Science.gov

Sample records for bimetallic nanoparticles modified

  1. VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC SULFIDE MODIFIED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel organic sulfide modified bimetallic iron-copper nanoparticle aggregate sorbent materials have been synthesized for removing elemental mercury from vapor streams at elevated temperatures (120-140 °C). Silane based (disulfide silane and tetrasulfide silane) and alkyl sulfide ...

  2. VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC SULFIDE MODIFIED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Novel organic sulfide modified bimetallic iron-copper nanoparticle aggregate sorbent materials have been synthesized for removing elemental mercury from vapor streams at elevated temperatures (120-140 °C). Silane based (disulfide silane and tetrasulfide silane) and alkyl sulfide ...

  3. Biosensors Incorporating Bimetallic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rick, John; Tsai, Meng-Che; Hwang, Bing Joe

    2015-12-31

    This article presents a review of electrochemical bio-sensing for target analytes based on the use of electrocatalytic bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), which can improve both the sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors. The review moves quickly from an introduction to the field of bio-sensing, to the importance of biosensors in today's society, the nature of the electrochemical methods employed and the attendant problems encountered. The role of electrocatalysts is introduced with reference to the three generations of biosensors. The contributions made by previous workers using bimetallic constructs, grouped by target analyte, are then examined in detail; following which, the synthesis and characterization of the catalytic particles is examined prior to a summary of the current state of endeavor. Finally, some perspectives for the future of bimetallic NPs in biosensors are given.

  4. Biosensors Incorporating Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Rick, John; Tsai, Meng-Che; Hwang, Bing Joe

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a review of electrochemical bio-sensing for target analytes based on the use of electrocatalytic bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), which can improve both the sensitivity and selectivity of biosensors. The review moves quickly from an introduction to the field of bio-sensing, to the importance of biosensors in today’s society, the nature of the electrochemical methods employed and the attendant problems encountered. The role of electrocatalysts is introduced with reference to the three generations of biosensors. The contributions made by previous workers using bimetallic constructs, grouped by target analyte, are then examined in detail; following which, the synthesis and characterization of the catalytic particles is examined prior to a summary of the current state of endeavor. Finally, some perspectives for the future of bimetallic NPs in biosensors are given. PMID:28344262

  5. Enhanced chromium (VI) removal using activated carbon modified by zero valent iron and silver bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kakavandi, Babak; Kalantary, Roshanak Rezaei; Farzadkia, Mahdi; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Esrafili, Ali; Azari, Ali; Yari, Ahmad Reza; Javid, Allah Bakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Recently, adsorption process has been introduced as a favorable and effective technique for the removal of metal ions from aqueous solutions. In the present study, bimetallic nanoparticles consisting of zero valent iron and silver were loaded on the activated carbon powder for the preparation of a new adsorbent (PAC-Fe(o)/Ag). The above adsorbent was characterized by using XRD, SEM and TEM techniqes. Experimental data were exploited for kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic evaluations related to the adsorption processes. The Cr(VI) adsorption process was found to be favorable at pH 3 and it reached equilibrium state within 60 min. The stirring rate did not have a significant effect on the adsorption efficiency. Furthermore, the monolayer adsorption capacity of Cr(VI) based on the Langmuir model was measured to be 100 mg/g. The experimental equilibrium data were fitted to the Freundlich adsorption and pseudo second-order models. According to the thermodynamic study, the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature, indicating the adsorption capacity increases with increasing the temperature. The results also revealed that the synthesized composite can be potentially applied as a magnetic adsorbent to remove Cr(VI) contaminants from aqueous solutions.

  6. Unconventional assembly of bimetallic Au-Ni janus nanoparticles on chemically modified silica spheres.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei; Pei, Xiaowei; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2014-02-10

    This paper reports that Janus Au-Ni nanoparticles (JANNPs) can self-assemble onto silica spheres in a novel way, which is different from that of single-component isotropic nanoparticles. JANNPs modified with octadecylamine (ODA) assemble onto catechol-modified silica spheres (SiO2-OH) to form a very special core-loop complex structure and finally the core-loop assemblies link each other to form large assemblies through capillary force and the hydrophobic interaction of the alkyl chains of ODA. The nanocomposites disassemble in the presence of vanillin and oleic acid because of the breakage of the catechol-metal link. Vanillin-induced disassembly enables the JANNPs to reassemble into a core-loop structure upon ODA addition. The assembly of SiO2-OH and isotropic Ni or Fe3O4 particles generates traditional core-satellite structures. This unconventional self-assembly can be attributed to the synergistic effect of Janus specificity and capillary force, which is also confirmed by the assembly of thiol-terminated silica spheres (SH-SiO2) with anisotropic JANNPs, isotropic Au, and Ni nanoparticles. These results can guide the development of novel composite materials using Janus nanoparticles as the primary building blocks.

  7. Molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for propyl gallate based on PtAu bimetallic nanoparticles modified graphene-carbon nanotube composites.

    PubMed

    Cui, Min; Huang, Jiadong; Wang, Yu; Wu, Yumin; Luo, Xiliang

    2015-06-15

    A novel molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for propyl gallate (PG) determination was developed via electropolymerization of an o-phenylenediamine membrane in the presence of template molecules on glassy carbon electrode surface modified by PtAu bimetallic nanoparticles-capped graphene-carbon nanotubes composites (PtAu-GrCNTs). The modified electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and chronoamperometry. Moreover, experimental parameters such as scan cycles, incubation time, molar ratios of template molecules to functional monomers and extraction time were optimized. It was found that the PtAu-GrCNTs composite could effectively enhance the electron transfer efficiency and remarkably improve the sensitivity of the sensor. The results revealed the sensor displayed superb resistance to no-specific binding, very attractive detection limit as low as 2.51×10(-8) mol/L, and a wide linear range from 7×10(-8) mol/L to 1×10(-5) mol/L towards PG. Furthermore, the MIPs sensor was also successfully used for the detection of PG in food samples. Therefore, the MIPs-based electrochemical sensing strategy might provide a sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective method for PG determination and related food safety analysis.

  8. Bimetallic nanoparticles for arsenic detection.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Nafiseh; Mohapatra, Mamata; Leung, Kam Tong

    2015-06-02

    Effective and sensitive monitoring of heavy metal ions, particularly arsenic, in drinking water is very important to risk management of public health. Arsenic is one of the most serious natural pollutants in soil and water in more than 70 countries in the world. The need for very sensitive sensors to detect ultralow amounts of arsenic has attracted great research interest. Here, bimetallic FePt, FeAu, FePd, and AuPt nanoparticles (NPs) are electrochemically deposited on the Si(100) substrate, and their electrochemical properties are studied for As(III) detection. We show that trace amounts of As(III) in neutral pH could be determined by using anodic stripping voltammetry. The synergistic effect of alloying with Fe leads to better performance for Fe-noble metal NPs (Au, Pt, and Pd) than pristine noble metal NPs (without Fe alloying). Limit of detection and linear range are obtained for FePt, FeAu, and FePd NPs. The best performance is found for FePt NPs with a limit of detection of 0.8 ppb and a sensitivity of 0.42 μA ppb(-1). The selectivity of the sensor has also been tested in the presence of a large amount of Cu(II), as the most detrimental interferer ion for As detection. The bimetallic NPs therefore promise to be an effective, high-performance electrochemical sensor for the detection of ultratrace quantities of arsenic.

  9. Bimetallic magnetic nanoparticle as a new platform for fabrication of pyridoxine and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate imprinted polymer modified high throughput electrochemical sensor.

    PubMed

    Patra, Santanu; Roy, Ekta; Das, Ranajit; Karfa, Paramita; Kumar, Sunil; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2015-11-15

    The present work describes the fabrication of a selective and sensitive molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based electrochemical sensor using a combination of surface imprinting and nanotechnology. The fabricated sensor was used for the detection of two major components of vitamin B6 i.e. pyridoxine (Py) and pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP) using the same MIP format. Herein, acrylic acid modified zero valent iron nanoparticles were combined with the copper nanoparticle, resulting in vinyl groups modified bimetallic Fe/Cu magnetic nanoparticles (BMNPs). These BMNPs have high surface to volume ratios, higher electro-catalytic activity, and are therefore, a suitable platform to synthesize specific MIP cavities for Py and PLP. Herein, two different MIP formats (for Py and PLP) were synthesized on the surface of vinyl silane modified pencil graphite electrodes by activator regenerated by an electron transfer-atom transfer radical polymerization (ARGET-ATRP) method. The sensor shows a good analytical performance for the detection of Py and PLP by a square wave stripping voltammetric technique (SWSV). The limit of detection (LOD) was calculated to be 0.040 µg L(-1) and 0.043 µg L(-1) for Py and PLP, respectively, at signal to noise ratio of 3. The sensors are highly selective for the templates and can detect them from multivitamin tablets, corn flakes, energy drinks, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood) without any interfering effect, suggesting the clinical applicability of the fabricated sensor. The sensor can also be used as better alternative to the commercially available ELISA kits which are rather complex, less sensitive and difficult to handle.

  10. Earth abundant bimetallic nanoparticles for heterogeneous catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, Jonathan F., Jr.

    Polymer exchange membrane fuel cells have the potential to replace current fossil fuel-based technologies in terms of emissions and efficiency, but CO contamination of H2 fuel, which is derived from steam methane reforming, leads to system inefficiency or failure. Solutions currently under development are bimetallic nanoparticles comprised of earth-abundant metals in different architectures to reduce the concentration of CO by PROX during fuel cell operation. Chapter One introduces the Pt-Sn and Co-Ni bimetallic nanoparticle systems, and the intermetallic and core-shell architectures of interest for catalytic evaluation. Application, theory, and studies associated with the efficacy of these nanoparticles are briefly reviewed. Chapter Two describes the concepts of the synthetic and characterization methods used in this work. Chapter Three presents the synthetic, characterization, and catalytic findings of this research. Pt, PtSn, PtSn2, and Pt 3Sn nanoparticles have been synthesized and supported on gamma-Al2O3. Pt3Sn was shown to be an effective PROX catalyst in various gas feed conditions, such as the gas mixture incorporating 0.1% CO, which displayed a light-off temperatures of ˜95°C. Co and Ni monometallic and CoNi bimetallic nanoparticles have been synthesized and characterized, ultimately leading to the development of target Co Ni core-shell nanoparticles. Proposed studies of catalytic properties of these nanoparticles in preferential oxidation of CO (PROX) reactions will further elucidate the effects of different crystallographic phases, nanoparticle-support interactions, and architecture on catalysis, and provide fundamental understanding of catalysis with nanoparticles composed of earth abundant metals in different architectures.

  11. Platinum-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles on graphitic carbon nitride modified carbon black: A highly electroactive and durable catalyst for electrooxidation of alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Huayu; Chen, Shouwen; Fu, Yongsheng; Wang, Xin

    2015-12-01

    A composite catalyst consisting of Pt-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) and graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) modified carbon black (CB) is designed and fabricated by a facile two-step approach. The resulting catalyst exhibits unprecedented high catalytic activity and excellent long-term stability for electrooxidation of alcohols (methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol and glycerol) in alkaline media. The superior electrochemical performance of the composite catalyst is attributed to the specific characteristics of the unique nanostructure and the synergistic effects of individual components, including the complementary roles of Pt (dehydrogenation site) and Pd (removal of CO-like species), the template effect of the planar amino group of g-C3N4 for the dispersed decoration of Pt-Pd NPs, the high specific surface area of CB for the rapid diffusion of electrolyte and removal of the carbonaceous intermediates, as well as the structural stability of the support based on covalent interaction between g-C3N4 and CB for maintaining the durability of the catalytic system.

  12. Bimetallic nanoparticles: Preparation, properties, and biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Abbasi, Elham; Davaran, Soodabeh; Kouhi, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-01-01

    Many studies of non-supported bimetallic nanoparticle (BMNP) dispersions, stabilized by ligands or polymers, and copolymers, were started only about 10 years ago. Several preparative procedures have been proposed, and full characterizations on BMNPs have been approved. Studies on BMNPs received huge attention from both scientific and technological communities because most of the NPs' catalytic activity depends on their structural aspects. In this study, we focus on the preparation, properties, and bio-application of BMNPs and introduction of the recent advance in these NPs.

  13. Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles for minimizing Ir utilization in oxygen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jinkyu; Yang, Sungeun; Kim, Chanyeon; Roh, Chi-Woo; Kwon, Yongwoo; Kim, Yong-Tae; Lee, Hyunjoo

    2016-04-25

    Shaped Ir-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized and used for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction (OER). The obtained bimetallic nanoparticles showed significantly enhanced Ir mass activity and durability compared with Ir nanoparticles.

  14. Construction of an amperometric glycated hemoglobin biosensor based on Au-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles and poly (indole-5-carboxylic acid) modified Au electrode.

    PubMed

    Jain, Utkarsh; Gupta, Shaivya; Chauhan, Nidhi

    2017-07-14

    The glucose level measurement in the diabetic patient plays a vital role in identification of the treatments going on and it also provides the control over the diabetics. A new electrochemical sensing device was constructed for determination of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in whole blood samples. Fructosyl amine oxidase (FAO) was bioconjugated onto hybrid nanocomposite i.e., gold nanoparticles-platinum nanoparticles (AuNPs-PtNPs) and poly indole-5-carboxylic acid (PIN5COOH), deposited electrochemically on gold electrode. Bimetallic nanoparticles not only show their individual properties but also provides the synergistic effect between the two noble metal nanoparticles. AuNPs-PtNPs shown as an amplified sensing interface at lower voltage which makes the sensor more sensitive and specific. The FAO/AuNPs-PtNPs onto PIN5COOH/Au electrode shows a promising future in diagnosis of HbA1c and diabetes management. The novel sensor formed has good accuracy, selectivity, sensitivity, precision and reliability. In addition to these, it showed good storage stability and retained 50% of its initial activity within 12 weeks at 4°C. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Lattice measurement and alloy compositions in metal and bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tsen, S-C Y; Crozier, P A; Liu, J

    2003-12-01

    A new reliable method for determining the lattice spacings of metallic and bimetallic nanoparticles in phase contrast high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) images was developed. In this study, we discuss problems in applying HREM techniques to single metal (Pt and Au) and bimetallic (AuPd) nanoparticles of unknown shapes and random orientations. Errors arising from particle tilt and edge effects are discussed and analysis criteria are presented to reduce these errors in measuring the lattice parameters of nanoparticles. The accuracy of an individual particle lattice measurement is limited by an effective standard deviation which depends on the size of the individual nanoparticle. For example, the standard deviation for 20-30 A Pt or Au nanoparticles is about 1.5%. To increase the accuracy in determining the lattice spacings of nanoparticles, statistical methods have to be used to obtain the average lattice spacing of an ensemble of nanoparticles. We measured approximately 100 nanoparticles with sizes in the range of 20-30 A and found that the mean lattice spacing can be determined to within 0.2%. By applying Vegard's law to the AuPd bimetallic systems we successfully detected the presence of alloying. For 30 A nanoparticles, the estimated ultimate error in determining the composition of the AuPd alloy is about 3% provided that at least 100 particles are measured. Finally, the challenges in determining the presence of more than one alloy phases in bimetallic nanoparticle systems were also discussed.

  16. Thermal stability of bimetallic Au/Fe nanoparticles in silica matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pannu, Compesh Singh, Udai B. Hooda, Sonu Kabiraj, D. Avasthi, D. K.

    2014-04-24

    Thin silica film containing Au and Fe bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by atom beam cosputtering. The samples were annealed at different temperatures from 400 to 800° C to study the thermal stability of bimetallic nanoparticles using X ray diffraction. It is observed that at 800° C strong structural rearrangement took place leading to thermal decomposition of bimetallic nanoparticles.

  17. Distribution of platinum and cobalt atoms in a bimetallic nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Yu Hang; Chan, Kwong-Yu

    2005-06-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the atomic distribution and the structure of platinum-cobalt nanoparticles. Heating and cooling techniques are applied before getting equilibrated structures at 298 K. Both crystalline (fcc) and amorphous structures are partly observed depending on cooling rates. The atomic distributions in different regions of a bimetallic nanoparticle are analyzed. Although platinum tends to occupy surface and near-surface sites of the bimetallic nanoparticle, a complete segregation to form a core-shell structure is not observed.

  18. Nanocrystal and surface alloy properties of bimetallic Gold-Platinum nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mott, Derrick; Luo, Jin; Smith, Andrew; Njoki, Peter N; Wang, Lingyan

    2007-01-01

    We report on the correlation between the nanocrystal and surface alloy properties with the bimetallic composition of gold-platinum(AuPt) nanoparticles. The fundamental understanding of whether the AuPt nanocrystal core is alloyed or phase-segregated and how the surface binding properties are correlated with the nanoscale bimetallic properties is important not only for the exploitation of catalytic activity of the nanoscale bimetallic catalysts, but also to the general exploration of the surface or interfacial reactivities of bimetallic or multimetallic nanoparticles. The AuPt nanoparticles are shown to exhibit not only single-phase alloy character in the nanocrystal, but also bimetallic alloy property on the surface. The nanocrystal and surface alloy properties are directly correlated with the bimetallic composition. The FTIR probing of CO adsorption on the bimetallic nanoparticles supported on silica reveals that the surface binding sites are dependent on the bimetallic composition. The analysis of this dependence further led to the conclusion that the relative Au-atop and Pt-atop sites for the linear CO adsorption on the nanoparticle surface are not only correlated with the bimetallic composition, but also with the electronic effect as a result of the d-band shift of Pt in the bimetallic nanocrystals, which is the first demonstration of the nanoscale core-surface property correlation for the bimetallic nanoparticles over a wide range of bimetallic composition.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Ni-Au bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nik Roselina, N. R.; Azizan, A.; Hyie, Koay Mei; Murad, Mardziah Che; Abdullah, Abdul Hakim

    2015-04-01

    Bimetallic structure of nanoparticles is of great interest due to their extraordinary properties, especially in combining the specialty of the core and its shell. This work reports the effect of pH on the synthesis of Ni-Au (nickel-gold) bimetallic nanoparticles. The synthesis involves a two-step process where Ni nanoparticles were first synthesized using polyol method with hydrazine as the reducing agent. This was followed by the process of reducing AuCl4- to Au in the solution containing pre-prepared Ni to form Ni-Au bimetallic nanoparticles using sodium citrate as the reducing agent. The results obtained from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) show that the process can possibly produce either core-shell structure, or mixture of Ni and Au nanoparticles. Magnetic property of core-shell structure investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) demonstrated typical characteristic of ferromagnetic with an increased magnetization as compared to Ni nanoparticles. The saturation magnetization (Ms) and coercivity (Hc) were obtained as 19.1 emu/g and 222.3 Oe, respectively.

  20. Improved catalytic activity of laser generated bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R K

    2014-09-01

    We report synthesis of silver nanoparticles, bimetallic (Al2O3@Ag) nanoparticles and trimetallic (Al2O3@AgAu) nanoparticles by nanosecond pulse laser ablation (PLA) in deionized water. Two-step laser ablation methodologies were adopted for the synthesis of bi- and tri-metallic nanoparticles. In this method a silver or gold target was ablated in colloidal solution of γ-alumina nanoparticles prepared by PLA. The TEM image analysis of bimetallic and trimetallic particles reveals deposition of fine silver particles and Ag-Au alloy particles, respectively, on large alumina particles. The laser generated nanoparticles were tested for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol and showed excellent catalytic behaviour. The catalytic rate was greatly improved by incorporation of additional metal in silver nanoparticles. The catalytic efficiency of trimetallic Al2O3@AgAu for reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol was remarkably enhanced and the catalytic reaction was completed in just 5 sec. Even at very low concentration, both Al2O3@Ag nanoparticles and Al2O3@AgAu nanoparticles showed improved rate of catalytic reduction than monometallic silver nanoparticles. Our results demonstrate that alumina particles in the solution not only provide the active sites for particle dispersion but also improve the catalytic activity.

  1. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure of bimetallic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary Electronic and magnetic properties strongly depend on the structure of the material, especially on the crystal symmetry and chemical environment. In nanoparticles, the break of symmetry at the surface may yield different physical properties with respect to the corresponding bulk material. A useful tool to investigate the electronic structure, magnetic behaviour and local crystallographic structure is X-ray absorption spectroscopy. In this review, recent developments in the field of extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements and in the analysis methods for structural investigations of bimetallic nanoparticles are highlighted. The standard analysis based on Fourier transforms is compared to the relatively new field of wavelet transforms that have the potential to outperform traditional analysis, especially in bimetallic alloys. As an example, the lattice expansion and inhomogeneous alloying found in FePt nanoparticles is presented, and this is discussed below in terms of the influence of employed density functional theory calculations on the magnetic properties. PMID:21977436

  2. Charge distribution and Fermi level in bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, Nico; Laasonen, Kari; Peljo, Pekka

    2016-01-28

    Upon metal-metal contact, a transfer of electrons will occur between the metals until the Fermi levels in both phases are equal, resulting in a net charge difference across the metal-metal interface. Here, we have examined this contact electrification in bimetallic model systems composed of mixed Au-Ag nanoparticles containing ca. 600 atoms using density functional theory calculations. We present a new model to explain this charge transfer by considering the bimetallic system as a nanocapacitor with a potential difference equal to the work function difference, and with most of the transferred charge located directly at the contact interface. Identical results were obtained by considering surface contacts as well as by employing a continuum model, confirming that this model is general and can be applied to any multimetallic structure regardless of geometry or size (going from nano- to macroscale). Furthermore, the equilibrium Fermi level was found to be strongly dependent on the surface coverage of different metals, enabling the construction of scaling relations. We believe that the charge transfer due to Fermi level equilibration has a profound effect on the catalytic, electrocatalytic and other properties of bimetallic particles. Additionally, bimetallic nanoparticles are expected to have very interesting self-assembly for large superstructures due to the surface charge anisotropy between the two metals.

  3. Bimetallic Nanoparticles as Efficient Catalysts: Facile and Green Microwave Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Blosi, Magda; Ortelli, Simona; Costa, Anna Luisa; Dondi, Michele; Lolli, Alice; Andreoli, Sara; Benito, Patricia; Albonetti, Stefania

    2016-07-08

    This work deals with the development of a green and versatile synthesis of stable mono- and bi-metallic colloids by means of microwave heating and exploiting ecofriendly reagents: water as the solvent, glucose as a mild and non-toxic reducer and polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP) as the chelating agent. Particle size-control, total reaction yield and long-term stability of colloids were achieved with this method of preparation. All of the materials were tested as effective catalysts in the reduction of p-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH₄ as the probe reaction. A synergistic positive effect of the bimetallic phase was assessed for Au/Cu and Pd/Au alloy nanoparticles, the latter showing the highest catalytic performance. Moreover, monoand bi-metallic colloids were used to prepare TiO₂- and CeO₂-supported catalysts for the liquid phase oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfufural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). The use of Au/Cu and Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts led to an increase in FDCA selectivity. Finally, preformed Pd/Cu nanoparticles were incorporated into the structure of MCM-41-silica. The resulting Pd/Cu MCM-41 catalysts were tested in the hydrodechlorination of CF₃OCFClCF₂Cl to CF₃OCF=CF₂. The effect of Cu on the hydrogenating properties of Pd was demonstrated.

  4. Bimetallic Nanoparticles as Efficient Catalysts: Facile and Green Microwave Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Blosi, Magda; Ortelli, Simona; Costa, Anna Luisa; Dondi, Michele; Lolli, Alice; Andreoli, Sara; Benito, Patricia; Albonetti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    This work deals with the development of a green and versatile synthesis of stable mono- and bi-metallic colloids by means of microwave heating and exploiting ecofriendly reagents: water as the solvent, glucose as a mild and non-toxic reducer and polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP) as the chelating agent. Particle size-control, total reaction yield and long-term stability of colloids were achieved with this method of preparation. All of the materials were tested as effective catalysts in the reduction of p-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4 as the probe reaction. A synergistic positive effect of the bimetallic phase was assessed for Au/Cu and Pd/Au alloy nanoparticles, the latter showing the highest catalytic performance. Moreover, monoand bi-metallic colloids were used to prepare TiO2- and CeO2-supported catalysts for the liquid phase oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfufural (HMF) to 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA). The use of Au/Cu and Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts led to an increase in FDCA selectivity. Finally, preformed Pd/Cu nanoparticles were incorporated into the structure of MCM-41-silica. The resulting Pd/Cu MCM-41 catalysts were tested in the hydrodechlorination of CF3OCFClCF2Cl to CF3OCF=CF2. The effect of Cu on the hydrogenating properties of Pd was demonstrated. PMID:28773672

  5. Reduction of nitrate by bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kang, Haiyan; Xiu, Zongming; Chen, Jiawei; Cao, Wenping; Guo, Yifei; Li, Tielong; Jin, Zhaohui

    2012-09-01

    Bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles were synthesized and their nitrate reduction capacity was studied. Nitrate (354 mg L(-1), equal to 5.71 mmol L(-1)) reduction was performed using Fe/Ni nanoparticles with various Ni contents (1.0, 5.0, 10 and 20%) in an unbuffered condition. Optimum nitrate reduction rate (1.03 +/- 0.087 x 10(-4) mol x min(-1) x greduc(-1)) was obtained with 5.0% nano-scale Fe/Ni, while only 25% nitrate (1.05 +/- 0.091 x 10(-5) mol x min(-1) x greduc(-1)) was transformed by nano-scale Fe(0) within the same reaction time, which means that these bimetallic nanoparticles are obviously more reactive than monometallic nano-scale Fe(0). For this bimetallic system a near-neutral initial pH (6.5) is more favourable than an acidic condition (2.0 and 4.0). Relatively air-stable nano-scale Fe/Ni particles were developed by slowly aging them for 22 h and exhibited similar reactivity to freshly synthesized nano-scale Fe(0). Although undesirable transformation of nitrate (91.0 +/- 0.37%) to ammonium was observed in this study, Fe/Ni particles showed a much higher nitrate reduction rate and an optimum reduction rate at near-neutral pH, which may have important implications for nitrate-contaminated site remediation.

  6. Characterization of Bimetallic Fe-Ru Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Liquid-Phase Plasma Method.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Heon; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Park, Hyunwoong; Park, Young-Kwon; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2016-12-01

    The bimetallic Fe-Ru oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in the liquid-phase plasma (LPP) method which employed iron chloride and ruthenium chloride as precursors. The active species (OH·, Hα, Hβ, and O(I)) and the iron and ruthenium ions were observed in the plasma field created by the LPP process. The spherical-shaped bimetallic Fe-Ru oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by the LPP reaction, and the size of the particles was growing along with the progression of the LPP reaction. The synthesized bimetallic Fe-Ru oxide nanoparticles were comprised of Fe2O3, Fe3O4, RuO, and RuO2. Ruthenium had a higher reduction potential than iron and resulted in higher ruthenium composition in the synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles. The control of the molar ratio of the precursors in the reactant solution was found to be employed as a means to control the composition of the elements in bimetallic nanoparticles.

  7. Preparation of bimetallic nanoparticles using a facile green synthesis method and their application.

    PubMed

    Xia, Bihua; He, Fang; Li, Lidong

    2013-04-16

    A straightforward, economically viable, and green approach for the synthesis of well-stabilized Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles is described; this method uses nontoxic and renewable degraded pueraria starch (DPS) as a matrix and mild reaction conditions. The DPS acted as both a reducing agent and a capping agent for the bimetallic nanoparticles. Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles were successfully grown within the DPS matrixes, and the bimetallic structures were characterized using various methods, including high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, and X-ray diffraction. Moreover, it was shown that these DPS-capped Au/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles could function as catalysts for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol in the presence of NaBH4 and were more effective than Au or Ag monometallic nanoparticles.

  8. Modification of TiO2 by Bimetallic Au-Cu Nanoparticles for Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hai, Zibin; Kolli, Nadia EL; Uribe, Daniel Bahena; Beaunier, Patricia; José-Yacaman, Miguel; Vigneron, Jackie; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Sorgues, Sébastien; Colbeau-Justin, Christophe; Chen, Jiafu; Remita, Hynd

    2016-01-01

    Au, Cu and bimetallic Au-Cu nanoparticles were synthesized on the surface of commercial TiO2 compounds (P25) by reduction of the metal precursors with tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) (0.5 % in weight). The alloyed structure of Au-Cu NPs was confirmed by HAADF-STEM, EDS, HRTEM and XPS techniques. The photocatalytic properties of the modified TiO2 have been studied for phenol photodegradation in aqueous suspensions under UV-visible irradiation. The modification by the metal nanoparticles induces an increase in the photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic activity is obtained with Au-Cu/TiO2 (Au/Cu 1:3). Their electronic properties have been studied by time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to follow the charge-carrier dynamics. TRMC measurements show that the TiO2 modification with Au, Cu and Au-Cu nanoparticles plays a role in charge-carrier separations increasing the activity under UV-light. Indeed, the metal nanoparticles act as a sink for electron, decreasing the charge carrier recombination. The TRMC measurements show also that the bimetallic Au-Cu nanoparticles are more efficient in electron scavenging than the monometallic Au and Cu ones. PMID:27274844

  9. Modification of TiO2 by Bimetallic Au-Cu Nanoparticles for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hai, Zibin; Kolli, Nadia El; Uribe, Daniel Bahena; Beaunier, Patricia; José-Yacaman, Miguel; Vigneron, Jackie; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Sorgues, Sébastien; Colbeau-Justin, Christophe; Chen, Jiafu; Remita, Hynd

    2013-09-28

    Au, Cu and bimetallic Au-Cu nanoparticles were synthesized on the surface of commercial TiO2 compounds (P25) by reduction of the metal precursors with tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) (0.5 % in weight). The alloyed structure of Au-Cu NPs was confirmed by HAADF-STEM, EDS, HRTEM and XPS techniques. The photocatalytic properties of the modified TiO2 have been studied for phenol photodegradation in aqueous suspensions under UV-visible irradiation. The modification by the metal nanoparticles induces an increase in the photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic activity is obtained with Au-Cu/TiO2 (Au/Cu 1:3). Their electronic properties have been studied by time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to follow the charge-carrier dynamics. TRMC measurements show that the TiO2 modification with Au, Cu and Au-Cu nanoparticles plays a role in charge-carrier separations increasing the activity under UV-light. Indeed, the metal nanoparticles act as a sink for electron, decreasing the charge carrier recombination. The TRMC measurements show also that the bimetallic Au-Cu nanoparticles are more efficient in electron scavenging than the monometallic Au and Cu ones.

  10. STEM-EDX tomography of bimetallic nanoparticles: A methodological investigation.

    PubMed

    Slater, Thomas J A; Janssen, Arne; Camargo, Pedro H C; Burke, M Grace; Zaluzec, Nestor J; Haigh, Sarah J

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the limitations and optimisation of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) tomography within the scanning transmission electron microscope, focussing on application of the technique to characterising the 3D elemental distribution of bimetallic AgAu nanoparticles. The detector collection efficiency when using a standard tomography holder is characterised using a tomographic data set from a single nanoparticle and compared to a standard low background double tilt holder. Optical depth profiling is used to investigate the angles and origin of detector shadowing as a function of specimen field of view. A novel time-varied acquisition scheme is described to compensate for variations in the intensity of spectrum images at each sample tilt. Finally, the ability of EDX spectrum images to satisfy the projection requirement for nanoparticle samples is discussed, with consideration of the effect of absorption and shadowing variations.

  11. STEM-EDX tomography of bimetallic nanoparticles: A methodological investigation

    DOE PAGES

    Slater, Thomas J. A.; Janssen, Arne; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; ...

    2015-10-22

    This paper presents an investigation of the limitations and optimization of energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) tomography within the scanning transmission electron microscope, focussing on application of the technique to characterising the 3D elemental distribution of bimetallic AgAu nanoparticles. The detector collection efficiency when using a standard tomography holder is characterised using a tomographic data set from a single nanoparticle and compared to a standard low background double tilt holder. Optical depth profiling is used to investigate the angles and origin of detector shadowing as a function of specimen field of view. A novel time-varied acquisition scheme is described to compensatemore » for variations in the intensity of spectrum images at each sample tilt. Lastly, the ability of EDX spectrum images to satisfy the projection requirement for nanoparticle samples is discussed, with consideration of the effect of absorption and shadowing variations« less

  12. Toward atomically-precise synthesis of supported bimetallic nanoparticles using atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junling; Low, Ke-Bin; Lei, Yu; Libera, Joseph A; Nicholls, Alan; Stair, Peter C; Elam, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    Multi-metallic nanoparticles constitute a new class of materials offering the opportunity to tune the properties via the composition, atomic ordering and size. In particular, supported bimetallic nanoparticles have generated intense interest in catalysis and electrocatalysis. However, traditional synthesis methods often lack precise control, yielding a mixture of monometallic and bimetallic particles with various compositions. Here we report a general strategy for synthesizing supported bimetallic nanoparticles by atomic layer deposition, where monometallic nanoparticle formation is avoided by selectively growing the secondary metal on the primary metal nanoparticle but not on the support; meanwhile, the size, composition and structure of the bimetallic nanoparticles are precisely controlled by tailoring the precursor pulse sequence. Such exquisite control is clearly demonstrated through in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of CO chemisorption by mapping the gradual atomic-scale evolution in the surface composition, and further confirmed using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Biosynthetic trends and future aspects of bimetallic nanoparticles and its medicinal applications.

    PubMed

    Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Surendra, Tammineni Venkata; Elango, Ganesh; Kumar, Subramanian Hari Subbish

    2014-06-01

    Recently, in all over the world, nanotechnology plays a major role in various applications. Most of the researchers focused their work on bimetallic nanoparticles due to their several modes or mechanisms of synthesis such as chemical, physical, and biosynthesis methods. These nanoparticles are of great interest due to their enormous applications and catalytic activities. Currently, syntheses of bimetallic nanoparticles using different sources of natural products are focused due to their advantage of being nontoxic to human and environment. To our knowledge, there is no report on the review of bimetallic nanoparticles and their medicinal applications. Taking this fact into account, we discussed the various synthesizing methods of bimetallic nanoparticles and their application related to biology.

  14. Characterization of Au and Bimetallic PtAu Nanoparticles on PDDA-Graphene Sheets as Electrocatalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yung, Tung-Yuan; Liu, Ting-Yu; Huang, Li-Ying; Wang, Kuan-Syun; Tzou, Huei-Ming; Chen, Po-Tuan; Chao, Chi-Yang; Liu, Ling-Kang

    2015-12-01

    Nanocomposite materials of the Au nanoparticles (Au/PDDA-G) and the bimetallic PtAu nanoparticles on poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-modified graphene sheets (PtAu/PDDA-G) were prepared with hydrothermal method at 90 °C for 24 h. The composite materials Au/PDDA-G and PtAu/PDDA-G were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for exploring the structural characterization for the electrochemical catalysis. According to TEM results, the diameter of Au and bimetallic PtAu nanoparticles is about 20-50 and 5-10 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that both of PtAu and Au nanoparticles exhibit the crystalline plane of (111), (200), (210), and (311). Furthermore, XRD data also show the 2°-3° difference between pristine graphene sheets and the PDDA-modified graphene sheets. For the catalytic activity tests of Au/PDDA-G and PtAu/PDDA-G, the mixture of 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 and 0.5 M aqueous formic acid was used as model to evaluate the electrochemical characterizations. The catalytic activities of the novel bimetallic PtAu/graphene electrocatalyst would be anticipated to be superior to the previous electrocatalyst of the cubic Pt/graphene.

  15. Characterization of Au and Bimetallic PtAu Nanoparticles on PDDA-Graphene Sheets as Electrocatalysts for Formic Acid Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yung, Tung-Yuan; Liu, Ting-Yu; Huang, Li-Ying; Wang, Kuan-Syun; Tzou, Huei-Ming; Chen, Po-Tuan; Chao, Chi-Yang; Liu, Ling-Kang

    2015-09-01

    Nanocomposite materials of the Au nanoparticles (Au/PDDA-G) and the bimetallic PtAu nanoparticles on poly-(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA)-modified graphene sheets (PtAu/PDDA-G) were prepared with hydrothermal method at 90 °C for 24 h. The composite materials Au/PDDA-G and PtAu/PDDA-G were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for exploring the structural characterization for the electrochemical catalysis. According to TEM results, the diameter of Au and bimetallic PtAu nanoparticles is about 20-50 and 5-10 nm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicate that both of PtAu and Au nanoparticles exhibit the crystalline plane of (111), (200), (210), and (311). Furthermore, XRD data also show the 2°-3° difference between pristine graphene sheets and the PDDA-modified graphene sheets. For the catalytic activity tests of Au/PDDA-G and PtAu/PDDA-G, the mixture of 0.5 M aqueous H2SO4 and 0.5 M aqueous formic acid was used as model to evaluate the electrochemical characterizations. The catalytic activities of the novel bimetallic PtAu/graphene electrocatalyst would be anticipated to be superior to the previous electrocatalyst of the cubic Pt/graphene.

  16. Bimetallic ruthenium-copper nanoparticles embedded in mesoporous carbon as an effective hydrogenation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajia; Zhang, Li Li; Zhang, Jiatao; Liu, Tao; Zhao, X S

    2013-11-21

    Bimetallic ruthenium-copper nanoparticles embedded in the pore walls of mesoporous carbon were prepared via a template route and evaluated in terms of catalytic properties in D-glucose hydrogenation. The existence of bimetallic entities was supported by Ru L3-edge and Cu K-edge X-ray absorption results. The hydrogen spillover effect of the bimetallic catalyst on the hydrogenation reaction was evidenced by the results of both hydrogen and carbon monoxide chemisorptions. The bimetallic catalyst displayed a higher catalytic activity than the single-metal catalysts prepared using the same approach, namely ruthenium or copper nanoparticles embedded in the pore walls of mesoporous carbon. This improvement was due to the changes in the geometric and electronic structures of the bimetallic catalyst because of the presence of the second metal.

  17. Segregation and phase dynamics in supported bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashner, Michael Sydney

    1997-12-01

    A set of supported bimetallic catalysts, designated lbrack Resb7Ir-Nrbrack,\\ lbrack Resb7Ir-Prbrack,\\ lbrack Resb5IrResb2-Prbrack, and lbrack Resb5IrResb2-Prbrack, has been prepared from two structural isomers of the cluster compound (Z) sb2lbrack Resb7IrC(CO)sb{23}rbrack\\ (Zsp+=NEtsb4sp+,\\ N(PPhsb3)sb2sp+) by deposition onto high surface area alumina ({≤}1% Re) and activation in Hsb2 at 773 K. The more active catalysts (lbrack Resb7Ir-N) and lbrack Resb5IrResb2-Nrbrack) are modeled by a hemisphere of close-packed (hcp) metal atoms (avg. diameter 1 nm) with Ir at the core. On the other hand the less active catalysts (lbrack Resb7Ir-Prbrack and lbrack Resb5IrResb2-Prbrack) are better described as two-dimensional layer structures. Supported bimetallic particles were obtained by reduction of the neutral molecular carbonyl cluster precursor PtRusb5C(CO)sb{16} with hydrogen. A detailed structural model of the nanoparticles has been deduced on the basis of studies by in-situ extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), microprobe energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, and electron microdiffraction. These experiments show that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a Pt:Ru composition of 1:5, an average diameter of ca. 1.5 nm, and adopt a face-centered cubic (fcc) closest packing structure. The local metal coordination environment, revealed by multiple scattering analysis of the EXAFS data, shows Pt segregation to the particle surfaces under an ambient Hsb2 atmosphere. The incipient lbrack PtRusb5rbrack nanoparticles were found to nucleate from a disordered structure where Pt is found in highly coordinating environments (i.e., the core) at temperatures as low as 473 K. This structure inverts to form the structure with surface segregated Pt. The reaction between a silicon monolayer deposited on Pt(111) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using silane (SiHsb4) is described. Using Auger electron

  18. Colloidal synthesis and structural control of PtSn bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Stöver, Jörg; Zielasek, Volkmar; Altmann, Lena; Thiel, Karsten; Al-Shamery, Katharina; Bäumer, Marcus; Borchert, Holger; Parisi, Jürgen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna

    2011-09-06

    PtSn bimetallic nanoparticles with different particle sizes (1-9 nm), metal compositions (Sn content of 10-80 mol %), and organic capping agents (e.g., amine, thiol, carboxylic acid and polymer) were synthesized by colloidal chemistry methods. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements show that, depending on the particle size, the as-prepared bimetallic nanocrystals have quasi-spherical or faceted shapes. Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analyses indicate that for all samples the signals of both Pt and Sn can be detected from single nanoparticles, confirming that the products are actually bimetallic but not only a physical mixture of pure Pt and Sn metal nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were also conducted on the bimetallic particle systems. When compared with the diffraction patterns of monometallic Pt nanoparticles, the bimetallic samples show distinct shifts of the Bragg reflections to lower degrees, which gives clear proof of the alloying of Pt with Sn. However, a quantitative analysis of the lattice parameter shifts indicates that only part of the Sn atoms are incorporated into the alloy nanocrystals. This is consistent with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements that reveal the segregation of Sn at the surfaces of the nanocrystals. Moreover, short PtSn bimetallic nanowires were synthesized by a seed-mediated growth method with amine-capped bimetallic particles as precursors. The resulting nanowires have an average width of 2.3 nm and lengths ranging from 5 to 20 nm. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  19. Green synthesis and applications of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Meena Kumari, M; Jacob, John; Philip, Daizy

    2015-02-25

    This paper reports for the first time the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles at room temperature using the fruit juice of pomegranate. Simultaneous reduction of gold and silver ions in different molar ratios leads to the formation of alloy as well as core-shell nanostructures. The nanoparticles have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized alloy particles are used as catalysts in the reduction of 2-, 3-, 4-nitrophenols to the corresponding amines and in the degradation of methyl orange. The reduction kinetics for all the reactions follows pseudo-first order. The rate constants follow the order k4-nitrophenolnanoparticles enhances the thermal conductivity of the base fluid (water) showing nanofluid application. The nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity shown by the nanoparticles promise the potential application in biomedical field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Green synthesis and applications of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena Kumari, M.; Jacob, John; Philip, Daizy

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports for the first time the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles at room temperature using the fruit juice of pomegranate. Simultaneous reduction of gold and silver ions in different molar ratios leads to the formation of alloy as well as core-shell nanostructures. The nanoparticles have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized alloy particles are used as catalysts in the reduction of 2-, 3-, 4-nitrophenols to the corresponding amines and in the degradation of methyl orange. The reduction kinetics for all the reactions follows pseudo-first order. The rate constants follow the order k4-nitrophenol < k2-nitrophenol < k3-nitrophenol. Thermal conductivity is measured as a function of volume fraction and it is observed that the incorporation of the alloy nanoparticles enhances the thermal conductivity of the base fluid (water) showing nanofluid application. The nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity shown by the nanoparticles promise the potential application in biomedical field.

  1. Electrospun carbon nanofibers decorated with Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles for selective detection of dopamine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yunpeng; Miao, Yue-E; Ji, Shanshan; Tjiu, Weng Weei; Liu, Tianxi

    2014-08-13

    Electrospun nanoporous carbon nanofibers (pCNFs) decorated with Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by combining template carbonization and seed-growth reduction approach. Porous-structured polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers (pPAN) were first prepared by electrospinning PAN/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) blend solution, followed by subsequent water extraction and heat treatment to obtain pCNFs. Ag-Pt/pCNFs were then obtained by using pCNFs as support for bimetallic nanoparticle loading. Thus, the obtained Ag-Pt/pCNFs were used to modify glassy carbon electrode (GCE) for selective detection of dopamine (DA) in the presence of uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA). This novel sensor exhibits fast amperometric response and high sensitivity toward DA with a wide linear concentration range of 10-500 μM and a low detection limit of 0.11 μM (S/N = 3), wherein the interference of UA and AA can be eliminated effectively.

  2. Levelling the playing field: screening for synergistic effects in coalesced bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tan, Rachel Lee Siew; Song, Xiaohui; Chen, Bo; Chong, Wen Han; Fang, Yin; Zhang, Hua; Wei, Jun; Chen, Hongyu

    2016-02-14

    Depending on the synthetic methods, bimetallic nanoparticles can have either core-shell, phase segregated, alloy, or partially coalesced structures, presenting different degrees of atomic mixing on their surface. Along with the variations of size and morphology, the structural differences make it difficult to compare the catalytic activity of bimetallic nanoparticles. In this article, we developed a facile screening method that can focus on the synergistic effects rather than structural differences. Prefabricated nanoparticles are mixed together to form linear aggregates and coalesced to form bimetallic junctions. Their hollow silica shells allow materials transport but prevent further aggregation. With a level playing field, this screening platform can identify the best bimetallic combination for a catalytic reaction, before optimizing the synthesis. This approach is more advantageous than the conventional approaches where structural difference may have dominant effects on the catalytic performance.

  3. Synthesis of hollow Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles in polyelectrolyte multilayers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Zhang, Guangyu; Zhang, Bodong; Su, Zhaohui

    2013-06-04

    Ag nanoparticles of ~20 nm size and rather uniform size distribution were synthesized in polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) via an ion-exchange/reduction process in two stages (seeding and growth), which were used as sacrificial templates to fabricate Ag-Au bimetallic hollow nanoparticles via galvanic replacement reaction. The reaction process was monitored by UV-vis spectroscopy. The morphology and structure of the nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, which confirmed the formation of hollow Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles. UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy and TEM results indicated that both size and optical properties of the Ag nanoparticles in the PEM can be controlled by manipulating ion content in the PEM and the number of the ion-exchange/reduction cycle, whereas that of Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were dependent on size of the Ag templates and the replacement reaction kinetics. The hollow Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles exhibited a significant red shift in the surface plasmon resonance to the near-infrared region. The strategy enables facile preparation of hollow bimetallic nanoparticles in situ in polymer matrixes.

  4. Sulfentrazone dechlorination by iron-nickel bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Mayra A; Lopes, Renata P; Cruz, Jean C; Silva, Antônio A; Lima, Claudio F

    2016-04-01

    The sulfentrazone dechlorination using bimetallic nanoparticles of Fe/Ni was studied. Different variables that could influence the sulfentrazone conversion were investigated, such as nitrogen atmosphere, pH and dosage of the nanoparticles and initial concentration of sulfentrazone. The best results were obtained using controlled pH (pH 4.0) and 1.0 g L(-1) of nanomaterials, resulting in 100 % conversion in only 30 min. Kinetic studies were also conducted, evaluating the influence of different nanoparticle dosages (1.0 to 4.0 g L(-1)), system temperatures (20 to 35 °C) and nickel levels in the composition of the nanomaterials (0.025 to 0.10 gNi/gFe). The mechanism of sulfentrazone conversion has changed due a direct reduction on the catalytic activity sites and indirect reduction by atomic hydrogen. Both mechanisms have followed pseudo-first order models. The conversion rate improved when the dosage of the nanomaterials, system temperature and nickel content in the composition of the nanocomposites were increased. Finally, the conversion products were elucidated by mass spectrometry and toxicity assays were performed using Daphnia Similis. The results showed that the dechlorination product is less toxic than sulfentrazone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Titania-supported silver-based bimetallic nanoparticles as photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Barakat, M A; Al-Hutailah, R I; Hashim, M H; Qayyum, E; Kuhn, J N

    2013-06-01

    Photocatalytic process has shown recently a great potential as an environmental friendly and clean remediation technology for organic pollutants in wastewater. This work described the synthesis of silver-based bimetallic nanoparticles using colloid chemistry and the subsequent immobilization onto titania to form composite photocatalytic materials (titania-supported Ag-Pt nanoparticles). The photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and nitrogen physisorption. The catalytic activity of the photocatalysts was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of phenol and 2-chlorophenol (2-CP) in synthetic wastewater solutions. The photocatalytic processes were conducted in a batch photoreactor containing appropriate solutions of phenol and 2-CP with UV irradiation of 450 W. UV-visible spectrophotometer was used for analyzing the concentration of phenol and 2-CP in solutions. Parameters affecting the photocatalytic process such as the solution pH, phenol and 2-CP concentrations, and catalyst concentration were investigated. The results obtained revealed that TiO(2)-supported Ag/Pt nanoparticles showed a higher activity for UV-photocatalytic degradation of both phenol and 2-CP pollutants in the solution (as compared to the plain rutile TiO(2)). The photodegradation processes were optimized by the 0.5-g/L catalyst with a pollutant concentration of 50 mg/L for all the samples. Complete degradation for both phenol and 2-CP was achieved after 120 min.

  6. Levelling the playing field: screening for synergistic effects in coalesced bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Rachel Lee Siew; Song, Xiaohui; Chen, Bo; Chong, Wen Han; Fang, Yin; Zhang, Hua; Wei, Jun; Chen, Hongyu

    2016-02-01

    Depending on the synthetic methods, bimetallic nanoparticles can have either core-shell, phase segregated, alloy, or partially coalesced structures, presenting different degrees of atomic mixing on their surface. Along with the variations of size and morphology, the structural differences make it difficult to compare the catalytic activity of bimetallic nanoparticles. In this article, we developed a facile screening method that can focus on the synergistic effects rather than structural differences. Prefabricated nanoparticles are mixed together to form linear aggregates and coalesced to form bimetallic junctions. Their hollow silica shells allow materials transport but prevent further aggregation. With a level playing field, this screening platform can identify the best bimetallic combination for a catalytic reaction, before optimizing the synthesis. This approach is more advantageous than the conventional approaches where structural difference may have dominant effects on the catalytic performance.Depending on the synthetic methods, bimetallic nanoparticles can have either core-shell, phase segregated, alloy, or partially coalesced structures, presenting different degrees of atomic mixing on their surface. Along with the variations of size and morphology, the structural differences make it difficult to compare the catalytic activity of bimetallic nanoparticles. In this article, we developed a facile screening method that can focus on the synergistic effects rather than structural differences. Prefabricated nanoparticles are mixed together to form linear aggregates and coalesced to form bimetallic junctions. Their hollow silica shells allow materials transport but prevent further aggregation. With a level playing field, this screening platform can identify the best bimetallic combination for a catalytic reaction, before optimizing the synthesis. This approach is more advantageous than the conventional approaches where structural difference may have dominant

  7. Microbially supported synthesis of catalytically active bimetallic Pd-Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hosseinkhani, Baharak; Søbjerg, Lina Sveidal; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Emtiazi, Giti; Skrydstrup, Troels; Meyer, Rikke Louise

    2012-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles are considered the next generation of nanocatalysts with increased stability and catalytic activity. Bio-supported synthesis of monometallic nanoparticles has been proposed as an environmentally friendly alternative to the conventional chemical and physical protocols. In this study we synthesize bimetallic bio-supported Pd-Au nanoparticles for the first time using microorganisms as support material. The synthesis involved two steps: (1) Formation of monometallic bio-supported Pd(0) and Au(0) nanoparticles on the surface of Cupriavidus necator cells, and (2) formation of bimetallic bio-supported nanoparticles by reduction of either Au(III) or Pd(II) on to the nanoparticles prepared in step one. Bio-supported monometallic Pd(0) or Au(0) nanoparticles were formed on the surface of C. necator by reduction of Pd(II) or Au(III) with formate. Addition of Au(III) or Pd(II) to the bio-supported particles resulted in increased particle size. UV-Vis spectrophotometry and HR-TEM analyses indicated that the previously monometallic nanoparticles had become fully or partially covered by Au(0) or Pd(0), respectively. Furthermore, Energy Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) and Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) analyses confirmed that the nanoparticles indeed were bimetallic. The bimetallic nanoparticles did not have a core-shell structure, but were superior to monometallic particles at reducing p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. Hence, formation of microbially supported nanoparticles may be a cheap and environmentally friendly approach for production of bimetallic nanocatalysts. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Supported Pd-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles that have high activity for the electrochemical oxidation of methanol.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhen; Zhou, Wu; Gao, Yongjun; Ma, Ding; Kiely, Christopher J; Bao, Xinhe

    2012-04-16

    Monodisperse bimetallic Pd-Cu nanoparticles with controllable size and composition were synthesized by a one-step multiphase ethylene glycol (EG) method. Adjusting the stoichiometric ratio of the Pd and Cu precursors afforded nanoparticles with different compositions, such as Pd(85)-Cu(15), Pd(56)-Cu(44), and Pd(39)-Cu(61). The nanoparticles were separated from the solution mixture by extraction with non-polar solvents, such as n-hexane. Monodisperse bimetallic Pd-Cu nanoparticles with narrow size-distribution were obtained without the need for a size-selection process. Capping ligands that were bound to the surface of the particles were removed through heat treatment when the as-prepared nanoparticles were loaded onto a Vulcan XC-72 carbon support. Supported bimetallic Pd-Cu nanoparticles showed enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation compared with supported Pd nanoparticles that were fabricated according to the same EG method. For a bimetallic Pd-Cu catalyst that contained 15 % Cu, the activity was even comparable to the state-of-the-art commercially available Pt/C catalysts. A STEM-HAADF study indicated that the formation of random solid-solution alloy structures in the bimetallic Pd(85)-Cu(15)/C catalysts played a key role in improving the electrochemical activity. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Magnetic properties of bimetallic Au/Co nanoparticles prepared by thermal laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosunov, A. V.; Spivak, L. V.

    2016-07-01

    The irradiation of metallic films by a nanosecond pulsed laser leads to a self-assembly of nanoparticle arrays. This method has been used to prepare bimetallic Au/Co nanoparticles on a SiO2 substrate. The microstructure and morphology of the bimetallic nanoparticles have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a hemispherical shape with a single-crystal structure and an average size of ~50 nm. The magnetic properties of these nanoparticles have been examined using a vibrating-sample magnetometer in the transverse and longitudinal directions. It has been found that the direction of the magnetization of the bimetallic nanoparticles lies in the plane of the substrate, and the coercive forces in the transverse and longitudinal directions differ by 25%. The use of the vibrating-sample magnetometer method makes it possible to investigate the differences in the magnetic saturations and the coercive forces of an array of bimetallic nanoparticles on a large surface area. The performed investigations have demonstrated that the anisotropic nanomagnetic materials with the desired magnetic orientation can be easily and quickly prepared by means of thermal laser treatment.

  10. Tuning the Composition of AuPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Application**

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuyun; Ye, Chunjie; Liu, Wenwen; Chen, Rong; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-01-01

    We show that bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) of AuPt without any surface modification are potent antibiotic reagents, while pure Au NPs or pure Pt NPs display no antibiotic activities. The most potent antibacterial AuPt NPs happen to be the most effective catalysts for chemical transformations. The mechanism of antibiotic action includes the dissipation of membrane potential and the elevation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. These bimetallic NPs are unique in that they do not produce reactive oxygen species as most antibiotics do. Being non-toxic to human cells, these bimetallic noble NPs might open an entry to a new class of antibiotics. PMID:24828967

  11. Electrocatalytic properties of monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles-incorporated polypyrrole films for electro-oxidation of methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj, V.; Alagar, M.; Hamerton, I.

    Oxidative electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole at indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) is accomplished from a neat monomer solution with a supporting electrolyte (0.3 M n-tetrabutyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate) by multiple-scan cyclic voltammetry. Polypyrrole (Ppy) films containing nanometer-sized platinum and Pt/Pd bimetallic particles are electro-synthesized on ITO glass plates by voltammetric cycling between -0.1 and +1 V (versus Ag/AgCl/3 M NaCl). The electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol on the nanoparticle-modified polypyrrole films is studied by means of electrochemical techniques. The modified electrode exhibits significant eletrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation. The enhanced electrocatalytic activities may be due to the uniform dispersion of nanoparticles in the polypyrrole film and a synergistic effect of the highly-dispersed metal particles so that the polypyrrole film reduces electrode poisoning by adsorbed CO species. The monometallic (Pt) and bimetallic (Pt/Pd) nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed in polypyrrole matrixes, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopic and atomic force microscopic analysis. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis is used to characterize the composition of metal present in the nanoparticle-modified electrodes.

  12. Silver-gold bimetallic nanoparticles and their applications as optical materials.

    PubMed

    Boote, Brett W; Byun, Hongsik; Kim, Jun-Hyun

    2014-02-01

    Recently, nanoscale metallic particles have been studied extensively due to their tunable and strong optical properties that are well beyond those of organic chromophores. As monometallic nanoparticles have shown strong but narrow absorption bands within the ultraviolet and visible wavelengths, the preparation of bimetallic core-shell structures can give rise to strong, wide, and tunable absorption bands across the visible to near infrared areas. The silver-gold bimetallic nanoparticles with core-shell structures can offer unique physical and optical properties inaccessible to monometallic systems. These nanoparticles have been utilized in many areas of research including chemical catalysis, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, and photothermal therapy. This review article is a comprehensive overview of bimetallic nanoparticle systems consisting of gold and silver; it is based on the recent advances in wet-chemical synthetic methodologies, the characterization of size and shape-dependent optical properties, and various optically driven applications including catalysis, signal-enhancing devices, and biomedical purposes.

  13. Structure analysis of bimetallic Co-Au nanoparticles formed by sequential ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hua-jian; Wang, Yu-hua; Zhang, Xiao-jian; Song, Shu-peng; chen, Hong; Zhang, Ke; Xiong, Zu-zhao; Ji, Ling-ling; Dai, Hou-mei; Wang, Deng-jing; Lu, Jian-duo; Wang, Ru-wu; Zheng, Li-rong

    2016-08-01

    Co-Au alloy Metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are formed by sequential ion implantation of Co and Au into silica glass at room temperature. The ion ranges of Au ions implantation process have been displayed to show the ion distribution. We have used the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to investigate the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) has been used to study the local structural information of bimetallic nanoparticles. With the increase of Au ion implantation, the local environments of Co ions are changed enormously. Hence, three oscillations, respectively, Co-O, Co-Co and Co-Au coordination are determined.

  14. Characterization of Bimetallic Fe-Ru Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Liquid-Phase Plasma Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Heon; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Park, Hyunwoong; Park, Young-Kwon; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2016-07-01

    The bimetallic Fe-Ru oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in the liquid-phase plasma (LPP) method which employed iron chloride and ruthenium chloride as precursors. The active species (OH·, Hα, Hβ, and OI) and the iron and ruthenium ions were observed in the plasma field created by the LPP process. The spherical-shaped bimetallic Fe-Ru oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by the LPP reaction, and the size of the particles was growing along with the progression of the LPP reaction. The synthesized bimetallic Fe-Ru oxide nanoparticles were comprised of Fe2O3, Fe3O4, RuO, and RuO2. Ruthenium had a higher reduction potential than iron and resulted in higher ruthenium composition in the synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles. The control of the molar ratio of the precursors in the reactant solution was found to be employed as a means to control the composition of the elements in bimetallic nanoparticles.

  15. Phytogenic silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles as novel antitubercular agents.

    PubMed

    Singh, Richa; Nawale, Laxman; Arkile, Manisha; Wadhwani, Sweety; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha; Chopade, Snehal; Sarkar, Dhiman; Chopade, Balu Ananda

    2016-01-01

    Multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global threat to human health. It requires immediate action to seek new antitubercular compounds and devise alternate strategies. Nanomaterials, in the present scenario, have opened new avenues in medicine, diagnosis, and therapeutics. In view of this, the current study aims to determine the efficacy of phytogenic metal nanoparticles to inhibit mycobacteria. Silver (AgNPs), gold (AuNPs), and gold-silver bimetallic (Au-AgNPs) nanoparticles synthesized from medicinal plants, such as Barleria prionitis, Plumbago zeylanica, and Syzygium cumini, were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays were designed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and half maximal inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles. Microscopic analyses were carried out to demonstrate intracellular uptake of nanoparticles in macrophages. Besides this, biocompatibility, specificity, and selectivity of nanoparticles were also established with respect to human cell lines. Au-AgNPs exhibited highest antitubercular activity, with MIC of <2.56 μg/mL, followed by AgNPs. AuNPs did not show such activity at concentrations of up to 100 μg/mL. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays revealed the inhibition of both active and dormant stage mycobacteria on exposure to Au-AgNPs. These nanoparticles were capable of entering macrophage cells and exhibited up to 45% cytotoxicity at 30 μg/mL (ten times MIC concentration) after 48 hours. Among these, Au-AgNPs synthesized from S. cumini were found to be more specific toward mycobacteria, with their selectivity index in the range of 94-108. This is the first study to report the antimycobacterial activity of AuNPs, AgNPs, and Au-AgNPs synthesized from medicinal plants. Among these, Au-AgNPs from S. cumini showed profound efficiency, specificity, and selectivity to kill mycobacteria. These should be

  16. Phytogenic silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles as novel antitubercular agents

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Richa; Nawale, Laxman; Arkile, Manisha; Wadhwani, Sweety; Shedbalkar, Utkarsha; Chopade, Snehal; Sarkar, Dhiman; Chopade, Balu Ananda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global threat to human health. It requires immediate action to seek new antitubercular compounds and devise alternate strategies. Nanomaterials, in the present scenario, have opened new avenues in medicine, diagnosis, and therapeutics. In view of this, the current study aims to determine the efficacy of phytogenic metal nanoparticles to inhibit mycobacteria. Methods Silver (AgNPs), gold (AuNPs), and gold–silver bimetallic (Au–AgNPs) nanoparticles synthesized from medicinal plants, such as Barleria prionitis, Plumbago zeylanica, and Syzygium cumini, were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. bovis BCG. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays were designed to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and half maximal inhibitory concentration of nanoparticles. Microscopic analyses were carried out to demonstrate intracellular uptake of nanoparticles in macrophages. Besides this, biocompatibility, specificity, and selectivity of nanoparticles were also established with respect to human cell lines. Results Au–AgNPs exhibited highest antitubercular activity, with MIC of <2.56 μg/mL, followed by AgNPs. AuNPs did not show such activity at concentrations of up to 100 μg/mL. In vitro and ex vivo macrophage infection model assays revealed the inhibition of both active and dormant stage mycobacteria on exposure to Au–AgNPs. These nanoparticles were capable of entering macrophage cells and exhibited up to 45% cytotoxicity at 30 μg/mL (ten times MIC concentration) after 48 hours. Among these, Au–AgNPs synthesized from S. cumini were found to be more specific toward mycobacteria, with their selectivity index in the range of 94–108. Conclusion This is the first study to report the antimycobacterial activity of AuNPs, AgNPs, and Au–AgNPs synthesized from medicinal plants. Among these, Au–AgNPs from S. cumini showed profound efficiency, specificity, and

  17. Strategies to initiate and control the nucleation behavior of bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Gopi; de Graaf, Sytze; Ten Brink, Gert H; Persson, Per O Å; Kooi, Bart J; Palasantzas, George

    2017-06-22

    In this work we report strategies to nucleate bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) made by gas phase synthesis of elements showing difficulty in homogeneous nucleation. It is shown that the nucleation assisted problem of bimetallic NP synthesis can be solved via the following pathways: (i) selecting an element which can itself nucleate and act as a nucleation center for the synthesis of bimetallic NPs; (ii) introducing H2 or CH4 as an impurity/trace gas to initiate nucleation during the synthesis of bimetallic NPs. The latter can solve the problem if none of the elements in a bimetallic NP can initiate nucleation. We illustrate the abovementioned strategies for the case of Mg based bimetallic NPs, which are interesting as hydrogen storage materials and exhibit both nucleation and oxidation issues even under ultra-high vacuum conditions. In particular, it is shown that adding H2 in small proportions favors the formation of a solid solution/alloy structure even in the case of immiscible Mg and Ti, where normally phase separation occurs during synthesis. In addition, we illustrate the possibility of improving the nucleation rate, and controlling the structure and size distribution of bimetallic NPs using H2/CH4 as a reactive/nucleating gas. This is shown to be associated with the dimer bond energies of the various formed species and the vapor pressures of the metals, which are key factors for NP nucleation.

  18. Electrochemistry at single bimetallic nanoparticles - using nano impacts for sizing and compositional analysis of individual AgAu alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Saw, En Ning; Grasmik, Viktoria; Rurainsky, Christian; Epple, Matthias; Tschulik, Kristina

    2016-12-12

    The increasing interest in producing bimetallic nanoparticles and utilizing them in modern technologies sets the demand for fast and affordable characterization of these materials. To date Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy is usually used to determine the size and composition of alloy nanoparticles, which is time-consuming and expensive. Here electrochemical single nanoparticle analysis is presented as an alternative approach to infer the particle size and composition of alloy nanoparticles, directly in a dispersion of these particles. As a proof of concept, 14 nm sized Ag0.73Au0.27 alloy nanoparticles are analyzed using a combination of chronoamperometric single nanoparticle analysis and cyclic voltammetry ensemble studies. It is demonstrated that the size, the alloying and the composition can all be inferred using this approach. Thus, the electrochemical characterization of single bimetallic alloy nanoparticles is suggested here as a powerful and convenient complement or alternative to TEM characterization of alloy nanoparticles.

  19. Synthesis of supported bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size and composition distributions for active site elucidation

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, Sikander H.; Sener, Canan; Alba Rubio, Ana C.; Gostanian, Thomas M.; O'neill, Brandon J; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Dumesic, James A

    2015-08-01

    Elucidation of active sites in supported bimetallic catalysts is complicated by the high level of dispersity in the nanoparticle size and composition that is inherent in conventional methods of catalyst preparation. We present a synthesis strategy that leads to highly dispersed, bimetallic nanoparticles with uniform particle size and composition by means of controlled surface reactions. We demonstrate the synthesis of three systems, RhMo, PtMo, and RhRe, consisting of a highly reducible metal with an oxophilic promoter. These catalysts are characterized by FTIR, CO chemisorption, STEM/EDS, TPR, and XAS analysis. The catalytic properties of these bimetallic nanoparticles were probed for the selective CO hydrogenolysis of (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran to produce 1,6 hexanediol. Based on the characterization results and reactivity trends, the active sites in the hydrogenolysis reaction are identified to be small ensembles of the more noble metal (Rh, Pt) adjacent to highly reduced moieties of the more oxophilic metal (Mo, Re).

  20. Core-size-dependent catalytic properties of bimetallic Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Krishna Kanta; Kundu, Simanta; Patra, Amitava

    2014-12-24

    Bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles have recently emerged as a new class of functional materials because of their potential applications in catalysis, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate and photonics etc. Here, we have synthesized Au/Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles with varying the core diameter. The red-shifting of the both plasmonic peaks of Ag and Au confirms the core-shell structure of the nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, line scan EDS measurement and UV-vis study confirm the formation of core-shell nanoparticles. We have examined the catalytic activity of these core-shell nanostructures in the reaction between 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) and NaBH4 to form 4-aminophenol (4-AP) and the efficiency of the catalytic reaction is found to be increased with increasing the core size of Au/Ag core-shell nanocrystals. The catalytic efficiency varies from 41.8 to 96.5% with varying core size from 10 to 100 nm of Au/Ag core-shell nanoparticles, and the Au100/Ag bimetallic core-shell nanoparticle is found to be 12-fold more active than that of the pure Au nanoparticles with 100 nm diameter. Thus, the catalytic properties of the metal nanoparticles are significantly enhanced because of the Au/Ag core-shell structure, and the rate is dependent on the size of the core of the nanoparticles.

  1. Plasmonic emission enhancement of colloidal quantum dots in the presence of bimetallic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sadeghi, S. M.; Hatef, A.; Meunier, M.; Nejat, A.; Campbell, Q.

    2014-04-07

    We studied plasmonic features of bimetallic nanostructures consisting of gold nanoisland cores semi-coated with a chromium layer and explored how they influence emission of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. We showed that, compared with chromium-covered glass substrates without the gold cores, the bimetallic nanostructures could significantly enhance the emission of the quantum dots. We studied the impact of the excitation intensity and thickness of the chromium layer on this process and utilized numerical means to identify the mechanisms behind it. Our results suggest that when the chromium layer is thin, the enhancement process is the result of the bimetallic plasmonic features of the nanostructures. As the chromium layer becomes thick, the impact of the gold cores is screened and the enhancement mostly happens mostly via the field enhancement of chromium nanoparticles in the absence of significant energy transfer from the quantum dots to these nanoparticles.

  2. DNA-Mediated Morphological Control of Pd-Au Bimetallic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Satyavolu, Nitya Sai Reddy; Tan, Li Huey; Lu, Yi

    2016-12-21

    Recent reports have shown that different DNA sequences can mediate the control of shapes and surface properties of nanoparticles. However, all previous studies have involved only monometallic particles, most of which were gold nanoparticles. Controlling the shape of bimetallic nanoparticles is more challenging, and there is little research into the use of DNA-based ligands for their morphological control. We report the DNA-templated synthesis of Pd-Au bimetallic nanoparticles starting from palladium nanocube seeds. The presence of different homo-oligomer DNA sequences containing 10 deoxy-ribonucleotides of thymine, adenine, cytosine, or guanine results in the growth of four distinct morphologies. Through detailed kinetic studies by absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we have determined the role of DNA in controlling Pd-Au nanoparticle growth morphologies. One major function of DNA is affecting various properties of the incoming metal atoms, including their diffusion and deposition on the Pd nanocube seed. Interestingly, nanoparticle growth in the presence of A10 follows an aggregative growth mechanism that is unique when compared to the other base oligomers. These findings demonstrate that DNA can allow for programmable control of bimetallic nanoparticle morphologies, resulting in more complex hybrid materials with different plasmonic properties. The capability to finely tune multimetallic nanoparticle morphology stems from the versatile structure that is unique to DNA in comparison to conventionally used capping agents in colloidal nanomaterial synthesis.

  3. The formation mechanism of bimetallic PtRu alloy nanoparticles in solvothermal synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mi, Jian-Li; Nørby, Peter; Bremholm, Martin; Becker, Jacob; Iversen, Bo B

    2015-10-21

    An understanding of the nucleation and growth mechanism of bimetallic nanoparticles in solvothermal synthesis is important for further development of nanoparticles with tailored nanostructures and properties. Here the formation of PtRu alloy nanoparticles in a solvothermal synthesis using metal acetylacetonate salts as precursors and ethanol as both the solvent and reducing agent has been studied by in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXRD). Unlike the classical mechanism for the synthesis of monodisperse sols, the nucleation and growth processes of bimetallic PtRu nanoparticles occur simultaneously under solvothermal conditions. In the literature co-reduction of Pt and Ru is often assumed to be required to form PtRu bimetallic nanocrystals, but it is shown that monometallic Pt nanocrystals nucleate first and rapidly grow to an average size of 5 nm. Subsequently, the PtRu bimetallic alloy is formed in the second nucleation stage through a surface nucleation mechanism related to the reduction of Ru. The calculated average crystallite size of the resulting PtRu nanocrystals is smaller than that of the primary Pt nanocrystals due to the large disorder in the PtRu alloyed structure.

  4. A Systematic Investigation of p-Nitrophenol Reduction by Bimetallic Dendrimer Encapsulated Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate that the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol by NaBH4 is catalyzed by both monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs). We also demonstrate a straightforward and precise method for the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles using poly(amido)amine dendrimers. The resulting dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) are monodisperse, and the size distribution does not vary with different elemental combinations. Random alloys of Pt/Cu, Pd/Cu, Pd/Au, Pt/Au, and Au/Cu DENs were synthesized and evaluated as catalysts for p-nitrophenol reduction. These combinations are chosen in order to selectively tune the binding energy of the p-nitrophenol adsorbate to the nanoparticle surface. Following the Brønsted–Evans–Polanyi (BEP) relation, we show that the binding energy can reasonably predict the reaction rates of p-nitrophenol reduction. We demonstrate that the measured reaction rate constants of the bimetallic DENs is not always a simple average of the properties of the constituent metals. In particular, DENs containing metals with similar lattice constants produce a binding energy close to the average of the two constituents, whereas DENs containing metals with a lattice mismatch show a bimodal distribution of binding energies. Overall, in this work we present a uniform method for synthesizing pure and bimetallic DENs and demonstrate that their catalytic properties are dependent on the adsorbate’s binding energy. PMID:23616909

  5. A Systematic Investigation of p-Nitrophenol Reduction by Bimetallic Dendrimer Encapsulated Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pozun, Zachary D; Rodenbusch, Stacia E; Keller, Emily; Tran, Kelly; Tang, Wenjie; Stevenson, Keith J; Henkelman, Graeme

    2013-04-18

    We demonstrate that the reduction of p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol by NaBH4 is catalyzed by both monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs). We also demonstrate a straightforward and precise method for the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles using poly(amido)amine dendrimers. The resulting dendrimer encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) are monodisperse, and the size distribution does not vary with different elemental combinations. Random alloys of Pt/Cu, Pd/Cu, Pd/Au, Pt/Au, and Au/Cu DENs were synthesized and evaluated as catalysts for p-nitrophenol reduction. These combinations are chosen in order to selectively tune the binding energy of the p-nitrophenol adsorbate to the nanoparticle surface. Following the Brønsted-Evans-Polanyi (BEP) relation, we show that the binding energy can reasonably predict the reaction rates of p-nitrophenol reduction. We demonstrate that the measured reaction rate constants of the bimetallic DENs is not always a simple average of the properties of the constituent metals. In particular, DENs containing metals with similar lattice constants produce a binding energy close to the average of the two constituents, whereas DENs containing metals with a lattice mismatch show a bimodal distribution of binding energies. Overall, in this work we present a uniform method for synthesizing pure and bimetallic DENs and demonstrate that their catalytic properties are dependent on the adsorbate's binding energy.

  6. Surface composition tuning of Au-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles for enhanced carbon monoxide and methanol electro-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Suntivich, Jin; Xu, Zhichuan; Carlton, Christopher E; Kim, Junhyung; Han, Binghong; Lee, Seung Woo; Bonnet, Nicéphore; Marzari, Nicola; Allard, Lawrence F; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Hamad-Schifferli, Kimberly; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2013-05-29

    The ability to direct bimetallic nanoparticles to express desirable surface composition is a crucial step toward effective heterogeneous catalysis, sensing, and bionanotechnology applications. Here we report surface composition tuning of bimetallic Au-Pt electrocatalysts for carbon monoxide and methanol oxidation reactions. We establish a direct correlation between the surface composition of Au-Pt nanoparticles and their catalytic activities. We find that the intrinsic activities of Au-Pt nanoparticles with the same bulk composition of Au0.5Pt0.5 can be enhanced by orders of magnitude by simply controlling the surface composition. We attribute this enhancement to the weakened CO binding on Pt in discrete Pt or Pt-rich clusters surrounded by surface Au atoms. Our finding demonstrates the importance of surface composition control at the nanoscale in harnessing the true electrocatalytic potential of bimetallic nanoparticles and opens up strategies for the development of highly active bimetallic nanoparticles for electrochemical energy conversion.

  7. Comparative toxicity study of Ag, Au, and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles on Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Albee, Brian; Alemayehu, Matti; Diaz, Rocio; Ingham, Leigha; Kamal, Shawn; Rodriguez, Maritza; Bishnoi, Sandra Whaley

    2010-09-01

    A comparative assessment of the 48-h acute toxicity of aqueous nanoparticles synthesized using the same methodology, including Au, Ag, and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles, was conducted to determine their ecological effect in freshwater environments through the use of Daphnia magna, using their mortality as a toxicological endpoint. D. magna are one of the standard organisms used for ecotoxicity studies due to their sensitivity to chemical toxicants. Particle suspensions used in toxicity testing were well-characterized through a combination of absorbance measurements, atomic force or electron microscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry, and dynamic light scattering to determine composition, aggregation state, and particle size. The toxicity of all nanoparticles tested was found to be dose and composition dependent. The concentration of Au nanoparticles that killed 50% of the test organisms (LC(50)) ranged from 65-75 mg/L. In addition, three different sized Ag nanoparticles (diameters = 36, 52, and 66 nm) were studied to analyze the toxicological effects of particle size on D. magna; however, it was found that toxicity was not a function of size and ranged from 3-4 μg/L for all three sets of Ag nanoparticles tested. This was possibly due to the large degree of aggregation when these nanoparticles were suspended in standard synthetic freshwater. Moreover, the LC(50) values for Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were found to be between that of Ag and Au but much closer to that of Ag. The bimetallic particles containing 80% Ag and 20% Au were found to have a significantly lower toxicity to Daphnia (LC(50) of 15 μg/L) compared to Ag nanoparticles, while the toxicity of the nanoparticles containing 20% Ag and 80% Au was greater than expected at 12 μg/L. The comparison results confirm that Ag nanoparticles were much more toxic than Au nanoparticles, and that the introduction of gold into silver nanoparticles may lower their environmental impact by lowering the amount

  8. Noble metal-based bimetallic nanoparticles: the effect of the structure on the optical, catalytic and photocatalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana; Marchelek, Martyna; Diak, Magdalena; Grabowska, Ewelina

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles composed of two different metal elements show novel electronic, optical, catalytic or photocatalytic properties from monometallic nanoparticles. Bimetallic nanoparticles could show not only the combination of the properties related to the presence of two individual metals, but also new properties due to a synergy between two metals. The structure of bimetallic nanoparticles can be oriented in random alloy, alloy with an intermetallic compound, cluster-in-cluster or core-shell structures and is strictly dependent on the relative strengths of metal-metal bond, surface energies of bulk elements, relative atomic sizes, preparation method and conditions, etc. In this review, selected properties, such as structure, optical, catalytic and photocatalytic of noble metals-based bimetallic nanoparticles, are discussed together with preparation routes. The effects of preparation method conditions as well as metal properties on the final structure of bimetallic nanoparticles (from alloy to core-shell structure) are followed. The role of bimetallic nanoparticles in heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis are discussed. Furthermore, structure and optical characteristics of bimetallic nanoparticles are described in relation to the some features of monometallic NPs. Such a complex approach allows to systematize knowledge and to identify the future direction of research.

  9. A bimetallic nanocomposite modified genosensor for recognition and determination of thalassemia gene.

    PubMed

    Hamidi-Asl, Ezat; Raoof, Jahan Bakhsh; Naghizadeh, Nahid; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh; Ojani, Reza; Banihashemi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    The main roles of DNA in the cells are to maintain and properly express genetic information. It is important to have analytical methods capable of fast and sensitive detection of DNA damage. DNA hybridization sensors are well suited for diagnostics and other purposes, including determination of bacteria and viruses. Beta thalassemias (βth) are due to mutations in the β-globin gene. In this study, an electrochemical biosensor which detects the sequences related to the β-globin gene issued from real samples amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is described for the first time. The biosensor relies on the immobilization of 20-mer single stranded oligonucleotide (probe) related to βth sequence on the carbon paste electrode (CPE) modified by 15% silver (Ag) and platinum (Pt) nanoparticles to prepare the bimetallic nanocomposite electrode and hybridization of this oligonucleotide with its complementary sequence (target). The extent of hybridization between the probe and target sequences was shown by using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) with methylene blue (MB) as hybridization indicator. The selectivity of sensor was investigated using PCR samples containing non-complementary oligonucleotides. The detection limit of biosensor was calculated about 470.0pg/μL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reductive degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A over iron-silver bimetallic nanoparticles under ultrasound radiation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Si; Yang, Shaogui; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Cheng

    2010-04-01

    The present study described the degradation behavior of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in Fe-Ag suspension solutions under ultrasonic radiation (US). The Fe-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles with core-shell structure were successfully synthesized by reduction and deposition of Ag on nanoscale Fe surface, and were further characterized by BET, XRD, TEM, SEM, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy. The results revealed that the displacement plating produced a non-uniform overlayer of Ag additive on iron; the as-synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were spherical with diameters of 20-100 nm aggregated in the form of chains. Batch studies demonstrated that the TBBPA (2 mg L(-1)) was completely degraded in 20 min over Fe-Ag nanoparticles, which has higher degradation efficiency than Fe(0) nanoparticles under US. The effects of Fe-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles loading, initial TBBPA concentration, pH of the solution, Ag loading and temperature on the reduction efficiency of TBBPA under US were investigated. The complete reduction of TBBPA in 20 min was determined selectively under the conditions of pH (pH=6.0+/-0.5), Ag loading(1 wt.%) at 30 degrees C over the fabricated Fe-Ag nanoparticles. Additionally, the major intermediates identified by LC-MS technique were tri-BBPA, di-BBPA, mono-BBPA and BPA and the degradation mechanism was also proposed.

  11. Surface Segregation in Bimetallic Nanoparticles: A Critical Issue in Electrocatalyst Engineering.

    PubMed

    Liao, Hanbin; Fisher, Adrian; Xu, Zhichuan J

    2015-07-15

    Bimetallic nanoparticles are a class of important electrocatalyst. They exhibit a synergistic effect that critically depends on the surface composition, which determines the surface properties and the adsorption/desorption behavior of the reactants and intermediates during catalysis. The surface composition can be varied, as nanoparticles are exposed to certain environments through surface segregation. Thermodynamically, this is caused by a difference in surface energy between the two metals. It may lead to the enrichment of one metal on the surface and the other in the core. The external conditions that influence the surface energy may lead to the variation of the thermodynamic steady state of the particle surface and, thus, offer a chance to vary the surface composition. In this review, the most recent and important progress in surface segregation of bimetallic nanoparticles and its impact in electrocatalysis are introduced. Typical segregation inducements and surface characterization techniques are discussed in detail. It is concluded that surface segregation is a critical issue when designing bimetallic catalysts. It is necessary to explore methods to control it and utilize it as a way towards producing robust, bimetallic electrocatalysts. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Synthesis of bimetallic gold/silver nanoparticles via in situ seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachevskiy, M. V.; Kopitsyn, D. S.; Tiunov, I. A.; Kotelev, M. S.; Vinokurov, V. A.; Novikov, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A way of synthesizing bimetallic gold/silver nanoparticles with in situ seeding initiated by the addition of sodium borohydride is proposed. The obtained nanoparticles are studied by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Changes in the optical density spectra of the nanoparticles during their coagulation are investigated. The technique allows the rapid acquisition of nontoxic SERS-active nanoparticles with maximum SERS enhancement factor about 105 in the near infrared range for Raman shifts typical for biological objects such as bacterial cells and spores.

  13. Controlled synthesis and synergistic effects of graphene-supported PdAu bimetallic nanoparticles with tunable catalytic properties.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Hai; Liu, Rui-Hua; Sun, Qi-Jun; Chang, Jian-Bing; Gao, Xu; Liu, Yang; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhen-Hui; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2015-04-14

    Graphene-supported bimetallic nanoparticles are promising nanocatalysts, which can show strong and tunable catalytic activity and selectivity. Herein room-temperature-ionic-liquid-assisted metal sputtering is utilized to synthesize PdAu bimetallic nanoparticles on graphene with bare surface, small size, high surface density and controlled Pd-to-Au ratio. This controllable synthetic approach is green-chemistry compatible and totally free of additives and byproducts. The supported PdAu nanoparticles show excellent catalytic capabilities for both oxidation and reduction reactions, strongly dependent on the Pd-to-Au ratio. A strong correlation among catalytic performance, bimetallic composition and charge redistribution in the PdAu nanoparticles has been demonstrated. The results suggest that sufficient Au d-holes appear to be significant to the catalysis of oxidation reaction, and a metallic Pd surface is critical to the catalysis of reduction reaction. By the present method, the bimetallic combination can be tailored for distinct types of catalytic reactions.

  14. Stellated Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles: An effective platform for catalytic activity tuning

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Yao, Qiaofeng; Cao, Hongbin; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang; Yang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of Pt-based nanomaterials for catalysis can be greatly enhanced by coupling morphology engineering to the strategic presence of a second or even third metal. Here we demonstrate the design and preparation of stellated Ag-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles where significant activity difference between the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) may be realized by relegating Ag to the core or by hollowing out the core. In particular the stellated Pt surface, with an abundance of steps, edges, corner atoms, and {111} facets, is highly effective for the ORR but is ineffective for MOR. MOR activity is only observed in the presence of a Ag core through electronic coupling to the stellated Pt shell. The bimetallic Ag-Pt stellates therefore demonstrate the feasibility of tuning a Pt surface for two very different structure sensitive catalytic reactions. Stellated bimetallics may therefore be an effective platform for highly tunable catalyst designs. PMID:24495979

  15. Seed germination and biochemical profile of Silybum marianum exposed to monometallic and bimetallic alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Salman Khan, Muhammad; Zaka, Mehreen; Haider Abbasi, Bilal; Rahman, Latifur-; Shah, Afzal

    2016-12-01

    In recent years nanotechnology has become increasingly important in almost every field. The new and improved physical, chemical and biological properties of material at nanoscale have far reaching implications in the fields of science and technology. Nanoparticles' effect on various plant species must be investigated to develop a comprehensive toxicity profile for nanoparticles. The current study strives to evaluate the effects of nine types of metal nanoparticles including monometallic and bimetallic alloy nanoparticles [Ag, Au, Cu, AgCu (1:3), AgCu (3:1), AuCu (1:3), AuCu (3:1), AgAu (1:3), AgAu (3:1)] on seed germination, root and shoot growth and biochemical profile of Silybum marianum plant. Seed germination was greatly affected and increased significantly upon treatment with nanoparticles' suspensions and was recorded highest for Ag nanoparticle suspension. Metal nanoparticles also had a significant effect on the biochemical profile of S. marianum. For the first week, the effect on DPPH, total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, total protein content, peroxidase activity and superoxide dismutase activity was enhanced, but declined as the time progressed. Among the nanoparticles being used, the effect of Ag nanoparticle was mostly enhancing. The results obtained are significant in mapping the effects of different monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles on medicinal plant species.

  16. Characterization of Magnetic NiFe Nanoparticles with Controlled Bimetallic Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yan; Chi, Yanxiu; Shan, Shiyao; Yin, Jun; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2014-02-25

    The exploration of the magnetic properties of bimetallic alloy nanoparticles for various technological applications requires the ability to control the morphology, composition, and surface properties. In this report, we describe new findings of an investigation of the morphology and composition of NiFe alloy nanoparticles synthesized under controlled conditions. The controllability over the bimetallic composition has been demonstrated by the observation of an approximate linear relationship between the composition in the nanoparticles and in the synthetic feeding. The morphology of the NiFe nanoparticles is consistent with an fcc-type alloy, with the lattice strain increasing linearly with the iron content in the nanoparticles. The alloy nanoparticles exhibit remarkable resistance to air oxidation in comparison with Ni or Fe particles. The thermal stability and the magnetic properties of the as-synthesized alloy nanoparticles are shown to depend on the composition. The alloy nanoparticles have also be sown to display low saturation magnetization and coercivity values in comparison with the Ni nanoparticles, in line with the superparamagnetic characteristic. These findings have important implications for the design of stable and controllable magnetic nanoparticles for various technological applications.

  17. Effect of Synthesis Techniques on Crystallization and Optical Properties of Ag-Cu Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Ziye; Qin, Fen; Huang, Po-Shun; Nettleship, Ian; Lee, Jung-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Silver (Ag)-copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by the reduction of silver nitrate and copper (II) acetate monohydrate using ethylene glycol in a microwave (MW) heating system with controlled reaction times ranging from 5 min to 30 min. The molar ratio Ag/Cu was varied from 1:1 to 1:3. The effect of reaction conditions on the bimetallic NPs structures and compositions were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The average particle size was approximately 150 nm. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag-Cu bimetallic NPs was investigated by monitoring the SPR band peak behavior via UV/Vis spectrophotometry. The resonance peak positions and peak widths varied due to the different structures of the bimetallic NPs created under the synthesis conditions. In the MW heating method, the reduction of Cu was increased and Cu was inhomogeneously deposited over the Ag cores. As the composition of Cu becoming higher in the Ag-Cu bimetallic NPs, the absorption between 400 nm to 600 nm was greatly enhanced.

  18. Phase diagram and structural evolution of Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles: molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Sang Chul; Kim, Da Hye; Shin, Kihyun; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2012-02-28

    We studied the structural evolution of a 270-atom Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticle (2 nm in size) with varying composition and temperature. The liquid to solid transition region and the solid-state structure were investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. To determine the exact transition temperature region, we applied the mean square displacement and structure deviation methods, as well as the generally used caloric curve of potential energy versus temperature. The results showed that a complete solid-solution phase diagram of the binary Ag-Au system was obtained. Irrespective of the composition, the freezing temperature of a Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticle was lower than that of the bulk state by a margin of several hundred degrees, and three different solid-state structures are proposed in relation to the Au composition. Our phase diagram offers guidance for the application of Ag-Au nanoparticles.

  19. Monodispersed bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles with twinned structures: formation and enhancement for the methanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhen; Zhang, Yining; Chen, Kai; Li, Jing; Li, Wenjing; Tang, Pei; Zhao, Huabo; Zhu, Qingjun; Bao, Xinhe; Ma, Ding

    2014-03-10

    Monodispersed bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles can be fabricated through the emulsion-assisted ethylene glycol (EG) ternary system. Different compositions of bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles, Pd₈₀Ag₂₀, Pd₆₅Ag₃₅ and Pd₄₆Ag₅₄ can be obtained via adjusting the reaction parameters. For the formation process of the bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles, there have two-stage growth processes: firstly, nucleation and growth of the primary nanoclusters; secondly, formation of the secondary nanoparticles with the size-selection and relax process via the coalescence or aggregation of the primary nanoclusters. The as-prepared PdAg can be supported on the carbon black without any post-treatment, which exhibited high electro-oxidation activity towards methanol oxidation under alkaline media. More importantly, carbon-supported Pd₈₀Ag₂₀ nanoparticles reveal distinctly superior activities for the methanol oxidation, even if compared with commercial Pt/C electro-catalyst. It is concluded that the enhanced activity is dependant on the unique twinning structure with heterogeneous phase due to the dominating coalescence growth in EG ternary system.

  20. Monodispersed bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles with twinned structures: Formation and enhancement for the methanol oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zhen; Zhang, Yining; Chen, Kai; Li, Jing; Li, Wenjing; Tang, Pei; Zhao, Huabo; Zhu, Qingjun; Bao, Xinhe; Ma, Ding

    2014-01-01

    Monodispersed bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles can be fabricated through the emulsion-assisted ethylene glycol (EG) ternary system. Different compositions of bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles, Pd80Ag20, Pd65Ag35 and Pd46Ag54 can be obtained via adjusting the reaction parameters. For the formation process of the bimetallic PdAg nanoparticles, there have two-stage growth processes: firstly, nucleation and growth of the primary nanoclusters; secondly, formation of the secondary nanoparticles with the size-selection and relax process via the coalescence or aggregation of the primary nanoclusters. The as-prepared PdAg can be supported on the carbon black without any post-treatment, which exhibited high electro-oxidation activity towards methanol oxidation under alkaline media. More importantly, carbon-supported Pd80Ag20 nanoparticles reveal distinctly superior activities for the methanol oxidation, even if compared with commercial Pt/C electro-catalyst. It is concluded that the enhanced activity is dependant on the unique twinning structure with heterogeneous phase due to the dominating coalescence growth in EG ternary system. PMID:24608736

  1. Graphene-bimetallic nanoparticle composites with enhanced electro-catalytic detection of bisphenol A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogacean, Florina; Biris, Alexandru R.; Socaci, Crina; Coros, Maria; Magerusan, Lidia; Rosu, Marcela-Corina; Lazar, Mihaela D.; Borodi, Gheorghe; Pruneanu, Stela

    2016-12-01

    This study brings for the first time novel knowledge about the synthesis by catalytic chemical vapor deposition with induction heating of graphene-bimetallic nanoparticle composites (Gr-AuCu and Gr-AgCu) and their morphological and structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray powder diffraction. Gold electrodes modified with the obtained materials exhibit an enhanced electro-catalytic effect towards one of the most encountered estrogenic disruptive chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA). The BPA behavior in varying pH solutions was investigated using the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, which allowed the accurate determination of the number of molecules involved in the oxidation process. The modified electrodes promote the oxidation of BPA at significantly lower potentials (0.66 V) compared to bare gold (0.78 V). In addition, the peak current density recorded with such electrodes greatly exceeded that obtained with bare gold (e.g. one order of magnitude larger, for a Au/Gr-AgCu electrode). The two modified electrodes have low detection limits, of 1.31 × 10-6 M and 1.91 × 10-6 M for Au/Gr-AgCu and Au/Gr-AuCu, respectively. The bare gold electrode has a higher detection limit of 5.1 × 10-6 M. The effect of interfering species (e.g. catechol and 3-nitrophenol) was also investigated. Their presence influenced not only the BPA peak potential, but also the peak current. With both modified electrodes, no peak currents were recorded below 3 × 10-5 M BPA.

  2. Graphene-bimetallic nanoparticle composites with enhanced electro-catalytic detection of bisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Pogacean, Florina; Biris, Alexandru R; Socaci, Crina; Coros, Maria; Magerusan, Lidia; Rosu, Marcela-Corina; Lazar, Mihaela D; Borodi, Gheorghe; Pruneanu, Stela

    2016-12-02

    This study brings for the first time novel knowledge about the synthesis by catalytic chemical vapor deposition with induction heating of graphene-bimetallic nanoparticle composites (Gr-AuCu and Gr-AgCu) and their morphological and structural characterization by transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and x-ray powder diffraction. Gold electrodes modified with the obtained materials exhibit an enhanced electro-catalytic effect towards one of the most encountered estrogenic disruptive chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA). The BPA behavior in varying pH solutions was investigated using the electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, which allowed the accurate determination of the number of molecules involved in the oxidation process. The modified electrodes promote the oxidation of BPA at significantly lower potentials (0.66 V) compared to bare gold (0.78 V). In addition, the peak current density recorded with such electrodes greatly exceeded that obtained with bare gold (e.g. one order of magnitude larger, for a Au/Gr-AgCu electrode). The two modified electrodes have low detection limits, of 1.31 × 10(-6) M and 1.91 × 10(-6) M for Au/Gr-AgCu and Au/Gr-AuCu, respectively. The bare gold electrode has a higher detection limit of 5.1 × 10(-6) M. The effect of interfering species (e.g. catechol and 3-nitrophenol) was also investigated. Their presence influenced not only the BPA peak potential, but also the peak current. With both modified electrodes, no peak currents were recorded below 3 × 10(-5) M BPA.

  3. Particle swarm optimization of the stable structure of tetrahexahedral Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tun-Dong; Fan, Tian-E.; Shao, Gui-Fang; Zheng, Ji-Wen; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2014-08-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles, enclosed by high-index facets, have great catalytic activity and selectivity owing to the synergy effects of high-index facets and the electronic structures of alloy. In this paper, a discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm was employed to systematically investigate the structural stability and features of tetrahexahedral Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles with high-index facets. Different Pt/Ag, Pt/Cu, Pt/Pd atom ratios and particle sizes were considered in this work. The simulation results reveal that these alloy nanoparticles exhibit considerably different structural characteristics. Pt-Ag nanoparticles tend to form Pt-Ag core-shell structure. Pt-Cu nanoparticles are preferred to take multi-shell structure with Cu on the outer surface while Pt-Pd nanoparticles present a mixing structure in the interior and Pd-dominated surface. Atomic distribution and bonding characteristics were applied to further characterize the structural features of Pt-based nanoparticles. This study provides an important insight into the structural stability and features of Pt-based nanoparticles with different alloys.

  4. Effects of bimetallic nanoparticles on seed germination frequency and biochemical characterisation of Eruca sativa.

    PubMed

    Zaka, Mehreen; Abbasi, Bilal Haider

    2017-04-01

    In the modern era of science and technology, nanotechnology is becoming popular science field because materials at nanoscale contain improved physical, chemical and biological properties. This study aimed to explore the capacity of bimetallic nanoparticle alloys of silver (Ag), copper (Cu), gold (Au) in different ratios to evaluate the effects on medicinally important plant Eruca sativa. Biochemical parameters of Eruca sativa were studied by applying bimetallic alloy nanoparticles. Seeds of Eruca sativa were germinated on Murashige and Skoog medium with various combinations of nanoparticles suspension employed in concentration of (30 µg/ml). Bimetallic alloys were considered as a stress inducing factor in plants while studying the phytotoxicity. Many secondary metabolites were released because defensive mechanism of plants was active in response to stress. Such secondary metabolites produced in medicinal plants have a great capability in treating the human diseases. In the authors' study, nanoparticles of small size and of high toxicity effect produced more secondary metabolites like total protein content, total flavonoids and total phenolic content.

  5. Kinetic Study on the Formation of Bimetallic Core-Shell Nanoparticles via Microemulsions

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Concha; Vila-Romeu, Nuria

    2014-01-01

    Computer calculations were carried out to determine the reaction rates and the mean structure of bimetallic nanoparticles prepared via a microemulsion route. The rates of reaction of each metal were calculated for a particular microemulsion composition (fixed intermicellar exchange rate) and varying reduction rate ratios between both metal and metal salt concentration inside the micelles. Model predictions show that, even in the case of a very small difference in reduction potential of both metals, the formation of an external shell in a bimetallic nanoparticle is possible if a large reactant concentration is used. The modification of metal arrangement with concentration was analyzed from a mechanistic point of view, and proved to be due to the different impact of confinement on each metal: the reaction rate of the faster metal is only controlled by the intermicellar exchange rate but the slower metal is also affected by a cage-like effect. PMID:28788260

  6. Core–Shell Bimetallic Nanoparticles Robustly Fixed on the Outermost Surface of Magnetic Silica Microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye Hun; Woo, Kyoungja; Ahn, Jae-Pyoung

    2013-01-01

    The major challenges in practically utilising the immense potential benefits of nanomaterials are controlling aggregation, recycling the nanomaterials, and fabricating well-defined nanoparticulate materials using innovative methods. We present a novel innovative synthetic strategy for core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles that are well-defined, ligand-free, and robustly fixed on the outermost surface of recyclable magnetic silica microspheres. The strategy includes seeding, coalescing the seeds to cores, and then growing shells from the cores on aminopropyl-functionalised silica microspheres so that the cores and aminopropyl moieties are robustly embedded in the shell materials. The representative Au–Ag bimetallic nanoparticles fixed on the microsphere showed excellent catalytic performance that remained consistent during repeated catalytic cycles. PMID:23511209

  7. Laser synthesis of ligand-free bimetallic nanoparticles for plasmonic applications.

    PubMed

    Intartaglia, R; Das, G; Bagga, K; Gopalakrishnan, A; Genovese, A; Povia, M; Di Fabrizio, E; Cingolani, R; Diaspro, A; Brandi, F

    2013-03-07

    A picosecond laser ablation approach has been developed for the synthesis of ligand-free AuAg bimetallic NPs where the relative amount of Ag is controlled in situ through a laser shielding effect. Various measurements, such as optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, revealed the generation of homogenous 15 nm average size bimetallic NPs with different compositions and tunable localized surface plasmon resonance. Furthermore, ligand-free metallic nanoparticles with respect to chemically synthesized nanoparticles display outstanding properties, i.e. featureless Raman background spectrum, which is a basic requirement in many plasmonic applications such as Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy. Various molecules were chemisorbed on the nanoparticle and SERS investigations were carried out, by varying the laser wavelength. The SERS enhancement factor for AuAg bimetallic NPs shows an enhancement factor of about 5.7 × 10(5) with respect to the flat AuAg surface.

  8. Cation exchange resin immobilized bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles to facilitate their application in pollutants degradation.

    PubMed

    Ni, Shou-Qing; Yang, Ning

    2014-04-15

    Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) usually suffers from reduction of reactivity by aggregation, difficulty of assembling, environmental release and health concerns. Furthermore, data are lacking on the effect of cheap nickel on debromination of decabromodiphenyl ether (DBDE) by immobilized nZVI in aqueous system. In this study, strong acid polystyrene cation-exchange resins with particle diameter from 0.4 to 0.6 mm were utilized as matrices to immobilize bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles in order to minimize aggregation and environmental leakage risks of nZVI and to enhance their reactivity. Elemental distribution mapping showed that iron particles distributed uniformly on the surface of the resin and nickel particles were dispersed homogeneously into Fe phase. The reaction rate of resin-bound nZVI is about 55% higher than that of dispersed nZVI. The immobilized bimetallic nanoparticles with 9.69% Ni had the highest debromination percent (96%) and reaction rate (0.493 1/h). The existence of Ni significantly improved the debromination rate, due to the surface coverage of catalytic metal on the reductive metal and the formation of a galvanic cell. The environmental dominant congeners, such as BDE 154, 153, 100, 99 and 47, were produced during the process. Outstanding reactive performance, along with magnetic separation assured that resin-bound bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles are promising material that can be utilized to remediate a wide variety of pollutants contaminated sites including polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Tailoring the carbon nanostructures grown on the surface of Ni-Al bimetallic nanoparticles in the gas phase.

    PubMed

    Kim, Whi Dong; Ahn, Ji Young; Lee, Dong Geun; Lee, Hyung Woo; Hong, Suck Won; Park, Hyun Seol; Kim, Soo H

    2011-10-15

    A gas-phase, one-step method for producing various aerosol carbon nanostructures is described. The carbon nanostructures can be selectively tailored with either straight, coiled, or sea urchin-like structures by controlling the size of Ni-Al bimetallic nanoparticles and the reaction temperature. The carbon nanostructures were grown using both conventional spray pyrolysis and thermal chemical vapor deposition. Bimetallic nanoparticles with catalytic Ni (guest) and non-catalytic Al (host) matrix were reacted with acetylene and hydrogen gases. At the processing temperature range of 650-800 °C, high concentration straight carbon nanotubes (S-CNTs) with a small amount of coiled carbon nanotubes (C-CNTs) can be grown on the surface of seeded bimetallic nanoparticle size <100 nm, resulting from consumption of the melting Al matrix sites; sea urchin-like carbon nanotubes (SU-CNTs) of small diameter (∼10±4 nm) can be grown on the bimetallic nanoparticle size >100 nm, resulting from the significant size reduction of the available Ni sites due to thermal expansion of molten Al matrix sites without consumption of Al matrix. However, at the processing temperature range of 500-650 °C, C-CNTs can be grown on the bimetallic nanoparticle size <100 nm due to the presence of Al matrix in the bimetallic nanoparticles; SU-CNTs of large diameter (∼60±13 nm) can also be grown on the bimetallic nanoparticle size >100 nm due to the isolation of Ni sites in the Al matrix. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and exceptional thermal stability of Mg-based bimetallic nanoparticles during hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Gopi; Negrea, Raluca F; Ghica, Corneliu; ten Brink, Gert H; Kooi, Bart J; Palasantzas, George

    2014-10-21

    Here we report the extraordinary thermal stability of Mg rich bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), which is important for hydrogen storage technology. The enhanced NP stability is accomplished because of two critical improvements: (i) no void development within NPs (nanoscale Kirkendall effect) during their formation and (ii) suppressed Mg evaporation and NP hollowing during Mg hydrogenation at elevated temperature. The mechanism leading to the improved thermal stability of Mg-based bimetallic NPs is shown to be due to MgH2 hydride formation before evaporation can take place. These findings were tested for various compositions of Mg with Ni, Cu, and Ti, which are interesting combinations of materials for hydrogen storage systems. To achieve this we first demonstrate the synthesis mechanism of Mg-Ni and Mg-Cu NPs, which is well controlled at the single particle level, in order to accomplish multi-shell, alloy and intermetallic structures of interest for hydrogen storage tests. Aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy was carried out to unravel the detailed atomic structure and composition of the bimetallic NPs after production, processing, and hydrogenation. Finally, a simple and effective methodology is proposed for tuning the composition of the Mg-based bimetallic NPs based on the temperature-dependent nucleation behavior of NPs in the gas-phase.

  11. Catalytically Active Bimetallic Nanoparticles Supported on Porous Carbon Capsules Derived From Metal-Organic Framework Composites.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Bradley, Siobhan J; Chan, Andrew; Waterhouse, Geoffrey I N; Nann, Thomas; Kruger, Paul E; Telfer, Shane G

    2016-09-14

    We report a new methodology for producing monometallic or bimetallic nanoparticles confined within hollow nitrogen-doped porous carbon capsules. The capsules are derived from metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals that are coated with a shell of a secondary material comprising either a metal-tannic acid coordination polymer or a resorcinol-formaldehyde polymer. Platinum nanoparticles are optionally sandwiched between the MOF core and the shell. Pyrolysis of the MOF-shell composites produces hollow capsules of porous nitrogen-doped carbon that bear either monometallic (Pt, Co, and Ni) or alloyed (PtCo and PtNi) metal nanoparticles. The Co and Ni components of the bimetallic nanoparticles are derived from the shell surrounding the MOF crystals. The hollow capsules prevent sintering and detachment of the nanoparticles, and their porous walls allow for efficient mass transport. Alloyed PtCo nanoparticles embedded in the capsule walls are highly active, selective, and recyclable catalysts for the hydrogenation of nitroarenes to anilines.

  12. Optical properties and sensing applications of stellated and bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Alison F.

    This dissertation focuses on developing guidelines to aid in the design of new bimetallic platforms for sensing applications. Stellated metal nanostructures are a class of plasmonic colloids in which large electric field enhancements can occur at sharp features, making them excellent candidates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and surface enhanced infrared spectroscopy (SE-IRS) platforms. Shape-dependent rules for convex polyhedra such as cubes or octahedra exist, which describe far-field scattering and near-field enhancements. However, such rules are lacking for their concave (stellated) counterparts. This dissertation presents the optical response of stellated Au nanocrystals with Oh, D4h, D3h, C2v, and T d symmetry, which were modeled to systematically investigate the role of symmetry, branching, and particle orientation with respect to excitation source using finite difference time domain (FDTD) calculations. Expanding on stellated nanostructures, bimetallic compositions introduce an interplay between overall architecture and composition to provide tunable optical properties and the potential of new functionality. However, decoupling the complex compositional and structural contributions to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) remains a challenge, especially when the monometallic counterparts are not synthetically accessible for comparison and the theoretical tools for capturing gradient compositions are lacking. This dissertation explores a stellated Au-Pd nanocrystal model system with Oh symmetry to decouple structural and complex compositional effects on LSPR. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  13. The synthesis of Pt/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles using a successive solution plasma process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Min; Lee, Sang Yul; Lee, Min Hyung; Kim, Jung Wan

    2014-12-01

    A successive solution plasma process was developed for the synthesis of Pt/Ag bimetallic nanoparticles. Ag nanoparticles were made first by applying a high voltage of bipolar pulsed DC to anode and cathode electrodes composed of Ag rods. The solution containing Ag nanoparticles was discharged successively using Pt electrodes. The joule heating and electrolysis between electrodes generated vapors, and solution plasma was sustained due to progressive ionization and excitation in the vapor phase. The maximum current and voltage breakdown was observed at approximately 8.9 A and 900 V with an interval of 25 μs, which indicated that an intense solution plasma was sustained continuously. The Pt-on-Ag heterogeneous nanostructures formed, and finally, the Ag nanoparticles were completely covered by Pt nanoparticles after a discharge duration of 1,200 s.

  14. Nanosystems: the use of nanoalloys, metallic, bimetallic, and magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    McNamara, Karrina; Tofail, Syed A M

    2015-11-14

    There is a growing interest in the use of nanosystems such as nanoalloys, bimetallic nanoparticles, metallic nanoparticles and magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical applications. These applications can be as diverse as hyperthermic treatments; targeted drug delivery; bio-imaging; cell labelling and gene delivery. The use of nanoalloys in these applications has received only limited attention due to the fact that there were many unanswered questions and concerns regarding nanoparticles and nanoalloys such as their stability over time, tendency to agglomerate, chemical activity, ease of oxidation, biocompatibility and cytotoxicity. In this chapter we survey current applications and advances in magnetic nanoparticles used in these biomedical applications so as to understand the materials properties that can pave the way for the use of nanoalloys as a potential alternative or improve solutions that are offered by current materials.

  15. Bimetallic PtxCoy nanoparticles with curved faces for highly efficient hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yan; Zhao, Yonghui; Wu, Panpan; Yang, Bo; Yang, Nating; Zhu, Yan

    2016-05-01

    The control of the curved structure of bimetallic nanocrystals is a challenge, due to the rate differential for atom deposition and surface diffusion of alien atomic species on specific crystallographic planes of seeds. Herein, we report how to tune the degree of concavity of bimetallic PtxCoy concave nanoparticles using carboxylic acids as surfactants with an oleylamine system, leading to the specific crystallographic planes being exposed. The terminal carboxylic acids with a bridge ring or a benzene ring serving as structure regulators could direct the formation of curved faces with exposed high-index facets, and long-chain saturated fatty acids favored the production of curved faces with exposed low-index facets, while long-chain olefin acids alone benefited the formation of a flat surface with exposed low-index planes. Furthermore, these PtxCoy particles with curved faces displayed superior catalytic behaviour to cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation when compared with PtxCoy with flat faces. PtxCoy nanoparticles with curved faces exhibited over 6-fold increase in catalytic activity compared to PtxNiy nanoparticles with curved faces, and near 40-fold activity increase was observed in comparison with PtxFey nanoparticles with curved faces.The control of the curved structure of bimetallic nanocrystals is a challenge, due to the rate differential for atom deposition and surface diffusion of alien atomic species on specific crystallographic planes of seeds. Herein, we report how to tune the degree of concavity of bimetallic PtxCoy concave nanoparticles using carboxylic acids as surfactants with an oleylamine system, leading to the specific crystallographic planes being exposed. The terminal carboxylic acids with a bridge ring or a benzene ring serving as structure regulators could direct the formation of curved faces with exposed high-index facets, and long-chain saturated fatty acids favored the production of curved faces with exposed low-index facets, while long

  16. Temperature and composition dependent structural evolution of AgPd bimetallic nanoparticle: phase diagram of (AgPd)151 nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Da Hye; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2011-03-01

    We study the structural evolution of a 151 atom Ag-Pd bimetallic nanoparticle with composition and temperature. The solid-to-liquid transition region was investigated using molecular dynamics simulations with an improved collision method, and the solid-state structure of the nanoparticle was explored with a combination of molecular dynamics and density functional theory. Results show that an fcc-to-icosahedron transformation occurs at high temperature in all composition range and that a composition of nanoparticles concerns the atomic distribution of the (AgPd)151 nanoparticle. As a result, we constructed a phase diagram of the (AgPd)151 nanoparticle. Our phase diagram offers guidance on the application of Ag-Pd nanoparticles.

  17. Enhanced dechlorination of trichloroethylene using electrospun polymer nanofibrous mats immobilized with iron/palladium bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui; Huang, Yunpeng; Shen, Mingwu; Guo, Rui; Cao, Xueyan; Shi, Xiangyang

    2012-04-15

    Fe/Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have held great promise for treating trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated groundwater, without the accumulation of chlorinated intermediates. However, the conventionally used colloidal Fe/Pd NPs usually aggregate rapidly, resulting in a reduced reactivity. To reduce the particle aggregation, we employed electrospun polyacrylic acid (PAA)/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) polymer nanofibers as a nanoreactor to immobilize Fe/Pd bimetallic NPs. In the study, the water-stable PAA/PVA nanofibrous mats were complexed with Fe (III) ions via the binding with the free carboxyl groups of PAA for subsequent formation and immobilization of zero-valent iron (ZVI) NPs. Fe/Pd bimetallic NPs were then formed by the partial reduction of Pd(II) ions with ZVI NPs. The formed electrospun nanofibrous mats containing Fe/Pd bimetallic NPs with a diameter of 2.8 nm were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. The Fe/Pd NP-containing electrospun PAA/PVA nanofibrous mats exhibited higher reactivity than that of the ZVI NP-containing mats or colloidal Fe/Pd NPs in the dechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE), which was used as a model contaminant. With the high surface area to volume ratio, high porosity, and great reusability of the fibrous mats immobilized with the bimetallic NPs, the composite nanofibrous mats should be amenable for applications in remediation of various environmental contaminants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles Fe, Ni, & Fe/Ni based on carbon nanocomposites on electrocatalytic properties of anodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranabhat, K.; Pylinina, A. I.; Skripkin, K. S.; Sofronova, E. A.; Revina, A. A.; Kasatkin, V. E.; Patrikeev, L. N.; Lapshinsky, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The optical properties of metallic Fe nanoparticles (NPs), Ni NPs and bimetallic Fe/Ni NPs produced under radiolysis in anaerobic condition based on a chemical reduction in the presence of oxygen and quercetin in reversed micellar solutions, and electrokinetic properties of nanoparticles carbon-based nanocomposites were studied. The possibility of the preparation of coating using different nanocomposites with anomalous electrocatalytic is addressed.

  19. Air stable magnetic bimetallic Fe-Ag nanoparticles for advanced antimicrobial treatment and phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Marková, Zdenka; Šišková, Karolína Machalová; Filip, Jan; Čuda, Jan; Kolář, Milan; Šafářová, Klára; Medřík, Ivo; Zbořil, Radek

    2013-05-21

    We report on new magnetic bimetallic Fe-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) which exhibit significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against a variety of microorganisms including disease causing pathogens, as well as prolonged action and high efficiency of phosphorus removal. The preparation of these multifunctional hybrids, based on direct reduction of silver ions by commercially available zerovalent iron nanoparticles (nZVI) is fast, simple, feasible in a large scale with a controllable silver NP content and size. The microscopic observations (transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy/electron diffraction spectroscopy) and phase analyses (X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy) reveal the formation of Fe₃O₄/γ-FeOOH double shell on a "redox" active nZVI surface. This shell is probably responsible for high stability of magnetic bimetallic Fe-Ag NPs during storage in air. Silver NPs, ranging between 10 and 30 nm depending on the initial concentration of AgNO₃, are firmly bound to Fe NPs, which prevents their release even during a long-term sonication. Taking into account the possibility of easy magnetic separation of the novel bimetallic Fe-Ag NPs, they represent a highly promising material for advanced antimicrobial and reductive water treatment technologies.

  20. Plasmonic effects of au/ag bimetallic multispiked nanoparticles for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Vinogradova, Ekaterina; Ayon, Arturo A

    2014-09-10

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the use of plasmons, that is, free electron oscillations in conductors, to boost the performance of both organic and inorganic thin film solar cells. This has been driven by the possibility of employing thin active layers in solar cells in order to reduce materials costs, and is enabled by significant advances in fabrication technology. The ability of surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures to guide and confine light in the nanometer scale has opened up new design possibilities for solar cell devices. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of highly monodisperse, reasonably stable, multipode Au/Ag bimetallic nanostructures using an inorganic additive as a ligand for photovoltaic applications. A promising surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect has been observed for the synthesized bimetallic Au/Ag multispiked nanoparticles, which compare favorably well with their Au and Ag spherical nanoparticle counterparts. The synthesized plasmonic nanostructures were incorporated on the rear surface of an ultrathin planar c-silicon/organic polymer hybrid solar cell, and the overall effect on photovoltaic performance was investigated. A promising enhancement in solar cell performance parameters, including both the open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current density (JSC), has been observed by employing the aforementioned bimetallic multispiked nanoparticles on the rear surface of solar cell devices. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) value as high as 7.70% has been measured in a hybrid device with Au/Ag multispiked nanoparticles on the rear surface of an ultrathin, crystalline silicon (c-Si) membrane (∼ 12 μm). This value compares well to the measured PCE value of 6.72% for a similar device without nanoparticles. The experimental observations support the hope for a sizable PCE increase, due to plasmon effects, in thin-film, c-Si solar cells in the near future.

  1. Developing electrochemical sensor for point-of-care diagnostics of oxidative stress marker using imprinted bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ekta; Patra, Santanu; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrochemical-sensing platform based on imprinted bimetallic Fe/Pd (BI-Fe/Pd) nanoparticle has been fabricated for point-of-care diagnostics of oxidative stress marker (3-nitrotyrosine) in biological fluids. Herein, BI-Fe/Pd nanoparticles are used as a platform on which 3-nitrotyrosine imprinted cavities are created using acrylamide as monomer and N-N'-methylene bisacrylamide as cross-linker. The performance of the obtained imprinted sensor is investigated by cyclic, differential pulse, and square wave voltammetry in stripping mode. The imprinted sensor exhibits high recognition ability and affinity for 3-nitrotyrosine in comparison with the non-imprinted one. In addition, the proposed sensor is capable of measuring 3-nitrotyrosine in aqueous as well as in human blood serum, plasma, and urine samples within the range of 4.90-867.57 µg L(-1) and 9.90-867.57 µg L(-1) with detection limit of 1.20 µg L(-1) and 3.25 µg L(-1) by square wave and differential pulse stripping voltammetry, respectively. Imprinted BI-Fe/Pd nanoparticle modified sensor shows high affinity and no interference from blood or urine components. Modified sensor was stored for 45 days at room temperature without any detrimental effects to their binding properties. The high affinity of proposed sensor and the lack of requirement for cold chain logistics make them an attractive alternative to the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique.

  2. Tunability of the Adsorbate Binding on Bimetallic Alloy Nanoparticles for the Optimization of Catalytic Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Long; Duan, Zhiyao; Li, Hao; Kim, Joohoon; Henkelman, Graeme; Crooks, Richard M

    2017-04-07

    In this paper, we show that PtAu and PdAu random alloy dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles with an average size of ∼1.6 nm have different catalytic activity trends for allyl alcohol hydrogenation. Specifically, PtAu nanoparticles exhibit a linear increase in activity with increasing Pt content, whereas PdAu dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles show a maximum activity at a Pd content of ∼60%. Both experimental and theoretical results suggest that this contrasting behavior is caused by differences in the strength of H binding on the PtAu and PdAu alloy surfaces. The results have significant implications for predicting the catalytic performance of bimetallic nanoparticles on the basis of density functional theory calculations.

  3. Bimetallic PtxCoy nanoparticles with curved faces for highly efficient hydrogenation of cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yan; Zhao, Yonghui; Wu, Panpan; Yang, Bo; Yang, Nating; Zhu, Yan

    2016-06-07

    The control of the curved structure of bimetallic nanocrystals is a challenge, due to the rate differential for atom deposition and surface diffusion of alien atomic species on specific crystallographic planes of seeds. Herein, we report how to tune the degree of concavity of bimetallic PtxCoy concave nanoparticles using carboxylic acids as surfactants with an oleylamine system, leading to the specific crystallographic planes being exposed. The terminal carboxylic acids with a bridge ring or a benzene ring serving as structure regulators could direct the formation of curved faces with exposed high-index facets, and long-chain saturated fatty acids favored the production of curved faces with exposed low-index facets, while long-chain olefin acids alone benefited the formation of a flat surface with exposed low-index planes. Furthermore, these PtxCoy particles with curved faces displayed superior catalytic behaviour to cinnamaldehyde hydrogenation when compared with PtxCoy with flat faces. PtxCoy nanoparticles with curved faces exhibited over 6-fold increase in catalytic activity compared to PtxNiy nanoparticles with curved faces, and near 40-fold activity increase was observed in comparison with PtxFey nanoparticles with curved faces.

  4. Insight into growth of Au-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles: an in situ XAS study.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Chandrani; Bhattacharyya, D; Bhattacharyya, K; Tripathi, A K; Bapat, R D; Jha, S N; Sahoo, N K

    2017-07-01

    Au-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles have been synthesized through a one-pot synthesis route from their respective chloride precursors using block copolymer as a stabilizer. Growth of the nanoparticles has been studied by simultaneous in situ measurement of X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and UV-Vis spectroscopy at the energy-dispersive EXAFS beamline (BL-08) at Indus-2 SRS at RRCAT, Indore, India. In situ XAS spectra, comprising both X-ray near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) parts, have been measured simultaneously at the Au and Pt L3-edges. While the XANES spectra of the precursors provide real-time information on the reduction process, the EXAFS spectra reveal the structure of the clusters formed in the intermediate stages of growth. This insight into the formation process throws light on how the difference in the reduction potential of the two precursors could be used to obtain the core-shell-type configuration of a bimetallic alloy in a one-pot synthesis method. The core-shell-type structure of the nanoparticles has also been confirmed by ex situ energy-dispersive spectroscopy line-scan and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements with in situ ion etching on fully formed nanoparticles.

  5. Microbial synthesis of bimetallic PdPt nanoparticles for catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Tuo, Ya; Liu, Guangfei; Dong, Bin; Yu, Huali; Zhou, Jiti; Wang, Jing; Jin, Ruofei

    2017-02-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles are generally believed to have improved catalytic activity and stability due to geometric and electronic changes. In this work, biogenic-Pd (bio-Pd), biogenic-Pt (bio-Pt), and biogenic-PdPt (bio-PdPt) nanoparticles were synthesized by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 in the absence or presence of quinone. Compared with direct microbial reduction process, the addition of anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS) could promote the reduction efficiency of Pd(II) or/and Pt(IV) and result in decrease of particles size. All kinds of nanoparticles could catalyze 4-nitrophenol reduction by NaBH4 and their catalytic activities took the following order: bio-PdPt (AQDS) ∼ bio-PdPt > bio-Pd (AQDS) > bio-Pd > bio-Pt (AQDS) ∼ bio-Pt. Moreover, the bio-PdPt (AQDS) nanoparticles could be reused for 6 cycles. We believe that this simple and efficient biosynthesis approach for synthesizing bimetallic bio-PdPt nanocatalysts is important for preparing active and stable catalysts.

  6. Synthesis and composition evolution of bimetallic Pd Pt alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Guoqiang; Shi, Honglan; Xing, Yangchuan

    2007-09-01

    This paper reports a study on the synthesis of Pd-Pt alloy nanoparticles and composition evolution of the alloys. The synthesis involves Pd and Pt acetylacetonate as the metal precursors and trioctylphosphine (TOP) as the solvent. Thermal decomposition of the Pd-TOP complex resulted in Pd nanoparticles, while substitution of Pt in the Pt-TOP complex by Pd allowed formation of the Pd-Pt alloys. It was observed that the Pd-Pt nanoparticles formed at the very beginning in the synthesis process are Pd rich with various nanoparticle sizes ranging from 1.5 to 25 nm in diameter. These nanoparticles averaged out through a digestive ripening process and reached a final size of 3.5 nm in about 10 min. The alloy compositions evolved throughout the synthesis process and only reached the preset Pd to Pt ratio of the precursors in 120 min. It was found that Pt acetylacetonate alone in TOP cannot produce Pt nanoparticles, which was attributed to the formation of a Pt-TOP complex and a strong coordination of Pt to the phosphine. This observation led us to propose an atomic exchange process between the Pt-TOP complex and the Pd atoms at the nanoparticle surface. As a result, the alloy formation process is limited by a substitution and diffusion rate of the Pt atoms at the surface of the alloy nanoparticles.

  7. Reverse Microemulsion-mediated Synthesis of Monometallic and Bimetallic Early Transition Metal Carbide and Nitride Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Sean T; Román-Leshkov, Yuriy

    2015-11-27

    A reverse microemulsion is used to encapsulate monometallic or bimetallic early transition metal oxide nanoparticles in microporous silica shells. The silica-encapsulated metal oxide nanoparticles are then carburized in a methane/hydrogen atmosphere at temperatures over 800 °C to form silica-encapsulated early transition metal carbide nanoparticles. During the carburization process, the silica shells prevent the sintering of adjacent carbide nanoparticles while also preventing the deposition of excess surface carbon. Alternatively, the silica-encapsulated metal oxide nanoparticles can be nitridized in an ammonia atmosphere at temperatures over 800 °C to form silica-encapsulated early transition metal nitride nanoparticles. By adjusting the reverse microemulsion parameters, the thickness of the silica shells, and the carburization/nitridation conditions, the transition metal carbide or nitride nanoparticles can be tuned to various sizes, compositions, and crystal phases. After carburization or nitridation, the silica shells are then removed using either a room-temperature aqueous ammonium bifluoride solution or a 0.1 to 0.5 M NaOH solution at 40-60 °C. While the silica shells are dissolving, a high surface area support, such as carbon black, can be added to these solutions to obtain supported early transition metal carbide or nitride nanoparticles. If no high surface area support is added, then the nanoparticles can be stored as a nanodispersion or centrifuged to obtain a nanopowder.

  8. Controlled synthesis and synergistic effects of graphene-supported PdAu bimetallic nanoparticles with tunable catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang-Hai; Liu, Rui-Hua; Sun, Qi-Jun; Chang, Jian-Bing; Gao, Xu; Liu, Yang; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhen-Hui; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Graphene-supported bimetallic nanoparticles are promising nanocatalysts, which can show strong and tunable catalytic activity and selectivity. Herein room-temperature-ionic-liquid-assisted metal sputtering is utilized to synthesize PdAu bimetallic nanoparticles on graphene with bare surface, small size, high surface density and controlled Pd-to-Au ratio. This controllable synthetic approach is green-chemistry compatible and totally free of additives and byproducts. The supported PdAu nanoparticles show excellent catalytic capabilities for both oxidation and reduction reactions, strongly dependent on the Pd-to-Au ratio. A strong correlation among catalytic performance, bimetallic composition and charge redistribution in the PdAu nanoparticles has been demonstrated. The results suggest that sufficient Au d-holes appear to be significant to the catalysis of oxidation reaction, and a metallic Pd surface is critical to the catalysis of reduction reaction. By the present method, the bimetallic combination can be tailored for distinct types of catalytic reactions.Graphene-supported bimetallic nanoparticles are promising nanocatalysts, which can show strong and tunable catalytic activity and selectivity. Herein room-temperature-ionic-liquid-assisted metal sputtering is utilized to synthesize PdAu bimetallic nanoparticles on graphene with bare surface, small size, high surface density and controlled Pd-to-Au ratio. This controllable synthetic approach is green-chemistry compatible and totally free of additives and byproducts. The supported PdAu nanoparticles show excellent catalytic capabilities for both oxidation and reduction reactions, strongly dependent on the Pd-to-Au ratio. A strong correlation among catalytic performance, bimetallic composition and charge redistribution in the PdAu nanoparticles has been demonstrated. The results suggest that sufficient Au d-holes appear to be significant to the catalysis of oxidation reaction, and a metallic Pd surface is critical

  9. Tuning the composition of AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles for antibacterial application.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuyun; Ye, Chunjie; Liu, Wenwen; Chen, Rong; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-07-28

    We show that bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) of AuPt without any surface modification are potent antibiotic reagents, while pure Au NPs or pure Pt NPs display no antibiotic activities. The most potent antibacterial AuPt NPs happen to be the most effective catalysts for chemical transformations. The mechanism of antibiotic action includes the dissipation of membrane potential and the elevation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. These bimetallic NPs are unique in that they do not produce reactive oxygen species as most antibiotics do. Being non-toxic to human cells, these bimetallic noble NPs might open an entry to a new class of antibiotics. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

  10. Kinetically controlled autocatalytic chemical process for bulk production of bimetallic core-shell structured nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Taufany, Fadlilatul; Pan, Chun-Jern; Rick, John; Chou, Hung-Lung; Tsai, Mon-Che; Hwang, Bing-Joe; Liu, Din-Goa; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Tang, Mau-Tsu; Lee, Yao-Chang; Chen, Ching-Iue

    2011-12-27

    Although bimetallic core@shell structured nanoparticles (NPs) are achieving prominence due to their multifunctionalities and exceptional catalytic, magnetic, thermal, and optical properties, the rationale underlying their design remains unclear. Here we report a kinetically controlled autocatalytic chemical process, adaptable for use as a general protocol for the fabrication of bimetallic core@shell structured NPs, in which a sacrificial Cu ultrathin layer is autocatalytically deposited on a dimensionally stable noble-metal core under kinetically controlled conditions, which is then displaced to form an active ultrathin metal-layered shell by redox-transmetalation. Unlike thermodynamically controlled under-potential deposition processes, this general strategy allows for the scaling-up of production of high-quality core-shell structured NPs, without the need for any additional reducing agents and/or electrochemical treatments, some examples being Pd@Pt, Pt@Pd, Ir@Pt, and Ir@Pd. Having immediate and obvious commercial potential, Pd@Pt NPs have been systematically characterized by in situ X-ray absorption, electrochemical-FTIR, transmission electron microscopy, and electrochemical techniques, both during synthesis and subsequently during testing in one particularly important catalytic reaction, namely, the oxygen reduction reaction, which is pivotal in fuel cell operation. It was found that the bimetallic Pd@Pt NPs exhibited a significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity, with respect to this reaction, in comparison with their monometallic counterparts.

  11. Synthesis and exceptional thermal stability of Mg-based bimetallic nanoparticles during hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Gopi; Negrea, Raluca F.; Ghica, Corneliu; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, George

    2014-09-01

    Here we report the extraordinary thermal stability of Mg rich bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), which is important for hydrogen storage technology. The enhanced NP stability is accomplished because of two critical improvements: (i) no void development within NPs (nanoscale Kirkendall effect) during their formation and (ii) suppressed Mg evaporation and NP hollowing during Mg hydrogenation at elevated temperature. The mechanism leading to the improved thermal stability of Mg-based bimetallic NPs is shown to be due to MgH2 hydride formation before evaporation can take place. These findings were tested for various compositions of Mg with Ni, Cu, and Ti, which are interesting combinations of materials for hydrogen storage systems. To achieve this we first demonstrate the synthesis mechanism of Mg-Ni and Mg-Cu NPs, which is well controlled at the single particle level, in order to accomplish multi-shell, alloy and intermetallic structures of interest for hydrogen storage tests. Aberration corrected transmission electron microscopy was carried out to unravel the detailed atomic structure and composition of the bimetallic NPs after production, processing, and hydrogenation. Finally, a simple and effective methodology is proposed for tuning the composition of the Mg-based bimetallic NPs based on the temperature-dependent nucleation behavior of NPs in the gas-phase.Here we report the extraordinary thermal stability of Mg rich bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), which is important for hydrogen storage technology. The enhanced NP stability is accomplished because of two critical improvements: (i) no void development within NPs (nanoscale Kirkendall effect) during their formation and (ii) suppressed Mg evaporation and NP hollowing during Mg hydrogenation at elevated temperature. The mechanism leading to the improved thermal stability of Mg-based bimetallic NPs is shown to be due to MgH2 hydride formation before evaporation can take place. These findings were tested for various

  12. Surface plasmon polariton assisted optical switching in noble bimetallic nanoparticle system

    SciTech Connect

    Dhara, Sandip E-mail: chenkh@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw; Lu, C.-Y.; Tu, W.-S.; Magudapathy, P.; Huang, Y.-F.; Chen, K.-H. E-mail: chenkh@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw

    2015-01-12

    Photoresponse of bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticle embedded soda glass (Au-Ag@SG) substrate is reported for surface plasmon assisted optical switching using 808 nm excitation. Au-Ag@SG system is made by an ion beam technique where Ag{sup +} is introduced first in the soda glass matrix by ion exchange technique. Subsequently, 400 keV Au{sup +} is implanted in the sample for different fluences, which is followed by an ion beam annealing process using 1 MeV Si{sup +} at a fixed fluence of 2 × 10{sup 16} ions·cm{sup −2}. Characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks around 400 and 550 nm provided evidence for the presence of Au and Ag nanoparticles. An optical switching in the Au-Ag@SG system with 808 nm, which is away from the characteristic SPR peaks of Ag and Au nanoparticles, suggests the possible role of two photon absorption (TPA) owing to the presence of interacting electric dipole in these systems. The role of surface plasmon polariton is emphasized for the propagation of electronic carrier belonging to the conduction electron of Au-Ag system in understanding the observed photoresponse. Unique excitation dependent photoresponse measurements confirm the possible role of TPA process. A competitive interband and intraband transitions in the bimetallic system of Au and Ag, which may be primarily responsible for the observation, are validated qualitatively using finite difference time domain calculations where inter-particle separation of Au and Ag plays an important role. Thus, a smart way of optical switching can be envisaged in noble bimetallic nanocluster system where long wavelength with higher skin depth can be used for communication purpose.

  13. Surface plasmon polariton assisted optical switching in noble bimetallic nanoparticle system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhara, Sandip; Lu, C.-Y.; Magudapathy, P.; Huang, Y.-F.; Tu, W.-S.; Chen, K.-H.

    2015-01-01

    Photoresponse of bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticle embedded soda glass (Au-Ag@SG) substrate is reported for surface plasmon assisted optical switching using 808 nm excitation. Au-Ag@SG system is made by an ion beam technique where Ag+ is introduced first in the soda glass matrix by ion exchange technique. Subsequently, 400 keV Au+ is implanted in the sample for different fluences, which is followed by an ion beam annealing process using 1 MeV Si+ at a fixed fluence of 2 × 1016 ions.cm-2. Characteristic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peaks around 400 and 550 nm provided evidence for the presence of Au and Ag nanoparticles. An optical switching in the Au-Ag@SG system with 808 nm, which is away from the characteristic SPR peaks of Ag and Au nanoparticles, suggests the possible role of two photon absorption (TPA) owing to the presence of interacting electric dipole in these systems. The role of surface plasmon polariton is emphasized for the propagation of electronic carrier belonging to the conduction electron of Au-Ag system in understanding the observed photoresponse. Unique excitation dependent photoresponse measurements confirm the possible role of TPA process. A competitive interband and intraband transitions in the bimetallic system of Au and Ag, which may be primarily responsible for the observation, are validated qualitatively using finite difference time domain calculations where inter-particle separation of Au and Ag plays an important role. Thus, a smart way of optical switching can be envisaged in noble bimetallic nanocluster system where long wavelength with higher skin depth can be used for communication purpose.

  14. Preparation and characterization of platinum-ruthenium bimetallic nanoparticles using reverse microemulsions for fuel cell catalyst.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taeyoon; Kobayashi, Koichi; Nagai, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    Platinum-ruthenium bimetallic nanoparticles are prepared by chemical reduction using sodium borohydride in reverse microemulsions of water/isooctane/Igepal CA-630/2-propanol for fuel cell catalysts. The prepared nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The average size and morphology of nanoparticles are dependent on the water volume fraction in reverse microemulsion system in the range of ca. 2-4 nm. The morphology of particles is related with the percolation behavior of water droplets in reverse microemulsions. By the pretreatment of water phase using a hydrochloric acid, the particles of a homogeneous solid solution state can be obtained. The CO stripping cyclovoltammetry and the electrochemical measurements compared with commercial catalyst show that the prepared particles have a high electrochemically active surface area and a stable and high catalytic activity for reformate gas oxidation.

  15. Noble-metal-free bimetallic alloy nanoparticle-catalytic gasification of phenol in supercritical water

    DOE PAGES

    Jia, Lijuan; Yu, Jiangdong; Chen, Yuan; ...

    2017-02-27

    The exploration of non-noble-metal catalysts for high efficiency gasification of biomass in supercritical water (SCW) is of great significance for the sustainable development. A series of Ni–M (M = Co or Zn) bimetallic nanoparticles supported on graphitized carbon black were synthesized and examined as catalysts for gasification of phenol in SCW. We found that a nearly complete gasification of phenol can be achieved even at a low temperature of 450 °C with the bimetallic nanoparticles catalysts. Kinetic study indicated the activation energy for phenol gasification were 20.4 ± 2.6 and 43.6 ± 2.6 kJ/mol for Ni20Zn15 and Ni20Co15 catalyst, respectively.more » Furthermore, XRD, XPS and TEM were performed to characterize the catalysts and the results showed the formation of NiCo and NiZn alloy phase. Catalyst recycling experiments were also conducted to evaluate the stability of the catalysts. The characterization of used catalysts suggest that the severe agglomeration of nanoparticles leads to the decrease in catalytic activity.« less

  16. Enhanced antibacterial activity of bimetallic gold-silver core-shell nanoparticles at low silver concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Madhuchanda; Sharma, Shilpa; Chattopadhyay, Arun; Ghosh, Siddhartha Sankar

    2011-12-01

    Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was possibly due to the more active silver atoms in the shell surrounding gold core due to high surface free energy of the surface Ag atoms owing to shell thinness in the bimetallic NP structure.Herein we report the development of bimetallic Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) where gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) served as the seeds for continuous deposition of silver atoms on its surface. The core-shell structure and morphology were examined by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The core-shell NPs showed antibacterial activity against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Enterococcus faecalis and Pediococcus acidilactici) bacteria at low concentration of silver present in the shell, with more efficacy against Gram negative bacteria. TEM and flow cytometric studies showed that the core-shell NPs attached to the bacterial surface and caused membrane damage leading to cell death. The enhanced antibacterial properties of Au@Ag core-shell NPs was

  17. Shape, Thermodynamics, Kinetics and Growth Mechanisms of Metal and Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Lingxuan

    Metal and bimetallic nanoparticles are of interest and are widely used in various applications because of their unique optical, electronic, and catalytic properties, which differ from those of their bulk counterparts. Better understanding of the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of nanoparticles and their underlying growth mechanisms can serve as a basis for improving reproducibility and rational design of nanoparticle syntheses. The primary objective of this dissertation was to study the structural-related thermodynamic and kinetic properties of nanoparticles via the combination of experimental and theoretical techniques and to further unravel their underlying growth mechanisms. In this dissertation, the structure and elemental distribution of colloidally-synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were characterized via scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). In colloidally-synthesized bimetallic Pt/Pd nanoparticles, smooth composition gradients from the particle centers to their surfaces and corner enrichment of Pt were observed experimentally. A growth model was developed to demonstrate that the smooth composition gradients within the particles were the result of the difference in the deposition rate constants of Pd and Pt, causing Pd to deposit faster than Pt. The deposition rate constant ratio between Pd and Pt increased with total Pd and Pt precursor concentration. The corner Pt enrichment was a result of local thermodynamic control at the corners. At the nanoparticle corner, a Lyapunov stable solution could be achieved when the chemical potential at the corner equals the external chemical potential in the solution. This stable solution leads to size-independent corner rounding in colloidal synthesized nanoparticles. Strain-induced segregation in bimetallic multiply twinned particles, namely decahedral (Dh) and icosahedral (Ic) particles, was analyzed by an analytic first-order expansion within a

  18. Growth of Three-Shell Onionlike Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baletto, F.; Mottet, C.; Ferrando, R.

    2003-04-01

    We show by molecular dynamics simulations on three systems (B/A=Pd/Ag, Cu/Ag, and Ni/Ag) that three-shell metallic nanoparticles made by a core of a metal A, an intermediate shell of metal B and an external shell of metal A (A-B-A nanoparticles) can be grown by deposition of B atoms onto an A core. The growth of the intermediate B shell is triggered by the fact that the most favorable positions for isolated B impurities inside A clusters are located just one layer below the cluster surface.

  19. Growth of three-shell onionlike bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Baletto, F; Mottet, C; Ferrando, R

    2003-04-04

    We show by molecular dynamics simulations on three systems (B/A=Pd/Ag, Cu/Ag, and Ni/Ag) that three-shell metallic nanoparticles made by a core of a metal A, an intermediate shell of metal B and an external shell of metal A (A-B-A nanoparticles) can be grown by deposition of B atoms onto an A core. The growth of the intermediate B shell is triggered by the fact that the most favorable positions for isolated B impurities inside A clusters are located just one layer below the cluster surface.

  20. Atomic-scale insights into structural and thermodynamic stability of Pd-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rao; Wen, Yu-Hua; Zhu, Zi-Zhong; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2016-04-14

    Atomic-scale understanding of structures and thermodynamic stability of core-shell nanoparticles is important for both their synthesis and application. In this study, we systematically investigated the structural stability and thermodynamic evolution of core-shell structured Pd-Ni nanoparticles by molecular dynamics simulations. It has been revealed that dislocations and stacking faults occur in the shell and their amounts are strongly dependent on the core/shell ratio. The presence of these defects lowers the structural and thermal stability of these nanoparticles, resulting in even lower melting points than both Pd and Ni monometallic nanoparticles. Furthermore, different melting behaviors have been disclosed in Pd-core/Ni-shell and Ni-core/Pd-shell nanoparticles. These diverse behaviors cause different relationships between the melting temperature and the amount of stacking faults. Our results display direct evidence for the tunable stability of bimetallic nanoparticles. This study provides a fundamental perspective on core-shell structured nanoparticles and has important implications for further tailoring their structural and thermodynamic stability by core/shell ratio or composition controlling.

  1. Influence of shell thickness on thermal stability of bimetallic Al-Pd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, John Z.; Nguyen, Ngoc Ha; Rawlins, John; Petre, Catalin F.; Ringuette, Sophie

    2014-07-01

    Aluminum-based bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles have shown promising applications in civil and defense industries. This study addresses the thermal stability of aluminum-palladium (Al-Pd) core/shell nanoparticles with a varying shell thickness of 5, 6, and 7 Å, respectively. The classic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed in order to investigate the effects of the shell thickness on the ignition mechanism and subsequent energetic processes of these nanoparticles. The histograms of temperature change and structural evolution clearly show the inhibition role of the Pd shell during ignition. While the nanoparticle with a thicker shell is more thermally stable and hence requires more excess energy, stored as the potential energy of the nanoparticle and provided through numerically heating, to initiate the thermite reaction, a higher adiabatic temperature can be produced from this nanoparticle, thanks to its greater content of Pd. The two-stage thermite reactions are discussed with their activation energy based on the energy balance processes during MD heating and production. Analyses of the simulation results reveal that the inner pressure of the core-shell nanoparticle increases with both temperature and the absorbed thermal energy during heating, which may result in a breakup of the Pd shell.

  2. Thermal Stability of Platinum-Cobalt Bimetallic Nanoparticles: Chemically Disordered Alloys, Ordered Intermetallics, and Core-Shell Structures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Zhang, Yang; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2017-04-12

    Pt-Co bimetallic nanoparticles are promising candidates for Pt-based nanocatalysts and magnetic-storage materials. By using molecular dynamics simulations, we here present a detailed examination on the thermal stabilities of Pt-Co bimetallic nanoparticles with three configurations including chemically disordered alloy, ordered intermetallics, and core-shell structures. It has been revealed that ordered intermetallic nanoparticles possess better structural and thermal stability than disordered alloyed ones for both Pt3Co and PtCo systems, and Pt3Co-Pt core-shell nanoparticles exhibit the highest melting points and the best thermal stability among Pt-Co bimetallic nanoparticles, although their meltings all initiate at the surface and evolve inward with increasing temperatures. In contrast, Co-Pt core-shell nanoparticles display the worst thermal stability compared with the aforementioned nanoparticles. Furthermore, their melting initiates in the core and extends outward surface, showing a typical two-stage melting mode. The solid-solid phase transition is discovered in Co core before its melting. This work demonstrates the importance of composition distribution to tuning the properties of binary nanoparticles.

  3. Construction of three-dimensional models of bimetallic nanoparticles based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakyan, L. A.; Srabionyan, V. V.; Pryadchenko, V. V.; Bulat, N. V.; Bugaev, L. A.

    2016-06-01

    A new method for constructing three-dimensional models of bimetallic nanoparticles is proposed. This method, which is based on X-ray absorption spectroscopy data on the number and type of nearest neighbors, provides information on the distribution of types of atoms over the nanoparticle volume. The application of the method to the study of the structures of platinum-copper and platinum-silver nanoparticles of metal-carbon electrocatalysts has allowed to distinguish the nanoparticles with a core-shell structure from the nanoparticles with structure of disordered alloy or clusterized solid solution.

  4. Thermal induced structural transformation of bimetallic AuPd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruma, A.; Li, Z. Y.

    2014-06-01

    High Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (HAADF-STEM) has been employed for the study of thermal effects of structural transformation of AuPd nanoparticles produced by physical vapour deposition. Depending on the duration of annealing at a temperature of 500 K, atomic resolved imaging analysis reveals the formation of various structure morphologies from the ordered L12 superlattice to the core-shell structure. The effects of Pd-oxides are also discussed.

  5. Removal of trichloroethylene DNAPL trapped in porous media using nanoscale zerovalent iron and bimetallic nanoparticles: direct observation and quantification.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiliang; Jeong, Seung-Woo; Choi, Heechul

    2012-04-30

    Direct trichloroethylene (TCE) dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) removal inside pore areas using nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) and bimetallic nanoparticles were first investigated in a water-saturated porous glass micromodel. Effects of nitrate, aqueous ethanol co-solvent, humic substance, and elapsed time on TCE DNAPL removal using NZVI were studied by direct visualization. The removal efficiency was then quantified by directly measuring the remaining TCE DNAPL blobs area using an image analyzer. As ethanol content of co-solvent increased, TCE DNAPL removal by NZVI was also increased implying sequential TCE DNAPL removal mechanisms: as dissolved TCE was degraded by NZVI, TCE dissolution from TCE blobs would be then facilitated and the TCE blob areas would be eventually reduced. The presence of nitrate and humic substance hindered the NZVI reactivity for the TCE DNAPL removal. In contrast, the TCE DNAPL removal efficiency was enhanced using bimetallic nanoparticles in a short-term reaction by generating atomic hydrogen for catalytic hydro-dechlorination. However, all TCE DNAPL removal efficiencies reached the same level after long-term reaction using both NZVI and bimetallic nanoparticles. Direct TCE DNAPL observation clearly implied that TCE blobs existed for long time even though all TCE blobs were fully exposed to NZVI and bimetallic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Quercetin and gallic acid mediated synthesis of bimetallic (silver and selenium) nanoparticles and their antitumor and antimicrobial potential.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Banerjee, Uttam Chand

    2014-10-01

    In this study a synthetic approach for the stable, mono-dispersed high yielding bimetallic (Ag-Se) nanoparticles by quercetin and gallic acid is described. The bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature. Different reaction parameters (concentration of quercetin, gallic acid and Ag/Se salt, pH, temperature and reaction time) were optimized to control the properties of nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques and their size was determined to be 30-35 nm. Our findings suggest that both the reduction as well as stabilization of nanoparticles were achieved by the flavonoids and phenolics. This study describes the efficacy of quercetin and gallic acid mediated synthesis of bimetallic (Ag-Se) nanoparticles and their in vitro antioxidant, antimicrobial (Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria) and antitumor potentials. The synthesized Ag-Se nanoparticles were used as anticancer agents for Dalton lymphoma (DL) cells and in in vitro 80% of its viability was reduced at 50 μg/mL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Atomic structure and thermal stability of Pt-Fe bimetallic nanoparticles: from alloy to core/shell architectures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rao; Wen, Yu-Hua; Shao, Gui-Fang; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2016-06-22

    Bimetallic nanoparticles comprising noble metal and non-noble metal have attracted intense interest over the past few decades due to their low cost and significantly enhanced catalytic performances. In this article, we have explored the atomic structure and thermal stability of Pt-Fe alloy and core-shell nanoparticles by molecular dynamics simulations. In Fe-core/Pt-shell nanoparticles, Fe with three different structures, i.e., body-centered cubic (bcc), face-centered cubic (fcc), and amorphous phases, has been considered. Our results show that Pt-Fe alloy is the most stable configuration among the four types of bimetallic nanoparticles. It has been discovered that the amorphous Fe cannot stably exist in the core and preferentially transforms into the fcc phase. The phase transition from bcc to hexagonal close packed (hcp) has also been observed in bcc-Fe-core/Pt-shell nanoparticles. In contrast, Fe with the fcc structure is the most preferred as the core component. These findings are helpful for understanding the structure-property relationships of Pt-Fe bimetallic nanoparticles, and are also of significance to the synthesis and application of noble metal based nanoparticle catalysts.

  8. Study of carbon-supported bimetallic PtCu nanoparticles by ASAXS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulat, N. V.; Avakyan, L. A.; Pryadchenko, V. V.; Srabionyan, V. V.; Belenov, S. V.; Bugaev, L. A.

    2017-05-01

    Bimetallic platinum-copper nanoparticles on carbon support are studied as a perspective electrochemical catalyst by anomalous small-angle X-ray scattering near the Pt absorption L3-edge. The simultaneous fitting of several diffraction patterns measured at different photon energies lead to a satisfactory agreement between experimental and model curves in the assumption of core-shell structure of the particles with Pt-rich shell and Cu-rich core. It is shown that the average size of as prepared nanoparticles is about 6 nm with distribution spread of about ±2 nm and with thickness of Pt-rich shell approximately 1.6 nm. After annealing at 350o C the average size of the particles increased by two times with additional enlargement of the Pt-rich shell thickness.

  9. Transition from core-shell to Janus chemical configuration for bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Cyril; Li, Z L; Yuan, Jun; Alloyeau, Damien; Nelayah, Jaysen; Bochicchio, Davide; Ferrando, Riccardo; Ricolleau, Christian

    2012-06-07

    In order to determine the possibilities to control the chemical configuration of bimetallic nanoparticles, we have considered CuAg nanoparticles synthesized by a physical route as a model in this study. The synthesis was made by pulsed laser deposition under ultra-high vacuum conditions, via a sequential deposition procedure. We show that the temperature of the substrate and the absolute quantity of Ag in a particle are the main parameters that drive the chemical configuration. To explain the transition from a core-shell configuration to a Janus configuration as a function of Ag quantity, we have conducted density-functional theory calculations and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the stability of this system. The results are presented together with the experimental observations.

  10. Transition from core-shell to Janus chemical configuration for bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlois, Cyril; Li, Z. L.; Yuan, Jun; Alloyeau, Damien; Nelayah, Jaysen; Bochicchio, Davide; Ferrando, Riccardo; Ricolleau, Christian

    2012-05-01

    In order to determine the possibilities to control the chemical configuration of bimetallic nanoparticles, we have considered CuAg nanoparticles synthesized by a physical route as a model in this study. The synthesis was made by pulsed laser deposition under ultra-high vacuum conditions, via a sequential deposition procedure. We show that the temperature of the substrate and the absolute quantity of Ag in a particle are the main parameters that drive the chemical configuration. To explain the transition from a core-shell configuration to a Janus configuration as a function of Ag quantity, we have conducted density-functional theory calculations and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the stability of this system. The results are presented together with the experimental observations.

  11. Novel platinum–palladium bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by Dioscorea bulbifera: anticancer and antioxidant activities

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sougata; Nitnavare, Rahul; Dewle, Ankush; Tomar, Geetanjali B; Chippalkatti, Rohan; More, Piyush; Kitture, Rohini; Kale, Sangeeta; Bellare, Jayesh; Chopade, Balu A

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants serve as rich sources of diverse bioactive phytochemicals that might even take part in bioreduction and stabilization of phytogenic nanoparticles with immense therapeutic properties. Herein, we report for the first time the rapid efficient synthesis of novel platinum–palladium bimetallic nanoparticles (Pt–PdNPs) along with individual platinum (PtNPs) and palladium (PdNPs) nanoparticles using a medicinal plant, Dioscorea bulbifera tuber extract (DBTE). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed monodispersed PtNPs of size 2–5 nm, while PdNPs and Pt–PdNPs between 10 and 25 nm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis confirmed 30.88%±1.73% elemental Pt and 68.96%±1.48% elemental Pd in the bimetallic nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated strong peaks at 3,373 cm−1, attributed to hydroxyl group of polyphenolic compounds in DBTE that might play a key role in bioreduction in addition to the sharp peaks at 2,937, 1,647, 1,518, and 1,024 cm−1, associated with C–H stretching, N–H bending in primary amines, N–O stretching in nitro group, and C–C stretch, respectively. Anticancer activity against HeLa cells showed that Pt–PdNPs exhibited more pronounced cell death of 74.25% compared to individual PtNPs (12.6%) or PdNPs (33.15%). Further, Pt–PdNPs showed an enhanced scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals. PMID:26719690

  12. Novel platinum-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by Dioscorea bulbifera: anticancer and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sougata; Nitnavare, Rahul; Dewle, Ankush; Tomar, Geetanjali B; Chippalkatti, Rohan; More, Piyush; Kitture, Rohini; Kale, Sangeeta; Bellare, Jayesh; Chopade, Balu A

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants serve as rich sources of diverse bioactive phytochemicals that might even take part in bioreduction and stabilization of phytogenic nanoparticles with immense therapeutic properties. Herein, we report for the first time the rapid efficient synthesis of novel platinum-palladium bimetallic nanoparticles (Pt-PdNPs) along with individual platinum (PtNPs) and palladium (PdNPs) nanoparticles using a medicinal plant, Dioscorea bulbifera tuber extract (DBTE). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed monodispersed PtNPs of size 2-5 nm, while PdNPs and Pt-PdNPs between 10 and 25 nm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis confirmed 30.88% ± 1.73% elemental Pt and 68.96% ± 1.48% elemental Pd in the bimetallic nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated strong peaks at 3,373 cm(-1), attributed to hydroxyl group of polyphenolic compounds in DBTE that might play a key role in bioreduction in addition to the sharp peaks at 2,937, 1,647, 1,518, and 1,024 cm(-1), associated with C-H stretching, N-H bending in primary amines, N-O stretching in nitro group, and C-C stretch, respectively. Anticancer activity against HeLa cells showed that Pt-PdNPs exhibited more pronounced cell death of 74.25% compared to individual PtNPs (12.6%) or PdNPs (33.15%). Further, Pt-PdNPs showed an enhanced scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, and hydroxyl radicals.

  13. Electrochemical Co-Reduction Synthesis of AuPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles-Graphene Nanocomposites for Selective Detection of Dopamine in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid and Uric Acid

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zongya; Zhang, Mingming; Chen, Xiang; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites were obtained by electrochemical co-reduction of graphene oxide (GO), HAuCl4 and H2PtCl6. The as-prepared AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and other electrochemical methods. The morphology and composition of the nanocomposite could be easily controlled by adjusting the HAuCl4/H2PtCl6 concentration ratio. The electrochemical experiments showed that when the concentration ratio of HAuCl4/H2PtCl6 was 1:1, the obtained AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposite (denoted as Au1Pt1NPs-GR) possessed the highest electrocatalytic activity toward dopamine (DA). As such, Au1Pt1NPs-GR nanocomposites were used to detect DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) using the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique and on the modified electrode, there were three separate DPV oxidation peaks with the peak potential separations of 177 mV, 130 mV and 307 mV for DA and AA, DA and UA, AA and UA, respectively. The linear range of the constructed DA sensor was from 1.6 μM to 39.7 μM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM (S/N = 3). The obtained DA sensor with good stability, high reproducibility and excellent selectivity made it possible to detect DA in human urine samples. PMID:26184200

  14. Electrochemical Co-Reduction Synthesis of AuPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles-Graphene Nanocomposites for Selective Detection of Dopamine in the Presence of Ascorbic Acid and Uric Acid.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zongya; Zhang, Mingming; Chen, Xiang; Li, Youjun; Wang, Jue

    2015-07-09

    In this paper, AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites were obtained by electrochemical co-reduction of graphene oxide (GO), HAuCl4 and H2PtCl6. The as-prepared AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposites were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and other electrochemical methods. The morphology and composition of the nanocomposite could be easily controlled by adjusting the HAuCl4/H2PtCl6 concentration ratio. The electrochemical experiments showed that when the concentration ratio of HAuCl4/H2PtCl6 was 1:1, the obtained AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles-graphene nanocomposite (denoted as Au1Pt1NPs-GR) possessed the highest electrocatalytic activity toward dopamine (DA). As such, Au1Pt1NPs-GR nanocomposites were used to detect DA in the presence of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA) using the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) technique and on the modified electrode, there were three separate DPV oxidation peaks with the peak potential separations of 177 mV, 130 mV and 307 mV for DA and AA, DA and UA, AA and UA, respectively. The linear range of the constructed DA sensor was from 1.6 μM to 39.7 μM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM (S/N = 3). The obtained DA sensor with good stability, high reproducibility and excellent selectivity made it possible to detect DA in human urine samples.

  15. Catalytic Sorption of (Chloro)Benzene and Napthalene in Aqueous Solutions by Granular Activated Carbon Supported Bimetallic Iron and Palladium Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption of benzene, chlorobenzene, and naphthalene on commercially available granular activated carbon (GAC) and bimetallic nanoparticle (Fe/Pd) loaded GAC was investigated for the potential use in active capping of contaminated sediments. Freundlich and Langmuir linearizatio...

  16. Catalytic Sorption of (Chloro)Benzene and Napthalene in Aqueous Solutions by Granular Activated Carbon Supported Bimetallic Iron and Palladium Nanoparticles

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption of benzene, chlorobenzene, and naphthalene on commercially available granular activated carbon (GAC) and bimetallic nanoparticle (Fe/Pd) loaded GAC was investigated for the potential use in active capping of contaminated sediments. Freundlich and Langmuir linearizatio...

  17. Study of supported PtCu and PdAu bimetallic nanoparticles using in-situ x-ray tools.

    SciTech Connect

    Oxford, S. M.; Lee, P. L.; Chupas, P. J.; Chapman, K. W.; Kung, M. C.; Kung, H. H.; Northwestern Univ.

    2010-01-01

    A combination of two synchrotron X-ray techniques, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and pair distribution function analysis (PDF) with complementary Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurement, was used to characterize the composition distributions of PdAu and PtCu bimetallic particles after treatment in H{sub 2} or CO and in the presence of these gases. This is the first reported application of PDF to the study of supported bimetallic nanoparticles. We found that XAS was informative in determining the component distribution of an initial sample, but PDF was better suited to following changes in the distribution upon changing the gas environment. Thus, the surface of a PtCu bimetallic particle of about 2.5 nm after treatment in H{sub 2} was found to be enriched in Cu, while the core was bimetallic. There was no evidence of a component-segregated core?shell structure. Treatment in CO caused enrichment of Pt to the surface layer, with a concomitant migration of Cu to the core. The average particle size remained the same. For the PdAu bimetallic particles, the surface and core compositions were similar after H{sub 2} treatment, and Pd was enriched in the surface after CO treatment. The X-ray results compared favorably to infrared spectroscopy results. The results demonstrated that the two X-ray techniques in combination can generate new information not available with either technique alone or other techniques, about the elemental distribution of bimetallic particles under conditions relevant to catalysis. They could provide new insight into structure-function relationships and time-on-stream behavior of bimetallic catalysts.

  18. Expanding the plasmonic response of bimetallic nanoparticles by laser seeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peláez, R. J.; Rodríguez, C. E.; Afonso, C. N.

    2016-03-01

    This work explores a cost-effective route to enhance the tuning range of the optical response of metal nanostructures on substrates beyond the ranges that are achievable through the nanostructure dimensions, composition or dewetting processes. The new route (laser seeding) uses single nanosecond laser pulses to induce dewetting in regions of a metal layer deposited on a glass substrate followed by the deposition of a second metal layer, both layers being deposited by pulsed laser deposition. In order to show the possibilities of this new route, we have chosen that the two metals were different, namely Ag and Au. The comparison of the optical response of these regions to those that were laser irradiated after deposition of the second metal layer shows that while nanoalloyed nanoparticles (NPs) are formed in the latter case, the NPs produced in the former case have a heterogeneous structure. The interface between the two metals is either sharp or a narrow region where they have mixed depending on the laser fluence used. While the nanoalloyed NPs exhibit a single, narrow surface plasmon resonance (SPR), the heterogeneous NPs show broader SPRs that peak in the near infrared and depending on conditions exhibit even two clear SPRs. The laser seeding approach in the conditions used in this work allows for the expansion of the tuning range of the color to the blue-green region, i.e. beyond the region that can be achieved through nanoalloyed NPs (yellow-red region). In addition, the results presented foresee the laser seeding route as a means to produce round and almost isolated NPs in an enhanced range of diameters.

  19. Synergistic effect in the oxidation of benzyl alcohol using citrate-stabilized gold bimetallic nanoparticles supported on alumina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Villarraga, Fernando; Radnik, Jörg; Martin, Andreas; Köckritz, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) containing gold and various second metals ( M = Pd, Pt, Cu, and Ag) supported on alumina (AuM/Alumina) were prepared using sodium citrate as stabilizer. In addition, supported monometallic Au/Alumina and Pd/Alumina were synthesized and tested to reveal synergistic effects in the catalytic evaluation of the bimetallic catalysts. The monometallic and bimetallic NPs revealed average sizes below 10 nm. The oxidation of benzyl alcohol with molecular oxygen as oxidant at mild conditions in liquid phase in the absence and presence (toluene or NaOH aqueous solution, 0.2 M) of a solvent was selected as test reaction to evaluate the catalytic properties of the above-mentioned solids. AuPd/Alumina exhibited the best catalytic activity among all bimetallic catalysts using toluene as solvent and under solvent-free conditions, respectively. In comparison to the monometallic catalysts, a synergistic effect with AuPd/Alumina was only evident in the solvent-free reaction. The AuPd/Alumina catalyst was able to oxidize benzyl alcohol selectively depending on the reaction medium into benzaldehyde (toluene or solvent-free) or benzoic acid (NaOH aqueous solution, 0.2 M). However, the catalyst deactivated due to particle growth of the bimetallic AuPd NPs by Ostwald ripening and leaching was not observed in the oxidation using toluene as solvent. The size of the catalytically active NPs, the metal composition of the particles, and the reaction conditions greatly influenced the catalytic oxidation results.

  20. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alberto; Wang, Di; Su, Dangsheng; Veith, Gabriel M; Prati, Laura

    2010-03-07

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd@Au(PVA)/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  1. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Su, Dangshen; Wang, Di; Veith, Gabriel M

    2010-01-01

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd{at}Au{sub PVA}/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  2. One-step green synthesis of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles used to degrade Orange II.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2016-02-13

    To reduce cost and enhance reactivity, bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) were firstly synthesized using grape leaf aqueous extract to remove Orange II. Green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs (98.0%) demonstrated a far higher ability to remove Orange II in 12h compared to Fe NPs (16.0%). Meanwhile, all precursors, e.g., grape leaf extract, Fe(2+) and Pd(2+), had no obvious effect on removing Orange II since less than 2.0% was removed. Kinetics study revealed that the removal rate fitted well to the pseudo-first-order reduction and pseudo-second-order adsorption model, meaning that removing Orange II via Fe/Pd NPs involved both adsorption and catalytic reduction. The remarkable stability of Fe/Pd NPs showed the potential application for removing azo dyes. Furthermore, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the changes in Fe/Pd NPs before and after reaction with Orange II. High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrum (HPLC-MS) identified the degraded products in the removal of Orange II, and finally a removal mechanism was proposed. This one-step strategy using grape leaf aqueous extract to synthesize Fe/Pd NPs is simple, cost-effective and environmentally benign, making possible the large-scale production of Fe/Pd NPs for field remediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. PdPt bimetallic nanoparticles enabled by shape control with halide ions and their enhanced catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinfeng; Wan, Lei; Liu, Lei; Deng, Yida; Zhong, Cheng; Hu, Wenbin

    2016-02-21

    In this study, a new and convenient one step approach is described for synthesizing shape controlled PdPt bimetallic nanoparticles. It is found that the resultant morphologies of these PdPt nanoparticles can be well controlled by simply altering the participation of different halide ions that serve as shape controlling agents in the reaction solution. The dendritic core-shell PdPt bimetallic nanoparticles generated with Pt atoms adopt usual island growth pattern in the presence of Cl(-) ions, whereas the introduction of Br(-) ions with a relatively strong adsorption effect facilitate the formation of a layered core-shell structure due to the layered growth mode of Pt atoms on the exterior surface of the central Pd core. Moreover, the stronger adsorption function of I(-) ions and the resulting fast atomic diffusion promoted the generation of mesoporous core-shell PdPt bimetallic nanoparticles with many pore channels. In addition, the size of these synthesized PdPt nanoparticles exhibited a significant dependence on the concentration of the halide ions involved. Due to their specific structural features and synergistic effects, these PdPt catalysts exhibited shape-dependent catalytic performance and drastically enhanced electrocatalytic activities relative to that of commercial Pt black and Pt/C toward methanol oxidation.

  4. Bimetallic nanostructures as active Raman markers: gold-nanoparticle assembly on 1D and 2D silver nanostructure surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gunawidjaja, Ray; Kharlampieva, Eugenia; Choi, Ikjun; Tsukruk, Vladimir V

    2009-11-01

    It is demonstrated that bimetallic silver-gold anisotropic nanostructures can be easily assembled from various nanoparticle building blocks with well-defined geometries by means of electrostatic interactions. One-dimensional (1D) silver nanowires, two-dimensional (2D) silver nanoplates, and spherical gold nanoparticles are used as representative building blocks for bottom-up assembly. The gold nanoparticles are electrostatically bound onto the 1D silver nanowires and the 2D silver nanoplates to give bimetallic nanostructures. The unique feature of the resulting nanostructures is the particle-to-particle interaction that subjects absorbed analytes to an enhanced electromagnetic field with strong polarization dependence. The Raman activity of the bimetallic nanostructures is compared with that of the individual nanoparticle blocks by using rhodamine 6G solution as the model analyte. The Raman intensity of the best-performing silver-gold nanostructure is comparable with the dense array of silver nanowires and silver nanoplates that were prepared by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett technique. An optimized design of a single-nanostructure substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), based on a wet-assembly technique proposed here, can serve as a compact and low-cost alternative to fabricated nanoparticle arrays.

  5. Efficiency of bimetallic PtPd on polydopamine modified on various carbon supports for alcohol oxidations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinithchaisakula, A.; Ounnunkad, K.; Themsirimongkon, S.; Promsawan, N.; Waenkaew, P.; Saipanya, S.

    2017-02-01

    In this work, the preparation, characterization, and electrocatalytic analysis of the catalysts on various carbon substrates for direct alcohol fuel cells were studied. Selected carbons were modified with/without polydopamine (labelled as PDA-C and C) and further metal electrodeposited incorporated onto the glassy carbon (labelled as 5Pt1Pd/PDA-C and 5Pt1Pd/C). Four various carbon materials were used e.g. graphite (G), carbon nanotube (CNT), graphene (GP) and graphene oxide (GO) and the carbons were modified with PDA denoted as PDA-G, PDA-CNT, PDA-GP and PDA-GO, respectively. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) experimental observation showed narrow size distribution of metal anchored on the PDA-C and C materials. Chemical compositions and oxidation states of the catalysts were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The catalytic performances for small organic electro-oxidation (e.g. methanol and ethanol) were measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV). Among different PDA-C and C catalysts, monometallic Pt showed less activity than the bimetallic catalysts. Among catalysts with PDA, the 5Pt1Pd/PDA-GO catalyst facilitated methanol and ethanol oxidations with high oxidation currents and If/Ib value and stability with low potentials while among catalysts without PDA, the 5Pt1Pd/CNT provides highest activity and stability. It was found that the catalysts with PDA provided high activity and stability than the catalysts without PDA. The improved catalytic performance of the prepared catalysts could be related to the higher active surface area from polymer modification and bimetallic catalyst system in the catalyst composites.

  6. Enhanced and tunable optical quantum efficiencies from plasmon bandwidth engineering in bimetallic CoAg nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malasi, A.; Taz, H.; Ehrsam, M.; Goodwin, J.; Garcia, H.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2016-10-01

    Plasmonic nanoparticles are amongst the most effective ways to resonantly couple optical energy into and out of nanometer sized volumes. However, controlling and/or tuning the transfer of this incident energy to the surrounding near and far field is one of the most interesting challenges in this area. Due to the dielectric properties of metallic silver (Ag), its nanoparticles have amongst the highest radiative quantum efficiencies (η), i.e., the ability to radiatively transfer the incident energy to the surrounding. Here we report the discovery that bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag made with immiscible and plasmonically weak Co metal can show comparable and/or even higher η values. The enhancement is a result of the narrowing of the plasmon bandwidth from these bimetal systems. The phenomenological explanation of this effect based on the dipolar approximation points to the reduction in radiative losses within the Ag nanoparticles when in contact with cobalt. This is also supported by a model of coupling between poor and good conductors based on the surface to volume ratio. This study presents a new type of bandwidth engineering, one based on using bimetal nanostructures, to tune and/or enhance the quality factor and quantum efficiency for near and far-field plasmonic applications.

  7. Supported bimetallic Pt-Au nanoparticles: Structural features predicted by molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, Brian H.; Striolo, Alberto

    2010-04-01

    We have utilized all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study bimetallic Pt-Au nanoparticles supported by carbonaceous materials at 700 K. Nanoparticles containing 250 atoms with 25%, 50%, and 75% Pt ( Pt62Au188 , Pt125Au125 , and Pt188Au62 , respectively) were considered. A single graphite sheet and bundles of seven (10,10), (13,13), and (20,20) single-walled carbon nanotubes were used as supports. It was found that Pt125Au125 forms a well-defined Pt core covered by an Au shell, regardless of the support. Pt62Au188 exhibits a mixed Pt-Au core with an Au shell. Pt188Au62 has a Pt core with a mixed Pt-Au shell. The support affects the atomic distribution. We investigated the percentage of nanoparticle surface atoms that are Pt. Our results show that for Pt62Au188 and Pt125Pt125 , this percentage is lowest when there is no support and highest when carbon nanotubes are supports. We studied the size of clusters of Pt atoms on the nanoparticle surface, finding that the geometry of the support influences the distribution of cluster sizes. Finally, we found that the coordination states of the atoms on the nanoparticle surface are affected by the support structure. These results suggest that it is possible to tailor the distribution of atoms in Pt-Au nanoparticles by controlling the nanoparticle composition and the support geometry. Such level of control is desirable for improving selectivity of catalysts.

  8. In situ biosynthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC: green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Hazarika, Moushumi; Borah, Sarat Ch; Das, Manash R; Boruah, Manas P

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract is demonstrated here. The rapid formation of stable Ag and Au nanoparticles has been found using P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract in aqueous medium at normal atmospheric condition. Competitive reduction of Ag(+) and Au(3+) ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the Ag nanoparticles predominantly form spherical in shape with the size range of 2.0±0.5-30.0±1.2 nm. In case of Au nanoparticles, the particles are spherical in shape along with few triangular, hexagonal and pentagonal shaped nanoparticles also observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the nanoparticles were face centered cubic (fcc) in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. The chemical constituents, viz. catechin, gallic acid, courmaric acid and protocatechuic acid of the leaf extract were identified which may act as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agent. The expected reaction mechanism in the formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles is also reported. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding the atomic-level process of CO-adsorption-driven surface segregation of Pd in (AuPd)147 bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    An, Hyesung; Ha, Hyunwoo; Yoo, Mi; Kim, Hyun You

    2017-08-24

    When the elements that compose bimetallic catalysts interact asymmetrically with reaction feedstock, the surface concentration of the bimetallic catalysts and the morphology of the reaction center evolve dynamically as a function of environmental factors such as the partial pressure of the triggering molecule. Relevant experimental and theoretical findings of the dynamic structural evolution of bimetallic catalysts under the reaction conditions are emerging, thus enabling the design of more consistent, reliable, and efficient bimetallic catalysts. In an initial attempt to provide an atomic-level understanding of the adsorption-induced structural evolution of bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) under CO oxidation conditions, we used density functional theory to study the details of CO-adsorption-driven Pd surface segregation in (AuPd)147 bimetallic NPs. The strong CO affinity of Pd provides a driving force for Pd surface segregation. We found that the vertex site of the NP becomes a gateway for the initial Pd-Au swapping and the subsequent formation of an internal vacancy. This self-generated internal vacancy easily diffuses inside the NP and activates Pd-Au swapping pathways in the (100) NP facet. Our results reveal how the surface and internal concentrations of bimetallic NPs respond immediately to changes in the reaction conditions. Our findings should aid in the rational design of highly active and versatile bimetallic catalysts by considering the environmental factors that systematically affect the structure of bimetallic catalysts under the reaction conditions.

  10. High-performance PdRu bimetallic catalyst supported on mesoporous silica nanoparticles for phenol hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao; Yang, Xu; Yang, Hui; Huang, Peiyan; Song, Huiyu; Liao, Shijun

    2014-10-01

    A high-performance PdRu bimetallic catalyst supported on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), PdRu/MSN, was prepared by a facile impregnation-hydrogen reduction method. It was found that PdRu/MSN showed 5 times higher activity than that of Pd/MSN towards the liquid-phase hydrogenation of phenol. The catalysts were characterized comprehensively by multiple techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and hydrogen temperature program reduction (TPR). It was revealed that adding Ru could effectively improve the Pd dispersion and promote the electronic interaction between the Pd and Ru, both of which contribute to enhancing the catalytic activity.

  11. Synthesis of homogeneous Pt-bimetallic nanoparticles as highly efficient electrocatalysts.

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.; Chi, M.; Li, D.; van der Vliet, D.; Wang, G.; Lin, Q.; Mitchell, J.; More, K. L.; Markovic, N. M.; Stamenkovic, V. R.

    2011-01-01

    Alloying has shown enormous potential for tailoring the atomic and electronic structures, and improving the performance of catalytic materials. Systematic studies of alloy catalysts are, however, often compromised by inhomogeneous distribution of alloying components. Here we introduce a general approach for the synthesis of monodispersed and highly homogeneous Pt-bimetallic alloy nanocatalysts. Pt{sub 3}M (where M = Fe, Ni, or Co) nanoparticles were prepared by an organic solvothermal method and then supported on high surface area carbon. These catalysts attained a homogeneous distribution of elements, as demonstrated by atomic-scale elemental analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy. They also exhibited high catalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), with improvement factors of 2-3 versus conventional Pt/carbon catalysts. The measured ORR catalytic activities for Pt{sub 3}M nanocatalysts validated the volcano curve established on extended surfaces, with Pt{sub 3}Co being the most active alloy.

  12. Bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles for groundwater decontamination: effect of groundwater constituents on surface deactivation.

    PubMed

    Han, Yanlai; Yan, Weile

    2014-12-01

    The incorporation of catalytic metals on iron nanoparticles to form bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) generates a class of highly reactive materials for degrading chlorinated hydrocarbons (e.g., trichloroethylene, TCE) in groundwater. Successful implementation of BNPs to groundwater decontamination relies critically on the stability of surface reactive sites of BNPs in groundwater matrices. This study investigated the effect of common groundwater solutes on TCE reduction with Ni-Fe (with Ni at 2 wt.%) bimetallic nanoparticles (herein denoted as Ni-Fe BNPs). Batch experiments involving pre-exposing the nanoparticles to various groundwater solutions for 24 h followed by reactions with TCE solutions were conducted. The results suggest that the deactivation behavior of Ni-Fe BNPs differs significantly from that of the well-studied Pd-Fe BNPs. Specifically, Ni-Fe BNPs were chemically stable in pure water. Mild reduction in TCE reaction rates were observed for Ni-Fe BNPs pre-exposed to chloride (Cl(-)), bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), sulfite (SO3(2-)) and humic acid solutions. Nitrate (NO3(-)), sulfate (SO4(2-)) and phosphate (HPO4(2-)) may cause moderate to severe deactivation at elevated concentrations (>1 mM). Product analysis and surface chemistry investigations using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HR-XPS) reveal that NO3(-) decreased particle reactivity mainly due to progressive formation of passivating oxides, whereas SO4(2-) and phosphate elicited rapid deactivation as a result of specific poisoning of the surface nickel sites. At similar levels, phosphate is the most potent deactivation agent among the solutes examined in this study. While our findings point out the desirable quality of Ni-Fe nanoparticles, particularly their greater electrochemical stability compared to Pd-Fe BNPs, its susceptibility to chemical poisoning at high levels of complexing ligands is also noted. Groundwater chemistry is therefore an important factor to consider when

  13. Enhanced Formation of Oxidants from Bimetallic Nickel-Iron Nanoparticles in the Presence of Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changha; Sedlak, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticulate zero-valent iron (nZVI) rapidly reacts with oxygen to produce strong oxidants, capable of transforming organic contaminants in water. However, the low yield of oxidants with respect to the iron added normally limits the application of this system. Bimetallic nickel-iron nanoparticles (nNi-Fe; i.e., Ni-Fe alloy and Ni-coated Fe nanoparticles) exhibited enhanced yields of oxidants compared to nZVI. nNi-Fe (Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles with [Ni]/[Fe] = 0.28 and Ni-coated Fe nanoparticles with [Ni]/[Fe] = 0.035) produced approximately 40% and 85% higher yields of formaldehyde from the oxidation of methanol relative to nZVI at pH 4 and 7, respectively. Ni-coated Fe nanoparticles showed a higher efficiency for oxidant production relative to Ni-Fe alloy nanoparticles based on Ni content. Addition of Ni did not enhance the oxidation of 2-propanol or benzoic acid, indicating that Ni addition did not enhance hydroxyl radical formation. The enhancement in oxidant yield was observed over a pH range of 4 – 9. The enhanced production of oxidant by nNi-Fe appears to be attributable to two factors. First, the nNi-Fe surface is less reactive toward hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) than the nZVI surface, which favors the reaction of H2O2 with dissolved Fe(II) (the Fenton reaction). Second, the nNi-Fe surface promotes oxidant production from the oxidation of ferrous ion by oxygen at neutral pH values. PMID:19068843

  14. The effect of metal cluster deposition route on structure and photocatalytic activity of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles supported on TiO2 by radiolytic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Marek; Nadolna, Joanna; Gołąbiewska, Anna; Mazierski, Paweł; Klimczuk, Tomasz; Remita, Hynd; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    TiO2 (P25) was modified with small and relatively monodisperse mono- and bimetallic clusters (Ag, Pd, Pt, Ag/Pd, Ag/Pt and Pd/Pt) induced by radiolysis to improve its photocatalytic activity. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), photoluminescence spectrometry (PL), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), scanning transition electron microscopy (STEM) and BET surface area analysis. The effect of metal type (mono- and bimetallic modification) as well as deposition method (simultaneous or subsequent deposition of two metals) on the photocatalytic activity in toluene removal in gas phase under UV-vis irradiation (light-emitting diodes- LEDs) and phenol degradation in liquid phase under visible light irradiation (λ > 420 nm) were investigated. The highest photoactivity under Vis light was observed for TiO2 co-loaded with platinum (0.1%) and palladium (0.1%) clusters. Simultaneous addition of metal precursors results in formation of larger metal nanoparticles (15-30 nm) on TiO2 surface and enhances the Vis-induced activity of Ag/Pd-TiO2 up to four times, while the subsequent metal ions addition results in formation of metal particle size ranging from 4 to 20 nm. Subsequent addition of metal precursors results in formation of BNPs (bimetallic nanoparticle) composites showing higher stability in four cycles of toluene degradation under UV-vis. Obtained results indicated that direct electron transfer from the BNPs to the conduction band of the semiconductor is responsible for visible light photoactivity, whereas superoxide radicals (such as O2rad- and rad OOH) are responsible for pollutants degradation over metal-TiO2 composites.

  15. Debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers by attapulgite-supported Fe/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles: Influencing factors, kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zongtang; Gu, Chenggang; Ye, Mao; Bian, Yongrong; Cheng, Yinwen; Wang, Fang; Yang, Xinglun; Song, Yang; Jiang, Xin

    2015-11-15

    To enhance the removal efficiency of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenylether (BDE47) in aqueous solutions, novel attapulgite-supported Fe/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles (A-Fe/Ni), which were characterized by a core-shell nanoparticle structure and with an average diameter of 20-40 nm, were synthesized for use in BDE47 degradation. The presence of attapulgite in bimetallic systems could reduce Fe/Ni nanoparticle aggregation and enhance their reactivity. BDE47 was degraded with a significant improvement in removal efficiency of at least 96% by A-Fe/Ni that played a reductive role in the reaction. The degradation kinetics of BDE47 by A-Fe/Ni complied with pseudo-first-order characteristics. To better understand the removal mechanism, detailed analyses were performed for several influential parameters. The improved dosage of A-Fe/Ni was found to be beneficial, and higher values of initial concentration, pH, and methanol/water ratio hindered the degradation rate, which, for example, decreased significantly in mixtures with a methanol proportion higher than 50%. The identification of BDE47 degradation products revealed a stepwise debromination from n-bromo-DE to (n-1)-bromo-DE as a possible pathway, wherein the para-Br was more easily eliminated than ortho-Br. Our findings provide insight into the removal mechanism and evidence for polybrominated diphenyl ether debromination by clay-Fe/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles.

  16. Degradation of Trichloroethylene and Dichlorobiphenyls by Iron-Based Bimetallic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tee, Yit-Hong; Bachas, Leonidas; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar

    2009-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles of Ni/Fe and Pd/Fe were used to study the degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) at room temperature. The activity for different iron-based nanoparticles with nickel as the catalytic dopant was analyzed using iron mass-normalized hydrogen generation rate. Degradation kinetics in terms of surface area-normalized rate constant was observed to have a strong correlation with the hydrogen generated by iron oxidation. A sorption study was conducted, and a mathematical model was derived that incorporates the reaction and Langmuirian-type sorption terms to estimate the intrinsic rate constant and rate-limiting step in the degradation process, assuming negligible mass transfer resistance of TCE to the solid particles phase. A longevity study through repeated cycle experiments was conducted to analyze the effect of activity loss on the reaction mechanistic pathway, and the results showed that the attenuation in the nanoparticles activity did not adversely affect the reaction mechanisms in generating gaseous products such as ethylene and ethane. PMID:20161161

  17. Bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized in microemulsions: A computer simulation study on relationship between kinetics and metal segregation.

    PubMed

    Tojo, Concha; Buceta, David; López-Quintela, M Arturo

    2017-09-15

    Computer simulations were carried out to study the origin of the different metal segregation showed by bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized in microemulsions. Our hypothesis is that the kinetics of nanoparticle formation in microemulsions has to be considered on terms of two potentially limiting factors, chemical reaction itself and the rate of reactants exchange between micelles. From the kinetic study it is deduced that chemical reduction in microemulsions is a pseudo first-order process, but not from the beginning. At the initial stage of the synthesis, redistribution of reactants between micelles is controlled by the intermicellar exchange rate, meanwhile the core and middle layers are being built. This exchange control has a different impact depending on the reduction rate of the particular metal in relation to the intermicellar exchange rate. For the case of Au/Pt nanoparticles, the kinetic constant of Au (fast reduction) is strongly dependent on intermicellar exchange rate and reactant concentration. On the contrary, the kinetic constant of Pt (slower reduction) remains constant. Therefore, the fact that the reaction takes place in a microemulsion affects more or less depending on the reduction rate of the metals. As a consequence, the final nanostructure not only depends on difference between the reduction rates of both metals, but also on the reduction rate of each metal in relation to the intermicellar exchange rate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DNA-templated synthesis of PtAu bimetallic nanoparticle/graphene nanocomposites and their application in glucose biosensor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) is demonstrated to functionalize graphene (GR) and to further guide the growth of PtAu bimetallic nanoparticles (PtAuNPs) on GR with high densities and dispersion. The obtained nanocomposites (PtAuNPs/ss-DNA/GR) were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and electrochemical techniques. Then, an enzyme nanoassembly was prepared by self-assembling glucose oxidase (GOD) on PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR nanocomposites (GOD/PtAuNPs/ss-DNA/GR). The nanocomposites provided a suitable microenvironment for GOD to retain its biological activity. The direct and reversible electron transfer process between the active site of GOD and the modified electrode was realized without any extra electron mediator. Thus, the prepared GOD/PtAuNP/ss-DNA/GR electrode was proposed as a biosensor for the quantification of glucose. The effects of pH, applied potential, and temperature on the performance of the biosensor were discussed in detail and were optimized. Under optimal conditions, the biosensor showed a linearity with glucose concentration in the range of 1.0 to 1,800 μM with a detection limit of 0.3 μM (S/N = 3). The results demonstrate that the developed approach provides a promising strategy to improve the sensitivity and enzyme activity of electrochemical biosensors. PMID:24572068

  19. Biogenic synthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic Au/Ag alloy nanoparticles using aqueous extract of mahogany (Swietenia mahogani JACQ.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Samiran; Roy, Nayan; Laskar, Rajibul A; Sk, Ismail; Basu, Saswati; Mandal, Debabrata; Begum, Naznin Ara

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated for the first time, the superb efficiency of aqueous extract of dried leaves of mahogany (Swietenia mahogani JACQ.) in the rapid synthesis of stable monometallic Au and Ag nanoparticles and also Au/Ag bimetallic alloy nanoparticles having spectacular morphologies. Our method was clean, nontoxic and environment friendly. When exposed to aqueous mahogany leaf extract, competitive reduction of Au(III) and Ag(I) ions present simultaneously in same solution leads to the production of bimetallic Au/Ag alloy nanoparticles. UV-visible spectroscopy was used to monitor the kinetics of nanoparticles formation. UV-visible spectroscopic data and TEM images revealed the formation of bimetallic Au/Ag alloy nanoparticles. Mahogany leaf extract contains various polyhydroxy limonoids which are responsible for the reduction of Au(III) and Ag(I) ions leading to the formation and stabilization of Au and Ag nanopaticles. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Catalytic dechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol by Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles in the presence of humic acid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Shen, Qiaohui; Cissoko, Naman; Wo, Jingjing; Xu, Xinhua

    2010-10-15

    Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles were synthesized for treatment of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in the presence of humic acid (HA), in order to understand their applicability for in situ remediation of groundwater. In this case, 2,4-DCP was catalytically dechlorinated to form the final products--phenol (P) via two intermediates, namely o-chlorophenol (o-CP) and p-chlorophenol (p-CP). We demonstrated that the carbon mass balances during the dechlorination were in the range of 82-91%, and other carbons were absorbed on the surface of Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles. Our results suggest the dechlorination reaction of 2,4-DCP by Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles in the presence of HA followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. HA competed for reaction sites on the Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles with 2,4-DCP, and thus reduced the efficiency and rate of the dechlorination of 2,4-DCP. Efficiencies of dechlorination and phenol formations increased significantly as the Pd content increased from 0.10 wt.%, 0.15 wt.% to 0.20 wt.%, the removal percentage of 2,4-DCP increased from 70.4%, 98.4% to 99.4% within 300 min, respectively, the nitrate (NO(3)(-)) content in water also has a significant impact on 2,4-DCP dechlorination efficiency. Our results show that no other intermediates were generated besides Cl(-), o-CP, p-CP and phenol during the catalytic dechlorination of 2,4-DCP. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tuning structural motifs and alloying of bulk immiscible Mo-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles by gas-phase synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, Gopi; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Ten Brink, Gert H.; Palasantzas, George; Kooi, Bart J.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still remains a formidable challenge. Hence, we present here a general methodology for gas phase synthesis of bimetallic NPs with distinctively different structural motifs ranging at a single particle level from a fully mixed alloy to core-shell, to onion (multi-shell), and finally to a Janus/dumbbell, with the same overall particle composition. These concepts are illustrated for Mo-Cu NPs, where the precise control of the bimetallic NPs with various degrees of chemical ordering, including different shapes from spherical to cube, is achieved by tailoring the energy and thermal environment that the NPs experience during their production. The initial state of NP growth, either in the liquid or in the solid state phase, has important implications for the different structural motifs and shapes of synthesized NPs. Finally we demonstrate that we are able to tune the alloying regime, for the otherwise bulk immiscible Mo-Cu, by achieving an increase of the critical size, below which alloying occurs, closely up to an order of magnitude. It is discovered that the critical size of the NP alloy is not only affected by controlled tuning of the alloying temperature but also by the particle shape.Nowadays bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as key materials for important modern applications in nanoplasmonics, catalysis, biodiagnostics, and nanomagnetics. Consequently the control of bimetallic structural motifs with specific shapes provides increasing functionality and selectivity for related applications. However, producing bimetallic NPs with well controlled structural motifs still

  2. Deposition of metal nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes via hexane modified water-in-CO2 microemulsion at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Pan, Horng-Bin; Wai, Chien M

    2006-07-01

    Carbon nanotube-supported metallic nanoparticles (Pd, Rh, and bimetallic Pd-Rh) with diameters in the range 2-10 nm can be synthesized by hydrogen reduction of metal ions dissolved in the water core of a CO2 microemulsion in liquid CO2 at room temperature. The microemulsion is stabilized by sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT) and dissolved in liquid CO2 with the aid of hexane as a modifier. The metal nanoparticles synthesized in the microemulsion can be deposited on surfaces of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) by stirring in the liquid CO2 phase. This simple method produces uniformly distributed metal nanoparticles on surfaces of the MWCNTs with high yields. The carbon nanotube-supported Pd/Rh bimetallic nanoparticles exhibit high catalytic activities for hydrogenation of aromatic compounds and can be reused without losing catalytic activity.

  3. Catalytic characteristics of AgCu bimetallic nanoparticles in the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kihyun; Kim, Da Hye; Lee, Hyuck Mo

    2013-06-01

    Intensive research on oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalysts has been undertaken to find a Pt substitute or reduce the amount of Pt. Ag nanoparticles are potential Pt substitutes; however, the weak oxygen adsorption energy of Ag prompted investigation of other catalysts. Herein, we prepared AgCu bimetallic nanoparticle (NP) systems to improve the catalytic performance and compared the catalytic performance of Ag, Cu, AgCu (core-shell), and AgCu (alloy) NP systems as new catalyst by investigating the adsorption energy of oxygen and the activation energy of oxygen dissociation, which is known to be the rate-determining step of ORR. By analyzing HOMO-level isosurfaces of metal NPs and oxygen, we found that the adsorption sites and the oxygen adsorption energies varied with different configurations of NPs. We then plotted the oxygen adsorption energies against the energy barrier of oxygen dissociation to determine the catalytic performance. AgCu (alloy) and Cu NPs exhibited strong adsorption energies and low activation-energy barriers. However, the overly strong oxygen adsorption energy of Cu NPs hindered the ORR. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Antitumor Activity of Alloy and Core-Shell-Type Bimetallic AgAu Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shmarakov, Igor; Mukha, Iuliia; Vityuk, Nadiia; Borschovetska, Vira; Zhyshchynska, Nelya; Grodzyuk, Galyna; Eremenko, Anna

    2017-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of noble metals, namely gold and silver, remain promising anticancer agents capable of enhancing current surgery- and chemotherapeutic-based approaches in cancer treatment. Bimetallic AgAu composition can be used as a more effective agent due to the synergetic effect. Among the physicochemical parameters affecting gold and silver nanoparticle biological activity, a primary concern relates to their size, shape, composition, charge, etc. However, the impact of metal components/composition as well as metal topological distribution within NPs is incompletely characterized and remains to be further elucidated and clarified. In the present work, we tested a series of colloidal solutions of AgAu NPs of alloy and core-shell type for an antitumor activity depending on metal molar ratios (Ag:Au = 1:1; 1:3; 3:1) and topological distribution of gold and silver within NPs (AucoreAgshell; AgcoreAushell). The efficacy at which an administration of the gold and silver NPs inhibits mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) growth in vivo was compared. The data suggest that in vivo antitumor activity of the studied NPs strongly depends on gold and silver interaction arising from their ordered topological distribution. NPs with Ag core covered by Au shell were the most effective among the NPs tested towards LLC tumor growth and metastasizing inhibition. Our data show that among the NPs tested in this study, AgcoreAushell NPs may serve as a suitable anticancerous prototype.

  5. Antitumor Activity of Alloy and Core-Shell-Type Bimetallic AgAu Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shmarakov, Igor; Mukha, Iuliia; Vityuk, Nadiia; Borschovetska, Vira; Zhyshchynska, Nelya; Grodzyuk, Galyna; Eremenko, Anna

    2017-05-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) of noble metals, namely gold and silver, remain promising anticancer agents capable of enhancing current surgery- and chemotherapeutic-based approaches in cancer treatment. Bimetallic AgAu composition can be used as a more effective agent due to the synergetic effect. Among the physicochemical parameters affecting gold and silver nanoparticle biological activity, a primary concern relates to their size, shape, composition, charge, etc. However, the impact of metal components/composition as well as metal topological distribution within NPs is incompletely characterized and remains to be further elucidated and clarified. In the present work, we tested a series of colloidal solutions of AgAu NPs of alloy and core-shell type for an antitumor activity depending on metal molar ratios (Ag:Au = 1:1; 1:3; 3:1) and topological distribution of gold and silver within NPs (AucoreAgshell; AgcoreAushell). The efficacy at which an administration of the gold and silver NPs inhibits mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) growth in vivo was compared. The data suggest that in vivo antitumor activity of the studied NPs strongly depends on gold and silver interaction arising from their ordered topological distribution. NPs with Ag core covered by Au shell were the most effective among the NPs tested towards LLC tumor growth and metastasizing inhibition. Our data show that among the NPs tested in this study, AgcoreAushell NPs may serve as a suitable anticancerous prototype.

  6. Microwave Synthesis of Chitosan Capped Silver-Dysprosium Bimetallic Nanoparticles: A Potential Nanotheranosis Device.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep K; Kannan, S

    2016-12-27

    Accurate imaging of the structural and functional state of biological targets is a critical task. To amend paucities associated with individual imaging, there is high interest to develop a multifunctional theranostic devices for cancer diagnosis and therapy. Herein, chitosan coated silver/dysprosium bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) were synthesized through a green chemistry route and characterization results inferred that the BNPs are crystalline, spherical, and of size ∼10 nm. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirm the reduced metallic states of Ag and Dy in nanoparticles. These BNPs demonstrate high emission in a second near-infrared (NIR-II, 1000-1400 nm) biological window on excitation at 808 nm. Moreover, magnetization and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies perceive the inherent paramagnetic features of Dy component that displays dark T2 contrast and high relaxivity. Due to high X-ray attenuation effect, BNPs exhibit better Hounsfield unit (HU) value than the reported contrast agents. BNPs unveil good biocompatibility and also express sturdy therapeutic effect in HeLa cells when tethered with doxorubicin.

  7. Anti-bacterial chitosan/zinc phthalocyanine fibers supported metallic and bimetallic nanoparticles for the removal of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fayaz; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Kamal, Tahseen; Anwar, Yasir; Alamry, Khalid A; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2017-10-01

    In this report, we prepared chitosan (CS) membrane, CS/zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc-CS) composite fibers and pellets as support for the synthesis of zero valent metal nanoparticles. The composite fibers and pellets of ZnPc-CS were prepared by simply dispersing 5wt% of ZnPc in CS solution. ZnPc-CS composite were applied as economical host material for the development of metallic and bimetallic zero valent nanoparticles. The composites of ZnPc-CS were put in 0.1M metals salt solutions (mono- and bi-metallic) for the adsorption of metal ions. The metal ions adsorbed ZnPc-CS fibers were treated with 0.1M sodium borohydride (NaBH4) aqueous solution for conversion of metal ions into nanoparticles. Thus, through water based in-situ preparation process, metals nanoparticles loaded on ZnPc-CS composite fibers and pellets were achieved. The presence of respective metals nanoparticles on the composite fibers was confirmed using FE-SEM, XRD and FTIR. Moreover, we determined that these composites exhibit excellent catalytic efficiency and recyclability in the reduction reactions of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP), methyl orange (MO) and cango red (CR). In addition, these composites displayed high antibacterial activity as tested against pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Synthesis of Pt-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles anchored on graphene for highly active methanol electro-oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuting; Chang, Gang; Shu, Honghui; Oyama, Munetaka; Liu, Xiong; He, Yunbin

    2014-09-01

    A simple, one-step reduction route was employed to synthesize bimetallic Pt-Pd nanoparticles (Pt-PdNPs) supported on graphene (G) sheets, in which the reduction of graphite oxide and metal precursor was carried out simultaneously using ascorbic acid as a soft reductant. The morphology and structure of Pt-PdNPs/G composites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analysis. The results show that Pt-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and evenly anchored on the graphene sheets. Electrochemical experiments, including cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometric measurements, were performed to investigate the electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of the Pt-PdNPs/G composites. It was found that Pt-PdNPs/G composites show better electrocatalytic activity and stability towards the electro-oxidation of methanol than its counterparts such as composites composed of graphene-supported monometallic nanoparticles (PtNPs/G, PdNPs/G) and free-standing (Pt-PdNPs) and Vulcan-supported bimetallic Pt-Pd nanoparticles (Pt-PdNPs/V). The results could be attributed to the synergetic effects of the Pt-Pd nanoparticles and the enhanced electron transfer of graphene. The electrocatalytic activity of Pt-PdNPs/G changed with the Pd content in the Pt-Pd alloy, and the best performance was achieved with a Pt-Pd ratio of 1/3 in an alkaline environment. Our study indicates the potential use of Pt-PdNPs/G as new anode catalyst materials for direct methanol fuel cells.

  9. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2017-04-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  10. Nanoparticles Modified ITO Based Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. Z. H.

    2016-12-01

    Incorporation of nanomaterials with controlled molecular architecture shows great promise in improving electronic communication between biomolecules and the electrode substrate. In electrochemical applications metal nanoparticles (NPs) modified electrodes have been widely used and are emerging as candidates to develop highly sensitive electrochemical sensors. There has been a growing technological interest in modified indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes due to their prominent optoelectronic properties and their wide use as a transducing platform. The introduction of NPs into the transducing platform is commonly achieved by their adsorption onto conventional electrode surfaces in various forms, including that of a composite. The aim of this review is to discuss the role of metallic NPs for surface fabrication of ITO thin films leading to detection of specific biomolecules and applications as a biosensor platform.

  11. Synthesis of graphene-supported monodisperse AuPd bimetallic nanoparticles for electrochemical oxidation of methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong-Jun; Shen, Cheng-Min; Shi, Xue-Zhao; Yang, Su-Dong; Tian, Yuan; Lin, Shao-Xiong; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Monodisperse AuPd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with different compositions are synthesized by using oleylamine (OAm) as reducing reagent, stabilizer, and solvent. To obtain AuPd solid solution NPs, Pd-OAm and Au-OAm precursors are firstly prepared by mixing OAm with Palladium (II) acetylacetonate (Pd(acac)2) and HAuCl4, respectively. Then Pd-OAm and Au-OAm precursor solutions are injected into a hot oleylamine solution to form AuPd NPs. The size of these NPs ranges from 6.0 to 8.0 nm and the composition is controlled by varying the precursor ratio. The AuPd NPs are loaded onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets to make catalysts. Alloy NPs show high electrocatalytic activity and stability toward methanol oxidation in the alkaline media. Their catalytic activity for methanol oxidation is found to be dependent on the NP composition. As the Pd component increases, the peak current densities during the forward scan gradually increase and reach the maximum at AuPd2. The enhancement of alloy NPs for methanol oxidation can be attributed to a synergistic effect of Au and Pd on the surface of alloy NPs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61335006) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CBA01603).

  12. Pt-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles on MWCNTs: catalyst for hydrogen peroxide electrosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Félix-Navarro, R. M.; Beltrán-Gastélum, M.; Salazar-Gastélum, M. I.; Silva-Carrillo, C.; Reynoso-Soto, E. A.; Pérez-Sicairos, S.; Lin, S. W.; Paraguay-Delgado, F.; Alonso-Núñez, G.

    2013-08-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles of Pt-Pd were deposited by the microemulsion method on a multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNTs) to obtain a Pt-Pd/MWCNTs for electrocatalytic reduction of O2 to H2O2. The activity and selectivity of the catalyst was determined qualitatively by the rotating disk electrode method in acidic medium. The catalyst was spray-coated onto a reticulated vitreous carbon substrate and quantitatively was tested in bulk electrolysis for 20 min under potentiostatic conditions (0.5 V vs Ag/AgCl) in a 0.5 M H2SO4 electrolyte using dissolved O2. The bulk electrolysis experiments show that the Pt-Pd/MWCNTs catalyst is more efficient for H2O2 electrogeneration than a MWCNTs catalyst. Nitrobenzene degradation by electrogenerated H2O2 alone and Electro-Fenton process were also tested. Our results show that both processes decompose nitrobenzene, but the Electro-Fenton process does it more efficiently. The prepared nanoparticulated catalyst shows a great potential in environmental applications.

  13. Structural analysis of palladium-decorated gold nanoparticles as colloidal bimetallic catalysts.

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Y. L.; Miller, J. T.; Guo, N.; Heck, K. N.; Alvarez, P. J. J.; Wong, M. S.

    2011-02-02

    Bimetallic palladium-decorated gold nanoparticle (Pd/Au NP) catalysts are significantly more active than palladium-only catalysts, but the mechanism for enhancement is not completely clear for most reactions, like the aqueous-phase hydrodechlorination of trichloroethene. In this study, we conducted X-ray absorption spectroscopy on carbon-supported Pd/Au NPs to obtain information about the local atomic environment (i.e., oxidation states, coordination numbers, and bond distances) of the two metals under different treatment conditions. The as-synthesized NPs were confirmed to have a Pd-shell/Au-core nanostructure, in which the Pd was found as surface ensembles. Upon exposure to room temperature in air, a portion of the Pd, but not the Au, was oxidized. In comparison, nearly the entire surface of monometallic Pd NPs was oxidized, suggesting that Au in Pd/Au NPs imparts oxidation resistance to Pd atoms. The surface Pd was found randomly distributed, presumably as a PdAu surface alloy, after reduction at 300 C. X-ray absorption spectroscopy provides direct evidence for the Pd-shell/Au-core structure of Pd/Au NPs, and suggests that metallic Pd in the Pd/Au NPs is a source for higher catalytic activity for aqueous-phase trichloroethene hydrodechlorination.

  14. Synthesis and biosensor application of Ag@Au bimetallic nanoparticles based on localized surface plasmon resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghodselahi, T.; Arsalani, S.; Neishaboorynejad, T.

    2014-05-01

    This work demonstrates a simple method for synthesizing gold-silver bimetallic nanoparticles (Ag@Au BNPs). Ag@Au BNPs on the carbon thin film are prepared by co-deposition of RF-sputtering and RF-PECVD using acetylene gas and gold-silver target. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that Au and Ag NPs with FCC crystal structure are formed in our samples. From AFM image and data, average particles size of gold and silver are estimated to be about 5 and 8 nm, respectively. XRD profile and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectroscopy indicate that Ag NPs in Ag@Au BNPs composite have a more chemical activity with respect to bare Ag NPs. Biosensor application of Ag@Au BNPs without probe immobilization is introduced too. The change in LSPR absorption peak of Ag@Au BNPs in presence of DNA primer decamer (ten-deoxycytosine) at fM concentrations is investigated. The LSPR absorption peak of Au NPs has a blue shift and the LSPR absorption peak of Ag NPs has a red shift by addition of DNA primer and under DNA exposure up to 1 h. Our sample shows a good response to low concentration of DNA and has a short response time. Both of these are prerequisite for applying this sample as LSPR biosensor chip.

  15. Molecular dynamics study of bimetallic nanoparticles: the case of Au xCu y alloy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-López, J. L.; Montejano-Carrizales, J. M.; José-Yacamán, M.

    2003-10-01

    Gold and copper nanoparticles present atomic structures which are either icosahedral (I h), decahedral (D h) or octahedral (O h), depending of the particle size. Some experimental results had previously reported the stabilization of the I h phase in AuCu and AuFe clusters, being this phase predominant at 25% copper concentration in both systems. Another result reports an fcc-like and core/shell structure under similar experimental conditions and/or similar systems. In the present work, we study the possible phase conformations and thermal behavior of AuCu binary clusters using classical molecular dynamics simulations with a Sutton and Chen inter-atomic potential, addressing under which conditions the different phases mentioned above take place. To discern between the structures of bimetallic systems, the following main factors are determinant: the cluster size N, the concentration and nature of the elements in the alloy, and the annealing temperature. We choose the particles in our study closed to the sizes reported experimentally, with the cubo-octahedral symmetry as starting point. We have changed the concentration of copper from 50 to 10%, simulating an annealing process around the temperature of 750 K. We have found optimum stability of the icosahedral phase at concentrations of copper around 75 and 25% in fair agreement with experimental reports, and a trend to adopt a quasi-spherical shape with a core/shell structure at high temperatures in the cluster, just before the melting temperature.

  16. Preparation and catalytic activities for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition of Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haijun; Deng, Xiangong; Jiao, Chengpeng; Lu, Lilin; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-07-15

    Graphical abstract: PVP-protected Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) were prepared by using hydrogen sacrificial reduction method, the activity of Rh80Au20 BNPs were about 3.6 times higher than that of Rh NPs. - Highlights: • Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) of 3∼5 nm in diameter were prepared. • Activity for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition of BNPs is 3.6 times higher than that of Rh NPs. • The high activity of BNPs was caused by the existence of charged Rh atoms. • The apparent activation energy for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition over the BNPs was calculated. - Abstract: PVP-protected Rh/Au bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) were prepared by using hydrogen sacrificial reduction method and characterized by UV–vis, XRD, FT-IR, XPS, TEM, HR-TEM and DF-STEM, the effects of composition on their particle sizes and catalytic activities for H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition were also studied. The as-prepared Rh/Au BNPs possessed a high catalytic activity for the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decomposition, and the activity of the Rh{sub 80}Au{sub 20} BNPs with average size of 2.7 nm were about 3.6 times higher than that of Rh monometallic nanoparticles (MNPs) even the Rh MNPs possess a smaller particle size of 1.7 nm. In contrast, Au MNPs with size of 2.7 nm show no any activity. Density functional theory (DFT) calculation as well as XPS results showed that charged Rh and Au atoms formed via electronic charge transfer effects could be responsible for the high catalytic activity of the BNPs.

  17. General Method for Determination of the Surface Composition in Bimetallic Nanoparticle Catalysts from the L Edge X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Tiapin; Childers, David; Gomez, Carolina; Karim, Ayman M.; Schweitzer, Neil; Kropf, Arthur; Wang, Hui; Bolin, Trudy B.; Hu, Yongfeng; Kovarik, Libor; Meyer, Randall; Miller, Jeffrey T.

    2012-10-08

    Bimetallic PtPd on silica nano-particle catalysts have been synthesized and their average structure determined by Pt L3 and Pd K-edge extended X-ray absorption finestructure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The bimetallic structure is confirmed from elemental line scans by STEM for the individual 1-2 nm sized particles. A general method is described to determine the surface composition in bimetallic nanoparticles even when both metals adsorb, for example, CO. By measuring the change in the L3 X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra with and without CO in bimetallic particles and comparing these changes to those in monometallic particles of known size the fraction of surface atoms can be determined. The turnover rates (TOR) and neopentane hydrogenolysis and isomerization selectivities based on the surface composition suggest that the catalytic and spectroscopic properties are different from those in monometallic nano-particle catalysts. At the same neo-pentane conversion, the isomerization selectivity is higher for the PtPd catalyst while the TOR is lower than that of both Pt and Pd. As with the catalytic performance, the infrared spectra of adsorbed CO are not a linear combination of the spectra on monometallic catalysts. Density functional theory calculations indicate that the Pt-CO adsorption enthalpy increases while the Pd-CO bond energy decreases. The ability to determine the surface composition allows for a better understanding of the spectroscopic and catalytic properties of bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts.

  18. Straightforward synthesis of bimetallic Co/Pt nanoparticles in ionic liquid: atomic rearrangement driven by reduction-sulfidation processes and Fischer-Tropsch catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Dagoberto O.; Luza, Leandro; Gual, Aitor; Baptista, Daniel L.; Bernardi, Fabiano; Zapata, Maximiliano J. M.; Morais, Jonder; Dupont, Jairton

    2014-07-01

    Unsupported bimetallic Co/Pt nanoparticles (NPs) of 4.4 +/- 1.9 nm can be easily obtained by a simple reaction of [bis(cylopentadienyl)cobalt(ii)] and [tris(dibenzylideneacetone) bisplatinum(0)] complexes in 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate IL at 150 °C under hydrogen (10 bar) for 24 h. These bimetallic NPs display core-shell like structures in which mainly Pt composes the external shell and its concentration decreases in the inner-shells (CoPt3@Pt-like structure). XPS and EXAFS analyses show the restructuration of the metal composition at the NP surface when they are subjected to hydrogen and posterior H2S sulfidation, thus inducing the migration of Co atoms to the external shells of the bimetallic NPs. Furthermore, the isolated bimetallic NPs are active catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, with selectivity for naphtha products.

  19. Reductive Degradation of Tetrabromobisphenol Using Iron–Silver and Iron–Nickel Bimetallic Nanoparticles with Microwave Energy

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Si; Yang, Shaogui; Wang, Xiaodong; Sun, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this work, a novel combined system by Fe-Ag or Fe-Ni nanoparticles and microwave (MW) radiation were used for the debromination of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in aqueous solutions. Core-shell structure bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by replacement reaction in liquid phase and then characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. MW radiation can enhance the degradation of TBBPA by Fe-Ag or Fe-Ni observably. The rate of reduction reactions for bimetallic nanoparticles under MW were first compared with those under conventional heating conditions. Compared with nano-iron, the deposition of Ag or Ni also accelerated the debromination, and Fe-Ag was more reactive than Fe-Ni toward TBBPA reduction. Removal efficiencies increased with increasing Fe-Ag dosage and MW energy level. Major reduction products of TBBPA identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) were tri-BBPA, di-BBPA, mono-BBPA, and BPA, which indicated a stepwise debromination process. It provides an effective technology for TBBPA laden wastewater treatment. PMID:22693414

  20. Enhancement of catalytic degradation of amoxicillin in aqueous solution using clay supported bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiulan; Sun, Qian; Lin, Shen; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-05-01

    Despite bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles have been extensively used to remediate groundwater, they have not been used for the catalytic degradation of amoxicillin (AMX). In this study, bentonite-supported bimetallic Fe/Ni (B-Fe/Ni) nanoparticles were used to degrade AMX in aqueous solution. More than 94% of AMX was removed using B-Fe/Ni, while only 84% was removed by Fe/Ni at an initial concentration of 60 mg L(-1) within 60 min due to bentonite serving as the support mechanism, leading to a decrease in aggregation of Fe/Ni nanoparticles, which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation of iron oxides in the B-Fe/Ni after reaction with AMX was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The main factors controlling the degradation of AMX such as the initial pH of the solution, dosage of B-Fe/Ni, initial AMX concentration, and the reaction temperature were discussed. The possible degradation mechanism was proposed, which was based on the analysis of degraded products by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Remediation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soil using Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles: influencing factors, kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yingying; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zhao, Dongye

    2014-07-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are commonly used as additive flame retardants in all kinds of electronic products. PBDEs are now ubiquitous in the environment, with soil as a major sink, especially in e-waste recycling sites. This study investigated the degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) in a spiked soil using Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles. The results indicated that Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles are able to degrade BDE209 in soil at ambient temperature and the removal efficiency can reach 72% when an initial pH of 5.6 and at a Ni/Fe dosage of 0.03 g/g. A declining trend in degradation was noticed with decreasing Ni loading and increasing of initial BDE209 concentration. The degradation products of BDE209 were analyzed by GC-MS, which showed that the degradation of BDE209 was a process of stepwise debromination from nBr to (n-1)Br. And a possible debromination pathway was proposed. At last, the degradation process was analyzed as two-step mechanism, mass transfer and reaction. This current study shows the potential ability of Ni/Fe nanoparticles to be used for removal of PBDEs in contaminated soil.

  2. Production of mono- and bimetallic nanoparticles of noble metals by pyrolysis of organic extracts on silicon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serga, V.; Kulikova, L.; Cvetkov, A.; Krumina, A.; Kodols, M.; Chornaja, S.; Dubencovs, K.; Sproge, E.

    2013-12-01

    In the present work the influence of the tri-n-octylammonium (Oct3NH+) salt anion (PtCl62-, PdCl42-, AuCl4-) nature on the phase composition and mean size of crystallites of the extract pyrolysis products on the SiO2 nanopowder has been studied. The XRD phase analysis of the composites (metal loading 2.4 wt.%) made under the same conditions, at the pyrolysis of Pt- and Au-containing extracts has shown the formation of nanoparticles of Pt (dPt = 15 nm) and Au (dAu = 33 nm), respectively. The end-product of the pyrolysis of the Pd-containing extract has an admixture phase of PdO along with the main metal phase (dPd = 21 nm). At the preparation of bimetallic particles (Pt-Pd, Pt-Au, Pd-Au) on the SiO2 nanopowder it has been found that the nanoparticles of the PtPd alloy, Pt and Au or Pd and Au nanoparticles are the products of the thermal decomposition of two-component mixtures of extracts. The investigation of catalytic properties of the produced composites in the reaction of glycerol oxidation by molecular oxygen in alkaline aqueous solutions has shown that all bimetallic composites exhibit catalytic activity in contrast to monometallic ones.

  3. Ferritin-mediated biomimetic synthesis of bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets for electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li; Wang, Jiku; Ni, Pengjuan; Li, Zhuang

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrated a biomimetic green synthesis of bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) on graphene nanosheets (GNs). The spherical protein, ferritin (Fr), was bound onto GNs and served as the template for the synthesis of GN/Au-Ag nanohybrids. The created GN/Au-Ag nanohybrids were further utilized to fabricate a non-enzymatic amperometric biosensor for the sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and this biosensor displayed high performances to determine H2O2 with a detection limit of 20.0 × 10-6 M and a linear detection range from 2.0 μM to 7.0 mM.

  4. Determination of Anthracene on Ag-Au Alloy Nanoparticles/Overoxidized-Polypyrrole Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Mailu, Stephen N.; Waryo, Tesfaye T.; Ndangili, Peter M.; Ngece, Fanelwa R.; Baleg, Abd A.; Baker, Priscilla G.; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I.

    2010-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of anthracene was prepared by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with over-oxidized polypyrrole (PPyox) and Ag-Au (1:3) bimetallic nanoparticles (Ag-AuNPs). The composite electrode (PPyox/Ag-AuNPs/GCE) was prepared by potentiodynamic polymerization of pyrrole on GCE followed by its overoxidation in 0.1 M NaOH. Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were chemically prepared by the reduction of AgNO3 and HAuCl4 using C6H5O7Na3 as the reducing agent as well as the capping agent and then immobilized on the surface of the PPyox/GCE. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy technique which confirmed the homogeneous formation of the bimetallic alloy nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were in the range of 20–50 nm. The electrochemical behaviour of anthracene at the PPyox/Ag-AuNPs/GCE with Ag: Au atomic ratio 25:75 (1:3) exhibited a higher electrocatalytic effect compared to that observed when GCE was modified with each constituent of the composite (i.e., PPyox, Ag-AuNPs) and bare GCE. A linear relationship between anodic current and anthracene concentration was attained over the range of 3.0 × 10−6 to 3.56 × 10−4 M with a detection limit of 1.69 × 10−7 M. The proposed method was simple, less time consuming and showed a high sensitivity. PMID:22163419

  5. Determination of anthracene on Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles/overoxidized-polypyrrole composite modified glassy carbon electrodes.

    PubMed

    Mailu, Stephen N; Waryo, Tesfaye T; Ndangili, Peter M; Ngece, Fanelwa R; Baleg, Abd A; Baker, Priscilla G; Iwuoha, Emmanuel I

    2010-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor for the detection of anthracene was prepared by modifying a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) with over-oxidized polypyrrole (PPyox) and Ag-Au (1:3) bimetallic nanoparticles (Ag-AuNPs). The composite electrode (PPyox/Ag-AuNPs/GCE) was prepared by potentiodynamic polymerization of pyrrole on GCE followed by its overoxidation in 0.1 M NaOH. Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles were chemically prepared by the reduction of AgNO(3) and HAuCl(4) using C(6)H(5)O(7)Na(3) as the reducing agent as well as the capping agent and then immobilized on the surface of the PPyox/GCE. The nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy technique which confirmed the homogeneous formation of the bimetallic alloy nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles were in the range of 20-50 nm. The electrochemical behaviour of anthracene at the PPyox/Ag-AuNPs/GCE with Ag: Au atomic ratio 25:75 (1:3) exhibited a higher electrocatalytic effect compared to that observed when GCE was modified with each constituent of the composite (i.e., PPyox, Ag-AuNPs) and bare GCE. A linear relationship between anodic current and anthracene concentration was attained over the range of 3.0 × 10(-6) to 3.56 × 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 1.69 × 10(-7) M. The proposed method was simple, less time consuming and showed a high sensitivity.

  6. Synthesis and electron microscopy characterization of bimetallic nanoparticles and atomically controlled Au nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Nabraj

    The properties of metal nanoparticles are controlled by their composition, shape, size and crystalline structure. Nanoparticles and nanoclusters with controlled shape and size were synthesized and investigated using atomic resolution images from aberration corrected scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and mass spectrometry (MS). Gold-palladium (Au-Pd) core-shell nanocube and triangular nanoparticles were prepared by a seed-mediated growth process and the growth mechanism was studied by varying the volume of Pd precursors added to the Au seed solution. The atomic resolution STEM images revealed that the nanocube is formed from a single-crystal Au seed with rapid growth along <111> directions while the triangular nanoparticles were obtained with growth preferentially along <110> directions rather than <111> direction. The strain generated by the lattice mismatch between fcc-Au and fcc-Pd, is released by Shockley partial dislocations (SPD), combined with stacking faults (SF) that appear at the final (outer) Pd layer. Then, as the shell grows the SPDs and SFs appear at the interface and combine with misfit dislocations, which finally diffuse to the free surfaces due to the alloying of Au into the Pd shell. In related work, magneto-plasmonic gold-cobalt (Au-Co) nanoparticles of diameter 4-nm were generated by a phase-transfer process and investigated by STEM, where the Z-contrast imaging and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed inhomogeneous alloying between Au and Co at the nanoscale. The observed ferromagnetic behavior carries significance in biomedical applications. In addition, selected metallic (Au144(SR)60) and bimetallic (CuAu144) nanoclusters were obtained with thiolate-ligand protection and characterized using optical, MS, and STEM techniques. The optical spectrum and MS results established the monodispersity and purity of the nanoclusters. Another important aspect is that the emergence of broad strong plasmonic band centered near 520

  7. Green synthesis and characterization of Au@Pt core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles using gallic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guojun; Zheng, Hongmei; Shen, Ming; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaosan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we developed a facile and benign green synthesis approach for the successful fabrication of well-dispersed urchin-like Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) using gallic acid (GA) as both a reducing and protecting agent. The proposed one-step synthesis exploits the differences in the reduction potentials of AuCl4- and PtCl62-, where the AuCl4- ions are preferentially reduced to Au cores and the PtCl62- ions are then deposited continuously onto the Au core surface as a Pt shell. The as-prepared Au@Pt NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM); high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM); scanning electron microscope (SEM); UV-vis absorption spectra (UV-vis); X-ray diffraction (XRD); Fourier transmission infrared spectra (FT-IR). We systematically investigated the effects of some experimental parameters on the formation of the Au@Pt NPs, i.e., the reaction temperature, the molar ratios of HAuCl4/H2PtCl6, and the amount of GA. When polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) was used as a protecting agent, the Au@Pt core-shell NPs obtained using this green synthesis method were better dispersed and smaller in size. The as-prepared Au@Pt NPs exhibited better catalytic activity in the reaction where NaBH4 reduced p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. However, the results showed that the Au@Pt bimetallic NPs had a lower catalytic activity than the pure Au NPs obtained by the same method, which confirmed the formation of Au@Pt core-shell nanostructures because the active sites on the surfaces of the Au NPs were covered with a Pt shell.

  8. Diverse Melting Modes and Structural Collapse of Hollow Bimetallic Core-Shell Nanoparticles: A Perspective from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Zeng, Xiang-Ming; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Introducing hollow structures into metallic nanoparticles has become a promising route to improve their catalytic performances. A fundamental understanding of thermal stability of these novel nanostructures is of significance for their syntheses and applications. In this article, molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to offer insights into the thermodynamic evolution of hollow bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles. Our investigation reveals that for hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle, premelting originates at the exterior surface, and a typical two-stage melting behavior is exhibited, similar to the solid ones. However, since the interior surface provides facilitation for the premelting initiating at the core, the two-stage melting is also observed in hollow Au-core/Pt-shell nanoparticle, remarkably different from the solid one. Furthermore, the collapse of hollow structure is accompanied with the overall melting of the hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle while it occurs prior to that of the hollow Au-core/Pt-shell nanoparticle and leads to the formation of a liquid-core/solid-shell structure, although both of them finally transform into a mixing alloy with Au-dominated surface. Additionally, the existence of stacking faults in the hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle distinctly lowers its melting point. This study could be of great importance to the design and development of novel nanocatalysts with both high activity and excellent stability. PMID:25394424

  9. Diverse melting modes and structural collapse of hollow bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles: a perspective from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Zeng, Xiang-Ming; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2014-11-14

    Introducing hollow structures into metallic nanoparticles has become a promising route to improve their catalytic performances. A fundamental understanding of thermal stability of these novel nanostructures is of significance for their syntheses and applications. In this article, molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to offer insights into the thermodynamic evolution of hollow bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles. Our investigation reveals that for hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle, premelting originates at the exterior surface, and a typical two-stage melting behavior is exhibited, similar to the solid ones. However, since the interior surface provides facilitation for the premelting initiating at the core, the two-stage melting is also observed in hollow Au-core/Pt-shell nanoparticle, remarkably different from the solid one. Furthermore, the collapse of hollow structure is accompanied with the overall melting of the hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle while it occurs prior to that of the hollow Au-core/Pt-shell nanoparticle and leads to the formation of a liquid-core/solid-shell structure, although both of them finally transform into a mixing alloy with Au-dominated surface. Additionally, the existence of stacking faults in the hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle distinctly lowers its melting point. This study could be of great importance to the design and development of novel nanocatalysts with both high activity and excellent stability.

  10. Diverse Melting Modes and Structural Collapse of Hollow Bimetallic Core-Shell Nanoparticles: A Perspective from Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rao; Shao, Gui-Fang; Zeng, Xiang-Ming; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2014-11-01

    Introducing hollow structures into metallic nanoparticles has become a promising route to improve their catalytic performances. A fundamental understanding of thermal stability of these novel nanostructures is of significance for their syntheses and applications. In this article, molecular dynamics simulations have been employed to offer insights into the thermodynamic evolution of hollow bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles. Our investigation reveals that for hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle, premelting originates at the exterior surface, and a typical two-stage melting behavior is exhibited, similar to the solid ones. However, since the interior surface provides facilitation for the premelting initiating at the core, the two-stage melting is also observed in hollow Au-core/Pt-shell nanoparticle, remarkably different from the solid one. Furthermore, the collapse of hollow structure is accompanied with the overall melting of the hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle while it occurs prior to that of the hollow Au-core/Pt-shell nanoparticle and leads to the formation of a liquid-core/solid-shell structure, although both of them finally transform into a mixing alloy with Au-dominated surface. Additionally, the existence of stacking faults in the hollow Pt-core/Au-shell nanoparticle distinctly lowers its melting point. This study could be of great importance to the design and development of novel nanocatalysts with both high activity and excellent stability.

  11. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  12. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  13. Effects of Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles on phytotoxicity and translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Juan; Xie, Yingying; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Tsang, Pokeung Eric

    2016-11-01

    In vivo studies of the interactions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in plants have generally focused on uptake, translocation, metabolism and accumulation, but there were limited reports about the phytotoxicity and translocation of PBDEs in contaminated soil with the effects of nanoparticles. In this study, the effects of Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles on translocation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in contaminated soil and its phytotoxicity to Chinese cabbage were investigated by soil culture experiments. The results showed that the plant biomass, germination rate, and shoot and root lengths of treated soil (S-5) increased by 0.0044 g, 15%, and 5 and 6 mm, respectively, compared with untreated soil (S-2B). The average Ni and Fe contents of the edible parts(stem and leaf) of the S-5 sample, which contained 0.03 g/g Ni/Fe and 10 mg/kg BDE209, were measured at 1.71 and 184 mg/kg, respectively. The superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase activities in the S-5 sample decreased by 12%, 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively, while compared with the S-2B sample. In all treatments, the contents of BDE209 and the total PBDEs in sample S-5 were lowest, suggesting that the fresh Ni/Fe nanoparticles had higher toxicity than that of the aged nanoparticles. And the lower brominated PBDEs (tri-to nona-) were detected in samples, indicating uptake, debromination and/or metabolism of PBDEs existed in plants. The phytotoxicity and translocation of BDE209 in the contaminated soil decreased as a result of the effects of the Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Eco-friendly synthesis of gelatin-capped bimetallic Au-Ag nanoparticles for chemiluminescence detection of anticancer raloxifene hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Alarfaj, Nawal A; El-Tohamy, Maha F

    2016-09-01

    This study described the utility of green analytical chemistry in the synthesis of gelatin-capped silver, gold and bimetallic gold-silver nanoparticles (NPs). The preparation of nanoparticles was based on the reaction of silver nitrate or chlorauric acid with a 1.0 wt% aqueous gelatin solution at 50°C. The gelatin-capped silver, gold and bimetallic NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, UV-vis, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and were used to enhance a sensitive sequential injection chemiluminescence luminol-potassium ferricyanide system for determination of the anticancer drug raloxifene hydrochloride. The developed method is eco-friendly and sensitive for chemiluminescence detection of the selected drug in its bulk powder, pharmaceutical injections and biosamples. After optimizing the conditions, a linear relationship in the range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 1.0 × 10(-1)  mol/L was obtained with a limit of detection of 5.0 × 10(-10)  mol/L and a limit of quantification of 1.0 × 10(-9)  mol/L. Statistical treatment and method validation were performed based on ICH guidelines. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Observation of exchanging role of gold and silver nanoparticles in bimetallic thin film upon annealing above the glass transition temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Htet Kyaw, Htet; Tay Zar Myint, Myo; Hamood Al-Harthi, Salim; Maekawa, Toru; Yanagisawa, Keiichi; Sellai, Azzouz; Dutta, Joydeep

    2017-08-01

    The exchange role of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) in bimetallic films co-evaporated onto soda-lime glass substrates with Au-Ag volume ratios of 1:2, 1:1 and 2:1 have been demonstrated. Annealing of the films above the glass transition temperature in air led to non-alloying nature of the films, silver neutrals (Ag0) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the surface, along with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) inside the glass matrix. Moreover, the size distribution and interparticle spacing of the AuNPs on the surface were governed by the Ag content in the deposited film. In contrast, the content of Au in the film played an opposite role leading to the migration of Ag ions (i.e. Ag0 being transformed to Ag ions after annealing in oxygen ambient) to form AgNPs inside the glass matrix. The higher the Au content in the film is, the more likely Ag0 to stay on the surface and impacts on the size distribution of AuNPs and consequently on the refractive index sensitivity measurements. Experimental realisation of this fact was reflected from the best performance for localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensitivity test achieved with Au-Ag ratio of 1:2. The Au/Ag/glass bimetallic dynamic results of this study can be pertinent to sensor applications integrated with optical devices.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles for synergistic antimicrobial effect studies in combination with doxycycline on burn specific pathogens.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Ali; Tahami, Shiva; Naji, Mahsa

    2017-04-01

    Nano-medicine is a breakthrough discovery in the healthcare sector. Doxycycline is a new generation antibiotic which is proved to be a boon in the treatment of patients with complicated skin infections. We have tried to explore the benefits of synthesized bimetallic silver-gold nanoparticles in combination with new generation antibiotic for burn infections. The bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by core-shell method were characterized using scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The calculated average particle sizes of the Ag-Au NPs were found to be 27.5nm. The Ag-Au core-shell BNPs show a characteristic Plasmon peak at 525nm which is broad and red shifted. The synergistic antimicrobial activity of doxycycline conjugated bimetallic nanoparticles was investigated against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. This combined therapeutic agent showed greater bactericidal activity. Synergy of antibiotic with bimetallic nanoparticles is quite promising for significant application in burn healing therapy. The mechanism of the antibacterial activity was studied through the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was later suppressed with antioxidant to establish correlation with the Ag-Au NPs antimicrobial activity. Ag-Au NPs showed effective antiproliferative activity toward A549 human lung cancer (CCL-185) and MCF-7 human breast cancer (HTB-22) cell lines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Solid phase metallurgy strategy to sub-5 nm Au-Pd and Ni-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled redox properties.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yu; Xu, Shaodan; Dai, Yihu; Yan, Xiaoqing; Li, Renhong; Xiao, Liping; Fan, Jie

    2014-01-07

    A solid phase metallurgy strategy is applied to synthesize Au-Pd and Ni-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles (BMNPs) with a tight sub-5 nm particle size distribution. The near-surface elemental composition and redox properties of Au-Pd BMNPs can be well tailored, which leads to an optimized catalytic performance in n-hexane combustion.

  18. [Researches on PEG-modified copolymer nanoparticle].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yang, Xiangliang

    2003-03-01

    Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles acting as drug carrier have important potential applications such as site-specific drug delivery and controllable drug delivery. However, these carriers cannot generally be used because they are eliminated by the reticulo-endothelial system within seconds or minutes after intravenous injection. To overcome this limitation, more and more researchers introduce hydrophilic polyethylene glyeol(PEG) to modify polymeric nanoparticles for avoiding their uptake by reticulo-endothelial system. Introducing PEG not only changes polymer nanoparticles' biodegradation in vivo, but also influences drug's properties such as drug release, in vivo biodistribution, et. al. In this paper are reviewed the researches of PEG-modified copolymer nanoparticles, including their preparation and size distribution, stability, drug incorporation, drug release, in vivo biodistribution, in vitro cytotoxicty. A prospect for the researches and developments of the PEG-modified copolymer nanoparticles was also made.

  19. AuAg bimetallic nonalloyed nanoparticles on a periodically nanostructured GaAs substrate for enhancing light trapping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo Kyung; Tan, Chee Leong; Ju, Gun Wu; Song, Jae Hong; Yeo, Chan Il; Lee, Yong Tak

    2015-12-15

    We present a light trapping structure consisting of AuAg bimetallic nonalloyed nanoparticles (BNNPs) on cone-shaped GaAs subwavelength structures (SWSs), combining the advantages of plasmonic structures and SWSs for GaAs-based solar cell applications. To obtain efficient light trapping in solar cells, the optical properties' dependence on the size and composition of the Ag and Au metal nanoparticles was systematically investigated. Cone-shaped GaAs SWSs with AuAg BNNPs formed from an Au film of 12 nm and an Ag film of 10 nm exhibited the extremely low average reflectance (R(avg)) of 2.43% and the solar-weighted reflectance (SWR) of 2.38%, compared to that of a bare GaAs substrate (R(avg), 37.50%; SWR, 36.72%) in the wavelength range of 300 to 870 nm.

  20. Highly efficient removal of chromium(VI) by Fe/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles in an ultrasound-assisted system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaobin; Jing, Guohua; Lv, Bihong; Zhou, Zuoming; Zhu, Runliang

    2016-10-01

    Highly active Fe/Ni bimetallic nanocomposites were prepared by using the liquid-phase reduction method, and they were proven to be effective for Cr(VI) removal coupled with US irradiation. The US-assisted Fe/Ni bimetallic system could maintain a good performance for Cr(VI) removal at a wide pH range of 3-9. Based on the characterization of the Fe/Ni nanoparticles before and after reaction, the high efficiency of the mixed system could attribute to the synergistic effects of the catalysis of Ni(0) and US cavitation. Ni(0) could facilitate the Cr(VI) reduction through electron transfer and catalytic hydrogenation. Meanwhile, US could fluidize the Fe/Ni nanoparticles to increase the actual reactive surface area and clean off the co-precipitated Fe(III)-Cr(III) hydroxides to maintain the active sites on the surface of the Fe/Ni nanoparticles. Thus, compared with shaking, the US-assisted Fe/Ni system was more efficient on Cr(VI) removal, which achieved 94.7% removal efficiency of Cr(VI) within 10 min. The pseudo-first-order rate constant (kobs) in US-assisted Fe/Ni system (0.5075 min(-1)) was over 5 times higher than that under shaking (0.0972 min(-1)). Moreover, the Fe/Ni nanoparticles still have a good performance under US irradiation after 26 days aging as well as regeneration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aqueous Phase Glycerol Reforming by PtMo Bimetallic Nano-Particle Catalyst: Product Selectivity and Structural Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Stach E. A.; Dietrich, P.J.; Lobo-Lapidus, R.J.; Wu, T.; Sumer, A.; Akatay, M.C.; Fingland, B.R.; Guo, N.; Dumesic, J.A.; Marshall, C.L.; Jellinek, J.; Delgass, W.N.; Ribeiro, F.H.; Miller, J.T.

    2012-03-01

    A carbon supported PtMo aqueous phase reforming catalyst for producing hydrogen from glycerol was characterized by analysis of the reaction products and pathway, TEM, XPS and XAS spectroscopy. Operando X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) indicates the catalyst consists of bimetallic nano-particles with a Pt rich core and a Mo rich surface. XAS of adsorbed CO indicates that approximately 25% of the surface atoms are Pt. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that there is unreduced and partially reduced Mo oxide (MoO{sub 3} and MoO{sub 2}), and Pt-rich PtMo bimetallic nano-particles. The average size measured by transmission electron microscopy of the fresh PtMo nano-particles is about 2 nm, which increases in size to 5 nm after 30 days of glycerol reforming at 31 bar and 503 K. The catalyst structure differs from the most energetically stable structure predicted by density functional theory (DFT) calculations for metallic Pt and Mo atoms. However, DFT indicates that for nano-particles composed of metallic Pt and Mo oxide, the Mo oxide is at the particle surface. Subsequent reduction would lead to the experimentally observed structure. The aqueous phase reforming reaction products and intermediates are consistent with both C-C and C-OH bond cleavage to generate H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} or the side product CH{sub 4}. While the H{sub 2} selectivity at low conversion is about 75%, cleavage of C-OH bonds leads to liquid products with saturated carbon atoms. At high conversions (to gas), these will produced additional CH{sub 4} reducing the H{sub 2} yield and selectivity.

  2. Sonochemical preparation of bimetallic Co/Cu nanoparticles in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jia Yaoshun; Niu Helin; Wu Mingzai; Ning Min; Zhu Hongfei; Chen Qianwang . E-mail: cqw@ustc.edu.cn

    2005-09-01

    Co/Cu bimetallic nanocrystallites, with average diameter of 50 nm, were prepared by a sonochemical method in the hydrazine solution of copper chloride and cobalt chloride. Cobalt was face-centered cubic phase when synthesized and remained fcc phase throughout the annealing process. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) measurements were carried out to investigate their structural and magnetic properties. It was found that the magnetic properties of bimetallic nanocrystallites were close to that of the sputtered alloys.

  3. Strain-release mechanisms in bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles as revealed by Cs-corrected STEM

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Nabraj; Casillas, Gilberto; Ponce, Arturo; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Lattice mismatch in a bimetallic core-shell nanoparticle will cause strain in the epitaxial shell layer, and if it reaches the critical layer thickness misfit dislocations will appear in order to release the increasing strain. These defects are relevant since they will directly impact the atomic and electronic structures thereby changing the physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticles. Here we report the direct observation and evolution through aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy of dislocations in AuPd core-shell nanoparticles. Our results show that first Shockley partial dislocations (SPD) combined with stacking faults (SF) appear at the last Pd layer; then, as the shell grows the SPDs and SFs appear at the interface and combine with misfit dislocations, which finally diffuse to the free surfaces due to the alloying of Au into the Pd shell. The critical layer thickness was found to be at least 50% greater than in thin films, confirming that shells growth on nanoparticles can sustain more strain due to the tridimensional nature of the nanoparticles. PMID:23457419

  4. Bactericidal and catalytic performance of green nanocomposite based-on chitosan/carbon black fiber supported monometallic and bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fayaz; Khan, Sher Bahadar; Kamal, Tahseen; Anwar, Yasir; Alamry, Khalid A; Asiri, Abdullah M

    2017-08-28

    Nanoparticles were synthesized on the surface of green nanocomposite based on carbon black dispersed in chitosan (CB-CS) fibres. The nanoparticles were monometallic Co, Ag and Cu and bimetallic Co + Cu and Co + Ag. The CB-CS fibres were prepared and introduced into separate metal salt solutions containing Co(2+), Ag(+) and Cu(2+) and mixed Co(2+)+Cu(2+) and Co(2+)+Ag(+) ions. The metal ions immobilized on the surface of CB-CS were reduced using sodium borohydride (NaBH4) as reducing agent to synthesize the corresponding zero-valent metal nanoparticles-loaded CB-CS fibres. All the nanoparticles-loaded CB-CS samples were characterized using field emission-scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. When tested as catalysts, the nanoparticles-loaded CB-CS showed excellent catalytic ability for the reduction of toxic and environmentally unwanted pollutants of para-nitrophenol, congo red and methyl orange dyes. Afterwards, the antimicrobial activities of virgin and metal-loaded CB-CS fibres were tested and the metal-loaded CB-CS fibres were found to be effective against Escherichia coli. In addition, the catalyst can be recovered easily by simply removing the fibres from the reaction mixture and can be recycled several times while maintaining high catalytic efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Gyroscopic behavior exhibited by the optical Kerr effect in bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles suspended in ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Valdés, D.; Torres-Torres, C.; Martínez-González, C. L.; Trejo-Valdez, M.; Hernández-Gómez, L. H.; Torres-Martínez, R.

    2016-07-01

    The modification in the third-order nonlinear optical response exhibited by rotating bimetallic Au-Pt nanoparticles in an ethanol solution was analyzed. The samples were prepared by a sol-gel processing route. The anisotropy associated to the elemental composition of the nanoparticles was confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. The size of the nanoparticles varies in the range from 9 to 13 nm, with an average size of 11 nm. Changes in the spatial orientation of the nanomaterials automatically generated a variation in their plasmonic response evaluated by UV-Vis spectroscopy. A two-wave mixing experiment was conducted to explore an induced birefringence at 532 nm wavelength with nanosecond pulses interacting with the samples. A strong optical Kerr effect was identified to be the main responsible effect for the third-order nonlinear optical phenomenon exhibited by the nanoparticles. It was estimated that the rotation of inhomogeneous nanostructures can provide a remarkable change in the participation of different surface plasmon resonances, if they correspond to multimetallic nanoparticles. Potential applications for developing low-dimensional gyroscopic systems can be contemplated.

  6. Strain-release mechanisms in bimetallic core-shell nanoparticles as revealed by Cs-corrected STEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Nabraj; Casillas, Gilberto; Ponce, Arturo; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    Lattice mismatch in a bimetallic core-shell nanoparticle will cause strain in the epitaxial shell layer, and if it reaches the critical layer thickness misfit dislocations will appear in order to release the increasing strain. These defects are relevant since they will directly impact the atomic and electronic structures thereby changing the physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticles. Here we report the direct observation and evolution through aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy of dislocations in AuPd core-shell nanoparticles. Our results show that first Shockley partial dislocations (SPD) combined with stacking faults (SF) appear at the last Pd layer; then, as the shell grows the SPDs and SFs appear at the interface and combine with misfit dislocations, which finally diffuse to the free surfaces due to the alloying of Au into the Pd shell. The critical layer thickness was found to be at least 50% greater than in thin films, confirming that shell growth on nanoparticles can sustain more strain due to the tridimensional nature of the nanoparticles.

  7. Development of bimetallic (Zn@Au) nanoparticles as potential PET-imageable radiosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jongmin; Wang, Min; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Mawlawi, Osama; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2016-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are being investigated actively for various applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. As an effort to improve the imaging of GNPs in vivo, the authors developed bimetallic hybrid Zn@Au NPs with zinc cores and gold shells, aiming to render them in vivo visibility through positron emission tomography (PET) after the proton activation of the zinc core as well as capability to induce radiosensitization through the secondary electrons produced from the gold shell when irradiated by various radiation sources. Nearly spherical zinc NPs (∼5-nm diameter) were synthesized and then coated with a ∼4.25-nm gold layer to make Zn@Au NPs (∼13.5-nm total diameter). 28.6 mg of these Zn@Au NPs was deposited (∼100 μm thick) on a thin cellulose target and placed in an aluminum target holder and subsequently irradiated with 14.15-MeV protons from a GE PETtrace cyclotron with 5-μA current for 5 min. After irradiation, the cellulose matrix with the NPs was placed in a dose calibrator to assess the induced radioactivity. The same procedure was repeated with 8-MeV protons. Gamma ray spectroscopy using an high-purity germanium detector was conducted on a very small fraction (<1 mg) of the irradiated NPs for each proton energy. In addition to experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations were also performed with radioactive Zn@Au NPs and solid GNPs of the same size irradiated with 160-MeV protons and 250-kVp x-rays. The authors measured 168 μCi of activity 32 min after the end of bombardment for the 14.15-MeV proton energy sample using the (66)Ga setting on a dose calibrator; activity decreased to 2 μCi over a 24-h period. For the 8-MeV proton energy sample, PET imaging was additionally performed for 5 min after a 12-h delay. A 12-h gamma ray spectrum showed strong peaks at 511 keV (2.05 × 10(6) counts) with several other peaks of smaller magnitude for each proton energy sample. PET imaging showed strong PET signals from mostly decaying (66)Ga

  8. Development of bimetallic (Zn@Au) nanoparticles as potential PET-imageable radiosensitizers

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jongmin; Wang, Min; Gonzalez-Lepera, Carlos; Mawlawi, Osama; Cho, Sang Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are being investigated actively for various applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. As an effort to improve the imaging of GNPs in vivo, the authors developed bimetallic hybrid Zn@Au NPs with zinc cores and gold shells, aiming to render them in vivo visibility through positron emission tomography (PET) after the proton activation of the zinc core as well as capability to induce radiosensitization through the secondary electrons produced from the gold shell when irradiated by various radiation sources. Methods: Nearly spherical zinc NPs (∼5-nm diameter) were synthesized and then coated with a ∼4.25-nm gold layer to make Zn@Au NPs (∼13.5-nm total diameter). 28.6 mg of these Zn@Au NPs was deposited (∼100 μm thick) on a thin cellulose target and placed in an aluminum target holder and subsequently irradiated with 14.15-MeV protons from a GE PETtrace cyclotron with 5-μA current for 5 min. After irradiation, the cellulose matrix with the NPs was placed in a dose calibrator to assess the induced radioactivity. The same procedure was repeated with 8-MeV protons. Gamma ray spectroscopy using an high-purity germanium detector was conducted on a very small fraction (<1 mg) of the irradiated NPs for each proton energy. In addition to experimental measurements, Monte Carlo simulations were also performed with radioactive Zn@Au NPs and solid GNPs of the same size irradiated with 160-MeV protons and 250-kVp x-rays. Results: The authors measured 168 μCi of activity 32 min after the end of bombardment for the 14.15-MeV proton energy sample using the 66Ga setting on a dose calibrator; activity decreased to 2 μCi over a 24-h period. For the 8-MeV proton energy sample, PET imaging was additionally performed for 5 min after a 12-h delay. A 12-h gamma ray spectrum showed strong peaks at 511 keV (2.05 × 106 counts) with several other peaks of smaller magnitude for each proton energy sample. PET imaging showed strong PET signals from

  9. Hydrodechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls in contaminated soil from an e-waste recycling area, using nanoscale zerovalent iron and Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Yao, Xiaoyan; Yu, Chunna; Su, Xiaomei; Shen, Chaofeng; Chen, Chen; Huang, Ronglang; Xu, Xinhua

    2014-04-01

    Soil pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) arising from the crude disposal and recycling of electronic and electrical waste (e-waste) is a serious issue, and effective remediation technologies are urgently needed. Nanoscale zerovalent iron (nZVI) and bimetallic systems have been shown to promote successfully the destruction of halogenated organic compounds. In the present study, nZVI and Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by chemical deposition were used to remove 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl from deionized water, and then applied to PCBs contaminated soil collected from an e-waste recycling area. The results indicated that the hydrodechlorination of 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl by nZVI and Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles followed pseudo-first-order kinetics and Pd loading was beneficial to the hydrodechlorination process. It was also found that the removal efficiencies of PCBs from soil achieved using Pd/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles were higher than that achieved using nZVI and that PCBs degradation might be affected by the soil properties. Finally, the potential challenges of nZVI application to in situ remediation were explored.

  10. Graphene nanoribbon/FePt bimetallic nanoparticles/uric acid as a novel magnetic sensing layer of screen printed electrode for sensitive determination of ampyra.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Pegah; Bagheri, Hasan; Afkhami, Abbas; Amidi, Salimeh; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2018-01-01

    A novel electrochemical sensor for sensitive determination of ampyra (Am) based on graphene nanoribbons modified by iron-platinum bimetallic nanoparticles and uric acid (SPCE/FePtGNR/UA) dropped on the screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) surface and magnetically captured onto an SPCE working electrode surface is reported in the present work. The modified nanocomposite and sensing layer was characterized by different techniques, including cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray powdered diffraction (XRD). Am determination by conventional electrochemical methods is not possible, because of its high redox overpotential. Therefore, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of UA were used as a redox probe for indirect electrochemical determination of Am. The limit of detection (LOD) and linear concentration range were obtained as 0.028 and 0.08-9.0µmolL(-1) (3Sb/m = 3), respectively. The feasibility of the proposed method was examined by the detection of Am in biological and pharmaceutical samples with satisfactory results. The constructed electrochemical sensor was applied for fast, simple and sensitive detection of Am in real environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. From Galvanic to Anti-Galvanic Synthesis of Bimetallic Nanoparticles and Applications in Catalysis, Sensing, and Materials Science.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Astruc, Didier

    2017-04-01

    The properties of two alloyed metals have been known since the Bronze Age to outperform those of a single metal. How alloying and mixing metals applies to the nanoworld is now attracting considerable attention. The galvanic process, which is more than two centuries old and involves the reduction of a noble-metal cation by a less noble metal, has not only been used in technological processes, but also in the design of nanomaterials for the synthesis of bimetallic transition-metal nanoparticles. The background and nanoscience applications of the galvanic reactions (GRs) are reviewed here, in particular with emphasis on recent progress in bimetallic catalysis. Very recently, new reactions have been discovered with nanomaterials that contradict the galvanic principle, and these reactions, called anti-galvanic reactions (AGRs), are now attracting much interest for their mechanistic, synthetic, catalytic, and sensor aspects. The second part of the review deals with these AGRs and compares GRs and AGRs, including the intriguing AGRs mechanism and the first applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Performance of iron nano particles and bimetallic Ni/Fe nanoparticles in removal of amoxicillin trihydrate from synthetic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yazdanbakhsh, Ahmad Reza; Daraei, Hasti; Rafiee, Mohamad; Kamali, Hosein

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the degradation of amoxicillin trihydrate (AMT), using synthesized nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and bimetallic Fe and Ni nanoparticles stabilized with chitosan (Cs-Fe/Ni), in water was investigated. A central composite design combined with response surface methodology and optimization was utilized for maximizing the AMT reduction by the nanoparticles-water system. The importance of the various variables and their interactions were analyzed using analysis of variance and t-test. The effects of independent parameters were tested and the results showed that the initial concentration of AMT, pH, and nanoparticles dosage were all significant factors. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy images indicated that chitosan acts as a stabilizer preventing the agglomeration of nanoparticles. Also, chitosan and Ni increased the specific surface area of Cs-Fe/Ni. X-ray diffraction confirmed the existence of Fe(0) in fresh samples and the presence of Fe(II) and Fe(III) after the reaction with AMT. This study demonstrates that the nZVI technology could be a promising approach for antibiotic wastewater treatment.

  13. Green synthesis of silver, gold and silver/gold bimetallic nanoparticles using the Gloriosa superba leaf extract and their antibacterial and antibiofilm activities.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Kasi; Kumaraguru, Shanmugasundaram; Bhakyaraj, Kasi; Mohan, Subramanian; Venkatesh, Kunga Sukumaran; Esakkirajan, Masanam; Kaleeswarran, Periyannan; Alharbi, Naiyf S; Kadaikunnan, Shine; Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Benelli, Giovanni; Arumugam, Ayyakannu

    2016-12-01

    The green fabrication of metal nanoparticles using botanical extracts is gaining increasing research attention in nanotechnology, since it does not require high energy inputs or the production of highly toxic chemical byproducts. Here, silver (Ag), gold (Au) and their bimetallic (Ag/Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were green synthesized using the Gloriosa superba aqueous leaf extract. Metal NPs were studied by spectroscopic (UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD and EDX) and microscopic (AFM and TEM) analysis. AFM and TEM showed that Ag and Au NPs had triangular and spherical morphologies, with an average size of 20 nm. Bimetallic Ag/Au NPs showed spherical shapes with an average size of 10 nm. Ag and Ag/Au bimetallic NPs showed high antibacterial and antibiofilm activities towards Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Overall, the proposed synthesis route of Ag, Au and Ag/Au bimetallic NPs can be exploited by the pharmaceutical industry to develop drugs effective in the fight against microbic infections.

  14. Enhanced debromination of decabrominated diphenyl ether in aqueous solution by attapulgite supported Fe/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles: kinetics and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zongtang; Gu, Chenggang; Bian, Yongrong; Jiang, Xin; Sun, Yufeng; Fei, Zhenghao; Dai, Jingtao

    2017-08-01

    In this study, Fe/Ni bimetallic nanoparticles were supported on the attapulgite (A-Fe/Ni) to enhance the degradation reactivity of decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE209) in aqueous solution. The Fe/Ni nanoparticles were well distributed on the attapulgite surface with an average diameter of 20-40 nm. The removal percentage of BDE209 by A-Fe/Ni was 1.59 times higher than Fe/Ni nanoparticles alone because attapulgite could act as supporting material to disperse Fe/Ni nanoparticles and prevent Fe/Ni nanoparticles from aggregation. The degradation kinetics for BDE209 debromination by A-Fe/Ni could be well described by a pseudo-first-order model, and the debromination rate constant of BDE209 increased with increasing the dosage of A-Fe/Ni, water/THF ratio, and decreasing the initial BDE209 concentration and solution pH. The degradation products were identified using a third-order polynomial regression equation between the experimental and reference gas chromatography relative retention times. Stepwise debromination from n-bromo-DE to (n  -  1)-bromo-DE was a possible pathway with bromines being substituted sequentially by hydrogen. The preferred elimination of bromines of BDE209 by A-Fe/Ni followed the debromination preference of para-Br  >  meta-Br  >  ortho-Br. The results provide evidences for understanding the debromination mechanism of polybrominated diphenyl ether by clay-supported Fe/Ni nanoparticles.

  15. Fabrication of bimetallic Ag/Fe immobilized on modified biochar for removal of carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hongwei; Feng, Qiyan

    2017-04-01

    As an effective conventional absorbent, biochar exhibited limited adsorption ability toward small hydrophobic molecules. To enhance the adsorption capacity, a novel adsorbent was prepared by immobilizing nanoscale zero-valent iron onto modified biochar (MB) and then the elemental silver was attached to the surface of iron (Ag/Fe/MB). It's noted that spherical Ag/Fe nanoparticles with diameter of 51nm were highly dispersed on the surface of MB. As the typical hydrophobic contaminant, carbon tetrachloride was selected for examining the removal efficiency of the adsorbent. The removal efficiencies of carbon tetrachloride by original biochar (OB), Ag/Fe, Ag/Fe/OB and Ag/Fe/MB were fully investigated. It's found that Ag/Fe/MB showed higher carbon tetrachloride removal efficiency, which is about 5.5 times higher than that of the OB sample due to utilizing the merits of high adsorption and reduction. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that the removal of carbon tetrachloride by Ag/Fe/MB was a spontaneous and exothermic process, which was affected by solution pH, initial carbon tetrachloride concentration and temperature. The novel Ag/Fe/MB composites provided a promising material for carbon tetrachloride removal from effluent. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Fabrication and application of amperometric glucose biosensor based on a novel PtPd bimetallic nanoparticle decorated multi-walled carbon nanotube catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Jung; Lee, Chia-Feng; Rick, John; Wang, Shih-Han; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Hwang, Bing-Joe

    2012-03-15

    A sensitive, selective and stable amperometric glucose biosensor employing novel PtPd bimetallic nanoparticles decorated on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (PtPd-MWCNTs) was investigated. PtPd-MWCNTs were prepared by a modified Watanabe method, and characterized by XRD and TEM. The biosensor was constructed by immobilizing the PtPd-MWCNTs catalysts in a Nafion film on a glassy carbon electrode. An inner Nafion film coating was used to eliminate common interferents such as uric acid, ascorbic acid and fructose. Finally, a highly porous surface with an orderly three-dimensional network enzyme layer (CS-GA-GOx) was fabricated by electrodeposition. The resulting biosensor exhibited a good response to glucose with a wide linear range (0.062-14.07 mM) and a low detection limit 0.031 mM. The biosensor also showed a short response time (within 5 s), and a high sensitivity (112 μA mM(-1)cm(-2)). The Michaelis-Menten constant (K(m)) was determined as 3.3 mM. In addition, the biosensor exhibited high reproducibility, good storage stability and satisfactory anti-interference ability. The applicability of the biosensor to actual serum sample analysis was also evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis of bimetallic nanoshells by an improved electroless plating method.

    PubMed

    Liu, J B; Dong, W; Zhan, P; Wang, S Z; Zhang, J H; Wang, Z L

    2005-03-01

    In the Letter, we demonstrate an improved electroless plating method for the synthesis of bimetallic shell particles. The procedure involves a combination of surface reaction, seeding growth, and removal of supporting cores. We modified ammonical AgNO3 in ethanol with a controlled amount of HCHO in the seeding process and a uniform and relatively dense coverage of silver nanoparticle seeds on colloid cores was achieved. Following the second kind of metal plating, we extended this method to prepare continuous bimetallic core-shell and hollow particles with a submicrometer diameter. The morphologies of the bimetallic Cu/Ag and Pt/Ag particles were studied with transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and their crystallinity and chemical composition were confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The prepared materials may be of applied value in areas such as catalysis, optics, and plasmonics.

  18. Selective aerobic oxidation of 1,3-propanediol to 3-hydroxypropanoic acid using hydrotalcite supported bimetallic gold nanoparticle catalyst in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Mujahid; Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki

    2015-02-01

    Selective oxidation of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) to 3-hydroxypropanoic acid (3-HPA), an important industrial building block, was successfully achieved using hydrotalcite-supported bimetallic Au nanoparticle catalysts in water at 343 K under aerobic and base-free conditions. The highest yield of 42% with 73% selectivity towards 3-HPA was afforded by 1wt% Au0.8Pd0.2-PVP/HT catalyst.

  19. Au-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles supported on nest-like MnO2: synthesis and application in HCHO decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuehua; He, Junhui; Wang, Donghui; Hu, Yucai; Tian, Hua; Dong, Tongxin; He, Zhicheng

    2012-11-01

    Facile synthesis of Au-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (Au1- x Pt x NPs) and mixtures of Au NPs and Pt NPs ((100 % - y)Au/ yPt NPs) and their subsequent deposition on nest-like MnO2 nanostructures were presented. The as-prepared products were characterized by means of UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. TEM analyses showed that noble metal NPs were evenly dispersed on the surface of nest-like MnO2 nanostructures and no agglomeration was observed. The as-prepared metal NPs supported catalysts showed higher catalytic activities than MnO2 nanostructures for oxidative decomposition of formaldehyde (HCHO). The forms of noble metal NPs and Au/Pt molar ratio have significant effects on the catalytic performance, and Au0.5Pt0.5/MnO2 has the highest catalytic activity among all the as-prepared metal NPs supported MnO2 catalysts, and the temperature for complete decomposition of HCHO reached as low as 313 K. The high catalytic activities of Au1- x Pt x /MnO2 catalysts resulted from the synergistic effect between Au1- x Pt x NPs and MnO2 nanostructure, as well as the synergistic effect between Au and Pt. The current Au1- x Pt x /MnO2 catalysts are among the first trials to apply bimetallic NP-supported catalysts to the decomposition of HCHO, and proved that the Au1- x Pt x /MnO2 catalysts are promising for indoor decomposition of formaldehyde due to their easy synthesis, low cost, and excellent catalytic performance.

  20. Fractal bimetallic plasmonic structures obtained by laser deposition of colloidal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukharov, D. N.; Arakelyan, S. M.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Kucherik, A. O.; Osipov, A. V.; Istratov, A. V.; Vartanyan, T. A.; Itina, T. E.; Kavokin, A. V.

    2017-09-01

    We produce bimetallic Au:Ag thin films by laser irradiation of the mixed solutions. After several laser scans, granular nanometric films are found to grow with a well-controlled composition, thickness and morphology. By changing laser scanning parameters, the film morphology can be varied from island structures to quasi-periodic arrays. The optical properties of the deposited structures are found to depend on the film composition, thickness and spacing between the particles. The transmittance spectra of the deposited films are shown to be governed by their morphology.

  1. 40 CFR 721.10119 - Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10119 Siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified silica nanoparticles (PMN P-05-673) is subject to reporting under this...

  2. Green Synthesis of Fe and Fe/Pd Bimetallic Nanoparticles in Membranes for Reductive Degradation of Chlorinated Organics

    PubMed Central

    Smuleac, V.; Varma, R.; Sikdar, S.; Bhattacharyya, D.

    2011-01-01

    Membranes containing reactive nanoparticles (Fe and Fe/Pd) immobilized in a polymer film (polyacrylic acid, PAA-coated polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF membrane) are prepared by a new method. In the present work a biodegradable, non-toxic -“green” reducing agent, green tea extract was used for nanoparticle (NP) synthesis, instead of the well-known sodium borohydride. Green tea extract contains a number of polyphenols that can act as both chelating/reducing and capping agents for the nanoparticles. Therefore, the particles are protected from oxidation and aggregation, which increases their stability and longevity. The membrane supported NPs were successfully used for the degradation of a common and highly important pollutant, trichloroethylene (TCE). The rate of TCE degradation was found to increase linearly with the amount of Fe immobilized on the membrane, the surface normalized rate constant (kSA) being 0.005 L/m2h. The addition of a second catalytic metal, Pd, to form bimetallic Fe/Pd increased the kSA value to 0.008 L/m2h. For comparison purposes, Fe and Fe/Pd nanoparticles were synthesized in membranes using sodium borohydride as a reducing agent. Although the initial kSA values for this case (for Fe) are one order of magnitude higher than the tea extract synthesized NPs, the rapid oxidation reduced their reactivity to less than 20 % within 4 cycles. For the green tea extract NPs, the initial reactivity in the membrane domain was preserved even after 3 months of repeated use. The reactivity of TCE was verified with “real” water system. PMID:22228920

  3. Bimetallic gold-silver nanoplate array as a highly active SERS substrate for detection of streptavidin/biotin assemblies.

    PubMed

    Bi, Liyan; Dong, Jian; Xie, Wei; Lu, Wenbo; Tong, Wei; Tao, Lin; Qian, Weiping

    2013-12-17

    The silver-modified gold nanoplate arrays as bimetallic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates were optimized for the surface-enhanced Raman detection of streptavidin/biotin monolayer assemblies. The bimetallic gold-silver nanoplate arrays were fabricated by coating silver nanoparticles uniformly on the gold nanoplate arrays. Depending on silver nanoparticle coating, the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak of the bimetallic gold-silver nanoplate arrays blue-shifted and broadened significantly. The common probe molecule, Niel Blue A sulfate (NBA) was used for testing the SERS activity of the bimetallic gold-silver nanoplate arrays. The SERS intensity increased with the silver nanoparticle coating, due to a large number of hot spots and nanoparticle interfaces. The platforms were tested against a monolayer of streptavidin functionalized over the bimetallic gold-silver nanoplate arrays showing that good quality spectra could be acquired with a short acquisition time. The supramolecular interaction between streptavidin (strep) and biotin showed subsequent modification of Raman spectra that implied a change of the secondary structure of the host biomolecule. And the detection concentration for biotin by this method was as low as 1.0 nM. The enhanced SERS performance of such bimetallic gold-silver nanoplate arrays could spur further interest in the integration of highly sensitive biosensors for rapid, nondestructive, and quantitative bioanalysis, particularly in microfluidics. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Oxidizing capacity of periodate activated with iron-based bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hongshin; Yoo, Ha-Young; Choi, Jihyun; Nam, In-Hyun; Lee, Sanghyup; Lee, Seunghak; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Changha; Lee, Jaesang

    2014-07-15

    Nanosized zerovalent iron (nFe0) loaded with a secondary metal such as Ni or Cu on its surface was demonstrated to effectively activate periodate (IO4-) and degrade selected organic compounds at neutral pH. The degradation was accompanied by a stoichiometric conversion of IO4- to iodate (IO3-). nFe0 without bimetallic loading led to similar IO4- reduction but no organic degradation, suggesting the production of reactive iodine intermediate only when IO4- is activated by bimetallic nFe0 (e.g., nFe0-Ni and nFe0-Cu). The organic degradation kinetics in the nFe0-Ni(or Cu)/IO4- system was substrate dependent: 4-chlorophenol, phenol, and bisphenol A were effectively degraded, whereas little or no degradation was observed with benzoic acid, carbamazepine, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. The substrate specificity, further confirmed by little kinetic inhibition with background organic matter, implies the selective nature of oxidant in the nFe0-Ni(or Cu)/IO4- system. The comparison with the photoactivated IO4- system, in which iodyl radical (IO3•) is a predominant oxidant in the presence of methanol, suggests IO3• also as primary oxidant in the nFe0-Ni(or Cu)/IO4- system.

  5. A theoretical approach for estimation of ultimate size of bimetallic nanocomposites synthesized in microemulsion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabat, Alireza; Saydi, Hassan

    2012-12-01

    In this research a new idea for prediction of ultimate sizes of bimetallic nanocomposites synthesized in water-in-oil microemulsion system is proposed. In this method, by modifying Tabor Winterton approximation equation, an effective Hamaker constant was introduced. This effective Hamaker constant was applied in the van der Waals attractive interaction energy. The obtained effective van der Waals interaction energy was used as attractive contribution in the total interaction energy. The modified interaction energy was applied successfully to predict some bimetallic nanoparticles, at different mass fraction, synthesized in microemulsion system of dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane.

  6. In vitro cytotoxicity of surface modified bismuth nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yang; Wang, Chaoming; Qiao, Yong; Hossain, Mainul; Ma, Liyuan; Su, Ming

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes in vitro cytotoxicity of bismuth nanoparticles revealed by three complementary assays (MTT, G6PD, and calcein AM/EthD-1). The results show that bismuth nanoparticles are more toxic than most previously reported bismuth compounds. Concentration dependent cytotoxicities have been observed for bismuth nanoparticles and surface modified bismuth nanoparticles. The bismuth nanoparticles are non-toxic at concentration of 0.5 nM. Nanoparticles at high concentration (50 nM) kill 45, 52, 41, 34 % HeLa cells for bare nanoparticles, amine terminated bismuth nanoparticles, silica coated bismuth nanoparticles, and polyethylene glycol (PEG) modified bismuth nanoparticles, respectively; which indicates cytotoxicity in terms of cell viability is in the descending order of amine terminated bismuth nanoparticles, bare bismuth nanoparticles, silica coated bismuth nanoparticles, and PEG modified bismuth nanoparticles. HeLa cells are more susceptible to toxicity from bismuth nanoparticles than MG-63 cells. The simultaneous use of three toxicity assays provides information on how nanoparticles interact with cells. Silica coated bismuth nanoparticles can damage cellular membrane yet keep mitochondria less influenced; while amine terminated bismuth nanoparticles can affect the metabolic functions of cells. The findings have important implications for caution of nanoparticle exposure and evaluating toxicity of bismuth nanoparticles.

  7. nanoparticles fabricated by modified hydrolysis technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Munsif, Sajida; Rashid, Umer; Imad-ud-Din

    2014-06-01

    We have tested modified hydrolysis method for the preparation of α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles. The particles after synthesis were applied for a series of physicochemical techniques. Iron chloride was used as a precursor material. The particle size distribution was determined using zeta sizer and scanning electron microscopy. The surface area and the morphology of the particles vary by changing the concentration of the precursor material. The size of nanoparticles varies from 10 to 90 nm. The particles having size of 23 ± 1 nm were separated out from the solution and their size remains almost the same even after one month. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) of Fe2O3 nanoparticles confirms the purity of the desired material. The weight loss of the particles with respect to the temperature was studied by thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analysis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been employed to study the crystallinity of the particles.

  8. High sensitive and selective sensing of hydrogen peroxide released from pheochromocytoma cells based on Pt-Au bimetallic nanoparticles electrodeposited on reduced graphene sheets.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guangxia; Wu, Weixiang; Pan, Xiaoqi; Zhao, Qiang; Wei, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qing

    2015-01-26

    In this study, a high sensitive and selective hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor was successfully constructed with Pt-Au bimetallic nanoparticles (Pt-Au NPs)/reduced graphene sheets (rGSs) hybrid films. Various molar ratios of Au to Pt and different electrodeposition conditions were evaluated to control the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Pt-Au bimetallic nanoparticles. Upon optimal conditions, wide linear ranges from 1 µM to 1.78 mM and 1.78 mM to 16.8 mM were obtained, with a detection limit as low as 0.31 µM. Besides, due to the synergetic effects of the bimetallic NPs and rGSs, the amperometric H2O2 sensor could operate at a low potential of 0 V. Under this potential, not only common anodic interferences induced from ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine, but also the cathodic interference induced from endogenous O2 could be effectively avoided. Furthermore, with rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) as model, the proposed sensor had been successfully used in the detection of H2O2 released from the cancer cells. This method with wide linear ranges and excellent selectivity can provide a promising alternative for H2O2 monitoring in vivo in the fields of physiology, pathology and diagnosis.

  9. High Sensitive and Selective Sensing of Hydrogen Peroxide Released from Pheochromocytoma Cells Based on Pt-Au Bimetallic Nanoparticles Electrodeposited on Reduced Graphene Sheets

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Guangxia; Wu, Weixiang; Pan, Xiaoqi; Zhao, Qiang; Wei, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a high sensitive and selective hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor was successfully constructed with Pt-Au bimetallic nanoparticles (Pt-Au NPs)/reduced graphene sheets (rGSs) hybrid films. Various molar ratios of Au to Pt and different electrodeposition conditions were evaluated to control the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Pt-Au bimetallic nanoparticles. Upon optimal conditions, wide linear ranges from 1 µM to 1.78 mM and 1.78 mM to 16.8 mM were obtained, with a detection limit as low as 0.31 µM. Besides, due to the synergetic effects of the bimetallic NPs and rGSs, the amperometric H2O2 sensor could operate at a low potential of 0 V. Under this potential, not only common anodic interferences induced from ascorbic acid, uric acid and dopamine, but also the cathodic interference induced from endogenous O2 could be effectively avoided. Furthermore, with rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC 12) as model, the proposed sensor had been successfully used in the detection of H2O2 released from the cancer cells. This method with wide linear ranges and excellent selectivity can provide a promising alternative for H2O2 monitoring in vivo in the fields of physiology, pathology and diagnosis. PMID:25629706

  10. Intrinsic magnetic properties of bimetallic nanoparticles elaborated by cluster beam deposition.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, V; Khadra, G; Hillion, A; Tamion, A; Tuaillon-Combes, J; Bardotti, L; Tournus, F

    2015-11-14

    In this paper, we present some specific chemical and magnetic order obtained very recently on characteristic bimetallic nanoalloys prepared by mass-selected Low Energy Cluster Beam Deposition (LECBD). We study how the competition between d-atom hybridization, complex structure, morphology and chemical affinity affects their intrinsic magnetic properties at the nanoscale. The structural and magnetic properties of these nanoalloys were investigated using various experimental techniques that include High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry, as well as synchrotron techniques such as Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD). Depending on the chemical nature of the nanoalloys we observe different magnetic responses compared to their bulk counterparts. In particular, we show how specific relaxation in nanoalloys impacts their magnetic anisotropy; and how finite size effects (size reduction) inversely enhance their magnetic moment.

  11. 40 CFR 721.10120 - Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... nanoparticles (generic). 721.10120 Section 721.10120 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10120 Siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (generic). (a) Chemical... as siloxane modified alumina nanoparticles (PMN P-05-687) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. Au-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles supported on functionalized nitrogen-doped graphene for sensitive detection of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhuang; An, Zhenzhen; Guo, Yongyang; Zhang, Kangning; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Dongxia; Xue, Zhonghua; Zhou, Xibin; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2016-12-01

    In this work, we report a novel Au-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (Au-PtNPs) decorated on the surface of nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) functionalized with 1, 3, 6, 8-pyrene tetra sulfonic acid sodium salt (PyTS) by direct electrodeposition method. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electrochemical impendence spectrum (EIS) reveal that the Au-PtNPs were successfully anchored on the surface of NG sheets with a diameter of 20-40nm. Further, the prepared Au-PtNPs/PyTS-NG nanocomposite exhibits superior catalytic activity for the oxidation of nitrite. Under optimal experimental conditions, an amperometric sensor with a linear range of 0.5-1621μM and a detection limit of 0.19μM (S/N=3) for the detection of nitrite was set up and applied to real samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Interfacial Engineering of Bimetallic Ag/Pt Nanoparticles on Reduced Graphene Oxide Matrix for Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Yanhua; Yan, Li; Peltier, Raoul; Hui, Wenli; Yao, Xi; Cui, Yali; Chen, Xianfeng; Sun, Hongyan; Wang, Zuankai

    2016-04-06

    Environmental biofouling caused by the formation of biofilm has been one of the most urgent global concerns. Silver nanoparticles (NPs), owing to their wide-spectrum antimicrobial property, have been widely explored to combat biofilm, but their extensive use has raised growing concern because they persist in the environment. Here we report a novel hybrid nanocomposite that imparts enhanced antimicrobial activity and low cytotoxicity yet with the advantage of reduced silver loading. The nanocomposite consists of Pt/Ag bimetallic NPs (BNPs) decorated on the porous reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets. We demonstrate that the enhanced antimicrobial property against Escherichia coli is ascribed to the intricate control of the interfaces between metal compositions, rGO matrix, and bacteria, where the BNPs lead to a rapid release of silver ions, and the trapping of bacteria by the porous rGO matrix further provides high concentration silver ion sites for efficient bacteria-bactericide interaction. We envision that our facile approach significantly expands the design space for the creation of silver-based antimicrobial materials to achieve a wide spectrum of functionalities.

  14. Synthesis of Monometallic (Au and Pd) and Bimetallic (AuPd) Nanoparticles Using Carbon Nitride (C3N4) Quantum Dots via the Photochemical Route for Nitrophenol Reduction.

    PubMed

    Fageria, Pragati; Uppala, Shravan; Nazir, Roshan; Gangopadhyay, Subhashis; Chang, Chien-Hsiang; Basu, Mrinmoyee; Pande, Surojit

    2016-10-04

    In this study, we report the synthesis of monometallic (Au and Pd) and bimetallic (AuPd) nanoparticles (NPs) using graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) quantum dots (QDs) and photochemical routes. Eliminating the necessity of any extra stabilizer or reducing agent, the photochemical reactions have been carried out using a UV light source of 365 nm where C3N4 QD itself functions as a suitable stabilizer as well as a reducing agent. The g-C3N4 QDs are excited upon irradiation with UV light and produce photogenerated electrons, which further facilitate the reduction of metal ions. The successful formation of Au, Pd, and AuPd alloy nanoparticles is evidenced by UV-vis, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photon spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy techniques. The morphology and distribution of metal nanoparticles over the C3N4 QD surface has been systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and SAED analysis. To explore the catalytic activity of the as-prepared samples, the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol with excellent performance is also investigated. It is noteworthy that the synthesis of both monometallic and bimetallic NPs can be accomplished by using a very small amount of g-C3N4, which can be used as a promising photoreducing material as well as a stabilizer for the synthesis of various metal nanoparticles.

  15. An enzyme-mediated competitive colorimetric sensor based on Au@Ag bimetallic nanoparticles for highly sensitive detection of disease biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Yin, Binfeng; Zheng, Wenshu; Dong, Mingling; Yu, Wenbo; Chen, Yiping; Joo, Sang Woo; Jiang, Xingyu

    2017-08-07

    We developed a competitive colorimetric nanosensor based on Au@Ag bimetallic nanoparticles for the detection of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in clinical samples. Antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and polystyrene (PS) microparticles conjugated with both catalase and a secondary antibody can form sandwich structures that enable one-step target enrichment and separation. The catalase on the surface of the PS can catalyze the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to regulate the deposition of Ag(+) on the surface of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), and forms different sizes and amounts of Au@Ag bimetallic nanoparticles (Au@AgNPs) which produce a distinct color signal for readout with the naked eye. Our sensor features high sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and anti-interference property as a result of comprehensive parameter optimization. The limit of detection of IL-6 can reach 11 pg mL(-1) with the naked eye and 1.2 pg mL(-1) by quantitative instrumental analysis. The whole analysis can be finished within 1 h. More importantly, we successfully apply our platform or the detection of IL-6 in clinical samples with better accuracy than conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

  16. Transmetallation as an effective strategy for the preparation of bimetallic CoPd and CuPd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bersani, Marco; Conte, Luca; Martucci, Alessandro; Guglielmi, Massimo; Mattei, Giovanni; Bello, Valentina; Rosei, Renzo; Centazzo, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    The preparation of palladium alloy nanoparticles is of great interest for many applications, especially in catalysis. Starting from presynthesized nanoparticles of a less noble metal, a transmetallation reaction involving a redox process at the nanoparticle surface can be exploited to modify the nanoparticle composition and crystalline phase. As an example, monodispersed ε-cobalt and face-centered cubic copper nanoparticles were synthesized in organic solvents at high temperature and the as-formed nanoparticles were reacted with palladium(ii) hexafluoroacetylacetonate resulting in the formation of alloyed nanoparticles whose composition closely follows the reactant ratio. The oxidative state of the nanoparticle surface greatly affects the success of the transmetallation reaction and a reduction treatment was necessary to achieve the desired final product. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that for cobalt a limiting palladium content for the ε-phase alloy is found, above which an fcc alloy nucleates, while for copper the fcc crystalline phase is preserved throughout the whole composition range.

  17. Vapor phase synthesis and characterization of bimetallic alloy and supported nanoparticle catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsayed, V.; Saoud, K. M.; El-Shall, M. Samy

    2006-08-01

    The laser vaporization controlled condensation (LVCC) technique coupled with a differential mobility analyzer (DMA) is used to synthesize size-selected alloy nanoparticles and nanoparticle catalyst systems. The formation of Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles is concluded from the observation of only one plasmon band. The maximum of the plasmon absorption is found to vary linearly with the gold mole fraction. For the Au-Pd system, the XRD data confirms the formation of the alloy nanoparticles with no evidence of any of the pure components. The Au/CeO2 nanoparticle catalyst prepared by the LVCC method is a promising catalyst for low temperature CO oxidation due to its high activity and stability.

  18. Probing hydrodesulfurization over bimetallic phosphides using monodisperse Ni2-xMxP nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danforth, Samuel J.; Liyanage, D. Ruchira; Hitihami-Mudiyanselage, Asha; Ilic, Boris; Brock, Stephanie L.; Bussell, Mark E.

    2016-06-01

    Metal phosphide nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica provide a well-defined system for probing the fundamental chemistry of the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reaction over this new class of hydrotreating catalysts. To investigate composition effects in bimetallic phosphides, the HDS of dibenzothiophene (DBT) was carried out over a series of Ni-rich Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 (M = Co, Fe) nanocatalysts (x ≤ 0.50). The Ni2-xMxP nanoparticles (average diameters: 11-13 nm) were prepared by solution-phase arrested precipitation and encapsulated in mesoporous silica, characterized by a range of techniques (XRD, TEM, IR spectroscopy, BET surface area, CO chemisorption) and tested for DBT HDS activity and selectivity. The highest activity was observed for a Ni1.92Co0.08P@mSiO2 nanocatalyst, but the overall trend was a decrease in HDS activity with increasing Co or Fe content. In contrast, the highest turnover frequency (TOF) was observed for the most Co- and Fe-rich compositions based on sites titrated by CO chemisorption. IR spectral studies of adsorbed CO on the Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 catalysts indicate that an increase in electron density occurs on Ni sites as the Co or Fe content is increased, which may be responsible for the increased TOFs of the catalytic sites. The Ni2-xMxP@mSiO2 nanocatalysts exhibit a strong preference for the direct desulfurization pathway (DDS) for DBT HDS that changes only slightly with increasing Co or Fe content.

  19. Degradation of tetrachloromethane and tetrachloroethene by Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y. Y.; Liu, F.; Li, H. D.

    2009-09-01

    The study investigated the potential of nanoscale Ni/Fe bimetallic particles reduction for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and tetrachloroethene (PCE). BET specific surface areas of the laboratory synthesized Ni/Fe (2% wt.) particle, with diameter on the order of 20-60nm, was approximately 52.61m2/g. Batch studies demonstrated that rapid transformations of PCE and CT were achieved with nanoscale Ni/Fe particles. The degradation process appeared to be pseudo-first-order. Values of the surface area normalized rate coefficients (KSA) of PCE and CT for the reaction with nano Ni/Fe were 2.068mL/(m2·h), 10.08mL/(m2·h), respectively. This indicated that the degradation rate of CT was about 5 times larger than that of PCE under comparable environmental condition. Significant amounts of DCM were detected for the reaction with CT unlike the PCE transformation where ethane was the only end-product, amount to 103% of the initial PCE carbon. Both DCM (~15%) and methane (~27%) were the major end products for CT reaction. Based on the rapid rate of degradation and no or less chlorinated byproducts, the nanoscale particles technology offered great opportunities for both fundamental research and technological application for remediation of contaminated ground water.

  20. Encapsulation of Bimetallic Metal Nanoparticles into Robust Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks: Evaluation of the Catalytic Potential for Size-Selective Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Rösler, Christoph; Dissegna, Stefano; Rechac, Victor L; Kauer, Max; Guo, Penghu; Turner, Stuart; Ollegott, Kevin; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Tomokazu; Peeters, Daniel; Wang, Yuemin; Matsumura, Syo; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Muhler, Martin; Llabrés I Xamena, Francesc X; Fischer, Roland A

    2017-03-13

    The realization of metal nanoparticles (NPs) with bimetallic character and distinct composition for specific catalytic applications is an intensively studied field. Due to the synergy between metals, most bimetallic particles exhibit unique properties that are hardly provided by the individual monometallic counterparts. However, as small-sized NPs possess high surface energy, agglomeration during catalytic reactions is favored. Sufficient stabilization can be achieved by confinement of NPs in porous support materials. In this sense, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in particular have gained a lot of attention during the last years; however, encapsulation of bimetallic species remains challenging. Herein, the exclusive embedding of preformed core-shell PdPt and RuPt NPs into chemically robust Zr-based MOFs is presented. Microstructural characterization manifests partial retention of the core-shell systems after successful encapsulation without harming the crystallinity of the microporous support. The resulting chemically robust NP@UiO-66 materials exhibit enhanced catalytic activity towards the liquid-phase hydrogenation of nitrobenzene, competitive with commercially used Pt on activated carbon, but with superior size-selectivity for sterically varied substrates. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Size effect on alloying ability and phase stability of immiscible bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, S.; Hu, W.; Luo, W.; Wu, Y.; Li, X.; Deng, H.

    2006-12-01

    In the present paper, the surface and size effects on the alloying ability and phase stability of immiscible alloy nanoparticles have been studied with calculating the heats of formation of Au-Pt alloy nanoparticles from the single element nanoparticles of their constituents (Au and Pt) with a simple thermodynamic model and an analytic embedded atom method. The results indicated that, besides the similar compositional dependence of heat of formation as in bulk alloys, the heat of formation of alloy nanoparticles exhibits notable size-dependence, and there exists a competition between size effect and compositional effect on the heat of formation of immiscible system. Contrary to the positive heat of formation for bulk-immiscible alloys, a negative heat of formation may be obtained for the alloy nanoparticles with a small size or dilute solute component, which implies a promotion of the alloying ability and phase stability of immiscible system on a nanoscale. The surface segregation results in an extension of the size range of particles with a negative heat of formation. The molecular dynamics simulations have indicated that the structurally and compositionally homogeneous AuPt nanoparticles tend to form a core-shell structure with temperature increasing.

  2. Bimetallic PdAg nanoparticle arrays from monolayer films of diblock copolymer micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, E.; Beyou, E.; Mamontov, G. V.; Bugrova, T. A.; Prakash, S.; Aouine, M.; Domenichini, B.; Cadete Santos Aires, F. J.

    2015-07-01

    The self-assembly technique provides a highly efficient route to generate well-ordered structures on a nanometer scale. In this paper, well-ordered arrays of PdAg alloy nanoparticles on flat substrates with narrow distributions of particle size (6-7 nm) and interparticle spacing (about 60 nm) were synthesized by the block copolymer micelle approach. A home-made PS-b-P4VP diblock copolymer was prepared to obtain a micellar structure in toluene. Pd and Ag salts were then successfully loaded in the micellar core of the PS-b-P4VP copolymer. A self-assembled monolayer of the loaded micelles was obtained by dipping the flat substrate in the solution. At this stage, the core of the micelles was still loaded with the metal precursor rather than with a metal. Physical and chemical reducing methods were used to reduce the metal salts embedded in the P4VP core into PdAg nanoparticles. HRTEM and EDX indicated that Pd-rich PdAg alloy nanoparticles were synthesized by chemical or physical reduction; UV-visible spectroscopy observations confirmed that metallic PdAg nanoparticles were quickly formed after chemical reduction; XPS measurements revealed that the PdAg alloy nanoparticles were in a metallic state after a short time of exposure to O2 plasma and after hydrazine reduction.

  3. Structural and Magnetic Response in Bimetallic Core/Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nairan, Adeela; Khan, Usman; Iqbal, Munawar; Khan, Maaz; Javed, Khalid; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Han, Xiufeng

    2016-01-01

    Bimagnetic monodisperse CoFe2O4/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles have been prepared by solution evaporation route. To demonstrate preferential coating of iron oxide onto the surface of ferrite nanoparticles X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy have been performed. XRD analysis using Rietveld refinement technique confirms single phase nanoparticles with average seed size of about 18 nm and thickness of shell is 3 nm, which corroborates with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Low temperature magnetic hysteresis loops showed interesting behavior. We have observed large coercivity 15.8 kOe at T = 5 K, whereas maximum saturation magnetization (125 emu/g) is attained at T = 100 K for CoFe2O4/Fe3O4 core/shell nanoparticles. Saturation magnetization decreases due to structural distortions at the surface of shell below 100 K. Zero field cooled (ZFC) and Field cooled (FC) plots show that synthesized nanoparticles are ferromagnetic till room temperature and it has been noticed that core/shell sample possess high blocking temperature than Cobalt Ferrite. Results indicate that presence of iron oxide shell significantly increases magnetic parameters as compared to the simple cobalt ferrite. PMID:28335200

  4. Structural and Magnetic Response in Bimetallic Core/Shell Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nairan, Adeela; Khan, Usman; Iqbal, Munawar; Khan, Maaz; Javed, Khalid; Riaz, Saira; Naseem, Shahzad; Han, Xiufeng

    2016-04-14

    Bimagnetic monodisperse CoFe₂O₄/Fe₃O₄ core/shell nanoparticles have been prepared by solution evaporation route. To demonstrate preferential coating of iron oxide onto the surface of ferrite nanoparticles X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM) and Raman spectroscopy have been performed. XRD analysis using Rietveld refinement technique confirms single phase nanoparticles with average seed size of about 18 nm and thickness of shell is 3 nm, which corroborates with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Low temperature magnetic hysteresis loops showed interesting behavior. We have observed large coercivity 15.8 kOe at T = 5 K, whereas maximum saturation magnetization (125 emu/g) is attained at T = 100 K for CoFe₂O₄/Fe₃O₄ core/shell nanoparticles. Saturation magnetization decreases due to structural distortions at the surface of shell below 100 K. Zero field cooled (ZFC) and Field cooled (FC) plots show that synthesized nanoparticles are ferromagnetic till room temperature and it has been noticed that core/shell sample possess high blocking temperature than Cobalt Ferrite. Results indicate that presence of iron oxide shell significantly increases magnetic parameters as compared to the simple cobalt ferrite.

  5. Structural studies of Au-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles by a genetic algorithm method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Gui-Fang; Tu, Na-Na; Liu, Tun-Dong; Xu, Liang-You; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have attracted particular interests due to their excellent electronic, catalytic and optical properties over the past decades. Atomic-level understanding of structural characteristics of metallic nanoparticles is of great importance for their syntheses and applications because the structural characteristics strongly determine their chemical and physical properties. In this article, we systematically investigated the structural stability and structural features of Au-Pd nanoparticles by using the genetic algorithm with the quantum correction Sutton-Chen potentials. Layered coordinate ranking method and an effective fitness function have been introduced into the genetic algorithm to enhance its searching ability of low-energy configurations. Here were addressed eight representative nanoshapes including single-crystalline and multiple-twinned structures. The results reveal that the developed genetic algorithm exhibits superior searching ability. In all polyhedra, the truncated octahedron possessed the best stability, while the icosahedron did the worst. Moreover, segregation of Au to the surface and that of Pd to the core were disclosed in these polyhedral Au-Pd nanoparticles. Particularly, for Au composition of 50%, the optimized structures of Au-Pd nanoparticles were predicted to exhibit core-shell structures.

  6. Enhanced removal of trace Cr(VI) from neutral and alkaline aqueous solution by FeCo bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qin, Nannan; Zhang, Ya; Zhou, Hongjian; Geng, Zhigang; Liu, Gang; Zhang, Yunxia; Zhao, Huijun; Wang, Guozhong

    2016-06-15

    The reactivity of zero valent iron (Fe(0)) for removing Cr(VI) is self-inhibiting under neutral and alkaline conditions, due to the precipitation of ferrous hydroxide on the surface of Fe(0). To overcome this difficulty, we incorporated a second metal (Co) into Fe(0) to form FeCo bimetallic nanoparticles (FeCo BNPs), which can achieve higher activity and significant improvement in the reaction kinetics for the removal of Cr(VI) compared with Fe(0). The FeCo BNPs were synthesized by a hydrothermal reduction method without using any templates. The characterization analysis indicated that the products were highly uniform in large scale with 120-140 nm size in diameter. The obtained FeCo BNPs exhibited a remarkable removal ability for Cr(VI) in the pH range of 5.3-10.0. Especially, FeCo BNPs were able to reduce trace Cr(VI) (1.0 mg L(-1), pH=7.5) down to about 0.025 mg L(-1) within 1h. XPS analysis confirmed that Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III) by FeCo BNPs, while Fe and Co was oxidized, implying a chemical reduction process. The enhanced removal of trace Cr(VI) could be originated from the introduction of Co, which not only served as a protecting agent against surface corrosion by galvanic cell effect, but also enhanced the efficient flow of electron transfer between iron and Cr(VI). All the results primarily imply that FeCo BNPs can be employed as high efficient material for wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. VAPOR PHASE MERCURY SORPTION BY ORGANIC-SULFIDE COATED BIMETALLIC IRON-COPPER NANOPARTICLE AGGREGATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tetra sulfide silane coated iron-copper nano-particle aggregates are found to be potentially very high capacity sorbents for vapor phase mercury capture. High equilibrium capacities were obtained for the silane coated iron copper nano-aggregate sorbent at 70 oC and 120 oC. Even a...

  8. Controlled surface segregation leads to efficient coke-resistant nickel/platinum bimetallic catalysts for the dry reforming of methane

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Lidong; Zhou, Lu; Ould-Chikh, Samy; ...

    2015-02-03

    Surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. The evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanningmore » transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. As a result, these catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.« less

  9. Controlled surface segregation leads to efficient coke-resistant nickel/platinum bimetallic catalysts for the dry reforming of methane

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lidong; Zhou, Lu; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Kanoun, Mohammed B.; Scaranto, Jessica; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Khalid, Syed; Laveille, Paco V.; D'Souza, Lawrence; Clo, Alain; Basset, Jean -Marie

    2015-02-03

    Surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. The evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. As a result, these catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.

  10. Controlled Surface Segregation Leads to Efficient Coke-Resistant Nickel/Platinum Bimetallic Catalysts for the Dry Reforming of Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Lidong; Zhou, Lu; Ould-Chikh, Samy; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Kanoun, Mohammed B.; Scaranto, Jessica; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Khalid, Syed; Laveille, Paco V.; Lawrence D'Souza; Clo, Alain; Basset, Jean-Marie

    2015-02-03

    The surface composition and structure are of vital importance for heterogeneous catalysts, especially for bimetallic catalysts, which often vary as a function of reaction conditions (known as surface segregation). The preparation of bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure is very challenging. In this study, we synthesize a series of Ni/Pt bimetallic catalysts with controlled metal surface composition and structure using a method derived from surface organometallic chemistry. Moreover, the evolution of the surface composition and structure of the obtained bimetallic catalysts under simulated reaction conditions is investigated by various techniques, which include CO-probe IR spectroscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, extended X-ray absorption fine structure analysis, X-ray absorption near-edge structure analysis, XRD, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It is demonstrated that the structure of the bimetallic catalyst is evolved from Pt monolayer island-modified Ni nanoparticles to core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles composed of a Ni-rich core and a Ni/Pt alloy shell upon thermal treatment. The catalysts are active for the dry reforming of methane, and their catalytic activities, stabilities, and carbon formation vary with their surface composition and structure.

  11. Synthesis of nanostructured lean-NO x catalysts by direct laser deposition of monometallic Pt-, Rh- and bimetallic PtRh-nanoparticles on SiO2 support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savastenko, N.; Volpp, H.-R.; Gerlach, O.; Strehlau, W.

    2008-02-01

    Monometallic Pt and Rh and bimetallic PtRh catalysts with a highly dispersed noble metal weight loading of ca. 1 wt% were produced via the direct deposition of nanoparticles on different SiO2 supports by means of pulsed ultra-violet (248 nm) excimer laser ablation of Pt, Rh bulk metal and PtRh alloy targets. Backscattered electron microscopy (BSE), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to characterize the deposited nanoparticles, which were found to exhibit narrow size distribution centred around 2.5 nm. The catalytic activities for lean NO x reduction of the monometallic and bimetallic catalyst samples were investigated in a flow reactor setup in the temperature range 100-400°C using a test gas mixture representative of oxygen rich diesel engine exhaust gas. For comparison a Rh/SiO2 reference catalyst prepared by a conventional impregnation method was also tested. Further experiments were performed in which PtRh nanoparticles were deposited on a Rh/SiO2 reference catalyst sample to study the possibility for controlled modification of its activity. The catalytic activity measurements revealed that among the samples solely prepared by laser deposition the PtRh-SiO2 nanoparticle catalyst showed the highest activity for NO x reduction at low temperatures 100-300°C. In addition, it could be demonstrated that the initially low NO x reduction activity and the N2 selectivity of the Rh/SiO2 reference catalyst sample for temperatures below 250°C can be enhanced by post laser deposition of PtRh nanoparticles.

  12. Carbon nanofiber supported bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles for formic acid electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yuan-Hang; Jiang, Yue; Niu, Dong-Fang; Zhang, Xin-Sheng; Zhou, Xing-Gui; Niu, Li; Yuan, Wei-Kang

    2012-10-01

    Carbon nanofiber (CNF) supported PdAu nanoparticles are synthesized with sodium citrate as the stabilizing agent and sodium borohydride as the reducing agent. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) characterization indicates that the synthesized PdAu particles are well dispersed on the CNF surface and X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization indicates that the alloying degree of the synthesized PdAu nanoparticles can be improved by adding tetrahydrofuran to the synthesis solution. The results of electrochemical characterization indicate that the addition of Au can promote the electrocatalytic activity of Pd/C catalyst for formic acid oxidation and the CNF supported high-alloying PdAu catalyst possesses better electrocatalytic activity and stability for formic acid oxidation than either the CNF supported low-alloying PdAu catalyst or the CNF supported Pd catalyst.

  13. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611} high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H2PtCl6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  14. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-12-18

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611} high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H2PtCl6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  15. The key role of biochar in the rapid removal of decabromodiphenyl ether from aqueous solution by biochar-supported Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yunqiang; Wu, Juan; Wei, Yufen; Fang, Zhanqiang; Tsang, Eric Pokeung

    2017-07-01

    Some problems exist in the current remediation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from aqueous solution by using iron-based nanoparticles. Our efforts have contributed to the synthesis of biochar-supported Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticle composites (BC@Ni/Fe). Under the optimum operating parameters of BC@Ni/Fe, the morphologic analysis revealed that biochar effectively solved the agglomeration of Ni/Fe nanoparticles and the removal efficiency of BDE209 obtained by BC@Ni/Fe (91.29%) was seven times higher than the sum of biochar (2.55%) and Ni/Fe (11.22%) in 10 min. The degradation products of BDE209 in the solution and absorbed on the BC@Ni/Fe were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, which indicated that the degradation of BDE209 was mainly a process of stepwise debromination. Meanwhile, compared with Ni/Fe nanoparticles, the adsorption ability of the by-products of BDE209 by BC@Ni/Fe was greater, to a certain extent, which reduced the additional environmental burden. In addition, the concentration of nickle ion leaching from the Ni/Fe nanoparticles was 3.09 mg/L; conversely, the concentration of nickle leaching from BC@Ni/Fe was not detected. This excellent performance in our study indicates a possible means to enhance the reactivity and reduce the secondary risks of Ni/Fe nanoparticles.

  16. Investigation of gold and bimetallic gold/silver nanoparticles in soda-lime-silicate glasses formed by means of excimer laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, M.; Dubiel, M.; Meinertz, J.; Ihlemann, J.; Hoell, A.

    2017-02-01

    In this study, plasmonic Au and Au/Ag nanostructures in soda-lime-silicate glasses have been generated by means of ArF-excimer laser irradiation (193 nm) below the ablation threshold of the glass. For this purpose pure and silver/sodium ion-exchanged float glasses have been coated by gold and then irradiated by the laser. The formation of Au and Au/Ag nanoparticles could be verified by the surface plasmon resonances between 420 and 620 nm, which were obtained by optical spectroscopy. Both, pure Au and Ag particles as well as bimetallic Au/Ag nanoparticles, could be observed by means of small angle X-ray scattering experiments. These results demonstrate that such procedures enable the spaceselected generation of plasmonic nanostructures in glass surfaces by excimer laser irradiation.

  17. Bimetallic core/shell nanoparticle-decorated 3D urchin-like hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures with magneto-responsive and decolorization characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Liqin; Liu, Shuo; Yin, Jianbo; Zhao, Xiaopeng

    2015-02-01

    The semiconductors decorated with noble metals or magnetic metals have attracted increasing attention due to multifunctional properties. In this article, we prepare novel bimetallic core/shell nanoparticle (Co@Au and Co@Ag)-decorated 3D urchin-like hierarchical TiO2 nanostructures through combining electroless plating and in situ replacement processes. The morphology and structure are characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and a surface area analyzer. It demonstrates that Co@Au and Co@Ag nanoparticles are uniformly decorated on urchin-like TiO2 nanostructures. The composite nanostructures show not only surface plasmon absorption band from Au or Ag but also a magneto-responsive characteristic from Co. This allows composite nanostructures to exhibit advantages including enhanced decolorization efficiency compared to pure TiO2 nanostructures and facile separation from a solution by magnetic field.

  18. Surface plasmon resonance of Au-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles predicted by a quasi-chemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yen-Hsun; Wang, Wen-Lin

    2013-10-01

    Au-Cu alloys are functional materials with nonlinear optical applications. However, the optical properties of such alloys are difficult to predict due to the random mixing of materials. In this paper, we present a quasi-chemical model to simulate the optical properties of Au-Cu alloy systems based on the mixing of Gibbs free energy. This model is also able to predict the position of the surface plasmon resonance peaks for Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles. The model can be applied to predict the optical properties of alloy systems in the fields of plasmonics and nanophotonics.

  19. Bimetallic Catalysts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinfelt, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical reaction rates can be controlled by varying composition of miniscule clusters of metal atoms. These bimetallic catalysts have had major impact on petroleum refining, where work has involved heterogeneous catalysis (reacting molecules in a phase separate from catalyst.) Experimentation involving hydrocarbon reactions, catalytic…

  20. Bimetallic Catalysts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinfelt, John H.

    1985-01-01

    Chemical reaction rates can be controlled by varying composition of miniscule clusters of metal atoms. These bimetallic catalysts have had major impact on petroleum refining, where work has involved heterogeneous catalysis (reacting molecules in a phase separate from catalyst.) Experimentation involving hydrocarbon reactions, catalytic…

  1. Engineering the Composition and Structure of Bimetallic Au-Cu Alloy Nanoparticles in Carbon Nanofibers: Self-Supported Electrode Materials for Electrocatalytic Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Zhu, Han; Yu, Danni; Chen, JiaWei; Chen, JiaDong; Zhang, Ming; Wang, LiNa; Du, MingLiang

    2017-06-14

    The bimetallic Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles have been constructed in electrospun carbon nanofibers (Au-Cu/CNFs), employing as high efficient hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) electrode. The morphology, structure, and composition of bimetallic Au-Cu alloy can be controlled by adjusting the precursor nanofibers through a facile approach. With the increased Cu content, the Au-Cu alloy have a transition from the homogeneous AuCu3 alloy phase to the Au3Cu phase with Cu shell. The self-supported bimetallic Au-Cu/CNFs hybrid can be directly employed as electrode materials for water splitting, and it showed excellent electrochemical activity, including long-term stability, high exchange current density, and low overpotential. The outstanding HER performance could be mainly attributed to the synergistic interactions and interfacial effects of Au-Cu alloy with high densities of uncoordinated surface atoms. In addition, the fast charge transport and the fast kinetic for the desorption of the gas were originated from the self-supported three-dimensional architectures consist of integrated Au-Cu/CNFs networks. The Au-Cu/CNFs with mass ratio of 1:2 (Au3Cu-Cu "core-shell" alloy) obtain the lowest overpotential of 83 mV (at j = 10 mA cm(-2)), lowest Tafel slope of 70 mV dec(-1), and highest exchange current density of 0.790 mA cm(-2). The present investigations offer a new strategy for the design and synthesis of unique nanocrystals in energy conversion related application.

  2. Structural stability of alloyed and core-shell Cu-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hongcheng; Qi, Weihong; Ji, Wenhai; Li, Siqi; He, Jieting

    2017-03-01

    Combining the bond-energy model and Debye theory, we generalized the Gibbs free energy model for Cu-Pt nanoparticles (NPs) by introducing a shape factor considering the shape effect. We studied the structural stability of the Cu-Pt NPs and plotted the corresponding composition-, shape- and size-dependent phase diagrams. It is shown that the Cu-Pt NPs can form alloyed structure in a large size range. But when the particle size continues to decrease, the NPs will form the core-shell structure due to surface segregation. Meanwhile, the composition segregation could make the atoms of less-content element to gather in the surface. The predictions from the present calculated phase diagrams are consistent with a series of experimental results in literatures. To further prove the efficiency of the phase diagrams, we synthesized the alloyed Cu-Pt NPs of 4-15 nm by a co-reduction method, which is in agreement with the predictions from the phase diagrams.

  3. Study on surface-enhanced Raman scattering efficiency of Ag core-Au shell bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Gu, Huaimin; Kang, Jian; Yuan, Xiaojuan

    2009-08-01

    In this article, the relationship between the states of Ag core-Au shell (core-shell) nanoparticles (NP) and the intensity of Raman scattering of analytes dissolved in the water and adsorbed on the NP was studied. The core-shell NP were synthesised by coating Au layers over Ag seeds by the method of "seed-growth". To highlight the advantage of the core-shell NP, Ag colloid and Au colloid were chosen for contrasting. The analyte that were chosen for this testing were methylene blue (MB) for the reason that MB has very strong signal in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The SERS activity of optimalizing states of Ag and Au colloids were compared with that of core-shell NP when MB was used as analyte. In this study, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium nitrate were used as aggregating agents for Ag, Au colloids and core-shell NP, because anions have a strong influence on the SERS efficiency and the stability of colloids. The results indicate that core-shell NP can obviously enhance the SERS of MB. The aim of this study is to prove that compared with the metal colloid, the core-shell NP is a high efficiency SERS active substrate.

  4. Fe-Co bimetallic alloy nanoparticles as a highly active peroxidase mimetic and its application in biosensing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujin; Cao, Haiyan; Shi, Wenbing; Liu, Hong; Huang, Yuming

    2013-06-04

    This article presents a new enzyme-mimic activity of non-noble metal-based bimetallic Fe-Co NPs. This type of enzyme-mimic exhibits much higher affinity to H2O2 over other NPs-based peroxidase mimetics by at least one order of magnitude due to the synergistic effects between the two metals.

  5. Enhanced radiation therapy with internalized polyelectrolyte modified nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peipei; Qiao, Yong; Wang, Chaoming; Ma, Liyuan; Su, Ming

    2014-08-01

    A challenge of X-ray radiation therapy is that high dose X-ray under therapeutic conditions damages normal cells. This paper describes a nanoparticle-based method to enhance X-ray radiation therapy by delivering radio-sensitizing gold nanoparticles into cancer cells. The nanoparticles have been modified with cationic polyelectrolytes to allow internalization. Upon X-ray irradiation of nanoparticles, more photoelectrons and Auger electrons are generated to cause water ionization, leading to formation of free radicals that damage DNA of cancer cells. The X-ray dose required for DNA damage and cell killing is reduced by delivering gold nanoparticles inside cancer cells.

  6. α-Alkylation of ketones with primary alcohols driven by visible light and bimetallic gold and palladium nanoparticles supported on transition metal oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Meifen; Xin, Hui; Guo, Zhi; Guo, Dapeng; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Peng; Li, Jingyi

    2017-01-01

    The direct α-alkylation of ketones with primary alcohols to obtain the corresponding saturated coupled ketones was achieved with bimetallic gold(Au)-palladium(Pd) nanoparticles(NPs) supported on a transition metal oxide (such as CeO2). This system demonstrated a higher catalytic property than Au/CeO2 and Pd/CeO2 under visible light irradiation at 40 ± 3 °C in an Ar atmosphere. Such phenomenon was caused by the synergistic effect between Au and Pd. Isopropyl alcohol was used as the solvent and CH3ONa as the base. The effect of the bimetallic Au-Pd mass ratio and the two different transition metal oxide supports (such as CeO2 or ZrO2) during the reaction process was studied. The highest catalytic activity of those examined happened with the 1.5 wt% Au-1.5 wt% Pd (Au and Pd mass ratio 1:1)/CeO2 photo-catalyst. The intensity and wavelength of the visible light had a strong influence on the system. The catalyst can be reused for four times. A reaction mechanism was proposed for the α-alkylation of ketones with primary alcohols.

  7. Synthesis of Pd/Au bimetallic nanoparticle-loaded ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets for highly efficientcatalytic reduction of p-nitrophenol.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Deng, Yaocheng; Tang, Lin; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoyu; Xie, Xia; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Yang; Wang, Jiajia

    2017-03-15

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) applied in heterogeneous catalysis have attracted considerable attention due to their highly efficient catalytic performance. Pd/Au bimetallic NPs were successfully decorated on the ultrathin graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C3N4-N) by a facile one-pot deposition reduction method. The obtained results show that Pd/Au NPs with average diameter around 8nm are homogeneously dispersed on the surface of unmodified g-C3N4-N. The obtained materials were characterized via transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). In addition, considering the large surface area and special π-bonded planar structure, the unique ultrathin g-C3N4-N behave as an excellent carrier and stabilizer in this synthesis. The as-synthesized Pd/Au bimetallic nanohybrids show superior catalytic performance and stability for reduction of p-nitrophenol (p-NP), which is better than either of pure Pd or Au nanohybrids. Besides, the catalytic activities of Pd/Au@g-C3N4-N nanohybrids were found to be controlled by altering the Pd versus Au mass ratio in the preparation process.

  8. Probing the interaction of Rh, Co and bimetallic Rh-Co nanoparticles with the CeO2 support: catalytic materials for alternative energy generation.

    PubMed

    Varga, E; Pusztai, P; Óvári, L; Oszkó, A; Erdőhelyi, A; Papp, C; Steinrück, H-P; Kónya, Z; Kiss, J

    2015-10-28

    The interaction of CeO2-supported Rh, Co and bimetallic Rh-Co nanoparticles, which are active catalysts in hydrogen production via steam reforming of ethanol, a process related to renewable energy generation, was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and low energy ion scattering (LEIS). Furthermore, diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) of adsorbed CO as a probe molecule was used to characterize the morphology of metal particles. At small loadings (0.1%), Rh is in a much dispersed state on ceria, while at higher contents (1-5%), Rh forms 2-8 nm particles. Between 473-673 K pronounced oxygen transfer from ceria to Rh is observed and at 773 K significant agglomeration of Rh occurs. On reduced ceria, XPS indicates a possible electron transfer from Rh to ceria. The formation of smaller ceria crystallites upon loading with Co was concluded from XRD and HRTEM; for 10% Co, the CeO2 particle size decreased from 27.6 to 10.7 nm. A strong dissolution of Co into ceria and a certain extent of encapsulation by ceria were deduced by XRD, XPS and LEIS. In the bimetallic system, the presence of Rh enhances the reduction of cobalt and ceria. During thermal treatments, reoxidation of Co occurs, and Rh agglomeration as well as oxygen migration from ceria to Rh are hindered in the presence of cobalt.

  9. Characterization of bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles by grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fang; Yang, Die; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports the detailed composition and morphology of one-step green synthesized bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles (NPs) using grape leaf aqueous extract and identification of active biomolecules involved in the synthesis employing various techniques. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed that Fe/Pd NPs were polydispersed and quasi-spherical with a diameter ranging from 2 to 20nm. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) provided evidence for the composition of Fe and Pd and for their species existing on the surface of Fe/Pd NPs. In addition, biomolecules in the grape leaf aqueous extract were identified but their functions are still unclear. Biomolecules in the aqueous extract such as methoxy-phenyl-oxime, N-benzoyl-2-cyano-histamine, 2-ethyl-phenol, 1,2-benzenediol, β-hydroxyquebracamine, hydroquinone, 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, 5-methyl-2-furancarboxaldehyde, 4-(3-hydroxybutyl)-3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen and some polyphenolic compounds were identified as reducing and capping agents, which were studied by Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS), XPS and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Our finding suggests a new insight into cost-effective, simple, and environmentally benign production of bimetallic Fe/Pd NPs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modified kinetics of enzymes interacting with nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Sebastián. A.; Breger, Joyce C.; Malanoski, Anthony; Claussen, Jonathan C.; Walper, Scott A.; Ancona, Mario G.; Brown, Carl W.; Stewart, Michael H.; Oh, Eunkeu; Susumu, Kimihiro; Medintz, Igor L.

    2015-08-01

    Enzymes are important players in multiple applications, be it bioremediation, biosynthesis, or as reporters. The business of catalysis and inhibition of enzymes is a multibillion dollar industry and understanding the kinetics of commercial enzymes can have a large impact on how these systems are optimized. Recent advances in nanotechnology have opened up the field of nanoparticle (NP) and enzyme conjugates and two principal architectures for NP conjugate systems have been developed. In the first example the enzyme is bound to the NP in a persistent manner, here we find that key factors such as directed enzyme conjugation allow for enhanced kinetics. Through controlled comparative experiments we begin to tease out specific mechanisms that may account for the enhancement. The second system is based on dynamic interactions of the enzymes with the NP. The enzyme substrate is bound to the NP and the enzyme is free in solution. Here again we find that there are many variables , such as substrate positioning and NP selection, that modify the kinetics.

  11. Superhydrophobicity of silica nanoparticles modified with polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. L.; Fan, Z. P.; Zhang, L. D.; Wang, L.; Wei, Z. J.; Wang, X. Q.; Liu, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    Polystyrene/silica nanoparticles were prepared by radical polymerization of silica nanoparticles possessing vinyl groups and styrene with benzoyl peroxide. The resulting vinyl silica nanoparticles, polystyrene/silica nanoparticles were characterized by means of Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The results indicated that polystyrene had been successfully grafted onto vinyl silica nanoparticles via covalent bond. The morphological structure of polystyrene/silica nanoparticles film, investigated by scanning electron microscopy, showed a characteristic rough structure. Surface wetting properties of the polystyrene/silica nanoparticles film were evaluated by measuring water contact angle and the sliding angle using a contact angle goniometer, which were measured to be 159° and 2°, respectively. The excellent superhydrophobic property enlarges potential applications of the superhydrophobic surfaces.

  12. Thermal decomposition of solid solutions in systems of Fe(II), Co(II), and Ni(II) hydrogen maleates with the formation of bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudanova, L. I.; Logvinenko, V. A.; Sheludyakova, L. A.; Ishchenko, A. V.; Rudina, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    XRD phase analysis and thermal analysis are used to confirm the formation of a continuous series of solid solutions in which one cation is substituted for another in the systems Co(II) hydrogen maleate-Ni(II) hydrogen maleate; Fe(II) hydrogen maleate-Co(II) hydrogen maleate; and Fe(II) hydrogen maleate-Ni(II) hydrogen maleate. The unit cell volume of these solid solutions is shown to depend linearly on their composition. The linear character of changes in the initial temperatures of dehydration and thermal decomposition is established. Using the example of the first of these systems, it is shown that when heated, bimetallic nanoparticles embedded in the polymeric matrix of composites obtained via the thermal decomposition of solid solutions of hydrogen maleates undergo a second-order phase transition, resulting in decomposition of the solid solutions of metals at the Curie temperature.

  13. Reduced graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with Au-Pd bimetallic alloy nanoparticles towards efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenolic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Darabdhara, Gitashree; Boruah, Purna K; Borthakur, Priyakshree; Hussain, Najrul; Das, Manash R; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M; Malgras, Victor; Wu, Kevin C-W; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-04-21

    Reduced graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with Au-Pd bimetallic alloy nanoparticles are successfully prepared via a chemical approach consisting of reducing the metal precursors using ascorbic acid as reductant at an elevated temperature. The prepared nanocomposite is employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of organic contaminants such as phenol, 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), and 2-nitrophenol (2-NP). The complete degradation of phenol is achieved after 300 min under natural sunlight irradiation whereas the degradation of 2-CP and 2-NP is completed after 180 min. The activity of the photocatalyst is evaluated considering several parameters such as the initial phenol concentration, the photocatalyst loading, and the pH of the solution. The degradation kinetics of all the compounds is carefully studied and found to follow a linear Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Furthermore, the reusability of the photocatalyst is successfully achieved up to five cycles and the catalyst exhibits an excellent stability.

  14. Laser deposition of bimetallic island films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kucherik, A. O.; Arakelyan, S. M.; Kutrovskaya, S. V.; Osipov, A. V.; Istratov, A. V.; Vartanyan, T. A.; Itina, T. E.

    2016-08-01

    In this work the results of a bimetallic Au-Ag structure deposition from the colloidal system by nanosecond laser radiation are presented. The formation of the extended arrays of gold and silver nanoparticles with controlled morphology is examined. We report the results of formation bimetallic islands films with various electrical and optical properties. The changes in the optical properties of the obtained thin films are found to depend on their morphology.

  15. Single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy analysis of size and number concentration in mixtures of monometallic and bimetallic (core-shell) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Ruth C; Stephan, Chady; Lead, Jamie R

    2017-01-01

    It is challenging to separate and measure the physical and chemical properties of monometallic and bimetallic engineered nanoparticles (NPs), especially when mixtures are similar in size and at low concentration. We report that single particle inductively coupled mass spectroscopy (SP-ICP-MS), alongside field flow fractionation (FFF), has allowed for the accurate measurement of size and particle number concentrations of mixed metallic nanoparticles (NPs) containing monometallic NPs of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) and a bimetallic core-shell structured NP (Au@Ag) of equivalent size. Two sets of these NPs were measured. The first contained only 60nm particles, where the Au@Ag NP had a 30nm core and 15nm shell to make a total diameter of 60nm. The second contained only 80nm particles (Au@Ag NP core particle of 50nm with a 15nm shell). FFF separation was used here as a sizing technique rather than a separation technique. It was used to confirm that suspensions containing either individual or mixtures of the Au 60nm, Ag 60nm and AuAg 60nm suspensions eluted together and were of the same size. Similarly, FFF was used to show that suspensions containing individual or mixtures of the equivalent 80nm, eluted together and were of the same size. Although the 60nm and 80nm suspensions did not elute at the same time they were not run together. SP-ICP-MS is then used to identify the size and concentration of the particles within the suspension. Successful separation of the NPs was effected and the limits of the instrument were obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with Au-Pd bimetallic alloy nanoparticles towards efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenolic compounds in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darabdhara, Gitashree; Boruah, Purna K.; Borthakur, Priyakshree; Hussain, Najrul; Das, Manash R.; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Malgras, Victor; Wu, Kevin C.-W.; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-04-01

    Reduced graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with Au-Pd bimetallic alloy nanoparticles are successfully prepared via a chemical approach consisting of reducing the metal precursors using ascorbic acid as reductant at an elevated temperature. The prepared nanocomposite is employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of organic contaminants such as phenol, 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), and 2-nitrophenol (2-NP). The complete degradation of phenol is achieved after 300 min under natural sunlight irradiation whereas the degradation of 2-CP and 2-NP is completed after 180 min. The activity of the photocatalyst is evaluated considering several parameters such as the initial phenol concentration, the photocatalyst loading, and the pH of the solution. The degradation kinetics of all the compounds is carefully studied and found to follow a linear Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Furthermore, the reusability of the photocatalyst is successfully achieved up to five cycles and the catalyst exhibits an excellent stability.Reduced graphene oxide nanosheets decorated with Au-Pd bimetallic alloy nanoparticles are successfully prepared via a chemical approach consisting of reducing the metal precursors using ascorbic acid as reductant at an elevated temperature. The prepared nanocomposite is employed as a photocatalyst for the degradation of organic contaminants such as phenol, 2-chlorophenol (2-CP), and 2-nitrophenol (2-NP). The complete degradation of phenol is achieved after 300 min under natural sunlight irradiation whereas the degradation of 2-CP and 2-NP is completed after 180 min. The activity of the photocatalyst is evaluated considering several parameters such as the initial phenol concentration, the photocatalyst loading, and the pH of the solution. The degradation kinetics of all the compounds is carefully studied and found to follow a linear Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. Furthermore, the reusability of the photocatalyst is successfully achieved up to five cycles and the catalyst

  17. The Reaction Specificity of Nanoparticles in Solution: Application to the Reaction of Nanoparticulate Iron and Iron-Bimetallic Compounds with Chlorinated Hydrocarbons and Oxyanions

    SciTech Connect

    2005-06-01

    The prospect for better remediation technologies using nanoparticles of iron, iron oxides, and iron with catalytic metals (i.e., bimetallics) has potentially transformative implications for environmental management of DOE sites across the country. Of particular interest is the potential to avoid undesirable products from the degradation of chlorinated solvents by taking advantage of the potential selectivity of nanoparticles to produce environmentally benign products from CCl{sub 4}. Chlorinated solvents are the most frequently reported subsurface contaminants across the whole DOE complex, and carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) is the chlorinated solvent that is of greatest concern at Hanford (U. S. Department Energy 2001). In evaluating technologies that might be used at the site, a critical concern will be that CCl{sub 4} reduction usually occurs predominantly by hydrogenolysis to chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) and methylene chloride (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), both of which are nearly as problematic as CCl{sub 4} (National Research Council, 1978). Competing reaction pathways produce the more desirable products carbon monoxide (CO) and/or formate (HCOO{sup -}), and possibly CO{sub 2}, but the proportion of reaction that occurs by these pathways is highly variable. Iron-based metallic and oxide nanoparticles have been shown to have enhanced reactivity towards a variety of chemical species, including chlorinated hydrocarbons and reducible oxyanions. Possibly of greater importance is the ability of nanoparticles to select for specific reaction products, potentially facilitating the formation of more environmentally acceptable products. The purpose of this study is to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanism responsible for the overall particle reactivity and reaction selectivity of reactive metal and oxide nanoparticles. To achieve this objective the project involves the synthesis (using solution and vacuum synthesis methods) and characterization of well

  18. Structural and Architectural Evaluation of Bimetallic Nanoparticles: A Case Study of Pt−Ru Core−Shell and Alloy Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Alayoglu, S.; Zavalij, P; Eichhorn, B; Wang, Q; Frenkel, A; Chupas, P

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive structural/architectural evaluation of the PtRu (1:1) alloy and Ru at Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) provides spatially resolved structural information on sub-5 nm NPs. A combination of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), pair distribution function (PDF) analyses, Debye function simulations of X-ray diffraction (XRD), and field emission transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-TEM/EDS) analyses provides complementary information used to construct a detailed picture of the core/shell and alloy nanostructures. The 4.4 nm PtRu (1:1) alloys are crystalline homogeneous random alloys with little twinning in a typical face-centered cubic (fcc) cell. The Pt atoms are predominantly metallic, whereas the Ru atoms are partially oxidized and are presumably located on the NP surface. The 4.0 nm Ru at Pt NPs have highly distorted hcp Ru cores that are primarily in the metallic state but show little order beyond 8 A. In contrast, the 1-2 monolayer thick Pt shells are relatively crystalline but are slightly distorted (compressed) relative to bulk fcc Pt. The homo- and heterometallic coordination numbers and bond lengths are equal to those predicted by the model cluster structure, showing that the Ru and Pt metals remain phase-separated in the core and shell components and that the interface between the core and shell is quite normal.

  19. Hydrophobically modified nanoparticle suspensions to enhance water evaporation rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi; Li, Xiaoying; Yuan, Hao; Feng, Yanhui; Zhang, Xinxin

    2016-10-01

    The evaporation rates of water can be enhanced by adding the hydrophobically modified nanoparticles as a suspension. The magnitudes of enhancement are related to the diameter and mass concentration of nanoparticles. In particular, a 15% enhancement was achieved after adding the modified Al2O3 nanoparticle with a diameter of 13 nm and mass percentage of 0.02%. A theoretical model was established in order to estimate the evaporation rates of hydrophobic particle-based nanofluids. The obtained results indicate that the enhanced evaporation rates are attributed to the elevated saturated vapor pressures of the nanofluids. These results may have important applications for energy-efficient enhancement of water evaporation rates.

  20. Gelatin modified lipid nanoparticles for anti- viral drug delivery.

    PubMed

    K S, Joshy; S, Snigdha; Kalarikkal, Nandakumar; Pothen, Laly A; Thomas, Sabu

    2017-10-01

    The major challenges to clinical application of zidovudine are its moderate aqueous solubility and relative short half-life and serious side effects due to frequent administrations. We investigated the preparation of zidovudine-loaded nanoparticles based on lipids which were further modified with the polymer gelatin. Formulation and stability of the modified nanoparticles were analysed from the physico-chemical characterizations. The interactions of nanoparticles with blood components were tested by haemolysis and aggregation studies. The drug content and entrapment efficiencies were assessed by UV analysis. The effect of nanoparticles on protein adsorption was assessed by native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). In vitro release studies showed a sustained release profile of zidovudine. In vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of the zidovudine-loaded nanoparticles were performed in MCF-7 and neuro 2a brain cells. The enhanced cellular internalization of drug loaded modified nanoparticles in both the cell lines were revealed by fluorescence microscopy. Hence the present study focuses on the feasibility of zidovudine-loaded polymer modified lipid nanoparticles as carriers for safe and efficient HIV/AIDS therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Organically modified titania nanoparticles for sustained drug release applications.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Komal; Roy, Indrajit

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, characterization of drug-doped organically modified titania nanoparticles, and their applications in sustained drug release. The drug-doped nanoparticles were synthesized in the hydrophobic core of oil-in-water microemulsion medium. Structural aspects obtained through TEM and FESEM depicted that organically modified titania nanoparticles are monodispersed with spherical morphology, with an average size of around 200 nm. Their polymorphic forms and porosity were determined using powder XRD and BET, respectively, which showed that they are present in the anatase form, with a surface area of 136.5 m(2)/g and pore-diameter of 5.23 nm. After synthesis and basic structural characterizations, optical properties were studied for both fluorophore and drug encapsulated nanoparticles. The results showed that though the optical properties of the fluorophore are partially diminished upon nanoencapsulation, it became more stable against chemical quenching. The nanoparticles showed pH-dependent drug release pattern. In vitro studies showed that the nanoparticles were efficiently uptaken by cells. Cell viability assay results showed that though the placebo nanoparticles are non-cytotoxic, the drug-doped nanoparticles show drug-induced toxicity. Therefore, such porous nanoparticles can be used in non-toxic drug delivery applications.

  2. SERS investigation of coatings on thermal modified titanium dioxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amininejad, Sayed; Niessner, Reinhard; Baumann, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2) are progressively manufactured and used in a wide variety of products such as sunscreens, papers, paints and toothpastes. The increase in the production and use of Titanium dioxide nanoparticles would escalate the risk for exposure of the natural environments to these compounds. There are several techniques for identifying and quantifying nanoparticles and Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) is an emerging technique which combines raman spectroscopy with nanotechnology. SERS can also be used to investigate the changes of natural coatings on nanoparticles as an important factor regarding their environmental fate and biological effects. In this work, TiO2 P25 nanoparticles are thermally modified at different temperatures to study the effects of thermal shock on the crystal structure, surface properties and subsequently the Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering from 4-Mercaptobenzoic acid molecules coated on TiO2 nanoparticles has been observed. The results show that 4-Mercaptobenzoic acid molecules coated on nanoparticles exhibit different degree SERS enhancement on the surface of different nanoparticles modified at different temperatures by thermal modification method. This research work is expected to be important for improving SERS performance of TiO2 nanoparticles for characterization of natural coatings. Keywords: SERS, TiO2, 4-Mercaptobenzoic acid

  3. Activity Descriptor Identification for Oxygen Reduction on Platinum-Based Bimetallic Nanoparticles: In Situ Observation of the Linear Composition–Strain–Activity Relationship

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent progress in developing active and durable oxygen reduction catalysts with reduced Pt content, lack of elegant bottom-up synthesis procedures with knowledge over the control of atomic arrangement and morphology of the Pt–alloy catalysts still hinders fuel cell commercialization. To follow a less empirical synthesis path for improved Pt-based catalysts, it is essential to correlate catalytic performance to properties that can be easily controlled and measured experimentally. Herein, using Pt–Co alloy nanoparticles (NPs) with varying atomic composition as an example, we show that the atomic distribution of Pt-based bimetallic NPs under operating conditions is strongly dependent on the initial atomic ratio by employing microscopic and in situ spectroscopic techniques. The PtxCo/C NPs with high Co content possess a Co concentration gradient such that Co is concentrated in the core and gradually depletes in the near-surface region, whereas the PtxCo/C NPs with low Co content possess a relatively uniform distribution of Co with low Co population in the near-surface region. Despite their different atomic structure, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of PtxCo/C and Pt/C NPs is linearly related to the bulk average Pt–Pt bond length (RPt–Pt). The RPt–Pt is further shown to contract linearly with the increase in Co/Pt composition. These linear correlations together demonstrate that (i) the improved ORR activity of PtxCo/C NPs over pure Pt NPs originates predominantly from the compressive strain and (ii) the RPt–Pt is a valid strain descriptor that bridges the activity and atomic composition of Pt-based bimetallic NPs. PMID:25559440

  4. Activity descriptor identification for oxygen reduction on platinum-based bimetallic nanoparticles: in situ observation of the linear composition-strain-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qingying; Liang, Wentao; Bates, Michael K; Mani, Prasanna; Lee, Wendy; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-27

    Despite recent progress in developing active and durable oxygen reduction catalysts with reduced Pt content, lack of elegant bottom-up synthesis procedures with knowledge over the control of atomic arrangement and morphology of the Pt-alloy catalysts still hinders fuel cell commercialization. To follow a less empirical synthesis path for improved Pt-based catalysts, it is essential to correlate catalytic performance to properties that can be easily controlled and measured experimentally. Herein, using Pt-Co alloy nanoparticles (NPs) with varying atomic composition as an example, we show that the atomic distribution of Pt-based bimetallic NPs under operating conditions is strongly dependent on the initial atomic ratio by employing microscopic and in situ spectroscopic techniques. The PtxCo/C NPs with high Co content possess a Co concentration gradient such that Co is concentrated in the core and gradually depletes in the near-surface region, whereas the PtxCo/C NPs with low Co content possess a relatively uniform distribution of Co with low Co population in the near-surface region. Despite their different atomic structure, the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of PtxCo/C and Pt/C NPs is linearly related to the bulk average Pt-Pt bond length (RPt-Pt). The RPt-Pt is further shown to contract linearly with the increase in Co/Pt composition. These linear correlations together demonstrate that (i) the improved ORR activity of PtxCo/C NPs over pure Pt NPs originates predominantly from the compressive strain and (ii) the RPt-Pt is a valid strain descriptor that bridges the activity and atomic composition of Pt-based bimetallic NPs.

  5. The electrochemisty of surface modified <10 nm metal oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Joseph J. P.

    Chapter One provides a general introduction of the research on metal oxide nanoparticles (MOx), highlighting their synthesis, surface modification, and functionalization. Emphasis is given to the different synthetic route for producing small (<10 nm) MOx nanoparticles with narrow size distributions. Different methods for modifying their surface with small organic molecules are discussed with focus given to silanes and phosphates. Furthermore, functionalizing surface modified nanoparticles for specific functions is addressed, with markers for analytically relevant nanoscale quantification being the primary focus. Chapter Two describes in detail the thermal degradation synthesis used for the generation of small MOx nanoparticles. It demonstrates the versatile of the synthesis by successfully synthesizing ZrO 2 and IrO2 nanoparticles. Preliminary work involving the formation of Bi2S3, Bi2O3, and RuO2 nanomaterials is also addressed. The solvothermal synthesis of indium tin oxide (ITO) is also shown for comparison to ITO produced by thermal degradation. Chapter Three details the surface modification of ITO nanoparticles and subsequent electrochemical tagging with a ferrocene moiety. ITO nanoparticles were synthesized via thermal degradation. These nanoparticles underwent a ligand exchange with a covalently binding mondentate silane terminated with a primary amine. Acyl chloride coupling between the amine and chlorocarbonylferrocene provided an electrochemical tag to quantify the level of surface modification. Electrochemisty of the quasi-diffusing nanoparticles was evaluated via cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and mircodisk electrode (microE) experiments. Chapter Four investigates spectroscopic tagging of ITO and ZrO2 nanoparticles as well as electrochemical tagging of ZrO 2 and IrO2 nanoparticles. An unbound azo-dye was synthesized and attempts were made to attach the dye to the surface of ITO nanoparticles. Imine couple between a spectroscopic tag

  6. A facile synthesis of bimetallic AuPt nanoparticles as a new transparent counter electrode for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dao, Van-Duong; Choi, Youngwoo; Yong, Kijung; Larina, Liudmila L.; Shevaleevskiy, Oleg; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2015-01-01

    This study first reports the synthesis of AuPt bimetallic nanoparticles (AuPt-BNPs) on an FTO glass substrate using dry plasma reduction (DPR) and its application as an alternative transparent counter electrode (CE) for quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) operated under bi-side illumination. DPR is an economically feasible and ecologically sustainable method. The formation of ultrafine crystalline AuPt-BNPs on an FTO substrate is confirmed through TEM, HRTEM with HAADF-STEM and HAADF-STEM-EDS analyses. The mechanism for controlling the size, mono-dispersity, and areal number density of nanoparticles on the substrate surface is suggested. The CE fabricated with AuPt-BNPs exhibits a high electro-catalytic activity without losing the optical transmittance of the FTO substrate. The QDSC employing the AuPt-BNP electrode reaches efficiencies of 2.4% under front-side illumination and 2.2% under back-side illumination. Bi-side illumination yields an efficiency of 3.4%, which is comparable to an efficiency of 3.7% obtained for the QDSC with the state-of-the-art CE.

  7. Impedimetric investigation of gold nanoparticles - guanine modified electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Vulcu, A.; Pruneanu, S.; Berghian-Grosan, C.; Olenic, L.; Muresan, L. M.; Barbu-Tudoran, L.

    2013-11-13

    In this paper we report the preparation of a modified electrode with gold nanoparticles and guanine. The colloidal suspension of gold nanoparticles was obtained by Turkevich method and was next analyzed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The gold electrode was modified by self-assembling the gold nanoparticles with guanine, the organic molecule playing also the role of linker. The electrochemical characteristics of the bare and modified electrode were investigated by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). A theoretical model was developed based on an electrical equivalent circuit which contain solution resistance (R{sub s}), charge transfer resistance (R{sub ct}), Warburg impedance (Z{sub W}) and double layer capacitance (C{sub dl})

  8. Preparation and characterization of bi-metallic nanoparticle catalyst having better anti-coking properties using reverse micelle technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacharia, Thomas

    Energy needs are rising on an exponential basis. The mammoth energy sources like coal, natural gas and petroleum are the cause of pollution. The large outcry for an alternate energy source which is environmentally friendly and energy efficient is heard during the past few years. This is where “Clean-Fuel” like hydrogen gained its ground. Hydrogen is mainly produced by steam methane reforming (SMR). An alternate sustainable process which can reduce the cost as well as eliminate the waste products is Tri-reforming. In both these reforming processes nickel is used as catalyst. However as the process goes on the catalyst gets deactivated due to coking on the catalytic surface. This goal of this thesis work was to develop a bi-metallic catalyst which has better anti-coking properties compared to the conventional nickel catalyst. Tin was used to dope nickel. It was found that Ni3Sn complex around a core of Ni is coking resistant compared to pure nickel catalyst. Reverse micelle synthesis of catalyst preparation was used to control the size and shape of catalytic particles. These studies will benefit researches on hydrogen production and catalyst manufactures who work on different bi-metallic combinations.

  9. Hydrophobically modified chitosan/gold nanoparticles for DNA delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Shanta Raj; K. C., Remant Bahadur; Aryal, Santosh; Bhattarai, Narayan; Kim, Sun Young; Yi, Ho Keun; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Kim, Hak Yong

    2008-01-01

    Present study dealt an application of modified chitosan gold nanoparticles (Nac-6-Au) for the immobilization of necked plasmid DNA. Gold nanoparticles stabilized with N-acylated chitosan were prepared by graft-onto approach. The stabilized gold nanoparticles were characterized by different physico-chemical techniques such as UV-vis, TEM, ELS and DLS. MTT assay was used for in vitro cytotoxicity of the nanoparticles into three different cell lines (NIH 3T3, CT-26 and MCF-7). The formulation of plasmid DNA with the nanoparticles corresponds to the complex forming capacity and in-vitro/in-vivo transfection efficiency was studied via gel electrophoresis and transfection methods, respectively. Results showed the modified chitosan gold nanoparticles were well-dispersed and spherical in shape with average size around 10˜12 nm in triple distilled water at pH 7.4, and showed relatively no cytotoxicity at low concentration. Addition of plasmid DNA on the aqueous solution of the nanoparticles markedly reduced surface potential (50.0˜66.6%) as well as resulted in a 13.33% increase in hydrodynamic diameters of the formulated nanoparticles. Transfection efficiency of Nac-6-Au/DNA was dependent on cell type, and higher β-galactosidase activity was observed on MCF-7 breast cancer cell. Typically, this activity was 5 times higher in 4.5 mg/ml nanoparticles concentration than that achieved by the nanoparticles of other concentrations (and/or control). However, this activity was lower in in-vitro and dramatically higher in in-vivo than that of commercially available transfection kit (Lipofectin®) and DNA. From these results, it can be expected to develop alternative new vectors for gene delivery.

  10. Enhanced photocatalytic, electrochemical and photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 nanotubes arrays modified with Cu, AgCu and Bi nanoparticles obtained via radiolytic reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nischk, Michał; Mazierski, Paweł; Wei, Zhishun; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Kouame, Natalie Amoin; Kowalska, Ewa; Remita, Hynd; Zaleska-Medynska, Adriana

    2016-11-01

    TiO2 nanotubes arrays (NTs), obtained via electrochemical anodization of Ti foil, were modified with monometallic (Cu, Bi) and bimetallic (AgCu) nanoparticles. Different amounts of metals' precursors were deposited on the surface of NTs by the spin-coating technique, and the reduction of metals was performed via gamma radiolysis. Surface modification of titania was studied by EDS and XPS analysis. The results show that AgCu nanoparticles exist in a Agcore-Cushell form. Photocatalytic activity was examined under UV irradiation and phenol was used as a model pollutant of water. Over 95% of phenol degradation was achieved after 60 min of irradiation for almost all examined samples, but only slight difference in degradation efficiency (about 3%) between modified and bare NTs was observed. However, the initial phenol degradation rate and TOC removal efficiency was significantly enhanced for the samples modified with 0.31 and 0.63 mol% of Bi as well as for all the samples modified with Cu and AgCu nanoparticles in comparison with bare titania nanotubes. The saturated photocurrent, under the influence of simulated solar light irradiation, for the most active Bi- and AgCu-modified samples, was over two times higher than for pristine NTs. All the examined materials were resistant towards photocorrosion processes that enables their application for long term processes induced by light.

  11. Biocompatibility of folate-modified chitosan nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Sahu, Sumanta Kumar; Pramanik, Panchanan; Roy, Somenath

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the acute toxicity of carboxymethyl chitosan-2, 2′ ethylenedioxy bis-ethylamine-folate (CMC-EDBE-FA) and as well as possible effect on microbial growth and in vitro cell cyto-toxicity. Methods CMC-EDBE-FA was prepared on basis of carboxymethyl chitosan tagged with folic acid by covalently linkage through 2, 2′ ethylenedioxy bis-ethylamine. In vivo acute toxicity, in vitro cyto-toxicity and antimicrobial activity of CMC-EDBE-FA nanoparticle were determined. Results Vancomycin exhibited the antibacterial activity against vancomycin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, but CMC-EDBE-FA nanoparticle did not give any antibacterial activity as evidenced by minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC), disc agar diffusion (DAD) and killing kinetic assay. Further, the CMC-EDBE-FA nanoparticle showed no signs of in vivo acute toxicity up to a dose level of 1 000 mg/kg p.o., and as well as in vitro cyto-toxicity up to 250 µg/mL. Conclusions These findings suggest that CMC-EDBE-FA nanoparticle is expected to be safe for biomedical applications. PMID:23569900

  12. Interaction of surface-modified silica nanoparticles with clay minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omurlu, Cigdem; Pham, H.; Nguyen, Q. P.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the adsorption of 5-nm silica nanoparticles onto montmorillonite and illite is investigated. The effect of surface functionalization was evaluated for four different surfaces: unmodified, surface-modified with anionic (sulfonate), cationic (quaternary ammonium (quat)), and nonionic (polyethylene glycol (PEG)) surfactant. We employed ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy to determine the concentration of adsorbed nanoparticles in conditions that are likely to be found in subsurface reservoir environments. PEG-coated and quat/PEG-coated silica nanoparticles were found to significantly adsorb onto the clay surfaces, and the effects of electrolyte type (NaCl, KCl) and concentration, nanoparticle concentration, pH, temperature, and clay type on PEG-coated nanoparticle adsorption were studied. The type and concentration of electrolytes were found to influence the degree of adsorption, suggesting a relationship between the interlayer spacing of the clay and the adsorption ability of the nanoparticles. Under the experimental conditions reported in this paper, the isotherms for nanoparticle adsorption onto montmorillonite at 25 °C indicate that adsorption occurs less readily as the nanoparticle concentration increases.

  13. Optimization of the composition of bimetallic core/shell Fe2O3/Au nanoparticles for MRI/CT dual-mode imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Song; Qi, Yueyong; Yang, Hua; Gong, Mingfu; Zhang, Dong; Zou, Liguang

    2013-11-01

    Bimetallic core/shell Fe2O3/Au nanoparticles are promising candidate dual-mode contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) imaging. However, the gold coating on the hybrid nanoparticles (hybrids) affects the MRI and CT imaging quality. A thick gold nanoshell increases the X-ray attenuation effect but decreases the magnetic saturation of the hybrids. Therefore, we studied the effect of the Fe2O3 and Au composition on these properties to find a suitable hybrid for MRI and CT imaging. Water-soluble, Au-coated magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by iteratively reducing Au3+ onto the Fe2O3 surface via hydroxylamine seeding. The properties of the hybrids obtained after different numbers of Au seeding cycles were studied using transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry, a vibrating swatch gaussmeter, MRI, CT, and an MTT assay. The hybrids obtained after three Au seeding cycles had an Fe2O3:Au molar ratio of 7.2:26.8, a mean diameter of 48.3 nm, a UV-Vis absorbance peak of 550 nm, a saturation magnetization of 49.0 emu/g, and no cytotoxicity at a concentration of 500 μg/mL after incubation with RAW 264.7 cells for up to 72 h. The hybrids obtained after three Au seeding cycles are the preferred candidates for MRI and CT applications because of their relatively high R2 relaxivity (95 mM-1 s-1) and X-ray attenuation (1.87 times that of iodine) compared to those of the other hybrids investigated in this study.

  14. Applications of extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy to studies of bimetallic nanoparticle catalysts.

    PubMed

    Frenkel, Anatoly I

    2012-12-21

    Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy has been used to study short range order in heterometallic alloys for almost four decades. In this critical review, experimental, theoretical and data analytical approaches are revisited to examine their power, and limitations, in studies of bimetallic nanocatalysts. This article covers the basics of EXAFS experiments, data analysis, and modelling of nanoscale clusters. It demonstrates that, in the best case scenario, quantitative information about the nanocatalyst's size, shape, details of core-shell architecture, as well as static and dynamic disorder in metal-metal bond lengths can be obtained. The article also emphasizes the main challenge accompanying such insights: the need to account for the statistical nature of the EXAFS technique, and discusses corrective strategies.

  15. DNA surface modified gadolinium phosphate nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Matthieu F; Baligand, Celine; Li, Yichen; Knowles, Elisabeth S; Meisel, Mark W; Walter, Glenn A; Talham, Daniel R

    2012-05-16

    Oligonucleotide modified gadolinium phosphate nanoparticles have been prepared and their magnetic resonance relaxivity properties measured. Nanoparticles of GdPO4·H2O were synthesized in a water/oil microemulsion using IGEPAL CO-520 as surfactant, resulting in 50 to 100 nm particles that are highly dispersible and stable in water. Using surface modification chemistry previously established for zirconium phosphonate surfaces, the particles are directly modified with 5'-phosphate terminated oligonucleotides, and the specific interaction of the divalent phosphate with Gd(3+) sites at the surface is demonstrated. The ability of the modified nanoparticles to act as MRI contrast agents was determined by performing MR relaxivity measurements at 14.1 T. Solutions of nanopure water, Feridex, and Omniscan (FDA approved contrast agents) in 0.25% agarose were used for comparison and control purposes. MRI data confirm that GdPO4·H2O nanoparticles have relaxivities (r1, r2) comparable to those of commercially available contrast agents. In addition, the data suggest that biofunctionalization of the surface of the nanoparticles does not prevent their function as MRI contrast agents.

  16. Polymer-incarcerated chiral Rh/Ag nanoparticles for asymmetric 1,4-addition reactions of arylboronic acids to enones: remarkable effects of bimetallic structure on activity and metal leaching.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Tomohiro; Miyamura, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Shū

    2012-10-17

    Robust and highly active bimetallic Rh nanoparticle (NP) catalysts, PI/CB Rh/Ag, have been developed and applied to the asymmetric 1,4-addition of arylboronic acids to enones without leaching of the metals. We found that the structures of the bimetallic Rh/Ag catalysts and chiral ligands strongly affect their catalytic activity and the amount of metal leaching. PI/CB Rh/Ag could be recycled several times by simple operations while keeping high yields and excellent enantioselectivities. To show the versatility of the PI/CB Rh/Ag catalyst, a one-pot, oxidation-asymmetric 1,4-addition reaction of an allyl alcohol and an arylboronic acid was demonstrated by combining the PI/CB Rh/Ag catalyst with PI/CB Au as an aerobic oxidation catalyst.

  17. Hyper-Rayleigh scattering of protein-modified gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun Xiu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xin; Tang, Zu Ming; Lu, Zu Hong

    2003-09-01

    The nonlinear optical properties of protein-modified gold nanoparticles has been studied by the hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS) technique. HRS signals from the nanoparticles coated with goat-anti-human IgG have been obtained when pumped with a laser pulse with a wavelength of 1064 nm. The HRS signals of gold nanoparticles with IgG were larger than those of bare gold nanoparticles. This can be explained by a noncentrosymmetric effect. It was also found that the HRS signals from the IgG-coated gold nanoparticles could be greatly increased when the antigen was added due to gold nanoparticle aggregation. Our experiment found that the HRS method could produce a measurable signal with 10 microg/ml antigen added, while the colorimetric method using UV spectrum detection required 100 microg/ml of added antigen. The results show that the HRS measurement of immunogold nanoparticles could become a potential immunoassay in determining small levels of antigen in aqueous samples.

  18. Surface-modified multifunctional MIP nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moczko, Ewa; Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; Perez de Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel; Caygill, Sarah; Canfarotta, Francesco; Whitcombe, Michael J.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2013-04-01

    The synthesis of core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIP NPs) has been performed using a novel solid-phase approach on immobilised templates. The same solid phase also acts as a protective functionality for high affinity binding sites during subsequent derivatisation/shell formation. This procedure allows for the rapid synthesis, controlled separation and purification of high-affinity materials, with each production cycle taking just 2 hours. The aim of this approach is to synthesise uniformly sized imprinted materials at the nanoscale which can be readily grafted with various polymers without affecting their affinity and specificity. For demonstration purposes we grafted anti-melamine MIP NPs with coatings which introduce the following surface characteristics: high polarity (PEG methacrylate); electro-activity (vinylferrocene); fluorescence (eosin acrylate); thiol groups (pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate)). The method has broad applicability and can be used to produce multifunctional imprinted nanoparticles with potential for further application in the biosensors, diagnostics and biomedical fields and as an alternative to natural receptors.The synthesis of core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIP NPs) has been performed using a novel solid-phase approach on immobilised templates. The same solid phase also acts as a protective functionality for high affinity binding sites during subsequent derivatisation/shell formation. This procedure allows for the rapid synthesis, controlled separation and purification of high-affinity materials, with each production cycle taking just 2 hours. The aim of this approach is to synthesise uniformly sized imprinted materials at the nanoscale which can be readily grafted with various polymers without affecting their affinity and specificity. For demonstration purposes we grafted anti-melamine MIP NPs with coatings which introduce the following surface characteristics: high polarity

  19. Recent progress in the structure control of Pd–Ru bimetallic nanomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongshuang; Kusada, Kohei; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Pd and Ru are two key elements of the platinum-group metals that are invaluable to areas such as catalysis and energy storage/transfer. To maximize the potential of the Pd and Ru elements, significant effort has been devoted to synthesizing Pd–Ru bimetallic materials. However, most of the reports dealing with this subject describe phase-separated structures such as near-surface alloys and physical mixtures of monometallic nanoparticles (NPs). Pd–Ru alloys with homogenous structure and arbitrary metallic ratio are highly desired for basic scientific research and commercial material design. In the past several years, with the development of nanoscience, Pd–Ru bimetallic alloys with different architectures including heterostructure, core-shell structure and solid-solution alloy were successfully synthesized. In particular, we have now reached the stage of being able to obtain Pd–Ru solid-solution alloy NPs over the whole composition range. These Pd–Ru bimetallic alloys are better catalysts than their parent metal NPs in many catalytic reactions, because the electronic structures of Pd and Ru are modified by alloying. In this review, we describe the recent development in the structure control of Pd–Ru bimetallic nanomaterials. Aiming for a better understanding of the synthesis strategies, some fundamental details including fabrication methods and formation mechanisms are discussed. We stress that the modification of electronic structure, originating from different nanoscale geometry and chemical composition, profoundly affects material properties. Finally, we discuss open issues in this field. PMID:27877905

  20. Fabrication of PdCo Bimetallic Nanoparticles Anchored on Three-Dimensional Ordered N-Doped Porous Carbon as an Efficient Catalyst for Oxygen Reduction Reaction.

    PubMed

    Xue, Hairong; Tang, Jing; Gong, Hao; Guo, Hu; Fan, Xiaoli; Wang, Tao; He, Jianping; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2016-08-17

    PdCo bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) anchored on three-dimensional (3D) ordered N-doped porous carbon (PdCo/NPC) were fabricated by an in situ synthesis. Within this composite, N-doped porous carbon (NPC) with an ordered mesoporous structure possesses a high surface area (659.6 m(2) g(-1)), which can facilitate electrolyte infiltration. NPC also acts as a perfect 3D conductive network, guaranteeing fast electron transport. In addition, homogeneously distributed PdCo alloy NPs (∼15 nm) combined with the doping of the N element can significantly improve the electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Due to the structural and material superiority, although the weight percentage of PdCo NPs (∼8 wt%) is much smaller than that of commercial Pt/C (20 wt%), the PdCo/NPC catalyst exhibits similar excellent electrocatalytic activity; however, its superior durability and methanol-tolerance ability of the ORR are as great as those of commercial Pt/C in alkaline media.

  1. A Rational Solid-State Synthesis of Supported Au-Ni Bimetallic Nanoparticles with Enhanced Activity for Gas-Phase Selective Oxidation of Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Yi, Wuzhong; Yuan, Wentao; Meng, Ye; Zou, Shihui; Zhou, Yuheng; Hong, Wei; Che, Jianwei; Hao, Mengjia; Ye, Bin; Xiao, Liping; Wang, Yong; Kobayashi, Hisayoshi; Fan, Jie

    2017-09-20

    A facile confined solid-state seed-mediated alloying strategy is applied for the rational synthesis of supported Au-Ni bimetallic nanoparticles (BMNPs). The method sequentially deposits nickel salts and AuNP seeds into the ordered array of extra-large mesopores (EP-FDU-12 support) followed by a high-temperature annealing process. The size, structure, and composition of the AuNi BMNPs can be well tuned by varying the AuNP seeds, annealing temperature, and feeding ratio of metal precursors. Kinetic studies and DFT calculations suggest that the introduction of the Ni component can significantly prompt the O2 activation on AuNPs, which is critical for the selective alcohol oxidation using molecular O2 as the oxidant. The optimal Au-Ni BMNP catalyst showed the highest turnover frequency (TOF) (59 000 h(-1), 240 °C) and highest space-time yield (STY) of benzyl aldehyde (BAD) productivity (9.23 kg·gAu(-1)·h(-1)) in the gas-phase oxidation of benzyl alcohol (BA), which is at least about 5-fold higher than that of other supported Au catalysts.

  2. Facile fabrication of Pt-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide for highly sensitive non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Zhang, Yanyan; Du, Xin; Chen, Yuan; Dong, Wenhao; Han, Bingkai; Chen, Qiang

    2016-10-01

    A new electrocatalyst, Pt-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite, was successfully synthesized by a facile, eco-friendly and controllable route. The morphological characterization of RGO/Pt-Ag NPs nanocomposite was examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrum, and Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), respectively. And then, the RGO/Pt-Ag NPs nanocomposite was immobilized on the surface of glassy carbon (GC) electrode to fabricate a novel and highly sensitive non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor. The electrochemical behaviors of the prepared sensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The sensor showed excellent performance toward H2O2 with sensitivity as high as 699.6 μA mM(-1)cm(-2) and 402.7 μA mM(-1)cm(-2), wide linear range of 0.005-1.5mM and 1.5-7mM, and low detection limit of 0.04μM (S/N=3). Moreover, the prepared hydrogen peroxide sensor was applied to in real samples with satisfactory results. These excellent results indicate that the prepared RGO/Pt-Ag NPs nanocomposite has broad application prospect in the field of sensors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. One-Step Growth of Iron-Nickel Bimetallic Nanoparticles on FeNi Alloy Foils: Highly Efficient Advanced Electrodes for the Oxygen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Qazi, Umair Yaqub; Yuan, Cheng-Zong; Ullah, Naseeb; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Imran, Muhammad; Zeb, Akif; Zhao, Sheng-Jie; Javaid, Rahat; Xu, An-Wu

    2017-08-30

    Electrochemical water splitting is an important process to produce hydrogen and oxygen for energy storage and conversion devices. However, it is often restricted by the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) due to its sluggish kinetics. To overcome the problem, precious metal oxide-based electrocatalysts, such as RuO2 and IrO2, are widely used. The lack of availability and the high cost of precious metals compel researchers to find other resources for the development of cost-effective, environmentally friendly, earth-abundant, nonprecious electrocatalysts for OER. Such catalysts should have high OER performance and good stability in comparison to those of available commercial precious metal-based electrocatalysts. Herein, we report an inexpensive fabrication of bimetallic iron-nickel nanoparticles on FeNi-foil (FeNi4.34@FeNi-foil) as an integrated OER electrode using a one-step calcination process. FeNi4.34@FeNi-foil obtained at 900 °C shows superior OER activity in alkaline solution with an overpotential as low as 283 mV to achieve a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) and a small Tafel slope of 53 mV dec(-1). The high performance and durability of the as-prepared nonprecious metal electrode even exceeds those of the available commercial RuO2 and IrO2 catalysts, showing great potential in replacing the expensive noble metal-based electrocatalysts for OER.

  4. Effect of Fe-Pd bimetallic nanoparticles on Sphingomonas sp. PH-07 and a nano-bio hybrid process for triclosan degradation.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Bokare, Varima; Jeon, Jong-Rok; Kim, Eun-Ju; Kim, Jae-Hwan; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2011-05-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of palladium-iron bimetallic nanoparticles (nFe-Pd) on diphenyl ether (DE) degrading bacterial strain Sphingomonas sp. PH-07 as well as a sequential nano-bio hybrid process with nFe-Pd as catalytic reductant and PH-07 as biocatalyst for degradation of triclosan. Strain PH-07 grew well in the presence of nFe-Pd up to 0.1g/L in minimal salts medium with DE as carbon source. In aqueous system, TCS (17.3 μM) was completely dechlorinated within 2h by nFe-Pd (0.1g/L) with concomitant release of 2-phenoxyphenol (16.8 μM) and chloride ions (46 μM). All possible dichloro- and monochloro-2-phenoxyphenol intermediates were identified by HPLC and GC-MS analyses, and the dechlorination pathway was proposed. Addition of PH-07 cells into the reactor effectively degraded the 2-phenoxyphenol. Our results reveal that strain PH-07 survives well in the presence of nFe-Pd and nFe-Pd/PH-07 hybrid treatment could be a potential strategy for degradation of TCS.

  5. Surface-modified multifunctional MIP nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Moczko, Ewa; Poma, Alessandro; Guerreiro, Antonio; de Vargas Sansalvador, Isabel Perez; Caygill, Sarah; Canfarotta, Francesco; Whitcombe, Michael J.; Piletsky, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of core-shell molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (MIP NPs) has been performed using a novel solid-phase approach on immobilised templates. The same solid phase also acts as protective functionality for high affinity binding sites during subsequent derivatisation/shell formation. This procedure allows for the rapid synthesis, controlled separation and purification of high-affinity materials, with each production cycle taking just 2 hours. The aim of this approach is to synthesise uniformly-sized imprinted materials at the nanoscale which can be readily grafted with various polymers without affecting their affinity and specificity. For demonstration purposes we grafted anti-melamine MIP NPs with coatings which introduce the following surface characteristics: high polarity (PEG methacrylate); electro-activity (vinyl ferrocene); fluorescence (eosin acrylate); thiol groups (pentaerythritol tetrakis(3-mercaptopropionate)). The method has broad applicability and can be used to produce multifunctional imprinted nanoparticles with potential for further application in the biosensors, diagnostics and biomedical fields and as an alternative to natural receptors. PMID:23503559

  6. Chitosan nanoparticles as a modified diclofenac drug release system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte Junior, Anivaldo Pereira; Tavares, Eraldo José Madureira; Alves, Taís Vanessa Gabbay; de Moura, Márcia Regina; da Costa, Carlos Emmerson Ferreira; Silva Júnior, José Otávio Carréra; Ribeiro Costa, Roseane Maria

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated a modified nanostructured release system employing diclofenac as a drug model. Biodegradable chitosan nanoparticles were prepared with chitosan concentrations between 0.5 and 0.8% ( w/ v) by template polymerization method using methacrylic acid in aqueous solution. Chitosan-poly(methacrylic acid) (CS-PMAA) nanoparticles showed uniform size around 50-100 nm, homogeneous morphology, and spherical shape. Raw material and chitosan nanoparticles were characterized by thermal analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), confirming the interaction between chitosan and methacrylic acid during nanoparticles preparation. Diclofenac sorption on the chitosan nanoparticles surface was achieved by incubation in water/ethanol (1:1) drug solution in concentrations of 0.5 and 0.8 mg/mL. The diclofenac amount sorbed per gram of CS-PMAA nanoparticles, when in a 0.5 mg/mL sodium diclofenac solution, was as follows: 12.93, 15, 20.87, and 29.63 mg/g for CS-PMAA nanoparticles 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8% ( w/ v), respectively. When a 0.8 mg/mL sodium diclofenac solution was used, higher sorption efficiencies were obtained: For CS-PMAA nanoparticles with chitosan concentrations of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8% ( w/ v), the sorption efficiencies were 33.39, 49.58, 55.23, and 67.2 mg/g, respectively. Diclofenac sorption kinetics followed a second-order kinetics. Drug release from nanoparticles occurred in a period of up to 48 h and obeyed Korsmeyer-Peppas model, which was characterized mainly by Fickian diffusion transport. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Systematic study of the chemical ordering in bimetallic Gold-Gold nanoparticles and the adsorption process of methyl thiol molecules on Gold-55 clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron-Escobar, Hector

    In this thesis we have investigated the structural evolution and their effect on the electronic and magnetic properties of bimetallic Au-Ag nanoalloys when the chemical ordering takes place, as well as the study of the adsorption of methyl-thiol molecules on Au55 cluster by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations within the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) as implemented in the SIESTA code. From different highly symmetric geometries we explored the structural evolution of all possible non-equivalent configurations at different Au-Ag concentrations for bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) of 4, 6, 7 and 13 atoms. The most favorable structures for each cluster were obtained comparing their energetic stability through the calculation of their excess energy, linking the structure with specific features of their HOMO-LUMO gap end their total spin as the mixing takes place in each cluster. We found structural transitions from tri-dimensional geometries into planar as well as high spin values for tri-dimensional clusters up to 7 atoms. Distorted structures were obtained in almost all the 13-atom clusters. This has an important impact in their electronic and magnetic properties since the distortion highly determines the HOMO-LUMO gap and the total spin values. From all the 13-atom clusters, the most stable structures were the decahedra and the buckled bi-planar (BBP). We have also investigated the adsorption process of methyl-thiol molecules on Au55 NPs by calculating the adsorption energy for different trial configurations of SCH3-Au 55 system. Different adsorption modes were considered using the Ih symmetry of the Au cluster and taking into account the molecule orientation, as well as the rotation of the CH3 group of the molecule. Upon the adsorption we found that the molecule prefers to be adsorbed in the bridge sites, independently of their initial configuration. The atomic arrangement of the Au cluster as well as the bond lengths between Au atoms and S

  8. Nanoparticles of hydrophobically modified dextrans as potential drug carrier systems.

    PubMed

    Aumelas, A; Serrero, A; Durand, A; Dellacherie, E; Leonard, M

    2007-09-01

    Nanoparticles combining a hydrophobically modified dextran core and a polysaccharide surface coverage were elaborated. Their suitability for applications like drug delivery was evaluated. The selected polysaccharide, dextran, was chemically modified by the covalent attachment of hydrocarbon groups (aliphatic or aromatic) via the formation of ether links. According to the extent of modification, either water-soluble or water-insoluble dextran derivatives were obtained. The latter exhibited solubility in organic solvents like tetrahydrofuran or dichloromethane saturated with water. Water-soluble dextran derivatives were used as polymeric surfactants for the control of nanoparticles surface characteristics. Nanoparticles were prepared either by o/w emulsion or solvent-diffusion methods. The size and surface properties of dextran nanoparticles were correlated to processing conditions. The stability of colloidal suspensions was examined as a function of ionic strength and related to the particle surface characteristics. The redispersability of freeze-dried suspensions without the addition of cryoprotectant was demonstrated. Finally, the degradability of modified dextrans was compared to that of starting dextran, after enzymatic hydrolysis in the presence of dextranase.

  9. Structures and energetics of 98 atom Pd-Pt nanoalloys: potential stability of the Leary tetrahedron for bimetallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Paz-Borbón, Lauro Oliver; Mortimer-Jones, Thomas V; Johnston, Roy L; Posada-Amarillas, Alvaro; Barcaro, Giovanni; Fortunelli, Alessandro

    2007-10-14

    The energetics of 98 atom bimetallic Pd-Pt clusters are studied using a combination of: a genetic algorithm technique (to explore vast areas of the configurational space); a basin-hopping atom-exchange routine (to search for lowest-energy homotops at fixed composition); and a shell optimisation approach (to search for high symmetry isomers). The interatomic interactions between Pd and Pt are modelled by the Gupta many-body empirical potential. For most compositions, the putative global minima are found to have structures based on defective Marks decahedra, but in the composition range from Pd46Pt52 to Pd63Pt35, the Leary tetrahedron (LT)--a structure previously identified for 98 atom Lennard-Jones clusters--is consistently found as the most stable structure. Based on the excess energy stability criterion, Pd56Pt42 represents the most stable cluster across the entire composition range. This structure, a Td-symmetry LT, exhibits multi-layer segregation with an innermost core of Pd atoms, an intermediate layer of Pt atoms and an outermost Pd surface shell (Pd-Pt-Pd). The stability of the Leary tetrahedron is compared against other low-energy competing structural motifs: the Marks decahedron (Dh-M), a "quasi" tetrahedron (a closed-packed structure) and two other closed-packed structures. The stability of LT structures is rationalized in terms of their spherical shape and the large number of nearest neighbours.

  10. Laser synthesis of bimetallic nanoalloys in the vapor and liquid phases and the magnetic properties of PdM and PtM nanoparticles (M = Fe, Co and Ni).

    PubMed

    Abdelsayed, Victor; Glaspell, Garry; Nguyen, Minh; Howe, James M; El-Shall, M Samy

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present several examples of the synthesis and characterization of bimetallic nanoparticle alloys using the Laser Vaporization Controlled Condensation (LVCC) method. In the first example, the vapor phase synthesis of Au-Ag, Au-Pd, and Au-Pt nanoparticle alloys are presented. The formation of nanoalloys is concluded from the observation of one plasmon absorption band at a wavelength that varies linearly with the gold mole fraction in the nanoalloy. Both XRD data and HRTEM-EDX data confirm the formation of nanoparticle alloys and not simply mixtures of the two metal nanoparticles. Irradiation of a mixture of Au/Ag nanoparticles dispersed in water with the 532 nm unfocused laser results in efficient alloying while the 1064 nm laser radiation results only in evaporation and size reduction of the unalloyed nanoparticles. Selective absorption of the femtosecond 780 nm radiation by large Au aggregates results in the formation of smaller aggregates with fractal structures, and no evidence for the Au-Ag alloy formation. The synthesis of palladium and platinum nanoparticles alloyed with transition metals such as iron and nickel using the LVCC method is also presented. The alloyed nanoparticles (FePd, FePt, NiPd, NiPt, and FeNi) are found to be superparamagnetic.

  11. Dye removal using modified copper ferrite nanoparticle and RSM analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Soltani-Gordefaramarzi, Sajjad; Sadeghi-Kiakhani, Moosa

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, copper ferrite nanoparticle (CFN) was synthesized, modified by cetyl trimethylammonium bromide, and characterized. Dye removal ability of the surface modified copper ferrite nanoparticle (SMCFN) from single system was investigated. The physical characteristics of SMCFN were studied using Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Acid Blue 92, Direct Green 6, Direct Red 23, and Direct Red 80 were used as model compounds. The effect of operational parameters (surfactant concentration, adsorbent dosage, dye concentration, and pH) on dye removal was evaluated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the analysis of the dye removal data. The experimental checking in these optimal conditions confirms good agreements with RSM results. The results showed that the SMCFN being a magnetic adsorbent might be a suitable alternative to remove dyes from colored aqueous solutions.

  12. Surface Modified Gadolinium Phosphate Nanoparticles as MRI Contrast Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumont, Matthieu F.; Baligand, Celine; Knowles, Elisabeth S.; Meisel, Mark W.; Walter, Glenn A.; Talham, Daniel R.

    2012-02-01

    Nanoparticles of GdPO4H2O were synthesized in a water/oil microemulsion using IGEPAL CO-520 as surfactant resulting in 50 nm to 100 nm particles that are dispersible and stable in water. Using surface modification chemistry previously established for zirconium phosphonate surfaces,ootnotetext J. Monot et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 130 (2008) 6243. the particles are directly modified with 5'-phosphate terminated oligonucleotides, and the specific interaction of the divalent phosphate with Gd^3+ sites at the surface is demonstrated. The ability of the modified nanoparticles to act as MRI contrast agents was determined by performing MR relaxivity measurements at 14 T. Solutions of nanopure water, Feridex and Omniscan (FDA cleared contrast agents) in 0.25% agarose were used for comparison and control purposes. MRI data confirm that GdPO4H2O nanoparticles have relaxivities (r1,r2) comparable to commercially available contrast agents.ootnotetext H. Hifumi et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 128 (2006) 15090. In addition, biofunctionalization of the surface of the nanoparticles does not prevent their function as MRI contrast agents.

  13. Simultaneous removal of co-contaminants: acid brilliant violet and Cu2+ by functional bimetallic Fe/Pd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xiaoying; Chen, Zhengxian; Wang, Ting; Chen, Zuliang; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravendra

    2014-10-01

    Effluents from the textile industry often contain dyes and metals that are a serious environmental concern. It is a challenge to develop a method for simultaneous removal of mixed contaminants. In this study, kaolinite supported bimetallic Fe/Pd (K-Fe/Pd) is firstly reported to be used for simultaneous catalytic removal of acid brilliant violet (ABV) and Cu2+ in aqueous solution, where the presence of kaolinite as a stable supporter and disperser maintains the reactivity of Fe0 as a reductant, while Pd0 as a catalyst accelerates the reaction. This was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and batch experiments. 96.23 % of ABV and 100 % of Cu2+ was removed using K-Fe/Pd within 60 min, while only 77.50 % of ABV and 99.45 % of Cu2+ using K-Fe, and 19.75 % of ABV and 4.00 % of Cu2+ using kaolinite was removed, respectively. However, both efficiency and rate of removal in the mixed solution were higher than that of the single one regarding both ABV and Cu2+, which is attributable to the formation of in situ trimetallic Cu/Fe/Pd in the mixed solution. Different factors impacting on the removal of ABV-Cu2+ using K-Fe/Pd showed that the catalytic reduction decreased when pH, initial concentration, and temperature increased. Finally, the reuse and application of K-Fe/Pd in dyeing wastewater led to a removal efficiency of 96.35 % for ABV and 100 % for Cu2+, respectively.

  14. A modified method for barium titanate nanoparticles synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ashiri, R.; Nemati, Ali; Sasani Ghamsari, M.; Sanjabi, S.; Aalipour, M.

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM micrograph of BaTiO{sub 3} powders synthesized at 800 Degree-Sign C for 1 h and SAED pattern (inset) of BaTiO{sub 3} powders. In this research, a modified, cost efficient and quick sol-gel procedure was used for preparation of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A modified process was used for preparation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The modified process led to preparation of finer BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles in shorter period of time and lower temperature contrary to previous researches. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed procedure seems to be more preferable for mass production. -- Abstract: In this research, a modified, cost effective sol-gel procedure applied to synthesize BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles. XRD and electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) applied for microstructural characterization of powders. The obtained results showed that the type of precursors, their ratio and the hydrolysis conditions had a great effect on time, temperature and therefore the costs of the synthesis process. By selection, utilization of optimized precursor's type, hydrolysis conditions, fine cubic BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized at low temperature and in short time span (1 h calcination at 800 Degree-Sign C). The proposed procedure seems to be more preferable for mass production. The result indicated that the polymorphic transformation to tetragonal (ferroelectric characteristic) occurred at 900 Degree-Sign C, which might be an indication of being nanosized.

  15. A sensitive bisphenol A voltammetric sensor relying on AuPd nanoparticles/graphene composites modified glassy carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Su, Bingyuan; Shao, Huilin; Li, Na; Chen, Xiaomei; Cai, Zhixiong; Chen, Xi

    2017-05-01

    In this work, a sensitive bisphenol A (BPA) electrochemical sensor was assembled using a surfactant-free AuPd nanoparticles-loaded graphene nanosheets (AuPdNPs/GNs) modified electrode. The AuPdNPs monodispersed on GNs were successfully prepared by the spontaneous redox reaction between bimetallic precursors and GNs. Because no surfactant or halide ions were involved in the proposed synthesis, the prepared composite was enabled to directly modify a glassy carbon electrode without any pre-treatments. Moreover, due to the synergetic effect of Au and Pd, AuPdNPs/GNs displayed high electrochemical activity with well-defined voltammetric peaks of BPA oxidation and lower overpotential compared with monometallic PdNPs and AuNPs supported GNs. According to the results of differential pulse voltammetry (DPV), under optimized conditions, a good linear response was observed for the concentration of BPA in the range of 0.05-10μM with a detection limit of 8nM. The developed electrochemical sensor was successfully applied to determine BPA in food package. This study indicated that AuPdNPs/GNs based electrochemical sensor can be a promising and reliable tool for rapid analysis of emergency pollution affairs of BPA.

  16. Plasma-assisted synthesis and high-resolution characterization of anisotropic elemental and bimetallic core–shell magnetic nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lotnyk, A

    2014-01-01

    Summary Magnetically anisotropic as well as magnetic core–shell nanoparticles (CS-NPs) with controllable properties are highly desirable in a broad range of applications. With this background, a setup for the synthesis of heterostructured magnetic core–shell nanoparticles, which relies on (optionally pulsed) DC plasma gas condensation has been developed. We demonstrate the synthesis of elemental nickel nanoparticles with highly tunable sizes and shapes and Ni@Cu CS-NPs with an average shell thickness of 10 nm as determined with scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. An analytical model that relies on classical kinetic gas theory is used to describe the deposition of Cu shell atoms on top of existing Ni cores. Its predictive power and possible implications for the growth of heterostructured NP in gas condensation processes are discussed. PMID:24778973

  17. Plasma-assisted synthesis and high-resolution characterization of anisotropic elemental and bimetallic core-shell magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hennes, M; Lotnyk, A; Mayr, S G

    2014-01-01

    Magnetically anisotropic as well as magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (CS-NPs) with controllable properties are highly desirable in a broad range of applications. With this background, a setup for the synthesis of heterostructured magnetic core-shell nanoparticles, which relies on (optionally pulsed) DC plasma gas condensation has been developed. We demonstrate the synthesis of elemental nickel nanoparticles with highly tunable sizes and shapes and Ni@Cu CS-NPs with an average shell thickness of 10 nm as determined with scanning electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements. An analytical model that relies on classical kinetic gas theory is used to describe the deposition of Cu shell atoms on top of existing Ni cores. Its predictive power and possible implications for the growth of heterostructured NP in gas condensation processes are discussed.

  18. Nanocomposite of bimetallic nanodendrite and reduced graphene oxide as a novel platform for molecular imprinting technology.

    PubMed

    Patra, Santanu; Roy, Ekta; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2016-04-28

    In this present work, for the first time, we are reporting a green synthesis approach for the preparation of vinyl modified reduced graphene oxide-based magnetic and bimetallic (Fe/Ag) nanodendrite (RGO@BMNDs). Herein, the RGO@BMNDs acts as a platform for the synthesis of the pyrazinamide (PZA)-imprinted polymer matrix and used for designing of the electrochemical sensor. We have demonstrated how the change in morphology could affect the electrochemical and magnetic property of nanomaterials and for this the reduced graphene oxide-based bimetallic nanoparticle (Fe/Ag) was also prepared It was found that the combination of graphene and bimetallic nanodendrites shows improvement as well as enhancement in the electrocatalytic activity and adsorption capacity, in comparison to their respective nanoparticles. The application of imprinted-RGO@BMNDs sensor was explored for trace level detection of PZA (Limit of detection = 6.65 pg L(-1), S/N = 3), which is a drug used for the cure of Tuberculosis. This is lowest detection limit reported so far for the detection of PZA. The sensor is highly selective, cost-effective, simple and free from any interfering effect. The real time application of the sensor was explored by successful detection of PZA in pharmaceutical and human blood serum, plasma and urine samples.

  19. Green Synthesis of Fe and Fe/Pd Bimetallic Nanoparticles in Membranes for Reductive Degradation of Chlorinated Organics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Membranes containing reactive nanoparticles (Fe and Fe/Pd) immobilized in a polymer film (polyacrylic acid, PAA-coated polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF membrane) are prepared by a new method. In the present work a biodegradable, non-toxic -“green” reducing agent, green tea extract ...

  20. Green Synthesis of Fe and Fe/Pd Bimetallic Nanoparticles in Membranes for Reductive Degradation of Chlorinated Organics

    EPA Science Inventory

    Membranes containing reactive nanoparticles (Fe and Fe/Pd) immobilized in a polymer film (polyacrylic acid, PAA-coated polyvinylidene fluoride, PVDF membrane) are prepared by a new method. In the present work a biodegradable, non-toxic -“green” reducing agent, green tea extract ...

  1. Super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle modified mancozeb imprinted polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K.

    2017-05-01

    An electrochemical sensor for detection of mancozeb from soil and vegetable sample using molecularly imprinted star polymer modified with iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) is described in this work. We have prepared SPIONS by hydrothermal method and modified with vinyl silane to introduce double bond at their surface. The vinyl group modified SPIONs were used to form mancozeb imprinted star polymer (ISP). The ISPs have specific recognition ability high adsorption capacity towards their template molecule and could be easily extracted from complex matrices using a simple magnet. The prepared polymer was well characterized by field emissive scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Under the optimum condition, the prepared sensor shows good response for mancozeb in the range of 5.96 to 222.39 µg L-1 (detection limit=0.98 µg L-1). The proposed sensors have highly selective for detection of mancozeb in soil and vegetable samples also.

  2. Biochar supported Ni/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles to remove 1,1,1-trichloroethane under various reaction conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Qiu, Yue-Feng; Wang, Xiao-Li; Yang, Jie; Yu, Yun-Jiang; Chen, Ya-Qin; Liu, Yong-di

    2017-02-01

    In this study, Ni/Fe nanoparticles supported by biochar to stimulate the reduction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) in groundwater remediation was investigated. In order to enhance the reactivity of ZVI (zero valent iron) nanoparticles, surface modification of ZVI was performed using nickel and biochar. The removal efficiency of 1,1,1-TCA increased from 42.3% to 99.3% as the biochar-to-Ni/Fe mass ratio increased from 0 to 1.0. However a higher biochar-to-Ni/Fe ratio showed little difference in the 1,1,1-TCA degradation efficiency. In the presence of Ni, atomic hydrogen generated by ZVI corrosion could be absorbed in the metal additive's lattice and then produce a hydride-like species (H) that represented the primary redox-active entity. The effects of various factors were evaluated, including pH, humic acid (HA) and inorganic matters (Cl(-), CO3(2-), HCO3(-), NO3(-) and SO4(2-)). The degradation of 1,1,1-TCA was greatly affected by pH. The presence of Cl(-), CO3(2-), HCO3(-) and SO4(2-) had negligible effects, but NO3(-) and HA showed a significant inhibitory effects on 1,1,1-TCA degradation. In conclusion, biochar supported Ni/Fe nanoparticles could be highly effective for 1,1,1-TCA degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Direct dyes removal using modified magnetic ferrite nanoparticle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic adsorbent nanoparticle was modified using cationic surface active agent. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide were used as an adsorbent and a surface active agent, respectively. Dye removal ability of the surface modified nanoparticle as an adsorbent was investigated. Direct Green 6 (DG6), Direct Red 31 (DR31) and Direct Red 23 (DR23) were used. The characteristics of the adsorbent were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and salt was evaluated. In ternary system, dye removal of the adsorbent at 90, 120, 150 and 200 mg/L dye concentration was 63, 45, 30 and 23% for DR23, 97, 90, 78 and 45% for DR31 and 51, 48, 42 and 37% for DG6, respectively. It was found that dye adsorption onto the adsorbent followed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics. PMID:24991427

  4. Direct dyes removal using modified magnetic ferrite nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Niyaz Mohammad; Abdi, Jafar; Bastani, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic adsorbent nanoparticle was modified using cationic surface active agent. Zinc ferrite nanoparticle and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide were used as an adsorbent and a surface active agent, respectively. Dye removal ability of the surface modified nanoparticle as an adsorbent was investigated. Direct Green 6 (DG6), Direct Red 31 (DR31) and Direct Red 23 (DR23) were used. The characteristics of the adsorbent were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of adsorbent dosage, initial dye concentration and salt was evaluated. In ternary system, dye removal of the adsorbent at 90, 120, 150 and 200 mg/L dye concentration was 63, 45, 30 and 23% for DR23, 97, 90, 78 and 45% for DR31 and 51, 48, 42 and 37% for DG6, respectively. It was found that dye adsorption onto the adsorbent followed Langmuir isotherm. The adsorption kinetic of dyes was found to conform to pseudo-second order kinetics.

  5. Vancomycin architecture dependence on the capture efficiency of antibody-modified microbeads by magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kell, Arnold J; Simard, Benoit

    2007-03-28

    We show that the ability to control the architecture/orientation of vancomycin on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles has a drastic effect on the ability of the nanoparticles to magnetically confine vancomycin-antibody modified polystyrene microbeads.

  6. Chlorine triggered de-alloying of AuAg@Carbon nanodots: Towards fabrication of a dual signalling assay combining the plasmonic property of bimetallic alloy nanoparticles and photoluminescence of carbon nanodots.

    PubMed

    Mohammadpour, Zahra; Safavi, Afsaneh; Abdollahi, Seyyed Hossein

    2017-03-22

    Integration of Au-Ag alloy and fluorescent carbon nanodots (C-dots) into a single platform resulted in a new dual sensing assay for chlorine. Selective etching of Ag from AuAg@C-dots was transformed into: (i) colorimetric signal by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) tuning of the alloy and (ii) fluorimetric signal by perturbation of fluorescence energy transfer between C-dots and alloy nanoparticles. Fast oxidizing of silver atoms incorporated in the bimetallic structure induced by chlorine resulted in selective de-alloying of bimetallic hybrid nanoparticles and an intense visible change of the colloidal dispersion color. On the other hand, the systematic change in Au/Ag ratio strongly affected the emission intensity of C-dots in the hybrid structure leading to an enhancement in the fluorescence signal. Thus, the assay enables the detection of chlorine both under visible and UV lights with high sensitivity. The detection limit (DL) values were calculated as 6.2 × 10(-7) M and 5.1 × 10(-7) M through colorimetric and fluorimetric pathways, respectively. Most importantly, it was demonstrated to be selective over common cations, anions and some reactive oxygen species (ROS). This assay was successfully applied to the determination of chlorine concentration in bleach solution and tap water. It is robust and is suitable for cost effective chlorine measurement in environmental samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rare earth-modified kaolin/NaY-supported Pd-Pt bimetallic catalyst for the catalytic combustion of benzene.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Shufeng; Sun, Xuejie; Lv, Ningning; Qi, Chenze

    2014-08-13

    A new type of porous kaolin/NaY composite (KL-NY) with a large specific surface area and large pore sizes was synthesized through a one-step crystallization process, and rare earth-modified KL-NY-supported Pd-Pt catalysts were studied for benzene combustion. The results indicated that the pore volume and specific surface area of KL-NY after calcination and crystallization were 0.298 cm(3)/g and 365 m(2)/g, respectively, exhibiting appropriate pore structure and good thermal stability. Catalysts with rare earth metals greatly enhanced the activity of Pd/KL-NY, and the addition of Pt and Ce into the Pd catalyst improved the catalytic activity as well as the stability. The catalyst with an optimal Ce content and Pt/Pd molar ratio (0.2%Pd-Pt (6:1)/6%Ce/KL-NY) demonstrated the best activity for the complete oxidation of benzene at 230 °C, and the catalyst above maintained the 100% benzene conversion for 960 h.

  8. Composite polyester membranes with embedded dendrimer hosts and bimetallic Fe/Ni nanoparticles: synthesis, characterisation and application to water treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinga, S. P.; Arotiba, O. A.; Krause, R. W. M.; Mapolie, S. F.; Diallo, M. S.; Mamba, B. B.

    2013-06-01

    This study describes the preparation, characterization and evaluation of new composite membranes with embedded dendrimer hosts and Fe/Ni nanoparticles. These new reactive membranes consist of films of cyclodextrin-poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers (β-CD-PPI) that are deposited onto commercial polysulfone microporous supports and crosslinked with trimesoyl chloride (TMC). The membranes were subsequently loaded with Fe/Ni nanoparticles and evaluated as separation/reactive media in aqueous solutions using 2,4,6-trichlorophenol as model pollutant. The morphology and physicochemical properties of the composite membranes were characterised using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), atomic force microscopy and measurements of contact angle, water intake, porosity and water permeability. The sorption capacity and catalytic activity of the membranes were evaluated using ion chromatography, atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-mass spectrometry and UV-Vis spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The sizes of the embedded Fe/Ni nanoparticles in the membranes ranged from 40 to 66 nm as confirmed by HR-TEM. The reaction rates for the dechlorination of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol ranged from 0.00148 to 0.00250 min-1. In all cases, we found that the reaction by-products consisted of chloride ions and mixtures of compounds including phenol ( m/ z = 93), 2,4-dichlorophenol ( m/ z = 163) and 4-chlorophenol ( m/ z = 128). The overall results of this study suggest that β-CD-PPI dendrimers are promising building blocks for the synthesis of composite and reactive membranes for the efficient removal of chlorinated organic pollutants from water.

  9. Investigation of Industrial Polyurethane Foams Modified with Antimicrobial Copper Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sportelli, Maria Chiara; Picca, Rosaria Anna; Ronco, Roberto; Bonerba, Elisabetta; Tantillo, Giuseppina; Pollini, Mauro; Sannino, Alessandro; Valentini, Antonio; Cataldi, Tommaso R.I.; Cioffi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) were electrosynthetized and applied to the controlled impregnation of industrial polyurethane foams used as padding in the textile production or as filters for air conditioning systems. CuNP-modified materials were investigated and characterized morphologically and spectroscopically, by means of Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The release of copper ions in solution was studied by Electro-Thermal Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (ETAAS). Finally, the antimicrobial activity of freshly prepared, as well as aged samples—stored for two months—was demonstrated towards different target microorganisms. PMID:28773665

  10. Gold nanoparticles modified double-tapered fiber for SERS detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunqin; Chen, Na; liu, Shupeng; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2017-06-01

    Double-tapered fiber probes modified with gold nanoparticles were fabricated for the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing. Its performance was compared with the fiber SERS probes of flat end and of single-tapered structure. The remote detection performances of three fiber probe structures were compared by detecting rhodamine 6G (R6G) aqueous solutions with the different concentrations. The results of remote detection of R6G aqueous solution indicate that double-tapered fiber probe with the detection limit of 10-9 M is the most sensitive.

  11. A new bimetallic plasmonic photocatalyst consisting of gold(core)-copper(shell) nanoparticle and titanium(IV) oxide support

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Yuichi; Naya, Shin-ichi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2015-10-01

    Ultrathin Cu layers (∼2 atomic layers) have been selectively formed on the Au surfaces of Au nanoparticle-loaded rutile TiO{sub 2} (Au@Cu/TiO{sub 2}) by a deposition precipitation-photodeposition technique. Cyclic voltammetry and photochronopotentiometry measurements indicate that the reaction proceeds via the underpotential deposition. The ultrathin Cu shell drastically increases the activity of Au/TiO{sub 2} for the selective oxidation of amines to the corresponding aldehydes under visible-light irradiation (λ > 430 nm). Photochronoamperometry measurements strongly suggest that the striking Cu shell effect stems from the enhancement of the charge separation in the localized surface plasmon resonance-excited Au/TiO{sub 2}.

  12. A new bimetallic plasmonic photocatalyst consisting of gold(core)-copper(shell) nanoparticle and titanium(IV) oxide support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Yuichi; Naya, Shin-ichi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2015-10-01

    Ultrathin Cu layers (˜2 atomic layers) have been selectively formed on the Au surfaces of Au nanoparticle-loaded rutile TiO2 (Au@Cu/TiO2) by a deposition precipitation-photodeposition technique. Cyclic voltammetry and photochronopotentiometry measurements indicate that the reaction proceeds via the underpotential deposition. The ultrathin Cu shell drastically increases the activity of Au/TiO2 for the selective oxidation of amines to the corresponding aldehydes under visible-light irradiation (λ > 430 nm). Photochronoamperometry measurements strongly suggest that the striking Cu shell effect stems from the enhancement of the charge separation in the localized surface plasmon resonance-excited Au/TiO2.

  13. Preparation of glucose sensors using gold nanoparticles modified diamond electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachrurrazie; Ivandini, T. A.; Wibowo, W.

    2017-04-01

    A glucose sensor was successfully developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOx) at boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes. Prior to GOx immobilization, the BDD was modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). To immobilize AuNPs, the gold surface was modified to nitrogen termination. The characterization of the electrode surface was performed using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and a scanning electron microscope, while the electrochemical properties of the enzyme electrode were characterized using cyclic voltammetry. Cyclic voltammograms of the prepared electrode for D-glucose in phosphate buffer solution pH 7 showed a new reduction peak at +0.16 V. The currents of the peak were linear in the concentration range of 0.1 M to 0.9 M, indicated that the GOx-AuNP-BDD can be applied for electrochemical glucose detection.

  14. Starch-modified magnetite nanoparticles for impregnation into cartilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soshnikova, Yulia M.; Roman, Svetlana G.; Chebotareva, Natalia A.; Baum, Olga I.; Obrezkova, Mariya V.; Gillis, Richard B.; Harding, Stephen E.; Sobol, Emil N.; Lunin, Valeriy V.

    2013-11-01

    The paper presents preparation and characterization of starch-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) in aqueous dispersion after impregnation into healthy and damaged types of cartilage. We show that starch-modified dispersion has a narrower size distribution than a non-stabilized one. The average hydrodynamic radius of magnetite NPs in a dispersion used for impregnation into cartilage is (48 ± 1) nm with the width of the distribution from 5 to 200 nm. We investigate stability of aqueous magnetite NPs dispersions during storage and with increase in temperature (up to 70 °C). We find that polydisperse magnetite NPs can penetrate into cartilage and the size and concentration of impregnated particles depend on the organization of the tissue structure. The results confirm the possibility of application of magnetite NPs in diagnostics and laser treatment of degenerative cartilage deceases.

  15. Multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles modified with polyethylenimine and folic acid for biomedical theranostics.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyunhee; Moon, Seung-Kwan; Hwang, Taewon; Kim, Yong Seok; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Sung-Wook; Kim, Jung Hyun

    2013-05-21

    This paper describes the preparation of magnetic nanoparticles modified with polyethylenimine (PEI)-folic acid (PF) conjugate and their potential biomedical applications. Magnetic nanoparticles modified with (3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyltrimethoxysilane) (AEAPS) were first prepared using a ligand exchange method to provide biocompatibility and hydrophilicity, and further conjugated with PF to carry gene and enhance specific uptake into cancer cells. We demonstrated the feasibility of the multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as gene carriers for gene delivery. In vitro results revealed that the cytotoxicity of the multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles was lower compared to that of pristine magnetic nanoparticles. Furthermore, we demonstrated the specific uptake of the magnetic nanoparticles modified with PF to KB cells using WI-38 cells as comparison by confocal microscopy. The PF-modified magnetic nanoparticles can potentially be employed as theranostic nanoplatforms for targeted gene delivery to cancer cells and simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging.

  16. Oral Delivery of DMAB-Modified Docetaxel-Loaded PLGA-TPGS Nanoparticles for Cancer Chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hongbo; Zheng, Yi; Tian, Ge; Tian, Yan; Zeng, Xiaowei; Liu, Gan; Liu, Kexin; Li, Lei; Li, Zhen; Mei, Lin; Huang, Laiqiang

    2011-12-01

    Three types of nanoparticle formulation from biodegradable PLGA-TPGS random copolymer were developed in this research for oral administration of anticancer drugs, which include DMAB-modified PLGA nanoparticles, unmodified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles and DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLGA-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. DMAB was used to increase retention time at the cell surface, thus increasing the chances of particle uptake and improving oral drug bioavailability. Nanoparticles were found to be of spherical shape with an average particle diameter of around 250 nm. The surface charge of PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles was changed to positive after DMAB modification. The results also showed that the DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cellular uptake than that of DMAB-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro, cytotoxicity experiment showed advantages of the DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticle formulation over commercial Taxotere® in terms of cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, oral chemotherapy by DMAB-modified PLGA-TPGS nanoparticle formulation is an attractive and promising treatment option for patients.

  17. Raman gas sensing of modified Ag nanoparticle SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myoung, NoSoung; Yoo, Hyung Keun; Hwang, In-Wook

    2014-03-01

    Recent progress in modified Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) using Ag nanoparticles makes them promising optical technique for direct gas sensing of interest. However, SERS has been shown to provide sub ppb level detection of the compounds in the vapor phase. The major problem with the sensitivity scaling-up was in the development of fabrication technology for stability and reproducibility of SERS substrates. We report an optimization of 1-propanethiol coated multiple Ag nanoparticle layers on SiO2 substrate as well as new records of real-time, simultaneous vapor phase detection of toluene and 1-2 dichlorobenzene by the radiation of fiber optic coupled 785 nm diode laser and spectrograph. Multiple depositions of Ag NPs were loaded on SiO2 and soaked in 1-propanethiol solution for 24 hours to modify the surface into hydrophobic due to the characteristics of vapor phase of our interests. Raman bands at 1003 cm-1 and 1130 cm-1 for toluene and 12DCB, respectively were compared to 1089 cm-1 and each gas concentration in 1000 mL flask were calculated as a function of each vapor phase ratio. The saturation of toluene and 12DCB were limited only by 800 ppm and the detectable range was 0.6-800 ppm.

  18. Bimetallic CuCo nanoparticles derived from hydrotalcite supported on carbon fibers for higher alcohols synthesis from syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lianfang; Cao, Ang; Liu, Guilong; Zhang, Lihong; Liu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) is a strong exothermal reaction which leads to the formation of hotspots on the catalysts and the hotspots result in poor selectivity, and Cu-Co based catalysts are one of the most promising to which the formation of Cu-Co alloy is critical. Therefore a new scheme was proposed, based on the excellent thermal conductivity of carbon fibers (CFs) and the uniform mixing of metal ions in layered double hydroxides (LDHs), the latter favors the formation of metallic alloy. Nanocomposites of LDHs and CFs were prepared by using co-precipitation method and used for HAS, and characterized by using FTIR, N2 adsorption-desorption, XRD, TPR, SEM and TEM techniques. In the composites, nanosheets with the typical LDHs morphology are perpendicularly grown on the surface of CFs while intersecting each other, creating a highly open and porous structure. After reduction, Cu-Co-alloy nanoparticles are formed from the LDHs. The resultant catalysts showed high activity and much high selectivity to higher alcohols. The reported methods can be expanded to prepare other LDHs/CFs composites.

  19. Preparation and characterization of agar-based nanocomposite films reinforced with bimetallic (Ag-Cu) alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Arfat, Yasir Ali; Ahmed, Jasim; Jacob, Harsha

    2017-01-02

    Agar-based active nanocomposite films were prepared by incorporating silver-copper (Ag-Cu) alloy nanoparticles (NPs) (0.5-4wt%) into glycerol plasticized agar solution. Thermo-mechanical, morphological, structural, and optical properties of the nanocomposite films were characterized by texture analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and surface color measurement. Tensile strength and the melting temperature of the film increased linearly with NPs loading concentration. Color, transparency and UV barrier properties of agar films were influenced by the reinforcement of Ag-Cu NPs. XRD analysis confirmed the crystalline structure of the Agar/Ag-Cu nanocomposite films, whereas the smoothness and the homogeneity of film surface strongly reduced as observed through the SEM. The nanocomposite films exhibited a profound antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Salmonella enterica sv typhimurium) bacteria. Overall, the agar nanocomposite films could be used as packaging material for food preservation by controlling foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.

  20. Metallic/bimetallic magnetic nanoparticle functionalization for immobilization of α-amylase for enhanced reusability in bio-catalytic processes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Vishal; Rakshit, Kanak; Rathee, Shweta; Angmo, Stanzin; Kaushal, Shimayali; Garg, Pankaj; Chung, Jong Hoon; Sandhir, Rajat; Sangwan, Rajender S; Singhal, Nitin

    2016-08-01

    Novel magnetic nanoparticles coated with silica and gold were synthesized for immobilization of α-amylase enzyme and characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy. Effect of various limiting factors such as substrate concentration, temperature, and pH on the catalytic activity of enzyme was investigated. The optimum pH for free and immobilized enzyme was found unaffected (7.0), whereas optimum temperature for the enzyme activity was increased from 60°C for free enzyme to 80°C for immobilized counterpart. The gains in catalytic attributes concomitant to ease of recovery of the enzyme reflect the potential of the approach and the product to be useful for the enzymatic bioprocessing. The Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) value of the immobilized α-amylase was higher than that of free α-amylase, whereas maximum velocity (Vmax), and turn over number (Kcat), values were almost similar. Immobilized α-amylase maintained 60% of the enzyme activity even after recycling ten times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Second harmonic generation of chiral-modified silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yue

    Chiral molecules, which exist under enantiomers with non-mirror-symmetrical structures, have been the subject of intense research for their linear and nonlinear optical activities. Cysteine is such a chiral amino acid found as a building block of proteins throughout human bodies. Second harmonic generation (SHG) has been considered to investigate chiral molecules. SHG from metallic nanoparticles is promising for nanoplasmonics and photonic nanodevice applications. Therefore, it's desirable to combine and study nonlinear properties due to both chirality and metallic nanoparticles, and help developing an alternatively optical diagnostic of chiral molecules. Our experiments are carried out with the FemtoFiber Scientific FFS laser system. SHG of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) modified by either L-Cysteine (L-C) or D-Cysteine (D-C) is observed, where L-Cysteine and D-Cysteine are a pair of enantiomers. Ag NPs are deposited through Vacuum Thermal Evaporation, controlled under different deposition thicknesses. UV-Vis/IR spectra and AFM are used to characterize Ag NPs under different conditions. Transmitted SHG measurements dependent on incidence are recorded with standard lock-in techniques. Deposition thickness of vacuum thermal evaporation plays an important role in forming diverse Ag NPs, which strongly imparts the intensity of SHG. Second harmonic intensity as a function of the incident angle presents similar results for Ag NPs with or without L-Cysteine or D-Cysteine modification, in the output of p- and s-polarization. However, we monitor reversed rotation difference in second harmonic intensities at linearly +45° and -45° polarization for L-C/Ag NPs and D-C/Ag NPs, while there's no difference at linearly +45° and -45° polarization for Ag NPs alone. This optical rotation difference in SHG is termed as SHG-ORD. Also, for second harmonic light fixed at p-polarization, L-C/Ag NPs and D-C/Ag NPs exhibit a reversely net difference for SHG excited by right and left

  2. Fabrication of latex rubber reinforced with micellar nanoparticle as an interface modifier

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reinforced latex rubbers were fabricated by incorporating small amount of nanoparticles as interface modifier. The rubbers were fabricated in a compression mold at 130°C. The incorporated nanoparticles were prepared from wheat protein (gliadin) and ethyl cyanoacrylate (ECA). These nanoparticles were...

  3. Computer-assisted electrochemical fabrication of a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on surface decoration of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Gholivand, Mohammad-Bagher; Jalalvand, Ali R; Goicoechea, Hector C

    2014-07-01

    For the first time, a novel, robust and very attractive statistical experimental design (ED) using minimum-run equireplicated resolution IV factorial design (Min-Run Res IV FD) coupled with face centered central composite design (FCCCD) and Derringer's desirability function (DF) was developed to fabricate a highly selective and sensitive amperometric nitrite sensor based on electrodeposition of CoNi bimetallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs) on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) nanosheets. The modifications were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The CoNi bimetallic alloy NPs were characterized using digital image processing (DIP) for particle counting (density estimation) and average diameter measurement. Under the identified optimal conditions, the novel sensor detects nitrite in concentration ranges of 0.1-30.0 μM and 30.0-330.0 μM with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05 μM. This sensor selectively detects nitrite even in the presence of high concentration of common ions and biological interferents therefore, we found that the sensor is highly selective. The sensor also demonstrated an excellent operational stability and good antifouling properties. The proposed sensor was used to the determination of nitrite in several foodstuff and water samples.

  4. Cost-effective flow injection amperometric system with metal nanoparticle loaded carbon nanotube modified screen printed carbon electrode for sensitive determination of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Reanpang, Preeyaporn; Themsirimongkon, Suwaphid; Saipanya, Surin; Chailapakul, Orawon; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    Various metal nanoparticles (NPs) decorated on carbon nanotube (CNT) was modified on the home-made screen printed carbon electrode (SPCE) in order to enhances sensitivity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) determination. The simple casting method was used for the electrode modification. The monometallic and bimetallic NPs modified electrodes were investigated for their electrochemical properties for H2O2 reduction. The Pd-CNT/SPCE is appropriated to measure the H2O2 reduction at a potential of -0.3 V, then this modified electrode was incorporated with a home-made flow through cell and applied in a simple flow injection amperometry (FI-Amp). Some parameters influencing the resulted modified electrode and the FI-Amp system were studied. The proposed detection system was able to detect H2O2 in the range of 0.1-1.0 mM, with detection limit of 20 µM. Relative standard deviation for 100 replicated injections of 0.6 mM H2O2 was 2.3%. The reproducibility of 6 electrodes preparing in 3 different lots was 8.2%. It was demonstrated for determination of H2O2 in disinfectant, hair colorant and milk samples. Recoveries in the range of 90-109% were observed. The developed system provided high stability, good repeatability, high sample throughput and low reagent consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sonochemical synthesis of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane-modified monodispersed silica nanoparticles for protein immobilization

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Shou-Cang; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chia, Leonard; Dong, Yuan-Cai; Tan, Reginald B.H.

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified monodispersed silica nanoparticles were synthesized by rapid sonochemical co-condensation to achieve high capability for protein immobilization. Highlights: {yields} Amino-modified monodispersed silica nanoparticles were synthesized by rapid co-condensation. {yields} Strong positive charge was created by aminopropyl-modification. {yields} Capability for immobilization of negatively charged protein was enhanced. {yields} Electrostatic interaction between proteins and surface contributed to the enhanced adsorption. -- Abstract: 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane modified monodispersed silica nanoparticles were synthesized by a rapid sonochemical co-condensation synthesis procedure. The chemical nature of surface organic modifier on the obtained modified silica nanoparticle was characterized by {sup 13}C and {sup 29}Si MAS Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)- differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Due to the strengthened positive surface charge of the silica nanoparticles by the modification with aminopropyl groups, the capability for bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption was significantly increased as compared with bare silica nanoparticles. 80 mg/g BSA was adsorbed on modified silica nanoparticles, whereas only 20 mg/g BSA could be loaded on pure silica nanoparticles. The enhanced positive surface charge repelled proteins with net positive charge and the modified silica nanoparticles exhibited negligible adsorption of lysozyme, thus a selective adsorption of proteins could be achieved.

  6. Weathering performance of surface of thermally modified wood finished with nanoparticles-modified waterborne polyacrylate coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miklečić, Josip; Turkulin, Hrvoje; Jirouš-Rajković, Vlatka

    2017-06-01

    In this research the samples of thermally modified (TMT) beech wood samples, finished with waterborne polyacrylate clear coatings modified with nano-sized ZnO and TiO2-rutil were naturally and artificially exposed to weathering conditions. To extend the lifetime of wood and maintain its natural look, the research and development of clear coatings with minimal use of harmful chemicals has become very important. Therefore nano-sized inorganic UV absorbers are increasingly used to enhance the durability of the coating and wood substrate, still retaining the transparency of the coating. During exposure the visual inspection was performed, further the changes of colour, gloss and adhesion were recorded. Interaction of the film with the thermally modified substrate surface were studied. Results showed that the addition of TiO2-rutil and ZnO nanoparticles to the waterborne polyacrylate coating improved the colour stability of thermally modified beech-wood. However, nano-sized ZnO increased the cracking and peeling, and caused the loss in adhesion strength of the film on thermally modified beech wood.

  7. Thermosensitive polymer-modified gold nanoparticles with sensitive fluorescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chunhua; Dong, Qiujing; Qian, Meijuan; Zhang, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Two types of thermosensitive polymer-modified gold nanoparticles (GNPs), P(DMAM-co-MADMAC)-modified GNPs (GNPs@PDM) and P(NIPAM-co-MADMAC)-modified GNPs (GNPs@PNM), are fabricated by the "grafting through" polymerization technique. The as-prepared GNPs are characterized by UV-vis, TEM, XPS, TGA, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy. The thermosensitivity and fluorescence of the GNPs are investigated. It is found that all GNPs aqueous solutions but GNPs@PDM1 exhibit thermosensitivity originated from thermosensitive polymer chains and sensitive fluorescence from the dimethylaminochalcone group. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the GNPs decreases with the increasing content of MADMAC unit in the GNPs. The GNPs aqueous solution shows weak fluorescence after the temperature increases from 25 °C to 45 °C, or after β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) is added. Furthermore, it exhibits strong fluorescence when the solvent is changed to ethanol or chloroform, and the fluorescent wavelength undergoes a blue shift from ethanol to chloroform.

  8. Receptor modified gold and silver nanoparticles: effect on interactions with oxoanions.

    PubMed

    Veverková, Lenka; Žvátora, Pavel; Záruba, Kamil; Král, Vladimír

    2013-01-07

    Herein we present a supramolecular non-covalent approach for the modification of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and silver nanoparticles (SNPs) with porphyrin derivatives. The immobilization of porphyrin derivatives was carried out by two different procedures of ionic interaction. The first one was direct immobilization of the conjugate on nanoparticles and the second one was immobilization of the conjugate on 3-mercaptopropanoic acid (MPA) premodified gold nanoparticles. Such modified nanoparticles were used for interactions with selected oxoanions. The interactions were studied by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and electronic circular dichroism. The results showed a dependence of interaction with oxoanions on the immobilization procedures of porphyrin derivatives on the nanoparticle surface.

  9. Dopamine Serves as a Stable Surface Modifier for Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Xiaoqin; Wang, Xiaomin; Hu, Juan; Wang, Lirong; Gao, Jinhao; Zhang, Bei; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-03-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles are an important class of nanomaterials in a broad range of biomedical applications because of their superparamagnetism and biocompatibility. The success of biomedical applications of iron oxide nanoparticles relies on the particles' surface functionalization, which requires robust and versatile surface anchors. Here, we report on a detailed examination of the dopamine-based surface modification of iron oxide nanoparticles. We used dopamine (2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine) and L-dopa (3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine) as two surface modifiers and chose Fe2O3 hollow nanoparticles and Fe3O4 nanoparticles as two representative substrates. Optical and TEM images showed that iron oxide nanoparticles dispersed very well in water after surface modification. The analysis of the UV-Vis spectra indicated that dopamine and L-dopa are stable after being immobilized on the surface of iron oxide nanoparticles when the pH value of the environment is about 7. The magnetic properties analysis further showed that the blocking temperature of the dopamine- or L-dopa-decorated iron oxide nanoparticles hardly changed over 20 days, confirming long-term stability of these surface modified nanoparticles. Cell assay indicated that these dopamine- or L-dopa-modified iron oxide nanoparticles were biocompatible. These results confirm that dopamine serves as a stable modifier and a robust anchor to functionalize iron oxide nanoparticles in biomedical applications.

  10. Modified bamboo rayon-copper nanoparticle composites as antibacterial textiles.

    PubMed

    Teli, M D; Sheikh, Javed

    2013-10-01

    In the current study the bamboo rayon fabric grafted with acrylamide was utilized as a backbone to immobilize copper nanoprticles. The grafted bamboo rayon was first treated with CuSO4 followed by chemical reduction. The modified product was characterized using FTIR, TGA and SEM. The characteristic color developed after reduction was measured spectrophotometrically. The grafted bamboo rayon with Cu nanoparticles was then evaluated for antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria and the durability of their antibacterial activity after washing. The product showed antibacterial activity against both types of bacterias which was found to be durable till 50 washes. The material can be claimed as suitable candidate for medical textile applications to prevent cross-infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Liqin; Li, Xuemin; Liu, Lingrong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2013-02-01

    Oral chemotherapy is a key step towards `chemotherapy at home', a dream of cancer patients, which will radically change the clinical practice of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. In this research, three types of nanoparticle formulation from commercial PCL and self-synthesized d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-PCL-TPGS) random copolymer were prepared in this research for oral delivery of antitumor agents, including thiolated chitosan-modified PCL nanoparticles, unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles, and thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLA-PCL-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. Thiolated chitosan greatly increases its mucoadhesiveness and permeation properties, thus increasing the chances of nanoparticle uptake by the gastrointestinal mucosa and improving drug absorption. The PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles were found by FESEM that they are of spherical shape and around 200 nm in diameter. The surface charge of PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles was reversed from anionic to cationic after thiolated chitosan modification. The thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cell uptake than that of thiolated chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro cell viability studies showed advantages of the thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles over Taxol® in terms of cytotoxicity against A549 cells. It seems that the mucoadhesive nanoparticles can increase paclitaxel transport by opening tight junctions and bypassing the efflux pump of P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles modified by thiolated chitosan could enhance the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, which revealed a potential application for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

  12. Thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liqin; Li, Xuemin; Liu, Lingrong; Zhang, Qiqing

    2013-02-09

    Oral chemotherapy is a key step towards 'chemotherapy at home', a dream of cancer patients, which will radically change the clinical practice of chemotherapy and greatly improve the quality of life of the patients. In this research, three types of nanoparticle formulation from commercial PCL and self-synthesized d-α-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (PLA-PCL-TPGS) random copolymer were prepared in this research for oral delivery of antitumor agents, including thiolated chitosan-modified PCL nanoparticles, unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles, and thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. Firstly, the PLA-PCL-TPGS random copolymer was synthesized and characterized. Thiolated chitosan greatly increases its mucoadhesiveness and permeation properties, thus increasing the chances of nanoparticle uptake by the gastrointestinal mucosa and improving drug absorption. The PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles were found by FESEM that they are of spherical shape and around 200 nm in diameter. The surface charge of PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles was reversed from anionic to cationic after thiolated chitosan modification. The thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles have significantly higher level of the cell uptake than that of thiolated chitosan-modified PLGA nanoparticles and unmodified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles. In vitro cell viability studies showed advantages of the thiolated chitosan-modified PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles over Taxol® in terms of cytotoxicity against A549 cells. It seems that the mucoadhesive nanoparticles can increase paclitaxel transport by opening tight junctions and bypassing the efflux pump of P-glycoprotein. In conclusion, PLA-PCL-TPGS nanoparticles modified by thiolated chitosan could enhance the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity, which revealed a potential application for oral chemotherapy of lung cancer.

  13. Homogeneous Pt-bimetallic Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chao; Chi, Miaofang; More, Karren Leslie; Markovic, Nenad; Stamenkovic, Vojislav

    2011-01-01

    Alloying has shown enormous potential for tailoring the atomic and electronic structures, and improving the performance of catalytic materials. Systematic studies of alloy catalysts are, however, often compromised by inhomogeneous distribution of alloying components. Here we introduce a general approach for the synthesis of monodispersed and highly homogeneous Pt-bimetallic alloy nanocatalysts. Pt{sub 3}M (where M = Fe, Ni, or Co) nanoparticles were prepared by an organic solvothermal method and then supported on high surface area carbon. These catalysts attained a homogeneous distribution of elements, as demonstrated by atomic-scale elemental analysis using scanning transmission electron microscopy. They also exhibited high catalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), with improvement factors of 2-3 versus conventional Pt/carbon catalysts. The measured ORR catalytic activities for Pt{sub 3}M nanocatalysts validated the volcano curve established on extended surfaces, with Pt{sub 3}Co being the most active alloy.

  14. Nano-Web Cobalt Modified Silica Nanoparticles Catalysts for Water Oxidation and MB Oxidative Degradation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Qiuyun; Li, Chenghao; Fang, Fang

    2016-05-01

    Dioxygen generating materials, using water as oxygen source, can be used as catalysts in hypoxic environments. Cobalt(II) modified silica (SiO2@NPCo) nanoparticles were synthesized through coordination of cobalt(II) ions with nitrogen atoms from 2-acetylpyridine modified silica (SiO2@NP). The SiO2@NPCo nanoparticles further reacted with 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic acids, forming porous nano-web nanoparticles (SiO2@NPCoCOOH). The synthesized SiO2@NPCoCOOH nanoparticles were demonstrated as better white LED light driven photochemical catalysts for oxidation of water than individual nanoparticles (SiO2@NPCo). Moreover, the SiO2@NPCoCOOH/water system could decrease the content of methylene blue (MB) in solution and therefore, the nanoweb cobalt(II) modified silica nanoparticles can be environmentally friendly catalysts for oxidative degradation of MB, using water as the oxygen source.

  15. Bismuth nanoparticles-carbon nanotubes modified sensor for sulfasalazine analysis.

    PubMed

    Nigović, Biljana; Jurić, Sandra; Mitrović, Iva

    2017-03-01

    Nanocomposite of bismuth nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes in Nafion matrix was used as modifier for glassy carbon electrode in analysis of anti-inflamatory drug sulfasalazine. The nanocomposite surface exhibited exceptional synergy and remarkable enhancement effect to the voltammetric response of drug. The surface morphology and structure characterization of the modified electrodes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The sensor exhibited excellent electroanalytical performance for drug determination in comparison with bismuth film electrode. The adsorptive stripping square-wave voltammetric signal showed a good linear correlation to sulfasalazine concentration in a broad range from 5.0×10(-8) to 1.0×10(-5)M with low detection limit of 1.3×10(-8)M.The method was successfully utilised for drug quantification in human serum samples and good recoveries were obtained without interference from endogenous substances, 5-aminosalycilic acid and sulfapyridine formed after biotransformation of drug and folic acid co-administered as the supplement during sulfasalazine therapy. Additionally, the proposed sensor was successfully applied to analysis of sulfasalazine content in gastro-resistant pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  16. Rapid efficient synthesis and characterization of silver, gold, and bimetallic nanoparticles from the medicinal plant Plumbago zeylanica and their application in biofilm control

    PubMed Central

    Salunke, Gayatri R; Ghosh, Sougata; Santosh Kumar, RJ; Khade, Samiksha; Vashisth, Priya; Kale, Trupti; Chopade, Snehal; Pruthi, Vikas; Kundu, Gopal; Bellare, Jayesh R; Chopade, Balu A

    2014-01-01

    Background Nanoparticles (NPs) have gained significance in medical fields due to their high surface-area-to-volume ratio. In this study, we synthesized NPs from a medicinally important plant – Plumbago zeylanica. Materials and methods Aqueous root extract of P. zeylanica (PZRE) was analyzed for the presence of flavonoids, sugars, and organic acids using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC), gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS), and biochemical methods. The silver NPs (AgNPs), gold NPs (AuNPs), and bimetallic NPs (AgAuNPs) were synthesized from root extract and characterized using ultraviolet-visible spectra, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The effects of these NPs on Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli biofilms were studied using quantitative biofilm inhibition and disruption assays, as well as using fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. Results PZRE showed the presence of phenolics, such as plumbagin, and flavonoids, in addition to citric acid, sucrose, glucose, fructose, and starch, using HPTLC, GC-TOF-MS, and quantitative analysis. Bioreduction of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) were confirmed at absorbances of 440 nm (AgNPs), 570 nm (AuNPs), and 540 nm (AgAuNPs), respectively. The maximum rate of synthesis at 50°C was achieved with 5 mM AgNO3 within 4.5 hours for AgNPs; and with 0.7 mM HAuCl4 within 5 hours for AuNPs. The synthesis of AgAuNPs, which completed within 90 minutes with 0.7 mM AgNO3 and HAuCl4, was found to be the fastest. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed bioreduction, while EDS and XRD patterns confirmed purity and the crystalline nature of the NPs, respectively. TEM micrographs and DLS showed about 60 nm monodispersed Ag nanospheres, 20–30 nm Au nanospheres adhering to form Au nanotriangles

  17. Environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles for enhanced oil recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behzadi, Abed; Mohammadi, Aliasghar

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles are colloidal nanoparticles coated with, at least, two physicochemically distinct surface groups. Recent advances in the synthesis and production of nanoparticles have enabled the production of environmentally responsive surface-modified nanoparticles with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surface groups. These nanoparticles act like colloidal surfactants. In this paper, environmentally responsive surface-modified silica nanoparticles are synthesized and used for enhancement of oil recovery. For this purpose, silica nanoparticles are coated with polyethylene glycol chains as hydrophilic agent and propyl chains as hydrophobic agent at various quantities, and their ability to modulate oil-water interface properties and oil recovery is examined. Oil-water interfacial tension and water surface tension are decreased by 50 % in the presence of silica nanoparticles coated with both agents. Measuring oil-drop contact angle on oil-wetted glass slides and carbonate rock sections, after aging in various surface-modified silica nanofluids, indicates that the wettability of various oil-wetted surfaces is modified from strongly oil-wet to water-wet. Flooding nanofluids to glass micro-models and pore-level investigations demonstrate that surface modification of silica nanoparticles, specially, with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents improves considerably their performance in increasing oil recovery and wettability alteration.

  18. Stabilisation of silver and copper nanoparticles in a chemically modified chitosan matrix.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Anand D; Mishra, Ajay K; Mishra, Shivani B; Kuvarega, Alex T; Mamba, Bhekie B

    2013-02-15

    This work describes the stabilisation of silver and copper nanoparticles in chemically modified chitosan colloidal solution. Chitosan-N-2-methylidene-hydroxy-pyridine-6-methylidene hydroxy thiocarbohydrazide (CSPTH) was used as a stabilising and reducing agent for silver and copper nanoparticles. The modified chitosan derivatives and the synthesised nanoparticles were characterised by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Particle size, morphology and segregation of the nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The size of the nanoparticles was found to be less than 20 nm and 50 nm for silver and copper nanoparticles, respectively. These nanoparticles were stabilised in a chemically modified chitosan solution and their properties were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The optical properties of silver nanoparticles in surface plasmon band (SPB) were enhanced at 407 nm compared to those of copper nanoparticles. Fluorescence (400 nm and 756 nm), photoluminescence (450 and 504 nm) and Raman scattering (1382 and 1581 cm(-1)) properties for the copper nanoparticles were superior to those of the silver nanoparticles.

  19. Photocatalytic treatment of municipal wastewater using modified neodymium doped TiO(2) hybrid nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shahmoradi, Behzad; Ibrahim, Ibrahim A; Sakamoto, Naonori; Ananda, Sannaiah; Somashekar, Rudrappa; Row, Tagur N Guru; Byrappa, Kullaiah

    2010-08-01

    Photocatalytic degradation of municipal wastewater was investigated using reagent grade TiO(2) and modified neodymium doped TiO(2) hybrid nanoparticles. For the first time, surface modification of Nd(3 +) doped TiO(2) hybrid nanoparticles were carried out with n-butylamine as surface modifier under mild hydrothermal conditions. The modified nanoparticles obtained were characterized by Powder XRD, FTIR, DLS, TEM, BET surface area, zeta potential and UV-Vis Spectroscopy. The characterization results indicated better morphology, particle size distribution and low agglomeration of the nanoparticles synthesized. It was found that photodegradation of wastewater using surface modified neodymium doped TiO(2) nanoparticles was more compared to pure TiO(2), which can be attributed to the doping and modification with n-butylamine.

  20. Changes in Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of AISI Type 316LN Stainless Steel and Modified 9Cr-1Mo Steel on Long-Term Exposure to Flowing Sodium in a Bi-Metallic Sodium Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivai Bharasi, N.; Pujar, M. G.; Thyagarajan, K.; Mallika, C.; Kamachi Mudali, U.; Dhaul, Anuradha; Nandagopal, M.; Moitra, A.; Chandramouli, S.; Rajan, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    AISI Type 316LN stainless steel (SS) and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel were exposed to flowing sodium at 798 K (525 °C) for 30000 hours in a bi-metallic sodium loop. The changes in microchemical, microstructural, and mechanical properties were evaluated and compared with the as-received and thermally aged specimens. Effective carbon diffusion coefficient {( {D_{C}^{eff} } )} was calculated to be 6.8 × 10-19 m2/s. Depth of carburization analyzed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy technique was around 100 µm for sodium-exposed 316LN SS. Selective leaching of nickel occurred across depth from the surface of sodium-exposed 316LN SS with the formation of 10 µm ferrite layer, and it showed an increase in yield strength by 15 pct, reduction in ductility by 60 pct, and a decrease in impact energy by 15 pct vis-a-vis the as-received and thermally aged specimens. This reduction in ductility occurred due to extensive precipitation of sigma phase as a result of long-term thermal aging. No significant changes were observed in the sodium/modified 9Cr-1Mo steel interfacial microstructure as well as tensile properties of sodium-exposed modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. Although modified 9Cr-1Mo neither showed carburization nor decarburization on sodium exposure, it showed a drastic reduction in the impact strength, which was attributed to the presence of Laves phase, observed in X-ray diffraction patterns.

  1. Carbohydrate modified ultrafine ceramic nanoparticles for allergen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ravi Shankar; Sahu, Satish; Sudheesh, M S; Madan, Jitender; Kumar, Manoj; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2011-08-01

    The uses of drug-delivery systems in allergen specific immunotherapy appear to be a promising approach due to their ability to act as adjuvants, transport the allergens to immune-competent cells and tissues and reduce the number of administrations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the carbohydrate modified ultrafine ceramic core based nanoparticles (aquasomes) as adjuvant/delivery vehicle in specific immunotherapy using ovalbumin (OVA) as an allergen model. Prepared nanoparticles were characterized for size, shape, zeta potential, antigen integrity, surface adsorption efficiency and in vitro release. The humoral and cellular-induced immune responses generated by OVA adsorbed aquasomes were studied by two intradermal immunizations in BALB/c mice. OVA sensitized mice were treated with OVA adsorbed aquasomes and OVA adsorbed aluminum hydroxide following established protocol. Fifteen days after therapy, animals were challenged with OVA and different signs of anaphylactic shock were evaluated. Developed aquasomes possessed a negative zeta potential (-11.3 mV) and an average size of 47 nm with OVA adsorption efficiency of ~60.2 μg mg(-1) of hydroxyapatite core. In vivo immune response after two intradermal injections with OVA adsorbed aquasomes resulted in a mixed Th1/Th2-type immune response. OVA-sensitized mice model, treatment with OVA adsorbed aquasomes elicited lower levels of IgE (p<0.05), serum histamine and higher survival rate in comparison with alum adsorbed OVA. Symptoms of anaphylactic shock in OVA aquasome-treated mice were weaker than the one induced in the alum adsorbed OVA group. Results from this study demonstrate the valuable use of aquasomes in allergen immunotherapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural and electrical study of ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles modified with surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, Gaganpreet Kaur; Kumar, Rajesh Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-06-24

    Zirconia ceramic is one of the most investigated materials for its outstanding mechanical properties and ionic conduction properties, due to its high oxygen ion conduction. In order to achieve novel properties of zirconia nanoparticles, nanoparticles of zirconia are modified by using two different surfactants (SDS and CTAB) were prepared by in-situ method using zirconia/surfactant dispersions. Zirconia nanoparticles with surfactant (SDS or CTAB) were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The structural and optical properties of Zirconia/surfactant nanoparticles were investigated comprehensively by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), and electrical measurements. XRD highlights the crystalline behavior of nanoparticles.

  3. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles with a modified ultrasonic spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeric, Peter

    This Doctoral Dissertation presents the studies, experimental work, characterization techniques, results and analyses of synthesis of very pure, spherical, unagglomerated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), with sizes around 50 nm. In the first part of the research, the AuNPs were synthesized with conventional Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis (USP). For the raw material, tetrachloroauric acid HAuCl4(s) was dissolved in water. This precursor solution was then sprayed into droplets with ultrasound, and a carrier gas N2 then transported the droplets into a reaction furnace. In this furnace the AuNP synthesis stages took place: Droplet evaporation, thermal decomposition, reduction with H2 gas and densification. The resulting AuNPs had diverse shapes in sizes up to 300 nm, with a high degree of agglomeration. Because the aim was not achieved with the conventional USP, a hypothesis was proposed where the targeted AuNPs could be synthesized with a modified USP. With this modification, the droplet evaporation zone is separated from the reaction furnace and the reduction gas is introduced directly into the reaction furnace. To confirm this hypothesis we have carried out experiments in order to determine the influential parameters of USP synthesis: The concentration of Au in the precursor solution, evaporation zone temperature, reaction furnace temperature and gas flows of N2 and H2. Characterization of the obtained AuNPs has shown that 2 formation mechanisms take place in USP synthesis (Droplet-to-Particle, DTP and Gas-to-Particle, GTP). With DTP, nanoparticles up to 300 nm are formed, while smaller nanoparticles up to 50 nm are formed with GTP. When both mechanisms occur simultaneously, we obtain a bimodal size distribution of AuNPs. Based on these findings, we have set up an AuNP formation model, explaining how one can control the DTP and GTP mechanisms in USP by changing the most influential parameters, the concentration of Au in the precursor solution and the gas flows. Based on this

  4. Physicochemical properties of protein-modified silver nanoparticles in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hangyue

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical properties of silver nanoparticles stabilized with casein protein in seawater. UV?vis spectrometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were applied to measure the stability of silver nanoparticles in seawater samples. The obtained results show an increased aggregation tendency of silver nanoparticles in seawater, which could be attributed its relatively high cation concentration that could neutralize the negatively charges adsorbed on the surface of silver nanoparticles and reduce the electrostatic repulsion forces between nanoparticles. Similarly, due to the surface charge screening process, the zeta potential of silver nanoparticles in seawater decreased. This observation further supported the aggregation behavior of silver nanoparticles. This study also investigated the dissolution of silver nanoparticles in seawater. Result shows that the silver nanoparticle dissolution in DI water is lower than in seawater, which is attributed to the high Cl? concentration present in seawater. As Cl? can react with silver and form soluble AgCl complex, dissolution of silver nanoparticles was enhanced. Finally, this study demonstrated that silver nanoparticles are destabilized in seawater condition. These results may be helpful in understanding the environmental risk of discharged silver nanoparticles in seawater conditions.

  5. A photoactive bimetallic framework for direct aminoformylation of nitroarenes

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bimetallic catalyst, AgPd@g-C3N4, was synthesized by immobilizing silver and palladium nanoparticles over the surface of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and its utility was demonstrated for the concerted aminoformylation of aromatic nitro compounds under visible light conditi...

  6. A photoactive bimetallic framework for direct aminoformylation of nitroarenes

    EPA Science Inventory

    A bimetallic catalyst, AgPd@g-C3N4, was synthesized by immobilizing silver and palladium nanoparticles over the surface of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and its utility was demonstrated for the concerted aminoformylation of aromatic nitro compounds under visible light conditi...

  7. Hydroxylation of Benzene via CH Activation Using Bimetallic ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A photoactive bimetallic CuAg@g-C3N4 catalyst system has been designed and synthesized by impregnating copper and silver nanoparticles over the graphitic carbon nitride surface. Its application has been demonstrated in the hydroxylation of benzene under visible light. Prepared for submission to American Chemical Society (ACS) journal, ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering.

  8. Poly(L-lysine)-modified iron oxide nanoparticles for stem cell labeling.

    PubMed

    Babic, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Trchová, Miroslava; Jendelová, Pavla; Glogarová, Katerina; Lesný, Petr; Herynek, Vít; Hájek, Milan; Syková, Eva

    2008-03-01

    New surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles were developed by precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) salts with ammonium hydroxide and oxidation of the resulting magnetite with sodium hypochlorite, followed by the addition of poly( L-lysine) (PLL) solution. PLL of several molecular weights ranging from 146 ( L-lysine) to 579 000 was tested as a coating to boost the intracellular uptake of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, dynamic light scattering, FTIR, and ultrasonic spectrometry. TEM revealed that the particles were ca. 6 nm in diameter, while FTIR showed that their surfaces were well-coated with PLL. The interaction of PLL-modified iron oxide nanoparticles with DMEM culture medium was verified by UV-vis spectroscopy. Rat bone marrow stromal cells (rMSCs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) were labeled with PLL-modified iron oxide nanoparticles or with Endorem (control). Optical microscopy and TEM confirmed the presence of PLL-modified iron oxide nanoparticles inside the cells. Cellular uptake was very high (more than 92%) for PLL-modified nanoparticles that were coated with PLL (molecular weight 388 00) at a concentration of 0.02 mg PLL per milliliter of colloid. The cellular uptake of PLL-modified iron oxide was facilitated by its interaction with the negatively charged cell surface and subsequent endosomolytic uptake. The relaxivity of rMSCs labeled with PLL-modified iron oxide and the amount of iron in the cells were determined. PLL-modified iron oxide-labeled rMSCs were imaged in vitro and in vivo after intracerebral grafting into the contralateral hemisphere of the adult rat brain. The implanted cells were visible on magnetic resonance (MR) images as a hypointense area at the injection site and in the lesion. In comparison with Endorem, nanoparticles modified with PLL of an optimum molecular weight demonstrated a higher efficiency of intracellular uptake by MSC cells.

  9. Self-Organization of FePt Nanoparticles on Photochemically Modified Diblock Copolymer Templates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    30, 6507. Self-Organization of FePt Nanoparticles on Photochemically Modified Diblock Copolymer Templates** By Seth B. Darling, Nataliya A. Yufa...60637 (USA) [**] The authors thank Ward Lopes for useful discussions and A. C. Sa- mia, J. Schleuter, and X. M. Lin for providing the FePt nanoparticles...REPORT DATE 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2005 to 00-00-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Self-Organization of FePt Nanoparticles on

  10. Enhanced CO photocatalytic oxidation in the presence of humidity by tuning composition of Pd-Pt bimetallic nanoparticles supported on TiO2.

    PubMed

    Rosseler, Olivier; Louvet, Alain; Keller, Valérie; Keller, Nicolas

    2011-05-14

    Here we put forward for the first time that the negative effect of humidity on CO photooxidation at room temperature can be overcome by adjusting the composition of Pd-Pt bimetallic particles supported on TiO(2). Consequently, optimized Pd(x)Pt(1-x)/TiO(2) materials can be considered as common and efficient photocatalysts for simultaneous elimination of CO and VOCs in the presence of humidity, i.e. for real indoor air treatment. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  11. Enhanced oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugate stability using thioctic acid modified oligonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Dougan, Jennifer A; Karlsson, Camilla; Smith, W Ewen; Graham, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles of gold functionalized with oligonucleotides conventionally use a terminal thiol modification and have been used in a wide range of applications. Although readily available, the oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates prepared in this way suffer from a lack of stability when exposed to a variety of small molecules or elevated temperatures. If silver is used in place of gold then this lack of stability is even more pronounced. In this study we report the synthesis of highly stabilized oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates using a simple oligonucleotide modification. A modified solid support was used to generate 3'-thioctic acid modified oligonucleotides by treatment with an N-hydroxysuccimidyl ester of thioctic acid. Unusually, both gold and silver nanoparticles have been investigated in this study and show that these disulphide-modified oligonucleotide probes offer significant improvements in nanoparticle stability when treated with dithiothreitol (DTT) compared with monothiol analogues. This is a significant advance in oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugate stability and for the first time allows silver nanoparticles to be prepared that are more stable than standard gold-thiol functionalized nanoparticles. This opens up the possibility of using silver nanoparticles functionalized with oligonucleotides as an alternative to gold.

  12. Enhanced oligonucleotide–nanoparticle conjugate stability using thioctic acid modified oligonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Dougan, Jennifer A.; Karlsson, Camilla; Smith, W. Ewen; Graham, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles of gold functionalized with oligonucleotides conventionally use a terminal thiol modification and have been used in a wide range of applications. Although readily available, the oligonucleotide–nanoparticle conjugates prepared in this way suffer from a lack of stability when exposed to a variety of small molecules or elevated temperatures. If silver is used in place of gold then this lack of stability is even more pronounced. In this study we report the synthesis of highly stabilized oligonucleotide–nanoparticle conjugates using a simple oligonucleotide modification. A modified solid support was used to generate 3′-thioctic acid modified oligonucleotides by treatment with an N-hydroxysuccimidyl ester of thioctic acid. Unusually, both gold and silver nanoparticles have been investigated in this study and show that these disulphide-modified oligonucleotide probes offer significant improvements in nanoparticle stability when treated with dithiothreitol (DTT) compared with monothiol analogues. This is a significant advance in oligonucleotide–nanoparticle conjugate stability and for the first time allows silver nanoparticles to be prepared that are more stable than standard gold-thiol functionalized nanoparticles. This opens up the possibility of using silver nanoparticles functionalized with oligonucleotides as an alternative to gold. PMID:17488844

  13. Using femtosecond lasers to modify sizes of gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Cordeiro, Thiago; Almeida de Matos, Ricardo; Silva, Flávia Rodrigues de Oliveira; Vieira, Nilson D.; Courrol, Lilia C.; Samad, Ricardo E.

    2016-04-01

    Metallic nanoparticles are important on several scientific, medical and industrial areas. The control of nanoparticles characteristics has fundamental importance to increase the efficiency on the processes and applications in which they are employed. The metallic nanoparticles present specific surface plasmon resonances (SPR). These resonances are related with the collective oscillations of the electrons presents on the metallic nanoparticle. The SPR is determined by the potential defined by the nanoparticle size and geometry. There are several methods of producing gold nanoparticles, including the use of toxic chemical polymers. We already reported the use of natural polymers, as for example, the agar-agar, to produce metallic nanoparticles under xenon lamp irradiation. This technique is characterized as a "green" synthesis because the natural polymers are inoffensive to the environment. We report a technique to produce metallic nanoparticles and change its geometrical and dimensional characteristics using a femtosecond laser. The 1 ml initial solution was irradiate using a laser beam with 380 mW, 1 kHz and 40 nm of bandwidth centered at 800 nm. The setup uses an Acousto-optic modulator, Dazzler, to change the pulses spectral profiles by introduction of several orders of phase, resulting in different temporal energy distributions. The use of Dazzler has the objective of change the gold nanoparticles average size by the changing of temporal energy distributions of the laser pulses incident in the sample. After the laser irradiation, the gold nanoparticles average diameter were less than 15 nm.

  14. Hydrophobically modified polysaccharide-based on polysialic acid nanoparticles as carriers for anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Jung, Bom; Shim, Man-Kyu; Park, Min-Ju; Jang, Eun Hyang; Yoon, Hong Yeol; Kim, Kwangmeyung; Kim, Jong-Ho

    2017-03-30

    This study presented the development of hydrophobically modified polysialic acid (HPSA) nanoparticles, a novel anticancer drug nanocarrier that increases therapeutic efficacy without causing nonspecific toxicity towards normal cells. HPSA nanoparticles were prepared by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) coupling between N-deacetylated polysialic acid (PSA) and 5β-cholanic acid. The physicochemical characteristics of HPSA nanoparticles (zeta-potential, morphology and size) were measured, and in vitro cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of PSA and HPSA nanoparticles were tested in A549 cells. In vivo cancer targeting of HPSA nanoparticles was evaluated by labeling PSA and HPSA nanoparticles with Cy5.5, a near-infrared fluorescent dye, for imaging. HPSA nanoparticles showed improved cancer-targeting ability compared with PSA. Doxorubicin-loaded HPSA (DOX-HPSA) nanoparticles were prepared using a simple dialysis method. An analysis of the in vitro drug-release profile and drug-delivery behavior showed that DOX was effectively released from DOX-HPSA nanoparticles. In vivo cancer therapy with DOX-HPSA nanoparticles in mice showed antitumor effects that resembled those of free DOX. Moreover, DOX-HPSA nanoparticles had low toxicity toward other organs, reflecting their tumor-targeting property. Hence, HPSA nanoparticles are considered a potential nanocarrier for anticancer agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. From First Principles Design to Realization of Bimetallic Catalysts for Ultrahigh Selectivity - Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard M. Crooks

    2007-04-11

    (A) Synthesis, Characterization, and Fundamental Properties of Bimetallic DENs. AuAg alloy and core/shell bimetallic DENs were synthesized and characterized. Selective extraction was used as a structural characterization tool for these bimetallic nanoparticles. This is significant because there are few easily accessible methods for structure elucidation of bimetallic nanoparticles in this size regime. As a first step towards the synthesis of catalytically active, bimetallic heterogeneous materials we reported the incorporation of Au and Pd monometallic DENs and AuPd bimetallic DENs into amorphous titania networks. The compositional fidelity of the original DENs, and to some extent their size, is retained following dendrimer removal. Gas-phase catalytic activity for CO oxidation is higher for the bimetallic catalysts than for the corresponding Pd-only and Au-only monometallics. (B) Electrocatalysts based on dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles. Platinum dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) were prepared within fourth-generation, hydroxyl-terminated, poly(amidoamine) dendrimers and immobilized on glassy carbon electrodes using an electrochemical immobilization strategy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and electrochemical experiments confirm that the Pt DENs are about 1.4 nm in diameter and that they remain within the dendrimer following surface immobilization. The resulting Pt DEN films were electrocatalytically active for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The films are also robust, surviving up to 50 consecutive cyclic voltammograms and sonication. Monometallic Pd DENs were also prepared and found to have little catalytic activity for the ORR. However, PtPd bimetallic DENs had catalytic activity nearly identical to that found for Pt-only DENs. This indicates an overall catalytic enhancement for the bimetallic electrocatalysts.

  16. Modification of resin modified glass ionomer cement by addition of bioactive glass nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Valanezhad, Alireza; Odatsu, Tetsuro; Udoh, Koichi; Shiraishi, Takanobu; Sawase, Takashi; Watanabe, Ikuya

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, sol-gel derived nanoparticle calcium silicate bioactive glass was added to the resin-modified light cure glass-ionomer cement to assess the influence of additional bioactive glass nanoparticles on the mechanical and biological properties of resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. The fabricated bioactive glass nanoparticles added resin-modified glass-ionomer cements (GICs) were immersed in the phosphate buffer solution for 28 days to mimic real condition for the mechanical properties. Resin-modified GICs containing 3, 5 and 10 % bioactive glass nanoparticles improved the flexural strength compared to the resin-modified glass-ionomer cement and the samples containing 15 and 20 % bioactive glass nanoparticles before and after immersing in the phosphate buffer solution. Characterization of the samples successfully expressed the cause of the critical condition for mechanical properties. Cell study clarified that resin-modified glass-ionomer cement with high concentrations of bioactive glass nanoparticles has higher cell viability and better cell morphology compare to control groups. The results for mechanical properties and toxicity approved that the considering in selection of an optimum condition would have been a more satisfying conclusion for this study.

  17. Aqueous solution synthesis of Pt-M (M = Fe, Co, Ni) bimetallic nanoparticles and their catalysis for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Duo; Ma, Yanyun; Zhang, Hui; Gao, Jing; Nie, Yuting; Sun, Xuhui

    2014-08-13

    Platinum-based bimetallic nanocatalysts have attracted much attention due to their high-efficiency catalytic performance in energy-related applications such as fuel cell and hydrogen storage, for example, the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (AB). In this work, a simple and green method has been demonstrated to successfully prepare Pt-M (M = Fe, Co, Ni) NPs with tunable composition (nominal Pt/M atomic ratios of 4:1, 1:1, and 1:4) in aqueous solution under mild conditions. All Pt-M NPs with a small size of 3-5 nm show a Pt fcc structure, suggesting the bimetallic formation (alloy and/or partial core-shell), examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. The catalytic activities of Pt-M NPs in the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB reveal that Pt-Ni NPs with a ratio of 4:1 show the best catalytic activity and even better than that of pure Pt NPs when normalized to Pt molar amount. The Ni oxidation state in Pt-Ni NPs has been suggested to be responsible for the corresponding catalytic activity for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of AB by XAFS study. This strategy for the synthesis of Pt-M NPs is simple and environmentally benign in aqueous solution with the potential for scale-up preparation and the in situ catalytic reaction.

  18. Photoinduced Electron Accumulation of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Modified Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyoshi, Hirokazu; Sakamoto, Kensho; Kurashina, Masaru; Kanezaki, Eiji

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (Nps) were prepared by the hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) in 2-propanol with different water contents (0.5 vol% to 7.2 vol%) at 45 °C. The diameter of the Nps was estimated to be 1.5±0.5 nm (L-TiO2) and 3.0±0.6 nm (S-TiO2) from the onset wavelength in the absorption spectra and by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A modified Pt electrode with a three-layered sandwich structure was prepared; the outermost and innermost layers were composed of S-TiO2 and L-TiO2, respectively, and the middle layer contained 1, 1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridyl (MV2+)/Nafion®. Irradiation by a 500 W superhigh-pressure mercury lamp produced electrons in the conduction band of TiO2. An anodic current was observed after turning off the light. The mechanism by which anodic current is generated after turning off the radiation involves the reduction of MV2+ to MV+. by photogenerated electrons on the Nps and the diffusion of MV+. in the middle layer. After turning off the irradiation, MV+. transferred an electron to the Pt electrode via holes in the innermost layer or the conduction band of S-TiO2 coincidentally localized on the Pt electrode, resulting in the generation of the anodic current. The generation of MV+. was confirmed by the absorption spectra of MV+.. As a sacrificial reagent, 2-propanol (0.1 M) was used.

  19. Adsorption of environmental pollutants using magnetic hybrid nanoparticles modified with β-cyclodextrin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Niejun; Zhou, Lilin; Guo, Jun; Ye, Qiquan; Lin, Jin-Ming; Yuan, Jinying

    2014-06-01

    Graft through strategy was utilized to coat magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles with poly(glycidyl methacrylate) using ordinary radical polymerization and then β-cyclodextrin was linked onto the surface of nanoparticles. With these nanoparticles modified with cyclodextrin groups, adsorption of two model environmental pollutants, bisphenol A and copper ions, was studied. Host-guest interactions between cyclodextrin and aromatic molecules had a great contribution to the adsorption of bisphenol A, while multiple hydroxyls of cyclodextrin also helped the adsorption of copper ions. These magnetic nanoparticles could be applied in the elimination, enrichment and detection of some environmental pollutants.

  20. A photoactive bimetallic framework for direct aminoformylation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A bimetallic catalyst, AgPd@g-C3N4, was synthesized by immobilizing silver and palladium nanoparticles over the surface of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and its utility was demonstrated for the concerted aminoformylation of aromatic nitro compounds under visible light conditions. The entwined AgPd@g-C3N4 catalyst was very effective in exploiting formic acid as a source of hydrogen and acting as a formylating agent under photochemical conditions. Prepared for submission to Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) journal, Green Chemistry

  1. A photoactive bimetallic framework for direct aminoformylation ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A bimetallic catalyst, AgPd@g-C3N4, was synthesized by immobilizing silver and palladium nanoparticles over the surface of graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) and its utility was demonstrated for the concerted aminoformylation of aromatic nitro compounds under visible light conditions. The entwined AgPd@g-C3N4 catalyst was very effective in exploiting formic acid as a source of hydrogen and acting as a formylating agent under photochemical conditions. Prepared for submission to Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) journal, Green Chemistry

  2. Peptide-Directed PdAu Nanoscale Surface Segregation: Toward Controlled Bimetallic Architecture for Catalytic Materials.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Nicholas M; Showalter, Allison R; Woehl, Taylor J; Hughes, Zak E; Lee, Sungsik; Reinhart, Benjamin; Ertem, S Piril; Coughlin, E Bryan; Ren, Yang; Walsh, Tiffany R; Bunker, Bruce A

    2016-09-27

    Bimetallic nanoparticles are of immense scientific and technological interest given the synergistic properties observed when two different metallic species are mixed at the nanoscale. This is particularly prevalent in catalysis, where bimetallic nanoparticles often exhibit improved catalytic activity and durability over their monometallic counterparts. Yet despite intense research efforts, little is understood regarding how to optimize bimetallic surface composition and structure synthetically using rational design principles. Recently, it has been demonstrated that peptide-enabled routes for nanoparticle synthesis result in materials with sequence-dependent catalytic properties, providing an opportunity for rational design through sequence manipulation. In this study, bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles are synthesized with a small set of peptides containing known Pd and Au binding motifs. The resulting nanoparticles were extensively characterized using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and high-energy X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution function analysis. Structural information obtained from synchrotron radiation methods was then used to generate model nanoparticle configurations using reverse Monte Carlo simulations, which illustrate sequence dependence in both surface structure and surface composition. Replica exchange with solute tempering molecular dynamics simulations were also used to predict the modes of peptide binding on monometallic surfaces, indicating that different sequences bind to the metal interfaces via different mechanisms. As a testbed reaction, electrocatalytic methanol oxidation experiments were performed, wherein differences in catalytic activity are clearly observed in materials with identical bimetallic composition. Taken together, this study indicates that peptides could be used to arrive at bimetallic surfaces with enhanced catalytic properties, which could be leveraged

  3. Peptide-Directed PdAu Nanoscale Surface Segregation: Toward Controlled Bimetallic Architecture for Catalytic Materials

    DOE PAGES

    Bedford, Nicholas M.; Showalter, Allison R.; Woehl, Taylor J.; ...

    2016-09-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles are of immense scientific and technological interest given the synergistic properties observed when mixing two different metallic species at the nanoscale. This is particularly prevalent in catalysis, where bimetallic nanoparticles often exhibit improved catalytic activity and durability over their monometallic counterparts. Yet despite intense research efforts, little is understood regarding how to optimize bimetallic surface composition and structure synthetically using rational design principles. Recently, it has been demonstrated that peptide-enabled routes for nanoparticle synthesis result in materials with sequence-dependent catalytic properties, providing an opportunity for rational design through sequence manipulation. In this study, bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles are synthesizedmore » with a small set of peptides containing known Pd and Au binding motifs. The resulting nanoparticles were extensively characterized using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high-energy X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution function analysis. Structural information obtained from synchrotron radiation methods were then used to generate model nanoparticle configurations using reverse Monte Carlo simulations, which illustrate sequence-dependence in both surface structure and surface composition. Replica exchange solute tempering molecular dynamic simulations were also used to predict the modes of peptide binding on monometallic surfaces, indicating that different sequences bind to the metal interfaces via different mechanisms. As a testbed reaction, electrocatalytic methanol oxidation experiments were performed, wherein differences in catalytic activity are clearly observed in materials with identical bimetallic composition. Finally, taken together, this study indicates that peptides could be used to arrive at bimetallic surfaces with enhanced catalytic properties, which could be

  4. Peptide-Directed PdAu Nanoscale Surface Segregation: Toward Controlled Bimetallic Architecture for Catalytic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bedford, Nicholas M.; Showalter, Allison R.; Woehl, Taylor J.; Hughes, Zak E.; Lee, Sungsik; Reinhart, Benjamin; Ertem, S. Piril; Coughlin, E. Bryan; Ren, Yang; Walsh, Tiffany R.; Bunker, Bruce A.

    2016-09-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles are of immense scientific and technological interest given the synergistic properties observed when mixing two different metallic species at the nanoscale. This is particularly prevalent in catalysis, where bimetallic nanoparticles often exhibit improved catalytic activity and durability over their monometallic counterparts. Yet despite intense research efforts, little is understood regarding how to optimize bimetallic surface composition and structure synthetically using rational design principles. Recently, it has been demonstrated that peptide-enabled routes for nanoparticle synthesis result in materials with sequence-dependent catalytic properties, providing an opportunity for rational design through sequence manipulation. In this study, bimetallic PdAu nanoparticles are synthesized with a small set of peptides containing known Pd and Au binding motifs. The resulting nanoparticles were extensively characterized using high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and high-energy X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution function analysis. Structural information obtained from synchrotron radiation methods were then used to generate model nanoparticle configurations using reverse Monte Carlo simulations, which illustrate sequence-dependence in both surface structure and surface composition. Replica exchange solute tempering molecular dynamic simulations were also used to predict the modes of peptide binding on monometallic surfaces, indicating that different sequences bind to the metal interfaces via different mechanisms. As a testbed reaction, electrocatalytic methanol oxidation experiments were performed, wherein differences in catalytic activity are clearly observed in materials with identical bimetallic composition. Finally, taken together, this study indicates that peptides could be used to arrive at bimetallic surfaces with enhanced catalytic properties, which could be leveraged

  5. In vitro studies of interaction of modified silica nanoparticles with different types of immunocompetent cells.

    PubMed

    Kulikova, Galina A; Parfenyuk, Elena V; Ryabinina, Irina V; Antsiferova, Yuliya S; Sotnikova, Nataliya Yu; Posiseeva, Lubov V; Eliseeva, Mariya A

    2010-11-01

    Interactions between different types of immune cells and organically-modified silica nanoparticles were studied. The silica particles functionalized with amine groups were prepared by sol-gel technique. Sheep immunoglobulin labeled with fluoresceine isothiocyanate was immobilized by adsorption onto the nanoparticles. The presence of the functional groups was confirmed by infrared absorption measurements. The level of immunocompetent cells interacting with the silica nanoparticles was estimated as the amount of fluorescence-bright cells by flow cytometry method. A low level of interaction of the peripheral blood lymphocytes with the silica nanoparticles was found. On the contrary, the macrophages are actively involved in interaction with the silica nanoparticles. The influence of different size of the silica nanoparticles and incubation time on viability and functional activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and peritoneal macrophages were investigated.

  6. Spontaneous formation of Au–Pt alloyed nanoparticles using pure nano-counterparts as starters: a ligand and size dependent process† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: supplementary STEM and EDS data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01819f Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Usón, Laura; Mayoral, Alvaro; Hueso, Jose L.; Eguizabal, Adela; Arruebo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    In this work we investigate the formation of PtAu monodisperse alloyed nanoparticles by ageing pure metallic Au and Pt small nanoparticles (sNPs), nanoparticle size <5 nm, under certain conditions. We demonstrate that those bimetallic entities can be obtained by controlling the size of the initial metallic sNPs separately prepared and by selecting their appropriate capping agents. The formation of this spontaneous phenomenon was studied using HR-STEM, EDS, ionic conductivity, UV-Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Depending on the type of capping agent used and the size of the initial Au sNPs, three different materials were obtained: (i) AuPt bimetallic sNPs showing a surface rich in Au atoms, (ii) segregated Au and Pt sNPs and (iii) a mixture of bimetallic nanoparticles as well as Pt sNPs and Au NPs. Surface segregation energies and the nature of the reaction environment are the driving forces to direct the distribution of atoms in the bimetallic sNPs. PtAu alloyed nanoparticles were obtained after 150 h of reaction at room temperature if a weak capping agent was used for the stabilization of the nanoparticles. It was also found that Au atoms diffuse towards Pt sNPs, producing a surface enriched in Au atoms. This study shows that even pure nanoparticles are prone to be modified by the surrounding nanoparticles to give rise to new nanomaterials if atomic diffusion is feasible. PMID:25985914

  7. Surface modified carbon nanoparticle papers and applications on polymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Xilian

    Free-standing paper like materials are usually employed as protective layers, chemical filters, components of electrical batteries or supercapacitors, adhesive layers, and electronic or optoelectric components. Free-standing papers made from carbon nanoparticles have drawn increased interest because they have a variety of superior chemical and physical characteristics, such as light weight, high intrinsic mechanical properties, and extraordinary high electrical conductivity. Nanopapers fabricated from 1- D shape carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising reinforcing materials for polymer composites, because the highly porous CNF and CNT nanopapers (porosity ˜80% and ˜70% respectively) can be impregnated with matrix polymers. In the first part of this work, polyaniline (PANI) was used to functionalize the surface of CNFs, and the resultant carbon nanopapers presented impressive mechanical strength and electrical conductivity that it could be used in the in-mold coating (IMC)/ injection molding process to achieve high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness. Aniline modified (AF) CNT nanopapers were used as a 3D network in gas separation membranes. The resultant composite membranes demonstrated better and stable CO2 permeance and CO 2/H2 selectivity in a high temperature (107°C) and high pressure (15-30 atm) gas separation process, not achievable by conventional polymer membranes. In the second part, we demonstrated that 2-D graphene (GP) or graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets could be tightly packed into a film which was impermeable to most gases and liquids. GP or GO nanopapers could be coated on polymer composites. In order to achieve well-dispersed single-layer graphene in aqueous medium, we developed a facile approach to synthesize functional GP bearing benzenesulfonic acid groups which allow the preparation of nanopapers by water based assembly. With the optimized processing conditions, our best GP nanopapers could reach

  8. Synthesis of methylprednisolone loaded ibuprofen modified inulin based nanoparticles and their application for drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Luzhong; Li, Yue; Wang, Caiping; Li, Guicai; Zhao, Yahong; Yang, Yumin

    2014-09-01

    Ibuprofen modified inulin was synthesized through a direct esterification linkage in which the in situ activation of the carboxylic acid with N,N'-carbonyldiimidazole was carried out. The critical aggregation concentration of the ibuprofen modified inulin was determined by using pyrene as the fluorescence probe. Methylprednisolone loaded nanoparticles were prepared by the self-assembly of the ibuprofen modified inulin copolymer and methylprednisolone. In vitro release of the methylprednisolone and the cytotoxicity of the methylprednisolone loaded nanoparticles against RSC-96 cells were evaluated. Since the ibuprofen and methylprednisolone could stimulate a significant neurite growth and diminish the human neurological deficits after the spinal cord injury, the methylprednisolone loaded nanoparticles based on the ibuprofen modified inulin copolymer may have a great potential in the synergetic effect treatment for spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles modified titania nanotubes for antibacterial application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinhua; Zhou, Huaijuan; Qian, Shi; Liu, Ziwei; Feng, Jingwei; Jin, Ping; Liu, Xuanyong

    2014-06-01

    Close-packed TiO2 nanotube arrays are prepared on metallic Ti surface by electrochemical anodization. Subsequently, by magnetron sputtering, Au nanoparticles are coated onto the top sidewall and tube inwall. The Au@TiO2 systems can effectively kill Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in darkness due to the existence of Au nanoparticles. On the basis of classical optical theories, the antibacterial mechanism is proposed from the perspective of localized surface plasmon resonance. Respiratory electrons of bacterial membrane transfer to Au nanoparticles and then to TiO2, which makes bacteria steadily lose electrons until death. This work provides insights for the better understanding and designing of noble metal nanoparticles-based plasmonic heterostructures for antibacterial application.

  10. Plasmonic gold nanoparticles modified titania nanotubes for antibacterial application

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jinhua; Zhou, Huaijuan; Qian, Shi; Liu, Ziwei; Feng, Jingwei; Jin, Ping E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn; Liu, Xuanyong E-mail: xyliu@mail.sic.ac.cn

    2014-06-30

    Close-packed TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays are prepared on metallic Ti surface by electrochemical anodization. Subsequently, by magnetron sputtering, Au nanoparticles are coated onto the top sidewall and tube inwall. The Au@TiO{sub 2} systems can effectively kill Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in darkness due to the existence of Au nanoparticles. On the basis of classical optical theories, the antibacterial mechanism is proposed from the perspective of localized surface plasmon resonance. Respiratory electrons of bacterial membrane transfer to Au nanoparticles and then to TiO{sub 2}, which makes bacteria steadily lose electrons until death. This work provides insights for the better understanding and designing of noble metal nanoparticles-based plasmonic heterostructures for antibacterial application.

  11. Tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles show antiviral activity in herpes simplex virus type 2 infection.

    PubMed

    Orlowski, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Gniadek, Marianna; Baska, Piotr; Nowakowska, Julita; Sokolowska, Justyna; Nowak, Zuzanna; Donten, Mikolaj; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw; Krzyzowska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between silver nanoparticles and herpesviruses is attracting great interest due to their antiviral activity and possibility to use as microbicides for oral and anogenital herpes. In this work, we demonstrate that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles sized 13 nm, 33 nm and 46 nm are capable of reducing HSV-2 infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. The antiviral activity of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles was size-related, required direct interaction and blocked virus attachment, penetration and further spread. All tested tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles reduced both infection and inflammatory reaction in the mouse model of HSV-2 infection when used at infection or for a post-infection treatment. Smaller-sized nanoparticles induced production of cytokines and chemokines important for anti-viral response. The corresponding control buffers with tannic acid showed inferior antiviral effects in vitro and were ineffective in blocking in vivo infection. Our results show that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles are good candidates for microbicides used in treatment of herpesvirus infections.

  12. Tannic Acid Modified Silver Nanoparticles Show Antiviral Activity in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Orlowski, Piotr; Tomaszewska, Emilia; Gniadek, Marianna; Baska, Piotr; Nowakowska, Julita; Sokolowska, Justyna; Nowak, Zuzanna; Donten, Mikolaj; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Grobelny, Jaroslaw; Krzyzowska, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between silver nanoparticles and herpesviruses is attracting great interest due to their antiviral activity and possibility to use as microbicides for oral and anogenital herpes. In this work, we demonstrate that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles sized 13 nm, 33 nm and 46 nm are capable of reducing HSV-2 infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. The antiviral activity of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles was size-related, required direct interaction and blocked virus attachment, penetration and further spread. All tested tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles reduced both infection and inflammatory reaction in the mouse model of HSV-2 infection when used at infection or for a post-infection treatment. Smaller-sized nanoparticles induced production of cytokines and chemokines important for anti-viral response. The corresponding control buffers with tannic acid showed inferior antiviral effects in vitro and were ineffective in blocking in vivo infection. Our results show that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles are good candidates for microbicides used in treatment of herpesvirus infections. PMID:25117537

  13. Single Nanoparticle Translocation Through Chemically Modified Solid Nanopore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Shengwei; Wang, Lei; Liu, Hang; Wu, Hongwen; Liu, Quanjun

    2016-02-01

    The nanopore sensor as a high-throughput and low-cost technology can detect single nanoparticle in solution. In the present study, the silicon nitride nanopores were fabricated by focused Ga ion beam (FIB), and the surface was functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to change its surface charge density. The positively charged nanopore surface attracted negatively charged nanoparticles when they were in the vicinity of the nanopore. And, nanoparticle translocation speed was slowed down to obtain a clear and deterministic signal. Compared with previous studied small nanoparticles, the electrophoretic translocation of negatively charged polystyrene (PS) nanoparticles (diameter ~100 nm) was investigated in solution using the Coulter counter principle in which the time-dependent nanopore current was recorded as the nanoparticles were driven across the nanopore. A linear dependence was found between current drop and biased voltage. An exponentially decaying function ( t d ~ e -v/v0 ) was found between the duration time and biased voltage. The interaction between the amine-functionalized nanopore wall and PS microspheres was discussed while translating PS microspheres. We explored also translocations of PS microspheres through amine-functionalized solid-state nanopores by varying the solution pH (5.4, 7.0, and 10.0) with 0.02 M potassium chloride (KCl). Surface functionalization showed to provide a useful step to fine-tune the surface property, which can selectively transport molecules or particles. This approach is likely to be applied to gene sequencing.

  14. CuO role in γ-Fe2O3-supported Pt-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles synthesized by radiation-induced reduction as catalysts for preferential CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriya, Toshiharu; Kugai, Junichiro; Seino, Satoshi; Ohkubo, Yuji; Nakagawa, Takashi; Nitani, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2013-02-01

    Modification of supported Pt catalyst by transition metal is effective for improving catalytic performance in fuel processing and electrochemical processes. In order to identify the role of CuO in Pt-Cu bimetallic nanoparticle catalyst in CO preferential oxidation in H2-rich gas, three γ-Fe2O3-supported Pt-Cu catalyst samples consisting of Pt-Cu alloy with different CuO content were synthesized by a radiolytic process. By managing the concentrations of the copper source and oxygen dissolved in the precursor solution, the CuO content was successfully varied by an order of magnitude without changing the structure and composition of the Pt-Cu alloy. In the catalytic tests, CuO-promoted CO oxidation significantly at around 100 °C. The catalyst with the highest CuO content showed the highest CO and O2 conversions. It was considered that the CuO phase promotes oxygen supply to CO chemisorbed on the Pt-Cu alloy surface. The alloy-CuO contact was suggested to be critical for the promoting effect.

  15. UV-stable paper coated with APTES-modified P25 TiO₂ nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Sajedin, Seyed Mani; Kelly, Stephen M; Lee, Adam F; Kornherr, Andreas

    2014-12-19

    In order to inhibit the photocatalytic degradation of organic material supports induced by small titania (TiO2) nanoparticles, highly photocatalytically active, commercially available P25-TiO2 nanoparticles were first modified with a thin layer of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), which were then deposited and fixed onto the surface of paper samples via a simple, dip-coating process in water at room temperature. The resultant APTES-modified P25 TiO2 nanoparticle-coated paper samples exhibit much greater stability to UV-illumination than uncoated blank reference paper. Very little, or no, photo-degradation in terms of brightness and whiteness, respectively, of the P25-TiO2-nanoparticle-treated paper is observed. There are many other potential applications for this Green Chemistry approach to protect cellulosic fibres from UV-bleaching in sunlight and to protect their whiteness and maintain their brightness.

  16. Fabrication of CeO2 nanoparticle-modified silk for UV protection and antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhisong; Mao, Cuiping; Meng, Mei; Liu, Sangui; Tian, Yunli; Yu, Ling; Sun, Bai; Li, Chang Ming

    2014-12-01

    To endow silk with UV-shielding ability and antibacterial activity, CeO2 nanoparticles were immobilized on silk surface via a dip-coating approach without changing silk structure. Surface density of the nanoparticles could be easily adjusted by controlling the number of dip-coating cycle. Enhanced thermal stability of the modified silk is exhibited in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG). The excellent UV-protection ability and antibacterial property of the CeO2 nanoparticle-coated silk are demonstrated in UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and colony-forming capability test, respectively. Based on the data, it can be concluded that CeO2 nanoparticles could be used as a very promising coating material to modify silk for UV-protection and antibacterial applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Isotopically modified nanoparticles for enhanced detection in bioaccumulation studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Misra, S.K.; Dybowska, A.; Berhanu, D.; Croteau, M.-N.; Luoma, S.N.; Boccaccini, A.R.; Valsami-Jones, E.

    2012-01-01

    This work presents results on synthesis of isotopically enriched (99% 65Cu) copper oxide nanoparticles and its application in ecotoxicological studies. 65CuO nanoparticles were synthesized as spheres (7 nm) and rods (7 ?? 40 nm). Significant differences were observed between the reactivity and dissolution of spherical and rod shaped nanoparticles. The extreme sensitivity of the stable isotope tracing technique developed in this study allowed determining Cu uptake at exposure concentrations equivalent to background Cu concentrations in freshwater systems (0.2-30 ??g/L). Without a tracer, detection of newly accumulated Cu was impossible, even at exposure concentrations surpassing some of the most contaminated water systems (>1 mg/L). ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  18. Photoluminescence of silicon nanoparticles chemically modified by alkyl groups and dispersed in low-polar liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabchikov, Yury V.; Alekseev, Sergei A.; Lysenko, Vladimir; Bremond, Georges; Bluet, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    A detailed comparative analysis of photoluminescence behavior of silicon nanoparticles in air and dispersed in low-polar liquids is reported. Efficient dispersion and excellent stability of the chemically modified nanoparticles in low-polar liquids are achieved. Influence of the chemical functionalization and of the low-polar liquids on steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence of the silicon nanoparticles is investigated. Role of low-polar liquids on recombination mechanisms taking place in the nanoparticles is discussed in terms of Förster resonant energy transfer processes. Effect of exciting laser power on photoluminescence spectra of the silicon nanoparticles both in air and in low-polar liquids is investigated and the electronic mechanisms involved into the observed phenomena are discussed.

  19. A Silver Nanoparticle-Modified Evanescent Field Optical Fiber Sensor for Methylene Blue Detection

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ji; Yao, Jun; Lu, Yonggang; Ma, Wenying; Zhuang, Xuye

    2013-01-01

    A silver nanoparticle-modified evanescent field optical fiber sensor based on a MEMS microchannel chip has been successfully fabricated. Experimental results show that the sensor response decreases linearly with increasing concentration of analyte. Over a range of methylene blue concentrations from 0 to 0.4 μmol/mL, the sensor response is linear (R = 0.9496). A concentration variation of 0.1 μmol/mL can cause an absorbance change of 0.402 dB. Moreover, the optical responses of the same sensing fiber without decoration and modified with silver nanoparticles have also been compared. It can be observed that the output intensity of the Ag nanoparticle-modified sensor is enhanced and the sensitivity is higher. Meanwhile, the absorbance spectra are found to be more sensitive to concentration changes compared to the spectra of the peak wavelength. PMID:23519353

  20. Removal of Mercury in Liquid Hydrocarbons using Zeolites Modified with Chitosan and Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusrini, E.; Susanto, B. H.; Nasution, D. A.; Jonathan, R.; Khairul, W. M.

    2017-07-01

    Clinoptilolite zeolites were chemically modified with chitosan (Chit) and magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4NPs) were synthesized for removal of mercury from liquid condensate hydrocarbon. The mercury content was in liquid hydrocarbon which was measured by Lumex mercury analyzer. The performance of sorbents based on zeolites modified chitosan and magnetic nanoparticles were examined on the real liquid condensate hydrocarbon. Removal of mercury using a prestine clinoptilolite zeolites, and zeolites modified chitosan (zeolites-Chit) were ∼4.5, and ∼35%, respectively. The effects of magnetic nanoparticles in zeolites-Chit sorbents were significant to reduce the mercury content in liquid condensate hydrocarbon which were from ∼63 to ∼66%. Increasing the mass ratio of Fe3O4 that influenced to the BET surface area of natural zeolites. Zeolites-Chit-Fe3O4NPs as an efficient sorbents are potential ideal to remove mercury in hydrocarbon for practical applications.

  1. Ultrathin fiber poly-3-hydroxybutyrate, modified by silicon carbide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhov, A. A.; Krutikova, A. A.; Goldshtrakh, M. A.; Staroverova, O. V.; Iordanskii, A. L.; Ischenko, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The article presents the results of studies the composite fibrous material based on poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and nano-size silicon carbide obtained by the electrospinning method. Size distribution of the silicon carbide nanoparticles in the fiber was estimated by X-ray diffraction technique. It is shown that immobilization of the SiC nanoparticles to the PHB fibers contributes to obtaining essentially smaller diameter of fibers, high physical-mechanical characteristics and increasing resistance to degradation in comparison with the fibers of PHB.

  2. Au nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode for catechol sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xuan; He, Dawei; Wang, Yongsheng; Hu, Yin; Fu, Chen

    2016-03-01

    In this letter, the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots were applied to the modification of glassy carbon electrode for the detection of catechol. The synergist cooperation between gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots can increase specific surface area and enhance electronic and catalytic properties of glassy carbon electrode. The detection limit of catechol is 0.869 μmol/L, demonstrating the superior detection efficiency of the gold nanoparticles and graphene quantum dots co-modified glassy carbon electrode as a new sensing platform.

  3. Amine-modified hyaluronic acid-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for targeting breast cancer tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Patrick V.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A.

    2014-08-01

    Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi-HA+ relies on the capability of the conjugated HA+ to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA+-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery.Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi-HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of Un

  4. Covalent immobilization of invertase on PAMAM-dendrimer modified superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzun, K.; Çevik, E.; Şenel, M.; Sözeri, H.; Baykal, A.; Abasıyanık, M. F.; Toprak, M. S.

    2010-10-01

    In this study, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer was synthesized on the surface of superparamagnetite nanoparticles to enhance invertase immobilization. The amount of immobilized enzyme on the surface-hyperbranched magnetite nanoparticle was up to 2.5 times (i.e., 250%) as much as that of magnetite nanoparticle modified with only amino silane. Maximum reaction rate ( V max) and Michaelis-Menten constant ( K m) were determined for the free and immobilized enzymes. Various characteristics of immobilized invertase such as; the temperature activity, thermal stability, operational stability, and storage stability were evaluated and results revealed that stability of the enzyme is improved upon immobilization.

  5. Growth of Fe-Pt Magnetic Nanoparticles on Silica Particles Modified with Organic Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamoto, Yoshitaka; Fuchigami, Teruaki; Namiki, Yoshihisa

    2013-11-01

    In the present paper, we describe the formation of an assembly composed of Fe-Pt magnetic nanoparticles on a template particle. The assembly is composed of a magnetic nanoshell for core/shell particles or hollow particles for application in nanomedicine devices. For this purpose, magnetic nanoparticles should be densely accumulated or deposited on template particles, Fe-Pt nanoparticles completely cover silica template particles by modifying them with a polymer such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), polyethyleneimine (PEI), or poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) followed by the polyol reduction of Fe and Pt compounds. Studies of their morphological, crystallographic, and magnetic properties reveal that Fe-Pt nanoparticles are selectively grown on the polymer-modified silica template particles; the polymer probably supplies nucleation sites for the formation of such nanoparticles. The species of polymer used strongly affects crystallographic and magnetic properties of the nanoparticles, particularly, the atomic ordering of Fe-Pt nanoparticles formed on silica template particles.

  6. Bimetallic Nanoshells for Metal – Enhanced Fluorescence with Broad Band Fluorophores

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Fu, Yi; Mahdavi, Farhad

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we reported the near-field interactions between the Ru(bpy)32+ complexes and plasmon resonances from the bimetallic nanoshells. The metallic nanoshells were fabricated on 20 nm silica spheres as cores by depositing 10 nm monometallic or bimetallic shells. There were approx. 15 Ru(bpy)32+ complexes in the silica core. The metal shells were constituted of silver or/and gold. The bimetallic shells could be generated in homogeneous or heterogeneous geometries. The homogeneous bimetallic shells contained 10 nm silver-gold alloys. The heterogeneous bimetallic shells contained successive 5 nm gold and 5 nm silver shells, or alternatively, 5 nm silver and 5 nm gold shells. Optical properties of metal nanoshells were studied on both the ensemble spectra and single nanoparticle imaging measurements. The heterogeneous bimetallic shells were found to have a large scale of metal-enhanced emission relative to the monometallic or homogeneous bimetallic shells. It is because the heterogeneous bimetallic shells may display split dual plasmon resonances which can interact with the excitation and emission bands of the Ru(bpy)32+ complexes in the silica cores leading to more efficient near-field interactions. The prediction can be demonstrated by the lifetimes. Therefore, it is suggested that both the compositions and geometries of the metal shells can influence the interactions with the fluorophores in the cores. This observation also offers us an opportunity for developing plasmon-based fluorescence metal nanoparticles as novel nanoparticle imaging agents which have high performances in fluorescence cell or tissue imaging. PMID:23230456

  7. Synthesis and characterization of surface-modified Fe3O4 super-paramagnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhan-jie; Ma, Jia; Xu, Shuang-bing; Ren, Jing-hua; Qin, You; Huang, Jing; Yang, Kun-yu; Zhang, Zhi-ping; Wu, Gang

    2014-04-01

    Aqueous dispersion and stability of Fe3O4 nanoparticles remain an issue unresolved since aggregation of naked iron nanoparticles in water. In this study, we successfully synthesized different Fe3O4 super-paramagnetic nanoparticles which were modified by three kinds of materials [DSPE-MPEG2000, TiO2 and poly acrylic acid (PAA)] and further detected their characteristics. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) clearly showed sizes and morphology of the four kinds of nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD) proved successfully coating of the three kinds of nanoparticles and their structures were maintained. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) verified that their magnetic properties fitted for the super-paramagnetic function. More importantly, the particle size analysis indicated that Fe3O4@PAA had a better size distribution, biocompatibility, stability and dispersion than the other two kinds of nanoparticles. In addition, using CNE2 cells as a model, we found that all nanoparticles were nontoxic. Taken together, our data suggest that Fe3O4@PAA nanoaparticles are superior in the application of biomedical field among the four kinds of Fe3O4 nanoparticles in the future.

  8. Modified-chitosan nanoparticles: Novel drug delivery systems improve oral bioavailability of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Khdair, Ayman; Hamad, Islam; Alkhatib, Hatim; Bustanji, Yasser; Mohammad, Mohammad; Tayem, Rabab; Aiedeh, Khaled

    2016-10-10

    The efficacy of most anticancer drugs is highly limited in vivo due mainly to poor pharmacokinetics behavior including poor bioavailability after extravascular administration. We have developed novel chitosan-modified polymeric nanoparticles for oral as well as i.v. administration. Nanoparticles were developed utilizing the double emulsion solvent evaporation technique for sustained delivery of various anticancer drugs. Chitosan diacetate (CDA) and chitosan triacetate (CTA) polymers were previously modified in our laboratory and used as novel matrix. Nanoparticles, loaded with various anticancer drugs, were characterized for particle size using dynamic light scattering as well as transmission electron microscopy and net surface charge using dynamic light scattering. Particles size was below 100nm in diameter and zeta potential ranged - (25-30). Encapsulation efficiency of anticancer drugs varied considerably and was dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the encapsulated drug. However, chitosan triacetate nanoparticles showed relatively higher encapsulation efficiency than chitosan diacetate nanoparticles. In vitro release of encapsulated drugs was sustained over a period of 14days. Nanoparticles enhanced cellular accumulation of encapsulated drugs, compared to the free drugs, in vitro in MCF-7 and Caco-II tumor cell lines. In conclusion, diacetate and triacetate chitosan are novel polymers that can be used to formulate nanoparticles which efficiently encapsulated anticancer drugs, and sustained the release and enhanced tumor cellular uptake of these drugs. Further, chitosan triacetate nanoparticles enhanced oral bioavailability of doxorubicin. CDA and CTA nanoparticles can be used to efficiently deliver anticancer drugs and improve their in vivo profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Enhancing magnetoresistance in tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate modified iron oxide nanoparticle assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Zhong-Peng; Luan, Zhong-Zhi; Cai, Pei-Yu; Wang, Tao; Li, Cheng-Hui; Wu, Di; Zuo, Jing-Lin; Sun, Shouheng

    2016-06-01

    We report a facile approach to stabilize Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by using tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate (TTF-COO-) and to control electron transport with an enhanced magnetoresistance (MR) effect in TTF-COO-Fe3O4 NP assemblies. This TTF-COO-coating is advantageous over other conventional organic coatings, making it possible to develop stable Fe3O4 NP arrays for sensitive spintronics applications.We report a facile approach to stabilize Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) by using tetrathiafulvalene carboxylate (TTF-COO-) and to control electron transport with an enhanced magnetoresistance (MR) effect in TTF-COO-Fe3O4 NP assemblies. This TTF-COO-coating is advantageous over other conventional organic coatings, making it possible to develop stable Fe3O4 NP arrays for sensitive spintronics applications. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details; supplementary figures and tables. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03311c

  10. Spontaneous synthesis of gold nanoparticles on gum arabic-modified iron oxide nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chien-Chen; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2012-06-19

    A novel magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst was fabricated by spontaneous green synthesis of Au nanoparticles on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A layer of Au nanoparticles with thickness of about 2 nm was deposited on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles, because gum arabic acted as a reducing agent and a stabilizing agent simultaneously. The resultant magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst exhibited good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride. The rate constants evaluated in terms of pseudo-first-order kinetic model increased with increase in the amount of Au nanocatalyst or decrease in the initial concentration of 4-nitrophenol. The kinetic data suggested that this catalytic reaction was diffusion-controlled, owing to the presence of gum arabic layer. In addition, this nanocatalyst exhibited good stability. Its activity had no significant decrease after five recycles. This work is useful for the development and application of magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst on the basis of green chemistry principles.

  11. Spontaneous synthesis of gold nanoparticles on gum arabic-modified iron oxide nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chien-Chen; Chen, Dong-Hwang

    2012-06-01

    A novel magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst was fabricated by spontaneous green synthesis of Au nanoparticles on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A layer of Au nanoparticles with thickness of about 2 nm was deposited on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles, because gum arabic acted as a reducing agent and a stabilizing agent simultaneously. The resultant magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst exhibited good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride. The rate constants evaluated in terms of pseudo-first-order kinetic model increased with increase in the amount of Au nanocatalyst or decrease in the initial concentration of 4-nitrophenol. The kinetic data suggested that this catalytic reaction was diffusion-controlled, owing to the presence of gum arabic layer. In addition, this nanocatalyst exhibited good stability. Its activity had no significant decrease after five recycles. This work is useful for the development and application of magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst on the basis of green chemistry principles.

  12. Spontaneous synthesis of gold nanoparticles on gum arabic-modified iron oxide nanoparticles as a magnetically recoverable nanocatalyst

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A novel magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst was fabricated by spontaneous green synthesis of Au nanoparticles on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. A layer of Au nanoparticles with thickness of about 2 nm was deposited on the surface of gum arabic-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles, because gum arabic acted as a reducing agent and a stabilizing agent simultaneously. The resultant magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst exhibited good catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with sodium borohydride. The rate constants evaluated in terms of pseudo-first-order kinetic model increased with increase in the amount of Au nanocatalyst or decrease in the initial concentration of 4-nitrophenol. The kinetic data suggested that this catalytic reaction was diffusion-controlled, owing to the presence of gum arabic layer. In addition, this nanocatalyst exhibited good stability. Its activity had no significant decrease after five recycles. This work is useful for the development and application of magnetically recoverable Au nanocatalyst on the basis of green chemistry principles. PMID:22713480

  13. Thermal aggregation properties of nanoparticles modified with temperature sensitive copolymers.

    PubMed

    Hamner, Kristen L; Maye, Mathew M

    2013-12-10

    In this paper, we describe the use of a temperature responsive polymer to reversibly assemble gold nanoparticles of various sizes. Temperature responsive, low critical solution temperature (LCST) pNIPAAm-co-pAAm polymers, with transition temperatures (T(C)) of 51 and 65 °C, were synthesized with a thiol modification, and grafted to the surface of 11 and 51 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The thermal-responsive behavior of the polymer allowed for the reversible aggregation of the nanoparticles, where at T < T(C) the polymers were hydrophilic and extended between particles. In contrast, at T > T(C), the polymer shell undergoes a hydrophilic to hydrophobic phase transition and collapses, decreasing interparticle distances between particles, allowing aggregation to occur. The AuNP morphology and polymer conjugation were probed by TEM, FTIR, and (1)H NMR. The thermal response was probed by UV-vis and DLS. The structure of the assembled aggregates at T > T(C) was studied via in situ small-angle X-ray scattering, which revealed interparticle distances defined by polymer conformation.

  14. LaF3 nanoparticles surface modified with tryptophan and their optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronikhin, Anatoly; Ehrlich, Heinrich; Lisichkin, Georgy

    2014-10-01

    LaF3 nanoparticles were synthesized by the double-jet precipitation technique in presence of tryptophan (Trp). The product was investigated by TEM, IR, absorption, and luminescence spectroscopies. Interaction of Trp with the nanoparticles results in formation of complexes between Trp and La3+ ions on the nanoparticle surface. Surface density of Trp was found as 0.7 molecule nm-2. It is shown that the modifier effects on LaF3 nanoparticle growth and stability of the surface modified LaF3 colloids. Luminescent properties of LaF3 nanoparticles modified with Trp (Trp@LaF3) are investigated. It is determined that Trp@LaF3 and Trp have the same profiles of excitation and photoluminescence spectra. Effects of pH, ionic strength, and Trp concentration on luminescence intensity are studied. At the same Trp amounts in the systems, Trp@LaF3 luminescence intensity is about 6 times less than Trp luminescence intensity. Such products can be used as luminescent labels.

  15. Amine-modified hyaluronic acid-functionalized porous silicon nanoparticles for targeting breast cancer tumors

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Patrick V.; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Mäkilä, Ermei; Kaasalainen, Martti; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A.

    2014-01-01

    Active targeting of nanoparticles to receptor-overexpressing cancer cells has great potential for enhancing the cellular uptake of nanoparticles and for reducing fast clearance of the nanoparticles from the body. Herein, we present a preparation method of a porous silicon (PSi)-based nanodelivery system for breast cancer targeting, by covalently conjugating a synthesized amide-modified hyaluronic acid (HA+) derived polymer on the surface of undecylenic acid-modified thermally hydrocarbonized PSi (UnTHCPSi) nanoparticles. The resulting UnTHCPSi–HA+ nanoparticles showed relatively small size, reduced polydispersibility, high biocompatibility, improved colloidal and human plasma stability, as well as enhanced cellular interactions and internalization. Moreover, we demonstrated that the enhanced cellular association of UnTHCPSi–HA+ relies on the capability of the conjugated HA+ to bind and consequently target CD44 receptors expressed on the surface of breast cancer cells, thus making the HA+-functionalized UnTHCPSi nanoparticles a suitable and promising nanoplatform for the targeting of CD44-overexpressing breast tumors and for drug delivery. PMID:25074521

  16. Strain-Induced Segregation in Bimetallic Multiply Twinned Particles.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lingxuan; Van Duyne, Richard P; Marks, Laurence D

    2015-05-21

    We analyze the possibility of strain-induced segregation in bimetallic multiply twinned particles by an analytic first-order expansion within a continuum model. The results indicate that while the change in free energy may be small, there will be a noticeable segregation of larger atoms to the external surface and smaller ones to the core, which could have interesting effects when such nanoparticles are used as heterogeneous catalysts.

  17. An inorganic capping strategy for the seeded growth of versatile bimetallic nanostructures

    DOE PAGES

    Pei, Yuchen; Maligal-Ganesh, Raghu V.; Xiao, Chaoxian; ...

    2015-09-11

    Metal nanostructures have attracted great attention in various fields due to their tunable properties through precisely tailored sizes, compositions and structures. Using mesoporous silica (mSiO2) as the inorganic capping agent and encapsulated Pt nanoparticles as the seeds, we developed a robust seeded growth method to prepare uniform bimetallic nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica shells (PtM@mSiO2, M = Pd, Rh, Ni and Cu). Unexpectedly, we found that the inorganic silica shell is able to accommodate an eight-fold volume increase in the metallic core by reducing its thickness. The bimetallic nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica shells showed enhanced catalytic properties and thermalmore » stabilities compared with those prepared with organic capping agents. As a result, this inorganic capping strategy could find a broad application in the synthesis of versatile bimetallic nanostructures with exceptional structural control and enhanced catalytic properties.« less

  18. An inorganic capping strategy for the seeded growth of versatile bimetallic nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Yuchen; Maligal-Ganesh, Raghu V.; Xiao, Chaoxian; Goh, Tian -Wei; Brashler, Kyle; Gustafson, Jeffrey A.; Huang, Wenyu

    2015-09-11

    Metal nanostructures have attracted great attention in various fields due to their tunable properties through precisely tailored sizes, compositions and structures. Using mesoporous silica (mSiO2) as the inorganic capping agent and encapsulated Pt nanoparticles as the seeds, we developed a robust seeded growth method to prepare uniform bimetallic nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica shells (PtM@mSiO2, M = Pd, Rh, Ni and Cu). Unexpectedly, we found that the inorganic silica shell is able to accommodate an eight-fold volume increase in the metallic core by reducing its thickness. The bimetallic nanoparticles encapsulated in mesoporous silica shells showed enhanced catalytic properties and thermal stabilities compared with those prepared with organic capping agents. As a result, this inorganic capping strategy could find a broad application in the synthesis of versatile bimetallic nanostructures with exceptional structural control and enhanced catalytic properties.

  19. Acute and subchronic toxicity analysis of surface modified paclitaxel attached hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Venkatasubbu, Gopinath Devanand; Ramasamy, S; Gaddam, Pramod Reddy; Kumar, J

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are widely used for targeted drug delivery applications. Surface modification with appropriate polymer and ligands is carried out to target the drug to the affected area. Toxicity analysis is carried out to evaluate the safety of the surface modified nanoparticles. In this study, paclitaxel attached, folic acid functionalized, polyethylene glycol modified hydroxyapatite and titanium dioxide nanoparticles were used for targeted drug delivery system. The toxicological behavior of the system was studied in vivo in rats and mice. Acute and subchronic studies were carried out. Biochemical, hematological, and histopathological analysis was also done. There were no significant alterations in the biochemical parameters at a low dosage. There was a small change in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level at a high dosage. The results indicate a safe toxicological profile.

  20. Preparation and characterization of dendrimer-templated Ag-Cu bimetallic nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoping; Luo, Yunjun

    2008-01-07

    Ag-Cu bimetallic nanoclusters with different shapes were prepared by a co-complexation method in the presence of PAMAM dendrimers. Small and evenly sized spherical Ag-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles were obtained with N2H4.H2O as the reducing agent, and long rod-shaped bimetallic nanoclusters were prepared with NaBH4 as the reducing agent. The mechanisms of formation of Ag-Cu bimetallic nanolusters with different shapes were discussed. The different shapes of the cluster were likely caused by the differences in the reduction rate of metal ions with NaBH4 and N2H4.H2O. Structure characterization by TEM, UV-vis spectra, EDX, and TGA showed that, in the presence of PAMAM dendrimers, Ag-Cu alloy bimetallic nanorods were obtained with NaBH4 reduction, and Ag-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared with N2H4.H2O as the reducing agent.

  1. Impacts of bridging complexation on the transport of surface-modified nanoparticles in saturated sand

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The transport of polyacrylic acid capped cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) and carboxylate-modified latex (CML) nanoparticles (NPs) was studied in packed columns at various electrolyte concentrations and cation types. The breakthrough curves (BTCs) of QDs and CML NPs in acid-treated Accus...

  2. Reinforcement effect of soy protein nanoparticles in amine-modified natural rubber latex

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mechanical properties of natural rubber reinforced with soy protein nanoparticles are useful for various rubber applications. However, the properties is further improved by improving interactions between soy protein and rubber. A novel method is used to modify particle surface of natural rubber late...

  3. Hydroxyl-modified magnetite nanoparticles as novel carrier for delivery of methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Farjadian, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Sahar; Mohammadi-Samani, Soliman

    2016-05-17

    In this work, novel hydroxyl-modified magnetite nanocarriers are introduced as efficient host for methotrexate conjugation. The modification was based on the Micheal type addition reaction between tris(hydroxymethyl) aminomethane and acrylamidopropyl functionalized, silica-coated magnetite nanoparticle. The chemical structure characterization was carried out by FT-IR and the organic content was determined by CHN analysis. The topography was studied by SEM, TEM, AFM. DLS was performed to show particles' mean diameter. Furthermore, the magnetite properties of modified particles were evaluated by VSM and the crystallinity was proved by XRD. To illustrate the efficiency of the modified particles, the anti-cancer drug methotrexate was conjugated to hydroxyl groups through estric bond formation. The controlled release activity of established nanoparticles was evaluated in simulated cellular fluid. Later, the anti-cancer behavior of drug conjugated nanoparticles was evaluated in vitro in MCF-7 cell line which showed enhanced toxicity after 48 h. Conclusively, the modified nanoparticles have remarked as powerful carrier to be applied as an anti-cancer agent.

  4. Nano-particle modified stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, Ekaterina P; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Connolly, Damian; He, Xiaoyun; Floris, Patrick; Duffy, Emer; Paull, Brett

    2013-08-07

    This review covers the latest developments and applications of nano-materials in stationary phase development for various modes of high-performance liquid chromatography. Specific attention is placed upon the development of new composite phases, including the synthetic and immobilisation strategies used, to produce either encapsulated nano-particles, or surface attached nano-particles, layers, coatings and other structures. The resultant chromatographic applications, where applicable, are discussed with comment upon enhanced selectivity and/or efficiency of the nano-particle modified phases, where such effects have been identified. In the main this review covers developments over the past five years and is structured according to the nature of the nano-particles themselves, including carbonaceous, metallic, inorganic, and organopolymer based materials.

  5. Ligand modified nanoparticles increases cell uptake, alters endocytosis and elevates glioma distribution and internalization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Huile; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Shuang; Cao, Shijie; Shen, Shun; Pang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Xinguo

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) were widely used in drugs/probes delivery for improved disease diagnosis and/or treatment. Targeted delivery to cancer cells is a highly attractive application of NPs. However, few studies have been performed on the targeting mechanisms of these ligand-modified delivery systems. Additional studies are needed to understand the transport of nanoparticles in the cancer site, the interactions between nanoparticles and cancer cells, the intracellular trafficking of nanoparticles within the cancer cells and the subcellular destiny and potential toxicity. Interleukin 13 (IL-13) peptide can specifically bind IL-13Rα2, a receptor that is highly expressed on glioma cells but is expressed at low levels on other normal cells. It was shown that the nanoparticels modification with the IL-13 peptide could improve glioma treatment by selectively increasing cellular uptake, facilitating cell internalization, altering the uptake pathway and increasing glioma localization.

  6. Hyaluronic acid-modified zirconium phosphate nanoparticles for potential lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Li, Ranwei; Liu, Tiecheng; Wang, Ke

    2017-02-01

    Novel tumor-targeting zirconium phosphate (ZP) nanoparticles modified with hyaluronic acid (HA) were developed (HA-ZP), with the aim of combining the drug-loading property of ZP and the tumor-targeting ability of HA to construct a tumor-targeting paclitaxel (PTX) delivery system for potential lung cancer therapy. The experimental results indicated that PTX loading into the HA-ZP nanoparticles was as high as 20.36%±4.37%, which is favorable for cancer therapy. PTX-loaded HA-ZP nanoparticles increased the accumulation of PTX in A549 lung cancer cells via HA-mediated endocytosis and exhibited superior anticancer activity in vitro. In vivo anticancer efficacy assay revealed that HA-ZP nanoparticles possessed preferable anticancer abilities, which exhibited minimized toxic side effects of PTX and strong tumor-suppression potential in clinical application.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of hollow magnetic nanospheres modified with Au nanoparticles for bio-encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seisno, Satoshi; Suga, Kent; Nakagawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2017-04-01

    Hollow magnetic nanospheres modified with Au nanoparticles were successfully synthesized. Au/SiO2 nanospheres fabricated by a radiochemical process were used as templates for ferrite templating. After the ferrite plating process, Au/SiO2 templates were fully coated with magnetite nanoparticles. Dissolution of the SiO2 core lead to the formation of hollow magnetic nanospheres with Au nanoparticles inside. The hollow magnetic nanospheres consisted of Fe3O4 grains, with an average diameter of 60 nm, connected to form the sphere wall, inside which Au grains with an average diameter of 7.2 nm were encapsulated. The Au nanoparticles immobilized on the SiO2 templates contributed to the adsorption of the Fe ion precursor and/or Fe3O4 seeds. These hollow magnetic nanospheres are proposed as a new type of nanocarrier, as the Au grains could specifically immobilize biomolecules inside the hollow sphere.

  8. Biosupported Bimetallic Pd Au Nanocatalysts for Dechlorination of Environmental Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    De Corte, S.; Fitts, J.; Hennebel, T.; Sabbe, T.; Bliznuk, V.; Verschuere, S.; van der Lelie, D.; Verstraete, W.; Boon, N.

    2011-08-30

    Biologically produced monometallic palladium nanoparticles (bio-Pd) have been shown to catalyze the dehalogenation of environmental contaminants, but fail to efficiently catalyze the degradation of other important recalcitrant halogenated compounds. This study represents the first report of biologically produced bimetallic Pd/Au nanoparticle catalysts. The obtained catalysts were tested for the dechlorination of diclofenac and trichloroethylene. When aqueous bivalent Pd(II) and trivalent Au(III) ions were both added to concentrations of 50 mg L{sup -1} and reduced simultaneously by Shewanella oneidensis in the presence of H{sub 2}, the resulting cell-associated bimetallic nanoparticles (bio-Pd/Au) were able to dehalogenate 78% of the initially added diclofenac after 24 h; in comparison, no dehalogenation was observed using monometallic bio-Pd or bio-Au. Other catalyst-synthesis strategies did not show improved dehalogenation of TCE and diclofenac compared with bio-Pd. Synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction, (scanning) transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the simultaneous reduction of Pd and Au supported on cells of S. oneidensis resulted in the formation of a unique bimetallic crystalline structure. This study demonstrates that the catalytic activity and functionality of possibly environmentally more benign biosupported Pd-catalysts can be improved by coprecipitation with Au.

  9. Synthesis and Functionalization of Gold Nanoparticles Using Chemically Modified ssDNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calabrese, P. G.

    In the first part of this thesis, methods for functionalizing spherical gold nanoparticles with nucleic acid binding ligands (aptamers) that target the VEGF receptor complex were developed. In order to provide a multiplexed labeling strategy for imaging the VEGF receptor complex in electron microscopy, gold nanoparticles of distinct sizes were conjugated to modified ssDNA aptamers that target the VEGF-A cytokine, the VEGFR-2 RTK receptor and a membrane associated co-receptor, Nrp-1. The modified ssDNA gold nanoparticle conjugates were applied to a human lung carcinoma cell line (A549) which has been shown to express each of these proteins and used as a model system for VEGF signaling. Binding constants for the modified aptamers were also determined using a fluorescence polarization anisotropy assay to determine KD and KOFF for the aptamers with their respective proteins. In the latter part of this thesis, a modied ssDNA SELEX protocol was also developed in order to evolve imidazole modied ssDNA sequences that assemble gold nanoparticles from Au3+ precursor ions in aqueous solution. Active sequences bound to nanoparticles were partitioned from inactive sequences based on density via ultracentrifugation through a discontinuous sucrose gradient. Colloidal gold solutions produced by the evolved pool had a distinct absorbance spectra and produced nanoparticles with a narrower distribution of sizes compared to colloidal gold solutions produced by the starting randomized pool of imidazole modified ssDNA. Sequencing data from the evolved pool shows that conserved 5 and 6 nt motifs were shared amongst many of the isolates, which indicates that these motifs could serve as chelation sites for gold atoms or help stabilize colloidal gold solutions in a base specific manner.

  10. Organically modified silica nanoparticles are biocompatible and can be targeted to neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Barandeh, Farda; Nguyen, Phuong-Lan; Kumar, Rajiv; Iacobucci, Gary J; Kuznicki, Michelle L; Kosterman, Andrew; Bergey, Earl J; Prasad, Paras N; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2012-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology in biological research is beginning to have a major impact leading to the development of new types of tools for human health. One focus of nanobiotechnology is the development of nanoparticle-based formulations for use in drug or gene delivery systems. However most of the nano probes currently in use have varying levels of toxicity in cells or whole organisms and therefore are not suitable for in vivo application or long-term use. Here we test the potential of a novel silica based nanoparticle (organically modified silica, ORMOSIL) in living neurons within a whole organism. We show that feeding ORMOSIL nanoparticles to Drosophila has no effect on viability. ORMOSIL nanoparticles penetrate into living brains, neuronal cell bodies and axonal projections. In the neuronal cell body, nanoparticles are present in the cytoplasm, but not in the nucleus. Strikingly, incorporation of ORMOSIL nanoparticles into the brain did not induce aberrant neuronal death or interfered with normal neuronal processes. Our results in Drosophila indicate that these novel silica based nanoparticles are biocompatible and not toxic to whole organisms, and has potential for the development of long-term applications.

  11. Organically Modified Silica Nanoparticles Are Biocompatible and Can Be Targeted to Neurons In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajiv; Iacobucci, Gary J.; Kuznicki, Michelle L.; Kosterman, Andrew; Bergey, Earl J.; Prasad, Paras N.; Gunawardena, Shermali

    2012-01-01

    The application of nanotechnology in biological research is beginning to have a major impact leading to the development of new types of tools for human health. One focus of nanobiotechnology is the development of nanoparticle-based formulations for use in drug or gene delivery systems. However most of the nano probes currently in use have varying levels of toxicity in cells or whole organisms and therefore are not suitable for in vivo application or long-term use. Here we test the potential of a novel silica based nanoparticle (organically modified silica, ORMOSIL) in living neurons within a whole organism. We show that feeding ORMOSIL nanoparticles to Drosophila has no effect on viability. ORMOSIL nanoparticles penetrate into living brains, neuronal cell bodies and axonal projections. In the neuronal cell body, nanoparticles are present in the cytoplasm, but not in the nucleus. Strikingly, incorporation of ORMOSIL nanoparticles into the brain did not induce aberrant neuronal death or interfered with normal neuronal processes. Our results in Drosophila indicate that these novel silica based nanoparticles are biocompatible and not toxic to whole organisms, and has potential for the development of long-term applications. PMID:22238611

  12. Selective nanopatterning using citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles and cystein-modified amphiphilic protein.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Päivi; Kivioja, Jani; Paananen, Arja; Kainlauri, Markku; Kontturi, Kyösti; Ahopelto, Jouni; Linder, Markus B

    2009-05-05

    We present an approach where biomolecular self-assembly is used in combination with lithography to produce patterns of metallic nanoparticles on a silicon substrate. This is achieved through a two-step method, resulting in attachment of nanoparticles on desired sites on the sample surfaces, which allowed a detailed characterization. First, a genetically modified hydrophobin protein, NCysHFBI, was attached by self-assembly on a hydrophobic surface or a surface patterned with hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains. The next step was to label the protein layers with 17.8 nm gold nanoparticles, to allow microscopic characterization of the films. Kinetics and extent of attachment of nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It was shown that the attachment of citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles was strongly dependent on the electrostatic properties of the capping ligand layer and the density of nanoparticles in the monolayer could be controlled via pH. The resulting nanoparticle assemblies followed the original pattern created by optical lithography in high accuracy. We demonstrate that combining bottom-up and top-down nanotechnological approaches in a good balance can provide very effective ways to produce nanoscale components providing a functional interface between electronics and the biological world.

  13. Pool boiling of nanoparticle-modified surface with interlaced wettability

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pool boiling heat transfer under heating surfaces with various interlaced wettability. Nano-silica particles were used as the coating element to vary the interlaced wettability of the surface. The experimental results revealed that when the wettability of a surface is uniform, the critical heat flux increases with the more wettable surface; however, when the wettability of a surface is modified interlacedly, regardless of whether the modified region becomes more hydrophilic or hydrophobic, the critical heat flux is consistently higher than that of the isotropic surface. In addition, this study observed that critical heat flux was higher when the contact angle difference between the plain surface and the modified region was smaller. PMID:22607462

  14. Evaluation of elevated temperature properties of asphalt cement modified with aluminum oxide and calcium carbonate nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albrka Ali, Shaban Ismael; Ismail, Amiruddin; AlMansob, Ramez A.; Alhmali, Dhawo Ibrahim

    2017-09-01

    Higher temperature properties of the asphalt cement have been characterized before and after modification using dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) and viscosity testing. In this study, calcium carbonate nanoparticles (CaCO3) and aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3) have been added to the base asphalt cement with concentrations of 3, 5 and 7%.wt by the weight of the asphalt cement. The increase of CaCO3 and Al2O3 content has significant effect on the properties of asphalt cement. The viscosity of the modified asphalt cement increased up to 90 and 108% respectively compared to the base asphalt cement. In addition, the results showed that both modifiers have great storage stability and compatibility at elevated temperature. The evaluation of the rheological properties of asphalt cements revealed that the stiffness of the modified samples improved with additional increase of the modifier concentration of up to 5%, which indicates better resistance to rutting parameter. The enhancement was up to 388.89% for Al2O3 and 74.07% for CaCO3. As a result, the usage of CaCO3 and Al2O3 nanoparticles can be considered as appropriate alternative materials to modify asphalt cement.

  15. Polyethyleneimine-modified calcium carbonate nanoparticles for p53 gene delivery

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cen; Han, Huafeng; Yang, Wei; Ren, Xiaoyuan; Kong, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles with spherical structure were regulated by arginine and successfully synthesized via a facile co-precipitation method. The average particle size of as-prepared CaCO3 was about 900 nm. The properties of nanostructured CaCO3 particles were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and size distribution. After modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI), the ability of PEI-CaCO3 nanoparticles to carry GFP-marked p53 gene (pEGFP-C1-p53) into cancer cells to express P53 protein were studied. Meanwhile, the cytotoxicity, transfection efficiency, cells growth inhibition and the ability to induce apoptosis by expressed P53 protein were conducted to evaluate the performances of PEI-CaCO3 nanoparticles. The results show that prepared PEI-CaCO3 nanoparticles had good biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity in a certain concentration range. PEI-CaCO3 effectively transfected pEGFP-C1 gene into epithelial-like cancer cells. And with the expression of GFP-P53 fusion protein, pEGFP-C1-p53-gene-loaded PEI-CaCO3 particles significantly reduced the proliferation of cancer cells. These findings indicate that our PEI-modified CaCO3 nanoparticles are potential to be successfully used as carriers for gene therapy. PMID:26816656

  16. Sequentially modified, polymer-stabilized gold nanoparticle libraries: convergent synthesis and aggregation behavior.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Matthew I; Danial, Maarten; Klok, Harm-Anton

    2011-05-09

    This manuscript describes a versatile, yet experimentally facile, method for producing libraries of polymer-coated (core−shell type) gold nanoparticles. The synthetic principle relies on two, sequential postmodification reactions, which ensures homogeneity across each series. First, poly(pentafluorophenyl methacrylate) synthesized by RAFT polymerization is used here as a reactive precursor, which can be modified, postpolymerization, to create a library of functional polymers each bearing a ω-thiol end-group. In a second step, these well-defined polymers are then tethered by their ω-thiol group to the surface of prefabricated citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles to give a library of 75 unique, yet sequentially modified organic−inorganic hybrid particles. The optical properties of the gold core were exploited to create a high-throughput assay for investigating the role of nanoparticle size and surface coating on aggregation in various biologically relevant media. These experiments demonstrated the importance of the type of dissolved salts present and also the strong influence of serum proteins in cell-culture media and their interactions with nanoparticles surfaces, which in turn might affect their biological profiles. Therefore, this method presents a powerful, yet accessible tool for creating model nanoparticle libraries with intrinsic sensing properties.

  17. Brain Localization and Neurotoxicity Evaluation of Polysorbate 80-Modified Chitosan Nanoparticles in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Zhong-Yue; Hu, Yu-Lan; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity evaluation of inorganic nanoparticles has been reported by an increasing number of studies, but toxicity studies concerned with biodegradable nanoparticles, especially the neurotoxicity evaluation, are still limited. For example, the potential neurotoxicity of Polysorbate 80-modified chitosan nanoparticles (Tween 80-modified chitosan nanoparticles, TmCS-NPs), one of the most widely used brain targeting vehicles, remains unknown. In the present study, TmCS-NPs with a particle size of 240 nm were firstly prepared by ionic cross-linking of chitosan with tripolyphosphate. Then, these TmCS-NPs were demonstrated to be entered into the brain and specially deposited in the frontal cortex and cerebellum after systemic injection. Moreover, the concentration of TmCS-NPs in these two regions was found to decrease over time. Although no obvious changes were observed for oxidative stress in the in vivo rat model, the body weight was found to remarkably decreased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to TmCS-NPs for seven days. Besides, apoptosis and necrosis of neurons, slight inflammatory response in the frontal cortex, and decrease of GFAP expression in the cerebellum were also detected in mouse injected with TmCS-NPs. This study is the first report on the sub-brain biodistribution and neurotoxicity studies of TmCS-NPs. Our results provide new insights into the toxicity evaluation of nanoparticles and our findings would help contribute to a better understanding of the neurotoxicity of biodegradable nanomaterials used in pharmaceutics.

  18. Brain Localization and Neurotoxicity Evaluation of Polysorbate 80-Modified Chitosan Nanoparticles in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhong-Yue; Hu, Yu-Lan; Gao, Jian-Qing

    2015-01-01

    The toxicity evaluation of inorganic nanoparticles has been reported by an increasing number of studies, but toxicity studies concerned with biodegradable nanoparticles, especially the neurotoxicity evaluation, are still limited. For example, the potential neurotoxicity of Polysorbate 80-modified chitosan nanoparticles (Tween 80-modified chitosan nanoparticles, TmCS-NPs), one of the most widely used brain targeting vehicles, remains unknown. In the present study, TmCS-NPs with a particle size of 240 nm were firstly prepared by ionic cross-linking of chitosan with tripolyphosphate. Then, these TmCS-NPs were demonstrated to be entered into the brain and specially deposited in the frontal cortex and cerebellum after systemic injection. Moreover, the concentration of TmCS-NPs in these two regions was found to decrease over time. Although no obvious changes were observed for oxidative stress in the in vivo rat model, the body weight was found to remarkably decreased in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to TmCS-NPs for seven days. Besides, apoptosis and necrosis of neurons, slight inflammatory response in the frontal cortex, and decrease of GFAP expression in the cerebellum were also detected in mouse injected with TmCS-NPs. This study is the first report on the sub-brain biodistribution and neurotoxicity studies of TmCS-NPs. Our results provide new insights into the toxicity evaluation of nanoparticles and our findings would help contribute to a better understanding of the neurotoxicity of biodegradable nanomaterials used in pharmaceutics. PMID:26248340

  19. Gold nanoparticles directly modified glassy carbon electrode for non-enzymatic detection of glucose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gang; Shu, Honghui; Ji, Kai; Oyama, Munetaka; Liu, Xiong; He, Yunbin

    2014-01-01

    This work describes controllable preparation of gold nanoparticles on glassy carbon electrodes by using the seed mediated growth method, which contains two steps, namely, nanoseeds attachment and nanocrystals growth. The size and the dispersion of gold nanoparticles grown on glassy carbon electrodes could be easily tuned through the growth time based on results of field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Excellent electrochemical catalytic characteristics for glucose oxidation were observed for the gold nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrodes (AuNPs/GC), resulting from the extended active surface area provided by the dense gold nanoparticles attached. It exhibited a wide linear range from 0.1 mM to 25 mM with the sensitivity of 87.5 μA cm-2 mM-1 and low detection limit down to 0.05 mM for the sensing of glucose. The common interfering species such as chloride ion, ascorbic acid, uric acid and 4-acetamidophenol were verified having no interference effect on the detection of glucose. It is demonstrated that the seed mediated method is one of the facile approaches for fabricating Au nanoparticles modified substrates, which could work as one kind of promising electrode materials for the glucose nonenzymatic sensing.

  20. Surface-modified gatifloxacin nanoparticles with potential for treating central nervous system tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Marcianes, Patricia; Negro, Sofia; García-García, Luis; Montejo, Consuelo; Barcia, Emilia; Fernández-Carballido, Ana

    2017-01-01

    A new nanocarrier is developed for the passage of gatifloxacin through the blood–brain barrier to treat central nervous system tuberculosis. Gatifloxacin nanoparticles were prepared by nanoprecipitation using poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) 502 and polysorbate 80 or Labrafil as surface modifiers. The evaluation of in vivo blood–brain barrier transport was carried out in male Wistar rats using rhodamine-loaded PLGA nanoparticles prepared with and without the surface modifiers. At 30 and 60 minutes after administration, nanoparticle biodistribution into the brain (hippocampus and cortex), lungs, and liver was studied. The results obtained from the cerebral cortex and hippocampus showed that functionalization of rhodamine nanoparticles significantly increased their passage into the central nervous system. At 60 minutes, rhodamine concentrations decreased in both the lungs and the liver but were still high in the cerebral cortex. To distinguish the effect between the surfactants, gatifloxacin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared. The best results corresponded to the formulation prepared with polysorbate 80 with regard to encapsulation efficiency (28.2%), particle size (176.5 nm), and ζ-potential (−20.1 mV), thereby resulting in a promising drug delivery system to treat cerebral tuberculosis. PMID:28331318

  1. Controlling Bimetallic Nanostructures by the Microemulsion Method with Subnanometer Resolution Using a Prediction Model.

    PubMed

    Buceta, David; Tojo, Concha; Vukmirovic, Miomir B; Deepak, Francis Leonard; López-Quintela, M Arturo

    2015-07-14

    We present a theoretical model to predict the atomic structure of Au/Pt nanoparticles synthesized in microemulsions. Excellent concordance with the experimental results shows that the structure of the nanoparticles can be controlled at subnanometer resolution simply by changing the reactant concentration. The results of this study not only offer a better understanding of the complex mechanisms governing reactions in microemulsions, but open up a simple new way to synthesize bimetallic nanoparticles with ad hoc controlled nanostructures.

  2. Particle-by-Particle Charge Analysis of DNA-Modified Nanoparticles Using Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing.

    PubMed

    Blundell, Emma L C J; Vogel, Robert; Platt, Mark

    2016-02-02

    Resistive pulse sensors, RPS, are allowing the transport mechanism of molecules, proteins and even nanoparticles to be characterized as they traverse pores. Previous work using RPS has shown that the size, concentration and zeta potential of the analyte can be measured. Here we use tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS) which utilizes a tunable pore to monitor the translocation times of nanoparticles with DNA modified surfaces. We start by demonstrating that the translocation times of particles can be used to infer the zeta potential of known standards and then apply the method to measure the change in zeta potential of DNA modified particles. By measuring the translocation times of DNA modified nanoparticles as a function of packing density, length, structure, and hybridization time, we observe a clear difference in zeta potential using both mean values and population distributions as a function of the DNA structure. We demonstrate the ability to resolve the signals for ssDNA, dsDNA, small changes in base length for nucleotides between 15 and 40 bases long, and even the discrimination between partial and fully complementary target sequences. Such a method has potential and applications in sensors for the monitoring of nanoparticles in both medical and environmental samples.

  3. Structural characterization of Pt–Pd core–shell nanoparticles by Cs-corrected STEM

    PubMed Central

    Esparza, R.; García-Ruiz, Amado F.; Salazar, J. J. Velázquez; Pérez, R.; José-Yacamán, M.

    2013-01-01

    Pt–Pd core–shell nanoparticles were synthesized using a modified polyol method. A thermal method under refluxing, carrying on the reaction up to 285 °C, has been performed to reduce metallic salts using ethylene glycol as reducer and poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) as protective reagent of the formed bimetallic nanoparticles. According to other works, this type of structure has been studied and utilized to successfully increase the catalytic properties of monometallic nanoparticles Pt or Pd. Core–shell bimetallic nanoparticles were structurally characterized using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM) equipped with a high-angle annular dark field detector, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The high-resolution elemental line scan and mappings were carried out using a combination of STEM–EDS and STEM–EELS. The obtained results show the growth of the Pd shell on the Pt core with polyhedral morphology. The average size of the bimetallic nanoparticles was 13.5 nm and the average size of the core was 8.5 nm; consequently, the thickness of the shell was around 2.5 nm. The growth of the Pd shell on the Pt core is layer by layer, suggesting a Frank-van der Merwe growth mechanism. PMID:24991190

  4. Structural characterization of Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles by Cs-corrected STEM.

    PubMed

    Esparza, R; García-Ruiz, Amado F; Salazar, J J Velázquez; Pérez, R; José-Yacamán, M

    2012-12-01

    Pt-Pd core-shell nanoparticles were synthesized using a modified polyol method. A thermal method under refluxing, carrying on the reaction up to 285 °C, has been performed to reduce metallic salts using ethylene glycol as reducer and poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) as protective reagent of the formed bimetallic nanoparticles. According to other works, this type of structure has been studied and utilized to successfully increase the catalytic properties of monometallic nanoparticles Pt or Pd. Core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles were structurally characterized using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (Cs-STEM) equipped with a high-angle annular dark field detector, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The high-resolution elemental line scan and mappings were carried out using a combination of STEM-EDS and STEM-EELS. The obtained results show the growth of the Pd shell on the Pt core with polyhedral morphology. The average size of the bimetallic nanoparticles was 13.5 nm and the average size of the core was 8.5 nm; consequently, the thickness of the shell was around 2.5 nm. The growth of the Pd shell on the Pt core is layer by layer, suggesting a Frank-van der Merwe growth mechanism.

  5. Local Charge Injection and Extraction on Surface-Modified Al2O3 Nanoparticles in LDPE.

    PubMed

    Borgani, Riccardo; Pallon, Love K H; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gedde, Ulf W; Haviland, David B

    2016-09-14

    We use a recently developed scanning probe technique to image with high spatial resolution the injection and extraction of charge around individual surface-modified aluminum oxide nanoparticles embedded in a low-density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix. We find that the experimental results are consistent with a simple band structure model where localized electronic states are available in the band gap (trap states) in the vicinity of the nanoparticles. This work offers experimental support to a previously proposed mechanism for enhanced insulating properties of nanocomposite LDPE and provides a powerful experimental tool to further investigate such properties.

  6. Composite materials for medical purposes based on polyvinylpyrrolidone modified with ketoprofen and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, L. N.; Vasil'Kov, A. Yu.; Banchero, M.; Manna, L.; Naumkin, A. V.; Podshibikhin, V. L.; Abramchuk, S. S.; Buzin, M. I.; Korlyukov, A. A.; Khokhlov, A. R.

    2011-07-01

    A method for obtaining composite medical materials based on polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K15) modified with ketoprofen in a medium of supercritical carbon dioxide and with Ag nanoparticles prepared by metal vapor synthesis is developed. A system in which ketoprofen and Ag nanoparticles with an average size of ˜16 nm are uniformly distributed over the bulk of PVP is obtained. It is found that the yield of ketoprofen from the composite in the physiological solution is higher than that for an analogous system obtained by mechanical mixing of the components.

  7. A Genetically Modified Tobacco Mosaic Virus that can Produce Gold Nanoparticles from a Metal Salt Precursor

    PubMed Central

    Love, Andrew J.; Makarov, Valentine V.; Sinitsyna, Olga V.; Shaw, Jane; Yaminsky, Igor V.; Kalinina, Natalia O.; Taliansky, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    We genetically modified tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to surface display a characterized peptide with potent metal ion binding and reducing capacity (MBP TMV), and demonstrate that unlike wild type TMV, this construct can lead to the formation of discrete 10–40 nm gold nanoparticles when mixed with 3 mM potassium tetrachloroaurate. Using a variety of analytical physicochemical approaches it was found that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and stable. Given that the MBP TMV can produce metal nanomaterials in the absence of chemical reductants, it may have utility in the green production of metal nanomaterials. PMID:26617624

  8. EXAFS and DFT study of the cadmium and lead adsorption on modified silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Arce, Valeria B; Gargarello, Romina M; Ortega, Florencia; Romañano, Virginia; Mizrahi, Martín; Ramallo-López, José M; Cobos, Carlos J; Airoldi, Claudio; Bernardelli, Cecilia; Donati, Edgardo R; Mártire, Daniel O

    2015-12-05

    Silica nanoparticles of 7 nm diameter were modified with (3-aminopropyl) triethoxysilane (APTES) and characterized by CP-MAS (13)C and (29)Si NMR, FTIR, zeta potential measurements, and thermogravimetry. The particles were shown to sorb successfully divalent lead and cadmium ions from aqueous solution. Lead complexation with these silica nanoparticles was clearly confirmed by EXAFS (Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure) with synchrotron light measurements. Predicted Pb-N and Pb-C distances obtained from quantum-chemical calculations are in very good agreement with the EXAFS determinations. The calculations also support the higher APTES affinity for Pb(2+) compared to Cd(2+).

  9. Synthesis and characteristics of Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites by arc-discharge solution plasma processing.

    PubMed

    Pootawang, Panuphong; Saito, Nagahiro; Takai, Osamu; Lee, Sang-Yul

    2012-10-05

    Arc discharge in solution, generated by applying a high voltage of unipolar pulsed dc to electrodes of Ag and Pt, was used as a method to form Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites via electrode erosion by the effects of the electric arc at the cathode (Ag rod) and the sputtering at the anode (Pt rod). Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites were formed as colloidal particles dispersed in solution via the reduction of hydrogen radicals generated during discharge without the addition of chemical precursor or reducing agent. At a discharge time of 30 s, the fine bimetallic nanoparticles with a mean particle size of approximately 5 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). With increasing discharge time, the bimetallic nanoparticle size tended to increase by forming an agglomeration. The presence of the relatively small amount of Pt dispersed in the Ag matrix could be observed by the analytical mapping mode of energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and high-resolution TEM. This demonstrated that the synthesized particle was in the form of a nanocomposite. No contamination of other chemical substances was detected by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Hence, solution plasma could be a clean and simple process to effectively synthesize Ag/Pt bimetallic nanocomposites and it is expected to be widely applicable in the preparation of several types of nanoparticle.

  10. Silymarin-Loaded Nanoparticles Based on Stearic Acid-Modified Bletilla striata Polysaccharide for Hepatic Targeting.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanni; He, Shaolong; Ma, Xueqin; Hong, Tongtong; Li, Zhifang; Park, Kinam; Wang, Wenping

    2016-02-29

    Silymarin has been widely used as a hepatoprotective drug in the treatment of various liver diseases, yet its effectiveness is affected by its poor water solubility and low bioavailability after oral administration, and there is a need for the development of intravenous products, especially for liver-targeting purposes. In this study, silymarin was encapsulated in self-assembled nanoparticles of Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP) conjugates modified with stearic acid and the physicochemical properties of the obtained nanoparticles were characterized. The silymarin-loaded micelles appeared as spherical particles with a mean diameter of 200 nm under TEM. The encapsulation of drug molecules was confirmed by DSC thermograms and XRD diffractograms, respectively. The nanoparticles exhibited a sustained-release profile for nearly 1 week with no obvious initial burst. Compared to drug solutions, the drug-loaded nanoparticles showed a lower viability and higher uptake intensity on HepG2 cell lines. After intravenous administration of nanoparticle formulation for 30 min to mice, the liver became the most significant organ enriched with the fluorescent probe. These results suggest that BSP derivative nanoparticles possess hepatic targeting capability and are promising nanocarriers for delivering silymarin to the liver.

  11. Synthesis of oxidation resistant lead nanoparticle films by modified pulsed laser ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Eunsung; Murray, P. Terrence; Subramanyam, Guru; Malik, Hans K.; Schwartz, Kenneth L.

    2012-07-30

    Thin layers of lead nanoparticles have been produced by a modified pulsed laser ablation (PLA) process in which smaller nanoparticles were swept out of the ablation chamber by a stream of flowing Ar. Large ({mu}m-sized) particles, which are usually deposited during the standard PLA process, were successfully eliminated from the deposit. The nanoparticles deposited on room temperature substrates were well distributed, and the most probable particle diameter was in the order of 30 nm. Since lead is highly reactive, the nanoparticles formed in Ar were quickly oxidized upon exposure to air. A small partial pressure of H{sub 2}S gas was subsequently added to the effluent, downstream from the ablation chamber, and this resulted in the formation of nanoparticle deposits that were surprisingly oxidation resistant. The properties of the nanoparticle films (as determined by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and conductivity measurements) are reported, and the mechanism of the oxidation retardation process is discussed.

  12. Surface modified PLGA nanoparticles for brain targeting of Bacoside-A.

    PubMed

    Jose, S; Sowmya, S; Cinu, T A; Aleykutty, N A; Thomas, S; Souto, E B

    2014-10-15

    The present paper focuses on the development and in vitro/in vivo characterization of nanoparticles composed of poly-(D,L)-Lactide-co-Glycolide (PLGA) loading Bacoside-A, as a new approach for the brain delivery of the neuroprotective drug for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders (e.g. Alzheimer Disease). Bacoside-A-loaded PLGA nanoparticles were prepared via o/w emulsion solvent evaporation technique. Surface of the nanoparticles were modified by coating with polysorbate 80 to facilitate the crossing of the blood brain barrier (BBB), and the processing parameters (i.e. sonication time, the concentration of polymer (PLGA) and surfactant (polysorbate 80), and drug-polymer ratio) were optimized with the aim to achieve a high production yield. Brain targeting potential of the nanoparticles was evaluated by in vivo studies using Wistar albino rats. The nanoparticles produced by optimal formulation were within the nanosized range (70-200 nm) with relatively low polydispersity index (0.391 ± 1.2). The encapsulation efficiency of Bacoside-A in PLGA nanoparticles was 57.11 ± 7.11%, with a drug loading capacity of 20.5 ± 1.98%. SEM images showed the spherical shape of the PLGA nanoparticles, whereas their low crystallinity was demonstrated by X-ray studies, which also confirmed no chemical interactions between the drug and polymer molecules. The in vitro release of Bacoside-A from the PLGA nanoparticles followed a sustained release pattern with a maximum release of up to 83.04 ± 2.55% in 48 h. When compared to pure drug solution (2.56 ± 1.23 μg/g tissue), in vivo study demonstrated higher brain concentration of Bacoside-A (23.94 ± 1.74 μg/g tissue) suggesting a significant role of surface coated nanoparticles on brain targeting. The results indicate the potential of surface modified PLGA nanoparticles for the delivery of Bacoside-A to the brain.

  13. Preparation and in vitro evaluation of Methotrexate-loaded magnetic nanoparticles modified with biocompatible copolymers.

    PubMed

    Jahangiri, Sahar; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl

    2016-11-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) are attractive materials that have been widely used in medicine for drug delivery, diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. In our study, SPION and the anticancer drug, Methotrexate, were encapsulated into polycaprolactone-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG) nanoparticles for local treatment. The magnetic properties conferred by SPION could help to maintain the nanoparticles in the joint with an external magnet. The drug encapsulation efficiency achieved for Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with PCL-PEG copolymer was 92.36%. There is potential for use of these nanoparticles for biomedical application.

  14. Magnetite-platinum nanoparticles-modified glassy carbon electrode as electrochemical detector for nitrophenol isomers.

    PubMed

    Gerent, Giles G; Spinelli, Almir

    2017-05-15

    A glassy carbon electrode was modified with magnetite and platinum nanoparticles stabilized with 3-n-propyl-4-picoline silsesquioxane chloride. This chemically-modified electrode is proposed for the first time for the individual or simultaneous electrochemical detection of nitrophenol isomers. Nanoparticles act as catalysts and also increase the surface area. The polymer stabilizes the particles and provides the electrochemical separation of isomers. Under optimized conditions, the reduction peak currents, obtained by differential-pulse voltammetry, of 2-, 3-, and 4-nitrophenol increased linearly with increases in their concentration in the range of 0.1-1.5μmolL(-1). In individual analysis, the detection limits were 33.7nmolL(-1), 45.3nmolL(-1) and 48.2nmolL(-1), respectively. Also, simultaneous analysis was possible for 2-, and 4-nitrophenol. In this case, the separation of the peak potentials was 0.138V and the detection limits were 69.6nmolL(-1) and 58.0nmolL(-1), respectively. These analytical figures of merit evidence the outstanding performance of the modified electrode, which was also successfully applied to the individual determination of isomers in environmental and biological samples. The magnetite and platinum nanoparticles modified glassy carbon electrode was able to detect nitrophenol isomers at the ppm level in rain water and human urine samples.

  15. Multifunctional organically modified silica nanoparticles for chemotherapy, adjuvant hyperthermia and near infrared imaging.

    PubMed

    Nagesetti, Abhignyan; McGoron, Anthony J

    2016-11-01

    We report a novel system of organically modified silica nanoparticles (Ormosil) capable of near infrared fluorescence and chemotherapy with adjuvant hyperthermia for image guided cancer therapy. Ormosil nanoparticles were loaded with a chemotherapeutic, Doxorubicin (DOX) and cyanine dye, IR820. Ormosil particles had a mean diameter of 51.2±2.4 nanometers and surface charge of -40.5±0.8mV. DOX was loaded onto Ormosil particles via physical adsorption (FDSIR820) or covalent linkage (CDSIR820) to the silanol groups on the Ormosil surface. Both formulations retained DOX and IR820 over a period of 2 days in aqueous buffer, though CDSIR820 retained more DOX (93.2%) compared to FDSIR820 (77.0%) nanoparticles. Exposure to near infrared laser triggered DOX release from CDSIR820. Uptake of nanoparticles was determined by deconvolution microscopy in ovarian carcinoma cells (Skov-3). CDSIR820 localized in the cell lysosomes whereas cells incubated with FDSIR820 showed DOX fluorescence from the nucleus indicating leakage of DOX from the nanoparticle matrix. FDSIR820 nanoparticles showed severe toxicity in Skov-3 cells whereas CDSIR820 particles had the same cytotoxicity profile as bare (No DOX and IR820) Ormosil particles. Furthermore, exposure of CDSIR820 nanoparticles to Near Infrared laser at 808 nanometers resulted in generation of heat (to 43°C from 37°C) and resulted in enhanced cell killing compared to Free DOX treatment. Bio-distribution studies showed that CDSIR820 nanoparticles were primarily present in the organs of Reticuloendothelial (RES) system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Impedance Measurements to Characterize Surface Modified with Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    MacKay, Scott; Abdelrasoul, Gaser N.; Tamura, Marcus; Yan, Zhimin

    2017-01-01

    With the increased practice of preventative healthcare to help reduce costs worldwide, sensor technology improvement is vital to patient care. Point-of-care (POC) diagnostics can reduce time and lower labor in testing, and can effectively avoid transporting costs because of portable designs. Label-free detection allows for greater versatility in the detection of biological molecules. Here, we describe the use of an impedance-based POC biosensor that can detect changes in the surface modification of a micro-fabricated chip using impedance spectroscopy. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been employed to evaluate the sensing ability of our new chip using impedance measurements. Furthermore, we used impedance measurements to monitor surface functionalization progress on the sensor’s interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). Electrodes made from aluminum and gold were employed and the results were analyzed to compare the impact of electrode material. GNPs coated with mercaptoundecanoic acid were also used as a model of biomolecules to greatly enhance chemical affinity to the silicon substrate. The portable sensor can be used as an alternative technology to ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques. This system has advantages over PCR and ELISA both in the amount of time required for testing and the ease of use of our sensor. With other techniques, larger, expensive equipment must be utilized in a lab environment, and procedures have to be carried out by trained professionals. The simplicity of our sensor system can lead to an automated and portable sensing system.

  17. Peptide-modified gold nanoparticles for improved cancer therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Celina; Prooijen, Monique V.; Chithrani, Devika B.

    2014-03-01

    The field of nanotechnology is currently undergoing explosive development on many fronts. The technology is expected to generate innovations and play a critical role in cancer therapeutics. Among other nanoparticle (NP) systems, there has been tremendous progress made in the use of spherical gold NPs (GNPs) in cancer therapeutics. In treating cancer, radiation therapy and chemotherapy remain the most widely used treatment options. These nanostructures further provide strategies for improving loading, targeting, and controlling the release of drugs to minimize the side effects of highly toxic anticancer drugs used in chemotherapy. Our recent results show enhancement of cell death during radiation therapy when GNPs are targeted to nucleus. In addition, we have seen enhanced therapeutic effects when GNPs are used as anticancer drug carriers. Hence, gold nanostructures provide a versatile platform to integrate many therapeutic options leading to effective combinational therapy in the fight against cancer. A multifunctional platform based on gold nanostructures with targeting ligands, therapeutic molecules, and imaging contrast agents will hold the possibility of promising directions in cancer research.

  18. A facile strategy to synthesize monodisperse superparamagnetic OA-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles with PEG assistant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Minmin; Zhu, Aimei; Zhang, Qiugen; Liu, Qinglin

    2014-11-01

    A facile strategy was reported to synthesize monodisperse super-paramagnetic oleic acid (OA) modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which the poly ethylene glycol (PEG) was used as the assistant. The influence of the molecular weight and concentration of PEG was investigated in the process of OA-modification. In addition, the mechanism of PEG action in the reaction system was discussed. The morphology and properties of the as-synthesized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). The size (12 nm) of the as-prepared Fe3O4 nanoparticles is smaller than the superparamagnetic critical size (25 nm) of Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which endows the OA-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles with superparamagnetic property. Furthermore, the dispersibility and stability of as-synthesized OA-modified Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles were very good. As the stabilizer and dispersant, PEG played a very important role and did not encapsulate the OA-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The condition for OA-modified Fe3O4 nanoparticles preparation was optimized.

  19. Autoprogrammed synthesis of triple-layered Au@Pd@Pt core-shell nanoparticles consisting of a Au@Pd bimetallic core and nanoporous Pt shell.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2010-10-06

    Here we report an autoprogrammed synthesis of unique Au@Pd@Pt triple-layered core-shell structured nanoparticles consisting of a Au core, Pd inner layer, and nanoporous Pt outer shell. The proposed synthesis rationally utilizes the temporal separations of the depositions of Au, Pd, and Pt which affords spontaneously step-by-step formation of triple-layered core-shell colloids. The proposed one-step method is unique in its simplicity and is a significant finding for the facile creation of multilayered nanoarchitectures with designed compositions and desired functions.

  20. Surfactant Effects on Microemulsion-Based Nanoparticle Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Tojo, Concha; de Dios, Miguel; Barroso, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the surfactant on the size, polydispersity, type of size distribution and structure of nanoparticles synthesized in microemulsions has been studied by computer simulation. The model simulates the surfactant by means of two parameters: the intermicellar exchange parameter, kex, related to dimer life time, and film flexibility parameter, f, related to interdroplet channel size. One can conclude that an increase in surfactant flexibility leads to bigger and polydisperse nanoparticle sizes. In addition, at high concentrations, the same reaction gives rise to a unimodal distribution using a flexible surfactant, and a bimodal distribution using a rigid one. In relation to bimetallic nanoparticles, if the nanoparticle is composed of two metals with a moderate difference in reduction potentials, increasing the surfactant flexibility modifies the nanoparticle structure, giving rise to a transition from a nanoalloy (using a rigid film) to a core-shell structure (using a flexible one).

  1. Surface modified electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes for extracting nanoparticles from water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahanta, Narahari; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2011-11-01

    Contamination of water from nanomaterials will be an emerging problem in the future due to incorporation of nanomaterials in many commercial products and improper disposal of waste materials. In this report, electrospun polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers (PVA NFs) with diameters ranging between 300 and 500 nm were used for the extraction of nanosized contaminants from the aqueous environment. To obtain the best extraction efficiency, surface hydroxyl groups of PVA NFs were chemically modified with functional groups, such as thiols and amines. Two model nanoparticles (silver and gold) dissolved in water were used for adsorption studies. Depending on the nature of the surface functionalities, the fibers showed unique ability to adsorb nanoparticles. The extraction studies revealed that the amine and thiol modified PVA NFs showed 90% extraction efficiency for both silver and gold nanoparticles. The thiol and amine functionalized PVA NFs showed maximum adsorption capacities (Qt) towards Au NPs, which were around 79-84 mg g-1. Similarly for Ag NP extraction, amine functionalized PVA NFs showed a value for Qt at 56 mg g-1. Our results highlight that functionalized nanofibers have high extraction efficiency for dissolved nanoparticles in water and can be used for removal of the nanocontaminants from the aqueous environment.Contamination of water from nanomaterials will be an emerging problem in the future due to incorporation of nanomaterials in many commercial products and improper disposal of waste materials. In this report, electrospun polyvinyl alcohol nanofibers (PVA NFs) with diameters ranging between 300 and 500 nm were used for the extraction of nanosized contaminants from the aqueous environment. To obtain the best extraction efficiency, surface hydroxyl groups of PVA NFs were chemically modified with functional groups, such as thiols and amines. Two model nanoparticles (silver and gold) dissolved in water were used for adsorption studies. Depending on the nature of

  2. Reversible immobilization of BSA on Cu-chelated PAMAM dendrimer modified iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, M.; Şenel, M.; Baykal, A.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer coated superparamagnetite nanoparticles were synthesized by growing of PAMAM on amino-silane coated iron oxide nanoparticles. The PAMAM modified superparamagnetite nanoparticles were used as reversible protein immobilization host materials. During the reversible immobilization studies the effect of different metal ions such as; Cu+2, Zn+2, Co+2, Ni+2 on immobilization efficiency of BSA were evaluated. The maximum BSA adsorption capacity of the PAMAM-MNP- Cu+2 beads was observed to be 52.84 mg/g (BSA/PAMAM-MNP) at pH 7.0. Various characteristics of immobilized BSA such as; effect of generation, effect of pH, BSA concentration, temperature, salt concentration and reusability of PAMAM-MNP were evaluated.

  3. An electrochemical investigation of glucose oxidase at a CdS nanoparticles modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yinxi; Zhang, Wenjun; Xiao, Han; Li, Genxi

    2005-11-15

    The direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase (GOD) adsorbed on a CdS nanoparticles modified pyrolytic graphite electrode was investigated, where the enzyme demonstrated significantly enhanced electron-transfer reactivity. GOD adsorbed on CdS nanoparticles maintained its bioactivity and structure, and could electro-catalyze the reduction of dissolved oxygen, which resulted in a great increase of the reduction peak current. Upon the addition of glucose, the reduction peak current decreased, which could be used for glucose detection. Performance and characteristics of the fabricated glucose biosensor were assessed with respect to detection limit, sensitivity, storage stability and interference exclusion. The results showed that the fabricated biosensor was sensitive and stable in detecting glucose, indicating that CdS nanoparticle was a good candidate material for the immobilization of enzyme in glucose biosensor construction.

  4. Preparation of transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified with (CO)polymers synthesized by RAFT

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, III., Charles L.; Lowe, Andrew B.; Sumerlin, Brent S.

    2006-11-21

    A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thio-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the stops of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a colloidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as functionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.

  5. Preparation of transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified with (co)polymers synthesized by RAFT

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, III, Charles L.; Lowe, Andrew B [Hattiesburg, MS; Sumerlin, Brent S [Pittsburgh, PA

    2011-12-27

    A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thiol-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the steps of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a colloidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as functionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.

  6. Preparation of transition metal nanoparticles and surfaces modified with (CO) polymers synthesized by RAFT

    DOEpatents

    McCormick, III, Charles L.; Lowe, Andrew B.; Sumerlin, Brent S.

    2006-10-25

    A new, facile, general one-phase method of generating thiol-functionalized transition metal nanoparticles and surface modified by (co)polymers synthesized by the RAFT method is described. The method includes the steps of forming a (co)polymer in aqueous solution using the RAFT methodology, forming a collidal transition metal precursor solution from an appropriate transition metal; adding the metal precursor solution or surface to the (co)polymer solution, adding a reducing agent into the solution to reduce the metal colloid in situ to produce the stabilized nanoparticles or surface, and isolating the stabilized nanoparticles or surface in a manner such that aggregation is minimized. The functionalized surfaces generated using these methods can further undergo planar surface modifications, such as fuctionalization with a variety of different chemical groups, expanding their utility and application.

  7. Graphite felt modified with bismuth nanoparticles as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery.

    PubMed

    Suárez, David J; González, Zoraida; Blanco, Clara; Granda, Marcos; Menéndez, Rosa; Santamaría, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    A graphite felt decorated with bismuth nanoparticles was studied as negative electrode in a vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB). The results confirm the excellent electrochemical performance of the bismuth modified electrode in terms of the reversibility of the V(3+) /V(2+) redox reactions and its long-term cycling performance. Moreover a mechanism that explains the role that Bi nanoparticles play in the redox reactions in this negative half-cell is proposed. Bi nanoparticles favor the formation of BiHx , an intermediate that reduces V(3+) to V(2+) and, therefore, inhibits the competitive irreversible reaction of hydrogen formation (responsible for the commonly observed loss of Coulombic efficiency of VRFBs). Thus, the total charge consumed during the cathodic sweep in this electrode is used to reduce V(3+) to V(2+) , resulting in a highly reversible and efficient process.

  8. Antibacterial activity of graphene supported FeAg bimetallic nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ayyaz; Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Li, Li; Bao, Jie; Jia, Xin; Xu, Yisheng; Guo, Xuhong

    2016-07-01

    We report the simple one pot synthesis of iron-silver (FeAg) bimetallic nanoparticles with different compositions on graphene support. The nanoparticles are well dispersed on the graphene sheet as revealed by the TEM, XRD, and Raman spectra. The antibacterial activity of graphene-FeAg nanocomposite (NC) towards Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus was investigated by colony counting method. Graphene-FeAg NC demonstrates excellent antibacterial activity as compared to FeAg bimetallic without graphene. To understand the antibacterial mechanism of the NC, oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the glutathione (GSH) oxidation were investigated in the system. It has been observed that ROS production and GSH oxidation are concentration dependent while the increase in silver content up to 50% generally enhances the ROS production while ROS decreases on further increase in silver content. Graphene loaded FeAg NC demonstrates higher GSH oxidation capacity than bare FeAg bimetallic nanocomposite. The mechanism study suggests that the antibacterial activity is probably due to membrane and oxidative stress produced by the nanocomposites. The possible antibacterial pathway mainly includes the non-ROS oxidative stress (GSH oxidation) while ROS play minor role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Core-shell bimetallic carbide nanoparticles confined in a three-dimensional N-doped carbon conductive network for efficient lithium storage.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ying; Sun, Pingping; Cao, Minhua

    2014-08-26

    Carbides represent a class of functional materials with unique properties and increasing importance. However, the harsh conditions in conventional synthetic strategies impede subtle control over size and morphology of carbides, which is highly imperative for their practical applications. Herein, we report a facile, simple approach to prepare porous Co3ZnC/N-doped carbon hybrid nanospheres. In this structure, the Co3ZnC nanoparticles exhibit a core-shell structure and they are uniformly confined in N-doped carbon conductive networks forming rather uniform nanospheres. The hybrid nanospheres have a specific surface area as high as 170.5 m(2) g(-1). When evaluated as an anode material for lithium ion batteries, they show an excellent lithium storage performance, which can be attributed to the combined effect of the core-shell Co3ZnC nanoparticles, the pore structure and the highly conductive and elastic N-doped carbon networks. This work provides an efficient route for the facile production of nanoscale carbides with desirable manipulation over size and morphology for many of important applications.

  10. Nickel nanoparticles encapsulated in porous carbon and carbon nanotube hybrids from bimetallic metal-organic-frameworks for highly efficient adsorption of dyes.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lina; Zhao, Xiaoshuang; Qian, Xinye; Dong, Mingdong

    2017-09-06

    Nickel nanoparticles encapsulated in porous carbon/carbon nanotube hybrids (Ni/PC-CNT) were successfully prepared by a facile carbonization process using Ni/Zn-MOF as the precursor. Distinct from previous studies, Ni/Zn-MOF precursors were prepared via a direct precipitation method at room temperature for only 5min. After the carbonization, magnetic Ni nanoparticles were well embedded in the porous carbon and carbon nanotube. The obtained Ni/PC-CNT composites had a high surface area (999m(2) g(-1)), large pore volume (0.86cm(3) g(-1)) and well-developed graphitized wall. The Ni/PC-CNT composites showed excellent adsorption capacity for removal of malachite green (MG), congo red (CR), rhodamine B (Rh B), methylene blue (MB) and methyl orange (MO) from aqueous solution. The maximum adsorption capacity of Ni/PC-CNT composites were about 898, 818, 395, 312 and 271mg/g for MG, CR, RB, MB and MO dyes, respectively, which were much higher than most of the previously reported adsorbents. Moreover, the Ni/PC-CNT composites could be easily regenerated by washing it with ethanol and easy magnetic separation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. EXAFS and XANES structural characterization of bimetallic AuPd vapor derived catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balerna, A.; Evangelisti, C.; Schiavi, E.; Vitulli, G.; Bertinetti, L.; Martra, G.; Mobilio, S.

    2013-04-01

    Using an innovative procedure known as metal vapor synthesis (MVS) to prepare bimetallic catalysts, starting from Au and Pd vapors, [AuPd] co-evaporated and [Au][Pd] separately evaporated bimetallic catalysts were achieved. After being tested, the catalytic activity and selectivity of the [AuPd] catalyst turned out to be higher than the [Au][Pd] ones. Using EXAFS spectroscopy it was shown that, in the [AuPd] samples, small bimetallic AuPd nanoparticles were present, having an Au rich core surrounded by an AuPd alloyed shell while in the [Au][Pd] sample there was the presence of monometallic Au and Pd nanoparticles showing some alloying only in the boundary regions. The EXAFS results were also qualitatively confirmed by the XANES spectra.

  12. Development of Cy5.5-Labeled Hydrophobically Modified Glycol Chitosan Nanoparticles for Protein Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Amanda

    Therapeutic proteins are often highly susceptible to enzymatic degradation, thus restricting their in vivo stability. To overcome this limitation, delivery systems designed to promote uptake and reduce degradation kinetics have undergone a rapid shift from macro-scale systems to nanomaterial based carriers. Many of these nanomaterials, however, elicit immune responses and may have cytotoxic effects both in vitro and in vivo. The naturally derived polysaccharide chitosan has emerged as a promising biodegradable material and has been utilized for many biomedical applications; nevertheless, its function is often constrained by poor solubility. Glycol chitosan, a derivative of chitosan, can be hydrophobically modified to impart amphiphilic properties that enable the self-assembly into nanoparticles in aqueous media at neutral pH. This nanoparticle system has shown initial success as a therapeutic agent in several model cell culture systems, but little is known about its stability against enzymatic degradation. Therefore, the goal of this research was to investigate the resistance of hydrophobically modified glycol chitosan against enzyme-catalyzed degradation using an in vivo simulated system containing lysozyme. To synthesize the nanoparticles, hydrophobic cholanic acid was first covalently conjugated to glycol chitosan using of N-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). Conjugates were purified by dialysis, lyophilized, and ultra-sonicated to form nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy confirmed the binding of 5beta-cholanic acid to the glycol chitosan. Particle size and stability over time were determined with dynamic light scattering (DLS), and particle morphology was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The average diameter of the nanoparticles was approximately 200 nm, which remained stable at 4°C for up to 10 days. Additionally, a near infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye

  13. Electrochemical determination of hydrazine using a ZrO2 nanoparticles-modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Sayed Zia; Beitollahi, Hadi; Bani Asadi, Elina

    2015-03-01

    In the present paper, the use of a carbon paste electrode modified by 3-(4'-amino-3'-hydroxy-biphenyl-4-yl)-acrylic acid (3,4'AA) and ZrO2 nanoparticles prepared by a simple and rapid method was described. The heterogeneous electron transfer properties of (3,4'AA) coupled to ZrO2 nanoparticles at the carbon paste electrode were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, and square wave voltammetry in aqueous buffer solutions. Under the optimized conditions, the square wave voltammetric peak currents of hydrazine increased linearly with hydrazine concentrations in the range of 2.5 × 10(-8) to 5.0 × 10(-5) M, and detection limit of 14 nM was obtained for hydrazine. Finally, this modified electrode was used for the determination of hydrazine in water samples, using standard addition method.

  14. Non-enzymatic amperometric glucose biosensor based on nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticle film modified electrodes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yun; Banks, Craig E; Chen, Qiyuan; Ji, Xiaobo

    2010-07-01

    A non-enzymatic amperometric glucose biosensor based on the modification of functional nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles was prepared via electrochemical deposition. The electrochemical deposition of the nickel hexacyanoferrate nanoparticles was obtained by potential cycling in a solution containing nickel (II) and hexacyanoferrate (III) producing a modified surface with a high degree of uniformity. The modified electrode is exemplified towards the non-enzymatic sensing of glucose where using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry, low micro-molar up to milli-molar glucose concentrations are readily detectable. The non-enzymatic sensing of glucose also shows a modest selectivity over ascorbic acid. This platform offers a novel route for glucose sensors with wide analytical applications.

  15. Surface Analysis of Gold Nanoparticles Functionalized with Thiol-Modified Glucose SAMs for Biosensor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Spampinato, Valentina; Parracino, Maria Antonietta; La Spina, Rita; Rossi, Francois; Ceccone, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the surface chemistry of gold substrates before and after functionalization with thiol-modified glucose self-assembled monolayers and subsequent biochemical specific recognition of maltose binding protein (MBP). The results indicate that the surface functionalization is achieved both on flat and nanoparticles gold substrates thus showing the potential of the developed system as biodetection platform. Moreover, the method presented here has been found to be a sound and valid approach to characterize the surface chemistry of nanoparticles functionalized with large molecules. Both techniques were proved to be very useful tools for monitoring all the functionalization steps, including the investigation of the biological behavior of the glucose-modified particles in the presence of the maltose binding protein. PMID:26973830

  16. Surface analysis of gold nanoparticles functionalized with thiol-modified glucose SAMs for biosensor applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Valentina; Parracino, Mariaantonietta; La Spina, Rita; Rossi, Francois; Ceccone, Giacomo

    2016-02-01

    In this work, Time of Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) have been used to characterize the surface chemistry of gold substrates before and after functionalization with thiol-modified glucose self-assembled monolayers and subsequent biochemical specific recognition of maltose binding protein (MBP). The results indicate that the surface functionalization is achieved both on flat and nanoparticles gold substrates thus showing the potential of the developed system as biodetection platform. Moreover, the method presented here has been found to be a sound and valid approach to characterize the surface chemistry of nanoparticles functionalized with large molecules. Both techniques were proved to be very useful tools for monitoring all the functionalization steps, including the investigation of the biological behaviour of the glucose-modified particles in presence of the maltose binding protein.

  17. Efficient removal of pathogenic bacteria and viruses by multifunctional amine-modified magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Sihui; Yang, Yang; Shen, Zhiqiang; Shan, Junjun; Li, Yi; Yang, Shanshan; Zhu, Dandan

    2014-06-15

    A novel amine-functionalized magnetic Fe3O4-SiO2-NH2 nanoparticle was prepared by layer-by-layer method and used for rapid removal of both pathogenic bacteria and viruses from water. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, EDS, XRD, XPS, FT-IR, BET surface analysis, magnetic property tests and zeta-potential measurements, respectively, which demonstrated its well-defined core-shell structures and strong magnetic responsivity. Pathogenic bacteria and viruses are often needed to be removed conveniently because of a lot of co-existing conditions. The amine-modified nanoparticles we prepared were attractive for capturing a wide range of pathogens including not only bacteriophage f2 and virus (Poliovirus-1), but also various bacteria such as S. aureus, E. coli O157:H7, P. aeruginosa, Salmonella, and B. subtilis. Using as-prepared amine-functionalized MNPs as absorbent, the nonspecific removal efficiency of E. coli O157:H7 or virus was more than 97.39%, while it is only 29.8% with Fe3O4-SiO2 particles. From joint removal test of bacteria and virus, there are over 95.03% harmful E. coli O157:H7 that can be removed from mixed solution with polyclonal anti-E. coli O157:H7 antibody modified nanoparticles. Moreover, the synergy effective mechanism has also been suggested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synergistic effect of silver seeds and organic modifiers on the morphology evolution mechanism of silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Aili; Yin, Hengbo; Ren, Min; Liu, Yuming; Jiang, Tingshun

    2008-08-01

    Triangular, truncated triangular, quadrangular, hexagonal, and net-structured silver nanoplates as well as decahedral silver nanoparticles were manipulatively prepared starting from silver nitrate and silver seeds in the presence of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), poly( N-vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), and Tween 80 at room temperature, respectively. UV-vis spectroscopy, XRD, HRTEM, SAED, and FTIR were used to illustrate the crystal growth process and to characterize the resultant silver nanoparticles. It was found that the silver seeds and organic modifiers synergistically affected the morphology evolution of the silver nanoparticles. The co-presence of silver seeds and PEG was beneficial to the formation of triangular and truncated triangular silver nanoplates; the silver seeds and PVP favored the formation of polygonal silver nanoplates; the silver seeds and Tween 80 preferred to the formation of net-structured silver plates. The morphology evolution of the resultant silver nanoparticles was correlated with the crystallinity of the silver seeds and the adsorption ability of the organic modifiers on the crystal surfaces.

  19. Using RNA as a tool to modify lipid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilner, Samantha E.

    Lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) provide an attractive option for therapeutic applications because they can self-assemble and carry a diverse set of cargoes ranging from hydrophobic drugs to small interfering RNA (siRNA). Liposomes and micelles represent two classes of LNPs that have been developed for medicinal purposes; however, active targeting of LNPs to specific tissues and LNP stability in vivo remain significant challenges. We have exploited the structural characteristics and targeting ability of nucleic acids to address these obstacles. Specifically, we have introduced short nucleic acid targeting species, called aptamers, to the surface of stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs), a subset of liposomes used in siRNA delivery. In this manner, we have actively targeted SNALPs to cancer cells that overexpress the transferrin receptor (TfR). HeLa cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were treated with SNALPs bearing an antiTfR aptamer (C2) that was identified in our lab. C2-conjugated SNALPs showed increased levels of uptake by cells by flow cytometry. More importantly, the enhanced uptake by C2-conjugated SNALPs translated to an increased level of gene knockdown when SNALPs were loaded with anti-EGFP siRNA or anti-Lamin NC siRNA. Expression of EGFP and Lamin NC decreased, respectively. These preliminary studies illustrate that aptamer-conjugated SNALPs can be designed to knock down both endogenous and exogenous genes in cancer cells with high specificity. We have also used nucleic acids to stabilize lipid micelles by introducing short quadruplex forming oligonucleotide sequences at the lipid headgroup. Micelle formation was confirmed via dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and small angle X-ray scattering. Micelle stability was assessed using NMR and by a FRET-based assay in the presence of serum proteins. Quadruplex-stabilized micelles demonstrated enhanced stability suggesting that alterations to oligonucleotide

  20. Enhancement of polymer photovoltaic performances by doping with modified carbon black nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi; He, Zhiqun; Xu, Min; Liang, Chunjun

    2015-08-01

    Low-cost carbon black nanoparticle (CBNP) was chemically modified by grafting with flexible alkyl groups. The modified CBNP (m-CBNP) forms a spider-like cluster with a considerably enhanced solubility, thereby enabling their uniform dispersal into a polymer matrix or active layers of bulk hetero-junction polymer photovoltaic cells, such as a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and (6,6)-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester. The performance of devices containing the m-CBNP was substantially improved. Charge carrier mobility enhancement was found to play a key role, leading to a 30 % improvement in the short-circuit current of the devices.