 Fr stent was placed at first whenever possible, and stents were exchanged every 3 months for a total of 18 months as median. Four men and 26 women with mean age 42 years (range 16-69 years), and laparoscopic cholecystectomy in six and cholecystectomy (open procedure) in 24; surgical history was reviewed retrospectively. Five patients were lost to follow-up and 25 patients were followed for a median of 18 months. In all 25 patients, previous to stent placement, 8.5 or 10 Fr, a mechanical or hydrostatic dilation was necessary. Stents were exchanged every 3 months to avoid cholangitis caused by clogging. Three 10 Fr stents were inserted in one patient, two 10 Fr stents in 14 patients, one 10 Fr and one 8.5 Fr stent in nine patients, and in one patient, one 10 Fr stent. Six patients (24%) developed recurrent stenosis and required surgery. Endoscopic treatment with mechanical or hydrostatic dilation and stent insertion may improve long-term results for patients with postoperative biliary strictures.

  8. Outcomes of endoscopic management of primary and refractory postcholecystectomy biliary leaks in a multicentre review of 178 patients.

    PubMed

    Canena, Jorge; Horta, David; Coimbra, João; Meireles, Liliane; Russo, Pedro; Marques, Inês; Ricardo, Leonel; Rodrigues, Catarina; Capela, Tiago; Carvalho, Diana; Loureiro, Rafaela; Dias, António Mateus; Ramos, Gonçalo; Coutinho, António Pereira; Romão, Carlos; Veiga, Pedro Mota

    2015-08-19

    Biliary leaks have been treated with endoscopic management using different techniques with conflicting results. Furthermore the appropriate rescue therapy for refractory leaks has not been established. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of initial endotherapy for postcholecystectomy biliary leaks using an homogenous approach (sphincterotomy + placement of a 10-French plastic stent) in a large series of patients as well as the optimal and efficacy of rescue endotherapy for refractory biliary leaks. This was a multicenter, retrospective study of 178 patients who underwent endoscopic management of postcholecystectomy biliary leaks with a combination of biliary sphincterotomy and the placement of a large-bore (10-French) plastic stent. Data were collected to analyze the clinical outcomes and technical success, efficacy of the rescue endotherapy and the need for surgery, adverse events and prognostic factors for clinical success of endotherapy. Following endotherapy, closure of the leak was accomplished in 162/178 patients (91.0%). The multivariate logistic model showed that the type of leak, namely a high-grade biliary leak, was the only independent prognostic factor associated with treatment failure (OR = 26.78; 95% CI = 6.59-108.83; P < 0.01). The remaining 16 patients were treated with multiple plastic stents (MPSs) with a success rate of 62.5% (10 patients). The use of fewer than 3 plastic stents (P = 0.023) and a high-grade biliary leak (P = 0.034) were shown to be significant predictors of treatment failure with MPSs in refractory bile leaks. The 6 patients in whom the placement of MPSs failed were retreated with a fully cover self-expandable metallic stent (FCSEMS), resulting in closure of the leak in all cases. Endotherapy of biliary leaks with a combination of biliary sphincterotomy and the placement of a large-bore plastic stent is associated with a high rate of success (90%). However in our series there were several failures

  9. Dilating Eye Drops

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes used to treat eye diseases, such as amblyopia and inflammation. How long do dilating drops last? ... used to treat certain eye diseases, such as amblyopia and inflammation in the eye. These therapeutic dilating ...

  10. [Proximal migration of biliary prosthesis. Endoscopic extraction techniques].

    PubMed

    Alfredo, G; Raúl, A; Barinagarrementeria, R; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, J A; Martínez-Burciaga, J

    2001-01-01

    Proximal migration of a biliary stent is an uncommon event, but its management can present a technical challenge to the therapeutic endoscopist. We reviewed the methods that have been used for retrieval of proximally migrated biliary stents in a referral endoscopic center. PATIENTS-METHOD, AND RESULTS: From January 1995 to December 1998, there were 410 procedures for insertion of biliary stents. Eighteen patients had migrated biliary stents; 15 stents (83%) were extracted successfully. One half of the stents were retrieved by grasping the stent directly with a wire basket. Four were recovered using the Soehendra device, and a stone retrieval balloon alongside the stents to provide traction indirectly in two patients. Surgical techniques were necessary in three cases. In patients with a dilated duct, indirect traction with a balloon or direct grasping of the stent with a wire basket is usually successful. Cannulating the stent lumen with a wire is often the best approach in patients with biliary stricture or nondilated duct. Using these techniques, most proximally migrated biliary stents can be retrieved endoscopically.

  11. Management issues in post living donor liver transplant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Wadhawan, Manav; Kumar, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Biliary complications are common after living donor liver transplant (LDLT) although with advancements in surgical understanding and techniques, the incidence is decreasing. Biliary strictures are more common than leaks. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the first line modality of treatment of post LDLT biliary strictures with a technical success rate of 75%-80%. Most of ERCP failures are successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) and rendezvous technique. A minority of patients may require surgical correction. ERCP for these strictures is technically more challenging than routine as well post deceased donor strictures. Biliary strictures may increase the morbidity of a liver transplant recipient, but the mortality is similar to those with or without strictures. Post transplant strictures are short segment and soft, requiring only a few session of ERCP before complete dilatation. Long-term outcome of patients with biliary stricture is similar to those without stricture. With the introduction of new generation cholangioscopes, ERCP success rate may increase, obviating the need for PTBD and surgery in these patients. PMID:27057304

  12. Reoperation of biliary tract by laparoscopy: experiences with 39 cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Bo; Cai, Xiu-Jun; Mou, Yi-Ping; Wei, Qi

    2008-05-21

    To evaluate the safety and feasibility of biliary tract reoperation by laparoscopy for the patients with retained or recurrent stones who failed in endoscopic sphincterotomy. A retrospective analysis of data obtained from attempted laparoscopic reoperation for 39 patients in a single institution was performed, examining open conversion rates, operative times, complications, and hospital stay. Out of the 39 cases, 38 (97%) completed laparoscopy, 1 required conversion to open operation because of difficulty in exposing the common bile duct. The mean operative time was 135 min. The mean post-operative hospital stay was 4 d. Procedures included laparoscopic residual gallbladder resection in 3 cases, laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and primary duct closure at choledochotomy in 13 cases, and laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and choledochotomy with T tube drainage in 22 cases. Duodenal perforation occurred in 1 case during dissection and was repaired laparoscopically. Retained stones were found in 2 cases. Postoperative asymptomatic hyperamlasemia occurred in 3 cases. There were no complications due to port placement, postoperative bleeding, bile or bowel leakage and mortality. No recurrence or formation of duct stricture was observed during a mean follow-up period of 18 mo. Laparoscopic biliary tract reoperation is safe and feasible if it is performed by experienced laparoscopic surgeons, and is an alternative choice for patients with choledocholithiasis who fail in endoscopic sphincterectomy.

  13. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case with biliary microhamartomas.

    PubMed

    Dilli, Alper; Ayaz, Umit Yasar; Yüksel, Ilhami; Damar, Cagrı; Ayaz, Sevin; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2012-01-01

    Biliary microhamartomas, also known as bile duct hamartomas and von Meyenburg complexes, are benign neoplasms containing cystic dilated bile ducts embedded in fibrous stroma. They develop in hepatobiliary system, do not generally give clinical outcomes, and are detected incidentally. However, they can rarely show malignant transformation. Our aim was to report the contribution of computed tomography, routine magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of biliary microhamartomas in a 61-year-old woman.

  14. Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in a Case with Biliary Microhamartomas

    PubMed Central

    Dilli, Alper; Ayaz, Umit Yasar; Yüksel, Ilhami; Damar, Cagrı; Ayaz, Sevin; Hekimoglu, Baki

    2012-01-01

    Biliary microhamartomas, also known as bile duct hamartomas and von Meyenburg complexes, are benign neoplasms containing cystic dilated bile ducts embedded in fibrous stroma. They develop in hepatobiliary system, do not generally give clinical outcomes, and are detected incidentally. However, they can rarely show malignant transformation. Our aim was to report the contribution of computed tomography, routine magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of biliary microhamartomas in a 61-year-old woman. PMID:22431945

  15. Percutaneous transhepatic sphincterotomy of the major papilla and stone extraction without endoscopic control

    SciTech Connect

    Angelini, Giampaolo; Mansueto, Giancarlo; Giacomin, Davide; Casarini, Maria Beatrice; Garaffo, Salvatore; Biasiutti, Carlo

    1997-05-15

    Obstructive jaundice due to an impacted stone in the common bile duct (CBD) was seen in a patient who had previously undergone Billroth II gastric resection and cholecystectomy. Surgical and endoscopic approaches to the common bile duct failed owing to pericholedochal adhesions and the excessive length of the duodenal loop. The patient was therefore treated percutaneously (sphincterotomy and stone extraction) without endoscopic control.

  16. Extracorporeal abdominal massage may help prevent recurrent bile duct stones after endoscopic sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Naohito; Hamaya, Sae; Tatsuta, Miwa; Nakatsu, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is effective, but recurrent bile duct stones are a common late complication. Because there are still no effective therapies for preventing this complication, some patients have experienced bile duct stone recurrence many times. We describe herein a method of abdominal massage to treat patients with prior cholecystectomy who have experienced recurrence of bile duct stones. PMID:27540575

  17. Chronic anal fissures: Open lateral internal sphincterotomy result; a case series study.

    PubMed

    Salih, Abdulwahid M

    2017-03-01

    Anal fissure are defined as a tear in the skin of the anal canal distal to dentate line. Although still there are controversies about the exact management, lateral sphincterotomy is promising. The aim of this series is to present the outcome of lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter in term of patient satisfaction and complication. A prospective single cohort study, 190 patients, who were undergone lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter from 2010 to 2014, were analyzed. The operation was performed as a day case procedure. The median duration of follow up was 5 years (ranging from 3 to 6). The data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social sciences (SPSS) version 22. Descriptive statistic was used to describe findings. Forty three males (22.6%) and 147 females (77.4%) with a mean ± SD of age of 31.19 ± 7.78 years. Constipation was reported in 152 (80%) patients, bleeding in 131 (68.6%) cases, and pain in 142 (74.7%) patients. The median duration of the disease was 20 months (ranging from 1 to 30 months). Post-operatively, patient satisfaction was high (98.4%) with only 3 cases (1.6%) of recurrence. Conclusion: lateral sphincterotomy for internal anal sphincter, along, is the procedure of choice for management of CAF because it is effective and it can cure the disease in nearly all patients with good patient satisfaction.

  18. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Gallbladder and Biliary Tract ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of the Digestive System Overview of the Digestive ...

  19. The role of interventional radiology in the treatment of biliary strictures after paediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Fonio, Paolo; Calandri, Marco; Faletti, Riccardo; Righi, Dorico; Cerrina, Alessia; Brunati, Andrea; Salizzoni, Mauro; Gandini, Giovanni

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of percutaneous treatment of biliary strictures after paediatric liver transplantation. In the period between October 1999 and October 2010, a total of 92 transplants in 86 children were performed at our Liver Transplant Centre. Eighteen patients had anastomotic biliary strictures (in four cases associated with intrahepatic bile duct stenosis). Percutaneous treatment (transhepatic biliary drainage and conventional/cutting balloon dilatation) was proposed as a first approach in 13/18 patients. Strict radiation protection precautions were taken in accordance with the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) principle. Mean follow-up time was 2,364 days. Surgical correction was required in 3/13 patients; in 8/13 cases, there was complete disappearance of clinical symptoms without bile duct dilatation; in one case, an asymptomatic persistent bile duct dilatation was detected while in the other case, the liver is currently in cirrhotic degeneration (69 % clinical success including the asymptomatic patient with biliary dilatation). Two of the five patients who were initially treated with surgery required percutaneous revision (clinical success of 100 %). There were two cases of long-term restenosis and two cases of transient haemobilia. Percutaneous procedures are safe and effective therapeutic options for the treatment of biliary strictures after paediatric liver transplantation.

  20. Percutaneous endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for management of complicated biliary calculi.

    PubMed

    Healy, Kelly; Chamsuddin, Abbas; Spivey, James; Martin, Louis; Nieh, Peter; Ogan, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Advances in endoscopic techniques have transformed the management of urolithiasis. We sought to evaluate the role of such urological interventions for the treatment of complex biliary calculi. We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n=9) undergoing percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary calculi over a 4-year period (12/2003 to 12/2007). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTHC (n=7), or both of these. Access to the biliary system was obtained via an existing percutaneous transhepatic catheter or T-tube tracts. Endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy was performed via a flexible cystoscope or ureteroscope. Stone clearance was confirmed intra- and post-operatively. A percutaneous transhepatic drain was left indwelling for follow-up imaging. Mean patient age was 65.6 years (range, 38 to 92). Total stone burden ranged from 1.7 cm to 5 cm. All 9 patients had stones located in the CBD, with 2 patients also having additional stones within the hepatic ducts. All 9 patients (100%) were visually stone-free after one endoscopic procedure. No major perioperative complications occurred. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days. At a mean radiological follow-up of 5.4 months (range, 0.5 to 21), no stone recurrence was noted. Percutaneous endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive alternative to open salvage surgery for complex biliary calculi refractory to standard approaches. This treatment is both safe and efficacious. Success depends on a multidisciplinary approach.

  1. Reoperation of the biliary tract by laparoscopy: an analysis of 39 cases.

    PubMed

    Li, Libo; Cai, Xiujun; Mou, Yiping; Wei, Qi

    2008-10-01

    Previously, prior biliary tract surgery was considered a contraindication to laparoscopic biliary tract reoperation. In this paper, we present our experience with laparoscopic biliary tract reoperation for patients with the choledocholithiasis for whom the endoscopic sphincterotomy has failed or is contraindicated. A retrospective analysis was performed on data from the attempted laparoscopic reoperation of 39 patients, examining open conversion rates, operative times, complications, and length of hospital stay. Of 39 cases, 38 were completed laparoscopically: 1 case required a conversion to the open operation because of difficulty in exposing the common bile duct. Mean operative time was 135 minutes. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 4 days. Procedures included 3 cases of laparoscopic residual gallbladder resection, 13 cases of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and primary duct closure of choledochotomy, and 22 cases of laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and choledochotomy with T-tube drainage. There was 1 case of duodenal perforation during dissection, which was repaired laparoscopically. There were 2 cases of retained stones. Postoperative asymptomatic hypermalasia occurred in 3 cases. There were no complications due to port placement, no postoperative bleeding, bile or bowel leakage, and no mortality. At a mean follow-up time of 18 months, there was no recurrence or formation of duct stricture. The laparoscopic biliary tract reoperation is safe and feasible for experienced laparoscopic surgeons and is an alternative choice for patients with choledocholithiasis for whom the endoscopic sphincterectomy has failed or is contraindicated.

  2. Primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Carey, Elizabeth J; Ali, Ahmad H; Lindor, Keith D

    2015-10-17

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterised by destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and potential cirrhosis through resulting complications. The serological hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis is the antimitochondrial antibody, a highly disease-specific antibody identified in about 95% of patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. These patients usually have fatigue and pruritus, both of which occur independently of disease severity. The typical course of primary biliary cirrhosis has changed substantially with the introduöction of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). Several randomised placebo-controlled studies have shown that UDCA improves transplant-free survival in primary biliary cirrhosis. However, about 40% of patients do not have a biochemical response to UDCA and would benefit from new therapies. Liver transplantation is a life-saving surgery with excellent outcomes for those with decompensated cirrhosis. Meanwhile, research on nuclear receptor hormones has led to the development of exciting new potential treatments. This Seminar will review the current understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis, discuss management of the disease and its sequelae, and introduce research on new therapeutic options.

  3. Ultrasonographic features of extrahepatic biliary obstruction in 30 cats.

    PubMed

    Gaillot, Hugues A; Penninck, Dominique G; Webster, Cynthia R L; Crawford, Sybil

    2007-01-01

    The goals of our study were to review the ultrasonographic features of spontaneous extrahepatic biliary obstruction in cats and to determine whether these features can assist in differentiating tumor, inflammation, and choleliths as the cause of obstruction. Thirty cats with a presurgical ultrasound examination an dconfirmed extrahepatic biliary obstruction were studied. A common bile duct diameter over 5 mm was present in 97% of the cats with extrahepatic biliary obstruction. Gallbladder dilation was seen in < 50% of the cats. Ultrasound identified all obstructive choleliths (calculus or plugs) in the common bile duct. However, neither common bile duct diameter nor appearance or any other ultrasonographic feature allowed differentiation between tumor and inflammation as the cause of obstruction. A short duration of clinical signs (10 days or less) seemed to be associated with obstructive cholelithiasis.

  4. [Predictors of choledocholithiasis in patients sustaining acute biliary pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Parreira, José Gustavo; Rego, Ronaldo Elias Carnut; Campos, Tercio de; Moreno, Cristina Hachul; Pacheco, Adhemar Monteiro; Rasslan, Samir

    2004-01-01

    To assess the role of alkaline phosphatase (AP), gamil-glutamyltransferase (gammaGT) and abdominal ultrasound (US) as predictors of choledocholithiasis in patients sustaining acute biliary pancreatitis. Data was prospectively collected during a period of 31 months. Forty patients were included, 30 were female and the mean age was 49 +/- 16. All patients sustaining acute biliary pancreatitis were enrolled. Patients with clinical jaundice and severe pancreatitis were excluded. Serum content of AP and gGT as well as US were assessed at admission and 48 hours before cholecistectomy. All patients underwent intra-operative cholangiography (IOC) or pre-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP), which was indicated based on the odds of choledocholithiasis. In order to identify the predictors of choledocholithiasis, variables were compared between patients sustaining or not such alteration in cholangiography. Student t, Fisher and chi square tests were used for statistical analysis, considering p<0.05 as significant. Positive (PPV) and negative predictor values (NPV) were calculated for each variable. Upon admission, 15 (37%) patients sustained biliary tract dilatation and 5 (12%) choledocholithiasis at the US. Forty eight hours before the operation, 34 (85%) patients had altered levels of gGT and 16 (40%) of AP. Pre-operative US showed biliary tract dilatation in nine patients and choledocholithiasis in three. ERCP was performed in 15 (37%) cases. Higher PPV (55%) was attributed to pre-operative US, which had also a NPV of 96%. The best predictor of choledocholithiasis in patients sustaining mild acute pancreatitis was the biliary tract dilatation in pre-operative US.

  5. Imaging tests for accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Şurlin, Valeriu; Săftoiu, Adrian; Dumitrescu, Daniela

    2014-11-28

    Gallstones represent the most frequent aetiology of acute pancreatitis in many statistics all over the world, estimated between 40%-60%. Accurate diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is of outmost importance because clearance of lithiasis [gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD)] rules out recurrences. Confirmation of biliary lithiasis is done by imaging. The sensitivity of the ultrasonography (US) in the detection of gallstones is over 95% in uncomplicated cases, but in ABP, sensitivity for gallstone detection is lower, being less than 80% due to the ileus and bowel distension. Sensitivity of transabdominal ultrasonography (TUS) for choledocolithiasis varies between 50%-80%, but the specificity is high, reaching 95%. Diameter of the bile duct may be orientative for diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) seems to be a more effective tool to diagnose ABP rather than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which should be performed only for therapeutic purposes. As the sensitivity and specificity of computerized tomography are lower as compared to state-of-the-art magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) or EUS, especially for small stones and small diameter of CBD, the later techniques are nowadays preferred for the evaluation of ABP patients. ERCP has the highest accuracy for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis and is used as a reference standard in many studies, especially after sphincterotomy and balloon extraction of CBD stones. Laparoscopic ultrasonography is a useful tool for the intraoperative diagnosis of choledocholithiasis. Routine exploration of the CBD in cases of patients scheduled for cholecystectomy after an attack of ABP was not proven useful. A significant rate of the so-called idiopathic pancreatitis is actually caused by microlithiasis and/or biliary sludge. In conclusion, the general algorithm for CBD stone detection starts with anamnesis, serum biochemistry and then TUS, followed by EUS or MRCP. In the end

  6. Neonatal dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Soares, Paulo; Rocha, Gustavo; Pissarra, Susana; Soares, Henrique; Flôr-de-Lima, Filipa; Costa, Sandra; Moura, Cláudia; Dória, Sofia; Guimarães, Hercília

    2017-03-01

    Cardiomyopathies are rare diseases of the heart muscle, of multiple causes, that manifest with various structural and functional phenotypes but are invariably associated with cardiac dysfunction. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the commonest cardiomyopathy in children, and the majority present before one year of age. Its etiology may be acquired or genetic. Myocarditis is an important cause and is responsible for the majority of acquired cases. Inherited (familial) forms of dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in 25-50% of patients. Echocardiographic and tissue Doppler studies are the basis for diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy in most patients. Marked dilatation of the left ventricle with global hypokinesis is the hallmark of the disease. This review will cover the classification, epidemiology and management of newborns with dilated cardiomyopathy. In particular, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of the genetic study of dilated cardiomyopathy and of detailed echocardiographic assessment of these patients will be presented.

  7. A Novel Round Insulated Tip Papillotome as an Alternative to the Classic Needle-Knife for Precut Sphincterotomy in Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Baysal, Birol; Akin, Hakan; Masri, Omar; İnce, Ali Tüzün; Senturk, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of a new round insulated tip papillotome (r-ITP) as compared to that of the classic needle-knife sphincterotome (NKS) in difficult-to-cannulate endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) patients. Materials and Methods. Patients with no exclusion criteria and an intact papilla referred for ERCP were invited to participate in the study. “Difficult-to-cannulate” patients, defined as failure to achieve deep biliary cannulation within five minutes from the first touch of papilla, with no more than ten attempts permitted, were randomly assigned for precut sphincterotomy using either the classic NKS or r-ITP. Results. Seventy and 69 patients were randomly assigned to the NKS and r-ITP groups, respectively. The groups were comparable regarding age, sex, indications, and associated conditions. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of successful cannulation or post-ERCP complications between the two groups. Only five patients (3.6%) developed mild to moderate post-ERCP pancreatitis and two had mild bleeding. No perforations or deaths were encountered. Conclusions. Although the round insulated tip papillotome was not shown to be superior to the classic NKS concerning efficacy and safety when used by an experienced endoscopist, it remains a simple, safe, and efficacious alternative. PMID:26347424

  8. Endoscopic minor papilla balloon dilation for the treatment of symptomatic pancreas divisum.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Sasahira, Naoki; Tsujino, Takeshi; Nakai, Yousuke; Miyabayashi, Koji; Mizuno, Suguru; Kogure, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Takashi; Hirano, Kenji; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-08-01

    A subpopulation of patients with pancreas divisum experience symptomatic events such as recurrent acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Minor papilla sphincterotomy has been reported as being an effective treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic balloon dilation for the minor papilla. Between 2000 and 2012, 16 patients were retrospectively included in this study. After endoscopic balloon dilation for the minor papilla was received, a pancreatic stent or a nasal pancreatic drainage catheter was placed for 1 week. If a stricture or obstruction was evident, it was treated with balloon dilation followed by long-term stent placement (1 year). When an outflow of pancreatic juice was disturbed by a pancreatic stone, endoscopic stone extraction was performed. Balloon dilation and stent placement were achieved and were successful in all the cases (16/16; 100%). Clinical improvement was achieved in 7 (84.7%) of the 9 patients with recurrent acute pancreatitis and in 6 (85.7%) of the 7 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Early complications were observed in 1 (6.3%) patient. Pancreatitis or bleeding related to balloon dilation was not observed. Endoscopic balloon dilation for the minor papilla is feasible for the management of symptomatic pancreas divisum.

  9. Choledocholithiasis in anomalous biliary system.

    PubMed

    Leung, L C; Wong, C Y; Wong, C M; Cheung, K K

    1996-06-01

    Although congenital biliary abnormalities are common, preduodenal portal vein is very rare, not to mention preduodenal common bile duct (CBD) which has not been described before in the literature. A case with both anomalies complicated by biliary tract stones is reported. A brief review of embryonic development is also presented to explain the unusual biliary anatomy of this patient.

  10. Biliary Tract Anatomy and its Relationship with Venous Drainage

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh Babu, Chittapuram S.; Sharma, Malay

    2013-01-01

    Portal cavernoma develops as a bunch of hepatopetal collaterals in response to portomesenteric venous obstruction and induces morphological changes in the biliary ducts, referred to as portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. This article briefly reviews the available literature on the vascular supply of the biliary tract in the light of biliary changes induced by portal cavernoma. Literature pertaining to venous drainage of the biliary tract is scanty whereas more attention was focused on the arterial supply probably because of its significant surgical implications in liver transplantation and development of ischemic changes and strictures in the bile duct due to vasculobiliary injuries. Since the general pattern of arterial supply and venous drainage of the bile ducts is quite similar, the arterial supply of the biliary tract is also reviewed. Fine branches from the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal, retroportal, gastroduodenal, hepatic and cystic arteries form two plexuses to supply the bile ducts. The paracholedochal plexus, as right and left marginal arteries, run along the margins of the bile duct and the reticular epicholedochal plexus lie on the surface. The retropancreatic, hilar and intrahepatic parts of biliary tract has copious supply, but the supraduodenal bile duct has the poorest vascularization and hence susceptible to ischemic changes. Two venous plexuses drain the biliary tract. A fine reticular epicholedochal venous plexus on the wall of the bile duct drains into the paracholedochal venous plexus (also called as marginal veins or parabiliary venous system) which in turn is connected to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, gastrocolic trunk, right gastric vein, superior mesenteric vein inferiorly and intrahepatic portal vein branches superiorly. These pericholedochal venous plexuses constitute the porto-portal collaterals and dilate in portomesenteric venous obstruction forming the portal cavernoma. PMID:25755590

  11. Biliary tract anatomy and its relationship with venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Ramesh Babu, Chittapuram S; Sharma, Malay

    2014-02-01

    Portal cavernoma develops as a bunch of hepatopetal collaterals in response to portomesenteric venous obstruction and induces morphological changes in the biliary ducts, referred to as portal cavernoma cholangiopathy. This article briefly reviews the available literature on the vascular supply of the biliary tract in the light of biliary changes induced by portal cavernoma. Literature pertaining to venous drainage of the biliary tract is scanty whereas more attention was focused on the arterial supply probably because of its significant surgical implications in liver transplantation and development of ischemic changes and strictures in the bile duct due to vasculobiliary injuries. Since the general pattern of arterial supply and venous drainage of the bile ducts is quite similar, the arterial supply of the biliary tract is also reviewed. Fine branches from the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal, retroportal, gastroduodenal, hepatic and cystic arteries form two plexuses to supply the bile ducts. The paracholedochal plexus, as right and left marginal arteries, run along the margins of the bile duct and the reticular epicholedochal plexus lie on the surface. The retropancreatic, hilar and intrahepatic parts of biliary tract has copious supply, but the supraduodenal bile duct has the poorest vascularization and hence susceptible to ischemic changes. Two venous plexuses drain the biliary tract. A fine reticular epicholedochal venous plexus on the wall of the bile duct drains into the paracholedochal venous plexus (also called as marginal veins or parabiliary venous system) which in turn is connected to the posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal vein, gastrocolic trunk, right gastric vein, superior mesenteric vein inferiorly and intrahepatic portal vein branches superiorly. These pericholedochal venous plexuses constitute the porto-portal collaterals and dilate in portomesenteric venous obstruction forming the portal cavernoma.

  12. Can endoscopic papillary balloon dilation really preserve sphincter of Oddi function?

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, I; Tomita, E; Enya, M; Kato, T; Moriwaki, H

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) is assumed to preserve sphincter of Oddi function because it causes little trauma to the papilla. However, few studies have addressed this issue specifically. In this study, we investigated whether EPBD can preserve sphincter function, and evaluated whether or not such preservation has clinical significance.
METHODS—Seventy patients with common bile duct (CBD) stones were randomly assigned to EPBD or endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST). Sphincter of Oddi (SO) function was measured by endoscopic manometry before, one week after, and one year after treatment. Incidence of pneumobilia and later complications were compared between the two groups at one year. Series manometric data were compared within each group and between the two groups. For a more detailed analysis of the cumulative incidence of later complications, retrospective cohorts were added to the study groups, giving a total number of 235 patients in the EPBD group and 126 in the EST group.
RESULTS—Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the 35 EPBD and 35 EST patients. CBD stones were discharged successfully in all cases. CBD pressure, SO basal and peak pressures, and contraction frequency decreased significantly at one week in both groups. The damage was more severe in the EST group, and SO contraction completely disappeared in 23 patients in this group. The incidence of pneumobilia was significantly lower in the EPBD group than in the EST group (p<0.01) whereas CBD stones recurred and cholecystitis appeared at a similar rate in both groups at one year. A complete series of manometric data up to one year was obtained in 55 patients; 28 in the post-EPBD and 27 in post-EST groups. In the post-EPBD group, SO basal and peak pressures significantly recovered at one year compared with data at one week but these measures still remained significantly lower than those before EPBD (p< 0.01). In the post-EST group, SO

  13. Severe acute cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Ya-Guang; Qin, Cheng-Kun; Su, Zhong-Xue; Xu, Jian; Xian, Guo-Zhe; Wu, Shuo-Dong

    2012-10-21

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is considered as a possible etiological factor for severe cholangitis. We herein report a case of severe cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination. An adult male patient presented with epigastric pain was diagnosed as having choledocholithiasis by ultrasonography. EST was performed and the stone was completely cleaned. Barium examination was done 3 d after EST and severe cholangitis appeared 4 h later. The patient was recovered after treated with tienam for 4 d. Barium examination may induce severe cholangitis in patients after EST, although rare, barium examination should be chosen cautiously. Cautions should be also used when EST is performed in patients younger than 50 years to avoid the damage to the sphincter of Oddi.

  14. Ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic features of segmental dilatations of the common bile duct in four cats

    PubMed Central

    Spain, Heather N; Penninck, Dominique G; Webster, Cynthia RL; Daure, Evence; Jennings, Samuel H

    2017-01-01

    Case series summary This case series documents ultrasonographic and clinicopathologic features of four cats with marked segmental dilatations of the common bile duct (CBD). All cats had additional ultrasonographic changes to the hepatobiliary system, including hepatomegaly, tubular to saccular intra/extrahepatic biliary duct dilatation and biliary debris accumulation. Based on all available data the presence of extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction (EHBDO) was ruled out in 3/4 cases and was equivocal in one case. One cat underwent re-routing surgery to address the CBD dilatation after multiple recurrent infections, one cat was euthanized and had a post-mortem examination and two cats were medically managed with antibiotics, liver protectants, gastroprotectants and cholerectics. Relevance and novel information The ultrasonographic features of the CBD in this population of cats were supportive of choledochal cysts (CCs). The maximal diameter of the CBD dilatations exceeded 5 mm in all cases, a sign that has been previously reported to be consistent with EHBDO. In our study, dilatations were segmental rather than diffuse. Given the high morbidity and mortality associated with hepatobiliary surgery in cats, segmental dilatation of the CBD should not prompt emergency surgery. Some cats may respond to medical management. Careful planning for cyst resection was beneficial in one cat. Evaluation of CC morphology (eg, size, location, concurrent intrahepatic anomalies) may assist in selecting cats that could benefit from surgical intervention. PMID:28680700

  15. Internal Anal Sphincter Function Following Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy for Anal Fissure

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Edward; Alper, Dan; Stein, Gideon Y.; Bramnik, Zachar; Dreznik, Zeev

    2005-01-01

    Background: Anal fissure is a common and painful disorder. Its relation to hypertonic anal sphincter is controversial. The most common surgical treatment of chronic anal fissure is lateral internal sphincterotomy. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term manometric results of sphincter healing following lateral internal sphincterotomy. Patients and Methods: Between 2000 and 2003, 50 patients with anal fissure were included in this study and underwent sphincterotomy; 12 healthy patients served as controls. All patients with anal fissure underwent manometric evaluation using a 6-channel perfusion catheter. All patients were examined 1 month before surgery and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following surgery. The control group had 3 manometric evaluations 6 months apart. Results: The mean basal resting pressure before surgery was 138 ± 28 mm Hg. One month after surgery, the pressure dropped to 86 ± 15 mm Hg (P < 0.0001) and gradually rose to a plateau at 12 months (110 ± 18 mm Hg, P < 0.0001). At 12 months, the manometric pressure was significantly lower than the baseline (P < 0.0001). However, manometric measurements in the fissure group were still significantly higher than in the control group (110 ± 18 versus 73 ± 4.8 mm Hg, P < 0.0001). All patients were free of symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Lateral internal sphincterotomy caused a significant decline in the resting anal pressure. During the first year following surgery, the tone of the internal anal sphincter gradually increased, indicating recovery, but still remained significantly lower than before surgery. However, postoperative resting pressures were higher than those in the control, and no patient suffered any permanent problems with incontinence, so this decrease may not be clinically significant. PMID:16041211

  16. Study of Operated Patients of Lateral Internal Anal Sphincterotomy for Chronic Anal Fissure

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harshad Shankarlal; Chavda, Jagdish; Parikh, Jayesh; Naik, Nehal

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Anal fissure causes significant morbidity in the population. It is proposed that elevated sphincter pressures may cause ischaemia of the anal lining and this may be responsible for the pain of anal fissures and their failure to heal. When pharmacologic therapy fails or fissures recur frequently, lateral internal sphincterotomy is the surgical treatment of choice. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis was done of admitted and operated patients of anal fissure by lateral anal internal sphincterotomy either by open or closed technique between April 2010 and November 2011 in Gujarat Medical Education & Research Society Medical College, Sola, Ahmedabad, India. The follow-up data of all patients was evaluated for pain relief, recurrence, wound infection, incontinence to flatus or stool or both for a period of up to 6 months. Results: Wound infection rate was 10.3% in open method and 4.2% in closed method. Incontinence to flatus was 8.3% in closed method and 3.4% in open method. This was temporary and controlled within a 1 week. Incontinence to stool was 3.4% in open method which was temporary and controlled within 2 weeks while none in closed method. None of the patients in either group had come with recurrence within 6 months follow-up. Conclusion: Lateral anal internal sphincterotomy is safe regarding long term incontinence and effective regarding recurrence. PMID:24551659

  17. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and personality change. An increased risk of other disease. In addition to bile duct and liver damage, people with primary biliary cirrhosis are likely to have other metabolic or immune system disorders, including thyroid problems, limited scleroderma (CREST syndrome) and rheumatoid arthritis. ...

  18. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... of liver cancer every 6 to 12 months. Health care providers use blood tests, ultrasound, or both to check for signs of ... make the diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis. A health care provider uses the test selectively when he or she is concerned that ...

  19. Biliary obstruction - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... anatomy URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100199.htm Biliary obstruction - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 4 Go to slide 2 ...

  20. Efficacy of multiple biliary stenting for refractory benign biliary strictures due to chronic calcifying pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ohyama, Hiroshi; Mikata, Rintaro; Ishihara, Takeshi; Sakai, Yuji; Sugiyama, Harutoshi; Yasui, Shin; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate endoscopic therapy efficacy for refractory benign biliary strictures (BBS) with multiple biliary stenting and clarify predictors. METHODS Ten consecutive patients with stones in the pancreatic head and BBS due to chronic pancreatitis who underwent endoscopic therapy were evaluated. Endoscopic insertion of a single stent failed in all patients. We used plastic stents (7F, 8.5F, and 10F) and increased stents at intervals of 2 or 3 mo. Stents were removed approximately 1 year after initial stenting. BBS and common bile duct (CBD) diameter were evaluated using cholangiography. Patients were followed for ≥ 6 mo after therapy, interviewed for cholestasis symptoms, and underwent liver function testing every visit. Patients with complete and incomplete stricture dilations were compared. RESULTS Endoscopic therapy was completed in 8 (80%) patients, whereas 2 (20%) patients could not continue therapy because of severe acute cholangitis and abdominal abscess, respectively. The mean number of stents was 4.1 ± 1.2. In two (20%) patients, BBS did not improve; thus, a biliary stent was inserted. BBS improved in six (60%) patients. CBD diameter improved more significantly in the complete group than in the incomplete group (6.1 ± 1.8 mm vs 13.7 ± 2.2 mm, respectively, P = 0.010). Stricture length was significantly associated with complete stricture dilation (complete group; 20.5 ± 3.0 mm, incomplete group; 29.0 ± 5.1 mm, P = 0.011). Acute cholangitis did not recur during the mean follow-up period of 20.6 ± 7.3 mo. CONCLUSION Sequential endoscopic insertion of multiple stents is effective for refractory BBS caused by chronic calcifying pancreatitis. BBS length calculation can improve patient selection procedure for therapy. PMID:28101303

  1. Randomized clinical trial of transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation versus lateral internal sphincterotomy for treatment of chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Tamer; Youssef, Mohamed; Thabet, Waleed; Lotfy, Ahmed; Shaat, Reham; Abd-Elrazek, Eman; Farid, Mohamed

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation in treatment of patients with chronic anal fissure and to compare it with the conventional lateral internal sphincterotomy. Consecutive patients with chronic anal fissure were randomly allocated into two treatment groups: transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation group and lateral internal sphincterotomy group. The primary outcome measures were number of patients with clinical improvement and healed fissure. Secondary outcome measures were complications, VAS pain scores, Wexner's constipation and Peascatori anal incontinence scores, anorectal manometry, and quality of life index. Seventy-three patients were randomized into two groups of 36 patients who were subjected to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and 37 patients who underwent lateral internal sphincterotomy. All (100%) patients in lateral internal sphincterotomy group had clinical improvement at one month following the procedure in contrast to 27 (75%) patients in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation group. Recurrence of anal fissure after one year was reported in one (2.7%) and 11 (40.7%) patients in lateral internal sphincterotomy and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation groups respectively. Resting anal pressure and functional anal canal length were significantly reduced after lateral internal sphincterotomy. Transcutaneous electrical posterior tibial nerve stimulation for treatment of chronic anal fissure is a novel, non-invasive procedure and has no complications. However, given the higher rate of clinical improvement and fissure healing and the lower rate of fissure recurrence, lateral internal sphincterotomy remains the gold standard for treating chronic anal fissure. Copyright © 2015 IJS Publishing Group Limited. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Current situation of endoscopic biliary cannulation and salvage techniques for difficult cases: Current strategies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Bhatia, Vikram

    2016-04-01

    In the pancreatobiliary session at Endoscopic Forum Japan (EFJ) 2015, current trends of routine biliary cannulation techniques and salvage techniques for difficult biliary cannulation cases were discussed. Endoscopists from nine Japanese high-volume centers along with two overseas centers participated in the questionnaires and discussion. It was concluded that, currently, in Western countries, the wire-guided cannulation (WGC) technique is favored during initial cannulation attempts. However, the conventional technique using an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography catheter with contrast medium injection is still used as first choice at most Japanese high-volume centers. The WGC technique is used as the second choice at some institutions only. After failed biliary cannulation attempts, the initial salvage option preferred in most centers includes pancreatic guidewire placement, followed by precut techniques as the second salvage choice. Among several precut techniques, the free-hand needle knife sphincterotomy with cutting upwards from the pancreatic duct is most popular. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided rendezvous technique is also carried out as a final salvage option at select institutions.

  3. Choledochal cyst with bile duct dilatation: sonography and /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.K.; Babcock, D.S.; Gelfand, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Three cases of choledochal cyst associated with intrahepatic biliary dilatation are presented. Findings on sonography included a large cystic mass in the porta hepatis separate from the gallbladder; a dilated common hepatic or common bile duct entering directly into the cyst; and smaller cystic masses of dilated central intrahepatic ducts. All three patients underwent operation with intraoperative cholangiography. Two patients had /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy which confirmed the diagnosis of choledochal cyst by demonstrating filling of the cyst with stasis and delayed intestinal activity. The accurate preoperative diagnosis of choledochal cyst, made by sonography combined with /sup 99m/Tc IDA cholescintigraphy, obviated invasive studies.

  4. Sinuplasty (Balloon Catheter Dilation)

    MedlinePlus

    ... development of the balloon dilating catheter and its adaptation to sinus surgery. In the 1980s, the field ... used in endoscopic sinus surgery. It is the adaptation or application of minimally-invasive balloon technology to ...

  5. Open versus closed lateral internal anal sphincterotomy in the management of chronic anal fissures: a prospective randomized study.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek; Rodrigues, Gabriel; Prabhu, Raghunath; Ravi, Chandni

    2014-10-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a benign disorder that is associated with considerable discomfort. Surgical treatment in the form of lateral sphincterotomy has long been regarded as the gold standard of treatment. This study compared the open and closed techniques of lateral sphincterotomy in terms of their postoperative outcomes. A prospective, randomized comparative study was conducted between October 2010 and August 2012. A total of 136 patients were randomly assigned to each of two groups. Patients were followed up postoperatively for more than 1 year to assess any complications. The outcomes were compared among the two groups using the Chi-square test and Student t test. The mean age at presentation was 40.13 years. The male to female ratio was 1.47:1. The typical presentation was painful defecation. Fissures were most often located in the posterior midline and associated with a sentinel pile. Delayed postoperative healing was found in 4.4% of the group of patients undergoing open lateral sphincterotomy. The mean pain score and duration of hospital stay were lower with the closed technique. Closed lateral internal sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for chronic fissures as it is effective, safe, less expensive, and associated with a lower rate of complications than the open sphincterotomy technique. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Future developments in biliary stenting

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Clark D; Sejpal, Divyesh V

    2013-01-01

    Biliary stenting has evolved dramatically over the past 30 years. Advancements in stent design have led to prolonged patency and improved efficacy. However, biliary stenting is still affected by occlusion, migration, anatomical difficulties, and the need for repeat procedures. Multiple novel plastic biliary stent designs have recently been introduced with the primary goals of reduced migration and improved ease of placement. Self-expandable bioabsorbable stents are currently being investigated in animal models. Although not US Food and Drug Administration approved for benign disease, fully covered self-expandable metal stents are increasingly being used in a variety of benign biliary conditions. In malignant disease, developments are being made to improve ease of placement and stent patency for both hilar and distal biliary strictures. The purpose of this review is to describe recent developments and future directions of biliary stenting. PMID:23837001

  7. Current diagnosis and treatment of benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Hyuck; Lee, Inseok; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Han, Sok Won

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in surgical techniques, benign biliary strictures after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) remain a significant biliary complication and play an important role in graft and patient survival. Benign biliary strictures after transplantation are classified into anastomotic or non-anastomotic strictures. These two types differ in presentation, outcome, and response to therapy. The leading causes of biliary strictures include impaired blood supply, technical errors during surgery, and biliary anomalies. Because patients usually have non-specific symptoms, a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Magnetic resonance cholangiography has gained widespread acceptance as a reliable noninvasive tool for detecting biliary complications. Endoscopy has played an increasingly prominent role in the diagnosis and treatment of biliary strictures after LDLT. Endoscopic management in LDLT recipients may be more challenging than in deceased donor liver transplantation patients because of the complex nature of the duct-to-duct reconstruction. Repeated aggressive endoscopic treatment with dilation and the placement of multiple plastic stents is considered the first-line treatment for biliary strictures. Percutaneous and surgical treatments are now reserved for patients for whom endoscopic management fails and for those with multiple, inaccessible intrahepatic strictures or Roux-en-Y anastomoses. Recent advances in enteroscopy enable treatment, even in these latter cases. Direct cholangioscopy, another advanced form of endoscopy, allows direct visualization of the inner wall of the biliary tree and is expected to facilitate stenting or stone extraction. Rendezvous techniques can be a good option when the endoscopic approach to the biliary stricture is unfeasible. These developments have resulted in almost all patients being managed by the endoscopic approach. PMID:26819525

  8. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients' demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient.

  9. Long-term effects of forgotten biliary stents: a case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga

    2014-01-01

    There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients’ demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385

  10. Iatrogenic Biliary Injuries: Multidisciplinary Management in a Major Tertiary Referral Center

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Ibrahim Abdelkader; Shoreem, Hany Abdelmeged; Saleh, Sherif Mohamed; Hegazy, Osama; Housseni, Mohamed; Abbasy, Mohamed; Badra, Gamal; Ibrahim, Tarek

    2014-01-01

    Background. Iatrogenic biliary injuries are considered as the most serious complications during cholecystectomy. Better outcomes of such injuries have been shown in cases managed in a specialized center. Objective. To evaluate biliary injuries management in major referral hepatobiliary center. Patients & Methods. Four hundred seventy-two consecutive patients with postcholecystectomy biliary injuries were managed with multidisciplinary team (hepatobiliary surgeon, gastroenterologist, and radiologist) at major Hepatobiliary Center in Egypt over 10-year period using endoscopy in 232 patients, percutaneous techniques in 42 patients, and surgery in 198 patients. Results. Endoscopy was very successful initial treatment of 232 patients (49%) with mild/moderate biliary leakage (68%) and biliary stricture (47%) with increased success by addition of percutaneous (Rendezvous technique) in 18 patients (3.8%). However, surgery was needed in 198 patients (42%) for major duct transection, ligation, major leakage, and massive stricture. Surgery was urgent in 62 patients and elective in 136 patients. Hepaticojejunostomy was done in most of cases with transanastomotic stents. There was one mortality after surgery due to biliary sepsis and postoperative stricture in 3 cases (1.5%) treated with percutaneous dilation and stenting. Conclusion. Management of biliary injuries was much better with multidisciplinary care team with initial minimal invasive technique to major surgery in major complex injury encouraging early referral to highly specialized hepatobiliary center. PMID:25435672

  11. Liver cyst with biliary communication successfully treated with laparoscopic deroofing: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Takeshi; Furukawa, Kiyonori; Yokoi, Kimiyoshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Kanazawa, Yoshikazu; Tajiri, Takashi

    2009-04-01

    A 56-year-old woman visited our hospital because of high fever and right hypochondralgia. Abdominal computed tomography showed a liver cyst 10 cm in diameter and dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct. Percutaneous transhepatic drainage of the cyst guided by ultrasonography disclosed that the cyst contained a brown milky fluid, and cystography showed biliary communication. Thus, the cyst was diagnosed as an infectious hepatic cyst with biliary communication. Treatments for liver cysts include aspiration therapy, alcoholic sclerotherapy, laparoscopic fenestration, fenestration by laparotomy, cystojejunostomy, cystectomy, and hepatectomy. Because a simple liver cyst is benign, treatments should be low-risk and minimally invasive; thus, we performed laparoscopic fenestration. Fenestration should not be performed if the case is complicated by infection or biliary communication. Although cystography showed biliary communication, the cyst was not visualized with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, and we concluded that the biliary communication was small. Operation time was 95 minutes, and blood loss was 10 g. Pathological findings of the liver cyst were consistent with a simple cyst. The postoperative course was good, and the patient left the hospital 10 days after the operation. Eighteen months have passed since the operation, and no recurrent cysts have been detected with computed tomography. This is the second report of liver cyst with biliary communication successfully treated with laparoscopic deroofing. Laparoscopic fenestration is a useful method for treating simple benign liver cysts because of its minimal invasiveness and may be useful in cases with small biliary communication.

  12. Interval Biliary Stent Placement Via Percutaneous Ultrasound Guided Cholecystostomy: Another Approach to Palliative Treatment in Malignant Biliary Tract Obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, James Mortimer, Alex; Kelly, Michael; Loveday, Eric

    2010-12-15

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy is a minimally invasive procedure for providing gallbladder decompression, often in critically ill patients. It can be used in malignant biliary obstruction following failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography when the intrahepatic ducts are not dilated or when stent insertion is not possible via the bile ducts. In properly selected patients, percutaneous cholecystostomy in obstructive jaundice is a simple, safe, and rapid option for biliary decompression, thus avoiding the morbidity and mortality involved with percutaneous transhepatic biliary stenting. Subsequent use of a percutaneous cholecystostomy for definitive biliary stent placement is an attractive concept and leaves patients with no external drain. To the best of our knowledge, it has only been described on three previous occasions in the published literature, on each occasion forced by surgical or technical considerations. Traditionally, anatomic/technical considerations and the risk of bile leak have precluded such an approach, but improvements in catheter design and manufacture may now make it more feasible. We report a case of successful interval metal stent placement via percutaneous cholecystostomy which was preplanned and achieved excellent palliation for the patient. The pros and cons of the procedure and approach are discussed.

  13. Efficacy of management algorithm for reducing need for sphincterotomy in chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R; Kaiser, A M

    2012-06-01

    Lateral internal sphincterotomy is the most effective treatment for chronic anal fissure (CAF), but carries a risk of faecal incontinence. We aimed to analyse efficacy and acceptance of a treatment algorithm in reducing the rate of necessary sphincterotomies. Patients with CAF seen from 2001 to 2010 were retrospectively analysed. All patients were offered all steps of the algorithm nitroglycerine (NTG) → Botox (BTX) → surgery, unless symptoms or patient preference demanded a more aggressive treatment. Patients were followed up in clinic, and treatment was advanced if a step either failed or caused intolerable side effects. Two hundred and nine patients were included in the analysis. Mean duration of symptoms was 25.6 months and mean follow up 16 months. One hundred and 41 patients started on NTG, 36 on BTX, and 31 went straight to surgery. One patient opted for no treatment. Symptoms persisted in 58 (41.1%) of 141 NTG patients. Forty-five (31.9% of NTG subset) were advanced to BTX and 13 (9.2% of subset) to surgery. Of the 81 (36 primary + 45 secondary) BTX patients (38.8% of the total), only 11 (13.6% of subset) required surgery. A total of 55 (31 primary + 24 secondary; 26.3%) patients needed surgery: two (3.6%) fissures did not heal, one patient developed an abscess, 14 (25.5%) had prolonged wound healing and two (3.6%) developed a recurrent fissure after the sphincterotomy had healed. Our algorithm is effective in CAF and the majority of patients respond to conservative management. Only 26.3% of all patients require surgery, which is effective but also carries some temporary morbidity. © 2011 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2011 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Biliary obstruction: findings at MR cholangiography and cross-sectional MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Soto, J A; Alvarez, O; Lopera, J E; Múnera, F; Restrepo, J C; Correa, G

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-two patients with malignant biliary obstruction and 21 patients with suspected obstruction of biliary-enteric anastomoses were evaluated over a 12-month period with magnetic resonance (MR) cholangiography and cross-sectional MR imaging. In patients with malignant obstruction, MR cholangiography helped accurately determine the status of the biliary ductal system by identifying the exact location and extent of the obstruction and the severity of duct dilatation. In so doing, MR cholangiography helped determine whether percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography with antegrade stent placement or retrograde cholangiography with stent placement constituted the more suitable treatment. Cross-sectional MR imaging was necessary to identify the organ of tumor origin, define the tumor margins, and determine the stage of disease. This information helped evaluate the appropriateness of curative surgical therapy versus palliative drainage procedures. In patients with biliary-enteric anastomoses, MR cholangiography clearly depicted the site of the anastomosis and demonstrated the status of the intrahepatic ducts, thereby helping determine which patients would benefit from undergoing antegrade duct cannulation with a drainage procedure or perhaps balloon dilation. In some of these patients, MR cholangiography was sufficient to help plan therapeutic intervention. MR cholangiography also demonstrates the presence and size of biliary stones and associated findings such as intraductal tumor growth. In addition, MR cholangiography may obviate retrograde cholangiography, which can be technically difficult to perform.

  15. Direct cholangiography and biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Burcharth, F; Kruse, A

    1996-01-01

    Direct cholangiography by percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography or endoscopic retrograde cholangiography has greatly improved diagnostic work-up of patients with known or suspected biliary obstruction. These diagnostic procedures were introduced in Denmark in the early 1970s, and technical refinements and clinical research of the methods were initiated. The Danish contribution led to definition of indications for direct cholangiography and general acceptance of the methods in daily clinical practice; nationally as well as internationally. The transhepatic cholangiography with selective catheterization of the biliary ducts permitted external drainage of obstructed ducts. The disadvantages of this technique inspired the innovation of internal biliary drainage and the invention of the biliary endoprosthesis. The endoscopic approach to the biliary tract and the technical improvements of accessory instruments led to the early introduction of therapeutic procedures, i.e. papillotomy, stone removal, biliary drainage and treatment of strictures and post-traumatic lesions. Experimental and clinical research with endoprostheses improved their function and prevented dislodgment. Clinical research documented that biliary drainage by endoprosthesis is a valuable alternative to surgical bypass in patients with inoperable biliary obstructions. Endoscopic therapeutic procedures for common bile duct stones have almost replaced conventional surgical treatment. Endoluminal imaging techniques are under evaluation and may contribute to future improvements.

  16. Imaging of autoimmune biliary disease.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Melinda J; Kim, So Yeon; Jhaveri, Kartik S; Behr, Spencer C; Seo, Nieun; Yeh, Benjamin M

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune biliary diseases are poorly understood but important to recognize. Initially, autoimmune biliary diseases are asymptomatic but may lead to progressive cholestasis with associated ductopenia, portal hypertension, cirrhosis, and eventually liver failure. The three main forms of autoimmune biliary disease are primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, and IgG4-associated cholangitis. Although some overlap may occur between the three main autoimmune diseases of the bile ducts, each disease typically affects a distinct demographic group and requires a disease-specific diagnostic workup. For all the autoimmune biliary diseases, imaging provides a means to monitor disease progression, assess for complications, and screen for the development of hepatobiliary malignancies that are known to affect patients with these diseases. Imaging is also useful to suggest or corroborate the diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis and IgG4-associated cholangitis. We review the current literature and emphasize radiological findings and considerations for these autoimmune diseases of the bile ducts.

  17. Percutaneous Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Management of Complicated Biliary Calculi

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Kelly; Chamsuddin, Abbas; Spivey, James; Martin, Louis; Nieh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Advances in endoscopic techniques have transformed the management of urolithiasis. We sought to evaluate the role of such urological interventions for the treatment of complex biliary calculi. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients (n=9) undergoing percutaneous holmium laser lithotripsy for complicated biliary calculi over a 4-year period (12/2003 to 12/2007). All previously failed standard techniques include ERCP with sphincterotomy (n=6), PTHC (n=7), or both of these. Access to the biliary system was obtained via an existing percutaneous transhepatic catheter or T-tube tracts. Endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy was performed via a flexible cystoscope or ureteroscope. Stone clearance was confirmed intra- and postoperatively. A percutaneous transhepatic drain was left indwelling for follow-up imaging. Results: Mean patient age was 65.6 years (range, 38 to 92). Total stone burden ranged from 1.7 cm to 5 cm. All 9 patients had stones located in the CBD, with 2 patients also having additional stones within the hepatic ducts. All 9 patients (100%) were visually stone-free after one endoscopic procedure. No major perioperative complications occurred. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days. At a mean radiological follow-up of 5.4 months (range, 0.5 to 21), no stone recurrence was noted. Conclusions: Percutaneous endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy is a minimally invasive alternative to open salvage surgery for complex biliary calculi refractory to standard approaches. This treatment is both safe and efficacious. Success depends on a multidisciplinary approach. PMID:19660213

  18. Predicting native papilla biliary cannulation success using a multinational Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) Quality Network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Success in deep biliary cannulation via native ampullae of Vater is an accepted measure of competence in ERCP training and practice, yet prior studies focused on predicting adverse events alone, rather than success. Our aim is to determine factors associated with deep biliary cannulation success, with/ without precut sphincterotomy. Methods The ERCP Quality Network is a unique prospective database of over 10,000 procedures by over 80 endoscopists over several countries. After data cleaning, and eliminating previously stented or cut papillae, two multilevel fixed effect multivariate models were used to control for clustering within physicians, to predict biliary cannulation success, with and without allowing “precut” to assist an initially failed cannulation. Results 13018 ERCPs were performed by 85 endoscopists (March 2007 - May 2011). Conventional (without precut) and overall cannulation rates were 89.8% and 95.6%, respectively. Precut was performed in 876 (6.7%). Conventional success was more likely in outpatients (OR 1.21), but less likely in complex contexts (OR 0.59), sicker patients (ASA grade (II, III/V: OR 0.81, 0.77)), teaching cases (OR 0.53), and certain indications (strictures, active pancreatitis). Overall cannulation success (some precut-assisted) was more likely with higher volume endoscopists (> 239/year: OR 2.79), more efficient fluoroscopy practices (OR 1.72), and lower with moderate (versus deeper) sedation (OR 0.67). Conclusion Biliary cannulation success appears influenced by both patient and practitioner factors. Patient- and case-specific factors have greater impact on conventional (precut-free) cannulation success, but volume influences ultimate success; both may be used to select appropriate cases and can help guide credentialing policies. PMID:24112846

  19. Continuous controllable balloon dilation: a novel approach for cervix dilation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cervical dilation using mechanical dilators is associated with various complications, such as uterine perforation, cervical laceration, infections and intraperitoneal hemorrhage. To achieve safe and painless cervical dilation, we constructed a new medical device to achieve confident mechanical cervical dilation: a continuous controllable balloon dilator (CCBD). Methods Controlled pumping of incompressible fluid into the CCBD increases the pressure and outer diameter of the CCBD, continuously dilating the cervical canal. The reliability of the CCBD was confirmed in vitro (testing for consistency and endurance, with no detected risk for breakage) and in vivo. A multi-center clinical study was conducted,with 120 pregnant women randomly assigned to one of three groups: Group I,control group, no dilation;Group II,mechanical dilation, Hegar dilator (HeD); and Group III,CCBD. The tissue material for histological evaluation was obtained from the endocervical mucosa before and after dilation using the HeD or CCBD. Results The CCBD dilations were successful and had no complications in all 40 patients of Group III. The cervical tissue was markedly less damaged after CCBD dilation compared with HeD dilation (epithelium damage: 95% (HeD) vs. 45% (CCBD), P <0.001; basal membrane damage: 82.5% (HeD) vs. 27.5% (CCBD), P <0.001; stromal damage: 62.5% (HeD) vs. 37.5% (CCBD), P <0.01). Cervical hemorrhagia was observed in 90% of the patients after HeD dilation versus in 32.5% of the patients after CCBD dilation. Conclusions The CCBD should be used as a replacement for mechanical dilators to prevent uterine and cervical injury during cervical dilation. Trial registration ISRCTN54007498 PMID:23088906

  20. Biliary atresia in lampreys.

    PubMed

    Youson, J H

    1993-01-01

    The preceding pages have described an organism that is far removed from mammals on the taxonomic scale of vertebrates but one that has proven to have a unique and most useful system for studies of liver function and, in particular, bile product transport and excretion. It is also an organism in which iron loading can be studied in the liver and other organs and tissues. Many of the events that occur in this animal during its life cycle with regard to bile pigment metabolism as normal programmed phenomena are unparalleled among the vertebrates. In the larval (ammocoete) period of lampreys, there is an intrahepatic gallbladder and a biliary tree that is well equipped for the storage, transport, and elimination of bile products into the intestine for ultimate excretion with the feces. The importance of the patency of these bile ducts to bile excretion is illustrated in one species of lampreys in which the bile ducts of young ammocoetes become infested with larval nematodes to a degree that bile pigment regurgitation into the blood results in a green serum that is identified as biliverdin. Despite having serum levels of biliverdin that would be toxic to humans, these individuals live a complete larval life. The larvae of all lamprey species undergo a phase of metamorphosis in which they transform into adults. During this phase the larval gallbladder, the bile canaliculi of the hepatocytes, and all the intrahepatic bile ducts completely regress in a developmental process called lamprey biliary atresia. The epithelium of the extrahepatic common bile duct transforms and expands into a caudal portion of the endocrine pancreas of the adult. Many of the events of lamprey biliary atresia resemble events occurring during experimental and pathological conditions of mammalian cholestasis, including disruption to the bile-blood barrier (intercellular junctions), accumulation of bile components in the cytoplasmic inclusions, and alteration of the distribution of membrane enzymes

  1. [Argument for choledochostomy, intraoperative endoscopy and external biliary drainage in the treatment of lithiasis of the common bile duct. A 15-year experience].

    PubMed

    Suc, B; Fourtanier, G; Escat, J

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of common bile duct stones is controversial. The objective of our study was to report the results of choledochotomy, rigid choledochoscopy and systematic external biliary drainage in the treatment of stones of the common bile duct. Over a 15-year period, 555 patients were operated in our department according to a precise surgical protocol. 14% of these patients were operated as an emergency and 11.8% were operated immediately after endoscopic sphincterotomy. One third of patients suffered from cholangitis. The endoscopic investigation of the common bile duct was positive in 81.5% of patients. The investigation was negative in 18.5% and negative choledochotomy was significantly more frequent in patients operated for acute pancreatitis (p < 0.05). External biliary drainage was performed in 95.7% of patients. When necessary, a bilioenteric anastomosis (3%) or a surgical sphincterotomy (1.9%) was also performed. The postoperative mortality rate was 4.8% significantly higher in patients over the age of 70, in patients operated as an emergency and in patients operated immediately after endoscopic sphincterotomy (p < 0.05). The morbidity rate was 8.4%. Residual stones were diagnosed in 4.4% of the patients. The presence of residual stones was significantly more frequent in patients with multiple stones of the common bile duct (p < 0.05). Long-term follow-up was available for 89% of patients, 95% of whom were asymptomatic. These results, based on a homogeneous therapeutic protocol, can be used as a reference for the evaluation of other techniques, especially endoscopic and laparoscopic techniques.

  2. Sphincterotomy with radio frequency surgery: a new treatment technique of fissure in ano and associated pathologies.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pravin J

    2003-03-01

    Anal fissures are dealt with using traditional approaches aiming at relieving the anal spasm and minimizing the anal sphincter pressure. Nevertheless, pathologies like sentinel tags, anal papillae, anal polyps, or small hemorrhoids which are often associated with chronic fissures are either considered innocuous, therefore left untreated, or are removed by conventional techniques. In this retrospective, non-randomized study, we performed lateral internal sphincterotomy, which was followed by radio frequency surgical procedures to eliminate the associated pathologies mentioned above. In all, 283 patients were studied. All the patients treated by the method of lateral subcutaneous internal sphincterotomy followed by radio frequency surgical procedure for aforesaid associated pathologies were made comfortable on account of the reduction in pain and irritation during defecation, the pricking or foreign body sensation in the anus and pruritus or wetness around the anal verge. A follow up after 18 months showed that only 7 % of patients had recurrence of symptoms or local signs. This combined approach has been found to be an effective, easy and quick way of treating chronic fissure in ano with associated pathologies

  3. Biliary metal stents for proximal esophageal or hypopharyngeal strictures.

    PubMed

    Bechtler, Matthias; Wagner, Florian; Fuchs, Erik-Sebastian; Jakobs, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Endoscopic dilation is the standard of care for stenoses of the cervical esophagus, but refractory strictures require some form of stenting. Most endoscopists avoid the placement of metal stents near the upper esophageal sphincter as they can cause major problems like severe cervical pain and globus sensation. We report our results with the use of biliary SEMS in the upper esophagus, which have a smaller diameter than regular esophageal stents and therefore exert less expansive force. We retrospectively reviewed all patients in our center between July 2011 and June 2014 who received a biliary metal stent because of a refractory stricture in the cervical esophagus. We implanted biliary SEMS (Wallflex, Boston Scientific) with a diameter of 1 cm and length of 6-8 cm. Technical and clinical success, adverse events and duration of stenting were evaluated. Ten patients were treated with biliary SEMS in the upper esophagus. Strictures were located between 10 and 19 cm from incisor teeth. Stent placement was successful in all (10/10) patients. One stent had to be extracted because of pain and globus sensation. Apart from that stent tolerability was good. All remaining patients (9/9) reported improvement of dysphagia with a decrease in mean dysphagia score from 3.2 to 1.78. Mean duration of stenting was 68 days. Because of a high clinical success rate and good tolerability, biliary metal stents are a reasonable alternative for difficult strictures in the cervical esophagus, especially in the palliative setting.

  4. Dilated common duct sign. A potential indicator of a sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia

    SciTech Connect

    DeRidder, P.; Fink-Bennett, D.

    1984-05-01

    The cholescintigraphic findings of a Sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia (SOD) in a 45-year-old woman with persistent right upper quadrant pain and biliary colic are reported. After an overnight fast, the patient was injected with 5 mCi of Tc-99 disofenin and .02 micrograms/kg of cholecystokinin (CCK) post maximal gallbladder filling. Pre and postcholescintiscans were obtained and gallbladder ejection fractions determined. The hepatobiliary scan was normal, except for a delay in biliary-bowel transit. The gallbladder responded normally to CCK, however, the Sphincter of Oddi responded abnormally, as there was a paradoxical response to CCK manifested by a marked dilatation of the common bile duct. It was postulate that this dilatation (the dilated common duct sign) was due to an inappropriate response of the smooth muscle of the Sphincter of Oddi (contraction vs relaxation) to CCK and was the cause of this patient's biliary colic. The dilated common duct sign should alert the physician to the possibility of a Sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia.

  5. Comparative study of lateral internal sphincterotomy versus local 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment for the treatment of chronic anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Md Ibrahim; Murshed, Khandker Manzoor; Majid, M A

    2008-04-01

    The gold standard surgical treatment of chronic anal fissure is lateral internal sphincterotomy which lowers the resting anal pressure and effectively heals the majority of fissures. Local application of 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment has been used as an agent for chemical sphincterotomy, causing temporary alleviation of sphincter spasm and allowing the fissure to heal without compromising the anal continence. The aim of the present study was to compare the results of surgical sphincterotomy with that of local 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. Seventy adult patients between the age of 18 and 50 years with chronic anal fissure were randomized in a prospective trial to receive either surgical sphincterotomy or 0.2% glyceryl trinitrate ointment locally. Patients were followed up at 2 weeks' interval for 10 weeks. Symptom relief, fissure healing and continence scores were the outcomes assessed. Six patients were excluded for protocol violations. Surgical sphincterotomy was significantly more effective in providing pain relief and was associated with significantly better fissure healing rates at 6 weeks and 10 weeks (both p < 0.001). There were substantial problems with compliance in ointment group related to slow healing and longer time needed for symptomatic relief. Minor incontinence was 6% in sphincterotomy group and none in ointment group (p > 0.05). Considering early symptomatic relief, rapid fissure healing and better patient compliance surgical sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure.

  6. Newborn Screening for Biliary Atresia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kasper S

    2015-12-01

    Biliary atresia is the most common cause of pediatric end-stage liver disease and the leading indication for pediatric liver transplantation. Affected infants exhibit evidence of biliary obstruction within the first few weeks after birth. Early diagnosis and successful surgical drainage of bile are associated with greater survival with the child's native liver. Unfortunately, because noncholestatic jaundice is extremely common in early infancy, it is difficult to identify the rare infant with cholestatic jaundice who has biliary atresia. Hence, the need for timely diagnosis of this disease warrants a discussion of the feasibility of screening for biliary atresia to improve outcomes. Herein, newborn screening for biliary atresia in the United States is assessed by using criteria established by the Discretionary Advisory Committee on Heritable Disorders in Newborns and Children. Published analyses indicate that newborn screening for biliary atresia by using serum bilirubin concentrations or stool color cards is potentially life-saving and cost-effective. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the feasibility, effectiveness, and costs of potential screening strategies for early identification of biliary atresia in the United States.

  7. Anatomy and embryology of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Keplinger, Kara M; Bloomston, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Working knowledge of extrahepatic biliary anatomy is of paramount importance to the general surgeon. The embryologic development of the extrahepatic biliary tract is discussed in this article as is the highly variable anatomy of the biliary tract and its associated vasculature. The salient conditions related to the embryology and anatomy of the extrahepatic biliary tract, including biliary atresia, choledochal cysts, gallbladder agenesis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and ducts of Luschka, are addressed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ceruletide analgesia in biliary colic.

    PubMed

    Pardo, A; Celotti, F; De Paolis, C

    1984-10-01

    Ceruletide is a decapeptide isolated from the skin of an Australian frog. Its chemical and biologic relationship to cholecystokinin and its potent relaxant effect on the sphincter of Oddi makes it useful in biliary colic. In this double-blind placebo-controlled experiment, 60 subjects with moderate to severe pain caused by biliary colic were injected with ceruletide, 1 ng/kg iv or with an equal volume of saline solution. Pain in the right hypochondrium, referred pain, and Murphy's sign were scored before and after treatment. Data indicate that ceruletide is effective in biliary colic.

  9. [Gallstone obstruction of the common bile duct, a severe form of biliary lithiasis. Choice of treatment].

    PubMed

    Le Neel, J C; Guiberteau, B; Kohen, M; Borde, L; Sartre, J Y; Bourseau, J C

    1992-01-01

    Collection of 10 or more stones in the extrahepatic common bile duct causes lithiasic obstruction of the CBD, a fairly rare entity observed in less than 10% of cases of bile duct lithiasis. This study is based on 35 cases recorded over 10 years, including 60% in patients aged more than 75 years. Endoscopic treatment was attempted in 28% of patients and was totally successful in one case our of four only because of insufficient removal of obstruction after sphincterotomy. Surgery, either necessary (8 cases) or systematic (25 cases) combines cholecystectomy, choledocotomy and biliary fiberendoscopy for a complete treatment minimizing the risks of residual lithiasis. While biliodigestive anastomoses prevailed (58%) during the first years of this study, external biliary drainage was most often chosen during the last 5 years. This surgery in aged patients still entails high morbidity (25%) and considerable mortality (9%). Better efficacy may be provided in the future by the combination of fiberendoscopic means and of lithotrity for aged subjects at high surgical risks.

  10. Should plastic stents be avoided in all unresectable malignant perihilar biliary strictures?

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Hiroki; Itoh, Akihiro; Ohno, Eizaburo; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2013-05-01

    Clinical guidelines of the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommend the insertion of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) as opposed to plastic stents (PS) in patients with unresectable malignant perihilar stricture (MHS). However, PS are cheaper and easier to insert into the biliary duct compared to SEMS. Furthermore, PS are removable and easy to move into subsequent drainage procedures. We conducted the present retrospective single-center study to elucidate the predictive factors associated with stent patency period duration in patients with unresectable MHS who would benefit from a long patency period after PS placement. This study included 56 consecutive patients with unresectable MHS who were drained using PS. PS failure occurred in 26 (46.4%) patients. The median patency period was 72 days (95% confidence interval: 29.8-114). The only significant predictive factor associated with the length of the stent patency period was history of previous endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST). Median patency periods with and without previous EST were 28 and 109 days, respectively (P = 0.016). In conclusion, we suggest that conventional biliary drainage with PS is still a suitable option for the treatment of unresectable MHS in patients without previous EST. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  11. [Etiopathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathies].

    PubMed

    Petronio, A S; Manes, M T; Di Meco, F; Nardini, V; Pecori, F; Ceccherini-Nellis, L; Barsotti, A; Mariani, M

    1993-12-01

    This study was carried out on 43 patients affected by dilated cardiomyopathy to investigate some of the etiopathological hypotheses on this illness. The Authors investigated: the persistence of virus genoma (coxsackie, HBV) on endomyocardial biopsies; the pattern of the II class major histocompatibility complex (MHC) were in the blood lymphocytes; the microvascular aspect of coronary circulation in the endomyocardial biopsies. Finally, in a separated group of 19 patients, the microvascular circulation was studied on skin biopsies and correlated with diabetic, valvular and normal subject. The results showed a 14% positivity for the presence of the virus genoma and a significant predominate of DR5 in the II class MHC of patients with a worse ventricular function. Capillary vessels of the coronary microcirculation were dilated in the 48% of the patients, especially in more compromised subjects. Viral myocarditis seem to play a role in the etiopathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathies (DCM) and the pattern of MHC could influence the progression of the illness. The microcirculation is probably a pathophysiological aspect. No etiological hypothesis seems to predominate.

  12. Biliary hypoplasia in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, K; Ahmed, S F; Murday, V; McGrogan, P

    2006-05-01

    Neonatal hepatitis and biliary hypoplasia are not recognised features of Williams syndrome. A case of Williams syndrome, presenting with neonatal conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia leading to an initial misdiagnosis is reported.

  13. Choledochal cyst with bile duct dilatation: sonography and /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Han, B.K.; Babcock, D.S.; Gelfand, M.H.

    1981-06-01

    Three cases of choledochal cyst associated with intrahepatic biliary dilatation are presented. Findings on sonography included a large cystic mass in the porta hepatis separate from the gallbladder; a dilated common hepatic or common bile duct entering directly into the cyst; the smaller cystic masses of dilated central intrahepatic ducts. The dilatation of the central intrahepatic bile ducts was moderate in two patients and massive in one patient. All three patients underwent operation with intraoperative cholangiography. Two patients had /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy which confirmed the diagnosis of choledochal cyst by demonstrating filling of the cyst with stasis and delayed intestinal activity. The accurate preoperative diagnosis of choledochal cyst, made by sonography combined with /sup 99/mTc IDA cholescintigraphy, obviated invasive studies.

  14. Biliary stents in the millennium.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Indu; Kahaleh, Michel

    2011-11-01

    Biliary stents have now been in use for over two decades. Although a plethora of literature has been published on them, this review article is unique in its attempt to summarize important landmark trials and their implications on the management of various pancreatico-biliary disorders. This article will cover the various types of stents currently being used, established and upcoming indications, techniques of placement, and complications associated with stent use.

  15. Percutaneous Management of Biliary Strictures After Pediatric Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto Maruzzelli, Luigi; Caruso, Settimo; Riva, Silvia; Spada, Marco; Luca, Angelo; Gridelli, Bruno

    2008-09-15

    We analyze our experience with the management of biliary strictures (BSs) in 27 pediatric patients who underwent liver transplantation with the diagnosis of BS. Mean recipient age was 38 months (range, 2.5-182 months). In all patients percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, biliary catheter placement, and bilioplasty were performed. In 20 patients the stenoses were judged resolved by percutaneous balloon dilatation and the catheters removed. Mean number of balloon dilatations performed was 4.1 (range, 3-6). No major complications occurred. All 20 patients are symptom-free with respect to BS at a mean follow-up of 13 months (range, 2-46 months). In 15 of 20 patients (75%) one course of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty was performed, with no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 15 months (range, 2-46 months). In 4 of 20 patients (20%) two courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; the mean time to recurrence was 9.8 months (range, 2.4-24 months). There was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 12 months (range, 2-16 months). In 1 of 20 patients (5%) three courses of percutaneous stenting and bilioplasty were performed; there was no evidence of recurrence of BS at a mean follow-up of 10 months. In conclusion, BS is a major problem following pediatric liver transplantation. Radiological percutaneous treatment is safe and effective, avoiding, in most cases, surgical revision of the anastomosis.

  16. Scintiscanning in the evaluation of biliary enteric anastomoses

    SciTech Connect

    Tidmore, H.; Ram, M.D.

    1985-03-01

    The evaluation of symptomatic patients who have undergone biliary enteric anastomoses, particularly when the diversion was into the jejunum, is difficult. Conventional techniques for evaluation, such as oral cholecystography (OCG), intravenous cholangiography (IVC), ultrasonography (US), computer-assisted tomography scanning (CT scanning), or endoscopy are not adequate to provide definitive information on the patency of the anastomoses. Hepatobiliary scintiscanning using /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA and BIDA (iminodiacetic acid derivatives) was performed on 12 patients. The patients were from 11 to 72 years of age and included ten men and two women. The scan results were correlated with US, CT scan, percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC), operative findings, and final diagnosis. Scanning was highly accurate in this group and could be performed successfully even in jaundiced patients (total serum bilirubin level up to 20.0 mg/dl). In patients in whom dilated bile ducts were demonstrated (by US, CT scan, or scintiscan), only the scintiscan revealed the true patency of the anastomoses. The advantages of the technique are that it is simple and noninvasive. Delayed transit of bile (scanning agent) to bowel is a very reliable indication of partial or complete obstruction. Scintiscanning is the only technique that demonstrated the functional state of biliary secretion and excretion into bowel in patients with previous biliary enteric anastomoses.

  17. The Radiological Management of Biliary Complications Following Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Rieber, Andrea; Brambs, Hans-Juergen; Lauchart, Werner

    1996-04-15

    Purpose: Biliary complications contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in the liver transplant recipient. Surgery has been the mainstay of therapy, but interventional radiological techniques have made significant progress. Methods: Diagnostic percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) was performed in 12 patients; percutaneous transhepatic drainage (PTD) was performed in 10 patients. Additional interventional procedures included laser lithotripsy, biopsy, dilatation, and stent implantation. Results: In 6 patients PTC revealed anastomotic, and in 6 patients nonanastomotic biliary strictures. Four patients had intrahepatic stones. Biliary strictures were treated by implantation of Palmaz stents in 5 of 6 patients with anastomotic strictures, and in 3 of 6 patients with nonanastomotic strictures. The intrahepatic stones were fragmented with dye laser lithotripsy under cholangioscopic control in 3 of 4 patients. One spontaneous stent migration after 24 months and one stent occlusion were observed; the remaining stents are still patent. Patients with anastomotic strictures had a more favorable outcome: 5 of 6 of these patients are still alive and symptom-free after an average of 27.4 months, but only 3 of 6 patients with nonanastomotic strictures are alive after an average of 9.8 months. Conclusion: The different outcomes in patients with anastomotic versus nonanastomotic strictures may be explained by the different causes of these types of stricture.

  18. Self-expandable biodegradable biliary stents in porcine model.

    PubMed

    Grolich, Tomáš; Crha, Michal; Novotný, Ladislav; Kala, Zdeněk; Hep, Aleš; Nečas, Alois; Hlavsa, Jan; Mitáš, Ladislav; Misík, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Treatment or prevention of a benign biliary tree stricture is an unresolved problem. A novel self-expandable biodegradable polydioxanon biliary stent in a porcine model was studied. This new stent was used in 23 pigs. Feasibility and safety of surgical stenting, time of biodegradation, and histologic reaction in 2, 8, 13, and 20 wk of a follow-up were studied. All stents were inserted into a common bile duct through a duodenal papilla following small dilatation. After surgical evaluation of abdominal cavities, the pigs were sacrificed to remove common bile ducts with the stents. All bile ducts were assessed by macroscopic and histopathologic examination. Self-expansion was correct in all cases. Neither bile duct obstruction nor postsurgical complications were observed. Macroscopic evaluation indicated lightening of the stent color in 2 wk, a partial disintegration in 8 wk, and a complete absorption in 13 and 20 wk. Histologic evaluation in general substantiated a mild-to-moderate inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria during the whole follow up and had no clinical consequences. No cholangitis, necrosis, abscess, or excessive fibroplasia was found in a hepatoduodenal ligament. Our results suggest that polydioxanon biodegradable self-expanding stents seem to be useful for biliary system implantation, offer a good biocompatibility, and completely degrade within 13 wk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cutting balloon treatment of anastomotic biliary stenosis after liver transplantation: Report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Fan; Tang, Hui; Xu, Chi; Jiang, Zai-Bo; Yi, Shu-Hong; Li, Hua; Jiang, Nan; Chen, Wen-Jie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Yang; Chen, Gui-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Biliary stenosis is a common complication after liver transplantation, and has an incidence rate ranging from 4.7% to 12.5% based on our previous study. Three types of biliary stenosis (anastomotic stenosis, non-anastomotic peripheral stenosis and non-anastomotic central hilar stenosis) have been identified. We report the outcome of two patients with anastomotic stricture after liver transplantation who underwent successful cutting balloon treatment. Case 1 was a 40-year-old male transplanted due to subacute fulminant hepatitis C. Case 2 was a 57-year-old male transplanted due to hepatitis B virus-related end-stage cirrhosis associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Both patients had similar clinical scenarios: refractory anastomotic stenosis after orthotopic liver transplantation and failure of balloon dilation of the common bile duct to alleviate biliary stricture. PMID:28104994

  20. Endoscopic Treatment of Anastomotic Biliary Stenosis in Patients With Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Claudio; Zanasi, Giulio; Gambitta, Pietro; Bini, Marta; de Carlis, Luciano; Arcidiacono, Raffaele

    1995-01-01

    The choledocho-choledochostomy stricture is one of the most frequent complications occurring after liver transplantation. Today endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography may be considered one of the most common methodologic approaches for the diagnosis; at the same time it provides an effective treatment of the stenosis, avoiding more invasive surgery. Biliary flow through a strictured anastomosis definitely improves after endoscopic stenting which, in most cases, resolves the biliary obstruction syndrome; moreover, the stent could allow restoration of the anatomical and functional integrity of the common bile duct. We have successfully treated eight liver transplanted patients with biliary anastomotic stenosis by endoscopic stenting of the common bile duct or by balloon dilation (one patient). The stents were replaced every 3 to 4 months and then removed after 1 year of follow-up. We observed one patient with acute cholangitis due to the clogging of the prosthetic device. PMID:18493388

  1. Cutting balloon treatment of anastomotic biliary stenosis after liver transplantation: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ding, Fan; Tang, Hui; Xu, Chi; Jiang, Zai-Bo; Yi, Shu-Hong; Li, Hua; Jiang, Nan; Chen, Wen-Jie; Yang, Qing; Yang, Yang; Chen, Gui-Hua

    2017-01-07

    Biliary stenosis is a common complication after liver transplantation, and has an incidence rate ranging from 4.7% to 12.5% based on our previous study. Three types of biliary stenosis (anastomotic stenosis, non-anastomotic peripheral stenosis and non-anastomotic central hilar stenosis) have been identified. We report the outcome of two patients with anastomotic stricture after liver transplantation who underwent successful cutting balloon treatment. Case 1 was a 40-year-old male transplanted due to subacute fulminant hepatitis C. Case 2 was a 57-year-old male transplanted due to hepatitis B virus-related end-stage cirrhosis associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. Both patients had similar clinical scenarios: refractory anastomotic stenosis after orthotopic liver transplantation and failure of balloon dilation of the common bile duct to alleviate biliary stricture.

  2. Covered metal stents in endoscopic therapy of biliary complications after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cantù, Paolo; Tenca, Andrea; Parzanese, Ilaria; Penagini, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    There is growing interest in using covered self-expandable metal stents for the treatment of benign biliary conditions, and the presence of anastomotic biliary strictures and leaks after liver transplantation provide a valuable opportunity for testing them. The performance of the stents is encouraging, and the technical success rate is high. They provide larger diameter dilation and are easily removed, and can potentially limit costs by reducing the number of procedures needed to treat anastomotic biliary strictures. However, drawbacks such as sub-optimal tolerability and migration may affect both patient management and costs. New stent designs are currently being evaluated. Randomized controlled trials and cost-effectiveness analyses comparing covered metal stents with multiple plastic stent endotherapy are warranted in order to define the role of the former as first-line or rescue treatment. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in evaluation of unexplained common bile duct dilatation on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Rao, Chalapathi; Gupta, Rajesh; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Dilated common bile duct (CBD) without obvious cause is a not uncommon finding on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with unexplained dilated CBD on MRCP. Patients referred for EUS evaluation of a dilated CBD were retrospectively analyzed with respect to serum alkaline phosphatase prior to EUS and subsequent outcome after EUS. Over a 3-year period, 40 patients (24 males; mean age 38.9±9.9 years) with dilated CBD were retrospectively identified. Ten patients had elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. The diagnosis reached after EUS examination was: CBD stones in 15 (37.5%) with largest size of CBD stone being 9 mm, mass in CBD in 2 (5%), benign biliary stricture in 2 (5%), biliary stricture with underlying chronic pancreatitis in 1 (2.5%) patient respectively. EUS examination revealed normal CBD in 20 (50%) patients and two of these patients had periampullary diverticulum. All the patients with abnormal liver function tests had a detectable CBD pathology whereas 20/30 (66.6%) patients with normal liver biochemistry had normal EUS findings. There was no significant difference in the mean CBD diameter between the groups with demonstrable pathology compared with those without (P=0.64). EUS is a useful investigational modality for patients with unexplained dilated CBD on MRCP. The mean CBD diameter and the presence of normal liver function tests are not predictive of underlying pathology.

  4. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in evaluation of unexplained common bile duct dilatation on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Rao, Chalapathi; Gupta, Rajesh; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Background Dilated common bile duct (CBD) without obvious cause is a not uncommon finding on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with unexplained dilated CBD on MRCP. Methods Patients referred for EUS evaluation of a dilated CBD were retrospectively analyzed with respect to serum alkaline phosphatase prior to EUS and subsequent outcome after EUS. Results Over a 3-year period, 40 patients (24 males; mean age 38.9±9.9 years) with dilated CBD were retrospectively identified. Ten patients had elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. The diagnosis reached after EUS examination was: CBD stones in 15 (37.5%) with largest size of CBD stone being 9 mm, mass in CBD in 2 (5%), benign biliary stricture in 2 (5%), biliary stricture with underlying chronic pancreatitis in 1 (2.5%) patient respectively. EUS examination revealed normal CBD in 20 (50%) patients and two of these patients had periampullary diverticulum. All the patients with abnormal liver function tests had a detectable CBD pathology whereas 20/30 (66.6%) patients with normal liver biochemistry had normal EUS findings. There was no significant difference in the mean CBD diameter between the groups with demonstrable pathology compared with those without (P=0.64). Conclusion EUS is a useful investigational modality for patients with unexplained dilated CBD on MRCP. The mean CBD diameter and the presence of normal liver function tests are not predictive of underlying pathology. PMID:24714761

  5. Suspected biliary complications after laparoscopic and open cholecystectomy leading to endoscopic cholangiography: a retrospective comparison.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Dungan, C; Neff, G; Ferguson, R; Favrot, D; Nandy, I; Banish, P; Sittig, K

    1998-03-01

    To study how suspected postoperative biliary complications are influenced by surgical technique, we compared clinical profiles of 63 patients referred for ERCP after open (OC) and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) over a four-year period. ERCP was not performed for postoperative pain alone and only six (9.5%) studies were normal. Referrals after LC were younger (mean 39.1 vs 53.6 years, P < 0.001) and ERCP was requested earlier (mean 71.6 vs 2360 days, P < 0.001) in the postoperative course. Choledocholithiasis (CDL) alone, the most common finding, was successfully managed with a single ERCP in 97.2% of cases. CDL after LC occurred in younger patients (35.5 vs 58.9 years, P < 0.01) who presented earlier (mean 98.6 days vs 5.1 years, P < 0.01), without biliary ductal dilatation (P < 0.01). Although CDL after LC was associated with higher ALT and bilirubin levels than after OC, the difference was not statistically significant. Cystic duct leaks (LC: six patients, OC: four patients) were typically associated with CDL after OC and 90% resolved with endoscopic therapy. Biliary ligation (four cases) was managed successfully with choledochojejunostomy. We conclude that findings at ERCP for suspected biliary obstruction or injury after OC or LC are similar and usually can be endoscopically managed. After LC, referrals currently are younger, present much earlier, and retained stones are less likely to be associated with ductal dilatation than after OC.

  6. Novel Biliary Reconstruction Techniques During Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Carmody, Ian C.; Romano, John; Bohorquez, Humberto; Bugeaud, Emily; Bruce, David S.; Cohen, Ari J.; Seal, John; Reichman, Trevor W.; Loss, George E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Biliary complications remain a significant problem following liver transplantation. Several surgical options can be used to deal with a significant size mismatch between the donor and recipient bile ducts during the biliary anastomosis. We compared biliary transposition to recipient biliary ductoplasty in cadaveric liver transplant. Methods: A total of 33 reconstructions were performed from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2013. In the biliary transposition group (n=23), 5 reconstructions were performed using an internal stent (5 or 8 French pediatric feeding tube), and 18 were performed without. Of the 10 biliary ductoplasties, 2 were performed with a stent. All patients were managed with standard immunosuppression and ursodiol. Follow-up ranged from 2 months to 5 years. Results: No patients in the biliary transposition group required reoperation; 1 patient had an internal stent removed for recurrent unexplained leukocytosis, and 2 patients required endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and stent placement for evidence of stricture. Three anastomotic leaks occurred in the biliary ductoplasty group, and 2 patients in the biliary ductoplasty group required reoperation for biliary complications. Conclusion: Our results indicate that biliary reconstruction can be performed with either biliary transposition or biliary ductoplasty. These techniques are particularly useful when a significant mismatch in diameter exists between the donor and recipient bile ducts. PMID:28331447

  7. Percutaneous Embolization of Transhepatic Tracks for Biliary Intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, Stuart M.; Terhaar, Olaf; Given, Mark F.; O'Dwyer, Helena M.; McGrath, Frank P.; Lee, Michael J.

    2006-12-15

    Significant pain can occur after removing transhepatic catheters from biliary access tracks, after percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) or stenting. We undertook a randomized prospective study to ascertain whether track embolization decreases the amount of pain or analgesic requirement after PBD. Fifty consecutive patients (M:F, 22:28; age range:29-85 years; mean age: 66.3 years) undergoing PBD were randomized to receive track embolization or no track embolization after removal of biliary drainage catheters. A combination of Lipoidol and n-butyl cyanoacrylate were used to embolize transhepatic tracks using an 8F dilator. The patients who did not have track embolization performed had biliary drainage catheters removed over a guide wire. A visual analog scoring (VAS) system was used to grade pain associated with catheter removal, 24 h afterward. A required analgesic score (RAS) was devised to tabulate the analgesia required. No analgesia had a score of 0, oral or rectal nonopiate analgesics had a score of 1, oral opiates had a score of 2, and parenteral opiates had a score of 3. The average VAS and RAS for both groups were calculated and compared.Seven patients were excluded for various reasons, leaving 43 patients in the study group. Twenty-one patients comprised the embolization group and 22 patients comprised the nonembolization group. The mean biliary catheter dwell time was not significantly different (p > 0.05) between the embolization group and nonembolization (mean: 5.4 days vs 6.9 days, respectively). In the nonembolization group, the mean VAS was 3.4. Eight patients required parenteral opiates, three patients required oral opiates, and five patients required oral or rectal analgesics, yielding a mean RAS of 1.6. In the embolization group, the mean VAS was 0.9. No patient required parenteral opiates, six patients required oral opiates, and two patients had oral analgesia. The average RAS was 0.6. Both the VAS and the RAS were significantly lower in the

  8. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Douglas L.; Juran, Brian D.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2010-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an idiopathic chronic autoimmune liver disease that primarily affects women. It is believed that the etiology for PBC is a combination between environmental triggers in genetically vulnerable persons. The diagnosis for PBC is made when two of the three criteria are fulfilled and they are: (1) biochemical evidence of cholestatic liver disease for at least 6 month’s duration; (2) anti-mitochondrial antibody (AMA) positivity; and (3) histologic features of PBC on liver biopsy. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the only FDA-approved medical treatment for PBC and should be administered at a recommended dose of 13-15mg/kg/day. Unfortunately despite adequate dosing of UDCA, approximately one-third of patients does not respond adequately and may require liver transplantation. Future studies are necessary to elucidate the role of environmental exposures and overall genetic impact not only in the development of PBC, but on disease progression and variable clinical response to therapy. PMID:20955967

  9. Bootstrapping Time Dilation Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, Cisco; Unruh, William G.

    2015-10-01

    We present a general relativistic model of a spherical shell of matter with a perfect fluid on its surface coupled to an internal oscillator, which generalizes a model recently introduced by the authors to construct a self-gravitating interferometer (Gooding and Unruh in Phys Rev D 90:044071, 2014). The internal oscillator evolution is defined with respect to the local proper time of the shell, allowing the oscillator to serve as a local clock that ticks differently depending on the shell's position and momentum. A Hamiltonian reduction is performed on the system, and an approximate quantum description is given to the reduced phase space. If we focus only on the external dynamics, we must trace out the clock degree of freedom, and this results in a form of intrinsic decoherence that shares some features with a proposed "universal" decoherence mechanism attributed to gravitational time dilation (Pikovski et al in Nat Phys, 2015). We note that the proposed decoherence remains present in the (gravity-free) limit of flat spacetime, emphasizing that the effect can be attributed entirely to proper time differences, and thus is not necessarily related to gravity. Whereas the effect described in (Pikovski et al in Nat Phys, 2015) vanishes in the absence of an external gravitational field, our approach bootstraps the gravitational contribution to the time dilation decoherence by including self-interaction, yielding a fundamentally gravitational intrinsic decoherence effect.

  10. Glyceryl trinitrate ointment (0.25%) and anal cryothermal dilators in the treatment of chronic anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Schiano di Visconte, Michele; Munegato, Gabriele

    2009-07-01

    Chronic anal fissure is a common benign disorder; for this condition, lateral internal sphincterotomy is the "gold standard" of treatment. Alternative medical treatments have not proven to be as effective as left lateral internal sphincterotomy. This randomized trial was designed to compare the use of 0.25% glyceryl trinitrate ointment and anal cryothermal dilators with the use of 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment alone in the treatment of chronic anal fissures. Between 1 June 2006 and 31 December 2007, 60 consecutive patients who were suffering from chronic anal fissures were randomized into two groups. The patients in group A (n = 30) were treated with 0.25% glyceryl trinitrate ointment and anal cryothermal dilators twice daily, and those in group B (n = 30) were treated with 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment alone twice daily. The treatment was administered to the patients in each group for 6 weeks, and all patients were examined 7 weeks after the start of the trial. Prior to treatment, the symptoms and the measurements of anal pressure were similar in both groups. At 7 weeks, the maximum resting pressure was significantly lower in group A (P < 0.05), in which 86.6% of the patients were asymptomatic in comparison with 73.3% of the patients in group B. After 1 year of follow-up, 25 patients (83.3%) in group A and 18 patients (60%) in group B presented no recurrence of symptoms (P < 0.05) Treatment of chronic anal fissures with 0.25% glyceryl trinitrate ointment and anal cryothermal dilators was more effective than the administration of 0.4% glyceryl trinitrate ointment alone.

  11. [Surgical treatment of anal stenosis following hemorrhoid surgery. Results of 150 combined mucosal advancement and internal sphincterotomy].

    PubMed

    Carditello, Antonio; Milone, Antonino; Stilo, Francesco; Mollo, Francesco; Basile, Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of anoplasty by mucosal advancement combined with internal sphincterotomy for the treatment of iatrogenic anal stenosis. From January 1990 to December 2000, 149 patients with post-haemorrhoidectomy anal strictures underwent internal sphincterotomy and mucosal advancement flap anoplasty. Seventy-one percent of patients were operated on under local anaesthesia by perineal block according to Marti. In 90 percent of the patients, postoperative pain was mild. No significant complications were seen. The mean hospital stay was two days. Ninety-seven percent of patients were well satisfied with the surgical result one year after operation. Current surgical options for the treatment of post-haemorrhoidectomy anal stricture are reported and the advantages of mucosal advancement flap anoplasty outlined.

  12. Biliary atresia and neonatal hepatobiliary scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Wynchank, S.; Guillet, J.; Leccia, F.; Soubiran, G.; Blanquet, P.

    1984-03-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using Tc-99m diethyl IDA was performed on 14 jaundiced neonates. It aided greatly the differential diagnosis between neonatal hepatitis and biliary atresia. Limitations in the interpretation of the results are described, as neonatal hepatitis may be accompanied by biliary excretion ranging from zero to normal. Also both biliary atresia (intra- and extrahepatic) and neonatal hepatitis may show no biliary excretion within 24 hours.

  13. Evaluation of biliary disease by scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Ram, M.D.; Hagihara, P.F.; Kim, E.E.; Coupal, J.; Griffen, W.O.

    1981-01-01

    The value of biliary scintigraphy was studied in 180 patients with suspected biliary tract disease. Most of the patients were investigated additionally by conventional techniques such as cholecystography, cholangiography and ultrasonography. It is concluded that biliary scintigraphy is a simple and safe technique for visualization of the biliary tract. It is particularly useful in the evaluation of acute cholecystitis, in patients with iodine sensitivity obstructive from nonobstructive jaundice.

  14. Botulinum toxin injection versus lateral internal sphincterotomy in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: a non-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Giral, Adnan; Memişoğlu, Kemal; Gültekin, Yücel; İmeryüz, Neşe; Kalaycı, Cem; Ulusoy, Nefise B; Tözün, Nurdan

    2004-01-01

    Background Although lateral internal sphincterotomy is the gold-standard treatment for chronic anal fissure, intrasphincteric injection of botulinum toxin seems to be a reliable new option. The aim of this non-randomized study is to compare the effect of lateral internal sphincterotomy and botulinum toxin injection treatments on the outcome and reduction of anal sphincter pressures in patients with chronic anal fissure. Methods Patients with chronic anal fissure were treated with either botulinum toxin injection or lateral internal sphincterotomy by their own choice. Maximal resting pressure and maximal squeeze pressure measurements were performed before and 2 weeks after treatments by anal manometry. Patients were followed for fissure relapse during 14 months. Results Twenty-one consecutive outpatients with posterior chronic anal fissure were enrolled. Eleven patients underwent surgery and ten patients received botulinum toxin injection treatment. Before the treatment, anal pressures were found to be similar in both groups. After the treatment, the maximal resting pressures were reduced from 104 ± 22 mmHg to 86 ± 15 mmHg in the surgery group (p < 0.05) and from 101 ± 23 mmHg to 83 ± 24 mmHg in the botulinum toxin group (p < 0.05). The mean maximal squeeze pressures were reduced from 70 ± 27 mmHg to 61 ± 32 mmHg (p > 0.05) in the surgery group, and from 117 ± 62 mmHg to 76 ± 34 (p < 0.01) in the botulinum toxin group. The fissures were healed in 70 percent of patients in the botulinum group and 82 percent in the surgery group (p > 0.05). There were no relapses during the 14 months of follow up. Conclusion Lateral internal sphincterotomy and botulinum toxin injection treatments both seem to be equally effective in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. PMID:15035674

  15. Covered self-expandable metal stents for benign biliary tract diseases.

    PubMed

    Baron, Todd H

    2011-05-01

    Benign biliary diseases are often managed endoscopically using plastic stents. Benign biliary strictures (BBS) respond to placement of multiple large-bore plastic stents, though requiring multiple procedures to place stents, and to exchange stents to prevent and/or treat stent occlusion. Bile leaks close using plastic stents, which divert bile away from the leak into the duodenum. Covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMS), intended for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction, have been used to treat benign biliary diseases. Advantages include small predeployment and large postexpansion diameters. Lack of imbedding of the metal into the bile duct wall enables removability. For strictures, one CSEMS is inserted without need for dilation and remains in place for up to 6 months. Successful removal has been reported in all cases. Long-term stricture resolution is achieved in up to 92%. Adverse events include migration and new stricture formation. For treatment of complex bile leaks, the covering and large diameter allow successful closure in nearly all cases. Other uses of CSEMS include treatment of postsphincterotomy bleeding and closure of perforations. CSEMS show promise for treatment of BBS and complex biliary leaks. Successful resolution can be achieved in the majority of patients with the advantage of fewer procedures, which offsets their higher cost.

  16. Multidetector CT of emergent biliary pathologic conditions.

    PubMed

    Patel, Neel B; Oto, Aytekin; Thomas, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Various biliary pathologic conditions can lead to acute abdominal pain. Specific diagnosis is not always possible clinically because many biliary diseases have overlapping signs and symptoms. Imaging can help narrow the differential diagnosis and lead to a specific diagnosis. Although ultrasonography (US) is the most useful imaging modality for initial evaluation of the biliary system, multidetector computed tomography (CT) is helpful when US findings are equivocal or when biliary disease is suspected. Diagnostic accuracy can be increased by optimizing the CT protocol and using multiplanar reformations to localize biliary obstruction. CT can be used to diagnose and stage acute cholecystitis, including complications such as emphysematous, gangrenous, and hemorrhagic cholecystitis; gallbladder perforation; gallstone pancreatitis; gallstone ileus; and Mirizzi syndrome. CT also can be used to evaluate acute biliary diseases such as biliary stone disease, benign and malignant biliary obstruction, acute cholangitis, pyogenic hepatic abscess, hemobilia, and biliary necrosis and iatrogenic complications such as biliary leaks and malfunctioning biliary drains and stents. Treatment includes radiologic, endoscopic, or surgical intervention. Familiarity with CT imaging appearances of emergent biliary pathologic conditions is important for prompt diagnosis and appropriate clinical referral and treatment.

  17. Prospective clinical trial comparing sphincterotomy, nitroglycerin ointment and xylocaine/lactulose combination for the treatment of anal fissure.

    PubMed

    Karamanlis, E; Michalopoulos, A; Papadopoulos, V; Mekras, A; Panagiotou, D; Ioannidis, A; Basdanis, G; Fahantidis, E

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the ability of three treatments in patients with anal fissure, sphincterotomy, nitroglycerin ointment and combination of gel xylocaine and lactulose. Ninety adults divided in three groups of 30 patients each group, received one of the three treatments in a 3-year interval (2007-2009) and the follow-up was for 2 months. Group A received nitroglycerin ointment, Group B underwent sphincterotomy and Group C received gel xylocaine and lactulose. Concerning pain, after treatment 60% of patients in Group A did not complain of pain, 20% had transient pain, another 10% moderate pain and the remaining 10% had severe pain. In Group B, 95% of the patients had no pain and only 5% had mild, transient pain. In Group C 60% of the patients had moderate pain and the other 40% suffered from severe pain. Concerning fissure healing, in 60% of the patients of Group A, the fissure was healed. In Group B fissure healed in 93.3% and in Group C only in 16.6% of the patients. The "gold standard" for anal fissure treatment is the lateral internal sphincterotomy and that each one of the three methods has its advantages and disadvantages.

  18. Inflammatory dilated cardiomyopathy (DCMI).

    PubMed

    Maisch, Bernhard; Richter, Anette; Sandmöller, Andrea; Portig, Irene; Pankuweit, Sabine

    2005-09-01

    Cardiomyopathies are heart muscle diseases, which have been defined by their central hemodynamics and macropathology and divided in five major forms: dilated (DCM), hypertrophic (HCM), restrictive (RCM), right ventricular (RVCM), and nonclassifiable cardiomyopathies (NCCM). Furthermore, the most recent WHO/WHF definition also comprises, among the specific cardiomyopathies, inflammatory cardiomyopathy as a distinct entity, defined as myocarditis in association with cardiac dysfunction. Idiopathic, autoimmune, and infectious forms of inflammatory cardiomyopathy were recognized. Viral cardiomyopathy has been defined as viral persistence in a dilated heart. It may be accompanied by myocardial inflammation and then termed inflammatory viral cardiomyopathy (or viral myocarditis with cardiomegaly). If no inflammation is observed in the biopsy of a dilated heart (< 14 lymphocytes and macrophages/mm(2)), the term viral cardiomyopathy or viral persistence in DCM should be applied according to the WHF Task Force recommendations. Within the German heart failure net it is the authors' working hypothesis, that DCM shares genetic risk factors with other diseases of presumed autoimmune etiology and, therefore, the same multiple genes in combination with environmental factors lead to numerous different autoimmune diseases including DCM. Therefore, the authors' primary goal is to acquire epidemiologic data of patients with DCM regarding an infectious and inflammatory etiology of the disease. Circumstantial evidence points to a major role of viral myocarditis in the etiology of DCM. The common presence of viral genetic material in the myocardium of patients with DCM provides the most compelling evidence, but proof of causality is still lacking. In addition, autoimmune reactions have been described in many studies, indicating them as an important etiologic factor. Nevertheless, data on the proportion of patients, in whom both mechanisms play a role are still missing.A pivotal role for

  19. Percutaneous Transhepatic Endoscopic Holmium Laser Lithotripsy for Intrahepatic and Choledochal Biliary Stones

    SciTech Connect

    Rimon, Uri; Kleinmann, Nir; Bensaid, Paul; Golan, Gil; Garniek, Alexander; Khaitovich, Boris; Winkler, Harry

    2011-12-15

    Purpose: To report our approach for treating complicated biliary calculi by percutaneous transhepatic endoscopic biliary holmium laser lithotripsy (PTBL). Patients and Methods: Twenty-two symptomatic patients (11 men and 11 women, age range 51 to 88 years) with intrahepatic or common bile duct calculi underwent PTBL. Nine patients had undergone previous gastrectomy and small-bowel anastomosis, thus precluding endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In the other 13 patients, stone removal attempts by ERCP failed due to failed access or very large calculi. We used a 7.5F flexible ureteroscope and a 200-{mu}m holmium laser fiber by way of a percutaneous transhepatic tract, with graded fluoroscopy, to fragment the calculi with direct vision. Balloon dilatation was added when a stricture was seen. The procedure was performed with the patient under general anaesthesia. A biliary drainage tube was left at the end of the procedure. Results: All stones were completely fragmented and flushed into the small bowel under direct vision except for one patient in whom the procedure was aborted. In 18 patients, 1 session sufficed, and in 3 patients, 2 sessions were needed. In 7 patients, balloon dilatation was performed for benign stricture after Whipple operation (n = 3), for choledochalenteric anastomosis (n = 3), and for recurrent cholangitis (n = 1). Adjunctive 'balloon push' (n = 4) and 'rendezvous' (n = 1) procedures were needed to completely clean the biliary tree. None of these patients needed surgery. Conclusion: Complicated or large biliary calculi can be treated successfully using PTBL. We suggest that this approach should become the first choice of treatment before laparoscopic or open surgery is considered.

  20. Percutaneous transhepatic endoscopic holmium laser lithotripsy for intrahepatic and choledochal biliary stones.

    PubMed

    Rimon, Uri; Kleinmann, Nir; Bensaid, Paul; Golan, Gil; Garniek, Alexander; Khaitovich, Boris; Winkler, Harry

    2011-12-01

    To report our approach for treating complicated biliary calculi by percutaneous transhepatic endoscopic biliary holmium laser lithotripsy (PTBL). Twenty-two symptomatic patients (11 men and 11 women, age range 51 to 88 years) with intrahepatic or common bile duct calculi underwent PTBL. Nine patients had undergone previous gastrectomy and small-bowel anastomosis, thus precluding endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In the other 13 patients, stone removal attempts by ERCP failed due to failed access or very large calculi. We used a 7.5F flexible ureteroscope and a 200-μm holmium laser fiber by way of a percutaneous transhepatic tract, with graded fluoroscopy, to fragment the calculi with direct vision. Balloon dilatation was added when a stricture was seen. The procedure was performed with the patient under general anaesthesia. A biliary drainage tube was left at the end of the procedure. All stones were completely fragmented and flushed into the small bowel under direct vision except for one patient in whom the procedure was aborted. In 18 patients, 1 session sufficed, and in 3 patients, 2 sessions were needed. In 7 patients, balloon dilatation was performed for benign stricture after Whipple operation (n = 3), for choledochalenteric anastomosis (n = 3), and for recurrent cholangitis (n = 1). Adjunctive "balloon push" (n = 4) and "rendezvous" (n = 1) procedures were needed to completely clean the biliary tree. None of these patients needed surgery. Complicated or large biliary calculi can be treated successfully using PTBL. We suggest that this approach should become the first choice of treatment before laparoscopic or open surgery is considered.

  1. [Biliary atresia and polysplenia syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kerkeni, Yosra; Ksia, Amine; Zitouni, Hayet; Belghith, Mohsen; Lassad, Sahnoun; Krichene, Imed; Mekki, Mongi; Nouri, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    Polysplenia syndrome is a rare malformation characterized by the association of multiple rates and other congenital anomalies dominated by cardiac, vascular, intestinal and bile malformations. We report the observation of a patient operated in the neonatal period (3 days) for an upper intestinal obstruction with situs inversus. Surgical exploration noted the presence of multiple rates, a preduodenal vein, a biliary atresia and a duodenal atresia. The surgical procedures performed were a latero-lateral duodeno-duodenostomy and hepatoportoenterostomy of KASAI with simple immediate and delayed outcomes. The follow up was of 23 years. We recall the epidemiological characteristics of this malformative association and we discuss the role played by the prognosis of polysplenia syndrome in the evolution of biliary atresia. The diagnosis and treatment of biliary atresia are always urgent to increase the chances of success of the Kasai, and the chances of prolonged survival with native liver. However, almost all long-term survivors (even anicteric) have biliary cirrhosis, which requires lifelong follow up.

  2. Side-by-side placement of bilateral endoscopic metal stents for the treatment of postoperative biliary stricture.

    PubMed

    Kaino, Seiji; Sen-Yo, Manabu; Shinoda, Shuhei; Kawano, Michitaka; Harima, Hirofumi; Suenaga, Shigeyuki; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-02-01

    Postoperative biliary strictures are usually complications of cholecystectomy. Endoscopic plastic stent prosthesis is generally undertaken for treating benign biliary strictures. Recently, fully covered metal stents have been shown to be effective for treating benign distal biliary strictures. We present the case of a 53-year-old woman with liver injury in which imaging studies showed a common hepatic duct stricture. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography also confirmed the presence of a common hepatic duct stricture. Temporally fully covered metal stents with dilated diameters of 6 mm were placed in a side-by-side fashion in the left and right hepatic ducts, respectively. We removed the stents 2 months after their placement. Subsequent cholangiography revealed an improvement in the biliary strictures. Although we were apprehensive about the fully covered metal stents obstructing the biliary side branches, we noted that careful placement of the bilateral metal stents did not cause any complications. Side-by-side deployment of bilateral endoscopic fully covered metal stents can be one of the safe and effective therapies for postoperative biliary stricture.

  3. Influence of the Biliary System on Biliary Bacteria Revealed by Bacterial Communities of the Human Biliary and Upper Digestive Tracts.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fuqiang; Shen, Hongzhang; Li, Zhen; Meng, Fei; Li, Lei; Yang, Jianfeng; Chen, Ying; Bo, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Ni, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Biliary bacteria have been implicated in gallstone pathogenesis, though a clear understanding of their composition and source is lacking. Moreover, the effects of the biliary environment, which is known to be generally hostile to most bacteria, on biliary bacteria are unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities of the biliary tract, duodenum, stomach, and oral cavity from six gallstone patients by using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We found that all observed biliary bacteria were detectable in the upper digestive tract. The biliary microbiota had a comparatively higher similarity with the duodenal microbiota, versus those of the other regions, but with a reduced diversity. Although the majority of identified bacteria were greatly diminished in bile samples, three Enterobacteriaceae genera (Escherichia, Klebsiella, and an unclassified genus) and Pyramidobacter were abundant in bile. Predictive functional analysis indicated enhanced abilities of environmental information processing and cell motility of biliary bacteria. Our study provides evidence for the potential source of biliary bacteria, and illustrates the influence of the biliary system on biliary bacterial communities.

  4. Common bile duct stones associated with pancreatobiliary reflux and disproportionate bile duct dilatation.

    PubMed

    Huh, Cheal Wung; Kim, Hee Wook; Yi, Seung Woo; Lee, Dong Ki; Lee, Se Joon

    2017-08-01

    Occult pancreatobiliary reflux (PBR) in patients with a normal pancreatobiliary junction has been studied by various methods, but the exact etiology, mechanisms, and implications of this reflux have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of PBR and patterns of biliary ductal dilatation in patients with acute calculous cholangitis by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP).We retrospectively evaluated the degree of PBR and pattern of bile duct dilatation in patients with acute calculous cholangitis due to distal CBD (common bile duct) stones (Group A) as compared with patients with malignant CBD obstruction due to distal CBD cancer (Group B). All related data were prospectively collected. Bile juice was aspirated at the proximal CBD for measurement of biliary amylase and lipase before the injection of contrast dye. The diameters of the CBD and the peripheral intrahepatic duct (IHD) were calculated after contrast dye injection. Patients with pancreatobiliary maljunction and/or gallstone pancreatitis were excluded from the study.ERCP was performed on 33 patients with calculous cholangitis (Group A) and 12 patients with malignant CBD obstruction (Group B). Mean levels of bile amylase and lipase were significantly higher (P < .05) in group A (1387 and 6737 U/l, respectively) versus those in group B (32 and 138 U/l, respectively). Thirty patients in group A (90.9%) showed disproportionate dilatation (i.e., CBD was and IHD was not dilated), whereas only 4 patients in group B (33%) showed disproportionate dilatation.The results of this study suggest that patients with calculous cholangitis exhibit PBR that is associated with disproportionate bile duct dilatation.

  5. External biliary fistula in orthotopic liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Gilbo, N; Mirabella, S; Strignano, P; Ricchiuti, A; Lupo, F; Giono, I; Sanna, C; Fop, F; Salizzoni, M

    2009-05-01

    During orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), various situations may occur in which biliary reconstruction is neither technically feasible nor recommended. One bridge to a delayed anastomosis can be an external biliary fistula (EBF). This procedure allows the surgeon to execute hemostatic maneuvers, such as abdominal packing; therefore, biliary reconstruction can be subsequently performed in a bloodless operative field without edematous tissues. EBF can be made by placing in the donor biliary tract a cannula that is fixed to the bile duct using 2-0 silk ties and secured outside the abdominal wall. The biliary anastomosis will be performed within 2 days after the OLT. The aim of this study was to examine the safety of EBF in terms of the incidence of biliary complications compared with a direct anastomosis. Among 1,634 adult OLTs performed in 17 years in our center, 1,322 were carried out with termino-terminal hepaticocholedochostomy (HC-TT); two with side-to-side hepaticocholedochostomy; 208 with hepaticojejunostomy (HJ); 31 with EBF and delayed HC-TT, and 71 with EBF and delayed HJ. Biliary complication rates in the EBF group were 24.5%, including 23.9% in the delayed HJ and 25.8% in the delayed HC-TT. Biliary complication incidence among all OLTs was 24.6% (P = NS). No complications related to the procedure were observed. Therefore, EBF is a safe technique without a higher biliary complication rate. It may be useful when a direct biliary anastomosis is dangerous.

  6. Malignant transformation of biliary adenofibroma: a rare biliary cystic tumor

    PubMed Central

    Zendejas-Mummert, Benjamin; Hartgers, Mindy L.; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K.; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Mahipal, Amit; Smoot, Rory L.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary adenofibromas (BAFs) are rare, benign biliary cystic tumors with potential for malignant transformation. Of the eleven prior cases of BAF reported in the literature, six showed evidence of malignant transformation. We describe the clinical, imaging and pathology features of two cases of malignant BAF and review the existing literature to raise awareness of this entity and provide additional tools for diagnosing this rare tumor Additionally, we identified a loss of function mutation in the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A) tumor suppressor gene in a malignant caudate lobe BAF, thereby providing potential insight into the molecular pathogenesis of BAF malignant transformation. Although additional cases and longer-term follow-up are needed, our cases suggest that recurrence or metastasis of malignant BAF is not common and that complete surgical resection can be curative. PMID:28078134

  7. Microstructural formulation of stress dilatancy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Richard; Guo, Peijun

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we show that the well-known Rowe's stress-dilatancy relation can be readily recovered from a micromechanical analysis of an assembly of rigid particles as a purely dissipative system in the case of a regular packing. When the analysis is extended to a random packing, one can explicitly incorporate the dependence of fabric, density and stress level on dilatancy, a basic aspect of geomaterial behaviour. The resulting microstructurally based stress dilatancy relation can be easily implemented as a non-associated flow rule in any standard elastoplastic model. Some numerical simulations of stress-dilatancy with initial fabric as a controlling variable are presented to illustrate the developed model. xml:lang="fr"

  8. Post-earthquake dilatancy recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholz, C. H.

    1974-01-01

    Geodetic measurements of the 1964 Niigata, Japan earthquake and of three other examples are briefly examined. They show exponentially decaying subsidence for a year after the quakes. The observations confirm the dilatancy-fluid diffusion model of earthquake precursors and clarify the extent and properties of the dilatant zone. An analysis using one-dimensional consolidation theory is included which agrees well with this interpretation.

  9. Esophageal dilation in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel E

    2015-10-01

    Tissue remodeling with scaring is common in adult EoE patients with long standing disease. This is the major factor contributing to their complaints of solid food dysphagia and recurrent food impactions. The best tests to define the degree of remodeling are barium esophagram, high resolution manometry and endoscopy. Many physicians are fearful to dilate EoE patients because of concerns about mucosal tears and perforations. However, multiple recent case series attest to the safety of esophageal dilation and its efficacy with many patients having symptom relief for an average of two years. This chapter will review the sordid history of esophageal dilation in EoE patients and outline how to perform this procedure safely. The key is graduated dilation over one to several sessions to a diameter of 15-18 mm. Postprocedural pain is to be expected and mucosal tears are a sign of successful dilation, not complications. In some healthy adults, occasional dilation may be preferred to regular use of medications or restricted diets. This approach is now supported by recent EoE consensus statements and societal guidelines.

  10. Dilatational band formation in bone

    PubMed Central

    Poundarik, Atharva A.; Diab, Tamim; Sroga, Grazyna E.; Ural, Ani; Boskey, Adele L.; Gundberg, Caren M.; Vashishth, Deepak

    2012-01-01

    Toughening in hierarchically structured materials like bone arises from the arrangement of constituent material elements and their interactions. Unlike microcracking, which entails micrometer-level separation, there is no known evidence of fracture at the level of bone’s nanostructure. Here, we show that the initiation of fracture occurs in bone at the nanometer scale by dilatational bands. Through fatigue and indentation tests and laser confocal, scanning electron, and atomic force microscopies on human and bovine bone specimens, we established that dilatational bands of the order of 100 nm form as ellipsoidal voids in between fused mineral aggregates and two adjacent proteins, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN). Laser microdissection and ELISA of bone microdamage support our claim that OC and OPN colocalize with dilatational bands. Fracture tests on bones from OC and/or OPN knockout mice (OC−/−, OPN−/−, OC-OPN−/−;−/−) confirm that these two proteins regulate dilatational band formation and bone matrix toughness. On the basis of these observations, we propose molecular deformation and fracture mechanics models, illustrating the role of OC and OPN in dilatational band formation, and predict that the nanometer scale of tissue organization, associated with dilatational bands, affects fracture at higher scales and determines fracture toughness of bone. PMID:23129653

  11. Safety of immediate endoscopic sphincterotomy in acute suppurative cholangitis caused by choledocholithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tomoyasu; Sai, Jin Kan; Okubo, Hironao; Saito, Hiroaki; Ishii, Shigeto; Kanazawa, Ryo; Tomishima, Ko; Watanabe, Sumio; Shiina, Shuichiro

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To examine the safety of immediate endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in patients with acute suppurative cholangitis (ASC) caused by choledocholithiasis, as compared with elective EST. METHODS: Patients with ASC due to choledocholithiasis were allocated to two groups: Those who underwent EST immediately and those who underwent EBD followed by EST 1 wk later because they were under anticoagulant therapy, had a coagulopathy (international normalized ratio > 1.3, partial thromboplastin time greater than twice that of control), or had a platelet count < 50000 × 103/μL. One of four trainees [200-400 cases of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)] supervised by a specialist (> 10000 cases of ERCP) performed the procedures. The success and complication rates associated with EST in each group were examined. RESULTS: Of the 87 patients with ASC, 59 were in the immediate EST group and 28 in the elective EST group. EST was successful in all patients in both groups. There were no complications associated with EST in either group of patients, although white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, total bilirubin, and serum concentrations of liver enzymes just before EST were significantly higher in the immediate EST group than in the elective EST group. CONCLUSION: Immediate EST can be as safe as elective EST for patients with ASC associated with choledocholithiasis provided they are not under anticoagulant therapy, or do not have a coagulopathy or a platelet count < 50000 × 103/μL. Moreover, the procedure was safely performed by a trainee under the supervision of an experienced specialist. PMID:26862368

  12. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and risk of cholangiocarcinoma: a population-based cohort study in Finland and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Strömberg, Cecilia; Böckelman, Camilla; Song, Huan; Ye, Weimin; Pukkala, Eero; Haglund, Caj; Nilsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Elevated long-term risk of cholangiocarcinoma is reported after endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES), but in a previous study we found a trend towards a decreased risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association in a larger cohort with a longer follow-up. Patients and methods: Data concerning all patients having had an inpatient endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) were collected from the hospital discharge registries of Finland and Sweden. Incident cases of malignancy were identified through linkage to the nationwide Cancer Registries. Patients with a diagnosis of malignancy, before or within 2 years of the ERCP, were excluded. The cohorts were followed until a diagnosis of malignancy, death or emigration, or end of follow-up (end of 2010). The relative risk of malignancy was calculated as standardized incidence ratio (SIR) compared with the general population, inherently adjusting for age, gender, and calendar year of follow-up. Results: A total of 69 925 patients undergoing ERCP from 1976 through 2008 were included in the pooled cohort. ES was performed in 40 193 subjects. The risk of malignancy was elevated in the total cohort (SIR = 2.3; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 2.1 – 2.5) irrespective of whether ES was performed or not. The SIRs diminished with duration of follow-up. Conclusions: We found an elevated risk of malignancy both in the bile ducts alone and in the bile ducts, liver or pancreas together, after ERCP. The risk was the same, regardless of whether ES had been performed or not, so ES was unlikely to be the cause, and a common carcinogenic exposure previous to the ERCP procedure, possibly ductal gallstone disease, was more likely. PMID:27747285

  13. Composition of common bile duct stones in Chinese patients during and after endoscopic sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wei-Lun; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Lin, Chiun-Ku; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Lo, Ching-Chu; Hsu, Ping-I; Chen, Wen-Chi; Cheng, Jin-Shiung; Lo, Gin-Ho

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) is a well-established therapeutic modality for the removal of common bile duct (CBD) stones. After ES there are still around 10% of patients that experience recurrent CBD stones. The aim of this study is to investigate the composition of CBD stones before and after ES and its clinical significance in Chinese patients. METHODS: From January 1996 to December 2003, 735 patients with CBD stones received ES at Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital and stone specimens from 266 patients were sent for analysis. Seventy-five patients had recurrent CBD stones and stone specimens from 44 patients were sent for analysis. The composition of the stones was analyzed by infrared (IR) spectrometry and they were classified as cholesterol or bilirubinate stones according to the predominant composition. Clinical data were analyzed. RESULTS: In the initial 266 stone samples, 217 (82%) were bilirubinate stones, 42 (16%) were cholesterol stones, 3 were calcium carbonate stones, 4 were mixed cholesterol and bilirubinate stones. Patients with bilirubinate stones were significantly older than patients with cholesterol stones (66 ± 13 years vs 56 ± 17 years, P = 0.001). In the 44 recurrent stone samples, 38 (86%) were bilirubinate stones, 3 (7%) were cholesterol stones, and 3 were mixed cholesterol and bilirubinate stones. In 27 patients, both initial and recurrent stone specimens can be obtained, 23 patients had bilirubinate stones initially and 2 became cholesterol stones in the recurrent attack. In the four patients with initial cholesterol stones, three patients had bilirubinate stones and one patient had a cholesterol stone in the recurrent attack. CONCLUSION: Bilirubinate stone is the predominant composition of initial or recurrent CBD stone in Chinese patients. The composition of CBD stones may be different from initial stones after ES. PMID:16015699

  14. Treatment of Malignant Biliary Obstruction with a PTFE-Covered Self-Expandable Nitinol Stent

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Hyo-Sung; Jin, Gong-Yong; Lee, Seung-Ok; Chung, Gyung-Ho

    2007-01-01

    Objective We wanted to determine the technical and clinical efficacy of using a PTFE-covered self-expandable nitinol stent for the palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. Materials and Methods Thirty-seven patients with common bile duct strictures caused by malignant disease were treated by placing a total of 37 nitinol PTFE stents. These stents were covered with PTFE with the exception of the last 5 mm at each end; the stent had an unconstrained diameter of 10 mm and a total length of 50-80 mm. The patient survival rate and stent patency rate were calculated by performing Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. The bilirubin, serum amylase and lipase levels before and after stent placement were measured and then compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The average follow-up duration was 27.9 weeks (range: 2-81 weeks). Results Placement was successful in all cases. Seventy-six percent of the patients (28/37) experienced adequate palliative drainage for the remainder of their lives. There were no immediate complications. Three patients demonstrated stent sludge occlusion that required PTBD (percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage) irrigation. Two patients experienced delayed stent migration with stone formation at 7 and 27 weeks of follow-up, respectively. Stent insertion resulted in acute elevations of the amylase and lipase levels one day after stent insertion in 11 patients in spite of performing endoscopic sphincterotomy (4/6). The bilirubin levels were significantly reduced one week after stent insertion (p < 0.01). The 30-day mortality rate was 8% (3/37), and the survival rates were 49% and 27% at 20 and 50 weeks, respectively. The primary stent patency rates were 85%, and 78% at 20 and 50 weeks, respectively. Conclusion The PTFE-covered self-expandable nitinol stent is safe to use with acceptable complication rates. This study is similar to the previous studies with regard to comparing the patency rates and survival rates. PMID:17923784

  15. Radiological interventions in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Gamanagatti, Shivanand; Srivastava, Deep Narayan; Gupta, Arun Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction is commonly caused by gall bladder carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic nodes. Percutaneous interventions play an important role in managing these patients. Biliary drainage, which forms the major bulk of radiological interventions, can be palliative in inoperable patients or pre-operative to improve liver function prior to surgery. Other interventions include cholecystostomy and radiofrequency ablation. We present here the indications, contraindications, technique and complications of the radiological interventions performed in patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27247718

  16. Pseudo-obstruction of the biliary tract associated with a traumatic biliary fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, R.E.; Doherty, P.W.

    1984-05-01

    Documentation of a biliary fistula as a complication of hepatic trauma may be made simply and noninvasively using radionuclide (technetium) cholescintigraphy. This report describes the utility of this approach in the evaluation of the pathophysiology underlying apparent biliary obstruction in a patient with a large traumatic biliary fistula.

  17. Appendectomy as a Risk Factor for Bacteremic Biliary Tract Infection Caused by Antibiotic-Resistant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Kinoshita, Jun; Abe, Hiroko; Kakimoto, Tetsuhiro; Yasuda, Yuko; Hara, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Recent evidence has suggested that appendix plays a pivotal role in the development and preservation of intestinal immune system. The aim of this study is to examine whether prior appendectomy is associated with an increased risk for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia from biliary tract infection (BTI). Methods Charts from 174 consecutive cases of bacteremia derived from BTI were retrospectively reviewed. Using multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were identified among the clinical parameters, including a history of appendectomy. Results In total, 221 bacteria strains were identified from 174 BTI events. Of those, 42 antibiotic-resistant bacteria were identified in 34 patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that prior appendectomy (Odds ratio (OR), 3.02; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15–7.87; p = 0.026), antibiotic use within the preceding three months (OR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.26–7.64; p = 0.013), and bilioenteric anastomosis or sphincterotomy (OR, 3.77; 95% CI, 1.51–9.66; p = 0.0046) were independent risk factors for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Conclusions Prior appendectomy was an independent risk factor for the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in bacteremia from BTI. PMID:28589138

  18. Partial lateral internal sphincterotomy versus combined botulinum toxin A injection and topical diltiazem in the treatment of chronic anal fissure: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gandomkar, Hossein; Zeinoddini, Atefeh; Heidari, Reza; Amoli, Hadi Ahmadi

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and complications associated with combined topical diltiazem cream and botulinum toxin A injection versus partial lateral internal sphincterotomy in chronic anal fissure. This study is a parallel, randomized controlled trial (using the block randomization method). This study was performed at a university hospital in Iran. Ninety-nine patients who had chronic anal fissures were included. A total of 99 patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups; the first group received combined topical diltiazem ointment (for 6 weeks) and botulinum toxin A injection (once) (n = 49), and the second group received partial lateral internal sphincterotomy (n = 50). All the patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary outcomes measured were the healing of the anal fissure and the development of incontinence as the major adverse event during the 1-year follow-up period. The overall healing rate was 65% and 94% in the botulinum toxin A-diltiazem and partial lateral internal sphincterotomy groups (p < 0.001). The patients in the partial lateral internal sphincterotomy group experienced significantly higher incontinence scores (p = 0.04) according to the Cleveland Clinic Florida-Fecal Incontinence scoring system. In patients who had chronic anal fissure for ≤12 months, no statistical difference was observed in the healing rate between the botulinum toxin A-diltiazem and partial lateral internal sphincterotomy groups (100% vs 100%). However, in the patients with longer chronic fissures, the healing rate was significantly higher in the partial lateral internal sphincterotomy group (86% [18/21] vs 23% [5/21], p < 0.001). The 1-year follow-up period, subjective definitions of itching, and lack of anorectal manometry examinations and data regarding the effect of each treatment on anal sphincter pressure at rest and contraction are the key limitations of this study. Combined botulinum toxin A injection with a topical application of

  19. Ultrasonography, laboratory, and cholangiography correlation of biliary complications in pediatric liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Teplisky, Darío; Urueña Tincani, Eliana; Halac, Esteban; Garriga, Matías; Cervio, Guillermo; Imventarza, Oscar; Sierre, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study is to correlate the US, laboratory, and cholangiography findings in pediatric liver transplant patients with biliary complications, trying to identify reliable decision-making tools for the management of these complications. Retrospective review was carried out of US results in 39 consecutive patients, from 2011 to 2013, with biliary complications after LT, documented by PTC. According to US biliary dilation, patients were classified as: mild, moderate, and severe, and according to laboratory findings as: normal or abnormal serum bilirubin and level of serum GGT. Data were correlated with PTC findings, divided in three groups: mild, moderate, and severe/occlusive BDS. There was no statistically significant correlation between the US findings and the laboratory findings and between US findings with PTC. There was a statistically significant correlation between GGT and cholangiography. In our series, abnormal US could not predict the severity of BDS on PTC. Bilirubin results were not able to predict the US findings either. GGT results demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the severity of BDS found on PTC. These findings emphasize the role of GGT in the evaluation and decision of biliary interventions in pediatric liver transplant recipients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Biliary Complications in Living Donor Liver Transplantation: Imaging Findings and the Roles of Interventional Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jung Min; Lee, Jeong Min; Suh, Kyung Suk; Yi, Nam Joon; Kim, Yong Tae; Kim, Se Hyung; Han, Joon Koo Choi, Byung Ihn

    2005-12-15

    Purpose. To describe the incidence, types, and findings of biliary complications in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to determine the roles of interventional procedures. Materials and methods. Twenty-four biliary complications among 161 LDLT patients (24/161, 14.9%) were identified. These complications were divided into two groups according to the initial manifestation time, i.e., 'early' (<60 days) or 'late'. The CT and cholangiographic findings were reviewed regarding the presence of a stricture or leak and the location, and length, shape, and degree of the stricture. Both groups were categorized into three subgroups: leak, stricture, and both. The type of interventional procedures used and their roles were determined. Results. Early complications were identified in 14 of the 24 patients (58%) and late complications in 11 (46%). One patient showed both early and late complications. Biliary stricture was detected in 10 patients, leak in 10, and both in 5. By cholangiography, all strictures were irregular and short (mean length 15 {+-} 6 mm) at the anastomotic site and complete obstruction was observed in 2 patients with late stricture. Twenty-three of the 24 patients were treated using percutaneous and/or endoscopic drainage procedures with or without balloon dilatation. Seventeen (74%) showed a good response, but reoperations were inevitable in 6 (26%). All patients except those with complete obstruction showed a favorable outcome after interventional management. Conclusion. Biliary leaks and strictures are predominant complications in LDLT. Most show good responses to interventional treatment. However, complete obstruction needs additional operative management.

  1. Role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in the management of benign biliary strictures: What’s new?

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Rosa; Loureiro, Rui; Nunes, Nuno; Santos, António Alberto; Maio, Rui; Cravo, Marília; Duarte, Maria Antónia

    2016-01-01

    Benign biliary strictures comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases. The most common strictures amenable to endoscopic treatment are post-cholecystectomy, post-liver transplantation, related to primary sclerosing cholangitis and to chronic pancreatitis. Endoscopic treatment of benign biliary strictures is widely used as first line therapy, since it is effective, safe, noninvasive and repeatable. Endoscopic techniques currently used are dilation, multiple plastic stents insertion and fully covered self-expandable metal stents. The main indication for dilation alone is primary sclerosing cholangitis related strictures. In the vast majority of the remaining cases, temporary placement of multiple plastic stents with/without dilation is considered the treatment of choice. Although this approach is effective, it requires multiple endoscopic sessions due to the short duration of stent patency. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents appear as a good alternative to plastic stents, since they have an increased radial diameter, longer stent patency, easier insertion technique and similar efficacy. Recent advances in endoscopic technique and various devices have allowed successful treatment in most cases. The development of novel endoscopic techniques and devices is still ongoing. PMID:26962404

  2. A Rare Case of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasm of the Biliary Duct in a Patient with Prostate Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Parekh, Ravish; Krol, Gregory; Piraka, Cyrus; Batra, Surinder

    2016-01-01

    Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are mucin-producing papillary neoplasms of the pancreatic or biliary ductal system that exhibit variable cellular atypia and cause ductal dilation. There are few reported cases of IPMN arising from the biliary tree in the literature. It has a higher propensity to undergo malignant transformation compared to IPMN arising from the pancreatic duct. An 80-year-old male underwent cross-sectional tomography (CT) imaging of the abdomen for evaluation of prostate adenocarcinoma, which revealed an incidental 2.3 × 2.7 cm soft tissue mass centered at the porta hepatis with diffuse dilatation of the left intrahepatic biliary ductal system and mild prominence of the right intrahepatic ductal system. Endoscopic ultrasound showed 2 adjacent hilar masses involving the common hepatic duct and the left hepatic duct with protrusion of the tissue into the lumen of the duct and upstream ductal dilatation. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed a large filling defect in the common hepatic duct extending into the left hepatic duct. A large amount of clot and soft tissue with a fish-egg appearance was retrieved. The patient underwent left hepatic lobectomy, radical resection of the common hepatic duct with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy to the right hepatic duct. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with diffuse high-grade dysplasia. Follow-up CT scan of the abdomen 2 months after the surgery was negative for any masses. PMID:28100995

  3. Pneumoperitoneum Caused by Transhepatic Air Leak After Metallic Biliary Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jei Hee; Lee, Deok Hee; Yu, Jeong-Sik; Lee, Se Joon; Kwon, Woo-Cheol; Kim, Ki Whang

    2000-11-15

    A self-expanding metallic biliary stent was placed for palliation of a common bile duct obstruction in a 68-year-old male with unresectable pancreatic head cancer 3 days after initial percutaneous right transhepatic catheter decompression. The stent crossed the ampulla of Vater. Three days later, the stent was balloon-dilated and the percutaneous access was removed. At removal, a small contrast leak from the transhepatic tract was seen. Three days later, pneumoperitoneum was found with symptoms of peritoneal irritation and fever. A widely open sphincter of Oddi caused by the metallic stent, accompanied by delayed sealing of the transhepatic tract, may have caused the air and bile leakage into the peritoneal space. This case shows that pneumoperitoneum may occur without ductal tear or bowel injury, with a biliary stent crossing the ampulla of Vater.

  4. Successful biliary drainage using a metal stent through the gastric stoma

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Kato, Hironari; Tsutsumi, Koichiro; Akimoto, Yutaka; Uchida, Daisuke; Tomoda, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Noma, Yasuhiro; Horiguchi, Shigeru; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of biliary drainage for malignant stricture using a metal stent with an ultrathin endoscope through the gastric stoma. A 78-year-old female was referred to our hospital for jaundice and fever. She had undergone percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) for esophageal obstruction after radiation therapy for cancer of the pharynx. Abdominal contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed a 3-cm enhanced mass in the middle bile duct and dilatation of the intra-hepatic bile duct. We initially performed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with a trans-oral approach. However, neither the side-viewing endoscope nor the ultrathin endoscope passed through the esophageal orifice. Thus, we eventually performed ERCP via the PEG stoma using an ultrathin endoscope. We performed biliary drainage with a 6F introducer self-expanding metal stent. The cytology findings obtained by brush cytology showed malignancy. Her laboratory results were restored to normal levels after drainage and no complication occurred. PMID:26140009

  5. Risk factors for proximal migration of biliary tube stents

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masami; Kawashima, Yohei; Mizukami, Hajime; Maruno, Atsuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Mine, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk factors for biliary stent migration in patients with benign and malignant strictures. METHODS: Endoscopic stent placement was performed in 396 patients with bile duct stenosis, at our institution, between June 2003 and March 2009. The indications for bile duct stent implantation included common bile duct stone in 190 patients, malignant lesions in 112, chronic pancreatitis in 62, autoimmune pancreatitis in 14, trauma in eight, surgical complications in six, and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in four. We retrospectively examined the frequency of stent migration, and analyzed the patient factors (disease, whether endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed, location of bile duct stenosis and diameter of the bile duct) and stent characteristics (duration of stent placement, stent type, diameter and length). Moreover, we investigated retrieval methods for migrated stents and their associated success rates. RESULTS: The frequency of tube stent migration in the total patient population was 3.5%. The cases in which tube stent migration occurred included those with common bile duct stones (3/190; 1.6%), malignant lesions (2/112; 1.8%), chronic pancreatitis (4/62; 6.5%), autoimmune pancreatitis (2/14; 14.3%), trauma (1/8; 12.5%), surgical complications (2/6; 33.3%), and PSC (0/4; 0%). The potential risk factors for migration included bile duct stenosis secondary to benign disease such as chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis (P = 0.030); stenosis of the lower bile duct (P = 0.031); bile duct diameter > 10 mm (P = 0.023); duration of stent placement > 1 mo (P = 0.007); use of straight-type stents (P < 0.001); and 10-Fr sized stents (P < 0.001). Retrieval of the migrated stents was successful in all cases. The grasping technique, using a basket or snare, was effective for pig-tailed or thin and straight stents, whereas the guidewire cannulation technique was effective for thick and straight stents. CONCLUSION: Migration of tube stents

  6. Risk factors for proximal migration of biliary tube stents.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Ogawa, Masami; Kawashima, Yohei; Mizukami, Hajime; Maruno, Atsuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Mine, Tetsuya

    2014-02-07

    To analyze the risk factors for biliary stent migration in patients with benign and malignant strictures. Endoscopic stent placement was performed in 396 patients with bile duct stenosis, at our institution, between June 2003 and March 2009. The indications for bile duct stent implantation included common bile duct stone in 190 patients, malignant lesions in 112, chronic pancreatitis in 62, autoimmune pancreatitis in 14, trauma in eight, surgical complications in six, and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) in four. We retrospectively examined the frequency of stent migration, and analyzed the patient factors (disease, whether endoscopic sphincterotomy was performed, location of bile duct stenosis and diameter of the bile duct) and stent characteristics (duration of stent placement, stent type, diameter and length). Moreover, we investigated retrieval methods for migrated stents and their associated success rates. The frequency of tube stent migration in the total patient population was 3.5%. The cases in which tube stent migration occurred included those with common bile duct stones (3/190; 1.6%), malignant lesions (2/112; 1.8%), chronic pancreatitis (4/62; 6.5%), autoimmune pancreatitis (2/14; 14.3%), trauma (1/8; 12.5%), surgical complications (2/6; 33.3%), and PSC (0/4; 0%). The potential risk factors for migration included bile duct stenosis secondary to benign disease such as chronic pancreatitis and autoimmune pancreatitis (P = 0.030); stenosis of the lower bile duct (P = 0.031); bile duct diameter > 10 mm (P = 0.023); duration of stent placement > 1 mo (P = 0.007); use of straight-type stents (P < 0.001); and 10-Fr sized stents (P < 0.001). Retrieval of the migrated stents was successful in all cases. The grasping technique, using a basket or snare, was effective for pig-tailed or thin and straight stents, whereas the guidewire cannulation technique was effective for thick and straight stents. Migration of tube stents within the bile duct is rare but

  7. Is endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation safe for treating large CBD stones?

    PubMed

    Shim, Chan Sup; Kim, Ji Wan; Lee, Tae Yoon; Cheon, Young Koog

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) has been shown to be an effective technique for the removal of large or difficult common bile duct (CBD) stones, as an alternative to EST. Reviewing the literature published since 2003, it is understood that EPLBD has fewer associated overall complications than EST. Bleeding occurred less frequently with EPLBD than with EST. There was no significant difference in postendoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis or perforation. Recent accumulated results of EPLBD with or even without EST suggest that it is a safe and effective procedure for the removal of large or difficult bile duct stones without any additional risk of severe adverse events, when performed under appropriate guidelines. Since use of a larger balloon can tear the sphincter as well as the bile duct, possibly resulting in bleeding and perforation, a balloon size that is equal to or smaller in diameter than the diameter of the native distal bile duct is recommended. The maximum transverse diameter of the stone and the balloon-stone diameter ratio have a tendency to affect the success or failure of complete removal of stones by large balloon dilation to prevent adverse effects such as perforation and bleeding. One should take into account the size of the native bile duct, the size and burden of stones, the presence of stricture of distal bile duct, and the presence of the papilla in or adjacent to a diverticulum. Even though the results of EPLBD indicate that it is a relatively safe procedure in patients with common duct stones with a dilated CBD, the recommended guidelines should be followed strictly for the prevention of major adverse events such as bleeding and perforation.

  8. Genetic basis of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Serra, Alexandra; Toro, Rocio; Sarquella-Brugada, Georgia; de Gonzalo-Calvo, David; Cesar, Sergi; Carro, Esther; Llorente-Cortes, Vicenta; Iglesias, Anna; Brugada, Josep; Brugada, Ramon; Campuzano, Oscar

    2016-12-01

    Dilated cardiomyopathy is a rare cardiac disease characterized by left ventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction leading to heart failure and sudden cardiac death. Currently, despite several conditions have been reported as aetiologies of the disease, a large number of cases remain classified as idiopathic. Recent studies determine that nearly 60% of cases are inherited, therefore due to a genetic cause. Progressive technological advances in genetic analysis have identified over 60 genes associated with this entity, being TTN the main gene, so far. All these genes encode a wide variety of myocyte proteins, mainly sarcomeric and desmosomal, but physiopathologic pathways are not yet completely unraveled. We review the recent published data about genetics of familial dilated cardiomyopathy.

  9. Endoscopic sphincterotomy: follow-up evaluation of effects on the sphincter of Oddi.

    PubMed

    Geenen, J E; Toouli, J; Hogan, W J; Dodds, W J; Stewart, E T; Mavrelis, P; Riedel, D; Venu, R

    1984-10-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) alters the structure and motor function of the sphincter of Oddi (SO). The magnitude and duration of these changes, however, have not been critically examined. Before ES, 22 patients with common bile duct stones were evaluated by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. The pressure gradient between the common bile duct and the duodenum, the SO basal pressure, and the SO peak phasic pressures were obtained. After ES, the electrosurgical incision length was determined using the extended papillotome and an inflated Fogarty balloon as reference. A high correlation existed between the endoscopist's estimate of ES incision size using this technique and the actual length of simulated incisions fashioned in cardboard mounts. These studies were repeated in all 22 patients at 1-yr follow-up and in 8 of these patients at 2-yr follow-up. At 12 mo and 24 mo after ES, the common bile duct (CBD) to duodenal pressure gradient and the sphincter of Oddi basal pressure were virtually eliminated. The amplitude of SO phasic contractions was significantly diminished 12 mo after ES (124 +/- 16 mmHg to 37 +/- 10 mmHg; p less than 0.001), but 24 mo after ES, SO phasic contraction amplitude was not significantly different from the values before ES. Incision length at 1-yr follow-up was reduced in the group of 22 patients from 11.6 +/- 0.8 mm to 8.3 +/- 0.5 mm (p less than 0.001), and in the group of 8 patients from 11.0 +/- 1.5 mm to 7.5 +/- 0.7 mm (p less than 0.025). After an additional 12 mo, however, i.e., 24 mo after ES, the incision length was 6.5 +/- 0.7 mm. There was no significant difference in incision length between the 12-mo and 24-mo examinations. We conclude that after ES, incision length decreases during the first year. There appears to be no further significant reduction in incision length at 2 yr. In addition, the reduction of the CBD to duodenal pressure gradient and the SO basal pressure remain unchanged for at least 2 yr. These manometric

  10. Characterization of functional biliary pain and dyspeptic symptoms in patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: Effect of papillotomy

    PubMed Central

    Madácsy, László; Fejes, Roland; Kurucsai, Gábor; Joó, Ildikó; Székely, András; Bertalan, Viktória; Szepes, Attila; Lonovics, János

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize functional biliary pain and other gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in postcholecystectomy syndrome (PCS) patients with and without sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) proved by endoscopic sphincter of Oddi manometry (ESOM), and to assess the post-endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) outcome. METHODS: We prospectively investigated 85 cholecystectomized patients referred for ERCP because of PCS and suspected SOD. On admission, all patients completed our questionnaire. Physical examination, laboratory tests, abdominal ultrasound, quantitative hepatobiliary scintigraphy (QHBS), and ERCP were performed in all patients. Based on clinical and ERCP findings 15 patients had unexpected bile duct stone disease and 15 patients had SOD biliary typeI. ESOM demonstrated an elevated basal pressure in 25 patients with SOD biliary-type III. In the remaining 30 cholecystectomized patients without SOD, the liver function tests, ERCP, QHBS and ESOM were all normal. As a control group, 30 ‘asymptomatic’ cholecystectomized volunteers (attended to our hospital for general cardiovascular screening) completed our questionnaire, which is consisted of 50 separate questions on GI symptoms and abdominal pain characteristics. Severity of the abdominal pain (frequency and intensity) was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS). In 40 of 80 patients having definite SOD (i.e. patients with SOD biliary typeIand those with elevated SO basal pressure on ESOM), an EST was performed just after ERCP. In these patients repeated questionnaires were filled at each follow-up visit (at 3 and 6 mo) and a second look QHBS was performed 3 mo after the EST to assess the functional response to EST. RESULTS: The analysis of characteristics of the abdominal pain demonstrated that patients with common bile duct stone and definite SOD had a significantly higher score of symptomatic agreement with previously determined biliary-like pain features than patient groups of PCS without SOD and controls

  11. Extra-ampullary Peutz-Jeghers polyp causing duodenal intussusception leading to biliary obstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    De Silva, W S L; Pathirana, A A; Gamage, B D; Manawasighe, D S; Jayasundara, B; Kiriwandeniya, U

    2016-07-15

    Duodenal Peutz-Jeghers polyp is a rare cause of duodenal or biliary obstruction. However, a sporadic Peutz-Jeghers polyp leading to simultaneous biliary and duodenal obstruction has not been reported. We report a case of a 25-year-old Sri Lankan woman presenting with features of recurrent upper small intestinal obstruction and biliary obstruction. She had clinical as well as biochemical evidence of intermittent biliary obstruction. Evidence of duodenal intussusception was found in a computed tomography enterogram and a duodenal polyp was noted as the lead point. Marked elongation and distortion of her lower common bile duct with intrahepatic duct dilatation was also noted and the ampulla was found to be on the left side of the midline pulled toward the intussusceptum. Open polypectomy and reduction of intussusception were done and she became fully asymptomatic following surgery. Histology of the resected specimen was reported as a typical "Peutz-Jeghers polyp". As there was not enough evidence to diagnose Peutz-Jeghers syndrome this was considered to be a sporadic Peutz-Jeghers polyp. Rare benign causes such as a duodenal polyp should be considered and looked for in initial imaging, when the cause for concurrent biliary and intestinal obstruction is uncertain, particularly in young individuals.

  12. Advances in endoscopic management of biliary complications after living donor liver transplantation: Comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Milljae; Joh, Jae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Apart from noticeable improvements in surgical techniques and immunosuppressive agents, biliary complications remain the major causes of morbidity and mortality after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Bile leakage and stricture are the predominant complications. The reported incidence of biliary complications is 15%-40%, and these are known to occur more frequently in living donors than in deceased donors. Despite the absence of a confirmed therapeutic algorithm, many approaches have been used for treatment, including surgical, endoscopic, and percutaneous transhepatic techniques. In recent years, nonsurgical approaches have largely replaced reoperation. Among these, the endoscopic approach is currently the preferred initial treatment for patients who undergo duct-to-duct biliary reconstruction. Previously, endoscopic management was achieved most optimally through balloon dilatation and single or multiple stents placement. Recently, there have been significant developments in endoscopic devices, such as novel biliary stents, as well as advances in endoscopic technologies, including deep enteroscopy, the rendezvous technique, magnetic compression anastomosis, and direct cholangioscopy. These developments have resulted in almost all patients being managed by the endoscopic approach. Multiple recent publications suggest superior long-term results, with overall success rates ranging from 58% to 75%. This article summarizes the advances in endoscopic management of patients with biliary complications after LDLT. PMID:27468208

  13. Biliary Dyskinesia in Children: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Santucci, Neha R; Hyman, Paul E; Harmon, Carroll M; Schiavo, Julie H; Hussain, Sunny Z

    2017-02-01

    Cholecystectomy rates for biliary dyskinesia in children are rising in the United States, but not in other countries. Biliary dyskinesia is a validated functional gallbladder disorder in adults, requiring biliary colic in the diagnosis. In contrast, most studies in children require upper abdominal pain, absent gallstones on ultrasound, and an abnormal gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) on cholecystokinin-stimulated cholescintigraphy for diagnosis. We aimed to systematically review existing literature in biliary dyskinesia in children, determine the validity and reliability of diagnostic criteria, GBEF, and to assess outcomes following cholecystectomy. We performed a systematic review following the PRISMA checklist and searched 7 databases including PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Ovid, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library. Bibliographies of articles were screened for additional studies. Our search terms yielded 916 articles of which 28 were included. Three articles were manually added from searched references. We reviewed 31 peer-reviewed publications, all retrospective chart reviews. There was heterogeneity in diagnostic criteria and GBEF values. Outcomes after laparoscopic cholecystectomy varied from 34% to 100% success, and there was no consensus concerning factors influencing outcomes. The observational, retrospective study designs that comprised our review limited interpretation of safety and efficacy of the investigations and treatment in biliary dyskinesia in children. Symptoms of biliary dyskinesia overlapped with functional dyspepsia. There is a need for consensus on symptoms defining biliary dyskinesia, validation of testing required for diagnosis of biliary dyskinesia, and randomized controlled trials comparing medical versus surgical management in children with upper abdominal pain.

  14. Biliary Stent Migration with Duodenal Perforation

    PubMed Central

    Yaprak, Muhittin; Mesci, Ayhan; Colak, Taner; Yildirim, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal perforation from a migrated biliary stent is a known complication of endoscopic biliary stent placement. We present a case of stent migration and resultant duodenal perforation after stent placement for a malignant biliary stricture in a 52-year-old woman. We review the current literature on the diagnosis and management of stent migration and intestinal perforation after endoscopic stent placement for biliary strictures. A plain abdominal radiograph is necessary for early diagnosis of biliary stent migration. If a stent becomes lodged in the gastrointestinal tract, endoscopic or operative extraction of the stent is necessary to prevent subsequent intestinal perforation and peritonitis. Intestinal perforation secondary to biliary stent dislocation should be considered in all patients presenting with fever and abdominal pain after biliary stent insertion. Any abnormality that prevents stent migration through the intestinal tract such as gastroenterostomy, abdominal wall hernia, extensive adhesions or colonic divertucula may be a contraindication for insertion of a plastic biliary stent because of increased perforation risk. PMID:25610053

  15. Idiopathic dilatation of pulmonary artery

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rahul Kumar; Talwar, Deepak; Gupta, Sameer K; Bansal, Shobhit

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic dilatation of pulmonary arteries (IDPA) is a rare abnormality of pulmonary arteries, the reported incidence in literature being as low as 0.007% in autopsy samples. With the improvement in diagnostic modalities, antemortem diagnosis of IDPA has been increasingly established by excluding diseases that induce pulmonary arterial enlargement. Here, we present a rare case of idiopathic dilatation of the pulmonary artery admitted with shortness of breath where IDPA was diagnosed as an incidental finding using computed tomography pulmonary angiography and cardiac catheterization. PMID:27891002

  16. Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tree

    SciTech Connect

    Stadalnik, R.C.; Matolo, N.M.

    1981-08-01

    The new 99mTc biliary scintigraphy agents are highly sensitive and specific in detecting biliary tract disease and use of them is the initial procedure of choice in evaluating patients with suspected acute cholecystitis. Other clinically useful indications are evaluation of biliary kinetics; evaluation of patients with suspected traumatic bile leakage, gallbladder perforation, or postsurgical biliary tract complications; and evaluation of patients with suspected biliary obstruction. In 99mTc we have a simple radiopharmaceutical of low radiation for evaluating congenital abnormalities and neonatal jaundice. In the Orient 99mTc cholescintigraphy is extremely important in evaluating patients with suspected intrahepatic stones. The overall advantages of this technique include availability, safety, simplicity, and accuracy. In addition, it may be performed in those patients who are allergic to iodinated contrast agents.

  17. Current Status of Biliary Metal Stents

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Hyeong Seok; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Many advances have been achieved in biliary stenting over the past 30 years. Endoscopic stent placement has become the primary management therapy to relieve obstruction in patients with benign or malignant biliary tract diseases. Compared with plastic stents, a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) has been used for management in patients with malignant strictures because of a larger lumen and longer stent patency. Recently, SEMS has been used for various benign biliary strictures and leaks. In this article, we briefly review the characteristics of SEMS as well as complications of stent placement. We review the current guidelines for managing malignant and benign biliary obstructions. Recent developments in biliary stenting are also discussed. PMID:26911896

  18. A prospective randomized trial betwen subcutaneous lateral internal sphincterotomy with radiofrequency bistoury and conventional parks' operation in the treatment of anal fissures.

    PubMed

    Filingeri, V; Gravante, G

    2005-01-01

    Anal fissure is a frequent proctologic disease. There are many and various treatments adopted to cure this disease. In this study we applied radiofrequencies to the subcutaneous lateral internal sphincterotomy and we compared the techniques in a randomised trial. Patients have been randomized in two groups: in group A 18 patients underwent subcutaneous lateral internal sphincterotomy using radiofrequency bistoury while in group B 17 patients underwent the conventional lateral internal sphincterotomy described by Parks. The mean values for operative time were 6.6 min for group A and 9.1 min for group B. According to pain score, patients' mean values were 1.8 for group A and 1.9 for group B. Healing of the wound was faster in group A than group B, while healing of the anal fissure was approximately the same. Lateral subcutaneous sphincterotomy is the most advantageous operation for the treatment of the idiopathic anal fissure. The radiofrequency bistoury easies the procedure, lessens operating times and healing process of the surgical wounds.

  19. [Echographic signs of biliary atresia].

    PubMed

    Tarasiuk, B A; Iaremenko, V V; Babko, S A; Klimenko, E F; Medvedenko, G F

    2004-10-01

    The assessment of echographic features of biliary atresia was conducted in 65 newborn children ageing up to 3 mo. Their characteristic variants were revealed: the absence or reduction in size of gall-bladder, the presence of hyperechogenic triangular formation in V. portae bifurcation (the symptom of "triangular cicatrix"); the thickening of anterior wall of V. portae right branch. The timely and correct establishment of the diagnosis permits a child to survive and serve the hepatic fibrosis prophylaxis. Echohepatography is a sufficiently trustful method of investigation.

  20. [Lithiasis of the gallbladder and biliary ducts: from epidemiology to therapy].

    PubMed

    Pellicano, R; Palmas, F; Astegiano, M; Vanni, E; Leone, N; Bresso, F; Rizzetto, M

    2001-08-01

    The diagnosis of cholelitiasis, more and more common with the wide diffusion of abdominal ultrasound, is often a surprise for the patient as well as for the physician who is sometimes forced to take a therapeutical decision. In the case of dilatation of the biliary duct, the cholangioRM is assuming an increasingly important role, especially before a therapeutical ERCP. The best therapeutical approach seems to be the surgical ablation in laparoscopy in presence of specific signs and symptoms. Indication to surgical ablation is a symptomatic or complicated cholelithiasis, or the history of obstructive pancreatitis. A preventive cholecystectomy can be useful for precancerous lesions.

  1. Unusual presentation of silently growing abdominal aortic aneurysm causing biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Changal, Khalid Hamid; Lim, Francis; Sunkara, Tejasvi; Hamdani, Syed Uzair

    2017-09-25

    Biliary obstruction is a rare presentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). The most common symptoms of AAA are abdominal or back pain and limb ischaemia from thromboembolism. We report a case of a 67-year-old male who was diagnosed with obstructive jaundice secondary to an AAA. CT angiogram revealed compression of the common bile duct by the large AAA, causing diffuse intrahepatic and extrahepatic ductal dilatation. Surgical repair of the aortic aneurysm was successful, and patient's symptoms improved. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Understanding the Mechanical forces of Self-Expandable Metal Stents in the Biliary Ducts.

    PubMed

    Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Saburo; Kogure, Hirofumi; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-12-01

    Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) was an effective biliary endoprosthesis. Mechanical properties of SEMS, radial and axial force (RF, AF), may play important roles in the bile duct after placement. RF was well known dilation force and influenced on the occurrence of migration. AF, newly proposed by this author, was defined as the recovery force when the SEMS vended. AF was related with the cause of bile duct kinking, pancreatitis, and cholecystitis due to the compression of the bile duct, orifice of the cystic duct, and pancreatic orifice. Ideal SEMS may show high RF and low AF.

  3. Radionuclide imaging of the biliary tract

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.E.; Daly, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Cholescintigraphy with technetium-labeled biliary agents has great value in evaluation of the patient with suspected acute cholecystitis. Visualization of the gall bladder virtually excludes acute cholecystitis and obstruction of the cystic duct. Nonvisualization of the gall bladder, however, is not specific for acute cholecystitis and may also occur in some patients with chronic cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Interpretation of gall bladder nonvisualization, therefore, must be correlated with the clinical presentation. Biliary tract imaging is also useful in evaluation of some focal abnormalities within the liver, neonatal jaundice, detection of bile leaks or bile reflux, and biliary-enteric shunts. The role of technetium-labeled biliary agents in the evaluation of patients with jaundice is less clear. Excretion of tracer into the gut excludes complete biliary tract obstruction, but the test may be nonconclusive at higher serum bilirubin levels. If persistent common bile duct activity is observed with delayed excretion into the gut, the diagnosis of partial obstruction may be made, but this procedure will be inconclusive if the common bile duct is not visualized and/or significant hepatocellular disease is present. Ultrasonography and abdominal CT are the preferred tools for the diagnosis of biliary tract obstruction at present, but newer biliary tract agents which achieve better hepatic extraction and greater bile concentration at high serum bilirubin levels may improve the diagnostic efficacy of cholescintigraphy.

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in Patients with Post-Liver Transplant Biliary Complications: Results of a Cohort Study with Long-Term Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Claudia; Giordanino, Chiara; Giono, Ilaria; Barletti, Claudio; Ferrari, Arnaldo; Recchia, Serafino; Reggio, Dario; Repici, Alessandro; Ricchiuti, Alessandro; Salizzoni, Mauro; Baldi, Ileana; Ciccone, Giovannino; Rizzetto, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the standard approach for the management of biliary complications in liver transplant patients; however, its safety and efficacy have not been established in this setting. This study was performed to evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of ERCP in transplant patients. Methods The case reports of 1,500 liver transplant patients were reviewed. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients were matched 1:2 with non-OLT patients and followed-up for long-term outcome (median, 7.4 years). Results Of the 1,500 liver transplant patients, 94 (6.3%) underwent 150 ERCPs after OLT. Anastomotic strictures were present in 45 patients, biliary stones in 24, biliary leaks in 7, papillary stenosis in 2, and primary sclerosing cholangitis in 1. An ERCP success rate of 90.7% was achieved; biliary stenting led to resolution of the bile leak in 7/7 (100%) patients, and biliary stones were removed in 21/24 (87.5%) patients. In addition, 34 of 45 patients with anastomotic stricture underwent endoscopic dilation. We obtained complete resolution in 22/34 (64.7%) patients. OLT patients did not show a higher probability of complications (odds ratio [OR], 1.04), of pancreatitis (OR, 0.80) or of bleeding (OR, 1.34). Conclusions ERCP is safe and effective for the treatment of post-OLT biliary complications, has a low rate of pancreatitis and results in a durable effect. PMID:21927662

  5. Safety and efficacy of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with post-liver transplant biliary complications: results of a cohort study with long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Claudia; Giordanino, Chiara; Giono, Ilaria; Barletti, Claudio; Ferrari, Arnaldo; Recchia, Serafino; Reggio, Dario; Repici, Alessandro; Ricchiuti, Alessandro; Salizzoni, Mauro; Baldi, Ileana; Ciccone, Giovannino; Rizzetto, Mario; Saracco, Giorgio

    2011-09-01

    Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the standard approach for the management of biliary complications in liver transplant patients; however, its safety and efficacy have not been established in this setting. This study was performed to evaluate the safety and long-term efficacy of ERCP in transplant patients. The case reports of 1,500 liver transplant patients were reviewed. Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) patients were matched 1:2 with non-OLT patients and followed-up for long-term outcome (median, 7.4 years). Of the 1,500 liver transplant patients, 94 (6.3%) underwent 150 ERCPs after OLT. Anastomotic strictures were present in 45 patients, biliary stones in 24, biliary leaks in 7, papillary stenosis in 2, and primary sclerosing cholangitis in 1. An ERCP success rate of 90.7% was achieved; biliary stenting led to resolution of the bile leak in 7/7 (100%) patients, and biliary stones were removed in 21/24 (87.5%) patients. In addition, 34 of 45 patients with anastomotic stricture underwent endoscopic dilation. We obtained complete resolution in 22/34 (64.7%) patients. OLT patients did not show a higher probability of complications (odds ratio [OR], 1.04), of pancreatitis (OR, 0.80) or of bleeding (OR, 1.34). ERCP is safe and effective for the treatment of post-OLT biliary complications, has a low rate of pancreatitis and results in a durable effect.

  6. Biliary strictures: endoscopic assessment and management

    PubMed Central

    Paranandi, Bharat; Oppong, Kofi W

    2017-01-01

    The diagnosis of biliary strictures can be challenging. Endoscopy has an established role in the diagnosis and therapy of biliary strictures. However, the diagnostic yield from conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography tissue sampling is modest. Improvements in existing technologies as well as the implementation of novel technologies and techniques have the potential to improve the diagnostic performance of endoscopy and expand its therapeutic role. Recent studies have enabled greater clarity about the role of preoperative biliary drainage and the choice of stents in this setting as well as the utility of metal stents in benign and malignant disease. PMID:28261440

  7. Endoscopic palliation of malignant biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Salgado, Sanjay M; Gaidhane, Monica; Kahaleh, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Malignant biliary strictures often present late after the window for curative resection has elapsed. In such patients, the goal of therapy is typically focused on palliation. While historically, palliative measures were performed surgically, the advent of endoscopic intervention offers minimally invasive options to provide relief of symptoms, improve quality of life, and in some cases, increase survival of these patients. Some of these therapies, such as endoscopic biliary decompression, have become mainstays of treatment for decades, whereas newer modalities, including radiofrequency ablation, and photodynamic therapy offer additional options for patients with incurable biliary malignancies. PMID:26989459

  8. Inaccurate preoperative imaging assessment on biliary anatomy not increases biliary complications after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao; Wei, Xuyong; Ling, Qi; Wang, Kai; Bao, Haiwei; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Shusen

    2012-04-01

    Accurate assessment of graft bile duct is important to plan surgical procedure. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) has become an important diagnostic procedure in evaluation of pancreaticobiliary ductal abnormalities and has been reported as highly accurate. We aim to estimate the efficacy of preoperative MRCP on depicting biliary anatomy in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), and to determine whether inaccurate preoperative imaging assessment would increase the biliary complications after LDLT. The data of 118 cases LDLT were recorded. Information from preoperative MRCP was assessed using intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) as the gold standard. The possible risk factors of recipient biliary complications were analyzed. Of 118 donors, 84 had normal anatomy (type A) and 34 had anatomic variants (19 cases of type B, 9 cases of type C, 1 case of type E, 2 cases of type F and 3 cases of type I) confirmed by IOC. MRCP correctly predicted all 84 normal cases and 17 of 34 variant cases, and showed an accuracy of 85.6% (101/118). The incidence of biliary complications was comparable between cases with accurate and inaccurate classification of biliary tree from MRCP, and between cases with normal and variant anatomy of bile duct. While cases with graft duct opening ≤5mm showed a significant higher incidence of total biliary complications (21.1% vs. 6.6%, P=0.028) and biliary stricture (10.5% vs. 1.6%, P=0.041) compared with cases with large duct opening >5mm. MRCP could correctly predict normal but not variant biliary anatomy. Inaccurate assessment of biliary anatomy from MRCP not increases the rate of biliary complications, while small-sized graft duct may cause an increase in biliary complications particularly biliary stricture after LDLT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... the expand/collapse boxes. Description X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy is a form of heart disease. Dilated cardiomyopathy ...

  10. Sonographic diagnosis of biliary ascariasis.

    PubMed

    Schulman, A; Loxton, A J; Heydenrych, J J; Abdurahman, K E

    1982-09-01

    In a prospective 6 month study, sonographic diagnosis of biliary ascariasis was made in 12 patients: In five, the diagnosis was confirmed by other means, mainly intravenous cholangiography. In three, such confirmation was not sought, but all had proven intestinal infestation. One possible and three definite false-positive diagnoses were made. There were no established false-negative diagnoses. The echogenic, nonshadowing images of the worms were seen in the main bile duct and/or gallbladder as single strips (on one occasion with its digestive tract seen as an anechoic "inner tube"), as multiple strips giving a spaghettilike appearance, as coils, or as more amorphous fragments. Follow-up sonograms were obtained in six patients and showed expulsion of the worms by medical treatment.

  11. Autoantigens in primary biliary cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D

    2000-01-01

    The automimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is characterised by serum autoantibodies directed at mitochondrial and nuclear antigens (seen in most patients and a subset of patients, respectively). The antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) characteristic of PBC are directed at members of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase components of multienzyme complexes; in particular, the E2 and E3 binding protein (E3BP) components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The presence of autoantibodies reactive with PDC-E2 and/or E3BP is strongly predictive of the presence of PBC. Therefore, the detection of these antibodies plays a very important role in the diagnosis of PBC. Originally demonstrated using immunofluorescence approaches, AMA can now be detected by the use of commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Although the ELISA based approaches have advantages in terms of laboratory practicality, they are slightly less sensitive for the diagnosis of PBC than immunofluorescence (occasional patients with PBC show reactivity with PDC related antigens not present in the antigen preparations available for use with ELISA). Therefore, immunofluorescence should continue to be available as a complementary diagnostic test for use in occasional patients. In a subset of patients with PBC, autoantibodies are directed at increasingly well characterised nuclear antigens. Antinuclear antibody (ANA) positive patients are typically AMA negative. There are no significant differences in disease phenotype between AMA positive and AMA negative groups. At present, the clinical detection of ANA is mostly by Hep2 immunofluorescence, although ELISA kits for individual nuclear antigens are increasingly becoming available. Key Words: liver cirrhosis • biliary • autoimmunity • autoantibody PMID:11127262

  12. Contemporary Management of Biliary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    George, Josh; Baillie, John

    2005-03-01

    Biliary tract infections are a worldwide problem, with a large financial burden on health care. Biliary infections can result from multiple causes, but the most common culprit is cholelithiasis. In the past decade, our knowledge of the mechanism of disease, microbiology of infections, and management options has grown enormously. Although at times perplexing, it is important to understand this information to allow for efficient, quality, and cost-effective health care.

  13. Anthony Eden's (Lord Avon) biliary tract saga.

    PubMed

    Braasch, John W

    2003-11-01

    Anthony Eden (Lord Avon) was the youngest foreign secretary in Great Britain's history. He subsequently became Prime Minister, succeeding Winston Churchill. Eden had the misfortune to have, during cholecystectomy, a biliary tract injury which required four subsequent biliary tract operations. He was subject to recurrent fevers and postoperative disability at important times in his career and during international crises. This report details the operative procedures used and his clinical status at crucial times in national and international affairs.

  14. BIODEGRADABLE BILIARY STENTS: A NEW APPROACH FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF HEPATICOJEJUNOSTOMY STRICTURES FOLLOWING BILE DUCT INJURY. PROSPECTIVE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    GIMÉNEZ, Mariano E.; PALERMO, Mariano; HOUGHTON, Eduardo; ACQUAFRESCA, Pablo; FINGER, Caetano; VERDE, Juan M.; CÚNEO, Jorge Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Once a biliary injury has occurred, repair is done by a hepaticojejunostomy. The most common procedure is to perform a dilatation with balloon with a success of 70 %. Success rates range using biodegradable stents is from 85% to 95%. Biodegradable biliary stents should change the treatment of this complication. Aim: To investigate the use of biodegradable stents in a group of patients with hepaticojejunonostomy strictures. Methods: In a prospective study 16 biodegradable stents were placed in 13 patients with hepaticojejunostomy strictures secondary to bile duct repair of a biliary surgical injury. Average age was 38.7 years (23-67), nine were female and four male. All cases had a percutaneous drainage before at the time of biodegradable stent placement. Results: In one case, temporary haemobilia was present requiring blood transfusion. In another, pain after stent placement required intravenous medication. In the other 11 patients, hospital discharge was the next morning following stent placement. During the patient´s follow-up, none presented symptoms during the first nine months. One patient presented significant alkaline phosphatase elevation and stricture recurrence was confirmed. One case had recurrence of cholangitis 11 months after the stent placement. 84.6% continued asymptomatic with a mean follow-up of 20 months. Conclusion: The placement of biodegradable stents is a safe and feasible technique. Was not observed strictures caused by the stent or its degradation. It could substitute balloon dilation in strictures of hepaticojejunostomy. PMID:27438039

  15. Type of Combined Endoscopic Biliary and Gastroduodenal Stenting Is Significant for Biliary Route Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takamitsu; Hara, Kazuo; Mizuno, Nobumasa; Hijioka, Susumu; Imaoka, Hiroshi; Yogi, Tatsuji; Tsutsumi, Hideharu; Fujiyoshi, Toshihisa; Niwa, Yasumasa; Tajika, Masahiro; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Ishihara, Makoto; Kubota, Kensuke; Nakajima, Atsushi; Yamao, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Objective Some patients with malignant gastric outlet obstruction require combined biliary and gastroduodenal stenting (double stenting). However, biliary stent dysfunction can often disturb biliary route maintenance, thus making the optimal biliary stenting for these patients unclear. The present study was designed to assess the factors associated with the long-term maintenance of biliary drainage routes. Methods The clinical features and long-term outcomes were assessed in patients who underwent double stenting. Patients The outcomes were reviewed in 43 consecutive patients who successfully underwent endoscopic double stenting with metallic stents. Results An univariate analysis of all patients with biliary stent dysfunction showed the separate type of double stenting (two stents placed in a non-crossed position) to be the only predictive factor related to successful biliary re-intervention for stent dysfunction (odds ratio 73.67, p=0.001). A comparison of the clinical features in patients who underwent separate and cross (two stents placed in a crossed position) stenting showed the functional success rate to be higher for the separate (93.3%) than for the cross (61.5%) stent type, with the median times to biliary stent dysfunction differing significantly (330 vs. 298 days, respectively; p=0.048). The success rates of re-intervention in patients with separate and cross type stents were 88.9% and 0.0%, respectively (p=0.001), and the initial biliary route maintenance rates were 96.7% and 53.8%, respectively (p=0.002). Conclusion The separate type of double stenting may enhance successful biliary re-intervention for stent dysfunction and also maintain the initial drainage route longer. The biliary drainage outcomes should therefore be considered when choosing the type of double stenting.

  16. Plastic Biliary Stent Migration During Multiple Stents Placement and Successful Endoscopic Removal Using Intra-Stent Balloon Inflation Technique: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Calcara, Calcedonio; Broglia, Laura; Comi, Giovanni; Balzarini, Marco

    2016-02-05

    Late migration of a plastic biliary stent after endoscopic placement is a well known complication, but there is little information regarding migration of a plastic stent during multiple stents placement. A white man was hospitalized for severe jaundice due to neoplastic hilar stenosis. Surgical eligibility appeared unclear on admission and endoscopy was carried out, but the first stent migrated proximally at the time of second stent insertion. After failed attempts with various devices, the migrated stent was removed successfully through cannulation with a dilation balloon. The migration of a plastic biliary stent during multiple stents placement is a possible complication. In this context, extraction can be very complicated. In our patient, cannulation of a stent with a dilation balloon was the only effective method.

  17. Ampulla dilation with different sized balloons to remove common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Li, Neng-Ping; Liu, Jiang-Qi; Zhou, Zhi-Qiang; Ji, Tao-Ying; Cai, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Qing-Yun

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the outcomes of ampulla dilation with different sized balloons to remove common bile duct (CBD) stones. METHODS: Patients (n = 208) were divided into five groups based on the largest CBD stone size of < 5, 6-8, 8-12, 12-14, and > 14 mm. Patients underwent limited endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) alone or limited EST followed by endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with 8, 10, 12 and 14 mm balloons, such that the size of each balloon did not exceed the size of the CBD. Short- and long-term outcomes, such as post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) pancreatitis, perforation, bleeding, and pneumobilia were compared among the five groups. RESULTS: The overall rate of successful stone removal in all groups was 100%, and all patients were cured. Eight (3.85%) patients had post-ERCP pancreatitis, none had perforations, and 6 (2.9%) had bleeding requiring transfusion. There were no significant differences in early complication rates among the five groups. We observed significant correlations between increased balloon size and the short- and long-term rates of post-ERCP pneumobilia. Post-ERCP pancreatitis and bleeding correlated significantly with age, with post-ERCP pancreatitis occurring more frequently in patients aged < 60 years, and bleeding occurring more frequently in patients aged > 70 years. We observed a significant correlation between patient age and the diameter of the largest CBD stone, with stones > 12 mm occurring more frequently in patients > 60 years old. CONCLUSION: Choosing a balloon size based on the largest stone diameter is safe and effective for removing CBD stones. Balloon size should not exceed 15 mm. PMID:23431070

  18. Unexplained common bile duct dilatation with normal serum liver enzymes: diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound and follow-up of this condition.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Mauro; Brizzi, Rosario F; Mezzabotta, Lavinia; Carucci, Patrizia; Elia, Chiara; Gaia, Silvia; Mengozzi, Giulio; Romito, Alessandrina V; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A; Rizzetto, Mario; De Angelis, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    There is scant literature about common bile duct (CBD) dilatation with normal liver function tests (LFTs). The aims of this study were to assess the diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with CBD dilatation, normal LFTs, and prior inconclusive imaging tests, and to assess the natural history of these subjects. We retrospectively reviewed our EUS database for patients referred for evaluation of CBD dilatation, normal LFTs, and prior inconclusive imaging. We excluded patients with a prior endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography or a history of biliary obstruction, pancreatitis, or jaundice. Follow-up data were retrieved from medical records or by calling the general practitioners, referring specialists, patients, or their closest relatives. A total of 57 patients were enrolled. The mean CBD diameter was 12.5±3.6 mm. The majority of patients (50.8%) were asymptomatic. Abnormal EUS findings were recorded in 12 (21%) subjects: 6 patients had a periampullary diverticulum, 2 had ampullary adenoma, 2 had signs of chronic pancreatitis, 1 had a cancer of the pancreatic head, and 1 had a 7 mm CBD stone. Neither age, sex, prior cholecystectomy, clinical presentation, CBD diameter, nor a dilated main pancreatic duct were predictors of abnormal EUS findings. None of the patients complained of biliary symptoms or showed abnormal LFTs on long-term follow-up. CBD dilatation with normal liver chemistry is not always a benign condition. Even when prior imaging tests are negative, EUS may allow to diagnose conditions overlooked by standard diagnostic imaging.

  19. Meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials on safety and efficacy of biliary drainage before surgery for obstructive jaundice.

    PubMed

    Fang, Y; Gurusamy, K S; Wang, Q; Davidson, B R; Lin, H; Xie, X; Wang, C

    2013-11-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to investigate whether preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) is beneficial to patients with obstructive jaundice. Data from randomized clinical trials related to safety and effectiveness of PBD versus no PBD were extracted by two independent reviewers. Risk ratios, rate ratios or mean differences were calculated with 95 per cent confidence intervals (c.i.), based on intention-to-treat analysis, whenever possible. Six trials (four using percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage and two using endoscopic sphincterotomy) including 520 patients with malignant or benign obstructive jaundice comparing PBD (265 patients) with no PBD (255) were included in this review. All trials had a high risk of bias. There was no significant difference in mortality (risk ratio 1.12, 95 per cent c.i. 0.73 to 1.71; P = 0.60) between the two groups. Overall serious morbidity (grade III or IV, Clavien-Dindo classification) was higher in the PBD group (599 complications per 1000 patients) than in the direct surgery group (361 complications per 1000 patients) (rate ratio 1.66, 95 per cent c.i. 1.28 to 2.16; P < 0.001). Quality of life was not reported in any of the trials. There was no significant difference in length of hospital stay between the two groups: mean difference 4.87 (95 per cent c.i. -1.28 to 11.02) days (P = 0.12). PBD in patients undergoing surgery for obstructive jaundice is associated with similar mortality but increased serious morbidity compared with no PBD. Therefore, PBD should not be used routinely. © 2013 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Postcholecystectomy syndrome: evaluation using biliary scintigraphy and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

    SciTech Connect

    Zeman, R.K.; Burrell, M.I.; Dobbins, J.; Jaffe, M.K.; Choyke, P.L.

    1985-09-01

    The authors prospectively studied 30 patients with postcholecystectomy syndrome to determine the efficacy of biliary scintigraphy in the detection of stenosis of the sphincter of Oddi. All patients underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Biliary scintigraphy disclosed stenosis of the sphincter by agreement with the ERCP or surgical findings in nine (90%) of ten patients and in eight (100%) of eight patients with biliary obstruction from other causes. Retention of activity at 2 hours in visually prominent ducts was the best predictor of abnormal biliary drainage. Biliary scintigraphy is a useful, noninvasive screening test for the detection of postcholecystectomy biliary obstruction.

  1. Laser ablation of a biliary duct for treatment of a persistent biliary-cutaneous fistula.

    PubMed

    Eicher, Chad A; Adelson, Anthony B; Himmelberg, Jeffrey A; Chintalapudi, Udaya

    2008-02-01

    A persistent biliary-cutaneous fistula detected after biliary drainage catheter removal could not be resolved with diversionary techniques and Gelfoam and fibrin glue administration in the fistulous tract. As an alternative approach for treatment of the fistula, obliteration of the contributing bile duct with laser ablation was performed.

  2. Antarctic Analog for Dilational Bands on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  3. Antarctic analog for dilational bands on Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurford, T. A.; Brunt, K. M.

    2014-09-01

    Europa's surface shows signs of extension, which is revealed as lithospheric dilation expressed along ridges, dilational bands and ridged bands. Ridges, the most common tectonic feature on Europa, comprise a central crack flanked by two raised banks a few hundred meters high on each side. Together these three classes may represent a continuum of formation. In Tufts' Dilational Model ridge formation is dominated by daily tidal cycling of a crack, which can be superimposed with regional secular dilation. The two sources of dilation can combine to form the various band morphologies observed. New GPS data along a rift on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica is a suitable Earth analog to test the framework of Tufts' Dilational Model. As predicted by Tufts' Dilational Model, tensile failures in the Ross Ice Shelf exhibit secular dilation, upon which a tidal signal can be seen. From this analog we conclude that Tufts' Dilational Model for Europan ridges and bands may be credible and that the secular dilation is most likely from a regional source and not tidally driven.

  4. Forgotten biliary stents: ignorance is not bliss.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Saket; Chandra, Abhijit; Kulkarni, Rugved; Maurya, Ajeet Pratap; Gupta, Vishal

    2017-06-22

    Endoscopic biliary stenting is a common procedure in routine gastroenterology practice. Plastic stents are the most common type of stents used and are indicated mainly for short-term biliary drainage. Prolonged indwelling plastic stents can result in disastrous complications. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who presented with complications of forgotten biliary stents in a tertiary care hospital during January 2010 to October 2016. All patients were managed either by endoscopic or surgical means. Details of these patients were obtained from departmental patient database, endoscopy records, and surgical register. A total of 21 cases of retained biliary stents were managed in the study period and their outcome was analyzed. The median age was 47 years (range 17-70 years) and 17 (80.9%) patients were female. Primary indication of biliary stenting was stone disease in 76.2% (n = 16), while benign biliary stricture accounted for 19% of cases (n = 4). Mean duration at presentation to hospital after ERCP stenting was 3.53 years (range 1-14 years), with cholangitis being the most common presentation (66.67%). Definitive endoscopic treatment for forgotten stent and its associated complication was possible only in five patients (23.8%); in remaining 16 (76.2%) cases, surgical exploration was required. Despite life-threatening complications and major surgical interventions, no mortality was recorded. Instances of forgotten biliary stents presenting with serious complications are not uncommon in Indian setup. Patients either ignore advice for timely stent removal or are unaware of the presence of endoprosthesis or need for removal. Adequate patient counseling, information, and proper documentation are essential to avoid this condition.

  5. The pupil dilation response to visual detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privitera, Claudio M.; Renninger, Laura W.; Carney, Thom; Klein, Stanley; Aguilar, Mario

    2008-02-01

    The pupil dilation reflex is mediated by inhibition of the parasympathetic Edinger-Westphal oculomotor complex and sympathetic activity. It has long been documented that emotional and sensory events elicit a pupillary reflex dilation. Is the pupil response a reliable marker of a visual detection event? In two experiments where viewers were asked to report the presence of a visual target during rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP), pupil dilation was significantly associated with target detection. The amplitude of the dilation depended on the frequency of targets and the time of the detection. Larger dilations were associated with trials having fewer targets and with targets viewed earlier during the trial. We also found that dilation was strongly influenced by the visual task.

  6. GWAS in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Gulamhusein, Aliya F.; Juran, Brian D.

    2015-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have been a significant technological advance in our ability to evaluate the genetic architecture of complex diseases such as Primary Biliary Cirrhosis (PBC). To date, six large-scale studies have been performed which identified 27 non-HLA risk loci associated with PBC. The identified risk variants emphasize important disease concepts; namely, that disturbances in immunoregulatory pathways are important in the pathogenesis of PBC and that such perturbations are shared among a diverse number of autoimmune diseases – suggesting the risk architecture may confer a generalized propensity to autoimmunity not necessarily specific to PBC. Furthermore, the impact of non-HLA risk variants, particularly in genes involved with IL-12 signaling, and ethnic variation in conferring susceptibility to PBC have been highlighted. While GWAS have been a critical stepping-stone in understanding common genetic variation contributing to PBC, limitations pertaining to power, sample availability, and strong linkage disequilibrium across genes have left us with an incomplete understanding of the genetic underpinnings of disease pathogenesis. Future efforts to gain insight into this missing heritability, the genetic variation that contributes to important disease outcomes and the functional consequences of associated variants will be critical if practical clinical translation is to be realized. PMID:26676814

  7. [Primary biliary cirrhosis and pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Bernuau, J; Luton, D

    2014-05-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease, asymptomatic during a protracted time, characterized by changes in the small-sized bile ducts near portal spaces. The etiology of PBC is undefined, but immunologic and environmental disturbances may contribute to the disease. Infertility is often associated with PBC and cirrhosis, but pregnancy may well occur in women with PBC and without cirrhosis or in some others with compensated cirrhosis. A pluridisciplinary approach including gastroenterologists and obstetricians is recommended. The patient must be closely monitored throughout her pregnancy with maternal and routine antenatal care. Medical treatment requires ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). In non-cirrhotic UDCA-treated women with PBC, pregnancy often follows a normal course with vaginal delivery. In cirrhotic patients, UDCA must be continued during pregnancy, esophageal and gastric varices must be evaluated before pregnancy, and endoscopic ligature is recommended for treating large varices. Additionally, beta-blocker therapy may be associated, especially when variceal rupture occurred previously. Elective cesarean section is recommended in patients with large esophageal or gastric varices because of the potentially increased risk of variceal bleeding during maternal expulsive efforts in case of vaginal delivery.

  8. Brain abscess in hepatopulmonary syndrome associated with biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Morita, Keiichi; Fukuzawa, Hiroaki; Maeda, Kosaku

    2015-12-01

    The first-choice therapy for biliary atresia (BA) is Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy, which has been shown to greatly improve outcome. Various long-term complications, however, such as portal hypertension and hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), can occur in patients with native liver. A rare case of brain abscess in an 11-year-old girl with HPS associated with BA is reported. The patient underwent hepatoportoenterostomy for BA at 53 days of age, with resolution of hyperbilirubinemia. At 10 years of age, she was diagnosed with severe HPS with right-to-left shunting, and preparations for liver transplantation proceeded. Three months after the diagnosis, she had a right parietal brain abscess. Given that the brain abscess enlarged in size, surgical drainage of the brain abscess was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful, but a slight left hemiplegia remained at discharge. The presumed mechanism of abscess formation in HPS may be right-to-left bacterial transit through intrapulmonary vascular dilatations and/or arteriovenous fistulae. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. [Monitoring cervical dilatation by impedance].

    PubMed

    Salvat, J; Lassen, M; Sauze, C; Baud, S; Salvat, F

    1992-01-01

    Several different physics procedures have been tried to mechanize the recording of partograms. Can a measure of impedance of tissue Z using potential difference V, according to Ohm's law V = Z1, and 1 is a constant, be correlated with a measure of cervical dilatation using vaginal examination? This was our hypothesis. The tissue impedance meter was made to our design and applied according to a bipolar procedure. Our work was carried out on 28 patients. 10 patients were registered before labour started in order to test the apparatus and to record the impedance variations without labour taking place, and 18 patients were registered in labour to see whether there was any correlation. The level of impedance in the cervix without labour was 302.7 Ohms with a deviation of 8.2. Using student's t tests it was found that there was a significant correlation (p less than 0.001) in four measurements between the impedance measure and measures obtained by extrapolating the degrees of dilatation calculated from vaginal examination. This is a preliminary study in which we have defined the conditions that are necessary to confirm these first results and to further develop the method.

  10. Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage

    SciTech Connect

    Falchero, F.; Valentini, M.; Ciambellotti, E.; Becchi, G.

    1985-04-01

    Sequential computerized hepatobiliary imaging was performed in 11 jaundiced patients before, during, and after biliary decompression. The rates of plasma clearances and radionuclide accumulation in liver cells and biliary tree were calculated, in addition to the uptake and retention index.

  11. Biliary Cast Syndrome in an Opium Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Reza; Aghdae, Hamid Asadzadeh; Rajabalinia, Hasan; Mohammad Alizadeh, Amir Houshang

    2013-01-01

    Biliary cast syndrome (BCS) is an uncommon complication which is mostly described in orthotopic liver transplantation. However, BCS has also been reported rarely in non-liver transplant patients. We describe a male long-term opium inhaler with BCS who underwent successful endoscopic cast removal by balloon enteroscopy-guided endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. A 52-year-old man, who was a known case of opium addiction, presented with the chief complaint of epigastric pain for 1 week prior to admission. Routine laboratory evaluation revealed cholestatic liver enzyme elevation. A cholestatic pattern was seen in radiographic modalities. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography showed a linear filling defect in the intra- and extrahepatic duct. A long biliary cast was successfully removed using an extractor balloon. After removal of the biliary cast the patient is receiving ursodeoxycholic acid and does not report any problem 4 months after treatment. It seems that biliary dyskinesia due to long-term opium use can be a predisposing factor for biliary cast formation. PMID:24163648

  12. Common controversies in management of biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Parsi, Mansour A

    2017-01-01

    Biliary strictures are caused by a heterogeneous group of benign and malignant conditions, each requiring a specific treatment approach. Management of biliary strictures often involves endoscopy either for definite treatment, as a bridge to surgery or for palliative purposes. Endoscopic treatment of various types of biliary strictures is not standardized and there are multiple areas of controversy regarding the best treatment options. These controversies are mainly due to lack of well-designed comparative studies to support a specific therapy. This paper reviews three common areas of controversy in the endoscopic management of biliary strictures. The areas discussed in this editorial include the role of biliary drainage in resectable malignant strictures and whether such drainage should be performed routinely prior to surgery, the best endoscopic palliation for unresectable hilar strictures and whether unilateral or bilateral stenting should be attempted, and the optimal endoscopic management for dominant strictures in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. The goal of this editorial is twofold. The first is to review the current literature on management of the aforementioned strictures and offer recommendations based on available evidence. The second goal is to highlight the gaps in our knowledge which in turn can encourage future research on these topics. PMID:28275292

  13. [Dynamic biliary manometry: display modelling and graphic interpretation].

    PubMed

    Tkachuk, O L; Shevchuk, I M

    2003-10-01

    Tendencies of development of biliary manometry have been analyzed. Key advantages and problems of manometric investigation of biliary tracts have been summarized. New method of graphic registration and pressure monitoring in biliary tracts called biliary manometry has been suggested. Characteristic types of manometric curves were determined using stand modelling, their physical and mathematical analysis was conducted, clinical analogues have been suggested. The emphasis has been made on expediency of its further elaboration and clinical application.

  14. Technical tips and troubleshooting of endoscopic biliary drainage for unresectable malignant hilar biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Hiroshi; Itoi, Takao; Kuwatani, Masaki; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kubota, Yoshimasa; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2015-04-01

    Unresectable malignant hilar biliary obstruction (MHBO) occurs in various diseases, such as cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and lymph node metastasis of the hilum of the liver. The majority of patients with advanced MHBO are not candidates for surgical resection because of the tumor location in the hepatic hilum and adjacent areas, advanced tumor stage, or comorbidities. Therefore, these patients often have a poor prognosis in terms of survival and quality of life. Most of these patients will require non-surgical, palliative biliary drainage. To date, various biliary drainage techniques for unresectable MHBO (UMHBO) have been reported. Of these techniques, endoscopic biliary drainage is currently considered to be the most safe and minimally invasive procedure. However, endoscopic biliary drainage for UMHBO is still not standardized regarding the optimal stent, drainage area, stenting method, and reintervention technique. Recently, towards standardization of this technique for UMHBO, clinical research and trials including randomized controlled trials have been performed. In this article, we reviewed the most important issues regarding endoscopic biliary drainage for UMHBO, focusing on prospective studies. We also described in detail the techniques and future perspectives of endoscopic biliary drainage in patients with UMHBO.

  15. [Implantation of plastic and metal stents to biliary tract in obstructive jaundice in material of Surgery Department of 4th Military Clinical Hospital in Wroclaw].

    PubMed

    Janczak, Dariusz; Wieraszko, Artur; Kabziński, Piotr; Janus, Werner; Rać, Jacek; Debski, Jacek; Malinowski, Maciej

    2013-01-01

    A method of treatment for malignant bile duct strictures depends on early diagnosis, location and extent of tumor infiltration. Patients eligible for radical surgery should be operated. The authors used plastic and metal prostheses in the treatment of biliary tract cancer cholestasis. Retrospective analysis was done in 2730 endoscopies performed in the Laboratory of the Department of Endoscopic Surgery, 4th Military Hospital in Wroclaw in 2008-2011. The authors analyzed 441 cases of prosthetic biliary cancer. 223 patients (51%) were treated for pancreatic head tumor, 98 pts (22%)--for papilla of Vater tumor, 85 pts (19%)--due to Klatskin tumor and 35 pts (8%)--due to tumor of the gallbladder. Plastic prostheses were inserted in 228 (65.4%) patients, self-expanding metal prostheses--in 21 patients (4.9%). Dilatation of the bile duct or the inserted prosthesis was performed in 48 (11.1%) pts. 27 patients (6.1%) had endoscopic treatment failure. 32 patients (7.3%) had following complications of biliary prosthesis: bleeding into the bile duct, into the digestive tract--4 cases (1%), the migration of the prosthesis--7 (1.6%), cholangitis--21 cases (4.7%). Palliative biliary stenting is a safe method that provides efficient drainage of bile. It shows a definitive advantage over percutaneous, biliary transhepatic drainage.

  16. A non-randomized study in consecutive patients with postcholecystectomy refractory biliary leaks who were managed endoscopically with the use of multiple plastic stents or fully covered self-expandable metal stents (with videos).

    PubMed

    Canena, Jorge; Liberato, Manuel; Meireles, Liliane; Marques, Inês; Romão, Carlos; Coutinho, António Pereira; Neves, Beatriz Costa; Veiga, Pedro Mota

    2015-07-01

    Endoscopic management of postcholecystectomy biliary leaks is widely accepted as the treatment of choice. However, refractory biliary leaks after a combination of biliary sphincterotomy and the placement of a large-bore (10F) plastic stent can occur, and the optimal rescue endotherapy for this situation is unclear. To compare the clinical effectiveness of the use of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent (FCSEMS) with the placement of multiple plastic stents (MPS) for the treatment of postcholecystectomy refractory biliary leaks. Prospective study. Two tertiary-care referral academic centers and one general district hospital. Forty consecutive patients with refractory biliary leaks who underwent endoscopic management. Temporary placement of MPS (n = 20) or FCSEMSs (n = 20). Clinical outcomes of endotherapy as well as the technical success, adverse events, need for reinterventions, and prognostic factors for clinical success. Endotherapy was possible in all patients. After endotherapy, closure of the leak was accomplished in 13 patients (65%) who received MPS and in 20 patients (100%) who received FCSEMSs (P = .004). The Kaplan-Meier (log-rank) leak-free survival analysis showed a statistically significant difference between the 2 patient populations (χ(2) [1] = 8.30; P < .01) in favor of the FCSEMS group. Use of <3 plastic stents (P = .024), a plastic stent diameter <20F (P = .006), and a high-grade biliary leak (P = .015) were shown to be significant predictors of treatment failure with MPS. The 7 patients in whom placement of MPS failed were retreated with FCSEMSs, resulting in closure of the leaks in all cases. Non-randomized design. In our series, the results of the temporary placement of FCSEMSs for postcholecystectomy refractory biliary leaks were superior to those from the use of MPS. A randomized study is needed to confirm our results before further recommendations. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

  17. Advanced endoscopic imaging of indeterminate biliary strictures

    PubMed Central

    Tabibian, James H; Visrodia, Kavel H; Levy, Michael J; Gostout, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic evaluation of indeterminate biliary strictures (IDBSs) has evolved considerably since the development of flexible fiberoptic endoscopes over 50 years ago. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography pancreatography (ERCP) was introduced nearly a decade later and has since become the mainstay of therapy for relieving obstruction of the biliary tract. However, longstanding methods of ERCP-guided tissue acquisition (i.e., biliary brushings for cytology and intraductal forceps biopsy for histology) have demonstrated disappointing performance characteristics in distinguishing malignant from benign etiologies of IDBSs. The limitations of these methods have thus helped drive the search for novel techniques to enhance the evaluation of IDBSs and thereby improve diagnosis and clinical care. These modalities include, but are not limited to, endoscopic ultrasound, intraductal ultrasound, cholangioscopy, confocal endomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography. In this review, we discuss established and emerging options in the evaluation of IDBSs. PMID:26675379

  18. Biliary atresia: Where do we stand now?

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, Krishna Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The pathway from clinical suspicion to establishing the diagnosis of biliary atresia in a child with jaundice is a daunting task. However, investigations available help to point towards the correct diagnosis in reasonable time frame. Imaging by Sonography has identified several parameters which can be of utility in the diagnostic work up. Comparison of Sonography with imaging by Nuclear medicine can bring out the significant differences and also help in appropriate imaging. The battery of Biochemical tests, available currently, enable better understanding of the line-up of investigations in a given child with neonatal cholestasis. Management protocols enable standardized care with optimal outcome. The place of surgical management in biliary atresia is undisputed, although Kasai procedure and primary liver transplantation have been pitted against each other. This article functions as a platform to bring forth the various dimensions of biliary atresia. PMID:28083081

  19. [RACAND syndrome associated with primary biliary cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Abouzahir, A; Badaoui, M; Amezyane, T; Fatihi, J; Chahdi, H; Albouzidi, A; Mahassin, F; Ghafir, D; Ohayon, V

    2010-07-01

    The acronym RACAND means the association of Raynaud's phenomenon, anticentromere antibodies and digital necrosis without digital sclerosis. It is a rare syndrome recently individualised. The association with primary biliary cirrhosis has never been previously reported, and leads to discuss its nosology. A 57-year-old woman with a history of Raynaud's phenomenon, presented with recurrent episodes of fingers and toes necrosis. Clinical examination did not evidence digital sclerosis. Anticentromere antibody titer was high. There was no oesophageal or lung involvement. A liver biopsy performed because of moderate increase in liver enzymes showed histological lesions of primary biliary cirrhosis. Treatment with iloprost, platelet aggregation inhibitors and anticalcic drugs could not avoid amputation of several toes. It is possible that anticentromere antibodies are directly toxic to vascular endothelial cells and result in a diffuse or localized vasculopathy. The association with primary biliary cirrhosis is in favour of autoimmune condition of both vascular and ductular endothelial cells.

  20. Biliary atresia: Where do we stand now?

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Krishna Kumar

    2016-12-28

    The pathway from clinical suspicion to establishing the diagnosis of biliary atresia in a child with jaundice is a daunting task. However, investigations available help to point towards the correct diagnosis in reasonable time frame. Imaging by Sonography has identified several parameters which can be of utility in the diagnostic work up. Comparison of Sonography with imaging by Nuclear medicine can bring out the significant differences and also help in appropriate imaging. The battery of Biochemical tests, available currently, enable better understanding of the line-up of investigations in a given child with neonatal cholestasis. Management protocols enable standardized care with optimal outcome. The place of surgical management in biliary atresia is undisputed, although Kasai procedure and primary liver transplantation have been pitted against each other. This article functions as a platform to bring forth the various dimensions of biliary atresia.

  1. Biliary stent migration presenting with leg pain

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Ryan; Agrawal, Satyanisth; Aoun, Elie; Kulkarni, Abhijit

    2012-01-01

    Although the therapeutic benefits of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) usually outweigh the risks, there can be rare complications, including stent migration leading to perforation, intestinal obstruction or penetration. An 87-year-old woman presented with symptomatic choledocholithiasis. Two previous endoscopic attempts at stone removal were unsuccessful. On repeat ERCP at our institution, multiple large stones were removed, but complete duct clearance could not be achieved. A plastic biliary stent was placed with plans to reattempt in 6 weeks. Postoperatively, she had mild back pain radiating into her right leg that gradually worsened to the point where she was unable to ambulate. An abdominal CT scan showed the distal aspect of the biliary stent extending through the wall of the duodenum with the tip positioned within the right psoas muscle. The stent was successfully removed via a rat-toothed forceps. Our case illustrates an extremely rare complication of biliary stent placement. PMID:23162034

  2. Obstructive jaundice induced by biliary ascariasis

    PubMed Central

    Keating, Aine; Quigley, James Aidan; Genterola, Al Frederick

    2012-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections, especially in developing countries. Its presence can lead to a multitude of presentations, one of the rarer ones being obstructive jaundice due to migration of the worm in to the biliary tree. We describe a case of a man who presented as an emergency to the general surgeons complaining of abdominal pain, fever, jaundice and vomiting. Ultrasound was used and the diagnosis of biliary ascariasis was made. The patient underwent surgery consisting of a cholecystectomy, common bile duct exploration and T-tube choledochostomy. Our report highlights the varied aetiology of obstructive jaundice and the importance of including biliary ascariasis in the differential diagnosis of the jaundiced patient, especially from endemic areas. PMID:23239771

  3. [Percutanous dilation tracheotomy: our experience].

    PubMed

    Domènech, I; Mateu, T; Cisa, E; Juan, A; Gil, E; Palau, M; Dicenta, M

    2004-01-01

    Percutaneous dilation Tracheotomy (PDT) is becoming a popular alternative to surgical tracheotomy. In our hospital, we recently adopted the use of the PDT in intensive care unit patients. The objective [corrected] of this investigation is to characterize and quantify the rate of complications for PDT. A prospective study of 60 PDT performed at different intesive care units, betweem September 2002 to July 2003. The intraoperative time for PDT was 8 minutes. Complications included 6 cases of mild intraoperative hemorrhage, 1 case of moderate intraoperative hemorrhage, 4 cases of mild postoperative hemorrhage and 1 case of subcutaneous emphysema. PDT is a good alternative to surgical tracheotomy and should be added to the otolaryngologists armamentarium of surgical airway procedures.

  4. Lateral internal sphincterotomy versus 0.25 % isosorbide dinitrate ointment for chronic anal fissures: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Kemal; Erenoğlu, Bülent; Doğru, Osman; Turan, Ersin; Eryilmaz, Mehmet Ali; Atay, Arif; Kökçam, Said

    2013-05-01

    To compare the healing properties of lateral internal sphincterotomy (LIS) and isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) ointment for chronic anal fissure. Patients with a chronic anal fissure were randomly assigned to a group treated with ISDN ointment (n = 105) or a group treated with LIS (n = 102). The same investigators examined the patients in a blinded manner, 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 months after the treatments. The anal fissure had healed completely by 4 weeks in 64.7 versus 92.2 %, and by 6 months in 77.1 versus 97.1 % of the ISDN and LIS group patients, respectively. At 12 months, the recurrence rates were 4.8 versus 1 % for the ISDN and LIS groups, respectively, and the success rates of the treatments were 72.4 versus 96.1 %, respectively. Six patients in the LIS group experienced minor fecal incontinence, and seven (6.7 %) patients in the ISDN group experienced headaches that responded well to paracetamol. ISDN ointment was reported by all patients to be easy to use. Although its success rate was lower than that of surgery, ISDN can be offered to selected patients with a chronic anal fissure, as it has a low recurrence rate and rare side effects are rare.

  5. On turbulence in dilatant dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumert, Helmut Z.; Wessling, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a new theory on the behaviour of shear-thickening (dilatant) fluids under turbulent conditions. The structure of a dilatant colloidal fluid in turbulent motion may be characterized by (at least) four characteristic length scales: (i) the ‘statistically largest’ turbulent scale, {λ }0, labeling the begin of the inertial part of the wavenumber spectrum; (ii) the energy-containing scale, { L }; (iii) Kolmogorov’s micro-scale, {λ }{ K }, related with the size of the smallest vortices existing for a given kinematic viscosity and forcing; (iv) the inner (‘colloidal’) micro-scale, {λ }i, typically representing a major stable material property of the colloidal fluid. In particular, for small ratios r={λ }i/{λ }{ K }∼ { O }(1), various interactions between colloidal structures and smallest turbulent eddies can be expected. In the present paper we discuss particularly that for ρ ={λ }0/{λ }{ K }\\to { O }(1) turbulence (in the narrow, inertial sense) is strangled and chaotic but less mixing fluid motions remain. We start from a new stochastic, micro-mechanical turbulence theory without empirical parameters valid for inviscid fluids as seen in publications by Baumert in 2013 and 2015. It predicts e.g. von Karman’s constant correctly as 1/\\sqrt{2 π }=0.399. In its generalized version for non-zero viscosity and shear-thickening behavior presented in this contribution, it predicts two solution branches for the steady state: The first characterizes a family of states with swift (inertial) turbulent mixing and small {λ }{ K }, potentially approaching {λ }i. The second branch characterizes a state family with ρ \\to { O }(1) and thus strangled turbulence, ρ ≈ { O }(1). Stability properties and a potential dynamic commuting between the two solution branches had to be left for future research.

  6. Broncho-biliary fistula secondary to biliary obstruction and lung abscess in a patient with pancreatic neuro-endocrine tumor.

    PubMed

    Panda, Dipanjan; Aggarwal, Mayank; Yadav, Vikas; Kumar, Sachin; Mukund, Amar; Baghmar, Saphalta

    2016-06-01

    We present a case report of broncho-biliary fistula that developed due to the blockage of biliary stent placed during the management of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET); diagnosed on high clinical suspicion, percutaneous cholangiogram and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT); and successfully treated with percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD).

  7. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Esophageal dilator. 876.5365 Section 876.5365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a...

  8. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Esophageal dilator. 876.5365 Section 876.5365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5365 Esophageal dilator. (a...

  9. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal...

  10. 21 CFR 876.5450 - Rectal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rectal dilator. 876.5450 Section 876.5450 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5450 Rectal dilator. (a) Identification. A rectal...

  11. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Urethral dilator. 876.5520 Section 876.5520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ureteral dilator. 876.5470 Section 876.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a...

  13. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urethral dilator. 876.5520 Section 876.5520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5520 Urethral dilator. (a...

  14. 21 CFR 876.5470 - Ureteral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ureteral dilator. 876.5470 Section 876.5470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5470 Ureteral dilator. (a...

  15. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  16. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  17. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nasal dilator. 874.3900 Section 874.3900 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A...

  18. Surgical treatment of a patient with diaphragmatic invasion by a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma with biliary and portal venous tumor thrombi.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Hirakata, Atsushi; Matsutani, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Suzuki, Seiji; Matsushita, Akira; Sasajima, Koji; Kikuchi, Yuta; Uchida, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    We describe the surgical treatment of a patient with diaphragmatic invasion by a ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with biliary and portal venous tumor thrombi. A 67-year-old man was admitted because of jaundice (total serum bilirubin, 6.6 mg/dL). The serum concentration of alpha-fetoprotein was 236.1 ng/mL. The anti-hepatitis C virus antibodies were present in the serum. Computed tomography showed a large hypervascular mass in the right subphrenic region, surrounded by local effusion. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed dilatation of the left intrahepatic bile duct caused by biliary tumor thrombi extending from the right hepatic duct to the common bile duct. Endoscopic nasobiliary drainage was performed, and the total serum bilirubin level returned to the normal range. Angiography revealed a hypervascular tumor without extravasation of contrast medium in the right lobe and obstruction of the right anterior branch of the portal vein. Right hepatectomy was attempted 15 days after drainage. Severe invasion of the diaphragm by the ruptured HCC was detected. Bleeding of the ruptured HCC stopped spontaneously. Partial resection of the diaphragm was performed, followed by primary suture, without an artificial patch. Tumor thrombectomy was performed from the common bile duct. Macroscopic examination revealed that the ruptured HCC had invaded the diaphragm. Biliary and portal venous tumor thrombi were present. Histopathological examination showed a moderately differentiated HCC with biliary and portal venous tumor thrombi. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 14. Five months after the operation, local and intrahepatic recurrences of HCC were detected. Six months after operation, the patient died of liver failure. In conclusion, the outcome of a patient with diaphragmatic invasion by a ruptured HCC with biliary tumor thrombi was poor, even after curative hepatic resection.

  19. Percutaneous transhepatic treatment using retrievable covered stents in patients with benign biliary strictures: mid-term outcomes in 68 patients.

    PubMed

    Gwon, Dong Il; Ko, Gi-Young; Ko, Heung Kyu; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2013-11-01

    Percutaneous balloon dilation of benign biliary stricture has been the most widely used alternative to endoscopic treatment; however, the rate of recurrence has varied from 15 to 44 %. Recently, several investigators have reported that percutaneous transhepatic placement of retrievable covered stents is feasible for the treatment of benign biliary strictures. However, these studies had only a small number of patients and had short follow-up periods. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mid-term outcomes of a retrievable covered stent for treatment of benign biliary strictures. We retrospectively assessed 68 patients who underwent percutaneous transhepatic placement and removal of a retrievable covered stent between March 2007 and November 2012, for treatment of benign biliary strictures. Forty-two patients had not previously undergone interventional treatment, whereas 26 had recurrent or refractory strictures despite previous percutaneous procedures. Placement of the retrievable covered stents was technically successful in all patients. Stent migration occurred in 11 (16.2 %) patients. The mean indwelling period of drainage catheter and stent were 5.8 months (range, 3-22.5 months) and 3 months (range, 2-6.5 months), respectively. Clinical success was achieved in 59 (86.8 %) patients. During the mean follow-up of 36 months (range, 8.5-65 months), 12 (20 %) of 60 patients had recurrence of clinically significant strictures. The primary patency rates at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 91, 89, 76, 68, and 68 %, respectively. Mid-term outcomes suggested that percutaneous treatment of benign biliary strictures using a retrievable covered stent was a clinically effective method.

  20. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  1. Endoscopic Stent Placement in the Palliation of Malignant Biliary Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Biliary drainage with biliary stent placement is the treatment of choice for palliation in patients with malignant biliary obstruction caused by unresectable neoplasms. In such patients, the endoscopic approach can be initially used with percutaneous radiological intervention. In patients with unresectable malignant distal bile duct obstructions, endoscopic biliary drainage with biliary stent placement has now become the main and least invasive palliative modality, which has been proven to be more effective in >80% of cases with lower morbidity than surgery, and perhaps may provide a survival benefit. In patients with unresectable malignant hilar obstruction, the endoscopic approach for biliary drainage with biliary stent placement has also been considered as the treatment of choice. There is still a lack of clear consensus on the use of covered versus uncovered metal stents in malignant distal bile duct obstructions and plastic versus metal stents and unilateral versus bilateral drainage in malignant hilar obstructions. PMID:22741117

  2. [PRIMARY BILIARY LIVER CIRRHOSIS: MODERN CONCEPTS].

    PubMed

    Tsimmerman, Ya S

    2015-01-01

    Modern data on primary biliary liver cirrhosis are presented including the definition, prevalence, possible etiological factors, and detailed description of pathogenesis (autoimmune mechanisms, intrahepatic cholestasis, hereditary predisposition, environmental factors) and clinical picture. Also considered are complications and concomitant diseases, methods of laboratory, instrumental and morphological diagnostics, approaches to medicamental treatment and its effectiveness, indications for liver transplantation.

  3. Listeria monocytogenes-Associated Biliary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Charlier, Caroline; Fevre, Cindy; Travier, Laetitia; Cazenave, Benoît; Bracq-Dieye, Hélène; Podevin, Juliette; Assomany, Daher; Guilbert, Lydie; Bossard, Céline; Carpentier, Françoise; Cales, Valérie; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Abstract At present, little is known regarding Listeria monocytogenes-associated biliary tract infection, a rare form of listeriosis. In this article, we will study 12 culture-proven cases reported to the French National Reference Center for Listeria from 1996 to 2013 and review the 8 previously published cases. Twenty cases were studied: 17 cholecystitis, 2 cholangitis, and 1 biliary cyst infection. Half were men with a median age of 69 years (32–85). Comorbidities were present in 80%, including cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes. Five patients received immunosuppressive therapy, including corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factor biotherapies. Half were afebrile. Blood cultures were positive in 60% (3/5). Gallbladder histological lesions were analyzed in 3 patients and evidenced acute, chronic, or necrotic exacerbation of chronic infection. Genoserogroup of the 12 available strains were IVb (n = 6), IIb (n = 5), and IIa (n = 1). Their survival in the bile was not enhanced when compared with isolates from other listeriosis cases. Adverse outcome was reported in 33% (5/15): 3 deaths, 1 recurrence; 75% of the patients with adverse outcome received inadequate antimicrobial therapy (P = 0.033). Biliary tract listeriosis is a severe infection associated with high mortality in patients not treated with appropriate therapy. This study provides medical relevance to in vitro and animal studies that had shown Listeria monocytogenes ability to survive in bile and induce overt biliary infections. PMID:25319439

  4. Forceful dilatation under endoscopic control in the treatment of achalasia: a randomised trial of pneumatic versus metallic dilator.

    PubMed Central

    Mearin, F; Armengol, J R; Chicharro, L; Papo, M; Balboa, A; Malagelada, J R

    1994-01-01

    Forceful dilatation under endoscopic control is a well established treatment of achalasia; several different types of dilators can be used. This study prospectively compared the clinical and manometric efficacy of a single dilatation using two different dilators. Forty one patients were randomly assigned to forceful dilatation under endoscopic control with either a pneumatic dilator (n = 17) or a metallic dilator (n = 24). Thereafter, the patients received periodic clinical and manometric evaluation for one year (before and one, six, and 12 months after dilatation). One month after dilatation all but one of the subjects in each group had experienced good to excellent results and their clinical improvement persisted for the one year follow up. Two patients (one in each group) were perforated during the procedure and required surgical treatment. Recovery was uneventful in both cases. Resting lower oesophageal sphincter pressure (mean (SEM)) significantly and similarly decreased after both methods of dilatation (pneumatic dilator: before dilatation 37 (3) mm Hg, one year after dilatation 18 (3) mm Hg; metallic dilator: before dilatation 34 (2) mm Hg, one year after dilatation 17 (3) mm Hg; p < 0.05 for both). It is concluded that in the treatment of achalasia a single dilatation under endoscopic control with either pneumatic or metallic dilator yield comparable clinical and manometric results and similar complication rates. The use of one or other dilator should depend more on the preference and experience of the endoscopist than on the type of device. PMID:7959186

  5. Genetic Variations Leading to Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kae Won; Lee, Jongsung; Kim, Youngjo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a major cause of death worldwide. Based on pathohistological abnormalities and clinical manifestation, cardiomyopathies are categorized into several groups: hypertrophic, dilated, restricted, arrhythmogenic right ventricular, and unclassified. Dilated cardiomyopathy, which is characterized by dilation of the left ventricle and systolic dysfunction, is the most severe and prevalent form of cardiomyopathy and usually requires heart transplantation. Its etiology remains unclear. Recent genetic studies of single gene mutations have provided significant insights into the complex processes of cardiac dysfunction. To date, over 40 genes have been demonstrated to contribute to dilated cardiomyopathy. With advances in genetic screening techniques, novel genes associated with this disease are continuously being identified. The respective gene products can be classified into several functional groups such as sarcomere proteins, structural proteins, ion channels, and nuclear envelope proteins. Nuclear envelope proteins are emerging as potential molecular targets in dilated cardiomyopathy. Because they are not directly associated with contractile force generation and transmission, the molecular pathways through which these proteins cause cardiac muscle disorder remain unclear. However, nuclear envelope proteins are involved in many essential cellular processes. Therefore, integrating apparently distinct cellular processes is of great interest in elucidating the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy. In this mini review, we summarize the genetic factors associated with dilated cardiomyopathy and discuss their cellular functions. PMID:27802374

  6. Genetic Variations Leading to Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kae Won; Lee, Jongsung; Kim, Youngjo

    2016-10-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a major cause of death worldwide. Based on pathohistological abnormalities and clinical manifestation, cardiomyopathies are categorized into several groups: hypertrophic, dilated, restricted, arrhythmogenic right ventricular, and unclassified. Dilated cardiomyopathy, which is characterized by dilation of the left ventricle and systolic dysfunction, is the most severe and prevalent form of cardiomyopathy and usually requires heart transplantation. Its etiology remains unclear. Recent genetic studies of single gene mutations have provided significant insights into the complex processes of cardiac dysfunction. To date, over 40 genes have been demonstrated to contribute to dilated cardiomyopathy. With advances in genetic screening techniques, novel genes associated with this disease are continuously being identified. The respective gene products can be classified into several functional groups such as sarcomere proteins, structural proteins, ion channels, and nuclear envelope proteins. Nuclear envelope proteins are emerging as potential molecular targets in dilated cardiomyopathy. Because they are not directly associated with contractile force generation and transmission, the molecular pathways through which these proteins cause cardiac muscle disorder remain unclear. However, nuclear envelope proteins are involved in many essential cellular processes. Therefore, integrating apparently distinct cellular processes is of great interest in elucidating the etiology of dilated cardiomyopathy. In this mini review, we summarize the genetic factors associated with dilated cardiomyopathy and discuss their cellular functions.

  7. Dilational Response of Voided Polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Daniel J.; Cazacu, Oana; Knezevic, Marko

    2017-05-01

    Finite-element (FE) cell model computations have been used to gain insights into the ductile response of porous polycrystals. Generally, the behavior of the matrix is described by a J 2-plasticity model. In this article, we present a new computational approach to FE cell models for porous polycrystals deforming by slip based on crystal plasticity. The cell provides the homogenized dilational response, where the constitutive response of every integration point is based on a single-crystal visco-plasticity law. The calculations are performed for a body-centered cubic polycrystal with random texture. Axisymmetric tensile and compressive loadings are imposed corresponding to the fixed values of the stress triaxiality and to two possible values of the Lode parameter. The resulting numerical yield points are compared with those obtained using a J 2-FE cell and an analytical model. The predictions confirm the combined effects of the mean stress and third-invariant on yielding recently revealed by the analytical model.

  8. The genetics of dilated cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Dellefave, Lisa; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review More than forty different individual genes have been implicated in the inheritance of dilated cardiomyopathy. For a subset of these genes, mutations can lead to a spectrum of cardiomyopathy that extends to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular noncompaction. In nearly all cases, there is an increased risk of arrhythmias. With some genetic mutations, extracardiac manifestations are likely to be present. The precise genetic etiology can usually not be discerned from the cardiac and/or extracardiac manifestations and requires molecular genetic diagnosis for prognostic determination and cardiac care. Recent findings Newer technologies are influencing genetic testing, especially cardiomyopathy genetic testing, where an increased number of genes are now routinely being tested simultaneously. While this approach to testing multiple genes is increasing the diagnostic yield, the analysis of multiple genes in one test is also resulting in a large amount of genetic information of unclear significance. Summary Genetic testing is highly useful in the care of patients and families, since it guides diagnosis, influences care and aids in prognosis. However, the large amount of benign human genetic variation may complicate genetic results, and often requires a skilled team to accurately interpret the findings. PMID:20186049

  9. Dilated Cardiomyopathy Revealing Cushing Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Lucien; Segrestin, Bérénice; Lapoirie, Marion; Favrel, Véronique; Dementhon, Julie; Jouanneau, Emmanuel; Raverot, Gérald

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular impairments are frequent in Cushing's syndrome and the hypercortisolism can result in cardiac structural and functional changes that lead in rare cases to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Such cardiac impairment may be reversible in response to a eucortisolaemic state. A 43-year-old man with a medical past of hypertension and history of smoking presented to the emergency department with global heart failure. Coronary angiography showed a significant stenosis of a marginal branch and cardiac MRI revealed a nonischemic DCM. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was estimated as 28% to 30%. Clinicobiological features and pituitary imaging pointed toward Cushing's disease and administration of adrenolytic drugs (metyrapone and ketoconazole) was initiated. Despite the normalization of cortisol which had been achieved 2 months later, the patient presented an acute heart failure. A massive mitral regurgitation secondary to posterior papillary muscle rupture was diagnosed as a complication of the occlusion of the marginal branch. After 6 months of optimal pharmacological treatment for systolic heart failure, as well as treatment with inhibitors of steroidogenesis, there was no improvement of LVEF. The percutaneous mitral valve was therefore repaired and a defibrillator implanted. The severity of heart failure contraindicated pituitary surgery and the patient was instead treated by stereotaxic radiotherapy. This is the first case reporting a Cushing's syndrome DCM without improvement of LVEF despite normalization of serum cortisol levels. PMID:26579807

  10. Dilational Response of Voided Polycrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Daniel J.; Cazacu, Oana; Knezevic, Marko

    2017-02-01

    Finite-element (FE) cell model computations have been used to gain insights into the ductile response of porous polycrystals. Generally, the behavior of the matrix is described by a J 2-plasticity model. In this article, we present a new computational approach to FE cell models for porous polycrystals deforming by slip based on crystal plasticity. The cell provides the homogenized dilational response, where the constitutive response of every integration point is based on a single-crystal visco-plasticity law. The calculations are performed for a body-centered cubic polycrystal with random texture. Axisymmetric tensile and compressive loadings are imposed corresponding to the fixed values of the stress triaxiality and to two possible values of the Lode parameter. The resulting numerical yield points are compared with those obtained using a J 2-FE cell and an analytical model. The predictions confirm the combined effects of the mean stress and third-invariant on yielding recently revealed by the analytical model.

  11. Open lateral internal anal sphincterotomy under local anesthesia as the gold standard in the treatment of chronic anal fissures. A prospective clinical and manometric study.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Romero, A; Arroyo Sebastián, A; Pérez Vicente, F; Serrano Paz, P; Candela Polo, F; Tomás Gómez, A; Costa Navarro, D; Fernández Frías, A; Calpena Rico, R

    2004-12-01

    Chronic anal fissure is one of the most frequent proctological disorders in Western populations. Open lateral internal sphincterotomy is one of the therapeutic options accepted as the treatment of choice for chronic anal fissure, since it reduces the hypertonia of the internal anal sphincter (the main etiopathogenic mechanism of fissures), decreases anal pain, and allows the fissure to heal. We carried out a prospective study of 120 patients operated on for chronic anal fissure with open sphincterotomy under local anesthesia at our Proctology Outpatient Unit from 1998 to 2001. No preoperative studies, bowel preparation, or antibiotic prophylaxis were carried out. All patients were followed up after 1 week, 2 months, 6 months, and 1 year, and underwent an anal manometry before and after surgery. Early complications: 3 hematoma-ecchymosis of the wound (2.5%), 3 self-limited hemorrhage events (2.5%). No hemorrhoidal thrombosis, fistulas, or perianal abscesses occurred. Fissures recurred in nine patients (7.5%) within one year. The initial rate of incontinence of 7.5% at two months dropped down to 5% at six months. The mean resting pressure (MRP) in incontinent patients was lower than in continent patients (55 +/- 7 mmHg versus 80.7 +/- 21 mmHg). The difference in mean squeeze pressure (MSP) between incontinent patients and continent patients was not statistically significant. Open sphincterotomy under local anesthesia has a long-term rate of healing and a morbidity rate similar to other techniques. It may therefore be considered an effective treatment for chronic anal fissure.

  12. Biliary metal stents are superior to plastic stents for preoperative biliary decompression in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Decker, Christopher; Christein, John D; Phadnis, Milind A; Wilcox, C Mel; Varadarajulu, Shyam

    2011-07-01

    It is unclear whether plastic or metal stents are more suitable for preoperative biliary decompression in pancreatic cancer. The objective of this study was to compare the rate of endoscopic reinterventions in patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing plastic or self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) placements for preoperative biliary decompression. This was a retrospective study of all patients with obstructive jaundice secondary to pancreatic head cancer who underwent their index endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and all follow-up biliary stent placements at our center before undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy. Plastic or SEMS were placed at ERCP for biliary decompression. The main outcome measure was to compare the rate of endoscopic reinterventions between the plastic and SEMS cohorts. 29 patients who underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy had preoperative biliary stent placement (18 plastic, 11 SEMS) at our center. Whereas none of the 11 patients who underwent SEMS placement had stent dysfunction, 7 of 18 (39%) patients with plastic stents required endoscopic reintervention before surgery (P=0.02). Reinterventions were due to cholangitis (n=1) or persistent elevation in serum bilirubin levels (n=6). Two patients with SEMS underwent EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration after ERCP, which yielded a positive diagnosis of cancer in all cases; SEMS did not impair visualization of the tumor mass at EUS. Pancreaticoduodenectomy was undertaken successfully in all 29 patients and the presence of a SEMS did not interfere with biliary anastomosis. On univariate logistic regression, only SEMS placement was associated with less need for endoscopic reintervention (P=0.02). SEMS are superior to plastic stents for preoperative biliary decompression in pancreatic cancer.

  13. Dilatation of the Proximal Cystic Duct: Is It a Variant to “Type VI” Choledochal Cyst?

    PubMed Central

    Patoulias, Dimitrios; Patoulias, Ioannis; Spyridakis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Choledochal cysts are rare congenital malformations, comprising of dilatation of the biliary tree of different localization. Classically, classification of choledochal cysts describes five variants of the disease. Type VI choledochal cyst is considered by many authors as the sixth variant of this classification and is described either as a dilatation of the cystic duct or as a cystic duct cyst. We present a rare case of cystic duct dilatation that presented with acute cholangiopancreatitis and a clinical picture consistent of a choledochal cyst in a 10-year-old female patient. Cholecystectomy with excision of the cystic duct was performed. Histopathologic examination did not reveal any findings consistent with choledochal cyst. Based on these findings we speculate that in our case the dilatation of the cystic duct is a variant to type VI choledochal cyst, based on the fact that no cystic-like malformation has been identified in histology. We provide details of the pre-operative work-up and compare them with intraoperative findings in order to increase awareness of the condition. PMID:27504348

  14. Nemaline myopathy with dilated cardiomyopathy in childhood.

    PubMed

    Gatayama, Ryohei; Ueno, Kentaro; Nakamura, Hideaki; Yanagi, Sadamitsu; Ueda, Hideaki; Yamagishi, Hiroyuki; Yasui, Seiyo

    2013-06-01

    We present a case of a 9-year-old boy with nemaline myopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy. The combination of nemaline myopathy and cardiomyopathy is rare, and this is the first reported case of dilated cardiomyopathy associated with childhood-onset nemaline myopathy. A novel mutation, p.W358C, in ACTA1 was detected in this patient. An unusual feature of this case was that the patient's cardiac failure developed during early childhood with no delay of gross motor milestones. The use of a β-blocker did not improve his clinical course, and the patient died 6 months after diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy. Congenital nonprogressive nemaline myopathy is not necessarily a benign disorder: deterioration can occur early in the course of dilated cardiomyopathy with neuromuscular disease, and careful clinical evaluation is therefore necessary.

  15. An Erupted Dilated Odontoma: A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagra, Amritpreet; Singh, Gurkeerat; Nagpal, Archna; Soin, Atul; Bhardwaj, Vishal

    2016-01-01

    A dilated odontoma is an extremely rare developmental anomaly represented as a dilatation of the crown and root as a consequence of a deep, enamel-lined invagination and is considered a severe variant of dens invaginatus. An oval shape of the tooth lacking morphological characteristics of a crown or root implies that the invagination happened in the initial stages of morphodifferentiation. Spontaneous eruption of an odontoma is a rare occurrence and the occurrence of a dilated odontoma in a supernumerary tooth is even rarer with only a few case reports documented in the English literature. We present an extremely rare case of erupted dilated odontoma occurring in the supernumerary tooth in anterior maxillary region in an 18-year-old male, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first ever case reported in English literature. PMID:26989523

  16. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class...

  17. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class...

  18. 21 CFR 876.5365 - Esophageal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and weighted with mercury or a metal olive-shaped weight that slides on a guide, such as a string or... esophageal or gastrointestinal bougies and the esophageal dilator (metal olive). (b) Classification. Class...

  19. The pathogenesis of proventricular dilatation disease.

    PubMed

    Tizard, Ian; Shivaprasad, H L; Guo, Jianhua; Hameed, Samer; Ball, Judith; Payne, Susan

    2016-12-01

    Bornaviruses cause neurologic diseases in several species of birds, especially parrots, waterfowl and finches. The characteristic lesions observed in these birds include encephalitis and gross dilatation of the anterior stomach - the proventriculus. The disease is thus known as proventricular dilatation disease (PDD). PDD is characterized by extreme proventricular dilatation, blockage of the passage of digesta and consequent death by starvation. There are few clinical resemblances between this and the bornaviral encephalitides observed in mammals. Nevertheless, there are common virus-induced pathogenic pathways shared across this disease spectrum that are explored in this review. Additionally, a review of the literature relating to gastroparesis in humans and the control of gastric mobility in mammals and birds points to several plausible mechanisms by which bornaviral infection may result in extreme proventricular dilatation.

  20. Genetics of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Felix W; Carrier, Lucie

    2012-10-01

    Cardiomyopathies are categorized as extrinsic, being caused by external factors, such as hypertension, ischemia, inflammation, valvular dysfunction, or as intrinsic, which correspond to myocardial diseases without identifiable external causes. These so called primary cardiomyopathies can be categorized in four main forms: hypertrophic, dilated, restrictive, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathies are diagnosed by clinical expression, echocardiography, electrocardiography, non-invasive imaging, and sometimes by cardiac catheterization to rule out external causes as ischemia. The two main forms of primary cardiomyopathies are the hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies. Most of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 20-50% of dilated cardiomyopathy are familial showing a wide genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity. This review presents the current knowledge on the causative genes, molecular mechanisms and the genotype � phenotype relations of hypertrophic and dilated cardiomyopathies.

  1. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for the removal of bile duct stones: Data from a “real-life” multicenter study on Dilation-Assisted Stone Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Di Mitri, Roberto; Mocciaro, Filippo; Pallio, Socrate; Pecoraro, Giulia Maria; Tortora, Andrea; Zulli, Claudio; Attardo, Simona; Maurano, Attilio

    2016-01-01

    AIM To report data on Dilation-Assisted Stone Extraction (DASE) use in clinical practice and its efficacy and safety trough three Italian referral centers for biliopancreatic diseases treatment. METHODS From January 2011 to December 2015 we collected data on 120 patients treated with DASE. Technical success was obtained when the endoscopist was able to place the balloon trough the papilla inflating the balloon until the final diameter for an adequate time (at least 30 s). Clinical success was obtained after complete stone removal (no remaining stones were visible at the cholangiogram). RESULTS Forty-nine male (40.8%) and 71 female (59%) were enrolled. The mean age was 67.8 years ± 15.7. The mean common bile duct (CBD) dilation was 19.2 mm ± 3.9 and the mean size of stones 15.8 ± 2.9. DASE was applied as first approach in 38% (62% after initial failure of stones extraction). Technical and clinical success was of 91% and 87% respectively. In those in which DASE failed alternative treatment were adopted. After DASE 18% of patients experienced a complication (bleeding 9%, pancreatitis 8%, perforation 0.8%). At univariable analysis, elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (P = 0.031), DASE as first approach (P = 0.032), and cannulation of major papilla followed by guidewire insertion (P = 0.004) were related to low risk of complications. Pre-cut was related to an increased risk of complications (P = 0.01). CONCLUSION DASE allowed a higher first-session success rate and can be consider a valid alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy not only for bigger CBD stones. PMID:27803771

  2. Efficacy and safety of endoscopic papillary balloon dilation for the removal of bile duct stones: Data from a "real-life" multicenter study on Dilation-Assisted Stone Extraction.

    PubMed

    Di Mitri, Roberto; Mocciaro, Filippo; Pallio, Socrate; Pecoraro, Giulia Maria; Tortora, Andrea; Zulli, Claudio; Attardo, Simona; Maurano, Attilio

    2016-10-16

    To report data on Dilation-Assisted Stone Extraction (DASE) use in clinical practice and its efficacy and safety trough three Italian referral centers for biliopancreatic diseases treatment. From January 2011 to December 2015 we collected data on 120 patients treated with DASE. Technical success was obtained when the endoscopist was able to place the balloon trough the papilla inflating the balloon until the final diameter for an adequate time (at least 30 s). Clinical success was obtained after complete stone removal (no remaining stones were visible at the cholangiogram). Forty-nine male (40.8%) and 71 female (59%) were enrolled. The mean age was 67.8 years ± 15.7. The mean common bile duct (CBD) dilation was 19.2 mm ± 3.9 and the mean size of stones 15.8 ± 2.9. DASE was applied as first approach in 38% (62% after initial failure of stones extraction). Technical and clinical success was of 91% and 87% respectively. In those in which DASE failed alternative treatment were adopted. After DASE 18% of patients experienced a complication (bleeding 9%, pancreatitis 8%, perforation 0.8%). At univariable analysis, elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (P = 0.031), DASE as first approach (P = 0.032), and cannulation of major papilla followed by guidewire insertion (P = 0.004) were related to low risk of complications. Pre-cut was related to an increased risk of complications (P = 0.01). DASE allowed a higher first-session success rate and can be consider a valid alternative to endoscopic sphincterotomy not only for bigger CBD stones.

  3. Biliary obstruction due to a huge simple hepatic cyst treated with laparoscopic resection.

    PubMed

    Kaneya, Yohei; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Matsutani, Takeshi; Hirakata, Atsushi; Matsushita, Akira; Suzuki, Seiji; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Sasajima, Koji; Uchida, Eiji

    2011-01-01

    Most hepatic cysts are asymptomatic, but complications occasionally occur. We describe a patient with biliary obstruction due to a huge simple hepatic cyst treated with laparoscopic resection. A 60-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital because of a nontender mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. Laboratory tests revealed the following: serum total bilirubin, 0.6 mg/dL; serum aspartate aminotransferase, 100 IU/L; serum alanine aminotransferase, 78 IU/L; serum alkaline phosphatase, 521 IU/L; and serum gamma glutamic transpeptidase, 298 IU/L. Abdominal computed tomography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a huge hepatic cyst, 13 cm in diameter, at the hepatic hilum, accompanied by dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct and obstruction of the common bile duct. We diagnosed biliary obstruction due to a huge hepatic cyst at the hepatic hilum, and laparoscopic surgery was performed. A huge hepatic cyst was seen at the hepatic hilum. After needle puncture of the huge cyst, the anterior wall of the cyst was unroofed, and cholecystectomy was done. Intraoperative cholangiography through a cystic duct revealed stenosis of the duct. Subsequent decapsulation of the cyst was performed in front of the common bile duct. After this procedure, cholangiography revealed that the stenosis of the common bile duct had resolved. Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen confirmed the hepatic cyst was benign. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the results of liver function tests normalized. The patient was discharged 7 days after operation. Computed tomography 3 months after operation revealed disappearance of the hepatic cyst and no dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct.

  4. In Vivo Study of Polyurethane-Coated Gianturco-Rosch Biliary Z-Stents

    SciTech Connect

    Severini, Aldo; Mantero, Sara; Tanzi, Maria Cristina; Cigada, Alberto; Addis, Flaminio; Cozzi, Guido; Salvetti, Monica; Andreola, Salvatore; Motta, Antonella; Regalia, Enrico; Pulvirenti, Andrea; De Pedri, Enrico; Doci, Roberto

    1999-11-15

    Purpose: Prototypes of Gianturco-Rosch Z-stents coated with polycarbonate urethane (PCU) were placed in the biliary tree of pigs, in order to test their biomechanical behavior, stability, and biocompatibility. Methods: The stents were surgically implanted in the common bile duct of three pairs of pigs, which were killed after 1, 3, and 6 months respectively. Explanted livers from pigs of the same race, age, and size were used to provide comparative data. The bile ducts were radiologically and histopathologically examined; the stents were processed and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Results: No complications occurred and the animals showed a normal weight gain. The main bile duct appeared radiologically and macroscopically dilated, but the stents proved to be in place. Histologically, the bile duct epithelium was destroyed, but neither hyperplastic nor inflammatory fibrotic reactions of the wall were evident. Both the metallic structure and the polymeric coating of the stents were intact. A layer of organic material with a maximum thickness of approximately 3 {mu}m was evident on the inner surface of the stents. Conclusion: The present in vivo study demonstrates the biocompatibility, efficacy, and stability of PCU-coated Gianturco-Rosch stents in the biliary environment.

  5. Portal flow into the liver through veins at the site of biliary-enteric anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, M; Heianna, J; Yasuda, K; Tate, E; Watarai, J; Shibata, S; Sato, T; Yamamoto, Y

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the role played by jejunal veins in hepatopetal flow after biliary-enteric anastomosis and to evaluate the helical CT features of hepatopetal flow through the anastomosis. We retrospectively analyzed helical CT images of the liver in 31 patients with biliary-enteric anastomosis who underwent hepatic angiography with (n=13) or without (n=18) CT arterial portography within 2 weeks of the CT examination during the last 4 years. Arterial portography showed hepatopetal flow through small vessels located (communicating veins) between the elevated jejunal veins and the intrahepatic portal branches in two (9%) of 22 patients with a normal portal system. Helical CT showed focal parenchymal enhancement around the anastomosis in these two patients. All nine patients with extrahepatic portal vein occlusion (100%) had hepatopetal flow through the anastomosis, and four of the nine had decreased portal flow. CT revealed small communicating veins in two of these four patients. In five patients with normal portal perfusion despite extrahepatic portal vein occlusion, CT detected dilated communicating veins and elevated jejunal veins. The presence of communicating veins and/or focal parenchymal enhancement around the anastomosis indicates hepatopetal flow through the elevated jejunal veins.

  6. Aortic dilatation in children with systemic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Devereux, Richard B; Dave, Archana; Bell, Cynthia; Portman, Ronald; Milewicz, Diana

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the presence of aortic dilatation in hypertensive children, the prevalence of which is 4% to 10% in hypertensive adults. Prospectively enrolled multiethnic children, untreated for their hypertension, underwent an echocardiogram to exclude congenital heart disease and evaluate for end-organ damage and aortic size. The aorta was measured in the parasternal long-axis view at three levels: the sinus of Valsalva, supra-tubular junction, and the ascending aorta. Aortic dilatation was determined by z-score >2 at any one of the levels measured. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure above the 95th percentile based on the Fourth Working Group criteria confirmed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Among 142 consecutive hypertensive children (median age, 14 years; 45% females) aortic dilatation was detected in 2.8% (95% confidence interval, 1%-7%; median age, 16 years; 100% females). Children with aortic dilatation, when compared with those without, had significantly more aortic valve insufficiency (P = .005) and left ventricular hypertrophy (P = .018). Prevalence of aortic dilatation was 2.8% and was associated with significantly more aortic insufficiency and left ventricular hypertrophy in comparison to those without aortic dilatation.

  7. Aortic Dilatation in Children with Systemic Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Devereux, Richard B.; Dave, Archana; Bell, Cynthia; Portman, Ronald; Milewicz, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to determine presence of aortic dilatation in hypertensive children, the prevalence of which is 4–10% in hypertensive adults. Methods Prospectively enrolled multiethnic children untreated for their hypertension, underwent an echocardiogram to exclude congenital heart disease and evaluate for end-organ damage and aortic size. The aorta was measured in the parasternal long-axis view at 3 levels: the sinus of Valsalva, supra-tubular junction and the ascending aorta. Aortic dilatation was determined by z-score > 2 at any 1 of the levels measured. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure above the 95th percentile based on the Fourth Working Group criteria confirmed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Among 142 consecutive hypertensive children (median age 14 years, 45% females) aortic dilatation was detected in 2.8% (95% CI 1% to 7%, median age 16 years, 100% females). Children with aortic dilatation, when compared to those without, had significantly more aortic valve insufficiency (p = 0.005) and left ventricular hypertrophy (p = 0.018). Conclusions Prevalence of aortic dilatation was 2.8% and was associated with significantly more aortic insufficiency and left ventricular hypertrophy in comparison to those without aortic dilatation. PMID:24507486

  8. Regulation of rat biliary cholesterol secretion by agents that alter intrahepatic cholesterol metabolism. Evidence for a distinct biliary precursor pool.

    PubMed Central

    Stone, B G; Erickson, S K; Craig, W Y; Cooper, A D

    1985-01-01

    Propensity for cholesterol gallstone formation is determined in part by biliary cholesterol content relative to bile salts and phospholipid. We examined the hypothesis that the rate of biliary cholesterol secretion can be controlled by availability of an hepatic metabolically active free cholesterol pool whose size is determined in part by rates of sterol synthesis, as reflected by activity of the primary rate-limiting enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase and of sterol esterification, as reflected by the activity of the enzyme acyl coenzyme A/cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT). Rats were prepared with biliary, venous, and duodenal catheters. The enterohepatic circulation of biliary lipids was maintained constant by infusion of a bile salt, lecithin, cholesterol replacement solution. Administration of 25-hydroxycholesterol decreased HMG CoA reductase activity, increased ACAT activity, and decreased biliary cholesterol output 26% by 1 h. By 2 h, ACAT activity and biliary cholesterol secretion were at control levels. Administration of mevinolin, a competitive inhibitor of HMG CoA reductase, had no effect on ACAT activity and decreased biliary cholesterol secretion 16%. Administration of progesterone, an inhibitor of ACAT, had no effect on HMG CoA reductase and increased biliary cholesterol output 32% at 1 h. By 2 h, all parameters were near control levels. None of these agents had any significant effect on biliary bile salt or phospholipid secretion. Thus, acutely altering rates of esterification and/or synthesis can have profound effects on biliary cholesterol secretion independent of the other biliary lipids. These experiments suggest the existence of a metabolically active pool of free cholesterol that serves as a precursor pool for biliary cholesterol secretion. Furthermore, the size of this precursor pool is determined in part both by rates of cholesterol synthesis and esterification and is a key determinant of biliary cholesterol

  9. Percutaneous biliary drainage using open cell stents for malignant biliary hilar obstruction.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sun Jun; Bae, Jae Ik; Han, Tae Sun; Won, Je Hwan; Kim, Ji Dae; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, safety and the effectiveness of the complex assembly of open cell nitinol stents for biliary hilar malignancy. During the 10 month period between January and October 2007, 26 consecutive patients with malignant biliary hilar obstruction underwent percutaneous insertion of open cell design nitinol stents. Four types of stent placement methods were used according to the patients' ductal anatomy of the hilum. We evaluated the technical feasibility of stent placement, complications, patient survival, and the duration of stent patency. Bilobar biliary stent placement was conducted in 26 patients with malignant biliary obstruction-T (n = 9), Y (n = 7), crisscross (n = 6) and multiple intersecting types (n = 4). Primary technical success was obtained in 24 of 26 (93%) patients. The crushing of the 1st stent during insertion of the 2nd stent occurred in two cases. Major complications occurred in 2 of 26 patients (7.7%). One case of active bleeding from hepatic segmental artery and one case of sepsis after procedure occurred. Clinical success was achieved in 21 of 24 (87.5%) patients, who were followed for a mean of 141.5 days (range 25-354 days). The mean primary stent patency period was 191.8 days and the mean patient survival period was 299 days. Applying an open cell stent in the biliary system is feasible, and can be effective, especially in multiple intersecting stent insertions in the hepatic hilum.

  10. Percutaneous Biliary Drainage Using Open Cell Stents for Malignant Biliary Hilar Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sun Jun; Han, Tae Sun; Won, Je Hwan; Kim, Ji Dae; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Lee, Jae Hee; Kim, Young Chul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility, safety and the effectiveness of the complex assembly of open cell nitinol stents for biliary hilar malignancy. Materials and Methods During the 10 month period between January and October 2007, 26 consecutive patients with malignant biliary hilar obstruction underwent percutaneous insertion of open cell design nitinol stents. Four types of stent placement methods were used according to the patients' ductal anatomy of the hilum. We evaluated the technical feasibility of stent placement, complications, patient survival, and the duration of stent patency. Results Bilobar biliary stent placement was conducted in 26 patients with malignant biliary obstruction-T (n = 9), Y (n = 7), crisscross (n = 6) and multiple intersecting types (n = 4). Primary technical success was obtained in 24 of 26 (93%) patients. The crushing of the 1st stent during insertion of the 2nd stent occurred in two cases. Major complications occurred in 2 of 26 patients (7.7%). One case of active bleeding from hepatic segmental artery and one case of sepsis after procedure occurred. Clinical success was achieved in 21 of 24 (87.5%) patients, who were followed for a mean of 141.5 days (range 25-354 days). The mean primary stent patency period was 191.8 days and the mean patient survival period was 299 days. Conclusion Applying an open cell stent in the biliary system is feasible, and can be effective, especially in multiple intersecting stent insertions in the hepatic hilum. PMID:23118579

  11. [Insertion of biliary endoprosthesis as ambulatory procedure].

    PubMed

    Güitrón, A; Adalid, R; Barinagarrementería, R; Gutiérrez-Bermúdez, J A

    2001-01-01

    Because of possible complications, it has been common practice to admit to the hospital most if not all patients undergoing therapeutic ERCP. Therefore, little descriptive data exist on the safety of out-patient therapeutic ERCP for endobiliary stent placement. To assure quality patient care and patient safety, we reviewed our experience with out-patient therapeutic ERCP for palliation of benign and malignant common bile duct obstruction by means of endobiliary stent insertion. PATIENTS-METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective review of all therapeutic ERCPs for palliation of benign and malignant common bile duct obstruction with endobiliary stents was performed from January 1, 1998, through December 31, 1999. One hundred forty therapeutic ERCPs were performed to place an endobiliary stent for benign and malignant common bile duct obstruction. Seventy-two procedures were performed on out-patients, sixty-eight on in-patients. There was no significant difference between out-patient and in-patient groups with regard to age, gender, need for endoscopic sphincterotomy, and complication rate. In patients had one procedure-related complication; out patients had four. There was no procedure-related mortality in either group. Therapeutic ERCP for palliation of benign and malignant common bile duct obstruction with endobiliary stents can be safely and successfully performed on an out-patient basis for selected patients. This should result in substantial cost savings.

  12. [Biliary ileus--potential complication of cholecystolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Okolicány, R; Prochotský, A; Skultéty, J; Sekác, J; Mifkovic, A

    2008-11-01

    Biliary ileus is a rare complication of cholecystolithiasis. The condition occurs predominantly in the elderly with incidence rates of 1-4%, according to the literature data. Most commonly, it develops as a complication of cholelithiasis which remained untreated or was managed conservatively, or as a complication of a gallbladder decubitus necrosis. The condition results in a cholecysto-duodenal fistula. In this case, the cholecystolithiasis is latent or is clinically manifested in a third of the patients. A total of 1560 cholecystectomies (1345 L-CHE and 215 conventional CHE) were performed in our clinic during a five-year period. Biliary ileus was an indication for operation only in two subjects, during the studied period. In the both cases, the diagnosis was established intraoperatively, although upon re-examination of the visualization modalities views (upright native abdominal views, CT scans) the authors concluded that the primary cause of the ileus could have already been identified, based on the above views.

  13. 21 CFR 884.4250 - Expandable cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expandable cervical dilator. 884.4250 Section 884....4250 Expandable cervical dilator. (a) Identification. An expandable cervical dilator is an instrument with two handles and two opposing blades used manually to dilate (stretch open) the cervical os. (b...

  14. 21 CFR 884.4250 - Expandable cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Expandable cervical dilator. 884.4250 Section 884....4250 Expandable cervical dilator. (a) Identification. An expandable cervical dilator is an instrument with two handles and two opposing blades used manually to dilate (stretch open) the cervical os. (b...

  15. 21 CFR 884.4270 - Vibratory cervical dilators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vibratory cervical dilators. 884.4270 Section 884....4270 Vibratory cervical dilators. (a) Identification. A vibratory cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate the cervical os by stretching it with a power-driven vibrating probe head. The device is...

  16. 21 CFR 884.4270 - Vibratory cervical dilators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vibratory cervical dilators. 884.4270 Section 884....4270 Vibratory cervical dilators. (a) Identification. A vibratory cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate the cervical os by stretching it with a power-driven vibrating probe head. The device is...

  17. 21 CFR 884.4250 - Expandable cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Expandable cervical dilator. 884.4250 Section 884....4250 Expandable cervical dilator. (a) Identification. An expandable cervical dilator is an instrument with two handles and two opposing blades used manually to dilate (stretch open) the cervical os. (b...

  18. 21 CFR 884.4250 - Expandable cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Expandable cervical dilator. 884.4250 Section 884....4250 Expandable cervical dilator. (a) Identification. An expandable cervical dilator is an instrument with two handles and two opposing blades used manually to dilate (stretch open) the cervical os. (b...

  19. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260... Devices § 884.4260 Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (a) Identification. A hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate (stretch open) the cervical os by cervical insertion of a...

  20. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260... Devices § 884.4260 Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (a) Identification. A hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate (stretch open) the cervical os by cervical insertion of a...

  1. 21 CFR 884.4250 - Expandable cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Expandable cervical dilator. 884.4250 Section 884....4250 Expandable cervical dilator. (a) Identification. An expandable cervical dilator is an instrument with two handles and two opposing blades used manually to dilate (stretch open) the cervical os. (b...

  2. 21 CFR 884.4270 - Vibratory cervical dilators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vibratory cervical dilators. 884.4270 Section 884....4270 Vibratory cervical dilators. (a) Identification. A vibratory cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate the cervical os by stretching it with a power-driven vibrating probe head. The device is...

  3. 21 CFR 884.4270 - Vibratory cervical dilators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vibratory cervical dilators. 884.4270 Section 884....4270 Vibratory cervical dilators. (a) Identification. A vibratory cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate the cervical os by stretching it with a power-driven vibrating probe head. The device is...

  4. 21 CFR 884.4270 - Vibratory cervical dilators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vibratory cervical dilators. 884.4270 Section 884....4270 Vibratory cervical dilators. (a) Identification. A vibratory cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate the cervical os by stretching it with a power-driven vibrating probe head. The device is...

  5. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260... Devices § 884.4260 Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (a) Identification. A hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate (stretch open) the cervical os by cervical insertion of a...

  6. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260... Devices § 884.4260 Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (a) Identification. A hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate (stretch open) the cervical os by cervical insertion of a...

  7. 21 CFR 884.4260 - Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. 884.4260... Devices § 884.4260 Hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator. (a) Identification. A hygroscopic Laminaria cervical dilator is a device designed to dilate (stretch open) the cervical os by cervical insertion of a...

  8. [Lymphoma of the biliary tract: report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Machado, M C; Abdo, E E; Penteado, S; Perosa, M; da Cunha, J E

    1994-01-01

    We report two cases one a primary non Hodgkin lymphoma of the hepatic common duct and the other a secondary involvement of the biliary tract in a patient with a Hodgkin's disease. In the first case a local resection of the biliary lymphoma was undertaken being the patient alive six months after the procedure. The second case died early after the operative biliary external drainage in a septic shock before any specific treatment could be initiated.

  9. Colon Cancer Metastatic to the Biliary Tree.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Alexandra T; Clayton, Steven B; Markow, Michael; Mamel, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Metastasis of colon adenocarcinoma is commonly found in the lung, liver, or peritoneum. Common bile duct (CBD) tumors related to adenomas from familial adenomatous polyposis metastasizing from outside of the gastrointestinal tract have been reported. We report a case of biliary colic due to metastatic colon adenocarcinoma to the CBD. Obstructive jaundice with signs of acalculous cholecystitis on imaging in a patient with a history of colon cancer should raise suspicion for metastasis to CBD.

  10. Biliary atresia: From Australia to the zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Davenport, Mark

    2016-02-01

    This review is based upon an invited lecture for the 52nd Annual Meeting of the British Association of Paediatric Surgeons, July 2015. The aetiology of biliary atresia (BA) is at best obscure, but it is probable that a number of causes or pathophysiological mechanisms may be involved leading to the final common phenotype we recognise clinically. By way of illustration, similar conditions to human BA are described, including biliary agenesis, which is the normal state and peculiar final pattern of bile duct development in the jawless fish, the lamprey. Furthermore, there have been remarkable outbreaks in the Australian outback of BA in newborn lambs whose mothers were exposed to and grazed upon a particular plant species (Dysphania glomulifera) during gestation. More recent work using a zebrafish model has isolated a toxic isoflavonoid, now named Biliatresone, thought to be responsible for these outbreaks. Normal development of the bile ducts is reviewed and parallels drawn with two clinical variants thought to definitively have their origins in intrauterine life: Biliary Atresia Splenic Malformation syndrome (BASM) and Cystic Biliary Atresia (CBA). For both variants there is sufficient clinical evidence, including associated anomalies and antenatal detection, respectively, to warrant their aetiological attribution as developmental BA. CMV IgM +ve associated BA is a further variant that appears separate with distinct clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features. In these it seems possible that this involves perinatal obliteration of a normally formed duct system. Although still circumstantial, this evidence appears convincing enough to perhaps warrant a different treatment strategy. This then still leaves the most common (more than 60% in Western series) variant, now termed Isolated BA, whereby origins can only be alluded to.

  11. The natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Imam, Mohamad H; Lindor, Keith D

    2014-08-01

    Our understanding of the natural history of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) has been evolving especially following the introduction of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). A clearer understanding of disease pathophysiology and earlier diagnosis with increased prevalence of the disease worldwide has led to increased interest and improved outcomes in patients with PBC. In this article, the authors touch briefly on features of the disease and describe the natural history of PBC prior to and after the introduction of UDCA.

  12. Photodynamic therapy for occluded biliary metal stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Joseph V. E.; Krasner, Neville; Sturgess, R.

    1999-02-01

    In this abstract we describe the use of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to recanalize occluded biliary metal stents. In patients with jaundice secondary to obstructed metal stents PDT was carried out 72 hours after the administration of m THPC. Red laser light at 652 nm was delivered endoscopically at an energy intensity of 50 J/cm. A week later endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram showed complete recanalization of the metal stent.

  13. Radiation Exposure in Biliary Procedures Performed to Manage Anastomotic Strictures in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients: Comparison Between Radiation Exposure Levels Using an Image Intensifier and a Flat-Panel Detector-Based System

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto Maruzzelli, Luigi; Tuzzolino, Fabio; Indovina, Pietro Luigi; Luca, Angelo

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to estimate radiation exposure in pediatric liver transplants recipients who underwent biliary interventional procedures and to compare radiation exposure levels between biliary interventional procedures performed using an image intensifier-based angiographic system (IIDS) and a flat panel detector-based interventional system (FPDS). Materials and Methods: We enrolled 34 consecutive pediatric liver transplant recipients with biliary strictures between January 2008 and March 2013 with a total of 170 image-guided procedures. The dose-area product (DAP) and fluoroscopy time was recorded for each procedure. The mean age was 61 months (range 4-192), and mean weight was 17 kg (range 4-41). The procedures were classified into three categories: percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography and biliary catheter placement (n = 40); cholangiography and balloon dilatation (n = 55); and cholangiography and biliary catheter change or removal (n = 75). Ninety-two procedures were performed using an IIDS. Seventy-eight procedures performed after July 2010 were performed using an FPDS. The difference in DAP between the two angiographic systems was compared using Wilcoxon rank-sum test and a multiple linear regression model. Results: Mean DAP in the three categories was significantly greater in the group of procedures performed using the IIDS compared with those performed using the FPDS. Statistical analysis showed a p value = 0.001 for the PTBD group, p = 0.0002 for the cholangiogram and balloon dilatation group, and p = 0.00001 for the group with cholangiogram and biliary catheter change or removal. Conclusion: In our selected cohort of patients, the use of an FPDS decreases radiation exposure.

  14. Reality named endoscopic ultrasound biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Hugo Gonçalo; Lopes, Roberto Iglesias; de Oliveira, Joel Fernandez; Artifon, Everson Luiz de Almeida

    2015-10-25

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is used for diagnosis and evaluation of many diseases of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. In the past, it was used to guide a cholangiography, but nowadays it emerges as a powerful therapeutic tool in biliary drainage. The aims of this review are: outline the rationale for endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage (EGBD); detail the procedural technique; evaluate the clinical outcomes and limitations of the method; and provide recommendations for the practicing clinician. In cases of failed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), patients are usually referred for either percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) or surgical bypass. Both these procedures have high rates of undesirable complications. EGBD is an attractive alternative to PTBD or surgery when ERCP fails. EGBD can be performed at two locations: transhepatic or extrahepatic, and the stent can be inserted in an antegrade or retrograde fashion. The drainage route can be transluminal, duodenal or transpapillary, which, again, can be antegrade or retrograde [rendezvous (EUS-RV)]. Complications of all techniques combined include pneumoperitoneum, bleeding, bile leak/peritonitis and cholangitis. We recommend EGBD when bile duct access is not possible because of failed cannulation, altered upper GI tract anatomy, gastric outlet obstruction, a distorted ampulla or a periampullary diverticulum, as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery or radiology.

  15. Animal models of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjun; Yang, Guo-Xiang; Tsuneyama, Koichi; Gershwin, M Eric; Ridgway, William M; Leung, Patrick S C

    2014-08-01

    Within the last decade, several mouse models that manifest characteristic features of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) with antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs) and immune-mediated biliary duct pathology have been reported. Here, the authors discuss the current findings on two spontaneous (nonobese diabetic autoimmune biliary disease [NOD.ABD] and dominant negative transforming growth factor-β receptor II [dnTGFβRII]) and two induced (chemical xenobiotics and microbial immunization) models of PBC. These models exhibit the serological, immunological, and histopathological features of human PBC. From these animal models, it is evident that the etiology of PBC is multifactorial and requires both specific genetic predispositions and environmental insults (either xenobiotic chemicals or microbial), which lead to the breaking of tolerance and eventually liver pathology. Human PBC is likely orchestrated by multiple factors and hence no single model can fully mimic the immunopathophysiology of human PBC. Nevertheless, knowledge gained from these models has greatly advanced our understanding of the major immunological pathways as well as the etiology of PBC.

  16. Biliary lipids and cholesterol gallstone disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David Q-H.; Cohen, David E.; Carey, Martin C.

    2009-01-01

    Biliary lipids are a family of four dissimilar molecular species consisting of a mixture of bile salts (substituted cholanoic acids), phospholipids, mostly (>96%) diacylphosphatidylcholines, unesterified cholesterol, and bilirubin conjugates known trivially as lipopigments. The primary pathophysiological defect in cholesterol gallstone disease is hypersecretion of hepatic cholesterol into bile with less frequent hyposecretion of bile salts and/or phospholipids. Several other gallbladder abnormalities contribute and include hypomotility, immune-mediated inflammation, hypersecretion of gelling mucins, and accelerated phase transitions; there is also reduced intestinal motility that augments “secondary” bile salt synthesis by the anaerobic microflora. Cholesterol nucleation is initiated when unilamellar vesicles of cholesterol plus biliary phospholipids fuse to form multilamellar vesicles. From these “plate-like” cholesterol monohydrate crystals, the building blocks of macroscopic stones are nucleated heterogeneously by mucin gel. Multiple Lith gene loci have been identified in inbred mice, paving the way for discovery of an ever-increasing number of LITH genes in humans. Because of the frequency of the metabolic syndrome today, insulin resistance and LITH genes all interact with a number of environmental cholelithogenic factors to cause the gallstone phenotype. This review summarizes current concepts of the physical-chemical state of biliary lipids in health and in lithogenic bile and outlines the molecular, genetic, hepatic, and cholecystic factors that underlie the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstones. PMID:19017613

  17. Role of cholangiocytes in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lleo, Ana; Maroni, Luca; Glaser, Shannon; Alpini, Gianfranco; Marzioni, Marco

    2014-08-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by selective destruction of intrahepatic cholangiocytes. Mechanisms underlying the development and progression of the disease are still controversial and largely undefined. Evidence suggests that PBC results from an articulated immunologic response against an immunodominant mitochondrial autoantigen, the E2 component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2); characteristics of the disease are also the presence of disease-specific antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMAs) and autoreactive CD4 and CD8 T cells. Recent evidence suggests that cholangiocytes show specific immunobiological features that are responsible for the selective targeting of those cells by the immune system. The immune reaction in PBC selectively targets small sized, intrahepatic bile ducts; although a specific reason for that has not been defined yet, it has been established that the biliary epithelium displays a unique heterogeneity, for which the physiological and pathophysiological features of small and large cholangiocytes significantly differ. In this review article, the authors provide a critical overview of the current evidence on the role of cholangiocytes in the immune-mediated destruction of the biliary tree that characterizes PBC.

  18. Congenital biliary tract malformation resembling biliary cystadenoma in a captive juvenile African lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Valentina; Bull, Andrew C J; Stidworthy, Mark F

    2012-12-01

    A captive 3-mo-old white African lion (Panthera leo) presented with clinical signs of acute pain and a distended abdomen. Despite emergency treatment, the lion died a few hours after presentation. Postmortem examination revealed gross changes in the liver, spleen, and lungs and an anomalous cystic structure in the bile duct. Histologic examination identified severe generalized multifocal to coalescent necrotizing and neutrophilic hepatitis, neutrophilic splenitis, and mild interstitial pneumonia, consistent with bacterial septicemia. The abnormal biliary structures resembled biliary cystadenoma. However, due to the age of the animal, they were presumed to be congenital in origin. Biliary tract anomalies and cystadenomas have been reported previously in adult lions, and this case suggests that at least some of these examples may have a congenital basis. It is unclear whether the lesion was an underlying factor in the development of hepatitis.

  19. Molecular genetics and targeted therapeutics in biliary tract carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Marks, Eric I; Yee, Nelson S

    2016-01-28

    The primary malignancies of the biliary tract, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, often present at an advanced stage and are marginally sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence indicates that molecularly targeted agents may provide new hope for improving treatment response in biliary tract carcinoma (BTC). In this article, we provide a critical review of the pathogenesis and genetic abnormalities of biliary tract neoplasms, in addition to discussing the current and emerging targeted therapeutics in BTC. Genetic studies of biliary tumors have identified the growth factors and receptors as well as their downstream signaling pathways that control the growth and survival of biliary epithelia. Target-specific monoclonal antibodies and small molecules inhibitors directed against the signaling pathways that drive BTC growth and invasion have been developed. Numerous clinical trials designed to test these agents as either monotherapy or in combination with conventional chemotherapy have been completed or are currently underway. Research focusing on understanding the molecular basis of biliary tumorigenesis will continue to identify for targeted therapy the key mutations that drive growth and invasion of biliary neoplasms. Additional strategies that have emerged for treating this malignant disease include targeting the epigenetic alterations of BTC and immunotherapy. By integrating targeted therapy with molecular profiles of biliary tumor, we hope to provide precision treatment for patients with malignant diseases of the biliary tract.

  20. Bilothorax as a complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage.

    PubMed

    Sano, Atsushi; Yotsumoto, Takuma

    2016-01-01

    We report two cases of bilothorax that occurred as a complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage. In an 86-year-old woman who had undergone percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for obstructive jaundice, bilothorax occurred after accidental removal of the tube. She recovered with chest drainage only. An 83-year-old man who had undergone percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage for cholecystitis developed bilothorax with infection. He recovered with thoracoscopic curettage. Although bilothorax is a rare complication of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, appropriate diagnosis and prompt treatment is important, especially when bilothorax is accompanied by infection.

  1. Eosinophilic Cholangitis—A Challenging Diagnosis of Benign Biliary Stricture

    PubMed Central

    Fragulidis, Georgios Panagiotis; Vezakis, Antonios I.; Kontis, Elissaios A.; Pantiora, Eirini V.; Stefanidis, Gerasimos G.; Politi, Aikaterini N.; Koutoulidis, Vasilios K.; Mela, Maria K.; Polydorou, Andreas A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract When confronting a biliary stricture, both benign and malignant etiologies must be carefully considered as a variety of benign biliary strictures can masquerade as hilar cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Therefore, patients could undergo a major surgery despite the possibility of a benign biliary disease. Approximately 15% to 24% of patients undergoing surgical resection for suspected biliary malignancy will have benign pathology. Eosinophilic cholangitis (EC) is a rare benign disorder of the biliary tract, which can cause obstructive jaundice and can pose a difficult diagnostic task. We present a rare case of a young woman who was referred to our hospital with obstructive painless jaundice due to a biliary stricture at the confluence of the hepatic bile ducts, with a provisional diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. Though, during her work up she was found to have EC, an extremely rare benign cause of biliary stricture, which is characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tree causing stricturing, fibrosis, and obstruction and which is reversible with short-term high-dose steroids. Despite its rarity, EC should be taken into consideration when imaging modalities demonstrate a biliary stricture, especially if preoperative diagnosis of malignancy cannot be made, in the setting of peripheral eosinophilia and the absence of cardinal symptoms of malignancy. PMID:26735539

  2. Biliary Atresia: 50 Years after the First Kasai

    PubMed Central

    Wildhaber, Barbara E.

    2012-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare neonatal disease of unknown etiology, where obstruction of the biliary tree causes severe cholestasis, leading to biliary cirrhosis and death in the first years of life, if the condition is left untreated. Biliary atresia is the most frequent surgical cause of cholestatic jaundice in neonates and should be evoked whenever this clinical sign is associated with pale stools and hepatomegaly. The treatment of biliary atresia is surgical and currently recommended as a sequence of, eventually, two interventions. During the first months of life a hepatoportoenterostomy (a “Kasai,” modifications of which are discussed in this paper) should be performed, in order to restore the biliary flow to the intestine and lessen further damage to the liver. If this fails and/or the disease progresses towards biliary cirrhosis and life-threatening complications, then liver transplantation is indicated, for which biliary atresia represents the most frequent pediatric indication. Of importance, the earlier the Kasai is performed, the later a liver transplantation is usually needed. This warrants a great degree of awareness of biliary atresia, and the implementation of systematic screening for this life-threatening pathology. PMID:23304557

  3. Molecular genetics and targeted therapeutics in biliary tract carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Eric I; Yee, Nelson S

    2016-01-01

    The primary malignancies of the biliary tract, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, often present at an advanced stage and are marginally sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence indicates that molecularly targeted agents may provide new hope for improving treatment response in biliary tract carcinoma (BTC). In this article, we provide a critical review of the pathogenesis and genetic abnormalities of biliary tract neoplasms, in addition to discussing the current and emerging targeted therapeutics in BTC. Genetic studies of biliary tumors have identified the growth factors and receptors as well as their downstream signaling pathways that control the growth and survival of biliary epithelia. Target-specific monoclonal antibodies and small molecules inhibitors directed against the signaling pathways that drive BTC growth and invasion have been developed. Numerous clinical trials designed to test these agents as either monotherapy or in combination with conventional chemotherapy have been completed or are currently underway. Research focusing on understanding the molecular basis of biliary tumorigenesis will continue to identify for targeted therapy the key mutations that drive growth and invasion of biliary neoplasms. Additional strategies that have emerged for treating this malignant disease include targeting the epigenetic alterations of BTC and immunotherapy. By integrating targeted therapy with molecular profiles of biliary tumor, we hope to provide precision treatment for patients with malignant diseases of the biliary tract. PMID:26819503

  4. Outcome of hepaticojejunostomy for biliary tract obstruction following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Langer, F B; Györi, G P; Pokorny, H; Burghuber, C; Rasoul-Rockenschaub, S; Berlakovich, G A; Mühlbacher, F; Steininger, R

    2009-01-01

    Strictures and concrements are the most common biliary complications following liver transplantation. Endoscopic treatment might not lead to a definitive cure in all patients, especially in strictures involving the biliary bifurcation. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and the long-term outcome of hepaticojejunostomy (HJS) for post-transplant biliary tract obstruction. Thirty-seven patients were retrospectively studied for resolving of cholestasis and the incidence of recurring biliary obstruction. Surgery was performed because of anastomotic strictures in 11, ischemic strictures at the donor common bile duct in seven, strictures involving the bile duct bifurcation in 10, hepatolithiasis without strictures in one and biliary cast formation diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography or T-tube cholangiography in eight patients. Cholestasis instantly improved in 82% of the patients. After a long-term follow-up of median 33 months (range 3-149), 28 of the patients (76%) required no further intervention for recurring biliary obstruction following HJS. Anastomotic strictures were observed in six (16%), recurring biliary concrements in two patients (5%). HJS did prevent recurrent biliary obstruction in the majority of the patients. We therefore recommend early HJS for complicated post-transplant biliary tract obstruction not treatable by a limited number of endoscopic interventions.

  5. Functional Self-Expandable Metal Stents in Biliary Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Chang-Il; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2013-01-01

    Biliary stents are widely used not only for palliative treatment of malignant biliary obstruction but also for benign biliary diseases. Each plastic stent or self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has its own advantages, and a proper stent should be selected carefully for individual condition. To compensate and overcome several drawbacks of SEMS, functional self-expandable metal stent (FSEMS) has been developed with much progress so far. This article looks into the outcomes and defects of each stent type for benign biliary stricture and describes newly introduced FSEMSs according to their functional categories. PMID:24143314

  6. [Jejunal perforation by a plastic biliary stent after injury].

    PubMed

    Krska, Z; Brůha, R; Sváb, J; Demes, R; Votrubová, J; Petrtýl, J; Horejs, J

    2004-02-01

    The authors present case of patient with biliary stent dislocation after chest injury and fracture of VIII. rib. Polymorbid patient with cirrhosis, chronic pancreatitis, portal hypertension (Child Plugh B) and biliary stent insertion came with acute abdominal pain and inflammatory signs. Progressive signs of acute abdomen have led to laparotomy. Perforation of duodeno-jejunal-loop due to dislocated biliary stent, small loop adhesions and thickened intestine wall were found. Postsurgical period was complicated with obstructive ileus, cholecystitis and cholangiolitis and the second biliary stent was inserted. Present-day status of the patient is satisfactory.

  7. Spontaneous Course of Biliary Sludge Over 12 Months in Dogs with Ultrasonographically Identified Biliary Sludge.

    PubMed

    DeMonaco, S M; Grant, D C; Larson, M M; Panciera, D L; Leib, M S

    2016-05-01

    Biliary sludge is associated with gallbladder (GB) dysmotility and mucus hypersecretion suggesting a link between biliary sludge and the formation of GB mucoceles (GBM). If biliary sludge progresses to GBM, treatment to reduce the production and progression of sludge is warranted. The objective of this study was to determine the course of biliary sludge in dogs. Seventy-seven healthy, client-owned dogs ≥4 years of age screened for biliary sludge; 45 affected dogs identified. Prospective, observational design. Serial ultrasound examinations were evaluated at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months to monitor degree of sludge based on proportion of GB filled with sludge (mild [0.01-24.4%], moderate [24.5-49.4%], moderate to severe [49.5-74.4%], severe [74.5-100%]), gravity dependency of sludge, and GB dimensions. After 1 year of follow-up, the degree of sludge was mild (34%), moderate (47%), moderate to severe (13%), severe (3%), or absent (3%). There was no significant difference in median degree of sludge over 1 year (P = .36). There were no significant changes in the gravity dependency of sludge over 1 year. A subset of dogs, 24%, with initial gravity-dependent sludge developed a combination of nondependent and dependent sludge. Dogs had resolved (2%), decreased (19%), static (40%), increased (29%), or recurrent (10%) sludge at the conclusion of the study. Biliary sludge was prevalent, affected dogs remained asymptomatic, and it rarely resolves in healthy dogs over a period of 1 year. Some dogs developed nongravity-dependent sludge within 1 year, which might indicate changes in consistency of sludge. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Endoclip therapy of post-sphincterotomy bleeding using a transparent cap-fitted forward-viewing gastroscope.

    PubMed

    Chon, Hyung Ku; Kim, Tae Hyeon

    2017-07-01

    The incidence of post-endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) bleeding is reportedly 2.0-5.0 %. Among various hemostatic methods, endoclip therapy is an effective modality in gastrointestinal bleeding. However, endoclip application for post-ES hemorrhage has not been widely studied, partly because of the difficulty in placing of clips using a duodenoscope. A cap-fitted forward-viewing gastroscope can easily visualize the major papilla and overcome the technical difficulty in applying endoclips. We aimed to determine the efficacy and safety of endoclips for the treatment of post-ES hemorrhage using a cap-fitted forward-viewing gastroscope. From January 2011 to December 2015, a total of 1448 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures with ES were retrospectively assessed and followed-up. Patients with post-ES hemorrhage who did not respond to balloon compression or to spray or injection of a diluted epinephrine solution at the bleeding focus underwent endoclip therapy using a cap-fitted forward-viewing gastroscope. Bleeding patterns (oozing, pulsatile, and exposed vessel) were recorded. ES-induced uncontrolled hemorrhage occurred in 57 patients (3.93 %). The mean age was 68.9 ± 14.5 years, and the sex ratio (male/female) was 37 (64.9 %):20 (35.1 %) in 57 patients. Of the 57 cases of hemorrhage, early uncontrolled and delayed hemorrhage occurred in 45 (3.1 %) and 12 (0.82 %), respectively. Visible bleeding patterns following ES were: 50 oozing (57.7 %), 6 pulsatile (10.5 %), and 1 exposed vessel (1.8 %). Hemostasis was achieved by endoclipping using a cap-fitted forward-viewing gastroscope in 57 of 57 patients (100 %). The median number of clips used was 1.8 (range 1-3). No evidence of further bleeding or procedure-related complications was seen. We concluded that endoclip application using a cap-fitted forward-viewing gastroscope is feasible and safe and may be an effective technique for the treatment and/or prevention of post-ES hemorrhage.

  9. The safety and efficacy of nasobiliary drainage versus biliary stenting in malignant biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Huapeng; Li, Shengwei; Liu, Xi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) has been widely used to treat patients with malignant biliary obstruction. However, it is still unclear which method of PBD (endoscopic nasobiliary drainage or endoscopic biliary stenting) is more effective. Thus, we carried out a meta-analysis to compare the safety and efficacy of endoscopic nasobiliary drainage (ENBD) and endoscopic biliary stenting (EBS) in malignant biliary obstruction in terms of preoperative and postoperative complications. Methods: We conducted a literature search of EMBASE databases, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library to identify relevant available articles that were published in English, and we then compared ENBD and EBS in malignant biliary obstruction patients. The preoperative cholangitis rate, the preoperative pancreatitis rate, the incidence of stent dysfunction, the postoperative pancreatic fistula rate, and morbidity were analyzed. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to express the pooled effect on dichotomous variables, and the pooled analyses were performed using RevMan 5.3. Results: Seven published studies (n = 925 patients) were included in this meta-analysis. We determined that patients with malignant biliary obstruction who received ENBD had reductions in the preoperative cholangitis rate (OR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.25–0.51, P < 0.0001), the postoperative pancreatic fistula rate (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.18–0.82, P = 0.01), the incidence of stent dysfunction (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.28–0.56, P < 0.0001), and morbidity (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.27–0.82, P = 0.008) compared with patients who received EBS. Conclusions: The current meta-analysis suggests that ENBD is better than EBS for malignant biliary obstruction in terms of the preoperative cholangitis rate, the postoperative pancreatic fistula rate, the incidence of stent dysfunction, and morbidity. However, a limitation is that there are no data

  10. Endoscopic biliary drainage for choledocholithiasis in a patient with aplastic anemia before hematological engraftment after allogeneic transplantation.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kohei; Hashino, Satoshi; Takahata, Mutsumi; Onozawa, Masahiro; Kahata, Kaoru; Kondo, Takeshi; Imamura, Masahiro; Asaka, Masahiro

    2009-05-01

    A 30-year-old man was diagnosed with severe aplastic anemia in 1997. He received mPSL pulse therapy and was treated with ATG and cyclosporine, resulting in remission and exacerbation; however, his pancytopenia gradually progressed and transfusions were required. He was referred to our hospital for further treatment by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Before allo-BMT, he suffered febrile neutropenia. His white blood cell count was <100/microl despite daily administration of G-CSF. Although we detected asymptomatic stones in his gallbladder (GB) and common bile duct (CBD) by a screening test before allo-BMT, we decided to remove the stones after BMT because of his severe neutropenia. He underwent allo-BMT from an HLA-matched unrelated donor after conditioning with a reduced-intensity regimen. On day 9 after BMT, he developed acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis. Germ-free care was transiently stopped and endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) was performed for the stones in the common bile duct. Engraftment of WBC was confirmed on day 24, and the stones were removed using endoscopic sphincterotomy on day 57 after confirmation of platelet recovery. We could perform EBD safely before hematological engraftment. A strategy for the management of asymptomatic stones of the GB and CBD has not yet been established. The possibility of removing stones before BMT should therefore be considered. Consideration should also be given to the possibility of improving acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis by EBD and antibiotics before hematological engraftment in such cases when stones cannot be removed before BMT.

  11. Chlorambucil for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei Xin; Yan, Xiang; Shi, Chun Rui; Zhang, Ai Ping

    2012-09-12

    Chlorambucil has been used for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis as it possesses immunosuppressive properties. But it is unknown whether it benefits or harms these patients. To evaluate the beneficial and any harmful effects of chlorambucil for primary biliary cirrhosis patients. Eligible trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register (March 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1946 to March 2012), EMBASE (1974 to March 2012), Science Citation Index EXPANDED (1900 to March 2012), The Chinese Biomedical Database (1976 to March 2012), The Chinese Medical Current Contents (1994 to March 2012), The China Hospital Knowledge Database (1994 to March 2012), and a database of ongoing trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/) (accessed 6 March 2012). The reference lists of the retrieved publications and review articles were also read through, and pharmaceutical companies known to produce chlorambucil were contacted. Randomised clinical trials, irrespective of language, year of publication, and publication status, comparing chlorambucil at any dose versus placebo, no intervention, another active drug, or one dose of chlorambucil with another dose. We planned to assess continuous data with mean differences (MD), and dichotomous outcomes with relative risk (RR), both with 95% confidence intervals (CI). As we only identified one trial, Fisher's exact tests were employed. Only one randomised trial was identified and included in the review. The bias risk in the trial was high. The trial compared chlorambucil versus no intervention in 24 patients with primary biliary cirrhosis. Fisher's exact test did not show a significant reduction of mortality when comparing chlorambucil with no treatment (0/13 (0%) versus (2/11 (18.2%); P = 0.20). There was no significant difference regarding adverse events for chlorambucil compared with no treatment

  12. Biliary fascioliasis – an uncommon cause of recurrent biliary colics: Report of a case and brief review

    PubMed Central

    Al Qurashi, Hesham; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Al Sofiyani, Mohammad; Al Musharaf, Hisham; Shaqhan, Mohammed; All, Gamal Nasr Ahmed Abdel

    2012-01-01

    Biliary parasitosis is one of the important causes of biliary obstruction in endemic areas, however due to migration and travel the disease is known to occur in non endemic zones as well. The spectrum of biliary fascioliasis ranges from recurrent biliary colics to acute cholangitis. The long term complications are gall stones, sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis. We describe fascioliasis as a cause of recurrent biliary colics in a young male necessitating multiple hospitalizations over a period of four years. Investigative profile had been non-contributory every time he was hospitalized for his abdominal pain prior to the current presentation. He never had cholangitis due to the worm in the common bile duct. It was only at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary fascioliasis was discovered to be the cause of his recurrent biliary colics. After removal of the live Fasciola hepatica from the common bile duct he became symptom free and is attending our clinic for last 11 months now. Clinical spectrum of biliary fascioliasis is discussed in this report. PMID:22566787

  13. Biliary fascioliasis--an uncommon cause of recurrent biliary colics: report of a case and brief review.

    PubMed

    Al Qurashi, Hesham; Masoodi, Ibrahim; Al Sofiyani, Mohammad; Al Musharaf, Hisham; Shaqhan, Mohammed; All, Gamal Nasr Ahmed Abdel

    2012-01-01

    Biliary parasitosis is one of the important causes of biliary obstruction in endemic areas, however due to migration and travel the disease is known to occur in non endemic zones as well. The spectrum of biliary fascioliasis ranges from recurrent biliary colics to acute cholangitis. The long term complications are gall stones, sclerosing cholangitis and biliary cirrhosis. We describe fascioliasis as a cause of recurrent biliary colics in a young male necessitating multiple hospitalizations over a period of four years. Investigative profile had been non-contributory every time he was hospitalized for his abdominal pain prior to the current presentation. He never had cholangitis due to the worm in the common bile duct. It was only at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) biliary fascioliasis was discovered to be the cause of his recurrent biliary colics. After removal of the live Fasciola hepatica from the common bile duct he became symptom free and is attending our clinic for last 11 months now. Clinical spectrum of biliary fascioliasis is discussed in this report.

  14. Impairment of flow-mediated dilation correlates with aortic dilation in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takata, Munenori; Amiya, Eisuke; Watanabe, Masafumi; Omori, Kazuko; Imai, Yasushi; Fujita, Daishi; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Kato, Masayoshi; Morota, Tetsuro; Nawata, Kan; Ozeki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Aya; Kawarasaki, Shuichi; Hosoya, Yumiko; Nakao, Tomoko; Maemura, Koji; Nagai, Ryozo; Hirata, Yasunobu; Komuro, Issei

    2014-07-01

    Marfan syndrome is an inherited disorder characterized by genetic abnormality of microfibrillar connective tissue proteins. Endothelial dysfunction is thought to cause aortic dilation in subjects with a bicuspid aortic valve; however, the role of endothelial dysfunction and endothelial damaging factors has not been elucidated in Marfan syndrome. Flow-mediated dilation, a noninvasive measurement of endothelial function, was evaluated in 39 patients with Marfan syndrome. Aortic diameter was measured at the aortic annulus, aortic root at the sinus of Valsalva, sinotubular junction and ascending aorta by echocardiography, and adjusted for body surface area (BSA). The mean value of flow-mediated dilation was 6.5 ± 2.4 %. Flow-mediated dilation had a negative correlation with the diameter of the ascending thoracic aorta (AscAd)/BSA (R = -0.39, p = 0.020) and multivariate analysis revealed that flow-mediated dilation was an independent factor predicting AscAd/BSA, whereas other segments of the aorta had no association. Furthermore, Brinkman index had a somewhat greater influence on flow-mediated dilation (R = -0.42, p = 0.008). Although subjects who smoked tended to have a larger AscAd compared with non-smokers (AscA/BSA: 17.3 ± 1.8 versus 15.2 ± 3.0 mm/m(2), p = 0.013), there was no significant change in flow-mediated dilation, suggesting that smoking might affect aortic dilation via an independent pathway. Common atherogenic risks, such as impairment of flow-mediated dilation and smoking status, affected aortic dilation in subjects with Marfan syndrome.

  15. Association of Preoperative Biliary Drainage With Postoperative Outcome Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    PubMed Central

    Povoski, Stephen P.; Karpeh, Martin S.; Conlon, Kevin C.; Blumgart, Leslie H.; Brennan, Murray F.

    1999-01-01

    Objective To determine whether preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Summary Background Data Pancreaticoduodenectomy is accompanied by a considerable rate of postoperative complications and potential death. Controversy exists regarding the impact of preoperative biliary instrumentation and preoperative biliary drainage on morbidity and mortality rates after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Methods Two hundred forty consecutive cases of pancreaticoduodenectomy performed between January 1994 and January 1997 were analyzed. Multiple preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were examined. Pearson chi square analysis or Fisher’s exact test, when appropriate, was used for univariate comparison of all variables. Logistic regression was used for multivariate analysis. Results One hundred seventy-five patients (73%) underwent preoperative biliary instrumentation (endoscopic, percutaneous, or surgical instrumentation). One hundred twenty-six patients (53%) underwent preoperative biliary drainage (endoscopic stents, percutaneous drains/stents, or surgical drainage). The overall postoperative morbidity rate after pancreaticoduodenectomy was 48% (114/240). Infectious complications occurred in 34% (81/240) of patients. Intraabdominal abscess occurred in 14% (33/240) of patients. The postoperative mortality rate was 5% (12/240). Preoperative biliary drainage was determined to be the only statistically significant variable associated with complications (p = 0.025), infectious complications (p = 0.014), intraabdominal abscess (p = 0.022), and postoperative death (p = 0.037). Preoperative biliary instrumentation alone was not associated with complications, infectious complications, intraabdominal abscess, or postoperative death. Conclusions Preoperative biliary drainage, but not preoperative biliary instrumentation alone, is associated with increased

  16. Sequential probing and dilatation in canalicular stenosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Jongyeop; Kim, Hochang

    2015-11-01

    To assess the usefulness of sequential probing for diagnosing lacrimal canalicular stenosis, and the effectiveness of bicanalicular silicone intubation after sequential dilatation in treatment. Canalicular stenosis was diagnosed by sequential probing in 22 patients (22 eyes) who were misdiagnosed as canalicular obstruction. The patients were treated by bicanalicular silicone intubation after sequential dilatation. Anatomical improvements and functional relief of epiphora were evaluated. In addition, complications were evaluated. The average age of the 22 patients was 57 years, and the average follow-up period was 13 months. The silicone tube was left in place for an average of 14 weeks. The anatomical success rate was 100 %. Fifty-four percent of patients achieved complete relief of epiphora, 32 % partial relief, and 14 % no relief. There were no complications. Sequential probing is an useful diagnostic method for canalicular stenosis. Bicanalicular silicone intubation after sequential dilatation is a simple and effective treatment, and could be performed as primary procedure for canalicular stenosis before invasive surgery.

  17. Dilated cardiomyopathy and progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    James, Stephanie; Waterhouse, Deirdre; McDonald, Kenneth; O'Hanlon, Rory

    2014-01-01

    This case is of a 29-year-old man with progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 also known as Byler's disease. At the age of 21, our patient developed non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac MRI demonstrated global wall thinning, with significant areas of myocardial fibrosis in the mid and epicardial walls from base to apex on postgadolinium late contrast enhanced images. No shared genetic loci between dilated cardiomyopathy and Byler's or cholestatic liver disease have yet been found. This presents the first documented case of non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy, with evidence of mid wall fibrosis, in association with an established diagnosis of progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 1 since childhood. PMID:24654243

  18. Completely obstructed colorectal anastomosis: a new non-electrosurgical endoscopic approach before balloon dilatation.

    PubMed

    Curcio, Gabriele; Spada, Marco; di Francesco, Fabrizio; Tarantino, Ilaria; Barresi, Luca; Burgio, Gaetano; Traina, Mario

    2010-10-07

    Benign stricture is a relatively common complication of colorectal anastomosis after low anterior resection. On occasion, the anastomosis may close completely. A variety of endoscopic techniques have been described, but there is a lack of data from controlled prospective trials as to the optimal approach. Through-the-scope balloon dilatation is well known and easy to perform. Some case reports describe different endoscopic approaches, including endoscopic electrocision with a papillotomy knife or hook knife. We report a case of a colorectal anastomosis web occlusion, treated without electrocision. Gastrografin enema and sigmoidoscopy showed complete obstruction at the anastomotic site due to the presence of an anastomotic occlusive web. In order to avoid thermal injuries, we decided to use a suprapapillary biliary puncture catheter. The Artifon catheter was inserted into the center of the circular staple line at the level of the anastomosis, and fluoroscopic identification of the proximal bowel was obtained with dye injection. A 0.025-inch guidewire was then passed through the catheter into the colon and progressive pneumatic dilatation was performed. The successful destruction of the occlusive web facilitated passage of the colonoscope, allowing evaluation of the entire colon and stoma closure after three months of follow-up. The patient tolerated the procedure well, with no complications. This report highlights an alternative non-electrosurgical approach that uses a new device that proved to be safe and useful.

  19. [Pneumatic dilation in the treatment of achalasia].

    PubMed

    Ruiz Cuesta, Patricia; Hervás Molina, Antonio José; Jurado García, Juan; Pleguezuelo Navarro, María; García Sánchez, Valle; Casáis Juanena, Luis L; Gálvez Calderón, Carmen; Naranjo Rodríguez, Antonio

    2013-10-01

    Pneumatic dilation and surgical myotomy are currently the procedures of choice to treat achalasia. The selection of one or other treatment depends on the experience of each center and patient preferences. To review the experience of pneumatic dilation in patients with achalasia in our center. We included all patients with a clinical, endoscopic and manometric diagnosis compatible with achalasia who underwent pneumatic dilation in a 19-year period. All dilations were routinely performed with a Rigiflex(®) balloon, usually at pressures of 250, 250 and 300mm Hg in three inflations of one minute, each separated by one minute. The success of the dilation was assessed on the basis of the patient's symptoms, the number of sessions, the need for surgery, and the presence of complications. A total of 171 patients were included, 53.2% men and 46.8% women, with a mean age of 51.53±17.78 years (16-87 years), from June 1993 to October 2012. A 35-mm balloon was used in 157 patients, a 30-mm balloon in 9 patients and a 40-mm balloon in 7 patients. A single dilation session was required in 108 patients, two sessions were required in 56 patients, with a mean time between the first and second sessions of 25.23±43.25 months (1-215 months), and 3 sessions were required in 7 patients with a mean time between the second and third sessions of 6.86±5.33 months (1-15 months). Outcome after dilation was successful in 81% of the patients. Of the 140 responders, 121 had complete response (complete disappearance of symptoms without recurrence) and 19 partial response (initial disappearance of symptoms with subsequent reappearance). Surgery (Heller myotomy) was required in 15.8% of the patients. Perforation occurred in 4 of the 171 patients as a complication of the technique; these perforations were satisfactorily resolved, two by conservative treatment and two by surgery. There was no mortality associated with the technique or its complications. In our series, pneumatic dilation had a

  20. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott; Xu, Ronald X.

    2012-11-01

    We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy.

  1. Biliary-colonic fistula caused by cholecystectomy bile duct injury.

    PubMed

    Macedo, Francisco Igor B; Casillas, Victor J; Davis, James S; Levi, Joe U; Sleeman, Danny

    2013-08-01

    Biliary-colonic fistula is a rare complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case of post-cholecystectomy iatrogenic biliary injury that resulted in a fistula between the common hepatic duct and large bowel. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography provided good visualization of injury even with concurrent normal level of alkaline phosphatase. Radiologic findings and surgical management of this condition are discussed in detail.

  2. Indocyanine-green-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Kinshuk; Melvin, James; Chang, Shufang; Park, Kyoungjin; Yilmaz, Alper; Melvin, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We encapsulate indocyanine green (ICG) in poly[(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide)-co-PEG] diblock (PLGA-PEG) microballoons for real-time fluorescence and hyperspectral imaging of biliary anatomy. ICG-loaded microballoons show superior fluorescence characteristics and slower degradation in comparison with pure ICG. The use of ICG-loaded microballoons in biliary imaging is demonstrated in both biliary-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo tissue model. The biliary-simulating phantoms are prepared by embedding ICG-loaded microballoons in agar gel and imaged by a fluorescence imaging module in a Da Vinci surgical robot. The ex vivo model consists of liver, gallbladder, common bile duct, and part of the duodenum freshly dissected from a domestic swine. After ICG-loaded microballoons are injected into the gallbladder, the biliary structure is imaged by both hyperspectral and fluorescence imaging modalities. Advanced spectral analysis and image processing algorithms are developed to classify the tissue types and identify the biliary anatomy. While fluorescence imaging provides dynamic information of movement and flow in the surgical region of interest, data from hyperspectral imaging allow for rapid identification of the bile duct and safe exclusion of any contaminant fluorescence from tissue not part of the biliary anatomy. Our experiments demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ICG-loaded microballoons for biliary imaging in cholecystectomy. PMID:23214186

  3. Prenatal diagnosis of biliary atresia: A case series.

    PubMed

    Shen, O; Sela, H Y; Nagar, H; Rabinowitz, R; Jacobovich, E; Chen, D; Granot, E

    2017-08-01

    Biliary atresia is a progressive disease presenting with jaundice, and is the most common indication for liver transplantation in the pediatric population. Prenatal series have yielded conflicting results concerning a possible association between BA and prenatal nonvisualization of the gallbladder. This retrospective case series was performed to assess the association between biliary atresia, prenatal nonvisualization of the gallbladder and other sonographic signs. We identified biliary atresia patients who underwent a Kasai procedure by a single pediatric surgeon and/or follow up by a single pediatric gastroenterologist. Axial plane images and/or video recordings were scrutinized for sonographic signs of biliary atresia on the second trimester anomaly scan. Proportion of biliary atresia cases with prenatal sonographic signs. Twenty five charts of children with biliary and high quality prenatal images were retrieved. 6/25 (24%) of cases analyzed had prenatal nonvisualization of the gallbladder or a small gallbladder on the prenatal scan. Two cases had biliary atresia splenic malformation syndrome. None of the cases had additional sonographic markers of biliary atresia. Our study suggests that in addition to the well-established embryonic and cystic forms, an additional type can be suspected prenatally, which is characterized by prenatal nonvisualization of the gallbladder in the second trimester. This provides additional evidence that some cases of BA are of fetal rather than perinatal onset and may have important implications for prenatal diagnosis, for counseling and for research of the disease's etiology and pathophysiology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biliary catheter and accessories. 876.5010 Section 876.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter...

  5. 21 CFR 876.5010 - Biliary catheter and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Biliary catheter and accessories. 876.5010 Section 876.5010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5010 Biliary catheter...

  6. Understanding the dilation and dilation relaxation behavior of graphite-based lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Marius; Wachtler, Mario; Stöwe, Hendrik; Persson, Jon V.; Danzer, Michael A.

    2016-06-01

    The dilation of lithium-ion cells is sensitive towards swelling phenomena caused by both graphite staging processes and lithium plating on graphite anodes. In this work, the dilation behavior of graphite/NMC pouch cells is studied with a focus on relaxation phenomena occurring after current pulses. In order to prevent misleading interpretations due to thermal effects, thermal expansion is quantified and a method for the thermal compensation of dilation data is developed. Dilation data are recorded for quasi-equilibrium cycling as well as for current pulses at high rates. In the quasi-equilibrium case, the staging behavior is characterized based on dilation and voltage data. By comparison with a graphite half-cell measurement, the major effects in full cell dilation are confirmed to be anode related. In the high rate case, the dilation responses to the actual pulse and the subsequent relaxation phases are recorded systematically. Positive and negative relaxation phenomena are observed depending on the SOC. They are ascribed to both graphite staging and lithium plating processes. A model is presented explaining the unexpected relaxation effects by a temporary coexistence of three or more staging compounds during high rate lithiation and delithiation. Our data thereby confirm the shrinking annuli model introduced by Heβ and Novák.

  7. [Tomato peel: rare cause of biliary tract obstruction].

    PubMed

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Péter, Zoltán; Csöregh, Eva; Szabó, Emese; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2011-11-20

    Foreign bodies in the biliary tree are rare causes of obstructive jaundice. Food bezoars are infrequent as well. They can cause biliary obstruction after biliary tract interventions, or in the presence of biliary-bowel fistula or duodenum diverticulum. Food bezoars usually pass the gastrointestinal tract without any symptoms, but they can cause abdominal pain and obstructive jaundice in the case of biliary tract obstruction. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography has the major role in the diagnosis and the treatment of the disease. Authors summarize the medical history of a 91-year-old female patient, who developed vomiting and right subcostal pain due to the presence of tomato peel within the ductus choledochus.

  8. Biliary Tract Cancer: Epidemiology, Radiotherapy, and Molecular Profiling.

    PubMed

    Bridgewater, John A; Goodman, Karyn A; Kalyan, Aparna; Mulcahy, Mary F

    2016-01-01

    Biliary tract cancer, or cholangiocarcinoma, arises from the biliary epithelium of the small ducts in the periphery of the liver (intrahepatic) and the main ducts of the hilum (extrahepatic), extending into the gallbladder. The incidence and epidemiology of biliary tract cancer are fluid and complex. It is shown that intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is on the rise in the Western world, and gallbladder cancer is on the decline. Radiation therapy has emerged as an important component of adjuvant therapy for resected disease and definitive therapy for locally advanced disease. The emerging sophisticated techniques of imaging tumors and conformal dose delivery are expanding the indications for radiotherapy in the management of bile duct tumors. As we understand more about the molecular pathways driving biliary tract cancers, targeted therapies are at the forefront of new therapeutic combinations. Understanding the gene expression profile and mutational burden in biliary tract cancer allows us to better discern the pathogenesis and identify promising new developmental therapeutic targets.

  9. Best endoscopic stents for the biliary tree and pancreas.

    PubMed

    Baron, Todd H

    2014-09-01

    To determine trends in pancreaticobiliary stents over the past 12-18 months. Metal biliary stents continue to be used for palliation of malignant distal biliary obstruction with superior patency to plastic stents. The use of covered metal biliary stents is increasingly being used for the management of benign biliary disease. Plastic stents predominate in patients with pancreatic disease, with the exception of transmural drainage of pancreatic necrosis. In both biliary and pancreatic disorders, there is a trend towards greater utilization of endoscopic ultrasound-guided interventions. Endoscopic placement of pancreaticobiliary stents plays an important role in the treatment of complex benign and malignant disease. Further comparative trials are needed to determine the optimal role of endoscopic ultrasound-guided transmural stent placement.

  10. Self-expandable metal stents in malignant biliary obstruction.

    PubMed

    Jaganmohan, Sathya; Lee, Jeffrey H

    2012-02-01

    Malignant biliary obstruction can be due to direct tumor infiltration, extrinsic compression, adjacent inflammation, desmoplastic reaction from tumors or, more commonly, a combination of the above factors. Pancreatic cancer is the most common cause of malignant biliary obstruction, and jaundice occurs in 70-90% of the patients during the course of the disease. Compared with the uncovered metal stents, covered metal stents have longer patency and a lower rate of tumor ingrowth, but have a higher rate of stent migration. To combat the occlusion and provide an antitumor effect, drug-eluting stents were developed. A duodenal stricture complicates biliary stent placement in 10-20% of patients with distal biliary obstruction due to pancreatic cancer. When both strictures are considered, a biliary stent can be placed either preceding or following duodenal stent placement. Complications of self-expandable metal stents include stent occlusion, stent migration, cholecystitis and pancreatitis.

  11. Percutaneous cholangioscopy in obstructed biliary metal stents

    SciTech Connect

    Hausegger, Klaus A.; Mischinger, Hans J.; Karaic, Radenko; Klein, Guenther E.; Kugler, Cristian; Kern, Robert; Uggowitzer, Martin; Szolar, Dieter

    1997-05-15

    Purpose. To reevaluate the reasons for the occlusion of self-expanding biliary metal stents, on the basis of cholangioscopic findings. Methods. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangioscopy (PTCS) was performed in 15 patients with obstructed biliary Wallstents. The reason for stent insertion was a malignant obstruction in 14 patients; 1 had a benign biliary stricture. Conventional noncovered stents had been inserted in 12 patients; in 3 cases a polyurethane-covered prototype Wallstent had been used. Stent occlusions occurred after 1-55 months. PTCS was performed with a 2.3-mm endoscope through an 11 Fr sheath. Biopsies were taken via the working channel of the endoscope. Results. In all patients with noncovered stents the inner surface of the stent was highly irregular with seaweed-like protrusions (biopsy-proven granulation tissue). Stent incorporation varied from absent (n=1) to subtotal (n=8), but was always incomplete, no matter how long the stent had been in place. Tumor ingrowth was histologically proven in 2 patients. One patient had a large occluding concrement at the proximal end of the stent. In patients with covered stents, the inner surface appeared more regular; however, viable granulation tissue was found inside two stents and tumor ingrowth in one of them. Conclusion. PTCS showed that incorporation of the stent is virtually always incomplete. The factors contributing most to stent occlusion are the buildup of granulation tissue, bile sludge, and tumor overgrowth. Stone formation and tumor ingrowth can also be important, although less common causes of occlusion. A polyurethane stent covering could not prevent tumor ingrowth in one patient and the buildup of viable granulation tissue inside the stent in two further patients; mean stent patency in the three patients with such a stent was 3 months.

  12. Current options for management of biliary atresia.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Amy; Esquivel, Carlos O

    2013-03-01

    It is encouraging that we are improving the technical aspects of treatment modalities for biliary atresia. However, it is clear that more needs to be done to best develop new treatment plans while applying the modalities we have (porto-enterostomy or liver transplantation or both) in a way that will afford the best survival and quality-of-life. This review article will discuss a number of points that are vital to improving care and illustrates the need to further scrutinize treatment decisions.

  13. Breach of tolerance: primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lifeng; Wang, Fu-Sheng; Chang, Christopher; Gershwin, M Eric

    2014-08-01

    In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), the breach of tolerance that leads to active disease involves a disruption in several layers of control, including central tolerance, peripheral anergy, a "liver tolerance effect," and the action of T regulatory cells and their related cytokines. Each of these control mechanisms plays a role in preventing an immune response against self, but all of them act in concert to generate effective protection against autoimmunity without compromising the ability of the host immune system to mount an effective response to pathogens. At the same time, genetic susceptibility, environmental factors, including infection agents and xenobiotics, play important roles in breach of tolerance in the development of PBC.

  14. Total laparoscopic Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy for the treatment of biliary disease.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dexing; Zhu, Andong; Zhang, Zhibo

    2013-01-01

    Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy (RCJS) has been widely used in biliary bypass surgeries, but in most reported literature, an assisted miniincision was needed, and studies reporting total laparoscopic Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy (TLRCJS) are rare. The goal of this study was to investigate how to treat hepatic portal bile duct diseases and perform jejunojejunostomy and cholangiojejunostomy totally laparoscopically. We evaluated the feasibility of TLRCJS in treating biliary tract diseases. TLRCJS were performed in 103 patients from January 2000 to August 2011. There were 28 cases of recurrent choledocholithiasis combined with stricture of the common bile duct (CBD) after several stone extractions, 3 patients with iatrogenic bile duct injury, 24 patients with choledochal cyst, 36 patients with hepatic portal cholangiocarcinoma, and 12 patients with cancer of the pancreatic head and periampullary cancer. All surgeries were performed through 5 trocars. First, laparoscopic surgery on the CBD was performed according to the original disease. The CBD was opened and stones were extracted in choledocholithiasis patients. In iatrogenic injury patients, strictured CBD was resected and repaired. Dilated CBD or choledochal cyst with tumor was transected. In patients with malignant jaundice, the CBD was opened longitudinally. At the same time, the bile duct was prepared for cholangiojejunostomy. Second, the positions of the laparoscope and surgeons were altered. The jejunal mesentery and jejunum were transected, and side-to-side jejunojejunostomy (JJS) was performed. The laparoscope and surgeon positions were exchanged again; the Rouxen-Y biliary limb was lifted close to the residual bile duct; and side-to-side or end-to-side choledochojejunostomy (CJS) was performed. Finally, an abdominal drainage tube was placed. All the surgeries were performed successfully. The diameter of the residual bile duct ranged from 0.4 to 3.2 cm (average, 0.9 cm). Three patients had postoperative

  15. Percutaneous trans-hepatic bilateral biliary stenting in Bismuth IV malignant obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Spiliopoulos, Stavros; Katsakiori, Paraskevi; Romanos, Odissefs; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Siablis, Dimitrios

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical efficiency of percutaneous trans-hepatic bilateral biliary metallic stenting for the management of Bismuth IV malignant obstructive disease. METHODS: Our hospital’s database was searched for all patients suffering from the inoperable malignant biliary obstruction Bismuth IV, and treated with percutaneous bilateral trans-hepatic placement of self-expandable nitinol stents. The indication for percutaneous stenting was an inoperable, malignant, symptomatic, biliary obstruction. An un-correctable coagulation disorder was the only absolute contra-indication for treatment. Bismuth grading was performed using magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Computed tomography evaluation of the lesion and the dilatation status of the biliary tree was always performed prior to the procedure. All procedures were performed under conscious sedation. A single trans-hepatic track technique was preferred (T-configuration stenting) and a second, contra-lateral trans-hepatic track (Y-configuration stenting) was used only in cases of inability to access the contra-lateral lobe using a single track technique. The study’s primary endpoints were clinical success, defined as a decrease in bilirubin levels within 10 d and patient survival rates. Secondary endpoints included peri-procedural complications, primary and secondary patency rates. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients (18 female, 51.4%) with a mean age 69 ± 13 years (range 33-88) were included in the study. The procedures were performed between March 2000 and June 2008 and mean time follow-up was 13.5 ± 22.0 mo (range 0-96). The underlying malignant disease was cholangiocarcinoma (n = 10), hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 9), pancreatic carcinoma (n = 5), gastric cancer (n = 2), bile duct tumor (n = 2), colorectal cancer (n = 2), gallbladder carcinoma (n = 2), lung cancer (n = 1), breast cancer (n = 1) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 1). In all cases, various self-expandable bare metal stents with

  16. Charged dilation black holes as particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2015-03-01

    We examine the possibility of arbitrarily high energy in the center-of-mass (CM) frame of colliding neutral particles in the vicinity of the horizon of a charged dilation black hole (BH). We show that it is possible to achieve the infinite energy in the background of the dilation black hole without fine-tuning of the angular momentum parameter. It is found that the CM energy (Ecm) of collisions of particles near the infinite red-shift surface of the extreme dilation BHs are arbitrarily large while the non-extreme charged dilation BHs have the finite energy. We have also compared the Ecm at the horizon with the ISCO (Innermost Stable Circular Orbit) and MBCO (Marginally Bound Circular Orbit) for extremal Reissner-Nordstrøm (RN) BH and Schwarzschild BH. We find that for extreme RN BH the inequality becomes Ecm|r+ >Ecm|rmb >Ecm|rISCO i.e. Ecm|r+=M :Ecm | rmb =(3 +√{ 5 }/2) M :Ecm| rISCO = 4 M = ∞ : 3.23 : 2.6 . While for Schwarzschild BH the ratio of CM energy is Ecm| r+ = 2 M :Ecm| rmb = 4 M :Ecm| rISCO = 6 M =√{ 5 } :√{ 2 } :√{ 13 }/3 . Also for Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger (GMGHS) BHs the ratio is being Ecm| r+ = 2 M :Ecm| rmb = 2 M :Ecm| rISCO = 2 M = ∞ : ∞ : ∞ .

  17. Genetics Home Reference: familial dilated cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 10.1056/NEJMoa1110186. Citation on PubMed or Free article on PubMed Central Hershberger RE, Hedges DJ, Morales A. Dilated cardiomyopathy: the complexity of a diverse genetic architecture. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2013 Sep;10(9):531- ...

  18. Stability under dilations of nonlinear spinor fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Walter A.; Vázquez, Luis

    1986-07-01

    The stability problem of the localized solutions for classical Dirac fields with scalar self-interactions is considered in the framework of the Shatah-Strauss formalism. We study the stability and instability under dilations and provide an application to the Soler model.

  19. Stability under dilations of nonlinear spinor fields

    SciTech Connect

    Strauss, W.A.; Va-acute-accentzquez, L.

    1986-07-15

    The stability problem of the localized solutions for classical Dirac fields with scalar self-interactions is considered in the framework of the Shatah-Strauss formalism. We study the stability and instability under dilations and provide an application to the Soler model.

  20. Hypnoanalgesia for Dilatation and Curettage Pain Control

    PubMed Central

    Fathi, Mehdi; Aziz Mohammadi, Susan; Moslemifar, Mehdi; Kamali, Kurosh; Joudi, Marjan; Sabri Benhangi, Azam; Mohaddes, Mojtaba; Joudi, Mona; Mohajeri, Mozhgan

    2017-01-01

    There are many acceptable approaches ranging from light to moderate intravenous sedation or analgesic drugs that are used to provide pain control in dilatation and curettage. We report the use of hypnosis as a nonpharmacologic approach to control pain in this manner. PMID:28824863

  1. Aortic dilation, genetic testing, and associated diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Zarate, Yuri A; Sellars, Elizabeth; Lepard, Tiffany; Tang, Xinyu; Collins, R Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the genetic diagnoses most frequently associated with aortic dilation in a large population and to describe the results of genetic testing in the same. A retrospective review of records from patients with known aortic dilation identified through an echocardiogram database was performed. During the study period, different chromosomal microarray platforms and molecular diagnostic techniques were used. A total of 715 patients (mean age, 9.7 years; 67% male) met study inclusion criteria. The overall frequency of underlying presumptive or confirmed genetic diagnoses was 17% (125/715). Molecular evaluation for possible underlying aortopathy-related disorders was performed in 9% of patients (66/715). Next-generation sequencing panels were performed in 16 patients, and pathogenic abnormalities were detected in 4 (25%). Microarrays were conducted in 10% of patients (72/715), with a total of 23 pathogenic copy-number variants identified in 19 patients (26%). Marfan syndrome was the most frequently recognized genetic disorder associated with aortic dilation, but other cytogenetic abnormalities and associated diagnoses also were identified. The differential diagnosis in patients with aortic dilation is broad and includes many conditions outside the common connective tissue disorder spectrum. A genetics evaluation should be considered to assist in the diagnostic evaluation.Genet Med 18 4, 356-363.

  2. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3900 - Nasal dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3900 Nasal dilator. (a) Identification. A nasal... nasal airflow. The device decreases airway resistance and increases nasal airflow. The external...

  4. A Symmetry Approach to Time Dilation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Peter

    1995-01-01

    Outlines an approach to introduce students to special relativity using a discussion of stopclocks and measurement of the transmission of light pulses to produce a natural derivation of the time dilation factor. Aims at providing a frame of reference from which they can be tempted to explore special relativity at a more sophisticated level. (JRH)

  5. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urethral dilator. 876.5520 Section 876.5520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... flexibilities. The device may include a mechanism to expand the portion of the device in the urethra...

  6. 21 CFR 876.5520 - Urethral dilator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urethral dilator. 876.5520 Section 876.5520 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL... flexibilities. The device may include a mechanism to expand the portion of the device in the urethra...

  7. Surface dilatational viscosity of Langmuir monolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, Juan; Vogel, Michael; Hirsa, Amir

    2003-11-01

    With increased interest in microfluidic systems, interfacial phenomena is receiving more attention. As the length scales of fluid problems decrease, the surface to volume ratio increases and the coupling between interfacial flow and bulk flow becomes increasingly dominated by effects due to intrinsic surface viscosities (shear and dilatational), in comparison to elastic effects (due to surface tension gradients). The surface shear viscosity is well-characterized, as cm-scale laboratory experiments are able to isolate its effects from other interfacial processes (e.g., in the deep-channel viscometer). The same is not true for the dilatational viscosity, because it acts in the direction of surface tension gradients. Their relative strength scale with the capillary number, and for cm-scale laboratory flows, surface tension effects tend to dominate. In microfluidic scale flows, the scaling favors viscosity. We have devised an experimental apparatus which is capable of isolating and enhancing the effects of dilatational viscosity at the cm scales by driving the interface harmonically in time, while keeping the interface flat. In this talk, we shall present both the theory for how this works as well as experimental measurements of surface velocity from which we deduce the dilatational viscosity of several monolayers on the air-water interface over a substantial range of surface concentrations. Anomalous behavior over some range of concentration, which superficially indicates negative viscosity, maybe explained in terms of compositional effects due to large spatial and temporal variations in concentration and corresponding viscosity.

  8. Percutaneous transhepatic embolization of biliary leakage with N-butyl cyanoacrylate

    PubMed Central

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo; Ierardi, Anna Maria; Piacentino, Filippo; Cardim, Larissa N

    2012-01-01

    Biliary leakage is a known complication after biliary surgery. In this report, we describe an uncommon treatment of a common biliary complication, wherein we used percutaneous transhepatic injection of N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) to treat a biliary leak in an 83-year-old patient. PMID:22623810

  9. Serum Lipid Levels and the Risk of Biliary Tract Cancers and Biliary Stones: A Population-based Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Gabriella; Chen, Jinbo; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rashid, Asif; Chang, Shih-Chen; Shen, Ming-Chang; Wang, Bing-Sheng; Han, Tian-Quan; Zhang, Bai-He; Danforth, Kim N.; Althuis, Michelle D.; Hsing, Ann W.

    2010-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers, encompassing the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of Vater, are rare, but highly fatal malignancies. Gallstones, the predominant risk factor for biliary cancers, are linked with hyperlipidemia. As part of a population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai, China, we examined the associations of serum lipid levels with biliary stones and cancers. We included 460 biliary cancer cases (264 gallbladder, 141 extrahepatic bile duct, and 55 ampulla of Vater), 981 biliary stone cases, and 858 healthy individuals randomly selected from the population. Participants completed an in-person interview and gave overnight fasting blood samples. Participants in the highest quintile of triglycerides (≥ 160 mg/dl) had a 1.4-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=1.1-1.9), a 1.9-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=1.3-2.8), and a 4.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=2.8-8.1), compared to the reference group (third quintile: 90-124 mg/dl). Participants in the lowest quintile of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (< 30 mg/dl) had a 4.2-fold risk of biliary stones (95% CI=3.0-6.0), an 11.6-fold risk of gallbladder cancer (95% CI=7.3-18.5), and a 16.8-fold risk of bile duct cancer (95% CI=9.1-30.9), relative to the reference group (third quintile: 40-49 mg/dl). In addition, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and apolipoprotein A (apo A) were inversely associated with biliary stones; whereas low levels as well as high levels of total cholesterol, LDL, apo A, and apolipoprotein B (apo B) were associated with excess risks of biliary tract cancers. Our findings support a role for serum lipids in gallstone development and biliary carcinogenesis. PMID:18076041

  10. EUS-guided biliary drainage with placement of a new partially covered biliary stent for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction: a case series.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, C; Luigiano, C; Fuccio, L; Polifemo, A M; Ferrara, F; Ghersi, S; Bassi, M; Billi, P; Maimone, A; Cennamo, V; Masetti, M; Jovine, E; D'Imperio, N

    2011-05-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has been developed as an alternative drainage technique in patients with obstructive jaundice where endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has failed. Between July 2008 and December 2009, 16 patients (9 men; median age 79 years) with biliopancreatic malignancy, who were candidates for alternative techniques of biliary decompression because ERCP had been unsuccessful, underwent EUS-BD with placement of a transmural or transpapillary partially covered nitinol self-expandable metal stent (SEMS). EUS-assisted cholangiography was successful in all patients, with definition of the relevant anatomy, but biliary drainage was successfully performed in only 12 (75 %) of the 16 patients (9 choledochoduodenostomies with SEMS placement and 3 biliary rendezvous procedures with papillary SEMS placement), with regression of the cholestasis. No major complications and no procedure-related deaths occurred. There was one case of pneumoperitoneum which was managed conservatively. The median follow-up was 170 days. During the follow-up, eight patients of the 12 patients in whom biliary draining was successful died; four are currently alive. None of the patients required endoscopic reintervention. This series demonstrated that EUS-BD with a partially covered SEMS has a high rate of clinical success and low complication rates, and could represent an alternative choice for biliary decompression.

  11. [Environmental factors and primary biliary cirrhosis].

    PubMed

    Chen, L P; Zhao, H; Lyu, B; Cheng, J L

    2016-07-20

    The complex interplay between immune factors and genetic susceptibility plays an essential role in autoimmune diseases. This is especially true for primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). PBC is an autoimmune cholestatic liver disease characterized by the destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts and the presence of high-titer antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA). Among the currently known risk factors, genetic predisposition remains to be the dominant one. However, it is insufficient to explain the different geographic distributions of PBC and the incomplete concordance in identical twins. This suggests an association between specific environmental factors and the development of PBC. Nevertheless, a clear and rational association of environmental factors with primary biliary cirrhosis has not yet been fully elucidated. Our current understanding of the environmental triggers of PBC is limited to numerous suspected factors involved in its development, such as xenobiotics, electrophilic drugs, infection, and other physical, chemical, and even biological factors. Although the factors leading to the breakdown of immune tolerance in PBC are still largely unknown, related geoepidemiological studies may help us better understand the impact of the environment. In addition, a better understanding of the interplay between environmental factors and PBC is the critical step toward improving our management and control of PBC and autoimmunity in general.

  12. [The five syndromes of biliary obstruction].

    PubMed

    Praderi, R C; Gil, J

    1999-01-01

    Clinical description of biliary diseases are slightly over a century old. At the end of last century and beginning of the present one, laws were established and clinical syndromes were described; these are still valid at present. Some modern techniques such as ultrasonography confirmed the importance of the Courvoisier-Terrier law. The first syndromatic description was made by two clinicians from Lyon, Bard and Pic, based on autopsy confirmation of clinical features. This paper analyses those rules and exceptions to Courvoisier-Terrier law. Research carried out by Pablo Marizzi, the Argentine surgeon who introduced operatory cholangiography is also analyzed. By means of this technique he was able to study patients better, transforming biliary surgery into a procedure with scientific basis, thanks to imagenological data. The sphincter described by this author turned out to be a radiological artifact due to the use of oily contrast media. Finally the right and left hydrohepatosis syndromes described by Cattell and Braasch in the 1960s are discussed. In 1971 we pointed out our disagreement over jaundice in left hydrohepatosis.

  13. [Antibiotherapy in biliary surgery. Current status].

    PubMed

    Guyot, L; Allouch, P; Legue, E; Estenne, B

    1989-04-01

    Without antibiotherapy, biliary surgery is often followed by infectious complications, possibly serious, indeed life-threatening. Biliary bacteria do are responsible of these complications; mainly E. Coli, Streptococcus faecalis (whose pathogenicity is disputed) and Klebsiella. Bacteroides fragilis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are restricted to special circumstances. It is often difficult to presee whether bile is infected: some risk factors were emerged by Keighley but their specificity is not excellent; peroperative Gram staining got various results according to the studies. Some prefer to give a systematic antibiotherapy. Preoperative antibiotic treatment should be as short as possible because it does not sterilize bile, but selects resistant bacteria, which induce postoperative complications. It must mainly be aimed at preventing infectious scattering. Surgery is the main part of the treatment. Antibiotic choice has to take into account clinical picture, bacteria (those probably responsible for and their sensibility) and goal of the treatment (prophylactic or curative). Analysis of failures should allow to improve this choice. But only multicenter studies concerning full selected populations of patients are able to prove superiority of one antibiotic to another.

  14. Epithelial–Mesenchymal Interactions in Biliary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Luca; Strazzabosco, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In most cholangiopathies, liver diseases of different etiologies in which the biliary epithelium is the primary target in the pathogenic sequence, the central mechanism involves inflammation. Inflammation, characterized by pleomorphic peribiliary infiltrate containing fibroblasts, macrophages, lymphocytes, as well as endothelial cells and pericytes, is associated to the emergence of “reactive cholangiocytes.” These biliary cells do not possess bile secretory functions, are in contiguity with terminal cholangioles, and are of a less-differentiated phenotype. They have acquired several mesenchymal properties, including motility and ability to secrete a vast number of proinflammatory chemo/cytokines and growth factors along with de novo expression of a rich receptor machinery. These functional properties enable reactive cholangiocytes to establish intimate contacts and to mutually exchange a variety of paracrine signals with the different mesenchymal cell types populating the portal infiltrate. The extensive crosstalk between the epithelial and mesenchymal compartments is the driver of liver repair mechanisms in cholangiopathies, ultimately evolving toward portal fibrosis. Herein, the authors first review the properties of the different cell types involved in their interaction, and then analyze the underlying molecular mechanisms as they relate to liver repair in cholangiopathies. PMID:21344348

  15. The unfinished business of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo; Zuin, Massimo; Gershwin, M Eric

    2008-09-01

    In nearly every multifactorial human disease, there are three periods that characterize our understanding and definition. First, there is a period in which there is rapid accumulation of descriptive data. Second, there is a longer and slower period as information is obtained that redefines and expands basic and clinical knowledge that lacks the final and important area of understanding aetiology and therapeutic intervention. Third, which is much less common for most diseases, is the vigorous definition of pathobiology and treatment. These phases are well illustrated by our current understanding of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). The term PBC was first used nearly 60 years ago and for the first 40 or so years, the primary research efforts were directed at clinical definitions and pathology. Subsequently, with the advent of molecular biology, there began a rigorous dissection of the immune response and, in particular, a better understanding of anti-mitochondrial antibodies. These efforts have greatly helped in our understanding of not only the effector mechanisms of disease, but also the uniqueness of the primary target tissue, biliary epithelium. However, this research has still not led to successful translation for specific therapy.

  16. Metallic stents in malignant biliary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Rieber, Andrea; Brambs, Hans-Juergen

    1997-01-15

    Purpose. Retrospective analysis of our results with metallic stent placement for malignant biliary strictures. We sought to determine parameters that influence stent patency. Methods. A total of 95 Wallstents were implanted in 65 patients (38 men, 27 women; mean age, 65.1 years) with malignant biliary obstruction. Serum bilirubin levels were assessed in 48 patients; the mean value prior to intervention was 15.0 mg/dl. Results. In 12 patients (21%) complications occurred as a result of percutaneous transhepatic drainage. Stent implantation was complicated in 13 patients, but was possible in all patients. A significant decrease in bilirubin level was seen in 83.3% of patients following stent implantation. Approximately 30% of patients developed recurrent jaundice after a mean 97.1 days. In 9 patients (15%) the recurrent jaundice was caused by stent occlusion due to tumor growth. The mean follow-up was 141.8 days, the mean survival 118.7 days. Patients with cholangiocarcinomas and gallbladder carcinomas had the best results. Worse results were seen in patients with pancreatic tumors and with lymph node metastases of colon and gastric cancers. Conclusions. The main predictive factors for occlusion rate and survival are the type of primary tumor, tumor stage, the decrease in bilirubin level, and the general condition of the patient.

  17. Malignant biliary obstruction: From palliation to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Boulay, Brian R; Birg, Aleksandr

    2016-01-01

    Malignant obstruction of the bile duct from cholangiocarcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, or other tumors is a common problem which may cause debilitating symptoms and increase the risk of subsequent surgery. The optimal treatment - including the decision whether to treat prior to resection - depends on the type of malignancy, as well as the stage of disease. Preoperative biliary drainage is generally discouraged due to the risk of infectious complications, though some situations may benefit. Patients who require neoadjuvant therapy will require decompression for the prolonged period until attempted surgical cure. For pancreatic cancer patients, self-expanding metallic stents are superior to plastic stents for achieving lasting decompression without stent occlusion. For cholangiocarcinoma patients, treatment with percutaneous methods or nasobiliary drainage may be superior to endoscopic stent placement, with less risk of infectious complications or failure. For patients of either malignancy who have advanced disease with palliative goals only, the choice of stent for endoscopic decompression depends on estimated survival, with plastic stents favored for survival of < 4 mo. New endoscopic techniques may actually extend stent patency and patient survival for these patients by achieving local control of the obstructing tumor. Both photodynamic therapy and radiofrequency ablation may play a role in extending survival of patients with malignant biliary obstruction. PMID:27326319

  18. Surgical treatment of biliary tract complications after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lladó, L; Fabregat, J; Baliellas, C; Gonzalez-Castillo, A; Ramos, E; Gonzalez-Vilatarsana, E; Torras, J; Rafecas, A

    2012-01-01

    Biliary strictures are the most common biliary tract complication after liver transplantation. There are scarce data on the results of hepaticojejunostomy (HJ) in the management of biliary complications after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Thus, the role of surgery in this setting remains to be established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of surgical treatment of patients with biliary complications at our institution. We reviewed 1000 consecutive liver transplantations performed at our institution from 1984 to 2007. We used a prospectively recorded database to identify patients who underwent HJ to treat any biliary tract complication. Overall, 62 patients (6.2%) underwent HJ, 40 for an anastomotic and 7 for a non-anastomotic stricture as well as 15 for biliary leaks. Postoperative morbidity was 16%, and postoperative mortality 1.6%. There were 7 cases of anastomotic stenosis (11.3%). Four patients (5%) required retransplantation. HJ is a safe procedure to manage biliary complications after OLT. It may be the first treatment choice especially for cases with anastomotic strictures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Arterial microembolisation: an unusual presentation of dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, R L; Mullen, G M; Costanzo-Nordin, M R

    1990-01-01

    Systemic embolisation is common in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Microembolisation as a presenting sign of dilated cardiomyopathy, however, has not been reported before. A 37 year old woman in whom dilated cardiomyopathy presented as arterial microembolisation to the toes is described. Images PMID:2310647

  20. [Biliary atresia - signs and symptoms, diagnosis, clinical management].

    PubMed

    Orłowska, Ewa; Czubkowski, Piotr; Socha, Piotr

    Biliary atresia is a chronic cholangiopathy leading to progressive fibrosis of both intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts. The cause of the condition is unknown. Fundamental management of biliary atresia is surgical intervention and the outcomes of the treatment depend on the child's age with best results when performed within the first 2 months of life. Thus, the main role of pediatric healthcare is an urgent differential diagnosis and prompt qualification for the surgery, optimal postoperative management and early qualification for the liver transplantation in patients with persistent cholestasis. The authors discuss the clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of biliary atresia.

  1. Symptomatic cholelithiasis and functional disorders of the biliary tract.

    PubMed

    Cafasso, Danielle E; Smith, Richard R

    2014-04-01

    Symptomatic cholelithiasis and functional disorders of the biliary tract present with similar signs and symptoms. The functional disorders of the biliary tract include functional gallbladder disorder, dyskinesia, and the sphincter of Oddi disorders. Although the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis are relatively straightforward, the diagnosis and treatment of functional disorders can be much more challenging. Many aspects of the diagnosis and treatment of functional disorders are in need of further study. This article discusses uncomplicated gallstone disease and the functional disorders of the biliary tract to emphasize and update the essential components of diagnosis and management. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Double Incomplete Internal Biliary Fistula: Coexisting Cholecystogastric and Cholecystoduodenal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Beksac, Kemal; Erkan, Arman; Kaynaroglu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Internal biliary fistula is a rare complication of a common surgical disease, cholelithiasis. It is seen in 0.74% of all biliary tract surgeries and is thought to be a result of repeated inflammatory periods of the gallbladder. In this report we present a case of incomplete cholecystogastric and cholecystoduodenal fistulae in a single patient missed by ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and diagnosed intraoperatively. In the literature there is only one report of an incomplete cholecystogastric fistula. To our knowledge this is the first case of double incomplete internal biliary fistulae. PMID:26904348

  3. Double Incomplete Internal Biliary Fistula: Coexisting Cholecystogastric and Cholecystoduodenal Fistula.

    PubMed

    Beksac, Kemal; Erkan, Arman; Kaynaroglu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Internal biliary fistula is a rare complication of a common surgical disease, cholelithiasis. It is seen in 0.74% of all biliary tract surgeries and is thought to be a result of repeated inflammatory periods of the gallbladder. In this report we present a case of incomplete cholecystogastric and cholecystoduodenal fistulae in a single patient missed by ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and diagnosed intraoperatively. In the literature there is only one report of an incomplete cholecystogastric fistula. To our knowledge this is the first case of double incomplete internal biliary fistulae.

  4. Pregnancy Complicated by Portal Hypertension Secondary to Biliary Atresia

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, O. E.; Crosby, D.; Byrne, B.; Regan, C.

    2013-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare idiopathic neonatal cholestatic disease characterized by the destruction of both the intra- and extrahepatic biliary ducts. As the disease is progressive all cases will develop portal fibrosis, cirrhosis, and portal hypertension with the sequelae of varices, jaundice, and eventually liver failure requiring a transplant. Survival rates have improved considerably with many females living well in to be childbearing age. Due to the complexity of the disease these pregnancies are considered, high risk. We report the antenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum managements of a pregnancy complicated by biliary atresia. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary team approach in optimizing obstetric care for this high risk group. PMID:24459595

  5. Risk and Surveillance of Cancers in Primary Biliary Tract Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hrad, Valery; Abebe, Yoftahe; Ali, Syed Haris; Velgersdyk, Jared

    2016-01-01

    Primary biliary diseases have been associated in several studies with various malignancies. Understanding the risk and optimizing surveillance strategy of these malignancies in this specific subset of patients are an important facet of clinical care. For instance, primary sclerosing cholangitis is associated with an increased risk for cholangiocarcinoma (which is very challenging to diagnose) and when IBD is present for colorectal cancer. On the other hand, primary biliary cirrhosis patients with cirrhosis or not responding to 12 months of ursodeoxycholic acid therapy are at increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this review we will discuss in detail the risks and optimal surveillance strategies for patients with primary biliary diseases. PMID:27413366

  6. Advances in the Management of Biliary Tract Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ciombor, Kristen Keon; Goff, Laura Williams

    2013-01-01

    Biliary tract cancers (BTC), though uncommon, are highly fatal malignancies, and current treatments fail to cure or control the majority of tumors. Given the complexity of the anatomy and often aggressive nature of the disease, multidisciplinary treatment, including palliation, is often required. However, systemic therapy with cytotoxics and/or targeted agents are routinely the mainstay of treatment for patients with advanced biliary tract cancers, and new targets and agents provide hope for this disease. This article focuses on recent advances in the management of biliary tract cancers, with a special focus on the molecular basis for current therapeutic investigation in this disease. PMID:23416860

  7. Timing of cholecystectomy in biliary pancreatitis treatment

    PubMed Central

    Demir, Uygar; Yazıcı, Pınar; Bostancı, Özgür; Kaya, Cemal; Köksal, Hakan; Işıl, Gürhan; Bozdağ, Emre; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gallstone pancreatitis constitutes 40% of all cases with pancreatitis while it constitutes up to 90% of cases with acute pancreatitis. The treatment modality in this patient population is still controversial. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of early and late cholecystectomy for patients with biliary pancreatitis. Material and Methods: Patients treated with a diagnosis of acute biliary pancreatitis in our clinics between January 2000 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups: Group A, patients who underwent cholecystectomy during the first pancreatitis attack, Group B, patients who underwent an interval cholecystectomy at least 8 weeks after the first pancreatitis episode. The demographic characteristics, clinical symptoms, number of episodes, length of hospital stay, morbidity and mortality data were recorded. All data were evaluated with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 13.0 for windows and p <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: During the last 12 years, a total of 91 patients with surgical treatment for acute biliary pancreatitis were included into the study. There were 62 female and 29 male patients, with a mean age of 57.9±14.6 years (range: 21–89). A concomitant acute cholecystitis was present in 46.2% of the patients. Group A and B included 48 and 43 patients, respectively. The length of hospital stay was significantly higher in group B (9.4 vs. 6.8 days) (p<0,05). More than half of the patients in Group B were readmitted to the hospital for various reasons. No significant difference was observed between the two groups, one patient died due to heart failure in the postoperative period in group B. Conclusion: In-hospital cholecystectomy after remission of acute pancreatitis is feasible. It will not only result in lower recurrence and complication rates but also shorten length of hospital stay. We recommend performing cholecystectomy during the

  8. Expanding endourology for biliary stone disease: the efficacy of intracorporeal lithotripsy on refractory biliary calculi.

    PubMed

    Sninsky, Brian C; Sehgal, Priyanka D; Hinshaw, J Louis; McDermott, John C; Nakada, Stephen Y

    2014-07-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of ureteroscopic therapy (electrohydraulic lithotripsy [EHL] and intraductal laser lithotripsy [ILL]) in patients with challenging biliary stones secondary to anatomic variations resulting from a previous surgical procedure, including liver transplantation. A retrospective chart review was performed for all patients with previous surgical alteration of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract who underwent EHL or ILL via peroral or percutaneous access for choledocholithiasis by a single surgeon at our institution from 2000 to 2012. A database containing clinical and surgical variables was created, and long-term follow-up was conducted (3-138 months; median, 99 months). Thirteen patients (51.7±20.0 years; M:F, 10:3) in whom endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTHC), or both failed were identified. Failure of ERCP/PTHC was because of inaccessibility of the calculi in all cases. Stone clearance was achieved in 12/13 (93%) patients; 8/12 (62%) after one procedure, and 4/12 (31%) after two procedures. One patient with biliary cast syndrome needed four interventions over 9 years. Major complications were low, with only one patient with hypotension and cholangitis that resolved with 24 hours of administration of intravenous fluids and antibiotics. Both endoscopic and percutaneous lithotripsies are effective treatments for refractory biliary calculi resulting from the post-surgical GI tract. Although a staged second procedure may be necessary in patients with significant stone burden, this is significantly better than extensive open surgery.

  9. Assessment of ventricular function in dilated cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Pak, P H; Kass, D A

    1995-05-01

    Regardless of its cause, systolic dysfunction in dilated cardiomyopathy triggers a wide variety of compensatory responses resulting in cardiac dilatation, fluid retention, and systemic vasoconstriction. Standard therapy with vasodilators, digoxin, and diuretics can provide symptomatic relief in many patients. However, many others do not respond adequately, and mortality from heart failure remains high. This has driven the search for novel therapies. To evaluate the efficacy and decipher mechanisms of action of these treatments, accurate assessments of left ventricular function are valuable. In particular, one seeks indexes that are cardiac-specific, in that they are minimally influenced by vascular loading conditions. An increasingly used "gold standard" that can achieve this goal is the invasively measured pressure-volume relation. Newer noninvasive methods have yielded several surrogates that have the key advantage of being applicable to chronic disease assessment. In this report, we review the current state-of-the-art in left ventricular function assessment, and describe recent advances in its noninvasive evaluation.

  10. Electrocardiography during Manual Dilatation of the Anus

    PubMed Central

    Collins, R. E. C.; Fell, R. H.; Lord, P. H.

    1973-01-01

    Manual dilatation of the anus was carried out on 50 unpremedicated outpatients under propanidid, nitrous oxide, and halothane anaesthesia with E.C.G.monitoring. About half of the patients received intravenous atropine with the propanidid. The operation induced a variety of changes in heart rate but in the whole experiment only two isolated cardiac arrhythmic complexes were seen—a single defect of conduction and a solitary ventricular extrasystole. Changes in rate were not modified by atropine. It is concluded that manual dilatation of the anus is a safe procedure when carried out under the anaesthetic described and that prior medication with atropine is not necessary. This work supports the view that propanidid protects patients from most abnormalities of heart action which result from intense visceral stimulation. PMID:4712484

  11. Sheehan syndrome with reversible dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Laway, Bashir A; Alai, Mohammad S; Gojwari, Tariq; Ganie, Mohd A; Zargar, Abdul Hamid

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac abnormalities in patients with Sheehan syndrome are uncommon. A case of Sheehan syndrome with dilated cardiomyopathy is presented in whom hormone replacement with levothyroxine and prednisolone resulted in complete recovery of cardiomyopathy. A 25-year-old woman presented with lactation failure, secondary amenorrhea, features of hypothyroidism and a hypocortisol state following severe postpartum hemorrhage after her last child birth. She also had smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. After starting antitubercular treatment, she developed shock, suggestive of hypocortisol crisis. Hormonal investigations revealed evidence of panhypopitutarism and magnetic resonance imaging revealed partial empty sella. Meanwhile echocardiography revealed evidence of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). The patient was given replacement therapy in the form of glucocorticoids and levothyroxine in addition to antitubercular treatment. She improved and on follow-up over a period of 7 months, the DCM completely reversed. To our knowledge this is the first report of reversible DCM in a patient with Sheehan syndrome.

  12. Improved classification of indeterminate biliary strictures by probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy using the Paris Criteria following biliary stenting.

    PubMed

    Taunk, Pushpak; Singh, Satish; Lichtenstein, David; Joshi, Virendra; Gold, Jason; Sharma, Ashish

    2017-10-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) using the Miami Criteria has improved classification of indeterminate biliary strictures. However, previous biliary stenting may result in their misclassification as malignant strictures. Inflammatory criteria were added to form the Paris Classification to prevent this misclassification and reduce false positives. The aim of this study was to assess if the Paris Classification was more accurate than the Miami Classification in classifying indeterminate biliary strictures after biliary stenting. This was a retrospective observational study involving 21 patients with indeterminate biliary strictures from whom 27 pCLE video sequences were obtained (20 benign and seven malignant). Patients with and without prior biliary stenting underwent pCLE. Two investigators classified the strictures as malignant or benign using the Miami and Paris Classifications. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity (Se), and specificity (Sp) of endoscopic retrograde-guided pCLE were compared with final histopathology. In those without biliary stenting, the Miami Criteria resulted in Se 88%, Sp 75%, positive predictive value (PPV) 64%, negative predictive value (NPV) 92%, and accuracy 79%, while the Paris Classification resulted in Se 63%, Sp 88%, PPV 71%, NPV 82%, and accuracy 79%. In those with prior biliary stenting, the Miami Criteria resulted in Se 88%, Sp 36%, PPV 23%, NPV 93%, and accuracy 45%, while the Paris Classification resulted in Se 63%, Sp 73%, PPV 31%, NPV 91%, and accuracy 71%. The kappa statistic was 0.56. The Paris Classification improved specificity and accuracy of biliary stricture classification in those who had been previously stented and decreased the rate of misclassification of benign strictures as malignant. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. Improved Model of Rock Mass Dilatation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-29

    nonlinear partial differential equations of the hyperbolic type is involved. In both cases, the numerical procedures are discussed in detail : Runge-Kutta...34 ... .. .. .. ’ ................... ":"’’t_ . 2 Geometrical interpretation of the coefficient of friction p and the dilatancy factor 9.....9 3 Variable flow rule, characterized by a...increase of the crack space (porosity) but also by sliding along intergranular surfaces (cataclastic flow ). .- .. At high confining pressure

  14. Charged Dilation Black Holes as Particle Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-07-01

    We examine the possibility of arbitrarily high energy in the Center-of-mass frame of colliding neutral particles in the vicinity of the horizon of a charged dilation black hole(BH). We show that it is possible to achieve the infinite energy in the background of the dilation black hole without fine-tuning of the angular momentum parameter. It is found that the center-of-mass energy (E_{cm}) of collisions of particles near the infinite red-shift surface of the extreme dilation BHs are arbitrarily large while the non-extreme charged dilation BHs have the finite energy. We have also compared the E_{cm} at the horizon with the ISCO(Innermost Stable Circular Orbit) and MBCO (Marginally Bound Circular Orbit) for extremal RN BH and Schwarzschild BH. We find that for extreme RN BH the inequality becomes E_{cm}mid_{r_{+}}>E_{cm}mid_{r_{mb}}> E_{cm}mid_{r_{ISCO}} i.e. E_{cm}mid_{r_{+}=M}: E_{cm}mid_{r_{mb}= ({3+√{5}}/{2})M} : E_{cm}mid_{r_{ISCO}=4M} =∞ : 3.23 : 2.6 . While for Schwarzschild BH the ratio of CM energy is E_{cm}mid_{r_{+}=2M}: E_{cm}mid_{r_{mb}=4M} : E_{cm}mid_{r_{ISCO}=6M} = √{5} : √{2} : {√{13}}/{3}. Also for Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger (GMGHS) BHs the ratio is being E_{cm}mid_{r_{+}=2M}: E_{cm}mid_{r_{mb}=2M} : E_{cm}mid_{r_{ISCO}=2M}=∞ : ∞ : ∞.

  15. Dilatancy Instability as a Possible Seismic Mechanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    8217’ 1 I I -- I C=0 Department of Mining Engineering South Dakota School of Mines & Technology Rapid City, South DIlkta 57701 8, 01 08105 FINAL REPORT...Title: Dilatancy Instability as a Possible Seismic Mechanism Principal Investigator: James E. Russell Professor of Mining Engineering South Dakota ...School of Mines & Technology Rapid City, South Dakota 57701 Contract Period: April 10, 1972 to November 30, 1973 Sponsored by: The U. S. Geological Survey

  16. Proventricular dilatation syndrome in large psittacine birds.

    PubMed

    Clark, F D

    1984-01-01

    Proventricular dilatation was diagnosed in 16 psittacine birds. Signs included anorexia, lethargy, weight loss, and intermittent vomiting. The proventriculus in all birds was thin-walled and impacted with ingesta and occupied most of the body cavity. Microscopic changes in the proventriculus varied from none to an infiltration of lymphocytes, macrophages, and heterophils. There was no evidence of viral or bacterial infection or lead toxicity.

  17. Bougie urethral dilators: revival or survival?

    PubMed Central

    Al–Adawi, Mohammad Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To present our center's experience in managing bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) conditions using bougie dilators. We described the dilation technique methodically for teaching purpose. Patients and method Retrospectively, a total of 196 medical records over the last four years denoting BOO conditions in men, women, and children were retrieved for analysis. Data reviewed for common complications was namely: perforation, recurrence, urinary tract obstruction (UTI) and inability to overcome the obstruction. Results Among the 196 analyzed cases, 24 (12.2%) cases were cured, whereas 172 (87.8%) cases reported complications. Within the complicated cases analyzed, 134 (68.4%) cases had recurrent obstructions, 13 (6.6%) cases had perforations, 6 (3.0%) cases developed UTI, while in 19 (9.7%) cases, we failed to pass the obstruction. Conclusions In our center where urethral dilation technique has revived four years ago, it turned back to be the standard choice in managing BOO cases. We propose the technique to Urology training program directors, all over the world, to teach it as a compulsory skill for junior urologists to master. PMID:24757552

  18. Formation and interpretation of dilatant echelon cracks.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollard, D.D.; Segall, P.; Delaney, P.T.

    1982-01-01

    The relative displacements of the walls of many veins, joints, and dikes demonstrate that these structures are dilatant cracks. We infer that dilatant cracks propagate in a principal stress plane, normal to the maximum tensile or least compressive stress. Arrays of echelon crack segments appear to emerge from the peripheries of some dilatant cracks. Breakdown of a parent crack into an echelon array may be initiated by a spatial or temporal rotation of the remote principal stresses about an axis parallel to the crack propagation direction. Near the parent-crack tip, a rotation of the local principal stresses is induced in the same sense, but not necessarily through the same angle. Incipient echelon cracks form at the parent-crack tip normal to the local maximum tensile stress. Further longitudinal growth along surfaces that twist about axes parallel to the propagation direction realigns each echelon crack into a remote principal stress plane. The walls of these twisted cracks may be idealized as helicoidal surfaces. An array of helicoidal cracks sweeps out less surface area than one parent crack twisting through the same angle. Thus, many echelon cracks grow from a single parent because the work done in creating the array, as measured by its surface area decreases as the number of cracks increases. -from Authors

  19. Dilatancy and shear thickening of particle suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonn, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Shear thickening is a fascinating subject, as 99.9% of complex fluids are thinning; thickening systems thus are the ``exception to the rule'' that needs to be understood. Moreover, such tunable systems show very promising applications, e.g. to block large underground pores in oil recovery to maintain a constant oil flow by plugging water filled pores (an approach used in oil recovery by e.g. Shell), or to manufacture bulletproof vests that are comfortable to wear, but stop bullets nonetheless. We study the rheology of non-Brownian particle suspensions (notably, cornstarch) that exhibit shear thickening. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the local properties of the flow are obtained by the determination of local velocity profiles and concentrations in a Couette cell. We also perform macroscopic rheology experiments in different geometries. The results suggest that the shear thickening is a consequence of dilatancy: the system under flow attempts to dilate but instead undergoes a jamming transition, because it is confined. This proposition is confirmed by an independent measurement of the dilation of the suspension as a function of the shear rate.

  20. Dilational surface rheology of polymer solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noskov, B. A.; Bykov, A. G.

    2015-06-01

    The review concerns main achievements in dilational rheology of polymer adsorption films at the gas/liquid interfaces reported in the last fifteen years. The theoretical foundations of methods of surface rheology and the key results obtained in studies of solutions of amphiphilic nonionic polymers, polyelectrolytes, proteins and their complexes with low-molecular-mass surfactants are discussed. Interest in the surface dilational rheology is mainly caused by a small number of available experimental methods for investigation of the surface of liquids, by the fact that traditional methods of measurement of the surface tension that are widely used in studies of solutions of low-molecular-mass surfactants provide little information when applied to polymer solutions owing to very slow establishment of equilibrium as well as by weak dependence of the surface tension on the polymer concentration. Progress in the surface rheology is driven by the recent studies of the stability of foams and emulsions that demonstrated a key role of the dilational surface rheological properties in the dynamics of liquid-phase disperse systems. The bibliography includes 191 references.

  1. Time dilation in quantum systems and decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikovski, Igor; Zych, Magdalena; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2017-02-01

    Both quantum mechanics and general relativity are based on principles that defy our daily intuitions, such as time dilation, quantum interference and entanglement. Because the regimes where the two theories are typically tested are widely separated, their foundational principles are rarely jointly studied. Recent works have found that novel phenomena appear for quantum particles with an internal structure in the presence of time dilation, which can take place at low energies and in weak gravitational fields. Here we briefly review the effects of time dilation on quantum interference and generalize the results to a variety of systems. In addition, we provide an extended study of the basic principles of quantum theory and relativity that are of relevance for the effects and also address several questions that have been raised, such as the description in different reference frames, the role of the equivalence principle and the effective irreversibility of the decoherence. The manuscript clarifies some of the counterintuitive aspects arising when quantum phenomena and general relativistic effects are jointly considered.

  2. Antinuclear antibodies specific for primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Worman, Howard J; Courvalin, Jean Claude

    2003-06-01

    The serological hallmark of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies. However, antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are also detectable in approximately 50% of subjects with PBC. Most clinical laboratories use indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to detect ANA and two labeling patterns that predominate in PBC are 'punctate nuclear rim' and 'multiple nuclear dots.' Work over the past several years has shown that antibodies giving these patterns most often recognize nuclear pore membrane protein gp210 and nuclear body protein sp100, respectively. These ANA are highly specific for PBC and detected in approximately 25% of patients. Less frequently, ANA apparently unique to PBC recognize other proteins of the nuclear envelope and nuclear bodies. While antibodies against gp210, sp100 and some other nuclear proteins are very specific to PBC and may therefore be useful diagnostic markers, their connection to pathogenesis remains to be elucidated.

  3. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Environmental Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dronamraju, Deepti; Odin, Joseph; Bach, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune disease of unclear etiology. It is a chronic, progressive condition that causes intrahepatic ductal destruction ultimately leading to symptoms of cholestasis, cirrhosis and liver failure. The disease predominantly affects middle aged Caucasian women. It has a predilection to certain regions and is found in higher incidences in North America and Northern Europe. It also has a genetic predisposition with a concordance rate of 60% among monozygotic twins. Combinations of genetic and environmental factors are proposed in the pathogenesis of this disease with a compelling body of evidence that suggests a role for both these factors. This review will elucidate data on the proposed environmental agents involved the disease's pathogenesis including xenobiotic and microbial exposure and present some of the supporting epidemiologic data. PMID:21297251

  4. Extrahepatic Manifestations of Primary Biliary Cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Chalifoux, Sara L; Konyn, Peter G; Choi, Gina; Saab, Sammy

    2017-03-16

    Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by progressive destruction of the intrahepatic bile ducts, leading to cholestasis. PBC is known to have both hepatic and extrahepatic manifestations. Extrahepatic manifestations are seen in up to 73% of patients with PBC, with the most common being Sjogren's syndrome, thyroid dysfunction and systemic sclerosis. It is thought that patients with PBC are at increased risk of developing these extrahepatic manifestations, almost all of which are autoimmune, because patients with autoimmune disease are at higher risk of developing another autoimmune condition. Due to the high prevalence of extrahepatic diseases in patients with PBC, it is important to complete a thorough medical history at the time of diagnosis. Prompt recognition of extrahepatic disease can lead to improved patient outcomes and quality of life. The following review summarizes the most common extrahepatic conditions associated with PBC.

  5. Toward precision medicine in primary biliary cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Carbone, Marco; Ronca, Vincenzo; Bruno, Savino; Invernizzi, Pietro; Mells, George F

    2016-08-01

    Primary biliary cholangitis is a chronic, cholestatic liver disease characterized by a heterogeneous presentation, symptomatology, disease progression and response to therapy. In contrast, clinical management and treatment of PBC is homogeneous with a 'one size fits all' approach. The evolving research landscape, with the emergence of the -omics field and the availability of large patient cohorts are creating a unique opportunity of translational epidemiology. Furthermore, several novel disease and symptom-modifying agents for PBC are currently in development. The time is therefore ripe for precision medicine in PBC. In this manuscript we describe the concept of precision medicine; review current approaches to risk-stratification in PBC, and speculate how precision medicine in PBC might develop in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Beyond Ursodeoxycholic Acid.

    PubMed

    Corpechot, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    Although ursodeoxycholic acid remains the only approved pharmacotherapy for patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, the better characterization of factors responsible for the poor response to this drug and the emergence of several new putative therapeutic targets now offer significant opportunities to improve the management of patients and our capacity to treat them more efficiently. The availability of novel treatment options, such as fibrates, budesonide, and obeticholic acid, all capable of improving prognostic markers, invites us to reconsider our management and treatment strategies. Early identification of high-risk patients should remain a priority to deliver adjunctive therapies to appropriately selected populations and increase their chances of success. Given the absence of comparative trials, the choice between second-line treatments should be dictated by the biochemical, histological, and expected tolerance profiles. Here the author presents a brief overview of what should be known in this field and proposes a practical approach to facilitate decision making.

  7. Diagnosis and management of primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ahmad H; Carey, Elizabeth J; Lindor, Keith D

    2014-12-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease characterized histologically by destruction of intrahepatic bile ducts and serologically by the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies. The incidence and prevalence of PBC are increasing. Fatigue and pruritus are common symptoms in PBC, although the proportion of asymptomatic PBC is increasing due to the widespread use of screening biochemical tests and antimitochondrial antibody assays. PBC may eventually lead to cirrhosis and its consequent complications. In the 1980s, PBC was the leading indication for liver transplantation. Ursodeoxycholic acid is the only US FDA-approved therapeutic agent for PBC. Clinical trials have shown that the use of ursodeoxycholic acid in PBC results in reduction of liver biochemistries, a delay in histological progression, a delay in the development of varices and improvement in survival without liver transplantation.

  8. Biliary Atresia: Cellular Dynamics and Immune Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Amy; Mack, Cara L.

    2012-01-01

    The cause of biliary atresia (BA) is unknown and in the past few decades the majority of investigations related to pathogenesis have centered on virus infections and immunity. The acquired or perinatal form of BA entails a progressive, inflammatory injury of bile ducts, leading to fibrosis and obliteration of both the extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. Theories of pathogenesis include viral infection, chronic inflammatory or autoimmune-mediated bile duct injury and abnormalities in bile duct development. This review will focus solely on human studies pertaining to a potential viral trigger of bile duct injury at diagnosis and provide insight into the interplay of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:22800972

  9. Environmental Factors in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Juran, Brian D.; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.

    2014-01-01

    The etiology of the autoimmune liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains largely unresolved, owing in large part to the complexity of interaction between environmental and genetic contributors underlying disease development. Observations of disease clustering, differences in geographical prevalence, and seasonality of diagnosis rates suggest the environmental component to PBC is strong, and epidemiological studies have consistently found cigarette smoking and history of urinary tract infection to be associated with PBC. Current evidence implicates molecular mimicry as a primary mechanism driving loss of tolerance and subsequent autoimmunity in PBC, yet other environmentally influenced disease processes are likely to be involved in pathogenesis. In this review, the authors provide an overview of current findings and touch on potential mechanisms behind the environmental component of PBC. PMID:25057950

  10. Biliary drainage endoprostheses: Experience with 201 placements

    SciTech Connect

    Lammer, J.; Neumayer, K.

    1986-06-01

    Two hundred one biliary endoprostheses were inserted transhepatically with a two-step procedure in 162 patients. Teflon endoprostheses were inserted in the initial 95 patients and polyethylene in seven others. Because in vitro experiments and clinical experience have revealed a lower incrustation rate with Percuflex and polyurethane, endoprostheses made of these materials were used in the last 60 patients. The mortality rate directly related to the procedure was 3.7%, and postprocedural complications occurred in 9% of the patients. Delayed complications included cholangitis in 20%, obstruction in 6%, and dislocation in 3% of the cases. The mean survival time of all 162 patients was 20 weeks. It is concluded that endoprostheses offer effective palliative treatment of obstructive jaundice caused by malignancy.

  11. Pulmonary involvement in primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Roisin, R; Pares, A; Bruguera, M; Coll, J; Picado, C; Agusti-Vidal, A; Burgos, F; Rodes, J

    1981-01-01

    The association of pulmonary fibrosis and primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) remains controversial. To determine the frequency of pulmonary fibrosis in PBC, a carefully selected series of 14 PBC patients, seven patients with Sicca complex, and 14 control subjects have been studied. Seven of the 14 patients with PBC had Sjögren's syndrome, four of whom had some clinical evidence of pulmonary disease. Evaluation of ventilatory capacity, gas transfer factor, arterial blood gases, and lung mechanics were performed. Gas transfer was reduced in patients with PBC associated with Sjögen's syndrome and in patients with the Sicca complex. These results suggest that the respiratory, clinical, ad functional abnormalities found in PBC are related to the presence of an associated Sjögen's syndrome. PMID:7281088

  12. Idiopathic myelofibrosis associated with primary biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Boluda, J C; Jiménez, M; Rosiñol, L; Cervantes, F

    2002-03-01

    A patient with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) who developed idiopathic myelofibrosis (IM) is reported. The initial diagnosis of PBC was established by liver biopsy, performed after a 2-month history of constitutional symptoms associated with abnormalities of the serum liver enzymes, with typical serum immunological markers being found. Although a favorable response of PBC to prednisone was observed, one and a half year later the patient developed anemia with anisocytosis and poikilocytosis, tear-drop cells, and leukoerythroblastic picture, and IM was diagnosed by bone marrow biopsy. A few months later, a rapid worsening of the patient's clinical condition was noted, with an increase in the constitutional symptoms and need for frequent packed RBC transfusions, and she finally died from an infectious complication. This case represents a new association of IM with an autoimmune disease, supporting the hypothesis of a possible immune basis of IM in some cases.

  13. Successful Treatment with a Covered Stent and 6-Year Follow-Up of Biliary Complication After Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Doros, Attila Nemeth, Andrea; Deak, Akos Pal; Hartmann, Erika; Gerlei, Zsuzsa; Fazakas, Janos; Kobori, Laszlo

    2010-04-15

    The role of covered stent in the management of biliary complications is not yet defined in liver transplant recipients. This Case Report presents a patient with anastomotic stricture and leakage with biloma treated with a covered stent 32 months following liver transplantation. Signs of in-stent restenosis developed 52 months following covered stent placement, which was resolved by balloon dilation. There were no complications during the interventions. The latest follow-up, at 69 months following primary and 19 months following secondary percutaneous intervention, shows a patent covered stent without any clinical or morphological sign of further restenosis. The clinical success with long-term follow-up data suggests that covered stent implantation can be a rational, minimally invasive option for simultaneous treatment of bile duct stenosis and bile leak following liver transplantation in selected cases.

  14. Biliary and pancreatic duct pressures measured by ERCP manometry in patients with suspected papillary stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bar-Meir, S; Geenen, J E; Hogan, W J; Dodds, W J; Stewart, E T; Arndorfer, R C

    1979-03-01

    Papillary stenosis is an imprecisely defined clinical syndrome which eludes definitive diagnosis. In this study we evaluated 26 patients with suspected papillary stenosis by manometric examination of the sphincter of Oddi done during ERCP examination. Basal pressure in the sphincter of Oddi was elevated in 14 of the patients. Of these 14 patients, 10 underwent sphincterotomy and all experienced improvement in clinical symptoms after their surgery. We suggest that ERCP manometry is a useful procedure for identifying patients with papillary stenosis who may benefit from sphincterotomy.

  15. Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation for the removal of bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Hong; Yang, Min Jae; Hwang, Jae Chul; Yoo, Byung Moo

    2013-12-14

    Endoscopic papillary large balloon dilation (EPLBD) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) has been widely used as the alternative to EST along with endoscopic mechanical lithotripsy (EML) for the removal of large or difficult bile duct stones. Furthermore, EPLBD without EST was recently introduced as its simplified alternative technique. Thus, we systematically searched PubMed, Medline, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE, and analyzed all gathered data of EPLBD with and without EST, respectively, by using a single standardized definition, reviewing relevant literatures, published between 2003 and June 2013, where it was performed with large-diameter balloons (12-20 mm). The outcomes, including the initial success rate, the rate of needs for EML, and the overall success rate, and adverse events were assessed in each and compared between both of two procedures: "EPLBD with EST" and "EPLBD without EST". A total of 2511 procedures from 30 published articles were included in EPLBD with EST, while a total of 413 procedures from 3 published articles were included in EPLBD without EST. In the results of outcomes, the overall success rate was 96.5% in EPLBD with EST and 97.2% in EPLBD without EST, showing no significant difference between both of them. The initial success rate (84.0% vs 76.2%, P < 0.001) and the success rate of EPLBD without EML (83.2% vs 76.7%, P = 0.001) was significantly higher, while the rate of use of EML was significantly lower (14.1% vs 21.6%, P < 0.001), in EPLBD with EST. The rate of overall adverse events, pancreatitis, bleeding, perforation, other adverse events, surgery for adverse events, and fatal adverse events were 8.3%, 2.4%, 3.6%, 0.6%, 1.7%, 0.2% and 0.2% in EPLBD with EST and 7.0%, 3.9%, 1.9%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 0% and 0% in EPLBD without EST, respectively, showing no significant difference between both of them. In conclusion, recent accumulated results of EPLBD with or even without EST suggest that it is a safe and effective procedure for the

  16. Role of stents and laser therapy in biliary strictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennupati, Raja S.; Trowers, Eugene A.

    2001-05-01

    The most frequent primary cancers causing malignant obstructive jaundice were pancreatic cancer (57%), hilar biliary cancer (19% including metastatic disease), nonhilar biliary cancer (14%) and papillary cancer (10%). Endoscopic stenting has widely replaced palliative surgery for malignant biliary obstruction because of its lower risk and cost. Self-expandable metal stents are the preferred mode of palliation for hilar malignancies. Plastic stents have a major role in benign biliary strictures. Major complications and disadvantages associated with metallic stents include high cost, cholangitis. malposition, migration, unextractability, and breakage of the stents, pancreatitis and stent dysfunction. Dysfunction due to tumor ingrowth can be relieved by thermal methods (argon plasma coagulator therapy). We present a concise review of the efficacy of metallic stents for palliation of malignant strictures.

  17. Cell lineage tracing reveals a biliary origin of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Rachel V; Boulter, Luke; Kendall, Timothy J; Minnis-Lyons, Sarah E; Walker, Robert; Wigmore, Stephen J; Sansom, Owen J; Forbes, Stuart J

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) is a treatment refractory malignancy with a high mortality and an increasing incidence worldwide. Recent studies have observed that activation of Notch and AKT signalling within mature hepatocytes is able to induce the formation of tumours displaying biliary lineage markers, thereby raising the suggestion that it is hepatocytes, rather than cholangiocytes or hepatic progenitor cells that represent the cell of origin of this tumour. Here we utilise a cholangiocyte-lineage tracing system to target p53 loss to biliary epithelia and observe the appearance of labelled biliary lineage tumours in response to chronic injury. Consequent to this, up-regulation of native functional Notch signalling is observed to occur spontaneously within cholangiocytes and hepatocytes in this model as well as in human ICC. These data prove that in the context of chronic inflammation and p53 loss, frequent occurrences in human disease, biliary epithelia are a target of transformation and an origin of ICC. PMID:24310400

  18. Aspects of the Pathophysiology of Primary Biliary Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Margaret; Hirschfield, Gideon M

    2015-01-01

    Primary biliary cirrhosis is a classical autoimmune liver disease and is present in around 1 in 1,000 women over the age of 40. It has a number of diagnostic characteristics consistent with autoimmune liver injury, in particular, the high specificity of circulating anti-mitochondrial antibodies. Histologically, the disease is reflected as a granulomatous lymphocytic cholangitis that consequently leads to small bile duct loss and cholestasis. Progressive disease is characterised by the development of a biliary cirrhosis, with end-stage features of liver disease ultimately impacting patient outcomes. Studies support a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors that coalesce to lead to loss of immunological tolerance and persistent biliary inflammation. Significant advances have occurred recently in understanding the genetic risk factors for disease, as well as utilising human and murine studies to characterise the nature of the biliary injury and cholestatic response.

  19. Endoscopic multiple metal stenting for the treatment of enteral leaks near the biliary orifice: A novel effective rescue procedure

    PubMed Central

    Mutignani, Massimiliano; Dioscoridi, Lorenzo; Dokas, Stefanos; Aseni, Paolo; Carnevali, Pietro; Forti, Edoardo; Manta, Raffaele; Sica, Mariano; Tringali, Alberto; Pugliese, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Between April 2013 and October 2015, 6 patients developed periampullary duodenal or jejunal/biliary leaks after major abdominal surgery. In all patients, percutaneous drainage of the collection or re-operation with primary surgical repair was attempted at first but failed. A fully covered enteral metal stent was placed in all patients to seal the leak. Subsequently, we cannulated the common bile duct and, in some cases, and the main pancreatic duct inserting hydrophilic guidewires through the stent after dilating the stent mesh with a dilatation balloon or breaking the meshes with Argon Plasma Beam. Finally, we inserted a fully covered biliary metal stent to drain the bile into the lumen of the enteral stent. In cases of normal proximal upper gastrointestinal anatomy, a pancreatic plastic stent was also inserted. Oral food intake was initiated when the abdominal drain outflow stopped completely. Stent removal was scheduled four to eight weeks later after a CT scan to confirm the complete healing of the fistula and the absence of any perilesional residual fluid collection. The leak resolved in five patients. One patient died two days after the procedure due to severe, pre-existing, sepsis. The stents were removed endoscopically in four weeks in four patients. In one patient we experienced stent migration causing small bowel obstruction. In this case, the stents were removed surgically. Four patients are still alive today. They are still under follow-up and doing well. Bilio-enteral fully covered metal stenting with or without pancreatic stenting was feasible, safe and effective in treating postoperative enteral leaks near the biliopancreatic orifice in our small series. This minimally invasive procedure can be implemented in selected patients as a rescue procedure to repair these challenging leaks. PMID:27606045

  20. Plastic vs. Self-Expandable Metal Stents for Palliation in Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Series of Meta-Analyses.

    PubMed

    Almadi, Majid A; Barkun, Alan; Martel, Myriam

    2017-02-01

    .49 months (95% CI, 0.27, 2.70; GRADE=high), and performance of a sphincterotomy (2 studies) WMD 1.63 months (95% CI, 0.42, 2.84; GRADE=high). Keeping in mind the noted risk of bias in source data, the use of SEMS compared with plastic stents, in the palliation of patients with malignant biliary obstruction results in longer stent patency, lower complications rates, and fewer re-interventions, whereas exhibiting survival benefits in selected subgroups of patients.

  1. Sarcoidosis and primary biliary cirrhosis with co-existing myositis

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, P.; McGavin, C. R.

    1997-01-01

    In a small number of cases the co-existence of primary biliary cirrhosis and sarcoidosis is assumed from clinical serological and histological findings. A case of sarcoidosis is reported in which the M2 antibody, a highly specific marker for primary biliary cirrhosis, was detected. The patient also developed a severe myositis and a possible overlap syndrome is discussed. 




 PMID:9059489

  2. New diagnosis and therapy model for ischemic-type biliary lesions following liver transplantation--a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-cai; Qu, En-ze; Ren, Jie; Zhang, Qi; Zheng, Rong-qin; Yang, Yang; Chen, Gui-hua

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic-type biliary lesions (ITBLs) are a major cause of graft loss and mortality after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Impaired blood supply to the bile ducts may cause focal or extensive damage, resulting in intra- or extrahepatic bile duct strictures or dilatations that can be detected by ultrasonography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, and cholangiography. However, the radiographic changes occur at an advanced stage, after the optimal period for therapeutic intervention. Endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) are the gold standard methods of detecting ITBLs, but these procedures cannot be used for continuous monitoring. Traditional methods of follow-up and diagnosis result in delayed diagnosis and treatment of ITBLs. Our center has used the early diagnosis and intervention model (EDIM) for the diagnosis and treatment of ITBLs since February 2008. This model mainly involves preventive medication to protect the epithelial cellular membrane of the bile ducts, regular testing of liver function, and weekly monitor of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) to detect ischemic changes to the bile ducts. If the liver enzyme levels become abnormal or CEUS shows low or no enhancement of the wall of the hilar bile duct during the arterial phase, early ERCP and PTCD are performed to confirm the diagnosis and to maintain biliary drainage. Compared with patients treated by the traditional model used prior to February 2008, patients in the EDIM group had a lower incidence of biliary tract infection (28.6% vs. 48.6%, P = 0.04), longer survival time of liver grafts (24±9.6 months vs. 17±12.3 months, P = 0.02), and better outcomes after treatment of ITBLs.

  3. [Temporary replacement of the common biliary duct by a silicone tube as an urgent repair of iatrogenic injury. Experimental study in pigs].

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Daniel A; Rodríguez Bertola, Xavier; Sambuelli, Gabriela M; Vial, Luis H; Torrecillas, Daniel A

    2015-03-01

    Surgery of the biliary tract is complex, and its volume has increased with iatrogenic injuries and living donor transplantation. The aim of this study was to analyze if the common duct can be temporarily replaced. We used nine 18-20 kg pigs. They were operated on, and their bile duct was replaced by a 100% silicone tube. All pigs underwent laboratory tests, magnetic resonance imaging, intraoperative ultrasound, cholangiography and biliar manometry with pathological biopsy examination within 60 days from the initial surgery. All pigs survived the first surgery over 60 days without laboratory evidence of evident cholestasis. Nine pigs were re-operated on at 60 days showing dilated common bile duct and hepatic ducts doubling its original size without dilating the intrahepatic bile ducts. There were no clinical, relevant laboratory or biopsy signs showing cholestasis. This experience represents the initial intention to find an optimal situation and prosthesis for replacement of the thin biliary tract, in surgical emergencies or palliative situations. The silicon tube, is a positive answer that remains permeable. A non-fibrotic reaction was found that allows a posterior definitive procedure, maintaining a good nutritional status.

  4. Recurrent Cholangitis by Biliary Stasis Due to Non-Obstructive Afferent Loop Syndrome After Pylorus-Preserving Pancreatoduodenectomy: Report of a Case

    PubMed Central

    Sanada, Yukihiro; Yamada, Naoya; Taguchi, Masanobu; Morishima, Kazue; Kasahara, Naoya; Kaneda, Yuji; Miki, Atsushi; Ishiguro, Yasunao; Kurogochi, Akira; Endo, Kazuhiro; Koizumi, Masaru; Sasanuma, Hideki; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Shimizu, Atsushi; Hyodo, Masanobu; Sata, Naohiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2014-01-01

    We report a 71-year-old man who had undergone pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy (PPPD) using PPPD-IV reconstruction for cholangiocarcinoma. For 6 years thereafter, he had suffered recurrent cholangitis, and also a right liver abscess (S5/8), which required percutaneous drainage at 9 years after PPPD. At 16 years after PPPD, he had been admitted to the other hospital because of acute purulent cholangitis. Although medical treatment resolved the cholangitis, the patient was referred to our hospital because of dilatation of the intrahepatic biliary duct (B2). Peroral double-balloon enteroscopy revealed that the diameter of the hepaticojejunostomy anastomosis was 12 mm, and cholangiography detected intrahepatic stones. Lithotripsy was performed using a basket catheter. At 1 year after lithotripsy procedure, the patient is doing well. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy at 60 minutes after intravenous injection demonstrated that deposit of the tracer still remained in the upper afferent loop jejunum. Therefore, we considered that the recurrent cholangitis, liver abscess, and intrahepatic lithiasis have been caused by biliary stasis due to nonobstructive afferent loop syndrome. Biliary retention due to nonobstructive afferent loop syndrome may cause recurrent cholangitis or liver abscess after hepaticojejunostomy, and double-balloon enteroscopy and hepatobiliary scintigraphy are useful for the diagnosis of nonobstructive afferent loop syndrome. PMID:25058778

  5. Newly Designed Y-configured Single-Catheter Stenting for the Treatment of Hilar-Type Nonanastomotic Biliary Strictures After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Changming; Li Xuan; Song Shibing; Lv Xianjun; Luan Jingyuan; Dong Guoxiang

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to introduce our novel technique of percutaneous single catheter placement into the hilar bile ducts strictures while fulfilling the purpose of bilateral biliary drainage and stenting. We investigated the efficacy and safety of the technique for the treatment of hilar nonanastomotic biliary strictures. Methods: Ten patients who were post-orthotopic liver transplantation between July 2000 and July 2010 were enrolled in this study. Percutaneous Y-configured single-catheter stenting for bilateral bile ducts combined with balloon dilation was designed as the main treatment approach. Technical success rate, clinical indicators, complications, and recurrent rate were analyzed. Results: Technical success rate was 100%. Nine of the ten patients had biochemical normalization, cholangiographic improvement, and clinical symptoms relief. None of them experienced recurrence in a median follow-up of 26 months after completion of therapy and removal of all catheters. Complications were minor and limited to two patients. The one treatment failure underwent a second liver transplantation but died of multiple system organ failure. Conclusions: Percutaneous transhepatic Y-configured single-catheter stenting into the hilar bile ducts is technically feasible. The preliminary trial of this technique combined with traditional PTCD or choledochoscopy for the treatment of hilar biliary strictures after orthotopic liver transplantation appeared to be effective and safe. Yet, further investigation is needed.

  6. Endoscopic management of difficult common bile duct stones

    PubMed Central

    Trikudanathan, Guru; Navaneethan, Udayakumar; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopy is widely accepted as the first treatment option in the management of bile duct stones. In this review we focus on the alternative endoscopic modalities for the management of difficult common bile duct stones. Most biliary stones can be removed with an extraction balloon, extraction basket or mechanical lithotripsy after endoscopic sphincterotomy. Endoscopic papillary balloon dilation with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy or mechanical lithotripsy has been shown to be effective for management of difficult to remove bile duct stones in selected patients. Ductal clearance can be safely achieved with peroral cholangioscopy guided laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy in most cases where other endoscopic treatment modalities have failed. Biliary stenting may be an alternative treatment option for frail and elderly patients or those with serious co morbidities. PMID:23345939

  7. Diagnosis and Treatment of Biliary Fistulas in the Laparoscopic Era

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, M.; Montecamozzo, G.; Foschi, D.

    2016-01-01

    Biliary fistulas are rare complications of gallstone. They can affect either the biliary or the gastrointestinal tract and are usually classified as primary or secondary. The primary fistulas are related to the biliary lithiasis, while the secondary ones are related to surgical complications. Laparoscopic surgery is a therapeutic option for the treatment of primary biliary fistulas. However, it could be the first responsible for the development of secondary biliary fistulas. An accurate preoperative diagnosis together with an experienced surgeon on the hepatobiliary surgery is necessary to deal with biliary fistulas. Cholecystectomy with a choledocoplasty is the most frequent treatment of primary fistulas, whereas the bile duct drainage or the endoscopic stenting is the best choice in case of minor iatrogenic bile duct injuries. Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy is the extreme therapeutic option for both conditions. The sepsis, the level of the bile duct damage, and the involvement of the gastrointestinal tract increase the complexity of the operation and affect early and late results. PMID:26819608

  8. On the mechanical behavior of the human biliary system

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaoyu; Li, Wenguang; Bird, Nigel; Chin, Swee Boon; Hill, NA; Johnson, Alan G

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the progress made in understanding the mechanical behaviour of the biliary system. Gallstones and diseases of the biliary tract affect more than 10% of the adult population. The complications of gallstones, i.e. acute pancreatitis and obstructive jandice, can be lethal, and patients with acalculous gallbladder pain often pose diagnostic difficulties and undergo repeated ultrasound scans and oral cholecystograms. Moreover, surgery to remove the gallbladder in these patients, in an attempt to relieve the symptoms, gives variable results. Extensive research has been carried out to understand the physiological and pathological functions of the biliary system, but the mechanism of the pathogenesis of gallstones and pain production still remain poorly understood. It is believed that the mechanical factors play an essential role in the mechanisms of the gallstone formation and biliary diseases. However, despite the extensive literature in clinical studies, only limited work has been carried out to study the biliary system from the mechanical point of view. In this paper, we discuss the state of art knowledge of the fluid dynamics of bile flow in the biliary tract, the solid mechanics of the gallbladder and bile ducts, recent mathematical and numerical modelling of the system, and finally the future challenges in the area. PMID:17457970

  9. Biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in idiopathic hemochromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hultcrantz, R.; Angelin, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.E.; Ewerth, S.; Einarsson, K.

    1989-06-01

    The role of biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in iron overload was studied and evaluated. Ten patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis and two groups of controls (14 gallstone patients and 16 healthy subjects) were included. Liver tissue (obtained by percutaneous or operative biopsy) was investigated with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in combination with x-ray microanalysis. Fasting bile samples were obtained through duodenal aspiration or at cholecystectomy. Iron was determined in liver tissue and bile using atomic absorption spectroscopy, and ferritin was determined in serum and bile with a radioimmunoassay technique. All patients with hemochromatosis had iron-positive staining as seen in light microscopy. Electron microscopy showed iron-containing proteins in the lysosomes and cytosol of liver parenchymal cells, and this observation was supported by x-ray microanalysis. Hepatic iron concentration was increased about eightfold in the patients with hemochromatosis (p less than 0.001). Biliary iron concentration, expressed per millimole of bile acid, was increased about twofold (p less than 0.05) and biliary ferritin concentration about fivefold (p less than 0.001) in hemochromatosis. Four of the patients with hemochromatosis were reexamined after completed treatment with venesection; this resulted in normalized biliary concentrations of iron and ferritin. We conclude that biliary secretion of ferritin occurs in humans and that both iron and ferritin excretion are enhanced in hepatic iron overload. The apparently limited capacity of biliary iron excretion may be of importance for the hepatic iron accumulation in hemochromatosis.

  10. Imaging of malignancies of the biliary tract- an update

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Malignancies of the biliary tract include cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder cancers and carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater. Biliary tract adenocarcinomas are the second most common primary hepatobiliary cancer. Due to their slow growing nature, non-specific and late symptomatology, these malignancies are often diagnosed in advanced stages with poor prognosis. Apart from incidental discovery of gall bladder carcinoma upon cholecystectomy, early stage biliary tract cancers are now detected with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). Accurate characterization and staging of these indolent cancers will determine outcome as majority of the patients’ are inoperable at the time of presentation. Ultrasound is useful for initial evaluation of the biliary tract and gallbladder masses and in determining the next suitable modality for further evaluation. Multimodality imaging plays an integral role in the management of the biliary tract malignancies. The imaging techniques most useful are MRI with MRCP, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and positron emission tomography (PET). In this review we will discuss epidemiology and the role of imaging in detection, characterization and management of the biliary tract malignancies under the three broad categories of cholangiocarcinomas (intra- and extrahepatic), gallbladder cancers and ampullary carcinomas. PMID:25608662

  11. Laparoscopic Transcystic Treatment Biliary Calculi by Laser Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lan; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic transcystic common bile duct exploration (LTCBDE) is a complex procedure requiring expertise in laparoscopic and choledochoscopic skills. The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and feasibility of treating biliary calculi through laparoscopic transcystic exploration of the CBD via an ultrathin choledochoscope combined with dual-frequency laser lithotripsy. Methods: From August 2011 through September 2014, 89 patients at our hospital were treated for cholecystolithiasis with biliary calculi. Patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and exploration of the CBD via the cystic duct and the choledochoscope instrument channel. A dual-band, dual-pulse laser lithotripsy system was used to destroy the calculi. Two intermittent laser emissions (intensity, 0.12 J; pulse width 1.2 μs; and pulse frequency, 10 Hz) were applied during each contact with the calculi. The stones were washed out by water injection or removed by a stone-retrieval basket. Results: Biliary calculi were removed in 1 treatment in all 89 patients. No biliary tract injury or bile leakage was observed. Follow-up examination with type-B ultrasonography or magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography 3 months after surgery revealed no instances of retained-calculi–related biliary tract stenosis. Conclusion: The combined use of laparoscopic transcystic CBD exploration by ultrathin choledochoscopy and dual-frequency laser lithotripsy offers an accurate, convenient, safe, effective method of treating biliary calculi. PMID:27904308

  12. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary access versus precut papillotomy in patients with failed biliary cannulation: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alexander; Aditi, Anupam; Bhat, Yasser M; Binmoeller, Kenneth F; Hamerski, Chris; Sendino, Oriol; Kane, Steve; Cello, John P; Day, Lukejohn W; Mohamadnejad, Medi; Muthusamy, V Raman; Watson, Rabindra; Klapman, Jason B; Komanduri, Sri; Wani, Sachin; Shah, Janak N

    2017-02-01

    Background and aims Precut papillotomy is widely used after failed biliary cannulation. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided biliary access techniques are newer methods to facilitate access and therapy in failed cannulation. We evaluated the impact of EUS-guided biliary access on endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) success and compared these techniques to precut papillotomy. Patients and methods We retrospectively compared two ERCP cohorts. One cohort consisted of biliary ERCPs (n = 1053) attempted in patients with native papillae and surgically unaltered anatomy in whom precut papillotomy and/or EUS-guided biliary access were routinely performed immediately after failed cannulation. This cohort was compared with a similar ERCP cohort (n = 1062) in which only precut papillotomy was available for failed cannulation. The following outcomes were compared: conventional cannulation success, rates of attempted advanced access techniques (precut or EUS), precut success, EUS-guided biliary access success, and ERCP failure rates. Results Although conventional cannulation success, rates of attempted advanced access technique (precut or EUS), and precut success were similar, the ERCP failure rate was lower when both EUS-guided biliary access and precut were available (1.0 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.4 - 1.6]), compared with when only precut was possible for failed access (3.6 % [95 %CI 2.5 - 4.7]; P < 0.001). Success for EUS-guided biliary access (95.1 % [95 %CI 89.7 - 100]) was significantly higher than for precut (75.3 % [95 %CI 68.2 - 82.4]; P < 0.001), and mainly due to superiority in malignant obstruction (93.5 % vs. 64 %; P < 0.001). Conclusions EUS-guided biliary access decreases the rate of therapeutic biliary ERCP failure. Our results support the use of EUS-guided biliary access to optimize single-session ERCP success. In experienced hands, these techniques appear as effective, if

  13. Comparison of pneumatic dilation with pneumatic dilation plus botulinum toxin for treatment of achalasia.

    PubMed

    Bakhshipour, Alireza; Rabbani, Romina; Shirani, Shapoor; Soleimani, Hosein A S L; Mikaeli, Javad

    2010-01-01

    Among the therapeutic options for achalasia are pneumatic dilatation (PD), an appropriate long-term therapy, and botulinum toxin injection (BT) that is a relatively short-term therapy. This study aimed to compare therapeutic effect of repetitive pneumatic dilation with a combined method (botulinum toxin injection and pneumatic dilation) in a group of achalasia patients who are low responder to two initial pneumatic dilations. Thirty-four patients with documented primary achalasia that had low response to two times PD (<50% decrease in symptom score and barium height at 5 minute in timed esophagogram after 3 month of late PD) were randomized to receive pneumatic dilation (n=18) or botulinum toxin injection and pneumatic dilation by four weeks interval (n=16), PD and BT+PD groups respectively. Symptom scores were evaluated before and at 1, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Clinical remission was defined as a decrease in symptom score > or = 50% of baseline. There were no significant differences between the two groups in gender, age and achalasia type. Remission rate of patients in BT-PD group in comparison with PD group were 87.5% vs. 67.1% (P = 0.7), 87.5% vs. 61.1% (P = 0.59) and 87.5% vs. 55.5% (P = 0.53) at 1, 6 and 12 months respectively .There were no major complications in either group. The mean symptom score decreased by 62.71% in the BT-PD group (P < 0.002) and 50.77% in the PD group (P < 0.01) at the end of the first year. Despite a better response rate in BT+PD group, a difference was not statistically significant. A difference may be meaningful if a large numbers of patients are included in the study.

  14. Percutaneous Transhepatic Biliary Drainage in the Management of Postsurgical Biliary Leaks in Patients with Nondilated Intrahepatic Bile Ducts

    SciTech Connect

    Cozzi, Guido Severini, Aldo; Civelli, Enrico; Milella, Marco; Pulvirenti, Andrea; Salvetti, Monica; Romito, Raffaele; Suman, Laura; Chiaraviglio, Francesca; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo

    2006-06-15

    Purpose. To assess the feasibility of percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks in patients with nondilated intrahepatic bile ducts, its efficacy in restoring the integrity of bile ducts, and technical procedures to reduce morbidity. Methods. Seventeen patients out of 936 undergoing PTBD over a 20-year period had a noncholestatic liver and were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent surgery for cancer and suffered a postsurgical biliary leak of 345 ml/day on average; 71% were in poor condition and required permanent nutritional support. An endoscopic approach failed or was excluded due to inaccessibility of the bile ducts. Results. Established biliary leaks and site of origin were diagnosed an average of 21 days (range 1-90 days) after surgery. In all cases percutaneous access to the biliary tree was achieved. An external (preleakage) drain was applied in 7 cases, 9 patients had an external-internal fistula bridging catheter, and 1 patient had a percutaneous hepatogastrostomy. Fistulas healed in an average of 31 days (range 3-118 days ) in 15 of 17 patients (88%) following PTBD. No major complications occurred after drainage. Post-PTBD cholangitis was observed in 6 of 17 patients (35%) and was related to biliary sludge formation occurring mostly when drainage lasted >30 days and was of the external-internal type. Median patient survival was 17.7 months and in all cases the repaired biliary leaks remained healed. Conclusions. PTBD is a feasible, effective, and safe procedure for the treatment of postsurgical biliary leaks. It is therefore a reliable alternative to surgical repair, which entails longer hospitalization and higher costs.

  15. A comparison between endoscopic ultrasound-guided rendezvous and percutaneous biliary drainage after failed ERCP for malignant distal biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Bill, Jason G.; Darcy, Michael; Fujii-Lau, Larissa L.; Mullady, Daniel K.; Gaddam, Srinivas; Murad, Faris M.; Early, Dayna S.; Edmundowicz, Steven A.; Kushnir, Vladimir M.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study Aims: Selective biliary cannulation is unsuccessful in 5 % to 10 % of patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for malignant distal biliary obstruction (MDBO). Percutaneous biliary drainage (PBD) has been the gold standard, but endoscopic ultrasound guided rendezvous (EUSr) have been increasingly used for biliary decompression in this patient population. Our aim was to compare the initial success rate, long-term efficacy, and safety of PBD and EUSr in relieving MDBO after failed ERC Patients and methods: A retrospective study involving 50 consecutive patients who had an initial failed ERCP for MDBO. Twenty-five patients undergoing EUSr between 2008 – 2014 were compared to 25 patients who underwent PBD immediately prior to the introduction of EUSr at our center (2002 – 2008). Comparisons were made between the two groups with regard to technical success, duration of hospital stay and adverse event rates after biliary decompression. Results: The mean age at presentation was 66.5 (± 12.6 years), 28 patients (54.9 %) were female. The etiology of MDBO was pancreaticobiliary malignancy in 44 (88 %) and metastatic disease in 6 (12 %) cases. Biliary drainage was technically successful by EUSr in 19 (76 %) cases and by PBD in 25 (100 %) (P = 0.002). Median length of hospital stay after initial drainage was 1 day in the EUSr group vs 5 days in PBD group (P = 0.02). Repeat biliary intervention was required for 4 patients in the EUSr group and 15 in the PBD group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Initial technical success with EUSr was significantly lower than with PBD, however when EUSr was successful, patients had a significantly shorter post-procedure hospital stay and required fewer follow-up biliary interventions. Meeting presentations: Annual Digestive Diseases Week 2015 PMID:27652305

  16. Chlamydia muridarum Induction of Glandular Duct Dilation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xin; Yang, Zhangsheng; Zhang, Hongbo; Dai, Jin; Chen, Jianlin; Tang, Lingli; Rippentrop, Sheena; Xue, Min

    2015-01-01

    Although Chlamydia-induced hydrosalpinx in women and mice has been used as a surrogate marker for tubal infertility, the medical relevance of nontubal pathologies, such as uterine horn dilation, developed in mice following chlamydial infection remains unclear. We now report that the uterine horn dilation correlates with glandular duct dilation detected microscopically following Chlamydia muridarum infection. The dilated glandular ducts pushed the uterine horn lumen to closure or dilation and even broke through the myometrium to develop extrusion outside the uterine horn. The severity scores of uterine horn dilation observed macroscopically correlated well with the number of cross sections of the dilated glandular ducts counted under microscopy. Chlamydial infection was detected in the glandular epithelial cells, potentially leading to inflammation and dilation of the glandular ducts. Direct delivery of C. muridarum into the mouse uterus increased both uterine horn/glandular duct dilation and hydrosalpinx. However, the chlamydial plasmid, which is essential for the induction of hydrosalpinx, was not required for the induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation. Screening 12 strains of mice for uterine horn dilation following C. muridarum infection revealed that B10.D2, C57BL/10J, and C57BL/6J mice were most susceptible, followed by BALB/cJ and A/J mice. Deficiency in host genes involved in immune responses failed to significantly alter the C. muridarum induction of uterine horn dilation. Nevertheless, the chlamydial induction of uterine horn/glandular duct dilation may be used to evaluate plasmid-independent pathogenicity of Chlamydia in susceptible mice. PMID:25824829

  17. Aerobic Capacity and Postprandial Flow Mediated Dilation.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Kevin D; Miller, James J; Robinson, James H; Olive, Jennifer L

    The consumption of a high-fat meal induces transient vascular dysfunction. Aerobic exercise enhances vascular function in healthy individuals. Our purpose was to determine if different levels of aerobic capacity impact vascular function, as measured by flow mediated dilation, following a high-fat meal. Flow mediated dilation of the brachial artery was determined before, two- and four-hours postprandial a high-fat meal in young males classified as highly trained (n = 10; VO2max = 74.6 ± 5.2 ml·kg·min(-1)) or moderately active (n = 10; VO2max = 47.3 ± 7.1 ml·kg·min(-1)). Flow mediated dilation was reduced at two- (p < 0.001) and four-hours (p < 0.001) compared to baseline for both groups but was not different between groups at any time point (p = 0.108). Triglycerides and insulin increased at two- (p < 0.001) and four-hours (p < 0.05) in both groups. LDL-C was reduced at four-hours (p = 0.05) in highly trained subjects, and two- and four-hours (p ≤ 0.01) in moderately active subjects. HDL-C decreased at two- (p = 0.024) and four-hours (p = 0.014) in both groups. Glucose increased at two-hours postprandial for both groups (p = 0.003). Our results indicate that a high-fat meal results in reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in highly trained and moderately active individuals with no difference between groups. Thus, high aerobic capacity does not protect against transient reductions in vascular function after the ingestion of a single high-fat meal compared to individuals who are moderately active.

  18. Dilated cardiomyopathy and inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Ballo, Piercarlo; Chiodi, Leandro; Cameli, Matteo; Malandrini, Alessandro; Federico, Antonio; Mondillo, Sergio; Zuppiroli, Alfredo

    2012-04-01

    Inclusion body myositis (IBM) is the most common inflammatory myopathy after 50 years of age. In contrast to polymyositis and dermatomyositis, in which cardiac involvement is relatively common, current evidences indicate that IBM is not associated with cardiac disease. We report the case of a patient with biopsy-proven IBM who developed heart failure and major ventricular arrhythmias secondary to dilated cardiomyopathy few months after the clinical onset of IBM, and in whom no pathophysiologic causes explaining cardiac enlargement and dysfunction were found by laboratory and instrumental investigations. The hypothesis of a pathophysiologic association between the two conditions is discussed.

  19. Superluminality in dilatationally invariant generalized Galileon theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolevatov, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    We consider small perturbations about homogeneous backgrounds in dilatationally invariant Galileon models. The issues we address are stability (absence of ghosts and gradient instabilities) and superluminality. We show that in the Minkowski background, it is possible to construct the Lagrangian in such a way that any homogeneous Galileon background solution is stable and small perturbations about it are subluminal. On the other hand, in the case of Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) backgrounds, for any Lagrangian functions there exist homogeneous background solutions to the Galileon equation of motion and time dependence of the scale factor, such that the stability conditions are satisfied, but the Galileon perturbations propagate with superluminal speed.

  20. Biliary stenting in patients with malignant biliary obstruction: comparison of double layer, plastic and metal stents.

    PubMed

    Elwir, Saleh; Sharzehi, Kaveh; Veith, Joshua; Moyer, Mathew T; Dye, Charles; McGarrity, Thomas; Mathew, Abraham

    2013-07-01

    The double layer stent (DLS) has a unique design and has been used for palliation of malignant biliary obstruction, but literature on this stent is limited. Our aim was to compare plastic (PS), DLS and metal stents (MS) in terms of complication rates, time to occlusion, and patency rate in patients with malignant biliary obstruction (MBO). A retrospective review of stents placed for MBO at our institution in the period between January 2009 and April 2011 was conducted. A total of 114 stents were identified, of which 44 were MS (39 %), 37 DLS (32 %), and 33 PS (29 %). A stent was considered occluded when an unplanned stent removal or intervention occurred due to clinical suspicion of biliary obstruction. Stents remained patent for 95 days (range 7-359 days) in the DLS group and 59 days (range 7-228 days) in the PS group (P = 0.014) and 128.7 days (range 4-602 days) in the metal stent group. Twenty-seven percent (n = 9) of PS occluded after a mean of 60 days while 16 % (n = 7) of MS occluded after a mean of 87 days and 5 % (n = 2) of DLS occluded after a mean of 85 days (DLS vs. PS P = 0.012, DLS vs. MS P = 0.13, MS vs. PS P = 0.22). DLS are superior to PS in patients with MBO and appear to be comparable to MS. MS had a longer patency rate but were comparable to DLS in early and late complications. We speculate that the less expensive DLS may be a cost effective alternative in the palliation of MBO.