Science.gov

Sample records for binary interaction classes

  1. Magnetic activity of interacting binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Colin A.

    2017-10-01

    Interacting binaries provide unique parameter regimes, both rapid rotation and tidal distortion, in which to test stellar dynamo theories and study the resulting magnetic activity. Close binaries such as cataclysmic variables (CVs) have been found to differentially rotate, and so can provide testbeds for tidal dissipation efficiency in stellar convective envelopes, with implications for both CV and planet-star evolution. Furthermore, CVs show evidence of preferential emergence of magnetic flux tubes towards the companion star, as well as large, long-lived prominences that form preferentially within the binary geometry. Moreover, RS CVn binaries also show clear magnetic interactions between the two components in the form of coronal X-ray emission. Here, we review several examples of magnetic interactions in different types of close binaries.

  2. Interacting jets from binary protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, G. C.; Lery, T.; O'Sullivan, S.; Spicer, D.; Bacciotti, F.; Rosen, A.

    2008-02-01

    Aims: We investigate potential models that could explain why multiple proto-stellar systems predominantly show single jets. During their formation, stars most frequently produce energetic outflows and jets. However, binary jets have only been observed in a very small number of systems. Methods: We model numerically 3D binary jets for various outflow parameters. We also model the propagation of jets from a specific source, namely L1551 IRS 5, known to have two jets, using recent observations as constraints for simulations with a new MHD code. We examine their morphology and dynamics, and produce synthetic emission maps. Results: We find that the two jets interfere up to the stage where one of them is almost destroyed or engulfed into the second one. We are able to reproduce some of the observational features of L1551 such as the bending of the secondary jet. Conclusions: While the effects of orbital motion are negligible over the jets dynamical timeline, their interaction has significant impact on their morphology. If the jets are not strictly parallel, as in most observed cases, we show that the magnetic field can help the collimation and refocusing of both of the two jets.

  3. Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when

  4. Instabilities in Interacting Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Andrych, K. D.; Antoniuk, K. A.; Baklanov, A. V.; Beringer, P.; Breus, V. V.; Burwitz, V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Cook, L. M.; Cook, M.; Dubovský, P.; Godlowski, W.; Hegedüs, T.; Hoňková, K.; Hric, L.; Jeon, Y.-B.; Juryšek, J.; Kim, C.-H.; Kim, Y.; Kim, Y.-H.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Kusakin, A. V.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Mašek, M.; Mishevskiy, N.; Nelson, R. H.; Oksanen, A.; Parimucha, S.; Park, J.-W.; Petrík, K.; Quiñones, C.; Reinsch, K.; Robertson, J. W.; Sergey, I. M.; Szpanko, M.; Tkachenko, M. G.; Tkachuk, L. G.; Traulsen, I.; Tremko, J.; Tsehmeystrenko, V. S.; Yoon, J.-N.; Zola, S.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.

    2017-07-01

    The types of instability in the interacting binary stars are briefly reviewed. The project “Inter-Longitude Astronomy” is a series of smaller projects on concrete stars or groups of stars. It has no special funds, and is supported from resources and grants of participating organizations, when informal working groups are created. This “ILA” project is in some kind similar and complementary to other projects like WET, CBA, UkrVO, VSOLJ, BRNO, MEDUZA, AstroStatistics, where many of us collaborate. Totally we studied 1900+ variable stars of different types, including newly discovered variables. The characteristic timescale is from seconds to decades and (extrapolating) even more. The monitoring of the first star of our sample AM Her was initiated by Prof. V.P. Tsesevich (1907-1983). Since more than 358 ADS papers were published. In this short review, we present some highlights of our photometric and photo-polarimetric monitoring and mathematical modeling of interacting binary stars of different types: classical (AM Her, QQ Vul, V808 Aur = CSS 081231:071126+440405, FL Cet), asynchronous (BY Cam, V1432 Aql), intermediate (V405 Aql, BG CMi, MU Cam, V1343 Her, FO Aqr, AO Psc, RXJ 2123, 2133, 0636, 0704) polars and magnetic dwarf novae (DO Dra) with 25 timescales corresponding to different physical mechanisms and their combinations (part “Polar”); negative and positive superhumpers in nova-like (TT Ari, MV Lyr, V603 Aql, V795 Her) and many dwarf novae stars (“Superhumper”); eclipsing “non-magnetic” cataclysmic variables(BH Lyn, DW UMa, EM Cyg; PX And); symbiotic systems (“Symbiosis”); super-soft sources (SSS, QR And); spotted (and not spotted) eclipsing variables with (and without) evidence for a current mass transfer (“Eclipser”) with a special emphasis on systems with a direct impact of the stream into the gainer star's atmosphere, which we propose to call “Impactor” (short from “Extreme Direct Impactor”), or V361 Lyr-type stars. Other

  5. Heartbeat Stars: A Class Of Tidally Excited Eccentric Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, Thomas; Thompson, S. E.; Mullally, F.; Everett, M.; Howell, S. B.; Still, M.; Christiansen, J. L.; Rowe, J.; Kurtz, D. W.; Hambleton, K.

    2012-01-01

    We have discovered a class of eccentric binary systems undergoing dynamic tidal distortions and tidally induced pulsations in the Kepler data. Each has a uniquely shaped light curve that is characterized by periodic brightening or variability at time scales of 4-20 days which is frequently accompanied by shorter period oscillations. We can explain the dominant features of the entire class with changing tidal forces that occur in close, eccentric binary systems. In this case the large variety of light curve shapes arises from viewing systems at different angles. A hypothesis that is confirmed with radial velocity measurements that show an eccentric orbit. Prior to the discovery of these 17 new systems, KOI-54 was the only system with direct detection of these dynamic tides and tidally induced oscillations. While significant work remains to include all the physics required to accurately model these systems and begin to understand how tidal effects influence the system, in this presentation we present preliminary fits to the light curves and describe the properties of this class of stars as a whole.

  6. TIDAL INTERACTIONS IN MERGING WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2011-10-20

    The recently discovered system J0651 is the tightest known detached white dwarf (WD) binary. Since it has not yet initiated Roche-lobe overflow, it provides a relatively clean environment for testing our understanding of tidal interactions. I investigate the tidal heating of each WD, parameterized in terms of its tidal Q parameter. Assuming that the heating can be radiated efficiently, the current luminosities are consistent with Q {sub 1} {approx} 7 x 10{sup 10} and Q {sub 2} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 7}, for the He and C/O WDs, respectively. Conversely, if the observed luminosities are merely from the cooling of the WDs, these estimated values of Q represent the upper limits. A large Q {sub 1} for the He WD means its spin velocity will be slower than that expected if it was tidally locked, which, since the binary is eclipsing, may be measurable via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. After one year, gravitational wave emission shifts the time of eclipses by 5.5 s, but tidal interactions cause the orbit to shrink more rapidly, changing the time by up to an additional 0.3 s after a year. Future eclipse timing measurements may therefore infer the degree of tidal locking.

  7. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class

    PubMed Central

    Rovetto, Carlos A.; Concepción, Tomás J.; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system’s behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms. PMID:27548170

  8. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class.

    PubMed

    Rovetto, Carlos A; Concepción, Tomás J; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-08-18

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system's behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms.

  9. Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars.

    PubMed

    Sana, H; de Mink, S E; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Gosset, E; Izzard, R G; Le Bouquin, J-B; Schneider, F R N

    2012-07-27

    The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously measured all relevant binary characteristics in a sample of Galactic massive O stars and quantified the frequency and nature of binary interactions. More than 70% of all massive stars will exchange mass with a companion, leading to a binary merger in one-third of the cases. These numbers greatly exceed previous estimates and imply that binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars, with implications for populations of massive stars and their supernovae.

  10. Tidal interactions of inspiraling compact binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bildsten, Lars; Cutler, Curt

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the tidal interaction in neutron star-neutron star and neutron star-black hole binaries and argue that they will not be tidally locked during the gravitational inspiral. More specifically, we show that, for inspiraling neutron stars of mass greater than about 1.2 solar mass, the shortest possible tidal synchronization time exceeds the gravitational decay time, so that the neutron star cannot be tidally locked prior to tidal disruption, regardless of its internal viscosity. For smaller mass neutron stars, an implausibly large kinematic viscosity - nearly the speed of light times the stellar radius - is required for tidal locking. We also argue that the mass transfer which occurs when the neutron star reaches the tidal radius will be unstable in neutron star-black hole binaries, and the instability will destroy the neutron star in a few orbital periods. The implications of our work for the detection of these sources by LIGO and other gravitational wave observatories and for the gamma-ray burst scenarios of Paczynski (1986, 1991) are discussed.

  11. Tidal interactions of inspiraling compact binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bildsten, Lars; Cutler, Curt

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the tidal interaction in neutron star-neutron star and neutron star-black hole binaries and argue that they will not be tidally locked during the gravitational inspiral. More specifically, we show that, for inspiraling neutron stars of mass greater than about 1.2 solar mass, the shortest possible tidal synchronization time exceeds the gravitational decay time, so that the neutron star cannot be tidally locked prior to tidal disruption, regardless of its internal viscosity. For smaller mass neutron stars, an implausibly large kinematic viscosity - nearly the speed of light times the stellar radius - is required for tidal locking. We also argue that the mass transfer which occurs when the neutron star reaches the tidal radius will be unstable in neutron star-black hole binaries, and the instability will destroy the neutron star in a few orbital periods. The implications of our work for the detection of these sources by LIGO and other gravitational wave observatories and for the gamma-ray burst scenarios of Paczynski (1986, 1991) are discussed.

  12. Ultraviolet observations of interacting binary Be stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, G. J.; Polidan, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Initial results from the analysis of a series of timed, high resolution IUE observations of HR 2142, phi Per, CX Dra, KX An, AU Mon, and TT Hya are presented. The data base for HR 2142 also includes Copernicus U1 and U2 observations. Variable absorption lines, indicative of mass flow in the system, are observed in all objects except phi Per. Evidence was also found of mass outflow in the form of winds and/or discrete components. Variable N V absorption was observed in CX Dra and AU Mon and emission features in KX And and phi Per (C IV only). U1 data reveals the presence of complex structure in the gas stream in HR 2142. These observations are compared with those of Be stars which are not thought to be interacting binaries.

  13. Interacting binary stars - Freaks or rosetta stones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is given to semidetached binaries of the Algol type and to related interacting systems, such as Beta Lyrae and the W Serpentis stars. A brief description is given of observational problems. The basic properties of the Algol variables are satisfactorily explained by means of evolutionary models that assume considerable mass transfer between the components. It is pointed out that ultraviolet spectra obtained with the IUE satellite corroborate the view that the present subgiant secondary component was initially the more massive star and that it has been stripped of a large fraction of its mass so that the deep layers affected by CNO processing are now denuded. It is believed that the present-day 'classical' Algols must have undergone a phase of rapid mass transfer in the past and that Beta Lyrae and the W Serpentis stars are probably closer to that stage than ordinary Algols. Around the accreting star a complex structure is formed, and an induced stellar wind may blow a large part of the transferred matter out of the system.

  14. The White Dwarf Mass in Interacting Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukai, Koji

    We are undertaking a comprehensive study of accreting white dwarfs in two broad types of interacting binaries, cataclysmic variables (CVs) and symbiotic stars, using X-ray and multi-wavelength data. Our goal is to understand the detailed accretion and X-ray emission processes in these binaries, and therefore determine what information can be extracted from X-ray observations of these systems. In paritular, we must measure the current masses of white dwarfs in CVs and symbiotic stars and understand if they gain or lose mass over time. We believe that these are all worthy objectives by themselves, with added interest in the context of Type Ia supernova progenitor models and the apparently diffuse Galactic ridge and bulge X-ray emission. For both these issues, we need surveys with well-understood selection effects to measure the space density of CVs and symbiotic stars, and X-ray surveys will likely play a key role. With these long-term goals in mind, we are undertaking several interlinked projects with overlapping sets of objectives and collaborators. In this proposal, we seek support for a subset of our overall research program, thematically linked to one of the most important parameters in any CVs and symbiotic stars: the white dwarf mass (Mwd). The depth of the gravitational potential of the white dwarf sets the maximum temperature that the accreting plasma can reach; therefore, by measuring the maximum temperature in the X-ray spectra of CVs and symbiotic stars, one can infer Mwd. This method has long been applied to magnetic CVs; we believe that it is also applicable to non-magnetic cases. We propose an empirical confirmation of this method for quiescent dwarf novae, and investigate any systematic uncertainties that may be inherent in this method. We already know that CVs and symbiotic stars with strong hard (>10 keV) X-ray emission harbor massive white dwarfs, and have used this fact to study the population such systems detected in INTEGRAL and Swift BAT

  15. On the formation of Be stars through binary interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2014-11-20

    Be stars are rapidly rotating B-type stars. The origin of their rapid rotation is not certain, but binary interaction remains as a possibility. In this work, we investigate the formation of Be stars resulting from mass transfer in binaries in the Galaxy. We calculate binary evolution with both stars evolving simultaneously and consider different possible mass accretion histories for the accretor. From the calculated results, we obtain the critical mass ratios q {sub cr} that determine the stability of the mass transfer. We also numerically calculate the parameter λ in common envelope evolution and then incorporate both q {sub cr} and λ into the population synthesis calculations. We present the predicted numbers and characteristics of Be stars in binary systems with different types of companions, including helium stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. We find that in Be/neutron star binaries, the Be stars can have a lower mass limit ∼8 M {sub ☉} if they are formed by stable (i.e., without the occurrence of common envelope evolution) and nonconservative mass transfer. We demonstrate that isolated Be stars may originate from both mergers of two main-sequence stars and disrupted Be binaries during the supernova explosions of the primary stars, but mergers seem to play a much more important role. Finally, the fraction of Be stars that have involved binary interactions in all B-type stars can be as high as ∼13%-30%, implying that most Be stars may result from binary interaction.

  16. BINARY-DISK INTERACTION: GAP-OPENING CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Valle, Luciano del; Escala, Andres

    2012-12-10

    We study the interaction of an equal mass binary with an isothermal circumbinary disk motivated by the evidence of the formation of massive black hole binaries surrounded by gas, after a major merger of gas-rich galaxies. We focus on the torques that the binary produces on the disk and how the exchange of angular momentum can drive the gap formation on it. We propose that the angular momentum exchange between the binary and the disk is through the gravitational interaction of the binary and a (tidally formed) global non-axisymmetric perturbation in the disk. Using this interaction, we derive an analytic criterion for the gap formation in the disk that can be expressed either via the characteristic velocities of the binary-disk system or in terms of the structural parameters h/a and M(< r)/M{sub bin}. Using numerical simulations we show that the simulations where the binary opens a gap in the disk and the simulations where the disk does not have a gap are distributed into two well separated regions. Our analytic criterion predicts a shape of the threshold between these two regions that is consistent with our simulations and the other ones in the literature. We propose an analogy between the regime without (with) a gap in the disk and the Type I (Type II) migration that is observed in simulations of planet-disk interaction (extreme mass ratio binary), emphasizing that the interaction that drives the formation of a gap on the disk is different in the regime that we analyze (comparable mass binary).

  17. PatternCoder: A Programming Support Tool for Learning Binary Class Associations and Design Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, J. H.; Cheng, K. F.; Haddow, J.

    2009-01-01

    PatternCoder is a software tool to aid student understanding of class associations. It has a wizard-based interface which allows students to select an appropriate binary class association or design pattern for a given problem. Java code is then generated which allows students to explore the way in which the class associations are implemented in a…

  18. EVERY INTERACTING DOUBLE WHITE DWARF BINARY MAY MERGE

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Ken J.

    2015-05-20

    Interacting double white dwarf (WD) binaries can give rise to a wide variety of astrophysical outcomes ranging from faint thermonuclear and Type Ia supernovae to the formation of neutron stars and stably accreting AM Canum Venaticorum systems. One key factor affecting the final outcome is whether mass transfer remains dynamically stable or instead diverges, leading to the tidal disruption of the donor and the merger of the binary. It is typically thought that for low ratios of the donor mass to the accretor mass, mass transfer remains stable, especially if accretion occurs via a disk. In this Letter, we examine low mass ratio double WD binaries and find that the initial phase of hydrogen-rich mass transfer leads to a classical nova-like outburst on the accretor. Dynamical friction within the expanding nova shell shrinks the orbit and causes the mass transfer rate to increase dramatically above the accretor's Eddington limit, possibly resulting in a binary merger. If the binary survives the first hydrogen-rich nova outbursts, dynamical friction within the subsequent helium-powered nova shells pushes the system even more strongly toward merger. While further calculations are necessary to confirm this outcome for the entire range of binaries previously thought to be dynamically stable, it appears likely that most, if not all, interacting double WD binaries will merge during the course of their evolution.

  19. Every Interacting Double White Dwarf Binary May Merge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ken J.

    2015-05-01

    Interacting double white dwarf (WD) binaries can give rise to a wide variety of astrophysical outcomes ranging from faint thermonuclear and Type Ia supernovae to the formation of neutron stars and stably accreting AM Canum Venaticorum systems. One key factor affecting the final outcome is whether mass transfer remains dynamically stable or instead diverges, leading to the tidal disruption of the donor and the merger of the binary. It is typically thought that for low ratios of the donor mass to the accretor mass, mass transfer remains stable, especially if accretion occurs via a disk. In this Letter, we examine low mass ratio double WD binaries and find that the initial phase of hydrogen-rich mass transfer leads to a classical nova-like outburst on the accretor. Dynamical friction within the expanding nova shell shrinks the orbit and causes the mass transfer rate to increase dramatically above the accretor's Eddington limit, possibly resulting in a binary merger. If the binary survives the first hydrogen-rich nova outbursts, dynamical friction within the subsequent helium-powered nova shells pushes the system even more strongly toward merger. While further calculations are necessary to confirm this outcome for the entire range of binaries previously thought to be dynamically stable, it appears likely that most, if not all, interacting double WD binaries will merge during the course of their evolution.

  20. Binary-disk interaction. II. Gap-opening criteria for unequal-mass binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Del Valle, Luciano; Escala, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    We study the interaction of an unequal-mass binary with an isothermal circumbinary disk, motivated by the theoretical and observational evidence that after a major merger of gas-rich galaxies, a massive gaseous disk with a supermassive black hole binary will be formed in the nuclear region. We focus on the gravitational torques that the binary exerts on the disk and how these torques can drive the formation of a gap in the disk. This exchange of angular momentum between the binary and the disk is mainly driven by the gravitational interaction between the binary and a strong nonaxisymmetric density perturbation that is produced in the disk, in response to the presence of the binary. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics numerical simulations, we test two gap-opening criteria, one that assumes the geometry of the density perturbation is an ellipsoid/thick spiral and another that assumes a flat spiral geometry for the density perturbation. We find that the flat spiral gap-opening criterion successfully predicts which simulations will have a gap in the disk and which will not. We also study the limiting cases predicted by the gap-opening criteria. Since the viscosity in our simulations is considerably smaller than the expected value in the nuclear regions of gas-rich merging galaxies, we conclude that in such environments the formation of a circumbinary gap is unlikely.

  1. Making Large Classes More Interactive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenner, John

    2000-01-01

    Describes the method of using prompts to allow students to have more "voice" in a large class. The prompt assignment requires students to respond anonymously to a statement that concerns the chapter being discussed in the class. Discusses how the Internet has allowed more freedom with the prompts. Puts forth some student responses to the…

  2. Interactions in Massive Colliding Wind Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M.

    2012-01-01

    The most massive stars (M> 60 Solar Mass) play crucial roles in altering the chemical and thermodynamic properties of their host galaxies. Stellar mass is the fundamental stellar parameter that determines their ancillary properties and which ultimately determines the fate of these stars and their influence on their galactic environs. Unfortunately, stellar mass becomes observationally and theoretically less well constrained as it increases. Theory becomes uncertain mostly because very massive stars are prone to strong, variable mass loss which is difficult to model. Observational constraints are uncertain too. Massive stars are rare, and massive binary stars (needed for dynamical determination of mass) are rarer still: and of these systems only a fraction have suitably high orbital inclinations for direct photometric and spectroscopic radial-velocity analysis. Even in the small number of cases in which a high-inclination binary near the upper mass limit can be identified, rotational broadening and contamination of spectral line features from thick circumstellar material (either natal clouds or produced by strong stellar wind driven mass loss from one or both of he stellar components) biases the analysis. In the wilds of the upper HR diagram, we're often left with indirect and circumstantial means of determining mass, a rather unsatisfactory state of affairs.

  3. Orbital evolution of eccentric interacting binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepinsky, Jeremy Francis

    2009-06-01

    We provide a comprehensive description of the long-term (secular) orbital evolution of eccentric interacting binary systems. The evolution of circular interacting binary systems is a well studied phenomenon, but observations have shown the existence of a small but significant number of eccentric interacting binary systems. We begin by extending the commonly accepted Roche formalism for binary interacting to include eccentric orbits and asynchronously rotating stars. Using this, we calculate orbital trajectories for particles ejected from a Roche lobe-filling donor star at the periastron of the eccentric orbit. These particles admit of three possible trajectories: direct impact onto the secondary star, self accretion back onto the donor star, and the formation of a disk about the accretor. We provide a proscription for determining a priorithe trajectory of the particle given the initial system parameters, as well as describe the secular evolution of the system for each of the three cases described above. We find that these orbital evolution timescales are comparable to the mass transfer timescale which can be significantly longer than expected from the literature. Furthermore, while it is commonly assumed that any mass transfer interactions will act to circularize the orbit, we find that there are regimes of parameter space where mass transfer can cause an increase in eccentricity, and can do so at a timescale comparable to the circularization timescale created by tidal interactions. The formalism presented here can be incorporated into binary evolution and population synthesis models to create a self-consistent treatment of mass transfer in eccentric binaries.

  4. The binary protein-protein interaction landscape of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopala, Seesandra V.; Vlasblom, James; Arnold, Roland; Franca-Koh, Jonathan; Pakala, Suman B.; Phanse, Sadhna; Ceol, Arnaud; Häuser, Roman; Siszler, Gabriella; Wuchty, Stefan; Emili, Andrew; Babu, Mohan; Aloy, Patrick; Pieper, Rembert; Uetz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Efforts to map the Escherichia coli interactome have identified several hundred macromolecular complexes, but direct binary protein-protein interactions (PPIs) have not been surveyed on a large scale. Here we performed yeast two-hybrid screens of 3,305 baits against 3,606 preys (~70% of the E. coli proteome) in duplicate to generate a map of 2,234 interactions, approximately doubling the number of known binary PPIs in E. coli. Integration of binary PPIs and genetic interactions revealed functional dependencies among components involved in cellular processes, including envelope integrity, flagellum assembly and protein quality control. Many of the binary interactions that could be mapped within multi-protein complexes were informative regarding internal topology and indicated that interactions within complexes are significantly more conserved than those interactions connecting different complexes. This resource will be useful for inferring bacterial gene function and provides a draft reference of the basic physical wiring network of this evolutionarily significant model microbe. PMID:24561554

  5. Binary interactions and multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dengkai; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang

    2017-03-01

    Globular clusters (GCs) have multiple stellar populations, which show star-to-star abundance variations and multiple sequences (or spreads) in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams. It is explained by multiple generations of star-formation in GCs. However, the observed evidence of ongoing star-formation was not found within any clusters. Here we present a binary interactions scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs, where GC stars were born in a single burst of star formation, but some of them are members of binary systems. Binary interactions can produce peculiar stars, e.g. the merged stars and the accretor stars. They are more massive than normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage, and they are rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation. Rotationally induced mixing can cause the variations of their surface chemical composition. This results in the single-generation GCs showing abundance anomalies.

  6. Binary interactions and multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dengkai

    2015-08-01

    Observations revealed the presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We present a scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the abundance anomalous stars observed in GCs are the merged stars and the accretor stars produced by binary interactions, which are rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation. The stellar population with binaries can reproduce two important observational evidences of multiple stellar populations, the Na-O anticorrelation and the multiple sequences in HR diagram. This suggests that binary interactions may be a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs.

  7. Triple interactions involving close binaries in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmillan, S. L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The interaction of a circularized tidal binary system with a third star is studied statistically through the results of about 70,000 numerical scattering experiments. The stars involved are taken to be identical polytropes, with radii equal to one-third of the initial binary separation. The effects of nonzero stellar radii are included by calculating an approximation to the energy dissipated by tidal interactions and estimating the energy lost through physical collisions. These are then used to modify the interaction cross sections obtained in the point-mass approximation. It is found that, for a wide range of assumptions about the details of the triple interactions and the stars' structure, the net rate at which tidal binaries heat the stellar system is substantially reduced (by as much as a factor of 20) below that obtained when the binaries are treated simply as point masses. The most likely outcome of a triple encounter is the coalescence of two, or all three, of the stars involved.

  8. Spatiotemporal binary interaction and designer quasi-particle condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Radha; Pattu Sakthi, Vinayagam; Hyun Jong, Shin; Kuppuswamy, Porsezian

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a new integrable model to investigate the dynamics of two component quasi-particle condensates with spatiotemporal interaction strengths. We derive the associated Lax pair of the coupled Gross—Pitaevskii (GP) equation and construct matter wave solitons. We show that the spatiotemporal binary interaction strengths not only facilitate the stabilization of the condensates, but also enables one to fabricate condensates with desirable densities, geometries, and properties, leading to the so-called “designer quasi-particle condensates”.

  9. Dielectric Interactions in a Nematic Binary Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spears, Tom; Garg, Shila

    2002-03-01

    Phase transition investigations of mixtures of nematic liquid crystal materials with dissimilar dielectric anisotropies have shown the existence of an induced phase that is not exhibited by either of the systems. In this study, a phase diagram was developed for molar mixtures of nematic liquid crystals of 5CB and MBBA which for certain concentrations display an induced smectic B phase [1]. In order to understand the interaction of the two systems, dielectric permittivities ɛ_|| and ɛ_⊥ were measured for mixtures of various concentrations. In addition, the molecules were modeled and analyzed using a Silicon Graphics O2 workstation running the software Spartan 5.1. Different surfaces were calculated for a geometrically optimized molecule. Our investigations suggest strong interactions between the two systems. [1] A. Christine Rauch, Shila Garg and D. T. Jacobs, to appear in Journal of Chemical Physics (Feb. 2002). This research was supported by NSF DMR 9987850 and 9704579.

  10. Bubble-Turbulence Interaction in Binary Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    F, Battista; M, Froio; F, Picano; P, Gualtieri; M, Casciola C.

    2011-12-01

    Multiphase flows represent a central issue in many natural, biological and industrial fields. For instance, liquid jets vaporization, petroleum refining and boiling, emulsions in pharmaceutical applications, are all characterized by a disperse phase, such as solid particles or liquid bubbles, which evolve in a Newtonian carrier fluid. Features such as the global evaporation rates of liquid fuels in air or the homogeneity of the emulsions are controlled by the finest interaction details occurring between the two phases. In this paper we study the rising motion of a bubble induced by buoyancy in a viscous fluid. Usually this issue is tackled by tracking the bubble interface by means of sharp interface methods. However this approach requires "ad hoc" techniques to describe changes in the topological features of the deforming interface and to enforce the mass preservation. Here the problem is addressed by using a different philosophy based on a diffuse interface method, that allows a straightforward analysis of complex phenomena such as bubbles coalescence and break up without any numerical expedient. The model we adopt, funded on a solid thermodynamical and physical base, relies on the Cahn-Hilliard equation for the disperse phase, see Cahn & Hilliard (1958) and Elliott & Songmu (1986).

  11. Looking for Interacting Binaries in Old Open Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindley, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    We requested a 12 ks observation of the old open cluster NGC7142 with the aim to investigate the population of interacting binaries, and compare the properties with those of interacting binaries in other old open clusters. Unfortunately, the observation suffered from long periods of background flaring, and as a result the effective exposure time was shortened to only approximately 25% of the planned exposure. The sensitivity to detect sources in the cluster was therefore much reduced, hampering a useful comparison with other clusters observed with Chandra and XMM. We detect 5 sources (all less than 300 counts) in the full field of view of the detectors; based on the large separations from the cluster center, we expect that at least 3-4 are not associated with the cluster. A brief paper that reports the results is in preparation.

  12. SMA OBSERVATIONS OF CLASS 0 PROTOSTARS: A HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION SURVEY OF PROTOSTELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M.; Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L.; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas; Jorgensen, Jes K.; Lee, Chin-Fei; Foster, Jonathan B.; Pineda, Jaime E. E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu

    2013-05-10

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 {mu}m dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance < 500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in the survey is 2.''5, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 AU to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64 {+-} 0.08 and 0.91 {+-} 0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are approximately two times higher than the values found in the binary surveys toward Class I young stellar objects, and approximately three (for MF) and four (for CSF) times larger than the values found among main-sequence stars, with a similar range of separations. Furthermore, the observed fraction of high-order multiple systems to binary systems in Class 0 protostars (0.50 {+-} 0.09) is also larger than the fractions found in Class I young stellar objects (0.31 {+-} 0.07) and main-sequence stars ({<=}0.2). These results suggest that binary properties evolve as protostars evolve, as predicted by numerical simulations. The distribution of separations for Class 0 protostellar binary/multiple systems shows a general trend in which CSF increases with decreasing companion separation. We find that 67% {+-} 8% of the protobinary systems have circumstellar mass ratios below 0.5, implying that unequal-mass systems are preferred in the process of binary star formation. We suggest an empirical sequential fragmentation picture for binary star formation, based on this work and

  13. Web page classification based on a binary hierarchical classifier for multi-class support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cunhe; Wang, Guangqing

    2013-03-01

    Web page classification is one of the essential techniques for Web mining. This paper proposes a binary hierarchical classifier for multi-class support vector machines for web page classification. This method applies truncated singular value decomposition on the training data that reduces its dimension and the noise data. After the truncated singular value decomposition on the training data, it uses the improved k-means algorithm design the binary hierarchical structure, the improved k-means algorithm makes the separability of one macro-class is the smallest, makes the separability of two macro-classes is the largest. The result of experiment performed on the training datasets shows that this algorithm can enhance precision of web page classification.

  14. The Pseudosynchronization of Binary Stars Undergoing Strong Tidal Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Mara K.; Thompson, Susan E.; Mullally, Fergal; Fuller, Jim; Shporer, Avi; Hambleton, Kelly

    2017-09-01

    Eccentric binaries known as heartbeat stars experience strong dynamical tides as the stars pass through periastron, providing a laboratory to study tidal interactions. We measure the rotation periods of 24 heartbeat systems, using the Kepler light curves to identify rotation peaks in the Fourier transform. Where possible, we compare the rotation period to the pseudosynchronization period derived by Hut. Few of our heartbeat stars are pseudosynchronized with the orbital period. For four systems, we were able to identify two sets of rotation peaks, which we interpret as the rotation from both stars in the binary. Most stars in our sample have rotation rates larger than the pseudosynchronization period while a single target rotates much faster than this rate. The majority of the systems have a rotation period that is approximately \\tfrac{3}{2} times the pseudosynchronization period, suggesting that other physical mechanisms strongly influence the star’s evolution.

  15. Class Size and Interaction in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orellana, Anymir

    2006-01-01

    This article presents findings of a study conducted to determine instructors' perceptions of optimal class sizes for online courses with different levels of interaction. Implications for research and practice are also presented. A Web-based survey method was employed. Online courses studied were those taught sometime in the last 5 years by a…

  16. Evaluation of removable statistical interaction for binary traits

    PubMed Central

    Satagopan, Jaya M.; Elston, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with evaluating whether an interaction between two sets of risk factors for a binary trait is removable and fitting a parsimonious additive model using a suitable link function to estimate the disease odds (on the natural logarithm scale) when an interaction is removable. Statisticians define the term “interaction” as a departure from additivity in a linear model on a specific scale on which the data are measured. Certain interactions may be eliminated via a transformation of the outcome such that the relationship between the risk factors and the outcome is additive on the transformed scale. Such interactions are known as removable interactions. We develop a novel test statistic for detecting the presence a removable interaction in case-control studies. We consider the Guerrero and Johnson family of transformations and show that this family constitutes an appropriate link function for fitting an additive model when an interaction is removable. We use simulation studies to examine the type I error and power of the proposed test and to show that an additive model based on the Guerrero and Johnson link function leads to more precise estimates of the disease odds parameters and a better fit when an interaction is removable. The proposed test and use of the transformation are illustrated using case-control data from three published studies. Finally, we indicate how one can check that, after transformation, no further interaction is significant. PMID:23018341

  17. Tidal interaction in binary-black-hole inspiral.

    PubMed

    Price, R H; Whelan, J T

    2001-12-03

    Tidal torque may lead to important effects in the strong field interaction at the end point of the inspiral of two rapidly rotating black holes. We point out here that in such a case the exchange of spin and orbital angular momentum may significantly affect the energy and waveform of late stage gravitational waves, and may play an important role in the shedding of excess angular momentum. We argue that numerical relativity, the only tool for determining the importance of tidal torque, should be more specifically focused on binary configurations with aligned, large, angular momenta.

  18. Coordinated observations of interacting peculiar red giant binaries, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ake, T.

    1995-01-01

    IUE Observations were begun for a two-year program to monitor the UV variability of three interacting peculiar red giant (PRG) binaries, HD 59643 (C6,s) HD 35155 (S3/2), and HR 1105 (S3.5/2.5). All of these systems were suspected to involve accretion of material from the PRG to a white-dwarf secondary, based mainly on previous IUE investigations. From our earlier surveys of PRG's, they were primary candidates to test the hypothesis that Tc-poor PRG's are formed as a result of mass transfer from a secondary component rather than from internal thermal pulsing while on the asymptotic red giant branch.

  19. Observing Mass Transfer in a Neglected Interacting Binary Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Phillip A.

    2011-05-01

    The eclipsing and interacting binary star R Arae is a very interesting system that has unfortunately been neglected. The few spectroscopic studies of the system report badly blended absorption lines that indicate mass transfer, but until now there has been no orbital period study to conclusively show a real period change resulting from mass transfer. In this study, new data are combined with those found in the available literature and in the database of the American Association of Variable Star Observers to construct the first ephemeris curve for R Ara, which spans more than a century since its discovery in 1894. Average orbital period change and conservative mass transfer rates are presented.

  20. Optically-thick, highly-variable plasma in interacting binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Mccluskey, G. E.; Parsons, S. B.

    1984-01-01

    The interacting binaries HD 207739 and R Arae were observed by IUE. The ultraviolet spectrum of HD 207739 undergoes complex variations in both the lines and the continuum. Considerable circumstellar matter is present; R Arae (B9p + ?) exhibits SiIV, CIV and even NV absorption features. Both the lines and continuum are variable. An unusual secondary eclipse which is deeper in the ultraviolet than in the visible is present near phase 0.6. The CII line has a P cygni profile with emission present at all observed phases. These systems are probably in a relatively short-lived phase of evolution which is not often observed.

  1. Marginal models for correlated binary responses with multiple classes and multiple levels of nesting.

    PubMed

    Qaqish, B F; Liang, K Y

    1992-09-01

    A model for correlated binary data is presented. Marginal probabilities and odds ratios are allowed to have general regression structures that include multiple classes and multiple levels of nesting. Estimation is done through the generalized estimating equations approach of Liang and Zeger (1986, Biometrika 73, 13-22). They are contrasted with conditional models and recommendations for choosing between the two are given. Examples from genetic epidemiology are presented.

  2. A CLASS OF ECCENTRIC BINARIES WITH DYNAMIC TIDAL DISTORTIONS DISCOVERED WITH KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Susan E.; Barclay, Thomas; Howell, Steve B.; Still, Martin; Ibrahim, Khadeejah A.; Everett, Mark; Mullally, Fergal; Rowe, Jason; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Kurtz, Donald W.; Hambleton, Kelly

    2012-07-01

    We have discovered a class of eccentric binary systems within the Kepler data archive that have dynamic tidal distortions and tidally induced pulsations. Each has a uniquely shaped light curve that is characterized by periodic brightening or variability at timescales of 4-20 days, frequently accompanied by shorter period oscillations. We can explain the dominant features of the entire class with orbitally varying tidal forces that occur in close, eccentric binary systems. The large variety of light curve shapes arises from viewing systems at different angles. This hypothesis is supported by spectroscopic radial velocity measurements for five systems, each showing evidence of being in an eccentric binary system. Prior to the discovery of these 17 new systems, only four stars, where KOI-54 is the best example, were known to have evidence of these dynamic tides and tidally induced oscillations. We perform preliminary fits to the light curves and radial velocity data, present the overall properties of this class, and discuss the work required to accurately model these systems.

  3. Interactions of X-ray Binaries with Their Surrounding Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servillat, Mathieu; Chaty, S.; Coleiro, A.; Tang, S.; Grindlay, J. E.; Los, E.

    2013-04-01

    We can observe the interactions of high mass X-ray binaries with their surrounding material in two complementary ways: variability over long time scales, and direct infrared observation of dust/gas. This gives unprecedented clues on the formation and evolution of those systems. Using Herschel infrared observations of high mass X-ray binaries and of ultra-luminous X-ray sources, we aim to detect and characterize the surrounding material. In the case of ultra-luminous X-ray sources, due to the enormous amount of energy radiated, strong interactions with their environment are expected, particularly if the emission is not beamed and if they host an intermediate mass black hole. This provides a unique test for the existence of such objects. The Digital Access to a Sky Century at Harvard (DASCH) is a project to digitize and analyze the scientific data contained in the 530 000 Harvard College Observatory plates taken between the 1880s and 1990s, which is a unique resource for studying temporal variations in the universe on 10-100 yr timescales. The Be star SAO 49275 shows significant slow variability of 1 magnitude on time scales 10-50 years. This variability seems connected to the formation and disappearance of the decretion disk of the Be star, maybe triggered by the presence of a compact object companion, possibly a white dwarf.

  4. Constraining the disk masses of the class I binary protostar GV Tau

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, Patrick D.; Eisner, Josh A.

    2014-08-10

    We present new spatially resolved 1.3 mm imaging with CARMA of the GV Tau system. GV Tau is a Class I binary protostar system in the Taurus Molecular Cloud, the components of which are separated by 1.''2. Each protostar is surrounded by a protoplanetary disk, and the pair may be surrounded by a circumbinary envelope. We analyze the data using detailed radiative transfer modeling of the system. We create synthetic protostar model spectra, images, and visibilities and compare them with CARMA 1.3 mm visibilities, a Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared scattered light image, and broadband spectral energy distributions from the literature to study the disk masses and geometries of the GV Tau disks. We show that the protoplanetary disks around GV Tau fall near the lower end of estimates of the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, and may have just enough mass to form giant planets. When added to the sample of Class I protostars from Eisner, we confirm that Class I protostars are on average more massive than their Class II counterparts. This suggests that substantial dust grain processing occurs between the Class I and Class II stages, and may help to explain why the Class II protostars do not appear to have, on average, enough mass in their disks to form giant planets.

  5. Coordinated observations of interacting peculiar red giant binaries, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ake, T.

    1995-01-01

    IUE and H alpha observations continued on a two-year program to monitor the UV variability of three interacting peculiar red giant (PRG) binaries, HD 59643 (C6,s), HD 35155 (S3/2), and HR 1105 (S3.5/2.5). All of these systems were suspected to involve accretion of material from the PRG to a white-dwarf secondary, based mainly on previous IUE investigations. They were primary candidates from earlier surveys of PRG's to test the hypothesis that the Tc-poor PRG's are formed as a result of mass transfer from a secondary component rather than from internal thermal pulsing while on the asymptotic red giant branch.

  6. Mass flow in the interacting binary TX Ursae Majoris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluskey, G. E., Jr.; Mccluskey, C. P. S.; Kondo, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-two far-ultraviolet and 23 near-ultraviolet high resolution IUE spectra of the interactive Algol-type binary TX Ursae Majoris (B8 V + F-K III-IV) were analyzed in order to determine the nature of the mass flow occurring in this system. Absorption features due to high-temperature ions of Si IV, C IV, and N V are always present. The resonance lines of Al III, Fe II, Mg II and Si IV show strong phase and secular variations indicative of gas streaming and circumstellar/circumbinary material. Radial velocities as high as 500 to 600 km/sec are present. The gas flow is particularly prominent in 1985 between phases 0.7 and 0.0. The system is more active than U Sagittae and as active as U Cephei.

  7. OVRO N2H+ Observations of Class 0 Protostars: Constraints on the Formation of Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuepeng; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    We present the results of an interferometric study of the N2H+ (1-0) emission from nine nearby, isolated, low-mass protostellar cores, using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) millimeter array. The main goal of this study is the kinematic characterization of the cores in terms of rotation, turbulence, and fragmentation. Eight of the nine objects have compact N2H+ cores with FWHM radii of 1200-3500 AU, spatially coinciding with the thermal dust continuum emission. The one more evolved (Class I) object in the sample (CB 188) shows only faint and extended N2H+ emission. The mean N2H+ line width was found to be 0.37 km s-1. Estimated virial masses range from 0.3 to 1.2 Msolar. We find that thermal and turbulent energy support are about equally important in these cores, while rotational support is negligible. The measured velocity gradients across the cores range from 6 to 24 km s-1 pc-1. Assuming these gradients are produced by bulk rotation, we find that the specific angular momenta of the observed Class 0 protostellar cores are intermediate between those of dense (prestellar) molecular cloud cores and the orbital angular momenta of wide pre-main-sequence (PMS) binary systems. There appears to be no evolution (decrease) of angular momentum from the smallest prestellar cores via protostellar cores to wide PMS binary systems. In the context that most protostellar cores are assumed to fragment and form binary stars, this means that most of the angular momentum contained in the collapse region is transformed into orbital angular momentum of the resulting stellar binary systems.

  8. Four classes of interactions for evolutionary games.

    PubMed

    Szabó, György; Bodó, Kinga S; Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-08-01

    The symmetric four-strategy games are decomposed into a linear combination of 16 basis games represented by orthogonal matrices. Among these basis games four classes can be distinguished as it is already found for the three-strategy games. The games with self-dependent (cross-dependent) payoffs are characterized by matrices consisting of uniform rows (columns). Six of 16 basis games describe coordination-type interactions among the strategy pairs and three basis games span the parameter space of the cyclic components that are analogous to the rock-paper-scissors games. In the absence of cyclic components the game is a potential game and the potential matrix is evaluated. The main features of the four classes of games are discussed separately and we illustrate some characteristic strategy distributions on a square lattice in the low noise limit if logit rule controls the strategy evolution. Analysis of the general properties indicates similar types of interactions at larger number of strategies for the symmetric matrix games.

  9. Four classes of interactions for evolutionary games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, György; Bodó, Kinga S.; Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-08-01

    The symmetric four-strategy games are decomposed into a linear combination of 16 basis games represented by orthogonal matrices. Among these basis games four classes can be distinguished as it is already found for the three-strategy games. The games with self-dependent (cross-dependent) payoffs are characterized by matrices consisting of uniform rows (columns). Six of 16 basis games describe coordination-type interactions among the strategy pairs and three basis games span the parameter space of the cyclic components that are analogous to the rock-paper-scissors games. In the absence of cyclic components the game is a potential game and the potential matrix is evaluated. The main features of the four classes of games are discussed separately and we illustrate some characteristic strategy distributions on a square lattice in the low noise limit if logit rule controls the strategy evolution. Analysis of the general properties indicates similar types of interactions at larger number of strategies for the symmetric matrix games.

  10. A NEW CLASS OF NASCENT ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH EXTREME MASS RATIOS

    SciTech Connect

    Moe, Maxwell; Stefano, Rosanne Di

    2015-03-10

    Early B-type main-sequence (MS) stars (M {sub 1} ≈ 5-16 M {sub ☉}) with closely orbiting low-mass stellar companions (q = M {sub 2}/M {sub 1} < 0.25) can evolve to produce Type Ia supernovae, low-mass X-ray binaries, and millisecond pulsars. However, the formation mechanism and intrinsic frequency of such close extreme mass-ratio binaries have been debated, especially considering none have hitherto been detected. Utilizing observations of the Large Magellanic Cloud galaxy conducted by the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment, we have discovered a new class of eclipsing binaries in which a luminous B-type MS star irradiates a closely orbiting low-mass pre-MS companion that has not yet fully formed. The primordial pre-MS companions have large radii and discernibly reflect much of the light they intercept from the B-type MS primaries (ΔI {sub refl} ≈ 0.02-0.14 mag). For the 18 definitive MS + pre-MS eclipsing binaries in our sample with good model fits to the observed light-curves, we measure short orbital periods P = 3.0-8.5 days, young ages τ ≈ 0.6-8 Myr, and small secondary masses M {sub 2} ≈ 0.8-2.4 M {sub ☉} (q ≈ 0.07-0.36). The majority of these nascent eclipsing binaries are still associated with stellar nurseries, e.g., the system with the deepest eclipse ΔI {sub 1} = 2.8 mag and youngest age τ = 0.6 ± 0.4 Myr is embedded in the bright H II region 30 Doradus. After correcting for selection effects, we find that (2.0 ± 0.6)% of B-type MS stars have companions with short orbital periods P = 3.0-8.5 days and extreme mass ratios q ≈ 0.06-0.25. This is ≈10 times greater than that observed for solar-type MS primaries. We discuss how these new eclipsing binaries provide invaluable insights, diagnostics, and challenges for the formation and evolution of stars, binaries, and H II regions.

  11. Distinguishing boson stars from black holes and neutron stars from tidal interactions in inspiraling binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sennett, Noah; Hinderer, Tanja; Steinhoff, Jan; Buonanno, Alessandra; Ossokine, Serguei

    2017-07-01

    Binary systems containing boson stars—self-gravitating configurations of a complex scalar field—can potentially mimic black holes or neutron stars as gravitational-wave sources. We investigate the extent to which tidal effects in the gravitational-wave signal can be used to discriminate between these standard sources and boson stars. We consider spherically symmetric boson stars within two classes of scalar self-interactions: an effective-field-theoretically motivated quartic potential and a solitonic potential constructed to produce very compact stars. We compute the tidal deformability parameter characterizing the dominant tidal imprint in the gravitational-wave signals for a large span of the parameter space of each boson star model, covering the entire space in the quartic case, and an extensive portion of interest in the solitonic case. We find that the tidal deformability for boson stars with a quartic self-interaction is bounded below by Λmin≈280 and for those with a solitonic interaction by Λmin≈1.3 . We summarize our results as ready-to-use fits for practical applications. Employing a Fisher matrix analysis, we estimate the precision with which Advanced LIGO and third-generation detectors can measure these tidal parameters using the inspiral portion of the signal. We discuss a novel strategy to improve the distinguishability between black holes/neutrons stars and boson stars by combining tidal deformability measurements of each compact object in a binary system, thereby eliminating the scaling ambiguities in each boson star model. Our analysis shows that current-generation detectors can potentially distinguish boson stars with quartic potentials from black holes, as well as from neutron-star binaries if they have either a large total mass or a large (asymmetric) mass ratio. Discriminating solitonic boson stars from black holes using only tidal effects during the inspiral will be difficult with Advanced LIGO, but third-generation detectors should

  12. Nested partially latent class models for dependent binary data; estimating disease etiology.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhenke; Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Zeger, Scott L

    2017-04-01

    The Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study seeks to use modern measurement technology to infer the causes of pneumonia for which gold-standard evidence is unavailable. Based on case-control data, the article describes a latent variable model designed to infer the etiology distribution for the population of cases, and for an individual case given her measurements. We assume each observation is drawn from a mixture model for which each component represents one disease class. The model conisidered here addresses a major limitation of the traditional latent class approach by taking account of residual dependence among multivariate binary outcomes given disease class, hence reducing estimation bias, retaining efficiency and offering more valid inference. Such "local dependence" on each subject is induced in the model by nesting latent subclasses within each disease class. Measurement precision and covariation can be estimated using the control sample for whom the class is known. In a Bayesian framework, we use stick-breaking priors on the subclass indicators for model-averaged inference across different numbers of subclasses. Assessment of model fit and individual diagnosis are done using posterior samples drawn by Gibbs sampling. We demonstrate the utility of the method on simulated and on the motivating PERCH data. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. TOXICOKINETIC INTERACTIONS AND SURVIVAL OF HYALELLA AZTECA EXPOSED TO BINARY MIXTURES OF CHLORPYRIFOS, DIELDRIN, AND METHYL MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical mixture interactions of chlorpyrifos, dieldrin, and methyl mercury were evaluated in Hyalella azteca. Survival of adult and juvenile organisms was evaluated following exposure to individual chemicals and in binary combinations. Binary interactions of the model chemicals...

  14. Self-organization in a system of binary strings with spatial interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banzhaf, W.; Dittrich, P.; Eller, B.

    1999-01-01

    We consider an artificial reaction system whose components are binary strings. Upon encounter, two binary strings produce a third string which competes for storage space with the originators. String types or species can only survive when produced in sufficient numbers. Spatial interactions through introduction of a topology and rules for distance-dependent reactions are discussed. We observe various kinds of survival strategies of binary strings.

  15. Interacting Binary Star Research at the Kutztown University Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Phillip A.

    2012-05-01

    The Kutztown University Observatory (KUO) is undergoing a transformation as is being used, once again, for quality photometric research. Built in 1968, KUO originally housed a 0.46-meter modified Cassegrain optical telescope, manufactured by Tinsley Laboratories and equipped with an EMI 6256 SA photomultiplier and a strip-chart recorder. This equipment produced professional results throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In 2010, KUO added a research-grade CCD camera (3072 x 2048, 9-micron pixels) and UBVRI filters for use with the Tinsley telescope. Discussed here are several projects, ranging from the photoelectric work done in the 1970s to the new CCD light curves for the interacting Algol-type binaries Y Piscium, BO Monocerotis, and RW Geminorum. The latter works represent some of the first CCD investigations at KUO, but they also represent the last research using the aged Tinsley instrument. In 2012, KUO is replacing the original telescope with a new 0.61-meter Ritchey-Cretein optical telescope and is renewing and expanding its capabilities in photometric research.

  16. Interacting binaries W Serpentids and double periodic variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennickent, R. E.; Otero, S.; Kołaczkowski, Z.

    2016-01-01

    W Serpentids and double periodic variables (DPVs) are candidates for close interacting binaries in a non-conservative evolutionary stage; while W Serpentids are defined by high-excitation ultraviolet emission lines present during most orbital phases, and by usually showing variable orbital periods, DPVs are characterized by a long photometric cycle lasting roughly 33 times the (practically constant) orbital period. We report the discovery of seven new Galactic DPVs, increasing the number of known DPVs in our Galaxy by 50 per cent. We find that DPVs are tangential-impact systems, i.e. their primaries have radii barely larger than the critical Lubow-Shu radius. These systems are expected to show transient discs, but we find that they host stable discs with radii smaller than the tidal radius. Among tangential-impact systems including DPVs and semi-detached Algols, only DPVs have primaries with masses between 7 and 10 M⊙. We find that DPVs are in a Case-B mass transfer stage with donor masses between 1 and 2 M⊙ and with primaries resembling Be stars. W Serpentids are impact and non-impact systems, their discs extend until the last non-intersecting orbit and show a larger range of stellar mass and mass ratio than DPVs. Infrared photometry reveals significant colour excesses in many DPVs and W Serpentids, usually larger for the latter ones, suggesting variable amounts of circumstellar matter.

  17. AM CVn Stars: Structure and Evolution of Ultra-Short Period Interacting Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froning, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This is the final report of a FUSE program to study the physics of accretion and outflows in ultra-compact, helium dominated, disk-accreting binaries. With FUSE, we observed the AM CVn binary V803 Cen, which is one of only two AM CVn systems observed by FUSE to date. V803 Cen is a short-period interacting binary in which a hydrogen-deficient white dwarf transfers mass to another white dwarf via a hot, steady-state accretion disk. Unlike other cataclysmic variables (CVs), AM CVn stars have undergone double common envelope evolution (one for each white dwarf in the binary) and so probe an alternate route of evolution in binary stars. Our goals in this project were to investigate how the structure of the accretion disk and the link between the disk and wind outflows are affected by the absence of hydrogen in the system and by the compact size of the binary and the accretion disk.

  18. AM CVn Stars: Structure and Evolution of Ultra-Short Period Interacting Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froning, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This is the final report of a FUSE program to study the physics of accretion and outflows in ultra-compact, helium dominated, disk-accreting binaries. With FUSE, we observed the AM CVn binary V803 Cen, which is one of only two AM CVn systems observed by FUSE to date. V803 Cen is a short-period interacting binary in which a hydrogen-deficient white dwarf transfers mass to another white dwarf via a hot, steady-state accretion disk. Unlike other cataclysmic variables (CVs), AM CVn stars have undergone double common envelope evolution (one for each white dwarf in the binary) and so probe an alternate route of evolution in binary stars. Our goals in this project were to investigate how the structure of the accretion disk and the link between the disk and wind outflows are affected by the absence of hydrogen in the system and by the compact size of the binary and the accretion disk.

  19. A Class Exercise: Studying the Eclipsing Binary Star RZ Cas Through Visual Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balonek, T. J.; Davis, S. M.

    2000-05-01

    As part of the sophomore-junior level "Astronomical Techniques" course at Colgate University, students learn just how much science they can do with simple tools: a pair of binoculars, a clock, and pencil and paper. The students study the Algol type visual eclipsing binary star system RZ Cassiopeiae: observing and making a light curve for the primary minimum, determining the time of minimum using several techniques, calculating the binary star system's orbital period, and determining changes in the system's period over a thirty year interval by constructing an O-C curve. Through a series of preparatory exercises, the students learn how to read star maps and use the unaided eye, binoculars and telescopes to locate star fields and make visual magnitude measurements. By making multiple measurements of stars in the field of RZ Cas on several nights, the students determine the accuracy they can achieve in estimating the visual magnitude of a star -- typically 0.2 magnitude. (Some students even accidentally discover that one of the stars in the field is a variable star!) With this experience, the students use binoculars to observe the four hour primary eclipse of RZ Cas (magnitude 6.2 - 7.7), making magnitude measurements every five minutes. A light curve is then plotted. Several methods are used to determine the time of minimum, which is then converted to heliocentric Julian day. Using times of minima determined by former students (and the instructor) in previous years dating from 1968 to the present, the students determine the average period to a tenth of a second second. By constructing an O-C curve from the class's data and that obtained by the AAVSO, changes in the period of RZ Cas are noticeable -- possibly due to mass transfer in the system. It will be interesting for future classes to build on this knowledge using the primitive tools of our not so distant past.

  20. Similarity, independence, or interaction for binary mixture effects of nerve toxicants for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Svendsen, Claus; Siang, Pia; Lister, Lindsay J; Rice, Annabel; Spurgeon, David J

    2010-05-01

    Intensive agriculture can require the simultaneous use of more than one pesticide, resulting in the presence of mixtures in soils and waters. To assess mixture effects, concentration addition (CA) for similar acting chemicals and independent action (IA) for dissimilar acting chemicals are the most frequently used models. While the mechanistic basis for the selection of CA and IA for a given mixture appears appealing (similar vs dissimilar action), it has not yet been established how similar chemicals need to be in their effect before CA should be viewed as the most appropriate model. Here this is investigated in studies of the toxicity of binary mixtures of five different pesticides from three classes that have the same putative mode of action (neuroexcitation) but different molecular mechanisms in binary mixture tests with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Effects of exposure on nematode survival were limited at the concentrations tested. Data analysis, therefore, focused on reproductive toxicity. Both CA and IA were found to be valid models for prediction of the toxicity of the 10 mixtures, although for seven CA provided a mathematically better fit. Both models could describe the toxicity for four mixtures; however, evidence for interaction was found in the remaining six cases. Where interactions occurred, these could be explained by information on the potential mechanisms of compound toxicokinetics-particularly when mixtures comprised a metabolically activated and a metabolically deactivated chemical and/or cases where the relative potencies of the two tested chemicals differed greatly. It is concluded, therefore, that detailed analysis of toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics can aid further understanding of interactions in mixtures. Copyright (c) 2010 SETAC.

  1. An interacting binary system powers precessing outflows of an evolved star.

    PubMed

    Boffin, Henri M J; Miszalski, Brent; Rauch, Thomas; Jones, David; Corradi, Romano L M; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Day-Jones, Avril C; Köppen, Joachim

    2012-11-09

    Stars are generally spherical, yet their gaseous envelopes often appear nonspherical when ejected near the end of their lives. This quirk is most notable during the planetary nebula phase, when these envelopes become ionized. Interactions among stars in a binary system are suspected to cause the asymmetry. In particular, a precessing accretion disk around a companion is believed to launch point-symmetric jets, as seen in the prototype Fleming 1. Our finding of a post-common-envelope binary nucleus in Fleming 1 confirms that this scenario is highly favorable. Similar binary interactions are therefore likely to explain these kinds of outflows in a large variety of systems.

  2. Multilingual Interaction in Plurilingual Classes ? European School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Alexandra; Beardsmore, Hugo Baetens

    2004-01-01

    The paper illustrates how interaction operates in classes where there is no single shared common language between teachers and pupils. Samples from a European School primary class taken from 1669 extracts are given of teacher-pupil, pupil-teacher and pupil-pupil interaction. Goals of the programme investigated are to integrate heterogeneous groups…

  3. Equivalence Class Formation: A Method for Teaching Statistical Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Lanny; Travis, Robert; Roy, Deborah; Yadlovker, Eytan; de Aguiar-Rocha, Liliane; Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Many students struggle with statistical concepts such as interaction. In an experimental group, participants took a paper-and-pencil test and then were given training to establish equivalent classes containing four different statistical interactions. All participants formed the equivalence classes and showed maintenance when probes contained novel…

  4. Social affiliation in same-class and cross-class interactions.

    PubMed

    Côté, Stéphane; Kraus, Michael W; Carpenter, Nichelle C; Piff, Paul K; Beermann, Ursula; Keltner, Dacher

    2017-02-01

    Historically high levels of economic inequality likely have important consequences for relationships between people of the same and different social class backgrounds. Here, we test the prediction that social affiliation among same-class partners is stronger at the extremes of the class spectrum, given that these groups are highly distinctive and most separated from others by institutional and economic forces. An internal meta-analysis of 4 studies (N = 723) provided support for this hypothesis. Participant and partner social class were interactively, rather than additively, associated with social affiliation, indexed by affiliative behaviors and emotions during structured laboratory interactions and in daily life. Further, response surface analyses revealed that paired upper or lower class partners generally affiliated more than average-class pairs. Analyses with separate class indices suggested that these patterns are driven more by parental income and subjective social class than by parental education. The findings illuminate the dynamics of same- and cross-class interactions, revealing that not all same-class interactions feature the same degree of affiliation. They also reveal the importance of studying social class from an intergroup perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record

  5. The formation of close binary systems by dynamical interactions and orbital decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bate, Matthew R.; Bonnell, Ian A.; Bromm, Volker

    2002-11-01

    We present results from the first hydrodynamical star formation calculation to demonstrate that close binary stellar systems (separations <~ 10 au) need not be formed directly by fragmentation. Instead, a high frequency of close binaries can be produced through a combination of dynamical interactions in unstable multiple systems and the orbital decay of initially wider binaries. Orbital decay may occur as a result of gas accretion and/or the interaction of a binary with its circumbinary disc. These three mechanisms avoid the problems associated with the fragmentation of optically thick gas to form close systems directly. They also result in a preference for close binaries to have roughly equal-mass components because dynamical exchange interactions and the accretion of gas with high specific angular momentum drive mass ratios towards unity. Furthermore, because of the importance of dynamical interactions, we find that stars with greater masses ought to have a higher frequency of close companions, and that many close binaries ought to have wide companions. These properties are in good agreement with the results of observational surveys.

  6. TSG: a new algorithm for binary and multi-class cancer classification and informative genes selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Zhang, Hongyan; Dai, Zhijun; Chen, Ming-shun; Yuan, Zheming

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges in classification of cancer tissue samples based on gene expression data is to establish an effective method that can select a parsimonious set of informative genes. The Top Scoring Pair (TSP), k-Top Scoring Pairs (k-TSP), Support Vector Machines (SVM), and prediction analysis of microarrays (PAM) are four popular classifiers that have comparable performance on multiple cancer datasets. SVM and PAM tend to use a large number of genes and TSP, k-TSP always use even number of genes. In addition, the selection of distinct gene pairs in k-TSP simply combined the pairs of top ranking genes without considering the fact that the gene set with best discrimination power may not be the combined pairs. The k-TSP algorithm also needs the user to specify an upper bound for the number of gene pairs. Here we introduce a computational algorithm to address the problems. The algorithm is named Chisquare-statistic-based Top Scoring Genes (Chi-TSG) classifier simplified as TSG. The TSG classifier starts with the top two genes and sequentially adds additional gene into the candidate gene set to perform informative gene selection. The algorithm automatically reports the total number of informative genes selected with cross validation. We provide the algorithm for both binary and multi-class cancer classification. The algorithm was applied to 9 binary and 10 multi-class gene expression datasets involving human cancers. The TSG classifier outperforms TSP family classifiers by a big margin in most of the 19 datasets. In addition to improved accuracy, our classifier shares all the advantages of the TSP family classifiers including easy interpretation, invariant to monotone transformation, often selects a small number of informative genes allowing follow-up studies, resistant to sampling variations due to within sample operations. Redefining the scores for gene set and the classification rules in TSP family classifiers by incorporating the sample size information can

  7. Case study of binary and ternary synthetic discriminant function filters with similar in-class and out-of-class images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1993-01-01

    A simulation study is reported of the performance of two designs of ternary synthetic discriminant function (SDF) filters. The filters are compared to binary SDFs in terms of the probability of correct identification P(ID) between in-class and out-of-class image sets. Compared to binary synthetic discriminant function (BSDF) filters, both ternary SDF filters designs offer improved performance in P(ID) and thus allow extension of the maximum filter direction range when evaluated in the presence of white image noise. Larger distortion range filters translate to fewer correlations required to perform image identification, and thus higher system speed. The TSDF(SNR) filters had the highest of system performance, while TSDF(d) filters were able to improve discrimination to a degree, but their optimal designs had essentially the same SNR performance as the BSDF filters.

  8. Case study of binary and ternary synthetic discriminant function filters with similar in-class and out-of-class images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1993-01-01

    A simulation study is reported of the performance of two designs of ternary synthetic discriminant function (SDF) filters. The filters are compared to binary SDFs in terms of the probability of correct identification P(ID) between in-class and out-of-class image sets. Compared to binary synthetic discriminant function (BSDF) filters, both ternary SDF filters designs offer improved performance in P(ID) and thus allow extension of the maximum filter direction range when evaluated in the presence of white image noise. Larger distortion range filters translate to fewer correlations required to perform image identification, and thus higher system speed. The TSDF(SNR) filters had the highest of system performance, while TSDF(d) filters were able to improve discrimination to a degree, but their optimal designs had essentially the same SNR performance as the BSDF filters.

  9. HD 49798: Its History of Binary Interaction and Future Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Jared; Kupfer, Thomas; Bildsten, Lars

    2017-09-01

    The bright subdwarf-O star (sdO) HD 49798 is in a 1.55 day orbit with a compact companion that is spinning at 13.2 s. Using the measurements of the effective temperature ({T}{eff}), surface gravity ({log}g), and surface abundances of the sdO, we construct models to study the evolution of this binary system using Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA). Previous studies of the compact companion have disagreed on whether it is a white dwarf (WD) or a neutron star (NS). From the published measurements of the companion’s spin and spin-up rate, we agree with Mereghetti and collaborators that an NS companion is more likely. However, since there remains the possibility of a WD companion, we use our constructed MESA models to run simulations with both WD and NS companions that help us constrain the past and future evolution of this system. If it presently contains an NS, the immediate mass transfer evolution upon Roche lobe filling will lead to mass transfer rates comparable to that implied in ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). Depending on the rate of angular momentum extraction via a wind, the fate of this system is either a wide ({P}{orb}≈ 3 day) intermediate-mass binary pulsar (IMPB) with a relatively rapidly spinning NS (≈0.3 s) and a high mass WD (≈ 0.9 {M}ȯ ), or a solitary millisecond pulsar (MSP).

  10. High Quality Binary Protein Interaction Map of the Yeast Interactome Network

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiyuan; Braun, Pascal; Yildirim, Muhammed A.; Lemmens, Irma; Venkatesan, Kavitha; Sahalie, Julie; Hirozane-Kishikawa, Tomoko; Gebreab, Fana; Li, Na; Simonis, Nicolas; Hao, Tong; Rual, Jean-Franćois; Dricot, Amélie; Vazquez, Alexei; Murray, Ryan R.; Simon, Christophe; Tardivo, Leah; Tam, Stanley; Svrzikapa, Nenad; Fan, Changyu; de Smet, Anne-Sophie; Motyl, Adriana; Hudson, Michael E.; Park, Juyong; Xin, Xiaofeng; Cusick, Michael E.; Moore, Troy; Boone, Charlie; Snyder, Michael; Roth, Frederick P.; Barabási, Albert-László; Tavernier, Jan; Hill, David E.; Vidal, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Current yeast interactome network maps contain several hundred molecular complexes with limited and somewhat controversial representation of direct binary interactions. We carried out a comparative quality assessment of current yeast interactome datasets, demonstrating that high-throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) provides high-quality binary interaction information. As a large fraction of the yeast binary interactome remains to be mapped, we developed an empirically-controlled mapping framework to produce a “second-generation” high-quality high-throughput Y2H dataset covering ~20% of all yeast binary interactions. Both Y2H and affinity-purification followed by mass spectrometry (AP/MS) data are of equally high quality but of a fundamentally different and complementary nature resulting in networks with different topological and biological properties. Compared to co-complex interactome models, this binary map is enriched for transient signaling interactions and inter-complex connections with a highly significant clustering between essential proteins. Rather than correlating with essentiality, protein connectivity correlates with genetic pleiotropy. PMID:18719252

  11. Probing Intermolecular Interactions in Binary Liquid Mixtures Using Femtosecond Laser-Induced Self-Defocusing.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Sandeep Kumar; Das, Dhiman; Goswami, Debabrata

    2016-06-13

    Photo-thermal behavior of binary liquid mixtures has been studied by high repetition rate (HRR) Z-scan technique with femtosecond laser pulses. Changes in the peak-valley difference in transmittance (ΔTP-V) for closed aperture Z-scan experiments are indicative of thermal effects induced by HRR femtosecond laser pulses. We show such indicative results can have a far-reaching impact on molecular properties and intermolecular interactions in binary liquid mixtures. Spectroscopic parameters derived from this experimental technique show that the combined effect of physical and molecular properties of the constituent binary liquids can be related to the components of the binary liquid. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. New Compound Classes: Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Ottmann, C

    2016-01-01

    "Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are one of the most promising new targets in drug discovery. With estimates between 300,000 and 650,000 in human physiology, targeted modulation of PPIs would tremendously extend the "druggable" genome. In fact, in every disease a wealth of potentially addressable PPIs can be found making pharmacological intervention based on PPI modulators in principle a generally applicable technology. An impressing number of success stories in small-molecule PPI inhibition and natural-product PPI stabilization increasingly encourage academia and industry to invest in PPI modulation. In this chapter examples of both inhibition as well as stabilization of PPIs are reviewed including some of the technologies which has been used for their identification."

  13. Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-07-01

    Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10-2 M ⊙ yr-1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr-1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.

  14. Identification of five interacting binaries in the galactic bulge survey

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Mikles, V. J.; Gossen, L.; Torres, M. A. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Maccarone, T. J.; Knigge, C.; Dieball, A.; Greiss, S.; Steeghs, D.; Groot, P.; Nelemans, G.

    2013-06-01

    We present optical light curves, spectroscopy, and classification of five X-ray sources in the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (CXOGBS J174009.1–284725 (CX5), CXOGBS J173935.7–272935 (CX18), CXOGBS J173946.9–271809 (CX28), CXOGBS J173729.1–292804 (CX37), CXOGBS J174607.6–261547 (CX561)). These objects were selected based on bright optical counterparts which were quickly found to have emission lines in their optical spectra. This paper presents an illustration of GBS optical follow-up, targeting emission line objects. Of these five objects, four exhibit photometric variability in the Sloan r' band. CX5 shows a tentative period of 2.1 hr and is clearly an intermediate polar (IP). CX28 and CX37 both exhibit flickering with no clear period. Both are also suggested to be IPs. CX18 was observed to undergo two dwarf nova outbursts. Finally, CX561 shows no detectable variability, although its characteristics would be consistent with either a quiescent low-mass X-ray binary or cataclysmic variable.

  15. Interaction and formation mechanism of binary complex between zein and propylene glycol alginate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cuixia; Dai, Lei; Gao, Yanxiang

    2017-02-10

    The anti-solvent co-precipitation method was used to fabricate the zein-propylene glycol alginate (PGA) binary complex with different mass ratios of zein to PGA (20:1, 10:1, 5:1, 2:1 and 1:1) at pH 4.0. Results showed that attractive electrostatic interaction between zein and PGA occurred and negatively charged binary complex with large size and high turbidity was formed due to the charge neutralization. Hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic effects were involved in the interactions between zein and PGA, leading to the changed secondary structure and improved thermal stability of zein. Aggregates in the irregular shape with large size were obviously observed in the AFM images. PGA alone exhibited a fine filamentous network structure, while zein-PGA binary complex showed a rough branch-like pattern and the surface of "branch" was closely adsorbed by lots of spherical zein particles. Q in zein-PGA binary complex dispersions presented the improved photochemical and thermal stability. The potential mechanism of a two-step process was proposed to explain the formation of zein-PGA binary complexes.

  16. DC CIRCUIT POWERED BY ORBITAL MOTION: MAGNETIC INTERACTIONS IN COMPACT OBJECT BINARIES AND EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lai Dong

    2012-09-20

    The unipolar induction DC circuit model, originally developed by Goldreich and Lynden-Bell for the Jupiter-Io system, has been applied to different types of binary systems in recent years. We show that there exists an upper limit to the magnetic interaction torque and energy dissipation rate in such a model. This arises because when the resistance of the circuit is too small, the large current flow severely twists the magnetic flux tube connecting the two binary components, leading to the breakdown of the circuit. Applying this limit, we find that in coalescing neutron star binaries, magnetic interactions produce negligible correction to the phase evolution of the gravitational waveform, even for magnetar-like field strengths. However, energy dissipation in the binary magnetosphere may still give rise to electromagnetic radiation prior to the final merger. For ultracompact white dwarf binaries, we find that unipolar induction does not provide adequate energy dissipation to explain the observed X-ray luminosities of several sources. For exoplanetary systems containing close-in Jupiters or super-Earths, the magnetic torque and energy dissipation induced by the orbital motion are negligible, except possibly during the early T Tauri phase, when the stellar magnetic field is stronger than 10{sup 3} G.

  17. Interionic interactions of binary gels consisting of pyrrolidinium-based zwitterionic compounds and lithium salts.

    PubMed

    Park, HoSeok; Kim, Hoon Sik; Jung, Young Mee

    2011-03-03

    We demonstrated thermal transitions and physical gelation of binary ionic salts through interionic interactions, which consist of pyrrolidinium-N-propanesulfonate zwitterionic compound (PyrZIC) and lithium bis(trifluorosulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). The transition behaviors of binary ionic gels were attributed to conformational changes in the cations and anions of PyrZIC and LiTFSI as analyzed by density functional theory (DFT), principal component analysis (PCA), and two-dimensional infrared correlation spectroscopy (2D IR COS). Furthermore, the geometries of binary PyrZIC-LiTFSI systems were strongly influenced by the electrostatic interactions between two ionic salts. The different dynamic processes in the PyrZIC- and LiTFSI-rich phases, which are classified by the transition point of PCA plots, were induced by the conformational changes in the respective interaction fields, as shown by 2D correlation spectra. In particular, LiTFSI-rich binary gels revealed characteristic four-leaf-clover and butterfly patterns under their unique chemical circumstances, which were different from those of PyrZIC-rich gels. Consequently, these computational and experimental investigations provide an analytical tool to understand the physical phenomenon and interactions occurring in the unveiled and complicated systems. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. HEPATOTOXIC EVALUATION OF THE BINARY INTERACTIONS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE WITH CHLOROFORM, CHLORODIBROMOMETHANE AND BROMOFORM

    EPA Science Inventory

    HEPATOTOXIC EVALUATION OF THE BINARY INTERACTIONS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) WITH CHLOROFORM (CHC13), CHLORODIBROMOMETHANE (CDBM) AND BROMOFORM (CHBr3). Y M Se'', C Gennings2, A McDonald', L K Teuschler3, A Hamm2and J E Simmons .'NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, RTP, NC; 2MCV, VCU, Ric...

  19. The FUSE Survey of Algol-Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, G. J.; Andersson, B.-G.; Ake, T. B.; Sankrit, R.

    2004-12-01

    A survey of Algol binaries at random phases is currently being carried through with the FUSE spacecraft as part of the FUSE survey and supplemental program. A similar survey program was undertaken in FUSE Cycle 3. Both programs have produced multiple observations of 12 Algol systems with periods ranging from 1.2 - 37 d and include direct-impact and disk systems. We report highlights from the data acquired so far. The absence of O VI absorption in the systems observed to date allows us to place upper limits on its column density and the temperature of the High Temperature Accretion Region, HTAR ( ˜100,000 K) confirmed in some Algols from earlier IUE data. In the case of RY Per, this demonstrates that the HTAR plasma component is distinct from the O VI-emitting polar plasma discovered in a FUSE observation taken during totality (Peters & Polidan, 2004, Astron. Nachr., 325, 225). A 6.5 ks observation of the direct-impact Algol U Cep revealed the presence of an apparent accretion hot spot centered near phase 0.94, where the gas stream impacts the mass gainer's photosphere at a steep angle. During the course of the observation, which took place over a duration of 0.25 d, the FUV flux steadily rose before leveling off at an elevated value. Since the flux had returned to its normal value at the beginning of an observation 1.5 d later (φ ˜0.28), we can place an upper limit on the size of the hot spot. The authors appreciate support from NASA grants NAG5-12253, NNG04GL17G, and NAS5-32985.

  20. Luminous Blue Variable Eruptions Triggered and Powered by Binary Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, Amit

    2010-12-01

    We suggest that major Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) eruptions are a result of a periastron passage interaction with the secondary star. The interaction must take place when the primary envelope is in an unstable phase. In our model the mass transferred to the secondary accounts for the energy and light curve of the eruption. We propose that all major LBV eruptions are triggered by stellar companions, and that in extreme cases a short duration event with a huge mass transfer rate can lead to a bright transient event on time scales of weeks to months (a `supernova impostor').

  1. Analytical theory of effective interactions in binary colloidal systems of soft particles.

    PubMed

    Majka, M; Góra, P F

    2014-09-01

    While density functional theory with integral equations techniques are very efficient tools in the numerical analysis of complex fluids, analytical insight into the phenomenon of effective interactions is still limited. In this paper, we propose a theory of binary systems that results in a relatively simple analytical expression combining arbitrary microscopic potentials into effective interaction. The derivation is based on translating a many-particle Hamiltonian including particle-depletant and depletant-depletant interactions into the occupation field language, which turns the partition function into multiple Gaussian integrals, regardless of what microscopic potentials are chosen. As a result, we calculate the effective Hamiltonian and discuss when our formula is a dominant contribution to the effective interactions. Our theory allows us to analytically reproduce several important characteristics of systems under scrutiny. In particular, we analyze the following: the effective attraction as a demixing factor in the binary systems of Gaussian particles, the screening of charged spheres by ions, which proves equivalent to Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, effective interactions in the binary mixtures of Yukawa particles, and the system of particles consisting of both a repulsive core and an attractive/repulsive Yukawa interaction tail. For this last case, we reproduce the "attraction-through-repulsion" and "repulsion-through-attraction" effects previously observed in simulations.

  2. Analytical theory of effective interactions in binary colloidal systems of soft particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majka, M.; Góra, P. F.

    2014-09-01

    While density functional theory with integral equations techniques are very efficient tools in the numerical analysis of complex fluids, analytical insight into the phenomenon of effective interactions is still limited. In this paper, we propose a theory of binary systems that results in a relatively simple analytical expression combining arbitrary microscopic potentials into effective interaction. The derivation is based on translating a many-particle Hamiltonian including particle-depletant and depletant-depletant interactions into the occupation field language, which turns the partition function into multiple Gaussian integrals, regardless of what microscopic potentials are chosen. As a result, we calculate the effective Hamiltonian and discuss when our formula is a dominant contribution to the effective interactions. Our theory allows us to analytically reproduce several important characteristics of systems under scrutiny. In particular, we analyze the following: the effective attraction as a demixing factor in the binary systems of Gaussian particles, the screening of charged spheres by ions, which proves equivalent to Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, effective interactions in the binary mixtures of Yukawa particles, and the system of particles consisting of both a repulsive core and an attractive/repulsive Yukawa interaction tail. For this last case, we reproduce the "attraction-through-repulsion" and "repulsion-through-attraction" effects previously observed in simulations.

  3. Studies of low-mass interacting binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainger, Paul P.

    1990-01-01

    Spectroscopic and photometric observations of eight contact/near-contact binaries are presented and analysed. Spectroscopic observations were obtained at 4200 A (radial velocity spectra) and 6563 A (hydrogen-alpha line profiles). New photometric observations were obtained at visual and infrared wavelengths, and other previously published light curves are also re-analysed. Absolute dimensions have been obtained for five systems; TY Boo, VW Boo, BX And, SS Ari and AG Vir, and their evolutionary positions discussed. Four of the systems are found to be in marginal but poor thermal contact, exhibiting regions of apparent "excess luminosity" in their light curves. A qualitative analysis of these "hot spot" regions has been attempted for the first time using spot models now incorporated into a light curve synthesis programme. Substantial time for this project was awarded on telescopes funded by the United Kingdom Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC), comprising 14 nights at the Issac Newton Telescope (INT) on La Palma, and 4 nights at the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope (UKIRT) on Mauna Kea. Additional observations were made during an 8 night commissioning run on the Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope (JKT) on La Palma, and extensive observations were made with the Twin Photometric Telescope (TPT) at St Andrews University Observatory between 1985 and 1989. These resulted in over 100 spectra at 4200 A and over 50 spectra at 6563 A (INT and JKT observations), over 300 infrared photometric observations (UKIRT), and over 3500 visual photometric observations (TPT). Of the five systems analysed in detail in this work, TY Boo appears to be a normal shallow-contact W-type system. Both VW Boo and BX And exhibit regions of "excess luminosity" around the ingress and egress of secondary minimum which are well modelled by a warm spot on the cooler component sitting symmetrically around the neck joining the pair. Such a phenomenon may be expected to arise naturally in systems which

  4. Dynamics of binary and planetary-system interaction with disks - Eccentricity changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atrymowicz, Pawel

    1992-01-01

    Protostellar and protoplanetary systems, as well as merging galactic nuclei, often interact tidally and resonantly with the astrophysical disks via gravity. Underlying our understanding of the formation processes of stars, planets, and some galaxies is a dynamical theory of such interactions. Its main goals are to determine the geometry of the binary-disk system and, through the torque calculations, the rate of change of orbital elements of the components. We present some recent developments in this field concentrating on eccentricity driving mechanisms in protoplanetary and protobinary systems. In those two types of systems the result of the interaction is opposite. A small body embedded in a disk suffers a decrease of orbital eccentricity, whereas newly formed binary stars surrounded by protostellar disks may undergo a significant orbital evolution increasing their eccentricities.

  5. Intermolecular interactions in binary and ternary solutions of two cycloimmonium-carboethoxy-anilido-methylids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closca, Valentina; Ivan, Liliana Mihaela; Dorohoi, Dana Ortansa

    2014-03-01

    Two cycloimmonium ylids with pyridinium and iso-quinolinium as heterocycle and having common carbanion were studied from the point of view of the solvent influence on electronic absorption spectra in binary and ternary solutions. The supplies of the universal and specific interactions to the spectral shifts in the electronic absorption spectra of hydroxyl solutions were separated. The strength of the specific interactions of the ylid molecules with octanol was estimated by using ternary solutions in binary solvent Octanol + Dichloroethane, in which the universal interactions have similar strengths. Quantum mechanical calculations and also the solvatochromic effect allowed us estimating the values of the molecular dipole moments in the excited state of the studied ylids. The conclusions showed that by excitation the molecular dipole moment of the studied ylids decreases or changes its sense, due to the electronic charge transport from the carbanion towards the heterocycle.

  6. Quantitative analysis of peptide-MHC class II interaction.

    PubMed

    Fleckenstein, B; Jung, G; Wiesmüller, K H

    1999-12-01

    The tremendous progress in the field of basic immunology and immunochemistry made in the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of antigen processing and presentation by MHC class I and II proteins. In this review different techniques to study peptide interaction with MHC class II molecules are summarized and their impact on the elucidation of quantitative parameters, like affinities or kinetic data, is discussed. A recently introduced method based on synthetic combinatorial peptide libraries allows to quantify the binding contribution of each amino acid residue in a class II ligand and is presented in more detail. As this knowledge is fundamental for current investigations in modern medicine, e.g. for novel immune system based therapy concepts, further aspects like the design of new high affinity MHC class II ligands and the prediction of peptide antigens are discussed.

  7. Student Satisfaction in Interactive Engagement-Based Physics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Gaffney, Amy L. Housley

    2016-01-01

    Interactive engagement-based (IE) physics classes have the potential to invigorate and motivate students, but students may resist or oppose the pedagogy. Understanding the major influences on student satisfaction is a key to successful implementation of such courses. In this study, we note that one of the major differences between IE and…

  8. Student Satisfaction in Interactive Engagement-Based Physics Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Gaffney, Amy L. Housley

    2016-01-01

    Interactive engagement-based (IE) physics classes have the potential to invigorate and motivate students, but students may resist or oppose the pedagogy. Understanding the major influences on student satisfaction is a key to successful implementation of such courses. In this study, we note that one of the major differences between IE and…

  9. Dynamics of binary-disk interaction. 1: Resonances and disk gap sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artymowicz, Pawel; Lubow, Stephen H.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational interaction of a generally eccentric binary star system with circumbinary and circumstellar gaseous disks. The disks are assumed to be coplanar with the binary, geometrically thin, and primarily governed by gas pressure and (turbulent) viscosity but not self-gravity. Both ordinary and eccentric Lindblad resonances are primarily responsible for truncating the disks in binaries with arbitrary eccentricity and nonextreme mass ratio. Starting from a smooth disk configuration, after the gravitational field of the binary truncates the disk on the dynamical timescale, a quasi-equilibrium is achieved, in which the resonant and viscous torques balance each other and any changes in the structure of the disk (e.g., due to global viscous evolution) occur slowly, preserving the average size of the gap. We analytically compute the approximate sizes of disks (or disk gaps) as a function of binary mass ratio and eccentricity in this quasi-equilibrium. Comparing the gap sizes with results of direct simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), we obtain a good agreement. As a by-product of the computations, we verify that standard SPH codes can adequately represent the dynamics of disks with moderate viscosity, Reynolds number R approximately 10(exp 3). For typical viscous disk parameters, and with a denoting the binary semimajor axis, the inner edge location of a circumbinary disk varies from 1.8a to 2.6a with binary eccentricity increasing from 0 to 0.25. For eccentricities 0 less than e less than 0.75, the minimum separation between a component star and the circumbinary disk inner edge is greater than a. Our calculations are relevant, among others, to protobinary stars and the recently discovered T Tau pre-main-sequence binaries. We briefly examine the case of a pre-main-sequence spectroscopic binary GW Ori and conclude that circumbinary disk truncation to the size required by one proposed spectroscopic model cannot be due to

  10. Dynamics of binary-disk interaction. 1: Resonances and disk gap sizes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Artymowicz, Pawel; Lubow, Stephen H.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational interaction of a generally eccentric binary star system with circumbinary and circumstellar gaseous disks. The disks are assumed to be coplanar with the binary, geometrically thin, and primarily governed by gas pressure and (turbulent) viscosity but not self-gravity. Both ordinary and eccentric Lindblad resonances are primarily responsible for truncating the disks in binaries with arbitrary eccentricity and nonextreme mass ratio. Starting from a smooth disk configuration, after the gravitational field of the binary truncates the disk on the dynamical timescale, a quasi-equilibrium is achieved, in which the resonant and viscous torques balance each other and any changes in the structure of the disk (e.g., due to global viscous evolution) occur slowly, preserving the average size of the gap. We analytically compute the approximate sizes of disks (or disk gaps) as a function of binary mass ratio and eccentricity in this quasi-equilibrium. Comparing the gap sizes with results of direct simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH), we obtain a good agreement. As a by-product of the computations, we verify that standard SPH codes can adequately represent the dynamics of disks with moderate viscosity, Reynolds number R approximately 10(exp 3). For typical viscous disk parameters, and with a denoting the binary semimajor axis, the inner edge location of a circumbinary disk varies from 1.8a to 2.6a with binary eccentricity increasing from 0 to 0.25. For eccentricities 0 less than e less than 0.75, the minimum separation between a component star and the circumbinary disk inner edge is greater than a. Our calculations are relevant, among others, to protobinary stars and the recently discovered T Tau pre-main-sequence binaries. We briefly examine the case of a pre-main-sequence spectroscopic binary GW Ori and conclude that circumbinary disk truncation to the size required by one proposed spectroscopic model cannot be due to

  11. Spatial Latent Class Analysis Model for Spatially Distributed Multivariate Binary Data

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Melanie M.; Liu, Xuan

    2009-01-01

    A spatial latent class analysis model that extends the classic latent class analysis model by adding spatial structure to the latent class distribution through the use of the multinomial probit model is introduced. Linear combinations of independent Gaussian spatial processes are used to develop multivariate spatial processes that are underlying the categorical latent classes. This allows the latent class membership to be correlated across spatially distributed sites and it allows correlation between the probabilities of particular types of classes at any one site. The number of latent classes is assumed fixed but is chosen by model comparison via cross-validation. An application of the spatial latent class analysis model is shown using soil pollution samples where 8 heavy metals were measured to be above or below government pollution limits across a 25 square kilometer region. Estimation is performed within a Bayesian framework using MCMC and is implemented using the OpenBUGS software. PMID:20161235

  12. Investigation of Hydrodynamic and Depletion Interactions in Binary Colloidal Dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Gregory K.

    Within a colloidal dispersion, the presence of negatively adsorbing material can produce a variety of effects on the dispersion properties and interactions. With increasing concentration, the negatively adsorbing material induces both depletion and structural forces on the dispersion, which can dramatically affect both colloidal stability and near-contact hydrodynamics. This project focused on expanding our understanding of the effects of such negatively adsorbing materials on both equilibrium and dynamic interactions between particles. The effects of charged, hard spheres (silica nanoparticle) on the hydrodynamic drag force a particle experiences as it approaches a flat plate were measured experimentally using colloid probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM). Deviation was found between the measured drag force and predictions for the drag force in a simple, Newtonian fluid. The measured drag force was always smaller than the predicted drag force as the particle approached contact with the plate. An effective viscosity, that approached the dispersing fluid viscosity at contact and the bulk viscosity at large separations, was determined for the system. This effective viscosity displayed similar characteristics to those predicted theoretically by Bhattacharya and Blawzdziewicz ( J. Chem. Phys. 2008, 128, 214704.). The effects of both anionic and cationic micelles on the depletion and structural forces in a colloidal dispersion were studied both experimentally (with CP-AFM) and theoretically. The depletion and structural forces between a microparticle and a flat plate were measured and compared with the depletion force predicted by the force-balance model of Walz and Sharma (J. Colloid Interface Sci. 1994, 168, 485-496.). Consistent with previous work, the measured depletion force for both micelles was smaller in magnitude than that predicted by the Walz and Sharma model for hard, charged spheres. It is theorized that rearrangement of the micelle surfaces charges or

  13. RADIO PULSAR BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS: THEIR ORBITAL ECCENTRICITIES AND STELLAR INTERACTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bagchi, Manjari; Ray, Alak

    2009-08-20

    High sensitivity searches of globular clusters (GCs) for radio pulsars by improved pulsar search algorithms and sustained pulsar timing observations have so far yielded some 140 pulsars in more than two dozen GCs. The observed distribution of orbital eccentricity and period of binary radio pulsars in GCs have imprints of the past interaction between single pulsars and binary systems or of binary pulsars and single passing noncompact stars. It is seen that GCs have different groups of pulsars. These may have arisen out of exchange or merger of a component of the binary with the incoming star or a 'fly-by' in which the original binary remains intact but undergoes a change of eccentricity and orbital period. We consider the genesis of the distribution of pulsars using analytical and computational tools such as STARLAB, which performs numerical scattering experiments with direct N-body integration. Cluster pulsars with intermediate eccentricities can mostly be accounted for by fly-bys, whereas those with high eccentricities are likely to be the result of exchanges and/or mergers of single stars with the binary companion of the pulsar, although there are a few objects which do not easily fit into this description. The corresponding distribution for galactic field pulsars shows notable differences from the GC pulsar orbital period and eccentricity distribution. The long orbital period pulsars in the galactic field with frozen out low eccentricities are largely missing from the GCs, and we show that the ionization of these systems in GCs cannot alone account for the peculiarities.

  14. Abundance anomalies of carbon and nitrogen in the IUE spectra of Algol-type interacting binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluskey, Carolina P. S.

    1990-01-01

    There are two primary ways in which the products of nucleosynthesis in stellar interiors may appear at the surface of a star. These are mixing and/or loss of the original unburned stellar envelope. In interacting binaries, overflow can contribute dramatically to envelope loss. The simplest abundance anomalies to be expected from nuclear burning of hydrogen, helium, or carbon would be under or over abundances H, He, C, O, Ne, and Mg. In addition, it is expected that carbon is initially severely depleted, while nitrogen is enhanced during hydrogen burning via the CNO cycle in stars above two solar masses. Other, more subtle anomalies are also expected, and elements heavier than magnesium can be created during very late evolution by nuclear burning in massive stars. Consequently, it is expected that abundance anomalies of various kinds should occur in interacting binaries where one or both stars have lost significant amounts of mass.

  15. Class II HLA interactions modulate genetic risk for multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dilthey, Alexander T; Xifara, Dionysia K; Ban, Maria; Shah, Tejas S; Patsopoulos, Nikolaos A; Alfredsson, Lars; Anderson, Carl A; Attfield, Katherine E; Baranzini, Sergio E; Barrett, Jeffrey; Binder, Thomas M C; Booth, David; Buck, Dorothea; Celius, Elisabeth G; Cotsapas, Chris; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Dendrou, Calliope A; Donnelly, Peter; Dubois, Bénédicte; Fontaine, Bertrand; Fugger, Lars; Goris, An; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Graetz, Christiane; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hillert, Jan; Kockum, Ingrid; Leslie, Stephen; Lill, Christina M; Martinelli-Boneschi, Filippo; Oksenberg, Jorge R; Olsson, Tomas; Oturai, Annette; Saarela, Janna; Søndergaard, Helle Bach; Spurkland, Anne; Taylor, Bruce; Winkelmann, Juliane; Zipp, Frauke; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Spencer, Chris C A; Stewart, Graeme; Hafler, David A; Ivinson, Adrian J; Harbo, Hanne F; Hauser, Stephen L; De Jager, Philip L; Compston, Alastair; McCauley, Jacob L; Sawcer, Stephen; McVean, Gil

    2016-01-01

    Association studies have greatly refined the understanding of how variation within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes influences risk of multiple sclerosis. However, the extent to which major effects are modulated by interactions is poorly characterized. We analyzed high-density SNP data on 17,465 cases and 30,385 controls from 11 cohorts of European ancestry, in combination with imputation of classical HLA alleles, to build a high-resolution map of HLA genetic risk and assess the evidence for interactions involving classical HLA alleles. Among new and previously identified class II risk alleles (HLA-DRB1*15:01, HLA-DRB1*13:03, HLA-DRB1*03:01, HLA-DRB1*08:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:02) and class I protective alleles (HLA-A*02:01, HLA-B*44:02, HLA-B*38:01 and HLA-B*55:01), we find evidence for two interactions involving pairs of class II alleles: HLA-DQA1*01:01–HLA-DRB1*15:01 and HLA-DQB1*03:01–HLA-DQB1*03:02. We find no evidence for interactions between classical HLA alleles and non-HLA risk-associated variants and estimate a minimal effect of polygenic epistasis in modulating major risk alleles. PMID:26343388

  16. The two-body interaction potential in the STF tensor formalism: an application to binary asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, A.; Lemaître, A.

    2014-08-01

    The symmetric trace free (STF) tensor formalism, developed by Hartmann et al. (Celest Mech Dyn Astron 60:139-159. doi: 10.1007/BF00693097, 1994), is a nice tool, not much used in Celestial Mechanics. It is fully equivalent to the usual spherical harmonics but permits more elegant and compact formulations. The coupling between the gravitational fields of extended bodies with this formalism has been used in Mathis and Le Poncin-Lafitte (Astron Astrophys 497:889-910. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/20079054, 2009) for binary stars or planetary systems, but not yet applied to binary asteroids. However, binary asteroids are common in the Solar System and usually their study requires a full two rigid body approach. The formulation of the two-body interaction potential in the STF formalism in the full two rigid body problem is detailed and completed in this article. An application to the binary asteroid (66391) 1999 KW4 is presented with a comparison of our results with other results of the literature for validation.

  17. A Gene Selection Method for Microarray Data Based on Binary PSO Encoding Gene-to-Class Sensitivity Information.

    PubMed

    Han, Fei; Yang, Chun; Wu, Ya-Qi; Zhu, Jian-Sheng; Ling, Qing-Hua; Song, Yu-Qing; Huang, De-Shuang

    2017-01-01

    Traditional gene selection methods for microarray data mainly considered the features' relevance by evaluating their utility for achieving accurate predication or exploiting data variance and distribution, and the selected genes were usually poorly explicable. To improve the interpretability of the selected genes as well as prediction accuracy, an improved gene selection method based on binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) and prior information is proposed in this paper. In the proposed method, BPSO encoding gene-to-class sensitivity (GCS) information is used to perform gene selection. The gene-to-class sensitivity information, extracted from the samples by extreme learning machine (ELM), is encoded into the selection process in four aspects: initializing particles, updating the particles, modifying maximum velocity, and adopting mutation operation adaptively. Constrained by the gene-to-class sensitivity information, the new method can select functional gene subsets which are significantly sensitive to the samples' classes. With the few discriminative genes selected by the proposed method, ELM, K-nearest neighbor and support vector machine classifiers achieve much high prediction accuracy on five public microarray data, which in turn verifies the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed gene selection method.

  18. Student satisfaction in interactive engagement-based physics classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffney, Jon D. H.; Gaffney, Amy L. Housley

    2016-12-01

    Interactive engagement-based (IE) physics classes have the potential to invigorate and motivate students, but students may resist or oppose the pedagogy. Understanding the major influences on student satisfaction is a key to successful implementation of such courses. In this study, we note that one of the major differences between IE and traditional physics classes lies in the interpersonal relationships between the instructor and students. Therefore, we introduce the interpersonal communication constructs of instructor credibility and facework as possible frameworks for understanding how instructors and students navigate the new space of interactions. By interpreting survey data (N =161 respondents in eight sections of an IE introductory algebra-based physics course), we found both frameworks to be useful in explaining variance in student ratings of their satisfaction in the course, although we are unable to distinguish at this point whether instructor credibility acts as a mediating variable between facework and course satisfaction.

  19. THREE-DIMENSIONAL DOPPLER TOMOGRAPHY OF THE RS VULPECULAE INTERACTING BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Sharova, Olga I.; Agafonov, Michail I. E-mail: shol@nirfi.sci-nnov.r

    2010-09-10

    Three-dimensional Doppler tomography has been used to study the H{alpha} emission sources in the RS Vulpeculae (RS Vul) interacting binary. The two-dimensional tomogram of this binary suggested that most of the emission arises from the cool mass losing star with additional evidence of a gas stream flowing close to its predicted trajectory. However, the three-dimensional tomogram revealed surprising evidence that the gas stream has an average velocity of -85 km s{sup -1} relative to the central velocity plane at V{sub z} = 0 km s{sup -1}, unlike U CrB in which the stream was prominent along this central plane. These unexpected V{sub z} motions may result from the interaction between magnetic activity on the cool star and the gravitationally induced Roche lobe overflow from that star. Evidence of a loop prominence on the cool star close to the L1 point has been found in the three-dimensional tomogram of RS Vul; hence, the magnetic field lines may have deflected the gas stream relative to the central plane. This result is consistent with earlier detections of RS Vul as both an X-ray and a radio source, and represents the first detection of a loop prominence in an interacting binary based on tomography. Moreover, recent radio images of {beta} Per, the prototype of the Algols, show that the magnetic field of the mass losing star is asymmetric and extends well beyond the orbital plane of the binary, so it is now plausible that the gas flow between the stars in RS Vul could be deflected in an asymmetric way by the magnetic field.

  20. Adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a random heterogeneous surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.

    1992-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a heterogeneous surface are developed. The lateral interactions are of the Bragg-Williams type and the surface heterogeneity is modeled via a random distribution of sites described by a uniform distribution of Henry`s Law constants. The parametric study shows that complex phase behavior can be predicted, including azeotropes and sigmoidal shaped X-Y diagrams. Also, this model may be useful for modeling and designing adsorption processes as it requires few iterations to simultaneously solve the implicit and coupled algebraic expressions.

  1. Adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a random heterogeneous surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a heterogeneous surface are developed. The lateral interactions are of the Bragg-Williams type and the surface heterogeneity is modeled via a random distribution of sites described by a uniform distribution of Henry's Law constants. The parametric study shows that complex phase behavior can be predicted, including azeotropes and sigmoidal shaped X-Y diagrams. Also, this model may be useful for modeling and designing adsorption processes as it requires few iterations to simultaneously solve the implicit and coupled algebraic expressions.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Finding List of Interacting Binaries, 5th ed. (Wood+ 1980)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, F. B.; Oliver, J. P.; Florkowski, D. R.; Koch, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    This catalog is abstracted from the Card Catalog maintained at the University of Florida containing information on all published, and to the extent available, unpublished work on eclipsing binaries. The fifth edition differs from the previous ones in the extension of the magnitude limit at maximum light from 13 to 15. The catalog fields are Finding List number; star name; position (equinox 1900); blue magnitude at maximum light; bandpass of maximum light; depth of primary minimum in same bandpass; bandpass primary minimum; depth of secondary minimum and its bandpass; spectral class of star eclipsed at primary light and optional uncertainty character; spectral class of star eclipsed at secondary light; most recent reliable epoch of primary minimum; most recent orbital period; duration of primary minimum; duration of totality of primary minimum; BD, CoD, CPD, and HD number; alternate designations of system; codes indicating the nature of the system. (3 data files).

  3. Modeling the Dynamics of Tidally Interacting Binary Neutron Stars up to the Merger.

    PubMed

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Nagar, Alessandro; Dietrich, Tim; Damour, Thibault

    2015-04-24

    The data analysis of the gravitational wave signals emitted by coalescing neutron star binaries requires the availability of an accurate analytical representation of the dynamics and waveforms of these systems. We propose an effective-one-body model that describes the general relativistic dynamics of neutron star binaries from the early inspiral up to the merger. Our effective-one-body model incorporates an enhanced attractive tidal potential motivated by recent analytical advances in the post-Newtonian and gravitational self-force description of relativistic tidal interactions. No fitting parameters are introduced for the description of tidal interaction in the late, strong-field dynamics. We compare the model energetics and the gravitational wave phasing with new high-resolution multiorbit numerical relativity simulations of equal-mass configurations with different equations of state. We find agreement within the uncertainty of the numerical data for all configurations. Our model is the first semianalytical model that captures the tidal amplification effects close to merger. It thereby provides the most accurate analytical representation of binary neutron star dynamics and waveforms currently available.

  4. AN APPARENT PRECESSING HELICAL OUTFLOW FROM A MASSIVE EVOLVED STAR: EVIDENCE FOR BINARY INTERACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, R. M.; Hankins, M. J.; Herter, T. L.; Morris, M. R.; Mills, E. A. C.; Ressler, M. E.

    2016-02-20

    Massive, evolved stars play a crucial role in the metal enrichment, dust budget, and energetics of the interstellar medium; however, the details of their evolution are uncertain because of their rarity and short lifetimes before exploding as supernovae. Discrepancies between theoretical predictions from single-star evolutionary models and observations of massive stars have evoked a shifting paradigm that implicates the importance of binary interaction. We present mid- to far-infrared observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy of a conical “helix” of warm dust (∼180 K) that appears to extend from the Wolf–Rayet star WR102c. Our interpretation of the helix is a precessing, collimated outflow that emerged from WR102c during a previous evolutionary phase as a rapidly rotating luminous blue variable. We attribute the precession of WR102c to gravitational interactions with an unseen compact binary companion whose orbital period can be constrained to 800 days < P < 1400 days from the inferred precession period, τ{sub p} ∼ 1.4 × 10{sup 4} yr, and limits imposed on the stellar and orbital parameters of the system. Our results concur with the range of orbital periods (P ≲ 1500 days) where spin-up via mass exchange is expected to occur for massive binary systems.

  5. An Apparent Precessing Helical Outflow from a Massive Evolved Star: Evidence for Binary Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, R. M.; Hankins, M. J.; Herter, T. L.; Morris, M. R.; Mills, E. A. C.; Ressler, M. E.

    2016-02-01

    Massive, evolved stars play a crucial role in the metal enrichment, dust budget, and energetics of the interstellar medium; however, the details of their evolution are uncertain because of their rarity and short lifetimes before exploding as supernovae. Discrepancies between theoretical predictions from single-star evolutionary models and observations of massive stars have evoked a shifting paradigm that implicates the importance of binary interaction. We present mid- to far-infrared observations from the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy of a conical “helix” of warm dust (˜180 K) that appears to extend from the Wolf-Rayet star WR102c. Our interpretation of the helix is a precessing, collimated outflow that emerged from WR102c during a previous evolutionary phase as a rapidly rotating luminous blue variable. We attribute the precession of WR102c to gravitational interactions with an unseen compact binary companion whose orbital period can be constrained to 800 days < P < 1400 days from the inferred precession period, τp ˜ 1.4 × 104 yr, and limits imposed on the stellar and orbital parameters of the system. Our results concur with the range of orbital periods (P ≲ 1500 days) where spin-up via mass exchange is expected to occur for massive binary systems.

  6. Interacting binary galaxies. III. Observations of NGC 1587/1588 and NGC 7236/7237

    SciTech Connect

    Borne, K.D.; Hoessel, J.G.

    1988-07-01

    The catalog of isolated galaxy pairs prepared by Karachentsev has been culled for its E-E constituents, and the results are reported. Radial variations of rotation velocity and velocity dispersion are extracted from the spectroscopic data for each of the two galaxies of a given pair. Such observations are described for two Karachentsev pairs, Nos. 99 and 564. The observed disturbances in rotation velocity and luminosity distribution are discussed in terms of the gravitational interaction hypothesis. It is argued that observational evidence of tidal friction in action is evidenced by these findings. One of the highest rotation rates known for an E2 galaxy of average luminosity is found in NGC 1587, the brighter component of K99. Because this rotation is in the same sense as the binary orbital motion, the net angular momentum in this isolated binary system is large, challenging simple tidal torque theories to identify the source of the momentum. 62 references.

  7. Thermo-acoustical molecular interaction study in binary mixtures of glycerol and ethylene glycol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Juglan, K. C.; Kumar, Harsh

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity are measured over the entire composition range for binary liquid mixtures of glycerol (CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH) and ethylene glycol (HOCH2CH2OH) at different temperatures and constant frequency of 2MHz using ultrasonic interferometer, specific gravity bottle and viscometer respectively. Measured experimental values are used to obtained various acoustical parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, acoustic impedance, intermolecular free length, relaxation time, ultrasonic attenuation, effective molar weight, free volume, available volume, molar volume, Wada's constant, Rao's constant, Vander Waal's constant, internal pressure, Gibb's free energy and enthalpy. The variation in acoustical parameters are interpreted in terms of molecular interactions between the components of molecules of binary liquid mixtures.

  8. An enhancement of binary particle swarm optimization for gene selection in classifying cancer classes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gene expression data could likely be a momentous help in the progress of proficient cancer diagnoses and classification platforms. Lately, many researchers analyze gene expression data using diverse computational intelligence methods, for selecting a small subset of informative genes from the data for cancer classification. Many computational methods face difficulties in selecting small subsets due to the small number of samples compared to the huge number of genes (high-dimension), irrelevant genes, and noisy genes. Methods We propose an enhanced binary particle swarm optimization to perform the selection of small subsets of informative genes which is significant for cancer classification. Particle speed, rule, and modified sigmoid function are introduced in this proposed method to increase the probability of the bits in a particle’s position to be zero. The method was empirically applied to a suite of ten well-known benchmark gene expression data sets. Results The performance of the proposed method proved to be superior to other previous related works, including the conventional version of binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO) in terms of classification accuracy and the number of selected genes. The proposed method also requires lower computational time compared to BPSO. PMID:23617960

  9. Cell-free Determination of Binary Complexes That Comprise Extended Protein-Protein Interaction Networks of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Keasey, Sarah L; Natesan, Mohan; Pugh, Christine; Kamata, Teddy; Wuchty, Stefan; Ulrich, Robert G

    2016-10-01

    Binary protein interactions form the basic building blocks of molecular networks and dynamic assemblies that control all cellular functions of bacteria. Although these protein interactions are a potential source of targets for the development of new antibiotics, few high-confidence data sets are available for the large proteomes of most pathogenic bacteria. We used a library of recombinant proteins from the plague bacterium Yersinia pestis to probe planar microarrays of immobilized proteins that represented ∼85% (3552 proteins) of the bacterial proteome, resulting in >77,000 experimentally determined binary interactions. Moderate (KD ∼μm) to high-affinity (KD ∼nm) interactions were characterized for >1600 binary complexes by surface plasmon resonance imaging of microarrayed proteins. Core binary interactions that were in common with other gram-negative bacteria were identified from the results of both microarray methods. Clustering of proteins within the interaction network by function revealed statistically enriched complexes and pathways involved in replication, biosynthesis, virulence, metabolism, and other diverse biological processes. The interaction pathways included many proteins with no previously known function. Further, a large assembly of proteins linked to transcription and translation were contained within highly interconnected subregions of the network. The two-tiered microarray approach used here is an innovative method for detecting binary interactions, and the resulting data will serve as a critical resource for the analysis of protein interaction networks that function within an important human pathogen. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Interaction between natural antioxidants derived from cinnamon and cocoa in binary and complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Dimas Rahadian Aji; Praseptiangga, Danar; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2017-09-15

    Cinnamon and cocoa are known to be valuable sources of bioactive phytochemicals, mainly the polyphenols. This paper investigates the potential antioxidant activity of cinnamon and cocoa extract and the interaction of their mixtures by various in vitro tests. Moreover, the combination effect of their constituents in a binary mixture was studied. Two representative active compounds of chocolate (epicatechin, catechin) were combined with seven of cinnamon (gallic acid, tannic acid, quercetin, sinapic acid, cinnamic acid, eugenol and cinnamaldehyde) in multilevel ratios. The results indicate that the addition of the cinnamon extract significantly increased the antioxidant activity of the cocoa extract. The interaction ranged from synergetic to antagonistic. The interaction was less synergetic when cinnamon extract was added in higher proportion. The interaction of their constituents substantially influenced the antioxidant activity of the mixture and was dependent on the ratio. The kinetics' study could elucidate how the polyphenols work in a mixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Heterogeneous binary interactions of taste primaries: perceptual outcomes, physiology, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Lynn M; Capaldi Phillips, Elizabeth D

    2014-11-01

    Complex taste experiences arise from the combinations of five taste primaries. Here we review the literature on binary interactions of heterogeneous taste primaries, focusing on perceptual results of administering mixtures of aqueous solutions to human participants. Some interactions proved relatively consistent across tastants and experimental methods: sour acids enhanced saltiness, salts and sweeteners suppressed bitterness, sweeteners suppressed sourness, and sour acids enhanced bitterness. However, for the majority of interactions there were differential effects based on the tastants and their concentrations. Drawing conclusions about interactions with umami is currently not possible due to the low number of primary source studies investigating it and the confounding sodium ions in monosodium glutamate (MSG). Speculative physiological explanations are provided that fit the current data and suggestions for future research studies are proposed.

  12. PG0027 + 260 - An example of a class of cataclysmic binaries with mysterious, but consistent, behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorstensen, John R.; Ringwald, F. A.; Wade, Richard A.; Schmidt, Gary D.; Norsworthy, Jane E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports extensive optical observations on the PG0027 + 260 binary, carried out on August 1984 with the 1.3 McGraw-Hill telescope and Mark II spectrometer at Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT Observatory on Kitt Peak. It is shown that this object is an eclipsing novalike variable with an orbital period of 3.51 hr. The PG0027 + 260 displays several unexplained phenomena which are remarkably similar to those of the SW Sex, DW UMa, and V1315 Aql, which are eclipsing novalike stars with periods between 3 and 4 hrs. The eclipse of the PG0027 + 260 is modeled, and it is shown that, while the mean eclipse light curve is easy to match, there is no simple explanation for the variable depth.

  13. Binary interactions as a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Dengkai; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang E-mail: zhanwenhan@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-07-01

    Observations have revealed the presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. We present a scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the stars with anomalous abundances observed in GCs are merged stars and accretor stars produced by binary interactions—rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation—and that these stars are more massive than normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. We find that, due to their own evolution, these rapidly rotating stars have surface abundances, effective temperatures, and luminosities that are different from normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. This stellar population of binaries reproduces two important points of observational evidence of multiple stellar populations: a Na-O anticorrelation and multiple sequences in the HR diagram. This evidence suggests that binary interactions may be a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs.

  14. EPIC 220204960: A Quadruple Star System Containing Two Strongly Interacting Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, S.; Vanderburg, A.; Borkovits, T.; Kalomeni, B.; Halpern, J. P.; Ngo, H.; Mace, G. N.; Fulton, B. J.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H.; Petigura, E. A.; Mawet, D.; Kristiansen, M. H.; Jacobs, T. L.; LaCourse, D.; Bieryla, A.; Forgács-Dajka, E.; Nelson, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a strongly interacting quadruple system associated with the K2 target EPIC 220204960. The K2 target itself is a Kp = 12.7 magnitude star at Teff ≃ 6100 K which we designate as "B-N" (blue northerly image). The host of the quadruple system, however, is a Kp ≃ 17 magnitude star with a composite M-star spectrum, which we designate as "R-S" (red southerly image). With a 3.2″ separation and similar radial velocities and photometric distances, `B-N' is likely physically associated with `R-S', making this a quintuple system, but that is incidental to our main claim of a strongly interacting quadruple system in `R-S'. The two binaries in `R-S' have orbital periods of 13.27 d and 14.41 d, respectively, and each has an inclination angle of ≳ 89°. From our analysis of radial velocity measurements, and of the photometric lightcurve, we conclude that all four stars are very similar with masses close to 0.4 M⊙. Both of the binaries exhibit significant ETVs where those of the primary and secondary eclipses `diverge' by 0.05 days over the course of the 80-day observations. Via a systematic set of numerical simulations of quadruple systems consisting of two interacting binaries, we conclude that the outer orbital period is very likely to be between 300 and 500 days. If sufficient time is devoted to RV studies of this faint target, the outer orbit should be measurable within a year.

  15. EPIC 220204960: A Quadruple Star System Containing Two Strongly Interacting Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappaport, S.; Vanderburg, A.; Borkovits, T.; Kalomeni, B.; Halpern, J. P.; Ngo, H.; Mace, G. N.; Fulton, B. J.; Howard, A. W.; Isaacson, H.; Petigura, E. A.; Mawet, D.; Kristiansen, M. H.; Jacobs, T. L.; LaCourse, D.; Bieryla, A.; Forgács-Dajka, E.; Nelson, L.

    2017-05-01

    We present a strongly interacting quadruple system associated with the K2 target EPIC 220204960. The K2 target itself is a Kp = 12.7-mag star at Teff ≃ 6100 K, which we designate as 'B-N' (blue northerly image). The host of the quadruple system, however, is a Kp ≃ 17-mag star with a composite M-star spectrum, which we designate as 'R-S' (red southerly image). With a 3.2-arcsec separation and similar radial velocities and photometric distances, 'B-N' is likely physically associated with 'R-S', making this a quintuple system, but that is incidental to our main claim of a strongly interacting quadruple system in 'R-S'. The two binaries in 'R-S' have orbital periods of 13.27 and 14.41 d, respectively, and each has an inclination angle of ≳89°. From our analysis of radial-velocity (RV) measurements, and of the photometric light curve, we conclude that all four stars are very similar with masses close to 0.4 M⊙. Both of the binaries exhibit significant eclipse-timing variations where those of the primary and secondary eclipses 'diverge' by 0.05 d over the course of the 80-d observations. Via a systematic set of numerical simulations of quadruple systems consisting of two interacting binaries, we conclude that the outer orbital period is very likely to be between 300 and 500 d. If sufficient time is devoted to RV studies of this faint target, the outer orbit should be measurable within a year.

  16. Characterizing Olfactory Binary Mixture Interactions in Fischer 344 Rats Using Behavioral Reaction Times

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Wendy M.; Gaynor, Leslie; Windham, Ethan; Lyman, Michelle; Munizza, Olivia; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Response times provide essential subthreshold perceptual data that extend beyond accuracy alone. Behavioral reaction times (RTs) were used to characterize rats’ ability to detect individual odorants in a series of complimentary binary odorant mixture ratios. We employed an automated, liquid-dilution olfactometer to train Fischer 344 rats (N = 8) on an odor identification task using nonreinforced probe trials. Binary mixture ratios composed of aliphatic odorants (citral and octanol) were arranged such that relative contributions of the 2 components varied systematically by a factor of 1% (v/v). Odorant concentrations for the target (S+), control (S−), and mixture (S+:S−) odorants were presented relative to threshold for each rat. Rats were initially trained to respond by licking at a spout to obtain liquid reward for either citral or octanol as the reinforced target (S+) odorant. After achieving 100% accuracy, rats were transferred to variable ratio (VR 2) reinforcement for correct responding. Nonreinforced probe trials (2 per block of 22 trials) were tested for each mixture ratio and recorded as either S+ (rats lick-responded in the presence of the mixture) or S− (rats refrained from licking), thereby indicating detection of the trained, S+ odorant. To determine the perceived salience for each ratio, RTs (latency from odorant onset to lick response) were recorded for each trial. Consistent with previous studies, RTs for both odorants were shortest (~150–200ms) when the probe trials consisted of a single, monomolecular component. Binary mixtures that contained as little as 1% of the S−, nontarget odorant, however, were sufficiently different perceptually to increase behavioral RTs (i.e., rats hesitated longer before responding); RTs changed systematically as a function of the binary ratio. Interestingly, the rate of RT change was dependent on which odorant served as the S+, suggesting an asymmetric interaction between the 2 odorants. The data demonstrate

  17. A Chandra X-ray census of the interacting binaries in old open clusters - NGC 188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vats, Smriti; Van Den Berg, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    We present a new X-ray study of NGC 188, one of the oldest open clusters known in the Milky Way (7 Gyr). Our X-ray observation using the Chandra X-ray Observatory is aimed at uncovering the population of close interacting binaries in the cluster. We detect 84 X-ray sources with a limiting X-ray luminosity, LX ~ 4×1029 erg s-1 (0.3-7 keV), of which 28 are within the half-mass radius. Of these, 13 are proper-motion or radial-velocity cluster members, wherein we identify a mix of active binaries (ABs) and blue straggler stars (BSSs). We also identify one tentative cataclysmic variable (CV) candidate which is a known short-period photometric variable, but whose membership to NGC 188 is unknown. We have compared the X-ray luminosity per unit of cluster mass (i.e. the X-ray emissivity) of NGC 188 with those of other old Galactic open clusters and dense globular clusters (47 Tuc, NGC 6397). Our findings confirm the earlier result that old open clusters have higher X-ray emissivities than the globular clusters (LX ≥1×1030 erg s-1). This may be explained by dynamical encounters in globulars, which could have a net effect of destroying binaries, or the typically higher metallicities of open clusters. We find one intriguing X-ray source in NGC 188 that is a BSS and cluster member, whose X-ray luminosity cannot be explained by its currently understood binary configuration. Its X-ray detection invokes the need for a third companion in the system.

  18. Mapping and Modeling the Extended Winds of the Massive Interacting Binary, Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The combination HST/STIS high spatial and moderate spectral resolutions have revealed the massive interacting wind structure of Eta Carinae by forbidden lines of singly and doubly ionized elements. Throughout the 5.54-year period, lines of Fe++, Ne++, Ar++, S++ and N+ reveal the interacting wind structures, near critical electron densities of 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 7)cu cm, photoionized by the hot secondary, Eta Car B, Lines of Fe+ and Ni+ trace the denser (>10(exp 7)cu cm. less-ionized (< 8 eV) primary wind of Eta Car A as it wraps around the interacting binary stars. For 5 years of the 5.54 year period, the FUV radiation from Eta Car B escapes the orbital region, ionizing the boundaries of the expanding wind structures. But for three to six months, Eta Car B plunges into the primary wind approaching to within 1 to 2 AU, leading to cutoff of FUV and X-ray fluxes. The interacting wind structure, resolved out to 0.8", drops io ionization and then rebuilds as Eta Car B emerges from the primary wind envelope. Solid Particle Hydrodynamical(SPH) models have been developed extending out to 2000 AU and adapted to include FUV radiation effects of the winds. In turn, synthetic spectroimages of selected forbidden lines have been constructed and compared to the spectroimages recorded by the HST/STIS throughout 1998.0 to 2004.3, extending across the 1998 and 2003.5 minima. By this method, we show that the orbital axis of the binary system must bc within 15 degrees of the Homunculus axis of symmetry and that periastron occurs with Eta Car B passing on the far side of Eta Car B. This result ties the current binary orbit with the bipolar ejection with intervening skirt and leads to implications that the binary system influenced the mass ejection of the l840s and the lesser ejection of the 1890s.

  19. Mapping and Modeling the Extended Winds of the Massive Interacting Binary, Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The combination HST/STIS high spatial and moderate spectral resolutions have revealed the massive interacting wind structure of Eta Carinae by forbidden lines of singly and doubly ionized elements. Throughout the 5.54-year period, lines of Fe++, Ne++, Ar++, S++ and N+ reveal the interacting wind structures, near critical electron densities of 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 7)cu cm, photoionized by the hot secondary, Eta Car B, Lines of Fe+ and Ni+ trace the denser (>10(exp 7)cu cm. less-ionized (< 8 eV) primary wind of Eta Car A as it wraps around the interacting binary stars. For 5 years of the 5.54 year period, the FUV radiation from Eta Car B escapes the orbital region, ionizing the boundaries of the expanding wind structures. But for three to six months, Eta Car B plunges into the primary wind approaching to within 1 to 2 AU, leading to cutoff of FUV and X-ray fluxes. The interacting wind structure, resolved out to 0.8", drops io ionization and then rebuilds as Eta Car B emerges from the primary wind envelope. Solid Particle Hydrodynamical(SPH) models have been developed extending out to 2000 AU and adapted to include FUV radiation effects of the winds. In turn, synthetic spectroimages of selected forbidden lines have been constructed and compared to the spectroimages recorded by the HST/STIS throughout 1998.0 to 2004.3, extending across the 1998 and 2003.5 minima. By this method, we show that the orbital axis of the binary system must bc within 15 degrees of the Homunculus axis of symmetry and that periastron occurs with Eta Car B passing on the far side of Eta Car B. This result ties the current binary orbit with the bipolar ejection with intervening skirt and leads to implications that the binary system influenced the mass ejection of the l840s and the lesser ejection of the 1890s.

  20. Large attractive depletion interactions in soft repulsive-sphere binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Cinacchi, Giorgio; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Mederos, Luis; Navascués, Guillermo; Tani, Alessandro; Velasco, Enrique

    2007-12-07

    We consider binary mixtures of soft repulsive spherical particles and calculate the depletion interaction between two big spheres mediated by the fluid of small spheres, using different theoretical and simulation methods. The validity of the theoretical approach, a virial expansion in terms of the density of the small spheres, is checked against simulation results. Attention is given to the approach toward the hard-sphere limit and to the effect of density and temperature on the strength of the depletion potential. Our results indicate, surprisingly, that even a modest degree of softness in the pair potential governing the direct interactions between the particles may lead to a significantly more attractive total effective potential for the big spheres than in the hard-sphere case. This might lead to significant differences in phase behavior, structure, and dynamics of a binary mixture of soft repulsive spheres. In particular, a perturbative scheme is applied to predict the phase diagram of an effective system of big spheres interacting via depletion forces for a size ratio of small and big spheres of 0.2; this diagram includes the usual fluid-solid transition but, in the soft-sphere case, the metastable fluid-fluid transition, which is probably absent in hard-sphere mixtures, is close to being stable with respect to direct fluid-solid coexistence. From these results, the interesting possibility arises that, for sufficiently soft repulsive particles, this phase transition could become stable. Possible implications for the phase behavior of real colloidal dispersions are discussed.

  1. Resolving the Massive Binary Wind Interaction Of Eta Carinae with HST/STIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Theodore; Nielsen, K.; Corcoran, M.; Hillier, J.; Madura, T.; Hamaguchi, K.; Kober, G.; Owocki, S.; Russell, C.; Okazaki, A.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We have resolved the outer structures of the massive binary interacting wind of Eta Carinae using the HST/STIS. They extend as much as 0.7' (1600AU) and are highly distorted due to the very elliptical orbit of the binary system. Observations conducted from 1998.0 to 2004.3 show spatial and temporal variations consistent with a massive, low excitation wind, seen by spatially resolved, velocity-broadened [Fe II], and a high excitation extended wind interaction region, seen by[Fe III], in the shape of a distorted paraboloid. The highly excited [Fe III] structure is visible for 90% of the 5.5-year period, but disappears as periastron occurs along with the drop of X-Rays as seen by RXTE. Some components appear in [Fe II] emission across the months long minimum. We will discuss the apparent differences between the bowshock orientation derived from the RXTE light curve and these structures seen by HST/STIS. Monitoring the temporal variations with phase using high spatial resolution with appropriate spectral dispersions proves to be a valuable tool for understanding massive wind interactions.

  2. Bubble-Point Measurements of n-Propane + n-Decane Binary Mixtures with Comparisons of Binary Mixture Interaction Parameters for Linear Alkanes.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Elisabeth; Bell, Ian H; Outcalt, Stephanie L

    2016-07-14

    To develop comprehensive models for multicomponent natural gas mixtures, it is necessary to have binary interaction parameters for each of the pairs of constituent fluids that form the mixture. The determination of accurate mixture interaction parameters depends on reliably collected experimental data. In this work, we have carried out an experimental campaign to measure the bubble-point pressures of mixtures of n-propane and n-decane, a mixture that has been thus far poorly studied with only four existing data sets. The experimental measurements of bubble-point states span a composition range (in n-propane mole fraction) from 0.269 to 0.852, and the bubble-point pressures are measured in the temperature range from 270 K to 370 K. These data, in conjunction with data from a previous publication on mixtures of n-butane + n-octane and n-butane + n-nonane, are used to determine binary interaction parameters. The newly-obtained binary interaction parameters for the mixture of n-propane and n-decane represent the experimental bubble-point pressures given here to within 8% (coverage factor, k=2), as opposed to previous deviations up to 19%.

  3. Class Size Effects on the Number and Types of Student-Teacher Interactions in Primary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folmer-Annevelink, Elvira; Doolaard, Simone; Mascareno, Mayra; Bosker, Roel J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between class size and student-teacher interactions as an explanation for effects of class size on achievement. Observations were conducted in kindergarten and Grade 1 classes from 46 Dutch primary schools in order to address the effect of class size on the amount and type of student-teacher interactions. The…

  4. Class Size Effects on the Number and Types of Student-Teacher Interactions in Primary Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folmer-Annevelink, Elvira; Doolaard, Simone; Mascareno, Mayra; Bosker, Roel J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the relationship between class size and student-teacher interactions as an explanation for effects of class size on achievement. Observations were conducted in kindergarten and Grade 1 classes from 46 Dutch primary schools in order to address the effect of class size on the amount and type of student-teacher interactions. The…

  5. Nonlocal quartic interactions and universality classes in perovskite manganites.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit; Dutta, Kishore; Nandy, Malay K

    2015-07-01

    A modified Ginzburg-Landau model with a screened nonlocal interaction in the quartic term is treated via Wilson's renormalization-group scheme at one-loop order to explore the critical behavior of the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition in perovskite manganites. We find the Fisher exponent η to be O(ε) and the correlation exponent to be ν=1/2+O(ε) through epsilon expansion in the parameter ε=d(c)-d, where d is the space dimension, d(c)=4+2σ is the upper critical dimension, and σ is a parameter coming from the nonlocal interaction in the model Hamiltonian. The ensuing critical exponents in three dimensions for different values of σ compare well with various existing experimental estimates for perovskite manganites with various doping levels. This suggests that the nonlocal model Hamiltonian contains a wide variety of such universality classes.

  6. THE REFLECTION EFFECT IN INTERACTING BINARIES OR IN PLANET-STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Budaj, J.

    2011-02-15

    There are many similarities between interacting binary stars and stars with a close-in giant extrasolar planet. The reflection effect is a well-known example. Although the generally accepted treatment of this effect in interacting binaries is successful in fitting light curves of eclipsing binaries, it is not very suitable for studying cold objects irradiated by hot objects or extrasolar planets. The aim of this paper is to develop a model of the reflection effect which could be easily incorporated into the present codes for modeling of interacting binaries so that these can be used to study the aforementioned objects. Our model of the reflection effect takes into account the reflection (scattering), heating, and heat redistribution over the surface of the irradiated object. The shape of the object is described by the non-spherical Roche potential expected for close objects. Limb and gravity darkening are included in the calculations of the light output from the system. The model also accounts for the orbital revolution and rotation of the exoplanet with appropriate Doppler shifts for the scattered and thermal radiation. Subsequently, light curves and/or spectra of several exoplanets have been modeled and the effects of the heat redistribution, limb darkening/brightening, (non-)gray albedo, and non-spherical shape have been studied. Recent observations of planet-to-star flux ratio of HD189733b, WASP12b, and WASP-19b at various phases were reproduced with very good accuracy. It was found that HD189733b has a low Bond albedo and intense heat redistribution, while WASP-19b has a low Bond albedo and low heat redistribution. The exact Roche geometries and temperature distributions over the surface of all 78 transiting extrasolar planets have been determined. Departures from the spherical shape may vary considerably but departures of about 1% in the radius are common within the sample. In some cases, these departures can reach 8%, 12%, or 14%, for WASP-33b, WASP-19b, and

  7. Interactome mapping for analysis of complex phenotypes: insights from benchmarking binary interaction assays.

    PubMed

    Braun, Pascal

    2012-05-01

    Protein interactions mediate essentially all biological processes and analysis of protein-protein interactions using both large-scale and small-scale approaches has contributed fundamental insights to the understanding of biological systems. In recent years, interactome network maps have emerged as an important tool for analyzing and interpreting genetic data of complex phenotypes. Complementary experimental approaches to test for binary, direct interactions, and for membership in protein complexes are used to explore the interactome. The two approaches are not redundant but yield orthogonal perspectives onto the complex network of physical interactions by which proteins mediate biological processes. In recent years, several publications have demonstrated that interactions from high-throughput experiments can be equally reliable as the high quality subset of interactions identified in small-scale studies. Critical for this insight was the introduction of standardized experimental benchmarking of interaction and validation assays using reference sets. The data obtained in these benchmarking experiments have resulted in greater appreciation of the limitations and the complementary strengths of different assays. Moreover, benchmarking is a central element of a conceptual framework to estimate interactome sizes and thereby measure progress toward near complete network maps. These estimates have revealed that current large-scale data sets, although often of high quality, cover only a small fraction of a given interactome. Here, I review the findings of assay benchmarking and discuss implications for quality control, and for strategies toward obtaining a near-complete map of the interactome of an organism.

  8. Formation of Tidal Captures and Gravitational Wave Inspirals in Binary-single Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsing, Johan; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2017-09-01

    We perform the first systematic study of how dynamical stellar tides and general relativistic (GR) effects affect the dynamics and outcomes of binary-single interactions. For this, we have constructed an N-body code that includes tides in the affine approximation, where stars are modeled as self-similar ellipsoidal polytropes, and GR corrections using the commonly used post-Newtonian formalism. Using this numerical formalism, we are able resolve the leading effect from tides and GR across several orders of magnitude in both stellar radius and initial target binary separation. We find that the main effect from tides is the formation of two-body tidal captures that form during the chaotic and resonant evolution of the triple system. The two stars undergoing the capture spiral in and merge. The inclusion of tides can thus lead to an increase in the stellar coalescence rate. We also develop an analytical framework for calculating the cross section of tidal inspirals between any pair of objects with similar mass. From our analytical and numerical estimates, we find that the rate of tidal inspirals relative to collisions increases as the initial semimajor axis of the target binary increases and the radius of the interacting tidal objects decreases. The largest effect is therefore found for triple systems hosting white dwarfs and neutron stars (NSs). In this case, we find the rate of highly eccentric white dwarf—NS mergers to likely be dominated by tidal inspirals. While tidal inspirals occur rarely, we note that they can give rise to a plethora of thermonuclear transients, such as Ca-rich transients.

  9. Critical Casimir interactions between colloids around the critical point of binary solvents.

    PubMed

    Stuij, S G; Labbé-Laurent, M; Kodger, T E; Maciołek, A; Schall, P

    2017-08-09

    Critical Casimir interactions between colloidal particles arise from the confinement of fluctuations of a near-critical solvent in the liquid gap between closely-spaced particles. So far, the comparison of theoretical predictions and experimental measurements of critical Casimir forces (CCFs) has focused on the critical solvent composition, while it has been lacking for off-critical compositions. We address this issue by investigating CCFs between spherical colloidal particles around the critical point of a binary solvent through a combination of experiments, previous Ising Monte Carlo simulation results and field-theoretical methods. By measuring the correlation length of the near-critical solvent and the pair potentials of the particles in terms of radial distribution functions and by determining the second virial coefficient, we test in detail theoretical predictions. Our results indicate that the critical Casimir theory gives quantitative correct predictions for the interaction potential between particles in a near critical binary mixture if weak preferential adsorption of the particle surface is taken into account.

  10. Effects of interactions between depletants in phase diagrams of binary hard-sphere systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suematsu, A.; Yoshimori, A.; Akiyama, R.

    2016-11-01

    Fluid-solid phase diagrams for binary hard-sphere systems were calculated to study the effects of interactions between depletants. Two effective potentials between large hard spheres were examined. One was the Asakura-Oosawa (AO) potential, and the other was an effective potential obtained by using an integral equation theory (IE potential). The IE potential has oscillations caused by the interactions between depletants, whereas in the AO potential, the inter-depletant correlation is ignored. The phase diagrams were obtained by using the thermodynamic perturbation theory with the density functional theory. The phase diagrams for the IE potential systems differed from those for the AO potential systems because of the inter-depletant correlation. The differences in the present calculation were caused by the first minimum of the effective potential.

  11. PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC INTERACTION FOR A BINARY MIXTURE OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND DIAZINON IN THE RAT

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Hinman, Melissa N.; Busby, Andrea L.; Kousba, Ahmed A.

    2005-05-15

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) are two commonly used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and potential exists for concurrent exposures. The primary neurotoxic effects from OP pesticide exposures result from the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by their oxon metabolites. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic impact of acute binary exposures to CPF and DZN in rats were evaluated in this study. Rats were orally administered CPF, DZN or a CPF/DZN mixture (0, 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg) and blood (plasma and RBC), and brain were collected at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-dosing, urine was also collected at 24 h. Chlorpyrifos, DZN and their respective metabolites 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMHP) were quantified in blood and/or urine and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition was measured in brain, RBCs and plasma. Co-exposure to CPF/DZN at 15/15 mg/kg, did not appreciably alter the pharmacokinetics of CPF, DZN or their metabolites in blood; whereas, a 60/60 mg/kg dose resulted in a transient increase in Cmax, AUC, and decreased clearance of both compounds, likely due to competition between CPF and DZN for CYP450 metabolism. At lower doses, most likely to be encountered in occupational or environmental exposures, the pharmacokinetics were linear. A dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was noted in tissues for both the single and co-exposures. The overall potency for ChE inhibition was greater for CPF than DZN and the binary mixture response appeared to be strongly influenced by CPF. A comparison of the ChE binary response at the low dose (15 mg/kg), where there were no apparent pharmacokinetic interactions, suggested that the overall ChE response was additive. These are the first reported experiments we are aware of that characterize both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between CPF and DZN in the rat, and will be used to further develop a binary physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic

  12. Spectroscopy, MOST photometry, and interferometry of MWC 314: is it an LBV or an interacting binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Noel D.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Maltais-Tariant, Raphaël; Pablo, Herbert; Gies, Douglas R.; Saio, Hideyuki; St-Louis, Nicole; Schaefer, Gail; Miroshnichenko, Anatoly S.; Farrington, Chris; Aldoretta, Emily J.; Artigau, Étienne; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Gordon, Kathryn; Jones, Jeremy; Matson, Rachel; McAlister, Harold A.; O'Brien, David; Raghavan, Deepak; Ramiaramanantsoa, Tahina; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Scott, Nic; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Brummelaar, Theo ten; Thomas, Joshua D.; Turner, Nils; Vargas, Norm; Zharikov, Sergey; Matthews, Jaymie; Cameron, Chris; Guenther, David; Kuschnig, Rainer; Rowe, Jason; Rucinski, Slavek; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner

    2016-01-01

    MWC 314 is a bright candidate luminous blue variable (LBV) that resides in a fairly close binary system, with an orbital period of 60.753 ± 0.003 d. We observed MWC 314 with a combination of optical spectroscopy, broad-band ground- and space-based photometry, as well as with long baseline, near-infrared interferometry. We have revised the single-lined spectroscopic orbit and explored the photometric variability. The orbital light curve displays two minima each orbit that can be partially explained in terms of the tidal distortion of the primary that occurs around the time of periastron. The emission lines in the system are often double-peaked and stationary in their kinematics, indicative of a circumbinary disc. We find that the stellar wind or circumbinary disc is partially resolved in the K'-band with the longest baselines of the CHARA Array. From this analysis, we provide a simple, qualitative model in an attempt to explain the observations. From the assumption of Roche Lobe overflow and tidal synchronization at periastron, we estimate the component masses to be M1 ≈ 5 M⊙ and M2 ≈ 15 M⊙, which indicates a mass of the LBV that is extremely low. In addition to the orbital modulation, we discovered two pulsational modes with the MOST satellite. These modes are easily supported by a low-mass hydrogen-poor star, but cannot be easily supported by a star with the parameters of an LBV. The combination of these results provides evidence that the primary star was likely never a normal LBV, but rather is the product of binary interactions. As such, this system presents opportunities for studying mass-transfer and binary evolution with many observational techniques.

  13. Teaching Literacy in Primary Schools Using an Interactive Whole-Class Technology: Facilitating Student-to-Student Whole-Class Dialogic Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Damian

    2012-01-01

    Much of the research conducted on the use of interactive whole-class technologies in primary school classroom focuses on teacher-to-student interactions. This paper, drawing on a social theory of learning, reports on a qualitative case study undertaken with two primary school classes in one school in New South Wales, Australia where the…

  14. The effect of tides on the population of PN from interacting binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madappatt, Niyas; De Marco, Orsola; Villaver, Eva

    2016-11-01

    We have used the tidal equations of Zahn to determine the maximum orbital distance at which companions are brought into Roche lobe contact with their giant primary, when the primary expands during the giant phases. This is a key step when determining the rates of interaction between giants and their companions. Our stellar structure calculations are presented as maximum radii reached during the red and asymptotic giant branch (RGB and AGB, respectively) stages of evolution for masses between 0.8 and 4.0 M⊙ (Z = 0.001-0.04) and compared with other models to gauge the uncertainty on radii deriving from details of these calculations. We find overall tidal capture distances that are typically 1-4 times the maximum radial extent of the giant star, where companions are in the mass range from 1 MJ to a mass slightly smaller than the mass of the primary. We find that only companions at initial orbital separations between ˜320 and ˜630 R⊙ will be typically captured into a Roche lobe-filling interaction or a common envelope on the AGB. Comparing these limits with the period distribution for binaries that will make planetary nebula (PN), we deduce that in the standard scenario where all ˜1-8 M⊙ stars make a PN, at most 2.5 per cent of all PN should have a post-common envelope central star binary, at odds with the observational lower limit of 15-20 per cent. The observed overabundance of post-interaction central stars of PN cannot be easily explained considering the uncertainties. We examine a range of explanations for this discrepancy.

  15. An odor interaction model of binary odorant mixtures by a partial differential equation method.

    PubMed

    Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Wang, Guihua; Wu, Chuandong

    2014-07-09

    A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE) method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method) of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture's odor intensity to the individual odorant's relative odor activity value (OAV). Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors) also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions.

  16. MODELING MULTI-WAVELENGTH STELLAR ASTROMETRY. I. SIM LITE OBSERVATIONS OF INTERACTING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Harrison, Thomas E.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Ciardi, David R.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Howell, Steve B.

    2010-07-10

    Interacting binaries (IBs) consist of a secondary star that fills or is very close to filling its Roche lobe, resulting in accretion onto the primary star, which is often, but not always, a compact object. In many cases, the primary star, secondary star, and the accretion disk can all be significant sources of luminosity. SIM Lite will only measure the photocenter of an astrometric target, and thus determining the true astrometric orbits of such systems will be difficult. We have modified the Eclipsing Light Curve code to allow us to model the flux-weighted reflex motions of IBs, in a code we call REFLUX. This code gives us sufficient flexibility to investigate nearly every configuration of IB. We find that SIM Lite will be able to determine astrometric orbits for all sufficiently bright IBs where the primary or secondary star dominates the luminosity. For systems where there are multiple components that comprise the spectrum in the optical bandpass accessible to SIM Lite, we find it is possible to obtain absolute masses for both components, although multi-wavelength photometry will be required to disentangle the multiple components. In all cases, SIM Lite will at least yield accurate inclinations and provide valuable information that will allow us to begin to understand the complex evolution of mass-transferring binaries. It is critical that SIM Lite maintains a multi-wavelength capability to allow for the proper deconvolution of the astrometric orbits in multi-component systems.

  17. 3D Modeling of Forbidden Line Emission in the Binary Wind Interaction Region of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, Thomas; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2010-01-01

    We present recent work using three-dimensional (3D) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations to model the high ([Fe III], [Ar III], [Ne III] and [S III]) and low ([Fe II], [Ni II]) ionization forbidden emission lines observed in Eta Carinae using the HST/STIS. These structures are interpreted as the time-averaged, outer extensions of the primary wind and the wind-wind interaction region directly excited by the FUV of the hot companion star of this massive binary system. We discuss how analyzing the results of the 3D SPH simulations and synthetic slit spectra and comparing them to the spectra obtained with the HST/STIS helps us determine the absolute orientation of the binary orbit and helps remove the degeneracy inherent to models based solely on the observed RXTE X-ray light curve. A key point of this work is that spatially resolved observations like those with HST/STIS and comparison to 3D models are necessary to determine the alignment or misalignment of the orbital angular momentum axis with the Homunculus, or correspondingly, the alignment of the orbital plane with the Homunculus skirt.

  18. An Odor Interaction Model of Binary Odorant Mixtures by a Partial Differential Equation Method

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Luchun; Liu, Jiemin; Wang, Guihua; Wu, Chuandong

    2014-01-01

    A novel odor interaction model was proposed for binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes by a partial differential equation (PDE) method. Based on the measurement method (tangent-intercept method) of partial molar volume, original parameters of corresponding formulas were reasonably displaced by perceptual measures. By these substitutions, it was possible to relate a mixture's odor intensity to the individual odorant's relative odor activity value (OAV). Several binary mixtures of benzene and substituted benzenes were respectively tested to establish the PDE models. The obtained results showed that the PDE model provided an easily interpretable method relating individual components to their joint odor intensity. Besides, both predictive performance and feasibility of the PDE model were proved well through a series of odor intensity matching tests. If combining the PDE model with portable gas detectors or on-line monitoring systems, olfactory evaluation of odor intensity will be achieved by instruments instead of odor assessors. Many disadvantages (e.g., expense on a fixed number of odor assessors) also will be successfully avoided. Thus, the PDE model is predicted to be helpful to the monitoring and management of odor pollutions. PMID:25010698

  19. Insights into synergistic interactions in binary mixtures of chemical permeation enhancers for transdermal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Karande, Pankaj; Jain, Amit; Mitragotri, Samir

    2006-09-28

    Chemical permeation enhancers (CPEs) are known to increase skin permeability to therapeutic drugs. Single chemicals, however, offer limited enhancements of skin permeability. Mixtures of chemicals can overcome this limitation owing to their synergistic interactions. However, identification of potent mixtures of chemicals requires screening of a large number of formulations. Discovery of CPE mixtures can be significantly accelerated by identifying patterns that occur in the existing data on CPEs. In this study, we systematically mine through a huge database on skin permeabilizing effect of over 4000 binary formulations generated by high throughput screening and extract general principles that govern the effect of binary combinations of chemicals on skin's barrier properties. Potencies and synergies of these formulations are analyzed to identify the role played by the formulation composition and chemistry. The analysis reveals several intuitive but some largely non-intuitive trends. For example, formulations made from enhancer mixtures are most potent when participating moieties are present in nearly equal fractions. Methyl pyrrolidone, a small molecule, is particularly effective in forming potent and synergistic enhancer formulations, and zwitterionic surfactants are more likely to feature in potent enhancers. Simple but invaluable rules like these will provide guiding principles for designing libraries to further speed up the formulation discovery process.

  20. 3D Modeling of Forbidden Line Emission in the Binary Wind Interaction Region of Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madura, Thomas; Gull, T. R.; Owocki, S.; Okazaki, A. T.; Russell, C. M. P.

    2010-01-01

    We present recent work using three-dimensional (3D) Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations to model the high ([Fe III], [Ar III], [Ne III] and [S III]) and low ([Fe II], [Ni II]) ionization forbidden emission lines observed in Eta Carinae using the HST/STIS. These structures are interpreted as the time-averaged, outer extensions of the primary wind and the wind-wind interaction region directly excited by the FUV of the hot companion star of this massive binary system. We discuss how analyzing the results of the 3D SPH simulations and synthetic slit spectra and comparing them to the spectra obtained with the HST/STIS helps us determine the absolute orientation of the binary orbit and helps remove the degeneracy inherent to models based solely on the observed RXTE X-ray light curve. A key point of this work is that spatially resolved observations like those with HST/STIS and comparison to 3D models are necessary to determine the alignment or misalignment of the orbital angular momentum axis with the Homunculus, or correspondingly, the alignment of the orbital plane with the Homunculus skirt.

  1. Characterizing olfactory binary mixture interactions in Fischer 344 rats using behavioral reaction times.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Wendy M; Gaynor, Leslie; Windham, Ethan; Lyman, Michelle; Munizza, Olivia; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L; Smith, David W

    2015-06-01

    Response times provide essential subthreshold perceptual data that extend beyond accuracy alone. Behavioral reaction times (RTs) were used to characterize rats' ability to detect individual odorants in a series of complimentary binary odorant mixture ratios. We employed an automated, liquid-dilution olfactometer to train Fischer 344 rats (N = 8) on an odor identification task using nonreinforced probe trials. Binary mixture ratios composed of aliphatic odorants (citral and octanol) were arranged such that relative contributions of the 2 components varied systematically by a factor of 1% (v/v). Odorant concentrations for the target (S+), control (S-), and mixture (S+:S-) odorants were presented relative to threshold for each rat. Rats were initially trained to respond by licking at a spout to obtain liquid reward for either citral or octanol as the reinforced target (S+) odorant. After achieving 100% accuracy, rats were transferred to variable ratio (VR 2) reinforcement for correct responding. Nonreinforced probe trials (2 per block of 22 trials) were tested for each mixture ratio and recorded as either S+ (rats lick-responded in the presence of the mixture) or S- (rats refrained from licking), thereby indicating detection of the trained, S+ odorant. To determine the perceived salience for each ratio, RTs (latency from odorant onset to lick response) were recorded for each trial. Consistent with previous studies, RTs for both odorants were shortest (~150-200ms) when the probe trials consisted of a single, monomolecular component. Binary mixtures that contained as little as 1% of the S-, nontarget odorant, however, were sufficiently different perceptually to increase behavioral RTs (i.e., rats hesitated longer before responding); RTs changed systematically as a function of the binary ratio. Interestingly, the rate of RT change was dependent on which odorant served as the S+, suggesting an asymmetric interaction between the 2 odorants. The data demonstrate the value

  2. Gas-liquid phase coexistence and crossover behavior of binary ionic fluids with screened Coulomb interactions.

    PubMed

    Patsahan, O

    2014-06-01

    We study the effects of an interaction range on the gas-liquid phase diagram and the crossover behavior of a simple model of ionic fluids: an equimolar binary mixture of equisized hard spheres interacting through screened Coulomb potentials which are repulsive between particles of the same species and attractive between particles of different species. Using the collective variables theory, we find explicit expressions for the relevant coefficients of the effective φ{4} Ginzburg-Landau Hamiltonian in a one-loop approximation. Within the framework of this approximation, we calculate the critical parameters and gas-liquid phase diagrams for varying inverse screening length z. Both the critical temperature scaled by the Yukawa potential contact value and the critical density rapidly decrease with an increase of the interaction range (a decrease of z) and then for z<0.05 they slowly approach the values found for a restricted primitive model (RPM). We find that gas-liquid coexistence region reduces with an increase of z and completely vanishes at z≃2.78. Our results clearly show that an increase in the interaction range leads to a decrease of the crossover temperature. For z≃0.01, the crossover temperature is the same as for the RPM.

  3. Who Benefits from Dyadic Teacher-Student Interactions in Whole-Class Settings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flieller, André; Jarlégan, Annette; Tazouti, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    To what extent can teacher-student dyadic interactions modify the hierarchy of student performances within a single class? To answer this insufficiently researched question, the authors conducted two parallel studies involving 33 Grade 5 classes in France (759 students) and 15 Grade 5 classes in Luxembourg (243 students). Interactions were…

  4. Who Benefits from Dyadic Teacher-Student Interactions in Whole-Class Settings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flieller, André; Jarlégan, Annette; Tazouti, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    To what extent can teacher-student dyadic interactions modify the hierarchy of student performances within a single class? To answer this insufficiently researched question, the authors conducted two parallel studies involving 33 Grade 5 classes in France (759 students) and 15 Grade 5 classes in Luxembourg (243 students). Interactions were…

  5. Class Blogs as a Teaching Tool to Promote Writing and Student Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Miriam; Longnecker, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Blogs are a useful teaching tool for improving student writing and increasing class interaction. However, most studies have looked at individual blogs rather than blogs maintained by a whole class. We introduced assignments involving participation in class blogs to four science communication classes with enrolments of between 15 and 36 students.…

  6. Class Blogs as a Teaching Tool to Promote Writing and Student Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Miriam; Longnecker, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Blogs are a useful teaching tool for improving student writing and increasing class interaction. However, most studies have looked at individual blogs rather than blogs maintained by a whole class. We introduced assignments involving participation in class blogs to four science communication classes with enrolments of between 15 and 36 students.…

  7. Interaction of model class A1, class A2, and class Y amphipathic helical peptides with membranes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, V K; Palgunachari, M N

    1996-08-27

    To test the hypothesis that differences in the lipid affinity of exchangeable apolipoproteins are due to the presence of different classes of amphipathic alpha-helical motifs which differ primarily in the distribution of charged amino acid residues, we designed and synthesized model peptides mimicking class A1, class A2, and class Y amphipathic helices present in these apolipoproteins. Both class A1 and class A2 helices have positive residues at the polar-nonpolar interface and negative residues at the center of the polar face. However, clustering of positive and negative residues is less exact in class A1 compared to class A2 helices. The class Y helices have two negative residue clusters on the polar face separating the two arms and the base of the Y motif formed by three positive residue clusters. The lipid affinities of three 18 residue model peptides representing these classes, Ac-18A1-NH2 (Ac-ELLEKWAEKLAALKEALK-NH2), Ac-18A2-NH2 (Ac-ELLEKWKEALAALAEKLK-NH2), and Ac-18Y-NH2 (Ac-ELLKAWKEALEALKEKLA-NH2), were determined by right-angle light scattering, circular dichroism spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The observed rank order of lipid affinity of these three peptides is: Ac-18A2-NH2 > Ac-18Y-NH2 > Ac-18A1-NH2. This order is consistent with the known lipid affinity of exchangeable apolipoproteins containing class A1, class A2, and class Y helices (class A2 > class Y > class A1). Results of this study illustrate the important role of interfacial lysine residues in modulating the lipid affinity of amphipathic helices and suggest that the effect of interfacial lysine residues in increasing lipid affinity is additive. We propose that interfacial lysine residues, in addition to widening the hydrophobic face because of snorkeling, also help anchor the amphipathic helix in the lipid bilayer.

  8. Synthetic Spectra and Light Curves of Interacting Binaries and Exoplanets with Circumstellar Material: SHELLSPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budaj, Ján

    2012-04-01

    Program SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate light-curves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, shell or stars may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. The Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative transfer. Recently, a new model of the reflection effect, dust and Mie scattering were incorporated into the code. ɛ Aurigae is one of the most mysterious objects on the sky. Prior modeling of its light-curve assumed a dark, inclined, disk of dust with a central hole to explain the light-curve with a sharp mid-eclipse brightening. Our model consists of two geometrically thick flared disks: an internal optically thick disk and an external optically thin disk which absorbs and scatters radiation. Shallow mid-eclipse brightening may result from eclipses by nearly edge-on flared (dusty or gaseous) disks. Mid-eclipse brightening may also be due to strong forward scattering and optical properties of the dust which can have an important effect on the light-curves. There are many similarities between interacting binary stars and transiting extrasolar planets. The reflection effect which is briefly reviewed is one of them. The exact Roche shape and temperature distributions over the surface of all currently known transiting extrasolar planets have been determined. In some cases (HAT-P-32b, WASP-12b, WASP-19b), departures from the spherical shape can reach 7-15%.

  9. How unique is Plaskett's star? A search for organized magnetic fields in short period, interacting or post-interaction massive binary systems★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Neiner, Coralie; Grunhut, Jason; Bagnulo, Stefano; Alecian, Evelyne; Rauw, Gregor; Wade, Gregg A.; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Amongst O-type stars with detected magnetic fields, the fast rotator in the close binary called Plaskett's star shows a variety of unusual properties. Since strong binary interactions are believed to have occurred in this system, one may wonder about their potential role in generating magnetic fields. Stokes V spectra collected with the low-resolution FORS2 and high-resolution ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters were therefore used to search for magnetic fields in 15 interacting or post-interaction massive binaries. No magnetic field was detected in any of them, with 0 G always being within 2σ of the derived values. For 17 out of 25 stars in the systems observed at high-resolution, the 90% upper limit on the individual dipolar fields is below the dipolar field strength of Plaskett's secondary; a similar result is found for five out of six systems observed at low resolution. If our sample is considered to form a group of stars sharing similar magnetic properties, a global statistical analysis results in a stringent upper limit of ˜200 G on the dipolar field strength. Moreover, the magnetic incidence rate in the full sample of interacting or post-interaction systems (our targets + Plaskett's star) is compatible with that measured from large surveys, showing that they are not significantly different from the general O-star population. These results suggest that binary interactions play no systematic role in the magnetism of such massive systems.

  10. How unique is Plaskett's star? A search for organized magnetic fields in short period, interacting or post-interaction massive binary systems★

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazé, Yaël; Neiner, Coralie; Grunhut, Jason; Bagnulo, Stefano; Alecian, Evelyne; Rauw, Gregor; Wade, Gregg A.; BinaMIcS Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    Amongst O-type stars with detected magnetic fields, the fast rotator in the close binary called Plaskett's star shows a variety of unusual properties. Since strong binary interactions are believed to have occurred in this system, one may wonder about their potential role in generating magnetic fields. Stokes V spectra collected with the low-resolution FORS2 and high-resolution ESPaDOnS and Narval spectropolarimeters were therefore used to search for magnetic fields in 15 interacting or post-interaction massive binaries. No magnetic field was detected in any of them, with 0 G always being within 2σ of the derived values. For 17 out of 25 stars in the systems observed at high resolution, the 90 per cent upper limit on the individual dipolar fields is below the dipolar field strength of Plaskett's secondary; a similar result is found for five out of six systems observed at low resolution. If our sample is considered to form a group of stars sharing similar magnetic properties, a global statistical analysis results in a stringent upper limit of ˜200 G on the dipolar field strength. Moreover, the magnetic incidence rate in the full sample of interacting or post-interaction systems (our targets + Plaskett's star) is compatible with that measured from large surveys, showing that they are not significantly different from the general O-star population. These results suggest that binary interactions play no systematic role in the magnetism of such massive systems.

  11. Interaction of Avibactam with Class B Metallo-β-Lactamases

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Martine I.; Damblon, Christian; Brem, Jürgen; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Mercuri, Paola; Gilbert, Bernard; Rydzik, Anna M.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2016-01-01

    β-Lactamases are the most important mechanisms of resistance to the β-lactam antibacterials. There are two mechanistic classes of β-lactamases: the serine β-lactamases (SBLs) and the zinc-dependent metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Avibactam, the first clinically useful non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, is a broad-spectrum SBL inhibitor, which is used in combination with a cephalosporin antibiotic (ceftazidime). There are multiple reports on the interaction of avibactam with SBLs but few such studies with MBLs. We report biochemical and biophysical studies on the binding and reactivity of avibactam with representatives from all 3 MBL subfamilies (B1, B2, and B3). Avibactam has only limited or no activity versus MBL-mediated resistance in pathogens. Avibactam does not inhibit MBLs and binds only weakly to most of the MBLs tested; in some cases, avibactam undergoes slow hydrolysis of one of its urea N-CO bonds followed by loss of CO2, in a process different from that observed with the SBLs studied. The results suggest that while the evolution of MBLs that more efficiently catalyze avibactam hydrolysis should be anticipated, pursuing the development of dual-action SBL and MBL inhibitors based on the diazabicyclooctane core of avibactam may be productive. PMID:27401561

  12. Interaction of Avibactam with Class B Metallo-β-Lactamases.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Martine I; Damblon, Christian; Brem, Jürgen; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Mercuri, Paola; Gilbert, Bernard; Rydzik, Anna M; Claridge, Timothy D W; Schofield, Christopher J; Frère, Jean-Marie

    2016-10-01

    β-Lactamases are the most important mechanisms of resistance to the β-lactam antibacterials. There are two mechanistic classes of β-lactamases: the serine β-lactamases (SBLs) and the zinc-dependent metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Avibactam, the first clinically useful non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, is a broad-spectrum SBL inhibitor, which is used in combination with a cephalosporin antibiotic (ceftazidime). There are multiple reports on the interaction of avibactam with SBLs but few such studies with MBLs. We report biochemical and biophysical studies on the binding and reactivity of avibactam with representatives from all 3 MBL subfamilies (B1, B2, and B3). Avibactam has only limited or no activity versus MBL-mediated resistance in pathogens. Avibactam does not inhibit MBLs and binds only weakly to most of the MBLs tested; in some cases, avibactam undergoes slow hydrolysis of one of its urea N-CO bonds followed by loss of CO2, in a process different from that observed with the SBLs studied. The results suggest that while the evolution of MBLs that more efficiently catalyze avibactam hydrolysis should be anticipated, pursuing the development of dual-action SBL and MBL inhibitors based on the diazabicyclooctane core of avibactam may be productive. Copyright © 2016 Abboud et al.

  13. Research into Teaching with Whole-Class Interactive Technologies: Emergent Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This discussion paper highlights a number of themes emerging from contemporary research into teaching with whole-class interactive technologies. Focusing particularly on the contributions to this special issue, the paper considers the significance of whole-class interactive technologies (primarily interactive whiteboards) with respect to the use…

  14. Interactive Whole Class Teaching in the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Fay; Hardman, Frank; Wall, Kate; Mroz, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The study set out to investigate the impact of the official endorsement of 'interactive whole class teaching' on the interaction and discourse styles of primary teachers while teaching the National Literacy and Numeracy Strategies. In both strategies, interactive whole class teaching is seen as an 'active teaching' model promoting high quality…

  15. Interaction behavior between binary xCe-yNd alloy and HT9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Hwan; Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, June Hyung

    2016-10-01

    Studies were carried out to investigate the role of Ce and Nd, contained inside metal fuel during reactor operation, and their effect on the Fuel-Cladding Chemical Interaction (FCCI) phenomenon, which limits fuel performance in the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Binary model alloys of xCe-yNd were manufactured, and then diffusion couple tests with HT9 (12Cr-1MoWV) ferritic-martensitic cladding material were carried out at a temperature of 660 °C for up to 25 h. The results showed that both Ce and Nd reacted with Fe in the cladding material to form an interaction layer. Analysis of the microstructure and reaction kinetics revealed that Fe in the cladding material rapidly migrates into Ce to form eutectic reaction, leaving a Fe depleted zone, in which Ce substitutes. In the case of Nd element, a typical solid-solid diffusion process governed to form a Fe17Nd2 type intermetallic compound. Synergism between Ce and Nd occurred so that the reaction thickness was increased, reaching the maximum reaction thickness in the case of the xCe-yNd alloy, whose composition was nearly 1:1.

  16. A force evaluation free method to N-body problems: Binary interaction approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, S.

    2016-03-01

    We recently proposed the binary interaction approximation (BIA) to N-body problems, which, in principle, excludes the interparticle force evaluation if the exact solutions are known for the corresponding two-body problems such as the Coulombic and gravitational interactions. In this article, a detailed introduction to the BIA is given, including the error analysis to give the expressions for the approximation error in the total angular momentum and the total energy of the entire system. It is shown that, although the energy conservation of the BIA scheme is worse than the 4th order Hermite integrator (HMT4) for similar elapsed, or the wall-clock times, the individual errors in position and in velocity are much better than HMT4. The energy error correction scheme to the BIA is also introduced that does not deteriorate the individual errors in position and in velocity. It is suggested that the BIA scheme is applicable to the tree method, the particle-mesh (PM), and the particle-particle-particle-mesh (PPPM) schemes simply by replacing the force evaluation and the conventional time integrator with the BIA scheme.

  17. Effects of thermodynamic profiles on the interaction of binary tropical cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Wook; Chun, Hye-Yeong

    2015-09-01

    The interactions between idealized binary tropical cyclones (TCs) on f and β planes with different separation distance and thermodynamic soundings obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data averaged over the western North Pacific are investigated through ensemble three-dimensional numerical simulations with a horizontal resolution of 10 km in a single domain. In the simulations on the f plane, two TCs show mutual cyclonic rotations with symmetric structures. Two TCs with thermodynamic profiles of larger convective available potential energy (CAPE) and maximum potential intensity (MPI) show greater interaction than those with a smaller CAPE and MPI due to the stronger tangential velocity near the TC center. In the simulations on the β plane, the two TCs do not merge, because the beta effect prevents the attraction of the two TCs by generating asymmetric motions of the TC with northwestward forcing. The relative strengths of the two TCs change with time and depend on the low-level inflow influenced by the Coriolis parameter. Similar to the results on the f plane, the two TCs only merge with the thermodynamic soundings of large CAPE and MPI.

  18. Wind-jet interaction in high-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Jets in high-mass X-ray binaries can strongly interact with the stellar wind from the donor. The interaction leads, in particular, to formation of recollimation shocks. The shocks can then accelerate electrons in the jet and lead to enhanced emission, observable in the radio and gamma-ray bands. DooSoo, Zdziarski & Heinz (2016) have formulated a condition on the maximum jet power (as a function of the jet velocity and wind rate and velocity) at which such shocks form. This criterion can explain the large difference in the radio and gamma-ray loudness between Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3. The orbital modulation of radio emission observed in Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3 allows a measurement of the location of the height along the jet where the bulk of emission at a given frequency occurs. Strong absorption of X-rays in the wind of Cyg X-3 is required to account for properties of the correlation of the radio emission with soft and hard X-rays. That absorption can also account for the unusual spectral and timing X-ray properties of this source.

  19. Binary drop interaction on surfaces: onset and bounding ligaments of Crescent-Moon fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourouiba, Lydia; Wang, Yongji

    2016-11-01

    Drop impacts on surfaces can splash and create secondary droplets. These have important implications for industrial, environmental, and health processes such as air contamination by secondary pathogen-bearing droplets shaping disease transmission. Most studies of splash on surfaces have focused on the impact of one drop on a dry surface. Nevertheless, the outcome of impacts by spray or rain are shaped by the presence of adjacent sessile drops on the surface. Recently, in the context of rain and spray-induced disease transmission in crops, one particular binary drop interaction, the crescent-moon splash, was identified as a frequent and efficient source of secondary droplets (Gilet and Bourouiba ICB 2014 and JRSI 2015). The crescent-moon results from the interaction of an impacting drop with a sessile drop in the neighborhood of the impact point. Here, we report and rationalize the existence of a critical transition of impact parameters that enables the crescent-moon fragmentation to emerge. We also report and rationalize the peculiar, yet universal emergence of two bounding ligaments that are important in shaping the crescent-moon sheet.

  20. Observational Confirmation of a Link Between Common Envelope Binary Interaction and Planetary Nebula Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillwig, Todd C.; Jones, David; De Marco, Orsola; Bond, Howard E.; Margheim, Steve; Frew, David

    2016-12-01

    A current issue in the study of planetary nebulae with close binary central stars (CSs) is the extent to which the binaries affect the shaping of the nebulae. Recent studies have begun to show a high coincidence rate between nebulae with large-scale axial or point symmetries and close binary stars. In addition, combined binary-star and spatiokinematic modeling of the nebulae have demonstrated that all of the systems studied to date appear to have their central binary axis aligned with the primary axis of the nebula. Here we add two more systems to the list, the CSs and nebulae of NGC 6337 and Sp 1. We show both systems to be low inclination, with their binary axis nearly aligned with our line of sight. Their inclinations match published values for the inclinations of their surrounding nebulae. Including these two systems with the existing sample statistically demonstrates a direct link between the central binary and the nebular morphology. In addition to the systems’ inclinations we give ranges for other orbital parameters from binary modeling, including updated orbital periods for the binary CSs of NGC 6337 and Sp 1.

  1. Assessing Gene-Environment Interactions for Common and Rare Variants with Binary Traits Using Gene-Trait Similarity Regression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guolin; Marceau, Rachel; Zhang, Daowen; Tzeng, Jung-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Accounting for gene–environment (G×E) interactions in complex trait association studies can facilitate our understanding of genetic heterogeneity under different environmental exposures, improve the ability to discover susceptible genes that exhibit little marginal effect, provide insight into the biological mechanisms of complex diseases, help to identify high-risk subgroups in the population, and uncover hidden heritability. However, significant G×E interactions can be difficult to find. The sample sizes required for sufficient power to detect association are much larger than those needed for genetic main effects, and interactions are sensitive to misspecification of the main-effects model. These issues are exacerbated when working with binary phenotypes and rare variants, which bear less information on association. In this work, we present a similarity-based regression method for evaluating G×E interactions for rare variants with binary traits. The proposed model aggregates the genetic and G×E information across markers, using genetic similarity, thus increasing the ability to detect G×E signals. The model has a random effects interpretation, which leads to robustness against main-effect misspecifications when evaluating G×E interactions. We construct score tests to examine G×E interactions and a computationally efficient EM algorithm to estimate the nuisance variance components. Using simulations and data applications, we show that the proposed method is a flexible and powerful tool to study the G×E effect in common or rare variant studies with binary traits. PMID:25585620

  2. The Wide Brown Dwarf Binary Oph 1622-2405 and Discovery of a Wide, Low-Mass Binary in Ophiuchus (Oph 1623-2402): A New Class of Young Evaporating Wide Binaries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird M.; Zuckerman, B.; Song, Inseok; Barman, Travis; Marois, Christian; Rice, Emily L.; Siegler, Nick; Macintosh, Bruce; Becklin, E. E.; Campbell, Randy; Lyke, James E.; Conrad, Al; Le Mignant, David

    2007-05-01

    We imaged five objects near the star-forming clouds of Ophiuchus with the Keck Laser Guide Star AO system. We resolved sources 11 (Oph 16222-2405) and 16 (Oph 16233-2402) from Allers and coworkers into binary systems. Source 11 is resolved into a 243 AU binary, the widest known for a very low mass (VLM) binary. The binary nature of source 11 was discovered first by Allers and independently here, during which we obtained the first spatially resolved R~2000 near-infrared (J and K) spectra, mid-IR photometry, and orbital motion estimates. We estimate for 11A and 11B gravities (logg>3.75), ages (5+/-2 Myr), luminosities [log(L/Lsolar)=-2.77+/-0.10 and -2.96+/-0.10], and temperatures (Teff=2375+/-175 K and 2175+/-175 K). We find self-consistent DUSTY evolutionary model (Chabrier and coworkers) masses of 17+4-5 MJ and 14+6-5 MJ, for 11A and 11B, respectively. Our masses are higher than those previously reported (13-15 MJ and 7-8 MJ) by Jayawardhana & Ivanov. Hence, we find that the system is unlikely a ``planetary mass binary,'' as do Luhman and coworkers, but it has the second lowest mass and lowest binding energy of any known binary. Oph 11 and Oph 16 belong to a newly recognized population of wide (>~100 AU), young (<10 Myr), roughly equal mass, VLM stellar and brown dwarf binaries. We deduce that ~6%+/-3% of young (<10 Myr) VLM objects are in such wide systems. However, only 0.3%+/-0.1% of old field VLM objects are found in such wide systems. Thus, young, wide, VLM binary populations may be evaporating, due to stellar encounters in their natal clusters, leading to a field population depleted in wide VLM systems. Based on observations made with the Keck and Gemini North telescopes.

  3. Application of binary interaction theory to linear and nonlinear rheology of star-branched polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Han-Wen

    2001-12-01

    The binary interaction (BI) theory recently developed by David W. Mead, Ronald G. Larson, and Masao Doi (1998) is based on two fundamental postulates strongly supported by experimental data: (1)stress-optic rule, (2)binary interaction principle. The BI theory is general and in principle applies to all entangled flexible polymers regardless of molecular architecture. Three parameters are required in the BI theory to establish the length and time scales for the system: the plateau modulus, the entanglement molecular weight, and the Rouse relaxation time scale. This thesis focuses on the first application of the BI theory to polymers with long-chain branches (LCB): star polymers. A mathematically simplified star model is derived analytically by performing a boundary layer analysis on the full BI model, resulting in an entanglement flux balance between star tip fluctuational penetration inward and convective constraint release (CCR)/convection outward from the star core. The simplified BI star theory for small deformations is compared with the well-established Ball-McLeish model. Juxtaposition of both simulations shows essentially quantitative equivalence. The empirical Cox-Merz viscosity rule for star-branched polymers is analytically derived from the simplified BI star model. The underlying physical basis of the validity of the Cox-Merz relationship for fast, nonlinear flows is a direct consequence of the combined effect of CCR and convection. Simulations from the simplified BI star model agree well with experimental dynamic moduli and flow curves of melts/concentrated solutions of various polymer species from literature data with no adjustable parameters. Flow curve crossover phenomena and subsequent merger reported for matched star and linear polymers are quantitatively predicted by the BI theory. The flow curve crossover of a matched set of star and linear polymers represents a transition of material response from Brownian-motion- governed linear viscoelasticity

  4. ORDER AND CHAOS IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL BINARY SYSTEM OF INTERACTING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2012-05-01

    We present a galactic gravitational model of three degrees of freedom in order to investigate and reveal the behavior of orbits in a binary quasar system. The two quasars are hosted in a pair of interacting disk galaxies. We study in detail the regular or chaotic character of motion in two different cases: the time-independent model in both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D dynamical systems, and the evolving 3D model. Our numerical calculations indicate that a large fraction of orbits in the 2D system are chaotic in the time-independent case. A careful analysis suggests that several Lindblad resonances are also responsible for the chaotic motion of stars in both host galaxies. In the time-dependent system, we follow the evolution of 3D orbits in our dynamical model, as the two interacting host galaxies develop dense and massive quasars in their cores by mass transportation from the disks to their nuclei. In this interesting case, there are orbits that change their orbital character from regular to chaotic and vice versa; there are also orbits that maintain their characters during the galactic evolution. These results strongly indicate that the ordered or chaotic nature of 3D orbits depends not only on the galactic interaction but also on the presence of quasars in the galactic cores of the host galaxies. The outcomes derived from our dynamical model are compared with observational data. Some theoretical arguments to support the numerically derived outcomes are presented, both in 2D and 3D systems, and a comparison with similar earlier work is also made.

  5. Complicated Structure of Interacting Young Binary System: Outflows and Gas-Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Tae-Soo; Hayashi, M.; Beck, T. L.; Chris, C. J.; Takami, M.

    2014-07-01

    It is important to understand the formation and evolution of the young binary system because many young stars are born in binary or multiple systems. We report recent discovery of binary jet and wind from UY Aur system with high-angular resolution observation by using NIFS (NIR Integral Field Spectrograph) /GEMINI combined with adaptive optics system, Altair. The primary, UY Aur A, reveals widely opened wind while the secondary, UY Aur B, shows small jets in NIR [Fe II] emission. Outflows from low-mass young binary or multiple systems have been observed from a few tens of samples. Outflows are closely related mass accretion. Many simulations show an accretion flow toward the individual circumstellar disks from the outer circumbinary disk as well as a stream bridge between the circumstellar disks. We will discuss how to use TMT and ALMA for anatomy of young binary systems.

  6. The interaction of a binary/ternary interactive mixture of hydrophobic-hydrophilic materials on the drug distribution and drug release performance in the tablet formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainurofiq, A.; Choiri, S.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this research was to optimize and determine an interaction of a binary/ternary mixture of hydrophobic-hydrophilic materials (H-HM) on the drug distribution, tablet characteristics, and drug release performance. The interactive mixture (IM) between carrier and H-HM was conducted using a carrier, Pruv and Cab-O-Sil as hydrophilic materials, magnesium stearate as a hydrophobic material, and a micronized nifedipine as a drug model. These interactions between binary and ternary mixtures of H-HM were assessed by a simplex centroid design (SCD) approach. The homogeneity of IM between drug and carrier was achieved at more time of mixing time. Unique effects and interactions of H-HM were observed on the drug distribution and drug release. Furthermore, the SCD had successfully determined the optimum design space of IM in the ternary mixture of H-HM.

  7. Delineating solute-solvent interactions in binary mixtures of ionic liquids in molecular solvents and preferential solvation approach.

    PubMed

    Khupse, Nageshwar D; Kumar, Anil

    2011-02-03

    The effect of solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions on the preferential solvation of solvatochromic indicators in binary mixtures of ionic liquids with molecular solvents has been investigated. The binary mixtures of the pyridinium-based ionic liquids 1-butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([BP][BF4]), 1-butyl-3-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([3-MBP][BF4]), and 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate ([4-MBP][BF4]) with molecular solvents like water, methanol, and dichloromethane have been selected for this investigation. The effect of addition of ionic liquids to molecular solvents on the polarity parameters E(T)(N), Kamlet-Taft parameters, hydrogen bond donor ability (HBD) (α), hydrogen bond acceptor ability (HBA) (β), and polarizability (π*) was obtained. The polarity parameters of the mixture display nonideality on addition of ionic liquids to water and dichloromethane. On the other hand, strong synergetic effects were seen in the ionic liquid-methanol binary mixtures. The preferential solvation models have been employed to analyze the collected data in order to achieve information on solute-solvent interactions in these binary mixtures.

  8. THE ROTATION RATES OF MASSIVE STARS: THE ROLE OF BINARY INTERACTION THROUGH TIDES, MASS TRANSFER, AND MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    De Mink, S. E.; Langer, N.; Izzard, R. G.; Sana, H.; De Koter, A.

    2013-02-20

    Rotation is thought to be a major factor in the evolution of massive stars-especially at low metallicity-with consequences for their chemical yields, ionizing flux, and final fate. Deriving the birth spin distribution is of high priority given its importance as a constraint on theories of massive star formation and as input for models of stellar populations in the local universe and at high redshift. Recently, it has become clear that the majority of massive stars interact with a binary companion before they die. We investigate how this affects the distribution of rotation rates, through stellar winds, expansion, tides, mass transfer, and mergers. For this purpose, we simulate a massive binary-star population typical for our Galaxy assuming continuous star formation. We find that, because of binary interaction, 20{sup +5} {sub -10}% of all massive main-sequence stars have projected rotational velocities in excess of 200 km s{sup -1}. We evaluate the effect of uncertain input distributions and physical processes and conclude that the main uncertainties are the mass transfer efficiency and the possible effect of magnetic braking, especially if magnetic fields are generated or amplified during mass accretion and stellar mergers. The fraction of rapid rotators we derive is similar to that observed. If indeed mass transfer and mergers are the main cause for rapid rotation in massive stars, little room remains for rapidly rotating stars that are born single. This implies that spin-down during star formation is even more efficient than previously thought. In addition, this raises questions about the interpretation of the surface abundances of rapidly rotating stars as evidence for rotational mixing. Furthermore, our results allow for the possibility that all early-type Be stars result from binary interactions and suggest that evidence for rotation in explosions, such as long gamma-ray bursts, points to a binary origin.

  9. Powering the second 2012 outburst of SN 2009ip by repeating binary interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashi, Amit; Soker, Noam; Moskovitz, Nitsan

    2013-12-01

    We propose that the major 2012 outburst of the supernova impostor SN 2009ip was powered by an extended and repeated interaction between the luminous blue variable (LBV) and a more compact companion. Motivated by the recent analysis of Margutti et al. (2013) of ejected clumps and shells, we consider two scenarios. In both scenarios, the major 2012b outburst with total (radiated + kinetic) energy of ˜5 × 1049 erg was powered by accretion of ˜2-5 M⊙ on to the companion during a periastron passage (the first passage) of the binary system approximately 20 d before the observed maximum of the light curve. In the first scenario, the surviving companion scenario, the companion was not destructed and still exists in the system after the outburst. It ejected partial shells (or collimated outflows or clumps) for two consecutive periastron passages after the major one. The orbital period was reduced from ˜38 to ˜25 d as a result of the mass transfer process that took place during the first periastron passage. In the second scenario, the merger scenario, some partial shells/clumps were also ejected in a second periastron passage that took place ˜20 d after the first one. After this second periastron passage, the companion dived too deep into the LBV envelope to launch more outflows and merged with the LBV.

  10. [Fe II] Emissions Associated with the Young Interacting Binary UY Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyo, Tae-Soo; Hayashi, Masahiko; Beck, Tracy L.; Davis, Christopher J.; Takami, Michihiro

    2014-05-01

    We present high-resolution 1.06-1.28 μm spectra toward the interacting binary UY Aur obtained with GEMINI/NIFS and the adaptive optics system Altair. We have detected [Fe II] λ1.257 μm and He I λ1.083 μm lines from both UY Aur A (the primary source) and UY Aur B (the secondary). In [Fe II] UY Aur A drives fast and widely opening outflows with an opening angle of ~90° along a position angle of ~40°, while UY Aur B is associated with a redshifted knot. The blueshifted and redshifted emissions show a complicated structure between the primary and secondary. The radial velocities of the [Fe II] emission features are similar for UY Aur A and B: ~ -100 km s-1 for the blueshifted emission and ~ +130 km s-1 for the redshifted component. The He I line profile observed toward UY Aur A comprises a central emission feature with deep absorptions at both blueshifted and redshifted velocities. These absorption features may be explained by stellar wind models. The He I line profile of UY Aur B shows only an emission feature. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Council (United Kingdom), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), CNPq (Brazil), and CONICET (Argentina).

  11. The effect of a wider initial separation on common envelope binary interaction simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaconi, Roberto; Reichardt, Thomas; Staff, Jan; De Marco, Orsola; Passy, Jean-Claude; Price, Daniel; Wurster, James; Herwig, Falk

    2017-02-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of the common envelope binary interaction between a giant star and a compact companion carried out with the adaptive mesh refinement code ENZO and the smooth particle hydrodynamics code PHANTOM. These simulations mimic the parameters of one of the simulations by Passy et al. but assess the impact of a larger, more realistic initial orbital separation on the simulation outcome. We conclude that for both codes the post-common envelope separation is somewhat larger and the amount of unbound mass slightly greater when the initial separation is wide enough that the giant does not yet overflow or just overflows its Roche lobe. PHANTOM has been adapted to the common envelope problem here for the first time and a full comparison with ENZO is presented, including an investigation of convergence as well as energy and angular momentum conservation. We also set our simulations in the context of past simulations. This comparison reveals that it is the expansion of the giant before rapid in-spiral and not spinning up of the star that causes a larger final separation. We also suggest that the large range in unbound mass for different simulations is difficult to explain and may have something to do with simulations that are not fully converged.

  12. Mass loss in the interacting semi-detached binary delta librae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluskey, George E., Jr.; Mccluskey, Carolina P. S.; Kondo, Yoji

    1995-01-01

    The interacting Algol-type binary Delta Librae (AOV + G: V) has been observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. More than fifty high resolution spectra in the far-ultraviolet and mid-ultraviolet spectrum have been analyzed in order to model the mass flow in the Delta Librae system. The resonance lines of Si IV and C IV are present in absorption and vary in strength both secularly and with phase. The radial velocities of the Si IV and C IV absorption lines generally follow the orbital motion of the primary star but deviate by typically a few tens of kilometers per second in the direction of the observer. The presence of Si IV and C IV features indicates the existence of a region considerably hotter than the normal AOV photosphere and, since these lines are present at all phases, this region must be fairly extensive. These results are interpreted in terms of a 'pseudo-photosphere' around the equatorial region of the AOV star, created by matter being accreted from the G-type companion. The widths of the Si IV and C IV absorption features imply that some of the matter lost by the G-star leaves the system entirely.

  13. [Fe II] emissions associated with the young interacting binary UY Aurigae

    SciTech Connect

    Pyo, Tae-Soo; Hayashi, Masahiko; Beck, Tracy L.; Davis, Christopher J.; Takami, Michihiro

    2014-05-01

    We present high-resolution 1.06-1.28 μm spectra toward the interacting binary UY Aur obtained with GEMINI/NIFS and the adaptive optics system Altair. We have detected [Fe II] λ1.257 μm and He I λ1.083 μm lines from both UY Aur A (the primary source) and UY Aur B (the secondary). In [Fe II] UY Aur A drives fast and widely opening outflows with an opening angle of ∼90° along a position angle of ∼40°, while UY Aur B is associated with a redshifted knot. The blueshifted and redshifted emissions show a complicated structure between the primary and secondary. The radial velocities of the [Fe II] emission features are similar for UY Aur A and B: ∼ –100 km s{sup –1} for the blueshifted emission and ∼ +130 km s{sup –1} for the redshifted component. The He I line profile observed toward UY Aur A comprises a central emission feature with deep absorptions at both blueshifted and redshifted velocities. These absorption features may be explained by stellar wind models. The He I line profile of UY Aur B shows only an emission feature.

  14. A new class of large band gap quantum spin hall insulators: 2D fluorinated group-IV binary compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilha, J. E.; Pontes, R. B.; Schmidt, T. M.; Miwa, R. H.; Fazzio, A.

    2016-05-01

    We predict a new class of large band gap quantum spin Hall insulators, the fluorinated PbX (X = C, Si, Ge and Sn) compounds, that are mechanically stable two-dimensional materials. Based on first principles calculations we find that, while the PbX systems are not topological insulators, all fluorinated PbX (PbXF2) compounds are 2D topological insulators. The quantum spin Hall insulating phase was confirmed by the explicitly calculation of the Z2 invariant. In addition we performed a thorough investigation of the role played by the (i) fluorine saturation, (ii) crystal field, and (iii) spin-orbital coupling in PbXF2. By considering nanoribbon structures, we verify the appearance of a pair of topologically protected Dirac-like edge states connecting the conduction and valence bands. The insulating phase which is a result of the spin orbit interaction, reveals that this new class of two dimensional materials present exceptional nontrivial band gaps, reaching values up to 0.99 eV at the Γ point, and an indirect band gap of 0.77 eV. The topological phase is arisen without any external field, making this system promising for nanoscale applications, using topological properties.

  15. A new class of large band gap quantum spin hall insulators: 2D fluorinated group-IV binary compounds

    PubMed Central

    Padilha, J. E.; Pontes, R. B.; Schmidt, T. M.; Miwa, R. H.; Fazzio, A.

    2016-01-01

    We predict a new class of large band gap quantum spin Hall insulators, the fluorinated PbX (X = C, Si, Ge and Sn) compounds, that are mechanically stable two-dimensional materials. Based on first principles calculations we find that, while the PbX systems are not topological insulators, all fluorinated PbX (PbXF2) compounds are 2D topological insulators. The quantum spin Hall insulating phase was confirmed by the explicitly calculation of the Z2 invariant. In addition we performed a thorough investigation of the role played by the (i) fluorine saturation, (ii) crystal field, and (iii) spin-orbital coupling in PbXF2. By considering nanoribbon structures, we verify the appearance of a pair of topologically protected Dirac-like edge states connecting the conduction and valence bands. The insulating phase which is a result of the spin orbit interaction, reveals that this new class of two dimensional materials present exceptional nontrivial band gaps, reaching values up to 0.99 eV at the Γ point, and an indirect band gap of 0.77 eV. The topological phase is arisen without any external field, making this system promising for nanoscale applications, using topological properties. PMID:27212604

  16. Effects of Class Size and Attendance Policy on University Classroom Interaction in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Yin; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Classroom interaction experience is one of the main parts of students' learning lives. However, surprisingly little research has investigated students' perceptions of classroom interaction with different attendance policies across different class sizes in the higher education system. To elucidate the effects of class size and attendance policy on…

  17. Effects of Class Size and Attendance Policy on University Classroom Interaction in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Yin; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Classroom interaction experience is one of the main parts of students' learning lives. However, surprisingly little research has investigated students' perceptions of classroom interaction with different attendance policies across different class sizes in the higher education system. To elucidate the effects of class size and attendance policy on…

  18. Study of solid surface interactions with binary liquid mixtures and liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polak, Robert Dale

    The adsorption profile of a binary liquid mixture against a solid substrate was studied using an optical probe. The effective surface field was controlled by partially coating one half of the glass surface with octadecyltrichlorosilane, while the other half remained bare. On the bare surface, one component of the binary liquid mixture was strongly adsorbed to the surface, and, in the one-phase region, adsorption could be observed far from the bulk transition temperature. This adsorption scales as expected by a normal surface transition in which the surface orders at a higher temperature than the bulk. On the partially coated surface, the adsorption could only be observed very near the bulk critical temperature. Over the course of the first several days of the experiment, the adsorption profile changed, but it eventually became stable. Scaling analysis of the stable surface suggests the possibility that the surface was in the crossover region between normal and ordinary (where the surface and bulk order at the same temperature) surface transitions. In a separate series of experiments, the interaction between a nematic liquid crystal and substrate was studied, in particular, the energetic cost to deviate the surface director from its preferred orientation. To accurately determine the energetic cost, denoted by the polar anchoring coefficient W, of a typical alignment layer/liquid crystal was measured using three techniques. The first is the 'high-electric-field' (HEF) technique was found to give the largest value of W. In the course of the study, the HEF technique was improved by no longer requiring the measurement of capacitance of the sample liquid crystal cell. Also, the source of the large value of W is detected, and a protocol was developed to determine the reliability of the results given by the HEF technique. Two other techniques are used to determine W: the measurement of capacitance in a magnetic field and the measurement of the Frederiks transition at

  19. Effect of three-body interactions on the vapor-liquid phase equilibria of binary fluid mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liping; Sadus, Richard J

    2006-08-21

    Gibbs-Duhem Monte Carlo simulations are reported for the vapor-liquid phase coexistence of binary argon+krypton mixtures at different temperatures. The calculations employ accurate two-body potentials in addition to contributions from three-body dispersion interactions resulting from third-order triple-dipole interactions. A comparison is made with experiment that illustrates the role of three-body interactions on the phase envelope. In all cases the simulations represent genuine predictions with input parameters obtained independently from sources other than phase equilibria data. Two-body interactions alone are insufficient to adequately describe vapor-liquid coexistence. In contrast, the addition of three-body interactions results in very good agreement with experiment. In addition to the exact calculation of three-body interactions, calculations are reported with an approximate formula for three-body interactions, which also yields good results.

  20. Immigrant Children in Infant-Class Interactions: Opportunities for Second Language Acquisition of Young Multilingual Children in Dutch Infant Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damhuis, Resi

    1993-01-01

    Verbal interactions in 15 Dutch classes with immigrant children were audiotaped during 5 types of activity: pupil-centered conversation, instructional exchange, children's group, small-group-with-teacher, and special second-language group. Several input and production features were analyzed. (57 references) (Author/LB)

  1. An investigation of solute-solvent interactions in binary liquid mixtures of 3'-methoxyacetophenone: using Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Yamini, D; Ramakrishnan, V

    2013-07-01

    Raman spectral measurements have been carried out for neat 3'-methoxy acetophenone (3'-MAP) and binary liquid mixtures of 3'-MAP in three solvents of different polarity. Also Density Functional Theory (DFT) geometry optimization and vibrational wavenumber calculation have been performed on monomer and dimer structures of 3'-MAP to analyze the experimentally observed Raman spectrum. Mulliken charge analysis has also been made on optimized geometries of 3'-MAP with solvents. The changes associated with the observed peak position, intensity and linewidth in the carbonyl stretching mode of 3'-MAP are explained as a consequence of intermolecular interactions between solute-solute and solute-solvent molecules. This analysis reports that the solute-solvent interaction is dominant in the case of binary liquid mixtures of 3'-MAP with ethanol compared to DMF and benzene.

  2. Interacting binary galaxies. IV. Simulations, masses, and spatial orientations for NGC 1587/1588 and NGC 7236/7237

    SciTech Connect

    Borne, K.D.

    1988-07-01

    Successful efforts to match interaction models to all of the available data for two pairs of interacting binary galaxies, Nos. 99 and 564 in the Karachentsev catalog of isolated pairs, are described. The results validate simple Newtonian gravity on the 10 kpc scale. The dynamical orbital status of both K99 and K564 is uniquely determined, and the masses and spatial orientations of the pairs are tightly constrained. Total masses for the pairs are derived which are quite reasonable and yield M/L values near 10. It is concluded that the observed disturbances in rotation velocity and luminosity distribution for these binary galaxies are entirely consistent with the merger hypothesis. Distortions including U-shaped rotation profiles and one-sided luminosity disturbances provide solid observational evidence of tidal friction in action. 18 references.

  3. Evidential multi-class classification from binary classifiers: application to waste sorting quality control from hyperspectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachaize, Marie; Le Hégarat-Mascle, Sylvie; Aldea, Emanuel; Maitrot, Aude; Reynaud, Roger

    2017-03-01

    Our application deals with waste sorting using an automatic system involving a hyperspectral camera. This latter provides the data for classification of the different kinds of waste allowing the evaluation of mechanical pre-sorting and its refinement. Hyperspectral data are processed using Support Vector Machine (SVM) binary classifiers that we propose to combine in the belief function theory (BFT) framework to take into account not only the performance of each binary classifier, but also its imprecision related for instance to the number of samples during the learning step. Having underlined the interest of BFT framework to deal with sparse classifiers, we study the performance of different combinations of classifiers.

  4. DISCOVERY OF THE DISTURBED RADIO MORPHOLOGY IN THE INTERACTING BINARY QUASAR FIRST J164311.3+315618

    SciTech Connect

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2011-08-01

    We report the high-resolution radio observations and the subsequent analysis of the radio-loud compact steep spectrum quasar FIRST J164311.3+315618, one of the members of a binary system. The second component of the system is a radio-quiet active galactic nucleus. The projected separation of this pair is 2.''3 (15 kpc); it is one of the smallest-known-separation binary quasars. The multi-band images of this binary system made with the Hubble Space Telescope show that the host galaxy of the radio-loud quasar is highly disturbed. The radio observations presented here were made with the Multi-Element Radio-Linked interferometer network (MERLIN) at 1.66 GHz and 5 GHz. We show that the radio morphology of FIRST J164311.3+315618 is complex on both frequencies and exhibits four components that indicate the intermittent activity with a possible rapid change of the jet direction and/or restarting of the jet due to the interaction with the companion. The radio components that are no longer powered by the jet can quickly fade away. We suggest that this makes the potential distortions of the radio structure short-lived phenomena. Our numerical simulations show that the influence of the companion can lead to prolonged current and future activities. FIRST J164311.3+315618 is an unusual and statistically very rare low redshift binary quasar wherein the first close encounter is probably just taking place.

  5. Restructuring Heterogeneous Classes for Cognitive Development: Social Interactive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Rachel; Kedem-Friedrich, Peri

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study of students in grades three, four, and five that tried an educational application derived from the social constructivism view based on theories of Vygotsky and Piaget to improve cognitive development in a heterogeneous class. Path analysis showed that complex learning techniques are related to cognitive development. (Author/LRW)

  6. 'Acquisition Disappears in Adultery': Interaction in the Translation Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Julian

    1986-01-01

    Describes a classroom procedure which: (1) applies to translation classes lessons learned from the communicative approach , (2) motivates students to produce learning materials for each other, (3) makes translation the topic of peer discussion, and (4) facilitates discussion of accuracy and appropriateness in natural and target languages. (SED)

  7. Adding Interactivity to a Non-Interative Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Krichen, Jack

    2004-01-01

    The IT 3050 course at Capella University is an introduction to fundamental computer networking. This course is one of the required courses in the Bachelor of Science in Information Technology program. In order to provide a more enriched learning environment for learners, Capella has significantly modified this class (and others) by infusing it…

  8. Characterizing interactive engagement activities in a flipped introductory physics class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-06-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of how they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in practice is needed. Our aim in this paper is to present a characterization of the type and duration of interactions, as experienced by students, that took place during two introductory physics courses (1A and 1B) at a university in the United Kingdom. Through this work, a simple framework for analyzing lectures—the framework for interactive learning in lectures (FILL), which focuses on student interactions (with the lecturer, with each other, and with the material) is proposed. The pedagogical approach is based on Peer Instruction (PI) and both courses are taught by the same lecturer. We find lecture activities can be categorized into three types: interactive (25%), vicarious interactive (20%) (involving questions to and from the lecturer), and noninteractive (55%). As expected, the majority of both interactive and vicarious interactive activities took place during PI. However, the way that interactive activities were used during non-PI sections of the lecture varied significantly between the two courses. Differences were also found in the average time spent on lecturer-student interactions (28% for 1A and 12% for 1B), although not on student-student interactions (12% and 12%) or on individual learning (10% and 7%). These results are explored in detail and the implications for future research are discussed.

  9. ALMA observations of the T Tauri binary system AS 205: evidence for molecular winds and/or binary interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Salyk, Colette; Pontoppidan, Klaus; Corder, Stuartt; Muñoz, Diego; Zhang, Ke; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we present high-resolution millimeter observations of the dust and gas disk of the T Tauri star AS 205 N and its companion, AS 205 S, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The gas disk around AS 205 N, for which infrared emission spectroscopy demonstrates significant deviations from Keplerian motion that has been interpreted as evidence for a disk wind, also displays significant deviations from Keplerian disk emission in the observations presented here. Detections near both AS 205 N and S are obtained in 1.3 mm continuum, {sup 12}CO 2-1, {sup 13}CO 2-1, and C{sup 18}O 2-1. The {sup 12}CO emission is extended up to ∼2'' from AS 205 N, and both {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO display deviations from Keplerian rotation at all angular scales. Two possible explanations for these observations hold up best to close scrutiny—tidal interaction with AS 205 S or disk winds (or a combination of the two)—and we discuss these possibilities in some detail.

  10. Deciphering IR Excess Observed by the Spitzer Space Telescope in Short Period Interacting Cataclysmic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Howard; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Ciardi, David; Hoard, Don; Howell, Steve; Stefaniak, Linda; Thomas, , Beth

    2006-03-01

    During the first year of the Spitzer Space Telescope Observing Program for Students and Teachers, our team observed a small sample of short orbital period interacting white dwarf binaries. Our scientific investigation was aimed at detection and characterization of the low mass, cool, brown dwarf-like mass donors in these systems. We used the Infrared Array Camera to obtain photometric observations of the polars EF Eri, GG Leo, V347 Pav, and RX J0154.0-5947 at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 microns. In all our targets, we detected excess emission in the 3-8 micron region over that expected from a brown dwarf alone. One of the exciting discoveries we made with our IRAC observations is that the star EF Eri was found to be unexpectedly bright in the mid-IR (compared to its 2MASS magnitudes). This fact highlights an opportunity for us to observe EF Eri with the IRS as a follow-up proposal. EF Eri has a flux level of ~700 ?Jy at 8 microns. Thus, we are asking for time to obtain IRS data for only this star, our brightest source. We plan to obtain SL1 (7.4-14.5 microns) and SL2 (5.2-8.7 microns) spectroscopy only. We know the IRAC fluxes so our integration toies are well constrained and the spectral region covered by SL1, SL2 will yield sufficient S/N to differentiate between cool dust (rising BB like spectrum with PAH and other molecular features allowing us to determine dust size, temperature, and disk extent) and a T type dwarf showing characteristic spectral signatures and a falling Rayleigh-Jeans tail.

  11. Characterizing Interactive Engagement Activities in a Flipped Introductory Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of "how" they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in…

  12. JavaScript: Convenient Interactivity for the Class Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Patricia

    This paper shows how JavaScript can be used within HTML pages to add interactive review sessions and quizzes incorporating graphics and sound files. JavaScript has the advantage of providing basic interactive functions without the use of separate software applications and players. Because it can be part of a standard HTML page, it is…

  13. Characterizing Interactive Engagement Activities in a Flipped Introductory Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of "how" they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in…

  14. Non-Gaussian polymers described by alpha-stable chain statistics: Model, effective interactions in binary mixtures, and application to on-surface separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majka, M.; Góra, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The Gaussian chain model is the classical description of a polymeric chain, which provides analytical results regarding end-to-end distance, the distribution of segments around the mass center of a chain, coarse-grained interactions between two chains and effective interactions in binary mixtures. This hierarchy of results can be calculated thanks to the α stability of the Gaussian distribution. In this paper we show that it is possible to generalize the model of Gaussian chain to the entire class of α -stable distributions, obtaining the analogous hierarchy of results expressed by the analytical closed-form formulas in the Fourier space. This allows us to establish the α -stable chain model. We begin with reviewing the applications of Levy flights in the context of polymer sciences, which include: chains described by the heavy-tailed distributions of persistence length; polymers adsorbed to the surface; and the chains driven by a noise with power-law spatial correlations. Further, we derive the distribution of segments around the mass center of the α -stable chain and construct the coarse-grained interaction potential between two chains. These results are employed to discuss the model of binary mixture consisting of the α -stable chains. In what follows, we establish the spinodal decomposition condition generalized to the mixtures of the α -stable polymers. This condition is further applied to compare the on-surface phase separation of adsorbed polymers (which are known to be described with heavy-tailed statistics) with the phase separation condition in the bulk. Finally, we predict the four different scenarios of simultaneous mixing and demixing in the two- and three-dimensional systems.

  15. Effect of difference in interaction strength on two-dimensional lattice structure in a binary system with DNA nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keita; Katsuno, Hiroyasu; Sato, Masahide

    2017-07-01

    Keeping two-dimensional lattice structures formed by nanoparticles covered with DNA in mind, we carry out Brownian dynamics simulations to study the effect of interaction strength on a two-dimensional lattice structure formed in a binary system. In our previous study [H. Katsuno, Y. Maegawa, and M. Sato, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 85, 074605 (2016)], we carried out simulations using the Lennard-Jones potential, in which the difference in interaction length was taken into account. When the interaction length between different species, σ‧, is smaller than that between the same species, σ, various lattice structures were formed with changing the ratio σ‧/σ. In this paper, taking the difference in the interaction strength into account, we study the effect of the difference in interaction strength on the two-dimensional lattice structure.

  16. Student Response Systems' Virtual Interaction Effects on Learning in Adult Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassihi Langroodi, Sayedeh Parvanak

    2010-01-01

    In an English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) class, special emphasis is often put on interaction and negotiation as a means of learning and understanding the language being taught (Long, 1981; Pica, 1994). However, student-student interaction as well as student-teacher interaction could be difficult to achieve in…

  17. Student Response Systems' Virtual Interaction Effects on Learning in Adult Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassihi Langroodi, Sayedeh Parvanak

    2010-01-01

    In an English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) class, special emphasis is often put on interaction and negotiation as a means of learning and understanding the language being taught (Long, 1981; Pica, 1994). However, student-student interaction as well as student-teacher interaction could be difficult to achieve in…

  18. Unexpected toxic interactions in the freshwater amphipod Gammarus pulex (L.) exposed to binary copper and nickel mixtures.

    PubMed

    Charles, Jérémie; Crini, Grégorio; Degiorgi, François; Sancey, Bertrand; Morin-Crini, Nadia; Badot, Pierre-Marie

    2014-01-01

    To document the toxicity of copper and nickel in binary mixtures, freshwater amphipods Gammarus pulex were exposed to the metals given independently or as mixtures. Toxicity to Cu alone was relatively high: 96-h LC10 and LC50 were found at 91 and 196 μg L(-1), respectively. Toxicity to Ni alone was very low, with 96-h LC10 and LC50 of 44,900 and 79,200 μg L(-1), respectively. Mixture toxicities were calculated from single toxicity data using conventional models. Modeled toxicity was then compared with the measured toxicity of the binary mixture. Two kinds of mixtures were tested. Type I mixtures were designed as combinations of Cu and Ni given at the same effect concentrations, when taken independently, to identify possible interactions between copper and nickel. In type II mixtures, Cu concentrations varied from 0 to 600 μg L(-1) while the nickel concentration was kept constant at 500 μg L(-1) to mimic conditions of industrial wastewater discharges. Ni and Cu showed synergic effects in type I mixtures while type II mixtures revealed antagonistic effects. Low doses of Ni reduced Cu toxicity towards G. pulex. These results show that even for simple binary mixtures of contaminants with known chemistry and toxicity, unexpected interactions between the contaminants may occur. This reduces the reliability of conventional additivity models.

  19. Study on the Interaction Coefficients in PR Equation with vdW Mixing Rules for HFC and HC Binary Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-Xin; Hu, Peng; Chen, Ze-Shao

    2008-12-01

    The Peng-Robinson equation of state with the van der Waals mixing rules was used to correlate vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data for HFC/HC, HFC/HFC, and HC/HC binary mixtures. The interaction parameter k ij was obtained for every binary mixture. It was assumed that k ij has contributions from the two components, and each component has its own constant contribution factor k i for the mixture, and the values of k ij indicate the degree in difference of properties between the two components. Therefore, the interaction parameters k ij is proposed as: k ij = k i - k j . The values of the mixing factor k i for Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Hydrocarbons (HCs), including propane, isobutane, n-butane, R23, R32, R125, R143a, R134a, R152a, R227ea R236fa, R236ea, and R245fa, were obtained by least-square fitting. In total, 39 refrigerant binary mixtures were analyzed on the basis of this method, and the results showed good agreement with experimental data. The overall average absolute deviations of pressure and vapor mole fraction are 1.3 % and 0.0089, respectively.

  20. Studies on intermolecular interaction on binary mixtures of methyl orange-water system: excess molar functions of ultrasonic parameters at different concentrations and at different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Thanuja, B; Kanagam, Charles; Sreedevi, S

    2011-11-01

    Density (ρ), viscosity (η) and ultrasonic velocity (u) of binary mixtures of methyl orange and water were measured at different concentrations and at different temperatures; several useful parameters such as excess volume, excess velocity, and excess adiabatic compressibility have been calculated. These parameters are used to explain the nature of intermolecular interactions taking place in the binary mixture. The above study is helpful in understanding the dye/solvent interaction at different concentration and temperatures.

  1. Specific solute solvent interactions and dual fluorescence of electron donor substituted bis-pyrazoquinoline in binary mixed solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotkiewicz, Krystyna; Rettig, Wolfgang; Köhler, Gottfried; Rechthaler, Karl; Danel, Andrzej; Grabka, Danuta

    2004-12-01

    Some extended electron donor and acceptor substituted π-electron systems, composed of a dimethyl- or diethylanilino (DMA or DEA, respectively) group as electron donor and bis-pyrazoloquinoline (DPPQ) or bis-pyrazolopyridine (DMPP) derivatives as acceptors, were studied with the aim to elucidate the contributions of various solute interactions with solvent molecules upon intramolecular charge separation. Steady state and time resolved fluorescence studies were performed for DMA-DPPQ, DMA-DMPP and DEA-DMPP in alcohols and their binary mixtures with heptane. The decay kinetics of the fluorescence of DMA-DPPQ was also studied in neat 1-propanol in dependence of the temperature between 170 and 293 K. Several different fluorescent species, which were ascribed to different complexes with alcohol molecules, contribute to the fluorescence of the various compounds in these binary mixtures and account for the complex fluorescence decay. A simplified consecutive model is proposed to explain the decay behaviour of the excited species.

  2. UV and X-ray emission in the interacting binary U Cephei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gimenez, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Gonzalez-Riestra, R.

    1993-01-01

    The active close binary U Cep has been monitored in the ultraviolet, using IUE, during 1.25 orbital cycles. The emission spectrum at the bottom of the primary total eclipse confirms earlier suggestions of an unexpected absence of the Hell 1640 A line. Stronger than expected emission in some other lines like NV, CII, CIV or AlIII, indicative of hot plasma, points out that some important differences still remain between the active components of RS CVn-type binaries and the mass-losing components of semidetached Algols. Simultaneous X-ray measurements, carried out with GINGA, indicated a low upper limit flux in the observed energy range (1 to 10 keV). A comparison with other binary systems or isolated stars is discussed in order to understand the obtained results.

  3. Effects of drug-carrier interactions on drug dissolution from binary and ternary matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Zafar

    For nearly five decades, pharmaceutical researchers have studied solid solutions of drugs in polymers as a potential means to enhance the dissolution of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. This has become of greater importance in recent years because most new potential drug compounds (new chemical entities) exhibit poor water solubility and present great challenges to scientists who must design dosage forms from which the drugs are bioavailable. During the formulation of a solid solution, the drug undergoes physical but not chemical alterations that increase its chemical potential in the formulation relative to that of the pure drug in its stable form. This increased chemical potential is responsible for enhanced dissolution as well as physical instabilities, such as amorphous to crystalline conversions and precipitation within the solid state. The chemical potential is derived from the Gibbs free energy, so it is reasonable to explain the behavior of solid solution systems in terms of thermodynamics. Solid solutions and dispersions have been extensively studied by pharmaceutical scientists, both with regard to manufacturing aspects and the proposal of various models in attempts to explain the physical bases for how these systems work. Recently, Dave and Bellantone proposed a model based on the thermodynamic changes resulting from the formulation of binary solid solutions of a drug in the polymer PVP. Their model introduced a modification of the F-H theory, which was used to quantify the drug-polymer interaction energies and calculate the entropy of mixing of the drug and polymer. In this work, the model of Dave and Bellantone was extended to include three-component systems, consisting of one drug mixed in a carrier matrix consisting of mixture of two polymers or a polymer and a surfactant. For this research, solid solutions were formed using various drug weight fractions in the formulations. The study focused on the following points: (1) Prepare solid solution

  4. Toxicity of individual pharmaceuticals and their mixtures to Aliivibrio fischeri: Evidence of toxicological interactions in binary combinations.

    PubMed

    Di Nica, Valeria; Villa, Sara; Finizio, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    The combined toxicities of binary mixtures of veterinary pharmaceutical active compounds were examined using the bioluminescent bacterium Aliivibrio fischeri as a test organism (Microtox® test). Mixtures were prepared at an equitoxic ratio that corresponded to the inhibitory concentration, 10% (IC10) of individual pharmaceutical active compounds. In addition, the toxicity was determined of a multicomponent mixture that contained all of the investigated pharmaceutical active compounds mixed at a ratio corresponding to their individual predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) values. The experimental results were successively compared with those obtained by applying the 2 most widely used models for predicting mixture toxicity, the concentration addition (CA) and independent action (IA) models. Although the toxicity of the multicomponent mixture tested was well predicted by the CA and IA models, deviations from the model predictions were found for almost all of the binary mixtures. The deviations from the CA and IA models were greater at lower concentrations, particularly when diclofenac sodium and amoxicillin were present in the mixture. Based on these results, another hypothesis was tested, that of toxicological interactions occurring in binary mixtures (in the direction of synergistic or antagonistic effects), by applying the combination index method, which allowed for computerized quantification of synergism, the additive effect and antagonism. The application of this method confirmed, for at least half of the binary combinations, the clear presence of synergistic deviations at the lowest tested concentrations, with a tendency toward antagonism at the higher ones. In 1 case, a relevant antagonistic interaction was observed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:815-822. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Student-to-Student Interaction in Distance Education Classes: What Do Graduate Students Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary E.; Warner, Wendy J.; Jones, David W. W.

    2016-01-01

    This research sought to determine if graduate students taking distance education classes desire student-to-student interaction. Over 200 graduate students who completed one or more distance education graduate classes in agricultural and extension education from North Carolina State University during the past three years were surveyed. While some…

  6. Strategies for Building Positive Student-Instructor Interactions in Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Oscar J.; Turner, Windi D.

    2016-01-01

    Although large classes in and of themselves are pragmatic for universities, they can be challenging for both students and instructors. The purpose of this study was to investigate pedagogical strategies that instructors teaching large classes can utilize to create positive student-instructor interactions to counter these challenges. Both…

  7. Student-to-Student Interaction in Distance Education Classes: What Do Graduate Students Want?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary E.; Warner, Wendy J.; Jones, David W. W.

    2016-01-01

    This research sought to determine if graduate students taking distance education classes desire student-to-student interaction. Over 200 graduate students who completed one or more distance education graduate classes in agricultural and extension education from North Carolina State University during the past three years were surveyed. While some…

  8. Detection of in vivo interactions between Arabidopsis class A-HSFs, using a novel BiFC fragment, and identification of novel class B-HSF interacting proteins.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Doll, Jasmin; Weckermann, Katrin; Oecking, Claudia; Berendzen, Kenneth W; Schöffl, Friedrich

    2010-01-01

    Class A heat shock factors (Hsfs) of Arabidopsis are known to function as transcriptional activators of stress genes. Genetic and functional analysis suggests that HsfA1a and HsfA1b are central regulators required in the early phase of the heat shock response, which have the capacity to functionally replace each other. In order to examine Hsf interaction in vivo, we conducted interaction assays using bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) on Arabidopsis protoplasts co-transformed with suitable Hsf-YFP fusion genes. BiFC assays were quantified with confocal laser scanning microscopy and flow cytometry, and confirmed with immunoprecipitation assays. For each Hsf we could not only demonstrate homomeric interactions but also detect heteromeric interaction between HsfA1a and HsfA1b. Truncated versions of these of Hsfs, containing deletions of the oligomerization domains (ODs), provided clear evidence that the ODs are required and sufficient for the HSF interaction in vivo. By contrast there was only homomeric but no heteromeric interaction detected between two different class B Hsf transcription factors (HsfB1 and HsfB2b) in a yeast two-hybrid assay. HsfB1/HsfB2b functions are not directly linked with the expression of conventional heat shock genes; class B Hsfs are devoid of the activation domain motif conserved in class A Hsfs. In order to identify other proteins interacting with HsfB1 and HsfB2b we performed yeast two-hybrid screenings of cDNA libraries. Three of the identified proteins were common to both screenings. This suggests that HsfB1 and HsfB2b may be involved in complex regulatory networks, which are linked to other stress responses and signaling processes.

  9. Spicing Up Information Literacy Tutorials: Interactive Class Activities that Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovic, Neda

    2010-01-01

    Constructivist learning theories promote students' engagement as one of the key factors in successful learning and knowledge building. Research indicates that the short attention span of adult learners, their need to "learn-by-doing," interact and multitask in the learning process can be accommodated with a positive outcome by…

  10. The Relationship of Social Presence and Interaction in Online Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Chih-Hsiung; McIsaac, Marina

    2002-01-01

    Studied social presence in an online learning environment and focused on three elements: social context, online communication, and interactivity: that emerged as important in establishing a sense of community among online learners. Discusses the privacy factor, learner characteristics, computer-mediated communication, and course design.…

  11. The Association of Classroom Interactions, Year Group and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Diane; Williams, Julian

    2012-01-01

    We investigate differences in the teacher-learner interactions in Reception, Year 2 and Year 4 science and literacy classrooms through three measures: (i) the proportion of open questions asked by the teacher, (ii) the rate of successful responses, and (iii) wait-times. A regression analysis of data from 20 schools and 102 lessons suggests that…

  12. Interactive Lecture Experiments in Large Introductory Physics Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner-Bolotin, Marina M.; Kotlicki, A.; Rieger, G.; Bates, F.; Moll, R.; McPhee, K.; Nashon, S.

    2006-12-01

    We describe Interactive Lecture Experiments (ILE), which build on Interactive Lecture Demonstrations proposed by Sokoloff and Thornton (2004) and extends it by providing students with the opportunity to analyze experiments demonstrated in the lecture outside of the classroom. Real time experimental data is collected, using Logger Pro combined with the digital video technology. This data is uploaded to the Internet and made available to the students for further analysis. Student learning is assessed in the following lecture using conceptual questions (clickers). The goal of this project is to use ILE to make large lectures more interactive and promote student interest in science, critical thinking and data analysis skills. We report on the systematic study conducted using the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey, Force Concept Inventory, open-ended physics problems and focus group interviews to determine the impact of ILE on student academic achievement, motivation and attitudes towards physics. Three sections of students (750 students) experienced four ILE experiments. The surveys were administered twice and academic results for students who experienced the ILE for a particular topic were compared to the students, from a different section, who did not complete the ILE for that topic. Additional qualitative data on students’ attitudes was collected using open ended survey questions and interviews. We will present preliminary conclusions about the role of ILEs as an effective pedagogy in large introductory physics courses. Sokoloff, D.R. and R.K. Thornton (2004). Interactive Lecture Demonstrations: Active Learning in Introductory Physics, J.Wiley & Sons, INC. Interactive Lecture Experiments: http://www.physics.ubc.ca/ year1lab/p100/LectureLabs/lectureLabs.html

  13. Evolution of interacting binaries with a B type primary at birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rensbergen, W.; De Loore, C.; Jansen, K.

    2006-02-01

    We revisited the analytical expression for the mass ratio distribution for non-evolved binaries with a B type primary. Selection effects governing the observations were taken into account in order to compare theory with observations. Theory was optimized so as to fit best with the observed q-distribution of SB1s and SB2s. The accuracy of this theoretical mass ratio distribution function is severely hindered by the uncertainties on the observations. We present a library of evolutionary computations for binaries with a B type primary at birth. Some liberal computations including loss of mass and angular momentum during binary evolution are added to an extensive grid of conservative calculations. Our computations are compared statistically to the observed distributions of orbital periods and mass ratios of Algols. Conservative Roche Lobe Over Flow (RLOF) reproduces the observed distribution of orbital periods but fails to explain the observed mass ratios in the range q in [0.4-1]. In order to obtain a better fit the binaries have to lose a significant amount of matter, without losing much angular momentum.

  14. Phase behaviour, interactions, and structural studies of (amines+ionic liquids) binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Johan; Bendová, Magdalena; Sedláková, Zuzana; Blesic, Marijana; Holbrey, John D; Mullan, Claire L; Youngs, Tristan G A; Pison, Laure; Wagner, Zdeněk; Aim, Karel; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Hardacre, Christopher

    2012-05-14

    We present a study on the phase equilibrium behaviour of binary mixtures containing two 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide-based ionic liquids, [C(n)mim] [NTf(2)] (n=2 and 4), mixed with diethylamine or triethylamine as a function of temperature and composition using different experimental techniques. Based on this work, two systems showing an LCST and one system with a possible hourglass shape are measured. Their phase behaviours are then correlated and predicted by using Flory-Huggins equations and the UNIQUAC method implemented in Aspen. The potential of the COSMO-RS methodology to predict the phase equilibria was also tested for the binary systems studied. However, this methodology is unable to predict the trends obtained experimentally, limiting its use for systems involving amines in ionic liquids. The liquid-state structure of the binary mixture ([C(2)mim] [NTf(2)]+diethylamine) is also investigated by molecular dynamics simulation and neutron diffraction. Finally, the absorption of gaseous ethane by the ([C(2)mim][NTf(2)]+diethylamine) binary mixture is determined and compared with that observed in the pure solvents.

  15. Cultivar x binary mixture interaction effect on agronomic traits in orchardgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to evaluate and characterize the agronomic value, including dry matter yield and forage quality of 25 orchardgrass cultivars grown in monoculture and binary mixtures with alfalfa under supplemental irrigation from 2009 to 2012 at a Millville, UT, field site. Orchardgrass monoc...

  16. A novel one-class SVM based negative data sampling method for reconstructing proteome-wide HTLV-human protein interaction networks.

    PubMed

    Mei, Suyu; Zhu, Hao

    2015-01-26

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) prediction is generally treated as a problem of binary classification wherein negative data sampling is still an open problem to be addressed. The commonly used random sampling is prone to yield less representative negative data with considerable false negatives. Meanwhile rational constraints are seldom exerted on model selection to reduce the risk of false positive predictions for most of the existing computational methods. In this work, we propose a novel negative data sampling method based on one-class SVM (support vector machine, SVM) to predict proteome-wide protein interactions between HTLV retrovirus and Homo sapiens, wherein one-class SVM is used to choose reliable and representative negative data, and two-class SVM is used to yield proteome-wide outcomes as predictive feedback for rational model selection. Computational results suggest that one-class SVM is more suited to be used as negative data sampling method than two-class PPI predictor, and the predictive feedback constrained model selection helps to yield a rational predictive model that reduces the risk of false positive predictions. Some predictions have been validated by the recent literature. Lastly, gene ontology based clustering of the predicted PPI networks is conducted to provide valuable cues for the pathogenesis of HTLV retrovirus.

  17. A novel one-class SVM based negative data sampling method for reconstructing proteome-wide HTLV-human protein interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Suyu; Zhu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Protein-protein interaction (PPI) prediction is generally treated as a problem of binary classification wherein negative data sampling is still an open problem to be addressed. The commonly used random sampling is prone to yield less representative negative data with considerable false negatives. Meanwhile rational constraints are seldom exerted on model selection to reduce the risk of false positive predictions for most of the existing computational methods. In this work, we propose a novel negative data sampling method based on one-class SVM (support vector machine, SVM) to predict proteome-wide protein interactions between HTLV retrovirus and Homo sapiens, wherein one-class SVM is used to choose reliable and representative negative data, and two-class SVM is used to yield proteome-wide outcomes as predictive feedback for rational model selection. Computational results suggest that one-class SVM is more suited to be used as negative data sampling method than two-class PPI predictor, and the predictive feedback constrained model selection helps to yield a rational predictive model that reduces the risk of false positive predictions. Some predictions have been validated by the recent literature. Lastly, gene ontology based clustering of the predicted PPI networks is conducted to provide valuable cues for the pathogenesis of HTLV retrovirus. PMID:25620466

  18. A CHANDRA X-RAY STUDY OF THE INTERACTING BINARIES IN THE OLD OPEN CLUSTER NGC 6791

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Berg, Maureen; Verbunt, Frank

    2013-06-20

    We present the first X-ray study of NGC 6791, one of the oldest open clusters known (8 Gyr). Our Chandra observation is aimed at uncovering the population of close interacting binaries down to L{sub X} Almost-Equal-To 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} (0.3-7 keV). We detect 86 sources within 8' of the cluster center, including 59 inside the half-mass radius. We identify 20 sources with proper-motion cluster members, which are a mix of cataclysmic variables (CVs), active binaries (ABs), and binaries containing sub-subgiants. With follow-up optical spectroscopy, we confirm the nature of one CV. We discover one new, X-ray variable candidate CV with Balmer and He II emission lines in its optical spectrum; this is the first X-ray-selected CV in an open cluster. The number of CVs per unit mass is consistent with the field, suggesting that the 3-4 CVs observed in NGC 6791 are primordial. We compare the X-ray properties of NGC 6791 with those of a few old open (NGC 6819, M 67) and globular clusters (47 Tuc, NGC 6397). It is puzzling that the number of ABs brighter than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} normalized by cluster mass is lower in NGC 6791 than in M 67 by a factor {approx}3-7. CVs, ABs, and sub-subgiants brighter than 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg s{sup -1} are under-represented per unit mass in the globular clusters compared to the oldest open clusters, and this accounts for the lower total X-ray luminosity per unit mass of the former. This indicates that the net effect of dynamical encounters may be the destruction of even some of the hardest (i.e., X-ray-emitting) binaries.

  19. A Chandra X-Ray Census of the Interacting Binaries in Old Open Clusters—Collinder 261

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vats, Smriti; van den Berg, Maureen

    2017-03-01

    We present the first X-ray study of Collinder 261 (Cr 261), which at an age of 7 Gyr is one of the oldest open clusters known in the Galaxy. Our observation with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory is aimed at uncovering the close interacting binaries in Cr 261, and reaches a limiting X-ray luminosity of {L}X≈ 4× {10}29 {erg} {{{s}}}-1 (0.3–7 keV) for stars in the cluster. We detect 107 sources within the cluster half-mass radius r h , and we estimate that among the sources with {L}X≳ {10}30 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, ∼26 are associated with the cluster. We identify a mix of active binaries and candidate active binaries, candidate cataclysmic variables, and stars that have “straggled” from the main locus of Cr 261 in the color–magnitude diagram. Based on a deep optical source catalog of the field, we estimate that Cr 261 has an approximate mass of 6500 M ⊙, roughly the same as the old open cluster NGC 6791. The X-ray emissivity of Cr 261 is similar to that of other old open clusters, supporting the trend that they are more luminous in X-rays per unit mass than old populations of higher (globular clusters) and lower (the local neighborhood) stellar density. This implies that the dynamical destruction of binaries in the densest environments is not solely responsible for the observed differences in X-ray emissivity.

  20. Phase equilibrium calculations of ternary liquid mixtures with binary interaction parameters and molecular size parameters determined from molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Oh, Suk Yung; Bae, Young Chan

    2010-07-15

    The method presented in this paper was developed to predict liquid-liquid equilibria in ternary liquid mixtures by using a combination of a thermodynamic model and molecular dynamics simulations. In general, common classical thermodynamic models have many parameters which are determined by fitting a model with experimental data. This proposed method, however, provides a simple procedure for calculating liquid-liquid equilibria utilizing binary interaction parameters and molecular size parameters determined from molecular dynamics simulations. This method was applied to mixtures containing water, hydrocarbons, alcohols, chlorides, ketones, acids, and other organic liquids over various temperature ranges. The predicted results agree well with the experimental data without the use of adjustable parameters.

  1. Disc-protoplanet interaction. Influence of circumprimary radiative discs on self-gravitating protoplanetary bodies in binary star systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyergyovits, M.; Eggl, S.; Pilat-Lohinger, E.; Theis, Ch.

    2014-06-01

    Context. More than 60 planets have been discovered so far in systems that harbour two stars, some of which have binary semi-major axes as small as 20 au. It is well known that the formation of planets in such systems is strongly influenced by the stellar components, since the protoplanetary disc and the particles within are exposed to the gravitational influence of the binary. However, the question on how self-gravitating protoplanetary bodies affect the evolution of a radiative, circumprimary disc is still open. Aims: We present our 2D hydrodynamical GPU-CPU code and study the interaction of several thousands of self-gravitating particles with a viscous and radiative circumprimary disc within a binary star system. To our knowledge this program is the only one at the moment that is capable to handle this many particles and to calculate their influence on each other and on the disc. Methods: We performed hydrodynamical simulations of a circumstellar disc assuming the binary system to be coplanar. Our grid-based staggered mesh code relies on ideas from ZEUS-2D, where we implemented the FARGO algorithm and an additional energy equation for the radiative cooling according to opacity tables. To treat particle motion we used a parallelised version of the precise Bulirsch - Stoer algorithm. Four models in total where computed taking into account (i) only N-body interaction; (ii) N-body and disc interaction; (iii) the influence of computational parameters (especially smoothing) on N-body interaction; and (iv) the influence of a quiet low-eccentricity disc while running model (ii). The impact velocities were measured at two different time intervals and were compared. Results: We show that the combination of disc- and N-body self-gravity can have a significant influence on the orbit evolution of roughly Moon sized protoplanets. Conclusions: Not only gas drag can alter the orbit of particles, but the gravitational influence of the disc can accomplish this as well. The results

  2. Binary Mixtures of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Display Nonadditive Mixture Interactions in an In Vitro Liver Cell Model.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Stacey J; Bruce, Erica D

    2016-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been labeled contaminants of concern due to their carcinogenic potential, insufficient toxicological data, environmental ubiquity, and inconsistencies in the composition of environmental mixtures. The Environmental Protection Agency is reevaluating current methods for assessing the toxicity of PAHs, including the assumption of toxic additivity in mixtures. This study was aimed at testing mixture interactions through in vitro cell culture experimentation, and modeling the toxicity using quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). Clone-9 rat liver cells were used to analyze cellular proliferation, viability, and genotoxicity of 15 PAHs in single doses and binary mixtures. Tests revealed that many mixtures have nonadditive toxicity, but display varying mixture effects depending on the mixture composition. Many mixtures displayed antagonism, similar to other published studies. QSARs were then developed using the genetic function approximation algorithm to predict toxic activity both in single PAH congeners and in binary mixtures. Effective concentrations inhibiting 50% of the cell populations were modeled, with R(2) = 0.90, 0.99, and 0.84, respectively. The QSAR mixture algorithms were then adjusted to account for the observed mixture interactions as well as the mixture composition (ratios) to assess the feasibility of QSARs for mixtures. Based on these results, toxic addition is improbable and therefore environmental PAH mixtures are likely to see nonadditive responses when complex interactions occur between components. Furthermore, QSAR may be a useful tool to help bridge these data gaps surrounding the assessment of human health risks that are associated with PAH exposures.

  3. The Use of a Web-Based Classroom Interaction System in Introductory Physics Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corpuz, Edgar D.; Corpuz, Ma. Aileen A.; Rosalez, Rolando

    2010-10-01

    A web-based interaction system was used in algebra-based and calculus-based physics classes to enhance students' classroom interaction. The interactive teaching approach primarily incorporated elements of Mazur's Peer Instruction and Interactive Lecture Demonstration. In our implementation, students used personal digital assistants (PDAs) to interact with their instructor during lecture and classroom demonstration. In this paper, we document the perceptions and attitudes of algebra-based and calculus-based physics students towards the interactive teaching approach and likewise present data on how this approach affected students' performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI).

  4. Crystalline-amorphous interaction in relation to the phase diagrams of binary polymer blends containing a crystalline constituent.

    PubMed

    Rathi, Pankaj; Huang, Tsang-Min; Dayal, Pratyush; Kyu, Thein

    2008-05-22

    The present article describes an equilibrium theory for determining binary phase diagrams of various crystalline-amorphous polymer blends by taking into account the contributions from both liquid-liquid phase separation between the constituents and solid-liquid phase transition of the crystalline component. An analytical expression for determining a crystal-amorphous interaction parameter is deduced based on the solid-liquid transition, involving the solidus and liquidus lines in conjunction with the coexistence curve of an upper critical solution temperature type. Of particular importance is that the crystalline-amorphous interaction parameter can be determined directly from the melting point depression data. The present analysis is therefore different from the conventional Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, which is associated with the liquid-liquid phase separation. The validity of the present theory is tested with the experimental phase diagrams of blends of poly(ethylene oxide)/diacrylate and poly(vinyl alcohol)/cellulose.

  5. On a class of nonlinear dispersive-dissipative interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenau, P.

    1997-07-29

    The authors study the prototypical, genuinely nonlinear, equation; u{sub t} + a(u{sup m}){sub x} + (u{sup n}){sub xxx} = {mu}(u{sup k}){sub xx}, a, {mu} = consts., which encompasses a wide variety of dissipative-dispersive interactions. The parametric surface k = (m + n)/2 separates diffusion dominated from dissipation dominated phenomena. On this surface dissipative and dispersive effects are in detailed balance for all amplitudes. In particular, the m = n + 2 = k + 1 subclass can be transformed into a form free of convection and dissipation making it accessible to theoretical studies. Both bounded and unbounded oscillations are found and certain exact solutions are presented. When a = (2{mu}3/){sup 2} the map yields a linear equation; rational, periodic and aperiodic solutions are constructed.

  6. Tidal Interaction among Red Giants Close Binary Systems in APOGEE Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Meng; Arras, Phil; Majewski, Steven R.; Troup, Nicholas William; Weinberg, Nevin N.

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by the newly discovered close binary systems in the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE-1), the tidal evolution of binaries containing a red giant branch (RGB) star with a stellar or substellar companion was investigated. The tide raised by the companion in the RGB star leads to exchange of angular momentum between the orbit and the stellar spin, causing the orbit to contract. The tidal dissipation rate is computed using turbulent viscosity acting on the equilibrium tidal flow, where careful attention is paid to the effects of reduced viscosity for close-in companions. Evolutionary models for the RGB stars, from the zero-age main sequence to the present, were acquired from the MESA code. "Standard" turbulent viscosity gives rise to such a large orbital decay that many observed systems have decay times much shorter than the RGB evolution time. Several theories for "reduced" turbulent viscosity are investigated, and reduce the number of systems with uncomfortably short decay times.

  7. Molecular interactions in ethyl acetate-chlorobenzene binary solution: Dielectric, spectroscopic studies and quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthick, N. K.; Kumbharkhane, A. C.; Joshi, Y. S.; Mahendraprabu, A.; Shanmugam, R.; Elangovan, A.; Arivazhagan, G.

    2017-05-01

    Dielectric studies using Time Domain Reflectometry method has been carried out on the binary solution of Ethyl acetate (EA) with Chlorobenzene (CBZ) over the entire composition range. Spectroscopic (FTIR and 13C NMR) signatures of neat EA, CBZ and their equimolar binary solution have also been recorded. The results of the spectroscopic studies favour the presence of (CBZ) Csbnd H ⋯ Odbnd C (EA), (EA) methylene Csbnd H ⋯ π electrons (CBZ) and (EA) methyl Csbnd H ⋯ Cl (CBZ) contacts which have been validated using quantum chemical calculations. Dimerization of CBZ has been identified. Presence of β-clusters has been identified in all the solutions. Although EA and CBZ molecules have nearly equal molar volumes, CBZ molecules experience larger hindrance for the rotation than EA molecules. Very small excess dielectric constant (εE) values may be correlated with weak heteromolecular forces and/or closed heteromolecular association.

  8. Parameter Estimation of Binary Neutron Stars using an Effective One Body Model including Tidal Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Monica; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Lackey, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Ground gravitational wave detectors, built to detect perturbations in spacetime, can pick up signals produced by inspiraling binary neutron stars, the remnants of the core collapse of massive stars. A new EOB model (Bernuzzi et al. 2015) simulates the inspiral and merger of binary neutron star systems, including how they are deformed due to tides. We used a Bayesian parameter estimation algorithm to infer how well a plausible gravitational wave detection would allow us to constrain this tidal deformability. We then compared our results to prior investigations (Wade et al. 2014) which employed a post-Newtonian-based approximation for the inspiral. I would like to thank the RIT Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the RIT Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation.

  9. Critical Casimir interactions around the consolute point of a binary solvent.

    PubMed

    Mohry, T F; Kondrat, S; Maciołek, A; Dietrich, S

    2014-08-14

    Spatial confinement of a near-critical medium changes its fluctuation spectrum and modifies the corresponding order parameter distribution, resulting in effective, so-called critical Casimir forces (CCFs) acting on the confining surfaces. These forces are attractive for like boundary conditions of the order parameter at the opposing surfaces of the confinement. For colloidal particles dissolved in a binary liquid mixture acting as a solvent close to its critical point of demixing, one thus expects the emergence of phase segregation into equilibrium colloidal liquid and gas phases. We analyze how such phenomena occur asymmetrically in the whole thermodynamic neighborhood of the consolute point of the binary solvent. By applying field-theoretical methods within mean-field approximation and the semi-empirical de Gennes-Fisher functional, we study the CCFs acting between planar parallel walls as well as between two spherical colloids and their dependence on temperature and on the composition of the near-critical binary mixture. We find that for compositions slightly poor in the molecules preferentially adsorbed at the surfaces, the CCFs are significantly stronger than at the critical composition, thus leading to pronounced colloidal segregation. The segregation phase diagram of the colloid solution following from the calculated effective pair potential between the colloids agrees surprisingly well with experiments and simulations.

  10. Regulation of calreticulin–major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I interactions by ATP

    PubMed Central

    Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva Joseph; Gagnon, Jessica K.; Arora, Karunesh; Brooks, Charles L.; Raghavan, Malini

    2015-01-01

    The MHC class I peptide loading complex (PLC) facilitates the assembly of MHC class I molecules with peptides, but factors that regulate the stability and dynamics of the assembly complex are largely uncharacterized. Based on initial findings that ATP, in addition to MHC class I-specific peptide, is able to induce MHC class I dissociation from the PLC, we investigated the interaction of ATP with the chaperone calreticulin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal, calcium-binding component of the PLC that is known to bind ATP. We combined computational and experimental measurements to identify residues within the globular domain of calreticulin, in proximity to the high-affinity calcium-binding site, that are important for high-affinity ATP binding and for ATPase activity. High-affinity calcium binding by calreticulin is required for optimal nucleotide binding, but both ATP and ADP destabilize enthalpy-driven high-affinity calcium binding to calreticulin. ATP also selectively destabilizes the interaction of calreticulin with cellular substrates, including MHC class I molecules. Calreticulin mutants that affect ATP or high-affinity calcium binding display prolonged associations with monoglucosylated forms of cellular MHC class I, delaying MHC class I dissociation from the PLC and their transit through the secretory pathway. These studies reveal central roles for ATP and calcium binding as regulators of calreticulin–substrate interactions and as key determinants of PLC dynamics. PMID:26420867

  11. Comparison of Two Output-Coding Strategies for Multi-Class Tumor Classification Using Gene Expression Data and Latent Variable Model as Binary Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Sandeep J.; Robbins, Kelly R.; Zhang, Wensheng; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2010-01-01

    Multi-class cancer classification based on microarray data is described. A generalized output-coding scheme based on One Versus One (OVO) combined with Latent Variable Model (LVM) is used. Results from the proposed One Versus One (OVO) outputcoding strategy is compared with the results obtained from the generalized One Versus All (OVA) method and their efficiencies of using them for multi-class tumor classification have been studied. This comparative study was done using two microarray gene expression data: Global Cancer Map (GCM) dataset and brain cancer (BC) dataset. Primary feature selection was based on fold change and penalized t-statistics. Evaluation was conducted with varying feature numbers. The OVO coding strategy worked quite well with the BC data, while both OVO and OVA results seemed to be similar for the GCM data. The selection of output coding methods for combining binary classifiers for multi-class tumor classification depends on the number of tumor types considered, the discrepancies between the tumor samples used for training as well as the heterogeneity of expression within the cancer subtypes used as training data. PMID:20458360

  12. Images of gravitational and magnetic phenomena derived from two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography of interacting binary stars

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Cocking, Alexander S.; Fisher, John G.; Conover, Marshall J. E-mail: asc5097@psu.edu

    2014-11-10

    We have used two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries that undergo mass transfer from a magnetically active star onto a non-magnetic main-sequence star. This multitiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The Hα tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several methods used to extract the physical properties of the emission sources directly from the velocity images, including S-wave analysis, the creation of simulated velocity tomograms from hydrodynamic simulations, and the use of synthetic spectra with tomography to sequentially extract the separate sources of emission from the velocity image. In summary, the tomography images have revealed results that cannot be explained solely by gravitational effects: chromospheric emission moving with the mass-losing star, a gas stream deflected from the gravitational trajectory, and alternating behavior between stream state and disk state. Our results demonstrate that magnetic effects cannot be ignored in these interacting binaries.

  13. Evidence for the interactions occurring between ionic liquids and tetraethylene glycol in binary mixtures and aqueous biphasic systems.

    PubMed

    Tomé, Luciana I N; Pereira, Jorge F B; Rogers, Robin D; Freire, Mara G; Gomes, José R B; Coutinho, João A P

    2014-05-01

    The well-recognized advantageous properties of poly(ethylene glycol)s (PEGs) and ionic liquids (ILs) in the context of an increasing demand for safe and efficient biotechnological processes has led to a growing interest in the study of their combinations for a wide range of procedures within the framework of green chemistry. Recently, one of the most promising and attractive applications has been the novel IL/polymer-based aqueous biphasic systems (ABS) for the extraction and purification of biomolecules. There still lacks, however, a comprehensive picture of the molecular phenomena that control the phase behavior of these systems. In order to further delve into the interactions that govern the mutual solubilities between ILs and PEGs and the formation of PEG/IL-based ABS, (1)H NMR spectroscopy in combination with classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations performed for binary mixtures of tetraethylene glycol (TEG) and 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium-chloride-based ILs and for the corresponding ternary TEG/IL/water solutions, at T = 298.15 K, were employed in this work. The results of the simulations show that the mutual solubilities of the ILs and TEG are mainly governed by the hydrogen bonds established between the chloride anion and the -OH group of the polymer in the binary systems. Additionally, the formation of IL/PEG-based ABS is shown to be controlled by a competition between water and chloride for the interactions with the hydroxyl group of TEG.

  14. Evidence of anomalous behavior of intermolecular interactions at low concentration of methanol in ethanol-methanol binary system.

    PubMed

    Nilavarasi, K; Kartha, Thejus R; Madhurima, V

    2018-01-05

    At low concentrations of methanol in a binary system of ethanol and methanol, uniquely complex molecular interactions are reported here. Previous studies indicate that ethanol molecules form aggregates held together by hydrogen bonding (O-H-O) and also dispersive forces. Addition of small amount of methanol tends to break the hydrogen bond network of ethanol due to the larger polarity of methanol. This leads to the ethanol molecules becoming somewhat isolated from each other within a scaffolding network of methanol molecules, as seen from the present molecular dynamics simulations. This is an indication of a repulsive force that dominates among the two different alcohols. At higher molar concentration of methanol (Xm > 0.3817), the strength and extent (number) of formation of hydrogen bonds between ethanol and methanol increase. The geometry of molecular structure at high concentration favors the fitting of component molecules with each other. Intermolecular interactions in the ethanol-methanol binary system over the entire concentration range were investigated in detail using broadband dielectric spectroscopy, FTIR, surface tension and refractive index studies. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the hydrogen bond density is a direct function of the number of methanol molecules present, as the ethanol aggregates are not strictly hydrogen-bond constructed which is in agreement with the experimental results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. On the modulation of a high-enthalpy pretransition in binary mixtures of DMPC and DMPG by polar headgroup interaction.

    PubMed Central

    Bayerl, T M; Köchy, T; Brückner, S

    1990-01-01

    Employing high-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), we discovered a pretransition in binary mixtures of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine and dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol, the main feature of which is its extraordinarily high transition enthalpy of 6.3 Kcal/mol, nearly an order of magnitude higher than those values previously found for such transitions. Using DSC, deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance, and electron microscopy, it is shown that the energetic origin of this type of pretransition is caused by interactions between the phospholipids in their headgroup region. The most likely interaction involves the formation of a hydrogen bond between the headgroups of the two phospholipid species in the gel (L beta') phase which is disrupted at the transition to the "ripple" (P beta') phase. The finding that this large pretransition is unique for mixtures of phosphocholine and phosphoglycerol with myristoyl chains indicates a dependence of the headgroup long range order of such mixtures in the gel phase on the acyl chain length. PMID:2306513

  16. Functional Interaction between Class II Histone Deacetylases and ICP0 of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Lomonte, Patrick; Thomas, Joëlle; Texier, Pascale; Caron, Cécile; Khochbin, Saadi; Epstein, Alberto L.

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the physical and functional interactions between ICP0 of herpes simplex virus type 1 and class II histone deacetylases (HDACs) 4, 5, and 7. Class II HDACs are mainly known for their participation in the control of cell differentiation through the regulation of the activity of the transcription factor MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2), implicated in muscle development and neuronal survival. Immunofluorescence experiments performed on transfected cells showed that ICP0 colocalizes with and reorganizes the nuclear distribution of ectopically expressed class I and II HDACs. In addition, endogenous HDAC4 and at least one of its binding partners, the corepressor protein SMRT (for silencing mediator of retinoid and thyroid receptor), undergo changes in their nuclear distribution in ICP0-transfected cells. As a result, during infection endogenous HDAC4 colocalizes with ICP0. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays confirmed that class II but not class I HDACs specifically interacted with ICP0 through their amino-terminal regions. This region, which is not conserved in class I HDACs but homologous to the MITR (MEF2-interacting transcription repressor) protein, is responsible for the repression, in a deacetylase-independent manner, of MEF2 by sequestering it under an inactive form in the nucleus. Consequently, we show that ICP0 is able to overcome the HDAC5 amino-terminal- and MITR-induced MEF2A repression in gene reporter assays. This is the first report of a viral protein interacting with and controlling the repressor activity of class II HDACs. We discuss the putative consequences of such an interaction for the biology of the virus both during lytic infection and reactivation from latency. PMID:15194749

  17. The Size And Shape Of The Mass Transfer Nozzle In Eccentric Interacting Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancini, Alyssa; Haggerty, C.; Sepinsky, J.

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the amount of mass lost from a star which just fills its Roche Lobe, it is imperative to accurately calculate the size of the nozzle -- the area through which the mass flows. This is normally bounded by the equipotential surface where the density of the exponential atmosphere drops by one scale height. When the stars are in an eccentric orbit, Sepinsky et al. (2007) found that the equipotential surfaces defining the peanut-shaped shell ordinarily enclosing the two stars can "open up", no longer enclosing both stars. Furthermore, when attempting to calculate the orbit-variable mass transfer rate for eccentric systems, Haggerty and Sepinsky (2011) discovered that the equipotential surface defining the outer edge of the nozzle may "open up” -- and that this can occur closer to the donor star than its inner Lagrangian point (L1). In such a case, the nozzle is undefined at L1. Here, we develop a method for calculating the effective area of mass transfer by finding the area of the rings bounded at small radii by the Roche Lobe of the donor and at large radii by the equipotential surface. We calculate the area of the ring and its proximity to the L1 point as a function of eccentricity and the binary parameters. We then compare the mass transfer rate calculated for this area to other recent calculations of the mass transfer rate in eccentric binaries.

  18. Sample Sizes Required to Detect Interactions between Two Binary Fixed-Effects in a Mixed-Effects Linear Regression Model.

    PubMed

    Leon, Andrew C; Heo, Moonseong

    2009-01-15

    Mixed-effects linear regression models have become more widely used for analysis of repeatedly measured outcomes in clinical trials over the past decade. There are formulae and tables for estimating sample sizes required to detect the main effects of treatment and the treatment by time interactions for those models. A formula is proposed to estimate the sample size required to detect an interaction between two binary variables in a factorial design with repeated measures of a continuous outcome. The formula is based, in part, on the fact that the variance of an interaction is fourfold that of the main effect. A simulation study examines the statistical power associated with the resulting sample sizes in a mixed-effects linear regression model with a random intercept. The simulation varies the magnitude (Δ) of the standardized main effects and interactions, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ρ ), and the number (k) of repeated measures within-subject. The results of the simulation study verify that the sample size required to detect a 2 × 2 interaction in a mixed-effects linear regression model is fourfold that to detect a main effect of the same magnitude.

  19. Assessment of odor activity value coefficient and odor contribution based on binary interaction effects in waste disposal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.

  20. Hydrogen bonding interactions in ethanol and acetonitrile binary system: A near and mid-infrared spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Sun, Hai-Yuan; Deng, Geng; Yu, Zhi-Wu

    2014-07-01

    The hydrogen bond interactions in C2H5OHsbnd CH3CN binary system have been studied in detail by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), attenuated total reflection (ATR) mid-infrared spectroscopy (mid-IR), and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The collected spectra were analyzed with excess spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS) including moving-window 2D-COS. The main conclusions are: (1) A number of species, namely multimer, trimmer, and dimer of C2H5OH, and C2H5OH⋯CD3CN hydrogen bonding complex, have been identified in the binary system C2H5OHsbnd CH3CN experimentally. The linear relationship between the observed and calculated wavenumbers of the concerned species assisted us in doing the assignments. (2) Adding acetonitrile, the hydrogen bonds in C2H5OH are weakened and C2H5OH multimers dissociate. Meanwhile, C2H5OH dimers and C2H5OH⋯CD3CN hydrogen bonding complex form, and the former also transform to the latter. The dissociation of C2H5OH multimers slows down gradually during the dilution process and at the mole fraction 0.7 of acetonitrile, all the C2H5OH multimers have dissociated.

  1. A new study of the interacting binary star V356 Sgr

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polidan, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Results on V356 Sgr from IUE and Voyager ultraviolet (500 to 3200 A) observations obtained in 1986 and 1987, primarily during 2 total eclipses are presented. The eclipse of Aug. 15, 1986 was fully covered with IUE low dispersion images and 9 hr of Voyager UVS data. The eclipse of Mar. 25, 1987 was covered with IUE low dispersion images and 1 high dispersion SWP image. During both eclipses the total strength of the emission lines is found to be invariant. An uneclipsed UV continuum is detected at wavelengths shorter than 1500 A. The high dispersion SWP spectrum reveals that the emission lines are extremely broad, almost symmetrical emissions with weak, slightly blue shifted absorption components. No evidence of carbon, C I, C II, C III, or C IV, is seen in the emission or absorption spectrum of V356 Sgr in eclipse. Models for this binary system are presented.

  2. Controlling hydrolysis reaction rates with binary ionic liquid mixtures by tuning hydrogen-bonding interactions.

    PubMed

    Weber, Cameron C; Masters, Anthony F; Maschmeyer, Thomas

    2012-02-16

    The ability of a binary ionic liquid (IL) system consisting of a phosphonium transition state analogue (TSA) and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][NTf(2)]) to accelerate the rate of the well-studied hydrolysis of a tert-alkyl picolinium salt by influencing the solvent structure was investigated. A significant rate enhancement was observed in the presence of the TSA; however, comparison with other cations illustrated that this enhancement was not unique to the chosen TSA. Instead, the rate enhancements were correlated with the dilution of hydrogen bonding by the added cations. This phenomenon was further examined by the use of 1-butyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([BMMIM][NTf(2)]) as a cosolvent and the use of Reichardt's dye to measure the extent of hydrogen bonding on solutes in these systems. The rate increases are rationalized in terms of weaker hydrogen bonding from the solvent system to water.

  3. Tidal interaction in compact binaries: A post-Newtonian affine framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, V.; Gualtieri, L.; Maselli, A.

    2012-02-01

    We develop a semianalytical approach, based on the post-Newtonian expansion and on the affine approximation, to model the tidal deformation of neutron stars in the coalescence of black hole-neutron star or neutron star-neutron star binaries. Our equations describe, in a unified framework, both the system orbital evolution, and the neutron star deformations. These are driven by the tidal tensor, which we expand at 1/c3 post-Newtonian order, including spin terms. We test the theoretical framework by simulating black hole-neutron star coalescence up to the onset of mass shedding, which we determine by comparing the shape of the star with the Roche lobe. We validate our approach by comparing our results with those of fully relativistic, numerical simulations.

  4. V404 Cyg - an Interacting Black-Hole Low-Mass X-ray Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Ori; Mauerhan, Jon; Graham, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    This DDT proposal is prompted by the June 15, 2015 outburst of V404 Cyg, a black-hole (BH) low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). This outburst stands out since it is the first black hole system with a measured parallax, lying at a distance of only 2.39+/-0.14 kpc. An extensive and loosely organized multi-wavelength campaign is already underway by the astronomical community. One of the missing pieces of the puzzle is the mid-infrared (IR). Combined with radio, optical, and X-ray data, the mid-IR will help to discriminate discriminate between an accretion disk, jet emission, or circumstellar dust scenarios. Spitzer offers a unique opportunity to observe at these wavelengths. Here we propose 4 very short (5-minutes at 3.6 and 4.5 micron) observations of IRAC hotometry to search for the presence of warm dust and, if present, constrain the heating mechanism.

  5. A PIONIER and Incisive Look at the Interacting Binary SS Lep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blind, N.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Berger, J.-P.; Lebouquin, J.-B.; Mérand, A.

    2011-09-01

    Symbiotic stars are excellent laboratories to study a broad range of poorly understood physical processes, such as mass loss of red giants, accretion onto compact objects, and evolution of nova-like outbursts. As their evolution is strongly influenced by the mass transfer episodes, understanding the history of these systems requires foremost to determine which process is at play: Roche lobe overflow, stellar wind accretion, or some more complex mixture of both. We report here an interferometric study of the symbiotic system SS Leporis, performed with the unique PIONIER instrument. By determining the binary orbit and revisiting the parameters of the two stars, we show that the giant does not fill its Roche lobe, and that the mass transfer most likely occurs via the accretion of an important part of the giant's wind.

  6. Twelve years of IUE spectra of the interacting binary VV Cephei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, W. H.; Stencel, R. E.; Neff, D. H.

    1991-01-01

    All well-exposed high-resolution IUE spectra obtained of the eclipsing binary system VV Cephei (M2Iabep + B) are examined. High-temperature absorption features attributable to the hot companion were detected, indicating that the companion (or the inner regions of its accretion disk) are not as hot as a B1-B2 star. Doubling of Fe II (UV 1) lines, with an additional narrow component redshifted by about 60 km/sec, occurs only when the B star is behind the plane of the sky containing the M supergiant, suggesting the existence of mass transfer from the red to the blue star. Absorption features from neutral elements weaken dramatically during egress, while those from ionized elements remain at nearly constant strength. During egress from primary eclipse, the Mg II resonance doublet shows asymmetric double-peaked emission indicative of formation in an expanding chromosphere. It is concluded that the outer atmosphere of the M supergiant is highly clumped.

  7. Algol-like Interacting Binaries with Long Non-orbital Periodicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennickent, R. E.

    The phenomenon of Double Periodic Variables (DPVs) is summarized, enlightening their photometric and spectroscopic characteristics. The current evidence for binarity, accretion discs and inflows/outflows is presented. Stellar masses, radii, temperature and luminosities, along with orbital and disc parameters, have been obtained for some systems as the result of a multicomponent fit to the light curves. These parameters have been compared with those of published binary star evolutionary tracks obtaining the best synthetic model for those systems. This allow us to discuss their evolutionary stage determining their age and mass transfer rate, and explore the possible relation between DPVs, W Serpentids and classical Algols. We provide clues on the origin of the long-term variability, mainly based on spectroscopic studies and photometric insights.

  8. Molecular interaction forces in acetone + ethanol binary liquid solutions: FTIR and theoretical studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jadhav, Deepali L.; Karthick, N. K.; Kannan, P. P.; Shanmugam, R.; Elangovan, A.; Arivazhagan, G.

    2017-02-01

    FTIR spectra of neat acetone, ethanol and their binary solutions at the molar ratios 0.2:0.8 (ethanol: acetone), 0.4:0.6, 0.6:0.4 and 0.8:0.2 have been recorded at room temperature. Theoretical calculations have also been made on acetone (monomer and dimer), ethanol monomer, dimer, trimer, tetramer, pentamer, hexamer and ethanol - acetone complex molecules. 4:1 (ethanol:acetone), 5:1 and 6:2 complexation through the classical Cdbnd O⋯Hsbnd O and (acetone) Csbnd H⋯Osbnd C(ethanol) hydrogen bonds has been identified. Ethanol rich solutions may consist of ethanol multimers such as tetramer, pentamer and hexamer along with 4:1, 5:1 and 6:2 complex molecules depending upon ethanol concentration. Acetone seems to exist as a mixture of monomer and dimer.

  9. A Low Cost Key Agreement Protocol Based on Binary Tree for EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 RFID Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Albert; Chang, Li-Chung; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    There are many protocols proposed for protecting Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system privacy and security. A number of these protocols are designed for protecting long-term security of RFID system using symmetric key or public key cryptosystem. Others are designed for protecting user anonymity and privacy. In practice, the use of RFID technology often has a short lifespan, such as commodity check out, supply chain management and so on. Furthermore, we know that designing a long-term security architecture to protect the security and privacy of RFID tags information requires a thorough consideration from many different aspects. However, any security enhancement on RFID technology will jack up its cost which may be detrimental to its widespread deployment. Due to the severe constraints of RFID tag resources (e. g., power source, computing power, communication bandwidth) and open air communication nature of RFID usage, it is a great challenge to secure a typical RFID system. For example, computational heavy public key and symmetric key cryptography algorithms (e. g., RSA and AES) may not be suitable or over-killed to protect RFID security or privacy. These factors motivate us to research an efficient and cost effective solution for RFID security and privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a new effective generic binary tree based key agreement protocol (called BKAP) and its variations, and show how it can be applied to secure the low cost and resource constraint RFID system. This BKAP is not a general purpose key agreement protocol rather it is a special purpose protocol to protect privacy, un-traceability and anonymity in a single RFID closed system domain.

  10. Inhibition of the function of class IIa HDACs by blocking their interaction with MEF2

    PubMed Central

    Jayathilaka, Nimanthi; Gaffney, Kevin J.; Dey, Raja; Jarusiewicz, Jamie A.; Noridomi, Kaori; Philips, Michael A.; Lei, Xiao; He, Ju; Ye, Jun; Gao, Tao; Petasis, Nicos A.; Chen, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Enzymes that modify the epigenetic status of cells provide attractive targets for therapy in various diseases. The therapeutic development of epigenetic modulators, however, has been largely limited to direct targeting of catalytic active site conserved across multiple members of an enzyme family, which complicates mechanistic studies and drug development. Class IIa histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a group of epigenetic enzymes that depends on interaction with Myocyte Enhancer Factor-2 (MEF2) for their recruitment to specific genomic loci. Targeting this interaction presents an alternative approach to inhibiting this class of HDACs. We have used structural and functional approaches to identify and characterize a group of small molecules that indirectly target class IIa HDACs by blocking their interaction with MEF2 on DNA.Weused X-ray crystallography and 19F NMRto show that these compounds directly bind to MEF2. We have also shown that the small molecules blocked the recruitment of class IIa HDACs to MEF2-targeted genes to enhance the expression of those targets. These compounds can be used as tools to study MEF2 and class IIa HDACs in vivo and as leads for drug development. PMID:22396528

  11. Communicative Aspects of Definitions in Classroom Interaction: Learning to Define in Class for First and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temmerman, Martina

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the interactive structure and the interactive meaning of definitions in primary school classroom interaction. The classes that were chosen are classes which consisted solely or for a large part of second language learners, as definitions might have a special importance for them in their second language acquisition. Three…

  12. Communicative Aspects of Definitions in Classroom Interaction: Learning to Define in Class for First and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temmerman, Martina

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the interactive structure and the interactive meaning of definitions in primary school classroom interaction. The classes that were chosen are classes which consisted solely or for a large part of second language learners, as definitions might have a special importance for them in their second language acquisition. Three…

  13. Covering #SAE: A Mobile Reporting Class's Changing Patterns of Interaction on Twitter over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the social network that emerged on Twitter surrounding a mobile reporting class as they covered a national breaking news event. The work introduces pedagogical strategies that enhance students' learning opportunities. Through NodeXL and social network cluster analysis, six groups emerged from the Twitter interactions tied to…

  14. Activities Contributing a Great Deal to the Students' Interactive Skills in Foreign Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asatryan, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    While teaching speaking it is desired to provide a rich environment in class for meaningful communication to take place. With this aim, various speaking activities can contribute a great deal to students in developing their interactive skills necessary for life. These activities make students active in the learning process and at the same time…

  15. Covering #SAE: A Mobile Reporting Class's Changing Patterns of Interaction on Twitter over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the social network that emerged on Twitter surrounding a mobile reporting class as they covered a national breaking news event. The work introduces pedagogical strategies that enhance students' learning opportunities. Through NodeXL and social network cluster analysis, six groups emerged from the Twitter interactions tied to…

  16. Conceding in Disagreements during Small Group Interactions in Academic Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2012-01-01

    Using conversation analysis as a methodological and analytical framework, this study presents a sequential analysis of disagreement episodes in small group interactions in an advanced academic writing class. Closer scrutiny of the sequences reveals that in order to bring disagreements to a close, participants make use of an array of interactional…

  17. How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, Maxwell Cassady

    Relatively massive B-type stars with closely orbiting stellar companions can evolve to produce Type Ia supernovae, X-ray binaries, millisecond pulsars, mergers of neutron stars, gamma ray bursts, and sources of gravitational waves. However, the formation mechanism, intrinsic frequency, and evolutionary processes of B-type binaries are poorly understood. As of 2012, the binary statistics of massive stars had not been measured at low metallicities, extreme mass ratios, or intermediate orbital periods. This thesis utilizes large data sets of eclipsing binaries to measure the physical properties of B-type binaries in these previously unexplored portions of the parameter space. The updated binary statistics provide invaluable insight into the formation of massive stars and binaries as well as reliable initial conditions for population synthesis studies of binary star evolution. We first compare the properties of B-type eclipsing binaries in our Milky Way Galaxy and the nearby Magellanic Cloud Galaxies. We model the eclipsing binary light curves and perform detailed Monte Carlo simulations to recover the intrinsic properties and distributions of the close binary population. We find the frequency, period distribution, and mass-ratio distribution of close B-type binaries do not significantly depend on metallicity or environment. These results indicate the formation of massive binaries are relatively insensitive to their chemical abundances or immediate surroundings. Second, we search for low-mass eclipsing companions to massive B-type stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud Galaxy. In addition to finding such extreme mass-ratio binaries, we serendipitously discover a new class of eclipsing binaries. Each system comprises a massive B-type star that is fully formed and a nascent low-mass companion that is still contracting toward its normal phase of evolution. The large low-mass secondaries discernibly reflect much of the light they intercept from the hot B-type stars, thereby

  18. The yellow hypergiant HR 5171 A: Resolving a massive interacting binary in the common envelope phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesneau, O.; Meilland, A.; Chapellier, E.; Millour, F.; van Genderen, A. M.; Nazé, Y.; Smith, N.; Spang, A.; Smoker, J. V.; Dessart, L.; Kanaan, S.; Bendjoya, Ph.; Feast, M. W.; Groh, J. H.; Lobel, A.; Nardetto, N.; Otero, S.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Tekola, A. G.; Whitelock, P. A.; Arcos, C.; Curé, M.; Vanzi, L.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Only a few stars are caught in the very brief and often crucial stages when they quickly traverse the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, and none has yet been spatially resolved in the mass transfer phase. Aims: We initiated long-term optical interferometry monitoring of the diameters of massive and unstable yellow hypergiants (YHG) with the goal of detecting both the long-term evolution of their radius and shorter term formation of a possible pseudo-photosphere related to proposed large mass-loss events. Methods: We observed HR 5171 A with AMBER/VLTI. We also examined archival photometric data in the visual and near-IR spanning more than 60 years, as well as sparse spectroscopic data. Results: HR 5171 A exhibits a complex appearance. Our AMBER data reveal a surprisingly large star for a YHG R∗ = 1315 ± 260R⊙ (or ~6.1 AU) at the distance of 3.6 ± 0.5 kpc. The source is surrounded by an extended nebulosity, and these data also show a large level of asymmetry in the brightness distribution of the system, which we attribute to a newly discovered companion star located in front of the primary star. The companion's signature is also detected in the visual photometry, which indicates an orbital period of Porb = 1304 ± 6 d. Modeling the light curve with the NIGHTFALL program provides clear evidence that the system is a contact or possibly over-contact eclipsing binary. A total current system mass of 39+40-22 M⊙ and a high mass ratio q ≥ 10 is inferred for the system. Conclusions: The low-mass companion of HR 5171 A is very close to the primary star that is embedded within its dense wind. Tight constraints on the inclination and vsini of the primary are lacking, which prevents us from determining its influence precisely on the mass-loss phenomenon, but the system is probably experiencing a wind Roche-Lobe overflow. Depending on the amount of angular momentum that can be transferred to the stellar envelope, HR 5171 A may become a fast-rotating B

  19. Reverse Radiative Shock Experiments Relevant to Accreting Stream-Disk Impact in Interacting Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauland, Christine; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. K.; Huntington, C. M.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Marion, D. C.; Young, R.; Plewa, T.

    2011-05-01

    In many Cataclysmic Binary systems, mass onto an accretion disk produces a `hot spot’ where the infalling supersonic flow obliquely strikes the rotating accretion disk. This collision region has many ambiguities as a radiation hydrodynamic system, but shock development in the infalling flow can be modeled. Depending upon conditions, it has been argued (Armitage & Livio, ApJ 493, 898) that the shocked region may be optically thin, thick, or intermediate, which has the potential to significantly alter the hot spot's structure and emissions. We report the first experimental attempt to produce colliding flows that create a radiative reverse shock at the Omega-60 laser facility. Obtaining a radiative reverse shock in the laboratory requires producing a sufficiently fast flow (> 100 km/s) within a material whose opacity is large enough to produce energetically significant emission from experimentally achievable layers. We will discuss the experimental design, the available data, and our astrophysical context. Funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Prog. in High-Energy-Density Lab. Plasmas, by the Nat. Laser User Facility Prog. in NNSA-DS and by the Predictive Sci. Acad. Alliances Prog. in NNSA-ASC, under grant numbers are DE-FG52-09NA29548, DE-FG52-09NA29034, and DE-FC52-08NA28616.

  20. Analysis of the IUE spectra of the strongly interacting binary beta Lyrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluskey, George E., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The six-band ultraviolet light curves of beta Lyrae obtained with the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory A-2 in 1970 exhibited a very unusual behavior. The secondary minimum deepened at shorter wavelength, indicating that one was not observing light variations caused primarily by the eclipses of two stars having a roughly Planckian energy distribution. It was then suggested that the light variations were caused by a viewing angle effect of an optically-thick, ellipsoidal circumbinary gas cloud. Since 1978 beta Lyrae has been observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. We have constructed ultraviolet light curves from the IUE archival data for comparison with the OAO-A2 results. We find that they are in substantial agreement with each other. The Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer was also used to observe this binary during a period covered by IUE observations. The Voyager results agree with those of the two other satellite observatories at wavelengths longer than about 1350 A. However, in the wavelength region shorter than the Lyman-alpha line at 1216 A, the light curves at 1085 A and 965 A show virtually no light variation except an apparent flaring near phase 0.7, which is also in evidence at longer wavelengths. We suggest that the optically-thick circumbinary gas cloud, which envelops the two stars completely, assumes a roughly spherical shape when observed at these shorter wavelengths.

  1. First CCD Photometry of the Interacting Binary AF Geminorum: Evidence for a Gravitationally Bound Third Object?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuhas, Bernard J.; Reed, Phillip A.; Chambliss, Carlson R.

    2013-07-01

    AF Geminorum (AF Gem) is an unusual Algol-type eclipsing binary star system in that the primary eclipse is a transit of the cooler, more evolved secondary star in front of the main sequence primary star. Our observations of AF Gem were made using the 0.61-meter Ritchey-Chrétien telescope at the Kutztown University Observatory (Kutztown, Pennsylvania) over 9 nights from 28 Nov 2012 to 6 Feb 2013. A total of 5350 data images were obtained of AF Gem during this time, and the results of our photometry suggest evidence for a third light source which may be gravitationally bound to the system. We present the first CCD photometric study in BVRI for this system, resolve the third light source from our photometry, provide a consistent orbital solution using the Wilson-Devinney code, and present a detailed ephemeris analysis. With an orbital period of 1.24 days, an overall decreasing ephemeris, and a possible third body in the system, AF Gem certainly warrants future photometric and spectroscopic observations.

  2. PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES OF THE INTERACTING BINARY BO MONOCEROTIS: EVIDENCE FOR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Phillip A.; Yuhas, Bernard J. E-mail: byuha055@live.kutztown.edu

    2013-05-15

    BO Monocerotis (BO Mon) is a severely neglected short-period (2.23 days) Algol-type eclipsing binary star system undergoing angular momentum variations that are likely due to the evolved secondary star experiencing cycles of magnetic activity. We present the first CCD light curves of BO Mon, which were observed at the Kutztown University Observatory (Kutztown, PA) in 2012 using B, V, and I filters. The analysis presented here is the first of its kind for BO Mon and provides the first physical model of the system's parameters. We also incorporate over 40 yr of published times of minimum light to provide a new ephemeris curve and perform a period study that greatly improves, while differing significantly from, an earlier ephemeris analysis that was done more than 13 yr ago. The observed variations in BO Mon's orbital period supply evidence for mass transfer and magnetic activity and our photometric model affords the basic properties of the system for use in future photometric and spectroscopic studies.

  3. Water-solid interactions in amorphous maltodextrin-crystalline sucrose binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mohamed K; Toth, Scott J; Simpson, Garth J; Mauer, Lisa J; Taylor, Lynne S

    2014-03-01

    Amorphous and crystalline solids are commonly found together in a variety of pharmaceutical and food products. In this study, the influence of co-formulation of amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and crystalline sucrose (S) on moisture sorption, deliquescence, and glass transition (Tg) properties of powder blends was investigated. Individual components and binary mixtures of four different molecular weight MDs with sucrose in 1:1 w/w ratios were exposed to various relative humidity (RH) environments and their equilibrium and dynamic moisture contents were monitored. The deliquescence point (RH0) and dissolution behavior of sucrose alone and in blends was also monitored by polarized light microscopy and second harmonic generation imaging. In S:MD blends, the deliquescence RH of sucrose was lower than the RH0 of sucrose alone, and synergistic moisture sorption also occurred at RHs lower than the RH0. Intimate contact of sucrose crystals with the amorphous MDs resulted in complete dissolution of sucrose at RH < RH0. When blends were stored at conditions exceeding the Tg of the individual MDs (25 °C and 60%, 49% and 34%RH for MD21, MD29 and MD40, respectively), the Tg of the blends was lower than that of individual MDs. Thus, co-formulation of amorphous MDs with crystalline sucrose sensitizes the blend to moisture, potentially leading to deleterious changes in the formulation if storage conditions are not adequately controlled.

  4. Water–solid interactions in amorphous maltodextrin-crystalline sucrose binary mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Ghorab, Mohamed K.; Toth, Scott J.; Simpson, Garth J.; Mauer, Lisa J.; Taylor, Lynne S.

    2016-01-01

    Amorphous and crystalline solids are commonly found together in a variety of pharmaceutical and food products. In this study, the influence of co-formulation of amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and crystalline sucrose (S) on moisture sorption, deliquescence, and glass transition (Tg) properties of powder blends was investigated. Individual components and binary mixtures of four different molecular weight MDs with sucrose in 1:1 w/w ratios were exposed to various relative humidity (RH) environments and their equilibrium and dynamic moisture contents were monitored. The deliquescence point (RH0) and dissolution behavior of sucrose alone and in blends was also monitored by polarized light microscopy and second harmonic generation imaging. In S:MD blends, the deliquescence RH of sucrose was lower than the RH0 of sucrose alone, and synergistic moisture sorption also occurred at RHs lower than the RH0. Intimate contact of sucrose crystals with the amorphous MDs resulted in complete dissolution of sucrose at RH < RH0. When blends were stored at conditions exceeding the Tg of the individual MDs (25 °C and 60%, 49% and 34%RH for MD21, MD29 and MD40, respectively), the Tg of the blends was lower than that of individual MDs. Thus, co-formulation of amorphous MDs with crystalline sucrose sensitizes the blend to moisture, potentially leading to deleterious changes in the formulation if storage conditions are not adequately controlled. PMID:23477494

  5. Multiscale Coupling of Monte Carlo Binary-Collision-Approximation Codes with Particle-in-Cells for Plasma-Material Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curreli, Davide; Lindquist, Kyle; Ruzic, David N.

    2013-10-01

    Techniques based on Monte Carlo Binary Collision Approximation (BCA) are widely used for the evaluation of particle interactions with matter, but rarely coupled with a consistent kinetic plasma solver like a Particle-in-Cell. The TRIM code [Eckstein; Biersack and Haggmark, 1980] and its version including dynamic-composition TRIDYN [Moller and Eckstein, 1984] are two popular implementations of BCA, where single-particle projectiles interact with a target of amorphous material according to the classical Carbon-Krypton interaction potential. The effect of surface roughness can be included as well, thanks to the Fractal-TRIM method [Ruzic and Chiu, 1989]. In the present study we couple BCA codes with Particles-in-Cells. The Lagrangian treatment of particle motion usually implemented in PiC codes suggests a natural coupling of PiC's with BCA's, even if a number of caveats has to be taken into account, related to the discrete nature of computational particles, to the difference between the two approaches and most important to the multiple spatial and temporal scales involved. The break down of BCA at low energies (unless the projectiles are channeling through an oriented crystal layer [Hobler and Betz, 2001]) has been supplemented by Yamamura's semi-empirical relations.

  6. The interaction effects of binary mixtures of benzene and toluene on the developing heart of medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Teuschler, Linda K; Gennings, Chris; Hartley, William R; Carter, Hans; Thiyagarajah, Arunthavarani; Schoeny, Rita; Cubbison, Chris

    2005-03-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has pursued the estimation of risk of adverse health effects from exposure to chemical mixtures since the early 1980s. Methods used to calculate risk estimates of mixtures were often based on single chemical information that required assumptions of dose-addition or response-addition and did not consider possible changes in response due to interaction effects among chemicals. Full factorial designs for laboratory studies can produce interactions information, but these are expensive to perform and may not provide the information needed to evaluate specific environmentally relevant mixtures. In this research, groups of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos were exposed to binary mixtures of benzene and toluene as well as to each of these chemicals alone. Endpoint specific dose-response models were built for the hydrocarbon mixture under an assumption of dose-additivity, using the single chemical dose-response information on benzene and toluene. The endpoints included heart rate, heart rate progression, and lethality. Results included a synergistic response for heart rate at 72 h of development, and either additivity or antagonism for all other endpoints at 96 h of development. This work uses an established statistical method to evaluate the toxicity of an environmentally relevant mixture to ascertain whether interaction effects are occurring, thus providing additional information on toxicity.

  7. ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3HIOT1/2 CL8 CELLS.

    Studies of defined mixtures of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have identified three major categories of interacti...

  8. Preliminary Studies of Interacting Binaries From NURO Observations : V963 Cygni and GSC 1419 0091

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, R. G.; Jones, S. M.; Scott, T.; Branning, J.; Miller, J.; Faulkner, D. R.; Hawkins, N. C.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary analyses of V963 and V965 Cygni based on observations taken at the National Undergraduate Research Observatory (NURO). Our CCD observations were taken 07-12 March 2005 and 19-25 July 2004 by DRF,RGS, and NCH with the Lowell Observatory 31-inch reflector. Standard UBVRI filters were used. Preliminary light curve analyses and updated periodicity studies are presented for these variables. V963 Cyg (GSC 2656 1995,α (2000) = 19h 44m 04.92s, δ (2000) = +31 41 50.17) is a detached binary discovered by Wachmann (Ast Abh Ham St VI, #1, 1961). The eclipse depths are nearly equal, 0.78 and 0.67 magnitudes in in V in the primary and secondary eclipses, respectively, causing observers to MISTAKINGLY classify it as an Algol-type system. Thus the two stars are similar in temperature and the period has to be DOUBLED. The curves appear fairlysymmetrical with a depressed section following the primary eclipse in R and I about 0.2 phase units wide. In BVRI, 100 to 130 observations were taken along with 75 in U. We determined three new times of minimum light, two secondary eclipses, HJD Min II = 2453207.76857±0.00029d and 2453211.9540±0.0032d, and one primary eclipse HJD Min I = 2453209.86073±0.00095d. A corrected period and an improved ephemeris was computed using available times of minimum light: HJD Min I = 2453209.8616(±0.0011)d + 1.39466792(±0.00000019)*E. GSC 1419 0091 (Brh V132) [α (2000) = 10h 11m 59.152s,δ (2000) = +16 52 30.28] is an overcontact binary discovered by Klaus Bernhard (BAV, http://www.var-mo.de/star/brh_v132.htm). We took approximately 60-65 observations in each of B,V,R, and I. We determined four new times of minimum light: HJD Min I = 2453437.8293(±0.0003) and 2453441.8291(±0.0019), and HJD Min II = 2453437.6973(±0.0012) and 2453442.76317(±0.0005). We computed an improved ephemeris from all available times of minimum and low light: HJD Min I = 2452754.4733(±0.0030)d + 0.2667251*E(±0.0000011). The light curves show shallow

  9. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the flow of binary immiscible fluids with different viscosities using the Shan-Chen microscopic interaction model.

    PubMed

    Chin, Jonathan; Boek, Edo S; Coveney, Peter V

    2002-03-15

    We present a lattice Boltzmann study of the flow of a binary fluid where the fluid components have different viscosities. For this purpose, a microscopic interaction model (due to Shan & Chen) is used. The model is validated for Poiseuille flow of layered immiscible binary fluids and the dispersion of a capillary wave. We then study the unstable displacement of a viscous fluid by a less viscous fluid in a two-dimensional channel. Although a finger-like structure was observed in many simulations, it is not clear if this structure was produced due to viscous fingering or due to other effects.

  10. Interaction of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone with binary phospholipid membranes: structural changes and relevance of phase behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, L M; de Almeida, R F; Villalaín, J; Fedorov, A; Prieto, M

    2001-01-01

    The interaction of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) with negatively charged binary membrane systems composed of either 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-rac-(1-glycerol)], (DMPC/DMPG) or DMPC/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate (DMPC/DMPA), both at a 3:1 ratio, was studied using complementary techniques (differential scanning calorimetry, infrared and ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy, and steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence). The peptide structure in buffer, at medium to high concentrations, is a mixture of aggregated beta-strands and random coil, and upon increasing the temperature the random coil configuration becomes predominant. At low concentrations (micromolar) there are essentially no aggregates. When in interaction with the lipidic systems this transition is prevented and the peptide is stabilized in a specific conformation different from the one in solution. The incorporation of alpha-MSH into phosphatidic acid-containing systems produced a significant alteration of the calorimetric data. Lateral heterogeneity can be induced by the peptide in the DMPA-containing mixture, at variance with the one of DMPG. In addition, the lipid/water partition coefficient for the peptide in the presence of DMPC/DMPA is greater in the gel phase as compared to the fluid phase. From the high values of limiting anisotropies it can be concluded that the peptide presents a very reduced rotational dynamics when in interaction with the lipids, pointing out to a strong interaction. Overall, these results show that the structure and stability of alpha-MSH in a negatively charged membrane environment are substantially different from those of the peptide in solution, being stabilized in a specific conformation that could be important to eliciting its biological activity. PMID:11325729

  11. Social inequality and depressive disorders in Bahia, Brazil: interactions of gender, ethnicity, and social class.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Lessa, Ines; Magalhães, Lucélia; Araújo, Maria Jenny; Aquino, Estela; James, Sherman A; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2004-10-01

    We conducted a study of the association between gender, race/ethnicity, and social class and prevalence of depressive disorders in an urban sample (N = 2302) in Bahia, Brazil. Individual mental health status was assessed by the PSAD/QMPA scale. Family SES and head of household's schooling and occupation were taken as components for a 4-level social class scale. Race/ethnicity (white, moreno, mulatto, black) was assessed with a combination of self-designation and a system of racial classification. The overall 12-month prevalence of depressive symptoms was 12%, with a female:male ratio of 2:1. Divorced/widowed persons showed the highest prevalence and single the lowest. There was a negative correlation with education: the ratio college educated:illiterate was 4:1. This gradient was stronger for women than men. There was no F:M difference in depression among Whites, upper-middle classes, college-educated, or illiterate. Prevalence ratios for single, widowed and Blacks were well above the overall pattern. Regarding race/ethnicity, higher prevalences of depression were concentrated in the Moreno and Mulatto subgroups. There was a consistent social class and gender interaction, along all race/ethnicity strata. Three-way interaction analyses found strong gender effect for poor and working-class groups, for all race/ethnicity strata but Whites. Black poor yielded the strongest gender effect of all (up to nine-fold). We conclude that even in a highly unequal context such as Bahia, Blacks, Mulattos and women were protected from depression by placement into the local dominant classes; and that the social meaning of ethnic-gender-generation diversity varies with being unemployed or underemployed, poor or miserable, urban or rural, migrant or non-migrant.

  12. Binary 2in1 Vectors Improve in Planta (Co)localization and Dynamic Protein Interaction Studies.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Andreas; Wallmeroth, Niklas; Peter, Sébastien; Blatt, Michael R; Harter, Klaus; Grefen, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Fluorescence-based protein-protein interaction techniques are vital tools for understanding in vivo cellular functions on a mechanistic level. However, only under the condition of highly efficient (co)transformation and accumulation can techniques such as Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) realize their potential for providing highly accurate and quantitative interaction data. FRET as a fluorescence-based method unifies several advantages, such as measuring in an in vivo environment, real-time context, and the ability to include transient interactions as well as detecting the mere proximity of proteins. Here, we introduce a novel vector set that incorporates the benefit of the recombination-based 2in1 cloning system with the latest state-of-the-art fluorescent proteins for optimal coaccumulation and FRET output studies. We demonstrate its utility across a range of methods. Merging the 2in1 cloning system with new-generation FRET fluorophore pairs allows for enhanced detection, speeds up the preparation of clones, and enables colocalization studies and the identification of meaningful protein-protein interactions in vivo. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Configuration interactions of class 11: An error in Cowan's atomic structure theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramida, Alexander

    2017-06-01

    For about 35 years since its creation, the suite of atomic structure codes created by R.D. Cowan remains the working horse of atomic spectroscopists and is cited in more than 4000 publications. This note concerns one aspect of those codes: calculation of configuration interaction (CI) parameters. It was found that the last of the eleven classes of CI described in Cowan's book and implemented in his codes erroneously sets some of the CI parameters in Rydberg series of interacting configurations to zero. This leads to inaccurate description of eigenstates and sizeable errors in calculated transition probabilities.

  14. Implementing Interactive Teaching Methods for 9th Grade Organic Chemistry Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traykov, Ivaylo; Galcheva, Petinka

    2017-03-01

    One of the main challenges facing the current educational system is creating conditions suitable for academic skill development that allow students to navigate and adapt to today's modern society, such as locating relevant information quickly as well as effectively utilizing innovations. We can achieve this objective by using interactive teaching methods. These methods take into account the contemporary issues and changing priorities - from the general content building for the courses to independent, student-centered cognitive activities. The propose of this paper is to present tested and proven interactive methods for Grade 9Organic Chemistry classes. These methods significantly improve the quality of teaching and the students' interest in the subject.

  15. Cross Interaction Drives Stratification in Drying Film of Binary Colloidal Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiajia; Jiang, Ying; Doi, Masao

    2017-03-01

    When a liquid film of a colloidal solution consisting of particles of different sizes is dried on a substrate, the colloids often stratify, where smaller colloids are laid upon larger colloids. This phenomenon is counterintuitive because larger colloids which have a smaller diffusion constant, are expected to remain near the surface during the drying process, leaving a layer of larger colloids on top of smaller colloids. Here we show that the phenomenon is caused by the interaction between the colloids, and can be explained by a diffusion model accounting for the interaction between the colloids. By studying the evolution equations both numerically and analytically, we derive the condition at which the stratified structures are obtained.

  16. A solid-state NMR study of phospholipid-cholesterol interactions: sphingomyelin-cholesterol binary systems.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen; Kurze, Volker; Huber, Thomas; Afdhal, Nezam H; Beyer, Klaus; Hamilton, James A

    2002-09-01

    We used solid-state NMR techniques to probe the interactions of cholesterol (Chol) with bovine brain sphingomyelin (SM) and for comparison of the interactions of Chol with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), which has a similar gel-to-liquid crystalline transition temperature. (1)H-, (31)P-, and (13)C-MASNMR yielded high-resolution spectra from multilamellar dispersions of unlabeled brain SM and Chol for analysis of chemical shifts and linewidths. In addition, (2)H-NMR spectra of oriented lipid membranes with specific deuterium labels gave information about membrane ordering and mobility. Chol disrupted the gel-phase of pure SM and increased acyl chain ordering in the liquid crystalline phase. As inferred from (13)C chemical shifts, the boundaries between the ordered and disordered liquid crystalline phases (L and L) were similar for SM and DPPC. The solubility limit of Chol in SM was ~50 mol %, the same value as previously reported for DPPC membranes. We found no evidence for specific H-bonding between Chol and the amide group of SM. The order parameters of a probe molecule, d31-sn1-DPPC, in SM were slightly higher than in DPPC for all carbons except the terminal groups at 30 mol % but were not significantly different at 5 and 60 mol % Chol. These studies show a general similarity with some subtle differences in the way Chol interacts with DPPC and SM. In the environment of a typical biomembrane, the higher proportion of saturated fatty acyl chains in SM compared to other phospholipids may be the most significant factor influencing interactions with Chol.

  17. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  18. Interaction of the Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT and Its Host Cell Receptor, Lipolysis-stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR)*

    PubMed Central

    Hemmasi, Sarah; Czulkies, Bernd A.; Schorch, Björn; Veit, Antonia; Aktories, Klaus; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase) is a binary, actin ADP-ribosylating toxin frequently associated with hypervirulent strains of the human enteric pathogen C. difficile, the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. CDT leads to the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton and, eventually, to cell death. Low doses of CDT result in the formation of microtubule-based protrusions on the cell surface that increase the adherence and colonization of C. difficile. The lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is the host cell receptor for CDT, and our aim was to gain a deeper insight into the interplay between both proteins. We show that CDT interacts with the extracellular, Ig-like domain of LSR with an affinity in the nanomolar range. We identified LSR splice variants in the colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 and disrupted the LSR gene in these cells by applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology. LSR truncations ectopically expressed in LSR knock-out cells indicated that intracellular parts of LSR are not essential for plasma membrane targeting of the receptor and cellular uptake of CDT. By generating a series of N- and C-terminal truncations of the binding component of CDT (CDTb), we found that amino acids 757–866 of CDTb are sufficient for binding to LSR. With a transposon-based, random mutagenesis approach, we identified potential LSR-interacting epitopes in CDTb. This study increases our understanding about the interaction between CDT and its receptor LSR, which is key to the development of anti-toxin strategies for preventing cell entry of the toxin. PMID:25882847

  19. Thermo-solvatochromism in binary mixtures of water and ionic liquids: on the relative importance of solvophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Sato, Bruno M; de Oliveira, Carolina G; Martins, Clarissa T; El Seoud, Omar A

    2010-02-28

    The thermo-solvatochromism of 2,6-dibromo-4-[(E)-2-(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)ethenyl] phenolate, MePMBr(2), has been studied in mixtures of water, W, with ionic liquids, ILs, in the temperature range of 10 to 60 degrees C, where feasible. The objectives of the study were to test the applicability of a recently introduced solvation model, and to assess the relative importance of solute-solvent solvophobic interactions. The ILs were 1-allyl-3-alkylimidazolium chlorides, where the alkyl groups are methyl, 1-butyl, and 1-hexyl, respectively. The equilibrium constants for the interaction of W and the ILs were calculated from density data; they were found to be linearly dependent on N(C), the number of carbon atoms of the alkyl group; van't Hoff equation (log K versus 1/T) applied satisfactorily. Plots of the empirical solvent polarities, E(T) (MePMBr(2)) in kcal mol(-1), versus the mole fraction of water in the binary mixture, chi(w), showed non-linear, i.e., non-ideal behavior. The dependence of E(T) (MePMBr(2)) on chi(w), has been conveniently quantified in terms of solvation by W, IL, and the "complex" solvent IL-W. The non-ideal behavior is due to preferential solvation by the IL and, more efficiently, by IL-W. The deviation from linearity increases as a function of increasing N(C) of the IL, and is stronger than that observed for solvation of MePMBr(2) by aqueous 1-propanol, a solvent whose lipophilicity is 12.8 to 52.1 times larger than those of the ILs investigated. The dependence on N(C) is attributed to solute-solvent solvophobic interactions, whose relative contribution to solvation are presumably greater than that in mixtures of water and 1-propanol.

  20. Interaction of the Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT and Its Host Cell Receptor, Lipolysis-stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR).

    PubMed

    Hemmasi, Sarah; Czulkies, Bernd A; Schorch, Björn; Veit, Antonia; Aktories, Klaus; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis

    2015-05-29

    CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase) is a binary, actin ADP-ribosylating toxin frequently associated with hypervirulent strains of the human enteric pathogen C. difficile, the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. CDT leads to the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton and, eventually, to cell death. Low doses of CDT result in the formation of microtubule-based protrusions on the cell surface that increase the adherence and colonization of C. difficile. The lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is the host cell receptor for CDT, and our aim was to gain a deeper insight into the interplay between both proteins. We show that CDT interacts with the extracellular, Ig-like domain of LSR with an affinity in the nanomolar range. We identified LSR splice variants in the colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 and disrupted the LSR gene in these cells by applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology. LSR truncations ectopically expressed in LSR knock-out cells indicated that intracellular parts of LSR are not essential for plasma membrane targeting of the receptor and cellular uptake of CDT. By generating a series of N- and C-terminal truncations of the binding component of CDT (CDTb), we found that amino acids 757-866 of CDTb are sufficient for binding to LSR. With a transposon-based, random mutagenesis approach, we identified potential LSR-interacting epitopes in CDTb. This study increases our understanding about the interaction between CDT and its receptor LSR, which is key to the development of anti-toxin strategies for preventing cell entry of the toxin. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Considerations on the role of fall-back discs in the final stages of the common envelope binary interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuruwita, Rajika L.; Staff, Jan; De Marco, Orsola

    2016-09-01

    The common envelope interaction is thought to be the gateway to all evolved compact binaries and mergers. Hydrodynamic simulations of the common envelope interaction between giant stars and their companions are restricted to the dynamical, fast, in-spiral phase. They find that the giant envelope is lifted during this phase, but remains mostly bound to the system. At the same time, the orbital separation is greatly reduced, but in most simulations it levels off at values larger than measured from observations. We conjectured that during the post-in-spiral phase the bound envelope gas will return to the system. Using hydrodynamic simulations, we generate initial conditions for our simulation that result in a fall-back disc with total mass and angular momentum in line with quantities from the simulations of Passy et al. We find that the simulated fall-back event reduces the orbital separation efficiently, but fails to unbind the gas before the separation levels off once again. We also find that more massive fall-back discs reduce the orbital separation more efficiently, but the efficiency of unbinding remains invariably very low. From these results we deduce that unless a further energy source contributes to unbinding the envelope (such as was recently tested by Nandez et al.), all common envelope interactions would result in mergers. On the other hand, additional energy sources are unlikely to help, on their own, to reduce the orbital separation. We conclude by discussing our dynamical fall-back event in the context of a thermally regulated post-common envelope phase.

  2. The ALMA Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS). First results from an unbiased submillimeter wavelength line survey of the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422 with ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jørgensen, J. K.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Coutens, A.; Lykke, J. M.; Müller, H. S. P.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Calcutt, H.; Bjerkeli, P.; Bourke, T. L.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Favre, C.; Fayolle, E. C.; Garrod, R. T.; Jacobsen, S. K.; Öberg, K. I.; Persson, M. V.; Wampfler, S. F.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The inner regions of the envelopes surrounding young protostars are characterized by a complex chemistry, with prebiotic molecules present on the scales where protoplanetary disks eventually may form. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) provides an unprecedented view of these regions zooming in on solar system scales of nearby protostars and mapping the emission from rare species. Aims: The goal is to introduce a systematic survey, the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), of the chemical complexity of one of the nearby astrochemical templates, the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422, using ALMA in order to understand the origin of the complex molecules formed in its vicinity. In addition to presenting the overall survey, the analysis in this paper focuses on new results for the prebiotic molecule glycolaldehyde, its isomers, and rarer isotopologues and other related molecules. Methods: An unbiased spectral survey of IRAS 16293-2422 covering the full frequency range from 329 to 363 GHz (0.8 mm) has been obtained with ALMA, in addition to a few targeted observations at 3.0 and 1.3 mm. The data consist of full maps of the protostellar binary system with an angular resolution of 0.5'' (60 AU diameter), a spectral resolution of 0.2 km s-1, and a sensitivity of 4-5 mJy beam-1 km s-1, which is approximately two orders of magnitude better than any previous studies. Results: More than 10 000 features are detected toward one component in the protostellar binary, corresponding to an average line density of approximately one line per 3 km s-1. Glycolaldehyde; its isomers, methyl formate and acetic acid; and its reduced alcohol, ethylene glycol, are clearly detected and their emission well-modeled with an excitation temperature of 300 K. For ethylene glycol both lowest state conformers, aGg' and gGg', are detected, the latter for the first time in the interstellar medium (ISM). The abundance of glycolaldehyde is comparable to or

  3. Pattern formation in binary fluid mixtures induced by short-range competing interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bores, Cecilia; Lomba, Enrique; Perera, Aurélien; Almarza, Noé G.

    2015-08-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations and integral equation calculations of a simple equimolar mixture of diatomic molecules and monomers interacting via attractive and repulsive short-range potentials show the existence of pattern formation (microheterogeneity), mostly due to depletion forces away from the demixing region. Effective site-site potentials extracted from the pair correlation functions using an inverse Monte Carlo approach and an integral equation inversion procedure exhibit the features characteristic of a short-range attractive and a long-range repulsive potential. When charges are incorporated into the model, this becomes a coarse grained representation of a room temperature ionic liquid, and as expected, intermediate range order becomes more pronounced and stable.

  4. LILRB2 Interaction with HLA Class I Correlates with Control of HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ying; Apps, Richard; Gao, Xiaojiang; Burke, Patrick S.; Taylor, Craig J.; Rogich, Jerome; Wolinsky, Steven; Bream, Jay H.; Duggal, Priya; Hussain, Shehnaz; Martinson, Jeremy; Weintrob, Amy; Kirk, Gregory D.; Fellay, Jacques; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Goedert, James J.; Deeks, Steven G.; Pereyra, Florencia; Trowsdale, John; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Telenti, Amalio; Walker, Bruce D.; Allen, Rachel L.; Carrington, Mary; Yu, Xu G.

    2014-01-01

    Natural progression of HIV-1 infection depends on genetic variation in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I locus, and the CD8+ T cell response is thought to be a primary mechanism of this effect. However, polymorphism within the MHC may also alter innate immune activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by changing interactions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules with leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR), a group of immunoregulatory receptors mainly expressed on myelomonocytic cells including dendritic cells (DCs). We used previously characterized HLA allotype-specific binding capacities of LILRB1 and LILRB2 as well as data from a large cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals (N = 5126) to test whether LILR-HLA class I interactions influence viral load in HIV-1 infection. Our analyses in persons of European descent, the largest ethnic group examined, show that the effect of HLA-B alleles on HIV-1 control correlates with the binding strength between corresponding HLA-B allotypes and LILRB2 (p = 10−2). Moreover, overall binding strength of LILRB2 to classical HLA class I allotypes, defined by the HLA-A/B/C genotypes in each patient, positively associates with viral replication in the absence of therapy in patients of both European (p = 10−11–10−9) and African (p = 10−5–10−3) descent. This effect appears to be driven by variations in LILRB2 binding affinities to HLA-B and is independent of individual class I allelic effects that are not related to the LILRB2 function. Correspondingly, in vitro experiments suggest that strong LILRB2-HLA binding negatively affects antigen-presenting properties of DCs. Thus, we propose an impact of LILRB2 on HIV-1 disease outcomes through altered regulation of DCs by LILRB2-HLA engagement. PMID:24603468

  5. Effective interaction in asymmetric charged binary mixtures: the non-monotonic behaviour with the colloidal charge.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Fernández, M; Callejas-Fernández, J; Moncho-Jordá, A

    2012-11-01

    In this work we study the effective force between charged spherical colloids induced by the presence of smaller charged spheres using Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis is performed for two size ratios, q = R(s)/R(b), two screened direct repulsions, κ, and two small particle packing fractions, Ø(s). We specially focus on the effect of the charge of the big colloids (Z(b)), and observe that the repulsion between big particles shows a non-monotonic behaviour: for sufficiently small charge, we find an anomalous regime where the total repulsion weakens by increasing the big colloid charge. For larger charges, the system recovers the usual behaviour and the big-big interaction becomes more repulsive increasing Z(b). This effect is linked to the existence of strong attractive depletion interactions caused by the small-big electrostatic repulsion. We have also calculated the effective force using the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the HNC closure. In general, this theory agrees with the simulation results, and is able to capture this non-monotonic behaviour.

  6. Case A Binary Evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C A; Eggleton, P P

    2001-03-28

    We undertake a comparison of observed Algol-type binaries with a library of computed Case A binary evolution tracks. The library consists of 5500 binary tracks with various values of initial primary mass M{sub 10}, mass ratio q{sub 0}, and period P{sub 0}, designed to sample the phase-space of Case A binaries in the range -0.10 {le} log M{sub 10} {le} 1.7. Each binary is evolved using a standard code with the assumption that both total mass and orbital angular momentum are conserved. This code follows the evolution of both stars until the point where contact or reverse mass transfer occurs. The resulting binary tracks show a rich variety of behavior which we sort into several subclasses of Case A and Case B. We present the results of this classification, the final mass ratio and the fraction of time spent in Roche Lobe overflow for each binary system. The conservative assumption under which we created this library is expected to hold for a broad range of binaries, where both components have spectra in the range G0 to B1 and luminosity class III - V. We gather a list of relatively well-determined observed hot Algol-type binaries meeting this criterion, as well as a list of cooler Algol-type binaries where we expect significant dynamo-driven mass loss and angular momentum loss. We fit each observed binary to our library of tracks using a {chi}{sup 2}-minimizing procedure. We find that the hot Algols display overall acceptable {chi}{sup 2}, confirming the conservative assumption, while the cool Algols show much less acceptable {chi}{sup 2} suggesting the need for more free parameters, such as mass and angular momentum loss.

  7. Effect of chirality on PVP/drug interaction within binary physical mixtures of ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and naproxen: a DSC study.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Ivan T; Tsokeva, Zhivka

    2009-08-01

    We report on the thermal behavior of freshly prepared binary drug/polymer physical mixtures that contained ibuprofen, ketoprofen, or naproxen as a drug, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC), or methylcellulose (MC) as excipient. At 6-10 degrees C/min heating rates the DSC detected a sharp, single endotherm that corresponds to the melting of drug. On heating physical mixtures of PVP and racemic ibuprofen or ketoprofen at lower heating rates, another endotherm was registered in front of the original one. To observe the additional endotherm, specific minimal values of the heating rate and of PVP weight fraction were needed; for ibuprofen and ketoprofen they were 1.5 and 2.0 degrees C/min, and 5 and 15% (w/w), respectively. At greater PVP weight fractions the top temperatures, T(mp), of both peaks were reduced almost linearly indicating strong solid-state interfacial reaction between the drug particles and PVP matrix. The additional endotherm was abolished at greater heating rates (2 degrees C/min for ibuprofen, 3 degrees C/min for ketoprofen), by replacing the racemate with respective S+-enantiomer and by replacing PVP with HEC and MC. Hence, the possible inclusion of enantioselective component within the PVP/drug interaction, responsible for the amorphization of physical mixture over storage, is assumed.

  8. Latent Class Analysis of Antisocial Behavior: Interaction of Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, James J.

    2010-01-01

    To improve understanding about genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior (ASB), we tested the association of the 44-base pair polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and maltreatment using latent class analysis in 2,488 boys and girls from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. In boys, ASB was defined by three classes (Exclusive Covert, Mixed Covert and Overt, and No Problems) whereas in girls, ASB was defined by two classes (Exclusive Covert, No Problems). In boys, 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment were not significantly related to ASB. However, in girls, maltreatment, but not 5-HTTLPR, was significantly associated with ASB. A significant interaction between 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment was also observed, where maltreated girls homozygous for the short allele were 12 times more likely to be classified in the Exclusive Covert group than in the No Problems group. Structural differences in the latent structure of ASB at Wave 2 and Wave 3 prevented repeat LCA modeling. However, using counts of ASB, 5-HTTLPR, maltreatment, and its interaction were unrelated to overt and covert ASB at Wave 2 and only maltreatment was related to covert ASB at Wave 3. We discuss these findings within the context of sex differences in ASB and relevant models of gene-environment interplay across developmental periods. PMID:20405199

  9. Mechanistic understanding and significance of small peptides interaction with MHC class II molecules for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Saifullah; Hoessli, Daniel C; Hameed, Muhammad Waqar

    2016-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed by antigen-presenting cells and stimulate CD4(+) T cells, which initiate humoral immune responses. Over the past decade, interest has developed to therapeutically impact the peptides to be exposed to CD4(+) T cells. Structurally diverse small molecules have been discovered that act on the endogenous peptide exchanger HLA-DM by different mechanisms. Exogenously delivered peptides are highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in vivo; however, it is only when successfully incorporated into stable MHC II-peptide complexes that these peptides can induce an immune response. Many of the small molecules so far discovered have highlighted the molecular interactions mediating the formation of MHC II-peptide complexes. As potential drugs, these small molecules open new therapeutic approaches to modulate MHC II antigen presentation pathways and influence the quality and specificity of immune responses. This review briefly introduces how CD4(+) T cells recognize antigen when displayed by MHC class II molecules, as well as MHC class II-peptide-loading pathways, structural basis of peptide binding and stabilization of the peptide-MHC complexes. We discuss the concept of MHC-loading enhancers, how they could modulate immune responses and how these molecules have been identified. Finally, we suggest mechanisms whereby MHC-loading enhancers could act upon MHC class II molecules.

  10. Developmental robustness by obligate interaction of class B floral homeotic genes and proteins.

    PubMed

    Lenser, Thorsten; Theissen, Günter; Dittrich, Peter

    2009-01-01

    DEF-like and GLO-like class B floral homeotic genes encode closely related MADS-domain transcription factors that act as developmental switches involved in specifying the identity of petals and stamens during flower development. Class B gene function requires transcriptional upregulation by an autoregulatory loop that depends on obligate heterodimerization of DEF-like and GLO-like proteins. Because switch-like behavior of gene expression can be displayed by single genes already, the functional relevance of this complex circuitry has remained enigmatic. On the basis of a stochastic in silico model of class B gene and protein interactions, we suggest that obligate heterodimerization of class B floral homeotic proteins is not simply the result of neutral drift but enhanced the robustness of cell-fate organ identity decisions in the presence of stochastic noise. This finding strongly corroborates the view that the appearance of this regulatory mechanism during angiosperm phylogeny led to a canalization of flower development and evolution.

  11. Miscibility and interactions of animal and plant sterols with choline plasmalogen in binary and multicomponent model systems.

    PubMed

    Hąc-Wydro, Katarzyna; Luty, Katarzyna

    2014-04-01

    In this work miscibility and interactions of sterols with choline plasmalogen (PC-plasm) in Langmuir monolayers were studied. Moreover, the properties of cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine/plasmalogen mixtures of different PC-plasm concentration were investigated. The foregoing systems were treated as a model of cancer cell membranes, which are of higher plasmalogen level than normal cells. Finally, the influence of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol (phytosterols differing in anticancer potency) on these mixtures was verified. The properties of monolayers were analyzed based on the parameters derived from the surface pressure-area isotherms and images taken with Brewster Angle Microscope. It was found that at 30% of sterol in sterol/plasmalogen monolayer the lipids are immiscible and 3D crystallites are formed within the film. Cholesterol molecules mix favorably with PC-plasm at Xchol ≥ 0.5, while the investigated phytosterols only at their prevailing proportion in binary system. The increase of choline plasmalogen in cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine monolayer causes destabilization of the system. Moreover, the incorporation of phytosterols into cholesterol/phosphatidylcholine+PC-plasm mixtures disturbed membrane morphology and this effect was stronger for β-sitosterol as compared to stigmasterol. It was concluded that the presence of vinyl ether bond at sn-1 position in PC-plasm molecule strongly affects miscibility of choline plasmalogen with sterols. The comparison of the collected data with those reported in literature allowed one to conclude that miscibility and interactions of sterols with PC-plasm are less favorable than those with phosphatidylcholine. It was also suggested that overexpression of plasmalogens in cancer cell membranes may be a factor differentiating sensitivity of cells to anticancer effect of phytosterols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Indications for common origin and gravitational interaction in three binary LMC clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Michalitsianos, A.

    1993-01-01

    Three close pair clusters of the LMC, NGC 2006/SL 538, NGC 2011 a/b, and NGC 2042 a/b, have been studied in order to establish their binarity. The stellar content in the outer region of each cluster has been investigated by means of low resolution objective UK Schmidt prism spectra, the cores of the clusters have been examined using low resolution integrated IUE spectra, whereas their density profiles and their observed dynamical parameters have been derived by means of star counts. The integrated spectra of their cores and the stellar content of their outer cluster regions have shown a common origin and a very young age (less than 2 x 10 exp 7 yr) for each member of the pairs, whereas their dynamical study has shown that they are gravitationally interacting. Comparing the age of their stellar content with their dynamical and relaxation times, it has been found that these clusters are physically associated and had no time to relax by stellar encounters, no time to merge, and no time to be destroyed by dynamical friction.

  13. Inference of cowpox virus transmission rates between wild rodent host classes using space-time interaction.

    PubMed

    Carslake, David; Bennett, Malcolm; Hazel, Sarah; Telfer, Sandra; Begon, Michael

    2006-04-07

    There have been virtually no studies of 'who acquires infection from whom' in wildlife populations, but patterns of transmission within and between different classes of host are likely to be reflected in the spatiotemporal distribution of infection among those host classes. Here, we use a modified form of K-function analysis to test for space-time interaction among bank voles and wood mice infectious with cowpox virus. There was no evidence for transmission between the two host species, supporting previous evidence that they act as separate reservoirs for cowpox. Among wood mice, results suggested that transmission took place primarily between individuals of the opposite sex, raising the possibility that cowpox is sexually transmitted in this species. Results for bank voles indicated that infected females might be a more important source of infection to either sex than are males. The suggestion of different modes of transmission in the two species is itself consistent with the apparent absence of transmission between species.

  14. The Training of a Child with Autism in a Greek Preschool Inclusive Class through Intensive Interaction: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyropoulou, Zoe; Papoudi, Despina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of intensive interaction during interactive play between a preschool boy with autism and his teacher and, as a consequence, improve the social interaction between the boy and a non-autistic girl in an inclusive class in Greece. A single subject ABA design was applied. Observed variables…

  15. Radio emission from binary stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the radio emission from binary star systems - the emission processes that occur, the characteristics of the binary systems inferred from the radio observations, and the reasons for the activity. Several classes of binary stars are described including those with two main sequence stars, those with one normal star and a white dwarf, and those containing a neutron star or a black hole.

  16. Higher-order-in-spin interaction Hamiltonians for binary black holes from source terms of Kerr geometry in approximate ADM coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Hergt, Steven; Schaefer, Gerhard

    2008-05-15

    The Kerr metric outside the ergosphere is transformed into Arnowitt-Deser-Misner coordinates up to the orders 1/r{sup 4} and a{sup 2}, respectively, in radial coordinate r and reduced angular momentum variable a, starting from the Kerr solution in quasi-isotropic as well as harmonic coordinates. The distributional source terms for the approximate solution are calculated. To leading order in linear momenta, higher-order-in-spin interaction Hamiltonians for black hole binaries are derived.

  17. Studying multisite binary and ternary protein interactions by global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry data in SEDPHAT: application to adaptor protein complexes in cell signaling.

    PubMed

    Houtman, Jon C D; Brown, Patrick H; Bowden, Brent; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Appella, Ettore; Samelson, Lawrence E; Schuck, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Multisite interactions and the formation of ternary or higher-order protein complexes are ubiquitous features of protein interactions. Cooperativity between different ligands is a hallmark for information transfer, and is frequently critical for the biological function. We describe a new computational platform for the global analysis of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data for the study of binary and ternary multisite interactions, implemented as part of the public domain multimethod analysis software SEDPHAT. The global analysis of titrations performed in different orientations was explored, and the potential for unraveling cooperativity parameters in multisite interactions was assessed in theory and experiment. To demonstrate the practical potential and limitations of global analyses of ITC titrations for the study of cooperative multiprotein interactions, we have examined the interactions of three proteins that are critical for signal transduction after T-cell activation, LAT, Grb2, and Sos1. We have shown previously that multivalent interactions between these three molecules promote the assembly of large multiprotein complexes important for T-cell receptor activation. By global analysis of the heats of binding observed in sets of ITC injections in different orientations, which allowed us to follow the formation of binary and ternary complexes, we observed negative and positive cooperativity that may be important to control the pathway of assembly and disassembly of adaptor protein particles.

  18. Dynamics of a class of immune networks. I. Global stability of idiotype interactions.

    PubMed

    Varela, F J; Stewart, J

    1990-05-10

    This paper establishes the conditions under which a class of differential equations which appear in the study of immune systems (Varela et al., 1988a, In: Theoretical Immunology Part II. New Jersey: Addison Wesley), are globally stable. This is proved by adapting a Liapunov functional originally proposed by Cohen & Grossberg (1983, IEEE Transac SMC 13, 815-826) for competitive systems. The global stability thus obtained is valid on the fast time scale where only idiotypic interactions are relevant, thus excluding both lymphocyte proliferation processes and repertoire change via recruitment from immature bone marrow B cells.

  19. A Case Study of How a Large Multilevel EFL Writing Class Experiences and Perceives Multiple Interaction Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hsien-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' experiences and perceptions of multiple interaction activities (self-directed, peer, and teacher feedback) implemented in a large multilevel EFL writing class in one private technological university in the southern part of Taiwan. Large size writing classes, quite common in private institutions of…

  20. A Case Study of How a Large Multilevel EFL Writing Class Experiences and Perceives Multiple Interaction Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Hsien-Chuan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine students' experiences and perceptions of multiple interaction activities (self-directed, peer, and teacher feedback) implemented in a large multilevel EFL writing class in one private technological university in the southern part of Taiwan. Large size writing classes, quite common in private institutions of…

  1. Recognition of class I major histocompatibility complex molecules by Ly- 49: specificities and domain interactions

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Ly-49 is a family type II transmembrane proteins encoded by a gene cluster on murine chromosome 6. One member of this family, Ly-49A, is expressed by a natural killer (NK) cell subset, binds to class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, and blocks the killing of target cells bearing the appropriate H-2 antigens. Here we show that another member of this family which is expressed by an NK cell subset, Ly-49C, recognizes H-2b and H-2d structures which are distinct from and overlapping with those recognized by Ly-49A. Interactions between Ly- 49A and C and their class I ligands are entirely blocked by the antibodies 5E6, YE1/48, YE1/32, and A1, all of which were found to recognize epitopes contained within the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). However, cell-cell binding assays revealed that class I binding specificity is conferred by a combination of sequences within both the CRD and a 19-amino acid adjacent region. We also investigated the question of whether Ly-49A and C form dimers on cells which express both receptors. When coexpressed on COS cells, sequential immunoprecipitation demonstrated that these receptors pair exclusively as homodimers, with no evidence for heterodimeric structures. These observations provide insight into both the biochemical nature of the Ly- 49 family as well as the receptor functions of Ly-49C on NK cells. PMID:8666913

  2. Case Studies of Interactive Whole-Class Teaching in Primary Science: Communicative approach and pedagogic purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Kendra

    2012-07-01

    By developing two case studies of expert teaching in action, this study aimed to develop knowledge of talk in whole-class teaching in UK primary science lessons and understand this in relation to both the teachers' interpretations and sociocultural theoretical frameworks. Lessons were observed and video-recorded and the teachers engaged in video-stimulated-reflective dialogue to capture participants' reflections upon their own pedagogic purposes and interactions in the classroom. The analytic framework was developed at three levels: sequence of lessons, lesson, and episode. For each episode, the 'communicative approach' and teaching purposes were recorded. Transcripts were developed for fine grain analysis of selected episodes and a quantitative analysis was undertaken of the use of communicative approaches. Findings exemplify how different communicative approaches were used by the case-study teachers for different pedagogical purposes at different points in the sequence of lessons, contributing to primary teachers' repertoire for planning and practice. The initial elicitation of children's ideas can be understood as pooling them to enhance multivoicedness and develop a shared resource for future dialogues. Whole-class talk can support univocality by rehearsing procedural knowledge and exploring the meanings of scientific terminology. Identifying salient features of phenomena in the context of the whole-class marks them as significant as shared knowledge but valuing other observations extends the multivoicedness of the discourse.

  3. Hydrogen bonded binary molecular adducts derived from exobidentate N-donor ligand with dicarboxylic acids: Acid⋯imidazole hydrogen-bonding interactions in neutral and ionic heterosynthons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathalikkattil, Amal Cherian; Damodaran, Subin; Bisht, Kamal Kumar; Suresh, Eringathodi

    2011-01-01

    Four new binary molecular compounds between a flexible exobidentate N-heterocycle and a series of dicarboxylic acids have been synthesized. The N-donor 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (bix) was reacted with flexible and rigid dicarboxylic acids viz., cyclohexane-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (H 2chdc), naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid (H 2npdc) and 1H-pyrazole-3,5-dicarboxylic acid (H 2pzdc), generating four binary molecular complexes. X-ray crystallographic investigation of the molecular adducts revealed the primary intermolecular interactions carboxylic acid⋯amine (via O-H⋯N) as well as carboxylate⋯protonated amine (via N-H +⋯O -) within the binary compounds, generating layered and two-dimensional sheet type H-bonded networks involving secondary weak interactions (C-H⋯O) including the solvent of crystallization. Depending on the differences in p Ka values of the selected base/acid (Δp Ka), diverse H-bonded supramolecular assemblies could be premeditated. This study demonstrates the H-bonding interactions between imidazole/imidazolium cation and carboxylic acid/carboxylate anion in providing sufficient driving force for the directed assembly of binary molecular complexes. In the two-component solid form of hetero synthons involving bix and dicarboxylic acid, only H 2chdc exist as cocrystal with bix, while all the other three compounds crystallized exclusively as salt, in agreement with the Δp Ka values predicted for the formation of salts/cocrystals from the base and acid used in the synthesis of supramolecular solids.

  4. Molecular interactions in binary mixtures of methyl formate with 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and 1-hexanol by using ultrasonic data at 303 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, S.; Mullainathan, S.

    2016-05-01

    Density (ρ), viscosity (η), and ultrasonic velocity ( U) have been measured for binary mixtures of methyl formate with 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-hexanol at 303 K. From the experimental results, adiabatic compressibility (β), acoustic impedance ( Z), viscous relaxation time (τ), free length ( L f), free volume ( V f), internal pressure (πi), and Gibbs free energy (Δ G) have been determined. Excess values of various parameters have also been calculated and interoperated in terms of molecular interactions. The deviations in the parameters show that strength of intermolecular interactions between methyl formate with selected 1-alcohols have been observed in the order of 1-butanol < 1-pentanol < 1-hexanol.

  5. Probing the interaction of human serum albumin with bilirubin in the presence of aspirin by multi-spectroscopic, molecular modeling and zeta potential techniques: insight on binary and ternary systems.

    PubMed

    Hosainzadeh, Akram; Gharanfoli, Mohsen; Saberi, Mohammad; Chamani, JamshidKhan

    2012-01-01

    Here, we report on the effect of aspirin (ASA), on the binding parameters with regard to bilirubin (BR) to human serum albumin (HSA). Two different classes of binding sites were detected. Binding to the first and second classes of the binding sites was dominated by hydrophobic forces in the case of HSA-BR, whereas in the case of the ternary system, binding to the first and second classes of the binding sites was achieved by electrostatic interaction. The binding constant (K(a)) and number of binding site (n) obtained were 1.6 × 10(6)M(-1) and 0.98, respectively, for the primary binding site in the case of HSA-BR, and 3.7 × 10(6)M(-1) and 0.84, respectively, in the presence of ASA (ternary complex) at λ(ex)= 280 nm. The progressive quenching of the protein fluorescence as the BR concentration increased indicated an arrangement of the domain IIA in HSA. Changes in the environment of the aromatic residues were also observed by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). Changes of the secondary structure of HSA involving a decrease of α-helical and β-sheet contents and increased amounts of turns and unordered conformations were mainly found at high concentrations of BR. For the first time, the relationship between the structural parameters of HSA-BR by RLS for determining the critical induced aggregation concentration (C(CIAC)) of BR in the absence and presence of ASA was investigated, and there was a more significant enhancement in the case of the ternary mixture as opposed to the binary one. Changes in the zeta potential of HSA and the HSA-ASA complex in the presence of BR demonstrated a hydrophobic adsorption of this anionic ligand onto the surface of HSA in the binary system as well as both electrostatic and hydrophobic adsorption in the case of the ternary complex. By performing docking experiments, it was found that the acting forces between BR and HSA were mainly hydrophobic > hydrogen bonding > electrostatic interactions, and consequently BR had a long

  6. Analytical studies of the interaction of Tb(III)-2-{[(4-methoxy benzoyl) oxy]} methyl benzoic acid binary complex with nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehata, A. M. A.; Azab, H. A.; El-assy, N. B.; Anwar, Z. M.; Mostafa, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of Tb(III)-2-{[(4-methoxy benzoyl) oxy]} methyl benzoic acid binary complex with nucleosides (adenosine, cytidine, guanosine and inosine) was investigated using UV and fluorescence methods. The reaction of Tb-complex with cytidine, guanosine and adenosine is accompanied by shift to longer wavelength in the absorption band, while there is a blue shift in the absorption band with an enhancement in the molar absorptivity upon the reaction with inosine. The fluorescence intensity of Tb(III)-2-{[(4- methoxy benzoyl) oxy]} methyl benzoic acid binary complex at λ = 545 nm (5D4 → 7F5) was decreased with the addition of the nucleoside molecule following the order: cytidine > inosine > guanosine > adenosine.

  7. Proteolytic processing of class IV chitinase in the compatible interaction of bean roots with Fusarium solani.

    PubMed Central

    Lange, J; Mohr, U; Wiemken, A; Boller, T; Vögeli-Lange, R

    1996-01-01

    Three chitinase isoenzymes, PvChiE, PvChiF, and PvChiG (molecular masses 29, 28, 27 kD, respectively), were purified from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv Saxa) roots infected with the fungal pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, and their amino acid sequence was partially determined. All sequences from all three isoenzymes exactly matched deduced amino acid sequences of the bean class IV chitinase PvChi4, formerly called PR4. The N terminus of PvChif mapped to the hinge region, and the N terminus of PvChiG mapped to the catalytic domain of PvChi4. The N terminus of PvChiE was blocked. The appearance of PvChiE, PvChiF, and PvChiG correlated with an increase in protease activity in infected roots, and they could be generated in vitro by mixing extracts with high protease activity with extracts containing high amounts of PvChi4. Extracts from infected roots prepared in the presence of protease inhibitors also contained the processed forms of PvChi4, indicating that processing occurred in planta and not as an artifact of extraction. Processing of PvChi4 was not detected in incompatible interactions with a nonhost strain of F. solani and in symbiotic interactions with Glomus mosseae, and thus may be important only in compatible interactions with F. solani. PMID:8756497

  8. Does Use of ICT-Based Teaching Encourage Innovative Interactions in the Classroom? Presentation of the CLI-O: Class Learning Interactions--Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manny-Ikan, Edith; Tikochinski, Tal Berger; Bashan, Zipi

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a new classroom observations analysis tool (CLI-O: Class Learning Interactions--Observation tool). The CLI-O tool enables the collection of various data regarding the use of ICT tools, organization of learning, and teacher-student interactions in the lesson. Several examples demonstrating the use of CLI-O and some preliminary…

  9. An Analysis of Status Mobility Patterns among Middle-Class Mexican Americans in Texas. Anglo Interaction Index. Report Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teske, Raymond, Jr.; Nelson, Bardin H.

    The development of a scale for measuring the interaction of Mexican Americans with Anglos (Anglo Interaction Index) was discussed. The scale was part of a larger investigation on status mobility among middle-class Mexican Americans in Texas. Data was collected in Waco (selected for pretesting), Austin, McAllen, and Lubbock. These communities were…

  10. Class I TCP-DELLA interactions in inflorescence shoot apex determine plant height.

    PubMed

    Davière, Jean-Michel; Wild, Michael; Regnault, Thomas; Baumberger, Nicolas; Eisler, Herfried; Genschik, Pascal; Achard, Patrick

    2014-08-18

    Regulation of plant height, one of the most important agronomic traits, is the focus of intensive research for improving crop performance. Stem elongation takes place as a result of repeated cell divisions and subsequent elongation of cells produced by apical and intercalary meristems. The gibberellin (GA) phytohormones have long been known to control stem and internodal elongation by stimulating the degradation of nuclear growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the mechanism allowing GA-responsive growth is only slowly emerging. Here, we show that DELLAs directly regulate the activity of the plant-specific class I TCP transcription factor family, key regulators of cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that class I TCP factors directly bind the promoters of core cell-cycle genes in Arabidopsis inflorescence shoot apices while DELLAs block TCP function by binding to their DNA-recognition domain. GAs antagonize such repression by promoting DELLA destruction and therefore cause a concomitant accumulation of TCP factors on promoters of cell-cycle genes. Consistent with this model, the quadruple mutant tcp8 tcp14 tcp15 tcp22 exhibits severe dwarfism and reduced responsiveness to GA action. Altogether, we conclude that GA-regulated DELLA-TCP interactions in inflorescence shoot apex provide a novel mechanism to control plant height. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hepitopes: A live interactive database of HLA class I epitopes in hepatitis B virus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Increased clinical and scientific scrutiny is being applied to hepatitis B virus (HBV), with focus on the development of new therapeutic approaches, ultimately aiming for cure. Defining the optimum natural CD8+ T cell immune responses that arise in HBV, mediated by HLA class I epitope presentation, may help to inform novel immunotherapeutic strategies. Therefore, we have set out to develop a comprehensive database of these epitopes in HBV, coined ‘Hepitopes’. This undertaking has its foundations in a systematic literature review to identify the sites and sequences of all published class I epitopes in HBV. We also collected information regarding the methods used to define each epitope, and any reported associations between an immune response to this epitope and disease outcome. The results of this search have been collated into a new open-access interactive database that is available at http://www.expmedndm.ox.ac.uk/hepitopes. Over time, we will continue to refine and update this resource, as well as inviting contributions from others in the field to support its development. This unique new database is an important foundation for ongoing investigations into the nature and impact of the CD8+ T cell response to HBV. PMID:27976751

  12. Inference of cowpox virus transmission rates between wild rodent host classes using space–time interaction

    PubMed Central

    Carslake, David; Bennett, Malcolm; Hazel, Sarah; Telfer, Sandra; Begon, Michael

    2005-01-01

    There have been virtually no studies of ‘who acquires infection from whom’ in wildlife populations, but patterns of transmission within and between different classes of host are likely to be reflected in the spatiotemporal distribution of infection among those host classes. Here, we use a modified form of K-function analysis to test for space–time interaction among bank voles and wood mice infectious with cowpox virus. There was no evidence for transmission between the two host species, supporting previous evidence that they act as separate reservoirs for cowpox. Among wood mice, results suggested that transmission took place primarily between individuals of the opposite sex, raising the possibility that cowpox is sexually transmitted in this species. Results for bank voles indicated that infected females might be a more important source of infection to either sex than are males. The suggestion of different modes of transmission in the two species is itself consistent with the apparent absence of transmission between species. PMID:16618669

  13. Pairwise antibiotic interactions in Escherichia coli: triclosan, rifampicin and aztreonam with nine other classes of antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Caroline; Zhou, Alice; Khan, Ayesha; Miller, Jeffrey H; Yeh, Pamela

    2016-11-01

    Previous investigations have shown that analyzing pairwise interactions between 22 antibiotics in Escherichia coli enable the grouping of drugs into nine functional classes. Our aim is to significantly expand this drug network by adding three clinically relevant antibiotics, two of which have distinct mechanisms of action not previously represented. Here, we examine triclosan, rifampicin and aztreonam, by testing them pairwise against themselves and one antibiotic from each of the nine classes. Network analysis shows that triclosan, rifampicin and aztreonam each form distinct functional groups of their own. This is particularly surprising for aztreonam, which is a cell wall synthesis inhibitor but did not cluster with other cell wall synthesis inhibitors. Furthermore, of the 30 pairs tested, we found several previously unreported synergies that could potentially be used in multidrug therapies. The distinct functional groups suggest that there may be properties of these drugs that are different from other drugs even with similar mechanism of action, and that, when considering drug combinations, aztreonam in particular is not simply interchangeable with other cell wall synthesis inhibitors.

  14. Class of gauge-invariant models of quantum electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Tao

    2017-01-01

    We present a class of gauge-invariant models of quantum electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction. The models have translation, Lorentz and gauge invariance and reduce to the conventional local quantum electrodynamics under the appropriate limit conditions, both the equations of motion of the charged particle and electromagnetic field obtained by the action principle lead to the normal form of current conservation. Quantization of the models is realized by taking advantage of the formalism based on the Yang-Feldman equations and the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formulas. Finally, we employ a special choice of the models to calculate the vacuum polarization as an example to demonstrate the possibility of establishing a theory of quantum electrodynamics without divergence. PMID:28368044

  15. Class of gauge-invariant models of quantum electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction.

    PubMed

    Mei, Tao

    2017-04-03

    We present a class of gauge-invariant models of quantum electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction. The models have translation, Lorentz and gauge invariance and reduce to the conventional local quantum electrodynamics under the appropriate limit conditions, both the equations of motion of the charged particle and electromagnetic field obtained by the action principle lead to the normal form of current conservation. Quantization of the models is realized by taking advantage of the formalism based on the Yang-Feldman equations and the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formulas. Finally, we employ a special choice of the models to calculate the vacuum polarization as an example to demonstrate the possibility of establishing a theory of quantum electrodynamics without divergence.

  16. Carbonic Anhydrase Interaction With Lipothioars Enites: A Novel Class of Isozymes I and II Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Timotheatou, Despina; Ioannou, Panayiotis V.; Scozzafava, Andrea; Briganti, Fabrizio

    1996-01-01

    The interaction of carbonic anhydrase (CA) isozymes I and II with a series of As(III) derivatives, dialkyl and diaryl rac-2,3-dimyristoyloxypropyldithioarsonites, was investigated kinetically and spectrophotometrically, utilizing the native and Co(II)-substituted enzymes. Depending on the substitution pattern at the -As(SR)2 moiety of the investigated derivatives, inactive compounds were found for R = phenyl or naphthyl, and active ones for derivatives containing carboxyl groups (R = CH2COOH, cysteinyl and glutathionyl). Together with the arsonolipids previously investigated, the active compounds of this series - the "lipothioarsenites"- constitute a novel class of CA inhibitors that bind to the metal ion within the enzyme active site, as proved by changes in the electronic spectra of adducts of such inhibitors with Co(II)CA. PMID:18475756

  17. Whole-class interactions and code-switching in secondary mathematics teaching in Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehmohamed, Asifa; Rowland, Tim

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports a study of whole-class interactions in mathematics classrooms in a girls' secondary school in Mauritius. It focuses on three teachers and their instructional language practices. Analysis of audio-recordings of lessons showed that code-switching was commonly practised by all the teachers in the study. The teachers' comments on their use of language within the classroom show that although they are aware of the languages they use, they are not always conscious of their code-switching. Different functions of the teachers' code-switching practices were identified, indicating it can be an important support for learning mathematics, despite some related tensions that teachers face in using code-switch in their teaching. The paper concludes with some implications for national policy and for teacher education.

  18. Class of gauge-invariant models of quantum electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Tao

    2017-04-01

    We present a class of gauge-invariant models of quantum electrodynamics with nonlocal interaction. The models have translation, Lorentz and gauge invariance and reduce to the conventional local quantum electrodynamics under the appropriate limit conditions, both the equations of motion of the charged particle and electromagnetic field obtained by the action principle lead to the normal form of current conservation. Quantization of the models is realized by taking advantage of the formalism based on the Yang-Feldman equations and the Lehmann-Symanzik-Zimmermann reduction formulas. Finally, we employ a special choice of the models to calculate the vacuum polarization as an example to demonstrate the possibility of establishing a theory of quantum electrodynamics without divergence.

  19. Binary Plutinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.

    2015-08-01

    The Pluto-Charon binary was the first trans-neptunian binary to be identified in 1978. Pluto-Charon is a true binary with both components orbiting a barycenter located between them. The Pluto system is also the first, and to date only, known binary with a satellite system consisting of four small satellites in near-resonant orbits around the common center of mass. Seven other Plutinos, objects in 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune, have orbital companions including 2004 KB19 reported here for the first time. Compared to the Cold Classical population, the Plutinos differ in the frequency of binaries, the relative sizes of the components, and their inclination distribution. These differences point to distinct dynamical histories and binary formation processes encountered by Plutinos.

  20. Collaborative Filtering for Brain-Computer Interaction Using Transfer Learning and Active Class Selection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Dongrui; Lance, Brent J.; Parsons, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interaction (BCI) and physiological computing are terms that refer to using processed neural or physiological signals to influence human interaction with computers, environment, and each other. A major challenge in developing these systems arises from the large individual differences typically seen in the neural/physiological responses. As a result, many researchers use individually-trained recognition algorithms to process this data. In order to minimize time, cost, and barriers to use, there is a need to minimize the amount of individual training data required, or equivalently, to increase the recognition accuracy without increasing the number of user-specific training samples. One promising method for achieving this is collaborative filtering, which combines training data from the individual subject with additional training data from other, similar subjects. This paper describes a successful application of a collaborative filtering approach intended for a BCI system. This approach is based on transfer learning (TL), active class selection (ACS), and a mean squared difference user-similarity heuristic. The resulting BCI system uses neural and physiological signals for automatic task difficulty recognition. TL improves the learning performance by combining a small number of user-specific training samples with a large number of auxiliary training samples from other similar subjects. ACS optimally selects the classes to generate user-specific training samples. Experimental results on 18 subjects, using both nearest neighbors and support vector machine classifiers, demonstrate that the proposed approach can significantly reduce the number of user-specific training data samples. This collaborative filtering approach will also be generalizable to handling individual differences in many other applications that involve human neural or physiological data, such as affective computing. PMID:23437188

  1. Collaborative filtering for brain-computer interaction using transfer learning and active class selection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongrui; Lance, Brent J; Parsons, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interaction (BCI) and physiological computing are terms that refer to using processed neural or physiological signals to influence human interaction with computers, environment, and each other. A major challenge in developing these systems arises from the large individual differences typically seen in the neural/physiological responses. As a result, many researchers use individually-trained recognition algorithms to process this data. In order to minimize time, cost, and barriers to use, there is a need to minimize the amount of individual training data required, or equivalently, to increase the recognition accuracy without increasing the number of user-specific training samples. One promising method for achieving this is collaborative filtering, which combines training data from the individual subject with additional training data from other, similar subjects. This paper describes a successful application of a collaborative filtering approach intended for a BCI system. This approach is based on transfer learning (TL), active class selection (ACS), and a mean squared difference user-similarity heuristic. The resulting BCI system uses neural and physiological signals for automatic task difficulty recognition. TL improves the learning performance by combining a small number of user-specific training samples with a large number of auxiliary training samples from other similar subjects. ACS optimally selects the classes to generate user-specific training samples. Experimental results on 18 subjects, using both k nearest neighbors and support vector machine classifiers, demonstrate that the proposed approach can significantly reduce the number of user-specific training data samples. This collaborative filtering approach will also be generalizable to handling individual differences in many other applications that involve human neural or physiological data, such as affective computing.

  2. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-06-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (-53.8 and -74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs.

  3. Micellar lipid composition affects micelle interaction with class B scavenger receptor extracellular loops

    PubMed Central

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Gontero, Brigitte; Nowicki, Marion; Margier, Marielle; Masset, Gabriel; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptors (SRs) like cluster determinant 36 (CD36) and SR class B type I (SR-BI) play a debated role in lipid transport across the intestinal brush border membrane. We used surface plasmon resonance to analyze real-time interactions between the extracellular protein loops and various ligands ranging from single lipid molecules to mixed micelles. Micelles mimicking physiological structures were necessary for optimal binding to both the extracellular loop of CD36 (lCD36) and the extracellular loop of SR-BI (lSR-BI). Cholesterol, phospholipid, and fatty acid micellar content significantly modulated micelle binding to and dissociation from the transporters. In particular, high phospholipid micellar concentrations inhibited micelle binding to both receptors (−53.8 and −74.4% binding at 0.32 mM compared with 0.04 mM for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05). The presence of fatty acids was crucial for micelle interactions with both proteins (94.4 and 81.3% binding with oleic acid for lCD36 and lSR-BI, respectively, P < 0.05) and fatty acid type substitution within the micelles was the component that most impacted micelle binding to the transporters. These effects were partly due to subsequent modifications in micellar size and surface electric charge, and could be correlated to micellar vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our findings show for the first time that micellar lipid composition and micellar properties are key factors governing micelle interactions with SRs. PMID:25833688

  4. Characterizing supernova remnant and molecular cloud interaction environments using Class I methanol (CH3OH) masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEwen, Bridget C.

    Astronomical masers are useful probes of the physical conditions of the gas in which they are formed. Masers form under specific physical conditions and therefore, can be used to trace distinct environments, for example, star forming regions (SFRs), supernova remnants (SNRs), evolved stars, and outflows. In particular, collisionally excited 36 and 44 GHz methanol (CH3OH) and 1720 MHz hydroxl (OH) masers are found associated with gas shocked by the interaction between SNRs and neighboring molecular clouds (MCs). The overall goal of my thesis research is to combine modeling and observations to characterize the properties and formation of Class I CH3OH masers in these SNR/MC interaction regions. Developing a general model of the distribution of maser emission in these regions in all SNRs interacting with MCs will aid in the understanding of different processes that may be triggered through these interactions, namely induced star formation (SF) and cosmic ray (CR) acceleration. More accurate information on the density (and density gradients) in these turbulent regions could, for example, be used as inputs or constraints for models of galactic SNR CR acceleration and help explain if conditions are conducive for SF. In this thesis, I present results from calculations of the physical conditions necessary for the occurrence of collisionally pumped Class I 36, 44, 84, and 95 GHz CH3OH maser lines near SNRs, using an escape probability and level population code. The modeling shows that given a sufficient CH3OH abundance, CH3OH maser emission arises over a wide range of densities and temperatures, with optimal conditions at 10 4 < n 60 K, overlapping with masing conditions for 1720 MHz OH masers. In addition, the 36 and 44 GHz transitions display more significant maser optical depths compared to the 84 and 95 GHz transitions over the majority of the physical conditions. The line intensity ratios between multiple transitions significantly change with altering physical

  5. Different enhancer classes in Drosophila bind distinct architectural proteins and mediate unique chromatin interactions and 3D architecture.

    PubMed

    Cubeñas-Potts, Caelin; Rowley, M Jordan; Lyu, Xiaowen; Li, Ge; Lei, Elissa P; Corces, Victor G

    2016-11-28

    Eukaryotic gene expression is regulated by enhancer-promoter interactions but the molecular mechanisms that govern specificity have remained elusive. Genome-wide studies utilizing STARR-seq identified two enhancer classes in Drosophila that interact with different core promoters: housekeeping enhancers (hkCP) and developmental enhancers (dCP). We hypothesized that the two enhancer classes are occupied by distinct architectural proteins, affecting their enhancer-promoter contacts. By evaluating ChIP-seq occupancy of architectural proteins, typical enhancer-associated proteins, and histone modifications, we determine that both enhancer classes are enriched for RNA Polymerase II, CBP, and architectural proteins but there are also distinctions. hkCP enhancers contain H3K4me3 and exclusively bind Cap-H2, Chromator, DREF and Z4, whereas dCP enhancers contain H3K4me1 and are more enriched for Rad21 and Fs(1)h-L. Additionally, we map the interactions of each enhancer class utilizing a Hi-C dataset with <1 kb resolution. Results suggest that hkCP enhancers are more likely to form multi-TSS interaction networks and be associated with topologically associating domain (TAD) borders, while dCP enhancers are more often bound to one or two TSSs and are enriched at chromatin loop anchors. The data support a model suggesting that the unique architectural protein occupancy within enhancers is one contributor to enhancer-promoter interaction specificity.

  6. Mother-Child Interaction: Social Class Differences in the First Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulkin, Steven R.; Kagan, Jerome

    To study maternal behaviors as related to social class differences, 30 middle class and 30 working class white mothers were observed at home on two separate days with their 10-month-old firstborn baby girls. Predesignated behaviors which occurred during 5-second intervals were recorded by an observer. Total observation time was 4 hours for each…

  7. Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters.

    PubMed

    Benacquista, Matthew J; Downing, Jonathan M B

    2013-01-01

    Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10(4)-10(6) stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.

  8. Remarkably low affinity of CD4/peptide-major histocompatibility complex class II protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Peter; Southcombe, Jennifer H.; Santos, Ana Mafalda; Huo, Jiandong; Fernandes, Ricardo A.; McColl, James; Lever, Melissa; Evans, Edward J.; Hudson, Alexander; Chang, Veronica T.; Hanke, Tomáš; Godkin, Andrew; Dunne, Paul D.; Horrocks, Mathew H.; Palayret, Matthieu; Screaton, Gavin R.; Petersen, Jan; Rossjohn, Jamie; Fugger, Lars; Dushek, Omer; Xu, Xiao-Ning; Davis, Simon J.; Klenerman, David

    2016-01-01

    The αβ T-cell coreceptor CD4 enhances immune responses more than 1 million-fold in some assays, and yet the affinity of CD4 for its ligand, peptide-major histocompatibility class II (pMHC II) on antigen-presenting cells, is so weak that it was previously unquantifiable. Here, we report that a soluble form of CD4 failed to bind detectably to pMHC II in surface plasmon resonance-based assays, establishing a new upper limit for the solution affinity at 2.5 mM. However, when presented multivalently on magnetic beads, soluble CD4 bound pMHC II-expressing B cells, confirming that it is active and allowing mapping of the native coreceptor binding site on pMHC II. Whereas binding was undetectable in solution, the affinity of the CD4/pMHC II interaction could be measured in 2D using CD4- and adhesion molecule-functionalized, supported lipid bilayers, yielding a 2D Kd of ∼5,000 molecules/μm2. This value is two to three orders of magnitude higher than previously measured 2D Kd values for interacting leukocyte surface proteins. Calculations indicated, however, that CD4/pMHC II binding would increase rates of T-cell receptor (TCR) complex phosphorylation by threefold via the recruitment of Lck, with only a small, 2–20% increase in the effective affinity of the TCR for pMHC II. The affinity of CD4/pMHC II therefore seems to be set at a value that increases T-cell sensitivity by enhancing phosphorylation, without compromising ligand discrimination. PMID:27114505

  9. Molecular basis for the interaction of four different classes of substrates and inhibitors with human aromatase.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yanyan; Cho, Michael; Yuan, Yate-Ching; Chen, Shiuan

    2008-03-01

    Aromatase cytochrome P450 (CYP19) converts androgen to estrogen. In this study, the interactions of four classes of compounds, 17beta-estradiol (the product of aromatase), 17-methyltestosterone (a synthetic androgen), dibenzylfluorescein (a synthetic substrate of aromatase), and coumestrol (a phytoestrogen), with aromatase were investigated through spectral analysis using purified human recombinant aromatase and site-directed mutagenesis studies using CHO cells expressing wild-type human aromatase or five aromatase mutants, E302D, D309A, T310S, S478T and H480Q. Spectral analysis showed that a type I binding spectrum was produced by the binding of 17-methyltestosterone to aromatase and a novel binding spectrum of aromatase was induced by dibenzylfluorescein. Mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that residues S478 and H480 in the beta-4 sheet play an important role in the binding of all four compounds. Computer-assisted docking of these compounds into the three-dimensional model of aromatase revealed that: (1) weak interaction between 17beta-estradiol and the beta-4 sheet of aromatase facilitates the release of 17beta-estradiol from the active site of aromatase; (2) 17-methyl group of 17-methyltestosterone affects its binding to aromatase; (3) dibenzylfluorescein binds to the active site of aromatase with its O-dealkylation site near the heme iron and residue T310; and (4) coumestrol binds to aromatase in a manner such that rings A and C of coumestrol mimic rings A and B of steroid. These structure-function studies help us to evaluate the structural model of aromatase, and to accelerate the structure-based design for new aromatase inhibitors.

  10. Leukosialin (CD43)-major histocompatibility class I molecule interactions involved in spontaneous T cell conjugate formation

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Resting T cells spontaneously adhere in a selective manner to potent accessory cells, such as dendritic cells (DC) and lymphoblastoid B blasts (LCL). Here we demonstrate that leukosialin (CD43) and major histocompatibility complex class I molecules (MHC-I) might play a critical role in this process. T cell conjugate formation with monocyte- derived DC (md-DC) and LCL could be strongly inhibited by either preincubating T cells with Fab fragments of CD43 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 6F5 or by preincubating md-DC or LCL with MHC-I mAb W6/32. Intact CD43 mAb 6F5, in contrast to monovalent Fab fragments, enhanced T cell adhesiveness by transactivating CD2 binding to CD58 molecules. Interestingly, induction of this proadhesive signal via CD43 with intact 6F5 mAb was found to revert mAb W6/32-mediated inhibition of T cell conjugate formation. These observations indicated that CD43 cross- linkage mimics and monovalent mAb 6F5 inhibits interaction of T cell CD43 with a stimulatory ligand on opposing cells, presumably MHC-I. For the demonstration of direct physical interaction between CD43 on T cells and MHC-I-coated beads it was necessary, however, to ligate CD2 on T cells with a stimulatory pair of CD2 mAbs (VIT13 plus TS2/18). This suggests that CD2 ligation crosswise upregulates CD43 binding avidity for MHC-I and that both adhesion molecule pairs (CD43/MHC-I and CD2/CD58) act in concert to induce and mediate T cell conjugate formation with certain cell types. PMID:8920865

  11. Teleducation : Linking Continents Across Time and Space Through Live, Real-Time Interactive Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S. A.; Szuba, T.; Swap, R.; Annegarn, H.; Marjanovic, B.; Vieira, F.; Brito, R.

    2005-12-01

    International education is a natural extension of global economies, global environmental concerns, and global science. While faculty and student exchanges between geographic areas permit for educational experiences and cultural exchanges for the privileged few, distance learning offers opportunities for educational exchanges under any circumstance where time, expense, or location otherwise inhibit offering or taking a particular course of study. However, there are severe pedagogical limitations to traditional Web-based courses that suffer from a lack of personalized, spontaneous exchange between instructor and student. The technology to establish a real time, interactive teleducation program exists, but to our knowledge is relatively untested in a science classroom situation, especially internationally over great distances. In a project to evaluate this type of linkage, we offered a real-time, interactive class at three separate universities, which communicated instantaneously across an ocean at a distance of greater than 8,000 miles and seven time zones. The course, 'Seminar on the Ecology of African Savannas', consisted of a series of 11 lectures originating in either Mozambique (University of Eduardo Mondlane), South Africa (University of the Witwatersrand) or the United States (University of Virginia). We combined ISDN, internet and satellite linkages to facilitate the lectures and real time discussions between instructors and approximately 200 university students in the three countries. Although numerous technical, logistical, and pedagogical issues - both expected and unexpected - arose throughout the pilot year, the project can be viewed as overwhelmingly successful and certainly serves as proof-of-concept for future initiatives, both internationally and locally. This review of our experience will help to prepare other students, faculty, and institutions interested in establishing or developing international education initiatives

  12. Drug-polymer interaction and its significance on the physical stability of nifedipine amorphous dispersion in microparticles of an ammonio methacrylate copolymer and ethylcellulose binary blend.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingjun; Wigent, Rodney J; Schwartz, Joseph B

    2008-01-01

    Using spectroscopic and thermal analysis, this study investigated drug-polymer interaction and its significance on the physical stability of drug amorphous dispersion in microparticles of an ammonio polymethacrylate copolymer (Eudragit RL) (RL) and ethylcellulose (EC) binary blend (RL/EC = 2:1 w/w) prepared for use in controlled release of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solid dispersion of the model drug, nifedipine in the microparticles could be described as an ideal amorphous mixture for drug loadings up to 11% w/w. The antiplasticizing effect of the polymer blend was indicated by a significant increase in the glass transition point from approximately 50 degrees C for the amorphous nifedipine to approximately 115 degrees C for its solid solution. Moreover, shifts in infrared vibration wavenumber of nifedipine carbonyl and amine groups suggested that the hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) originally formed among nifedipine molecules were broken and replaced by those formed between nifedipine and polymers in the microparticles. Further infrared analysis on nifedipine amorphous dispersions with a single polymer, namely RL or EC, confirmed the proposed hydrogen-bonding interactions; and their stability study results suggested that both antiplasticizing effects and hydrogen bonding of EC and RL with nifedipine might be responsible for the physical stability of the microparticles of nifedipine amorphous dispersion with a RL/EC binary blend.

  13. Earth2Class: Assessing Interactions Between Research Scientists and Classroom Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.; Iturrino, G.; Assumpcao, C. M.; Baggio, F. D.

    2006-12-01

    The Earth2Class Workshops at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory (E2C) have brought together research scientists and secondary school teachers from the New York metropolitan area and neighboring states to learn about outcomes of investigations into many aspects of the Earth System and processes involved in making such discoveries. NSF Geoscience Education Grant 0331232 has provided support for an expanded program over the past three years, described at the 2005 Fall Meeting. We now present the results of formative and summative assessments of the effectiveness of this project. Among questions explored were: What aspects of the E2C format and educational technology most effectively connect research discoveries with classroom teachers and their students? What benefits result through interactions among teachers from highly diverse districts and backgrounds with research scientists, and what benefits do the scientists gain from participation? How can the E2C format serve as a model for other research institution-school district partnerships as a mechanism for broader dissemination of scientific discoveries? Formative evaluations were conducted through online and written responses from participants, feedback from conference presentations, and comments posted on teacher list-servers. Almost all responses were overwhelmingly positive. Formal, summative studies conducted by two external grant evaluators also noted many positive results. One abridged conclusion states: The E2C project is a unique and effective professional development program that can stimulate teachers and keep them informed of the vital content they teach. It is a model worthy of duplication in other subject areas and across the country. It may help to retain the best of our teachers and overcome an unfortunate attrition rate. The direct contact with professional scientists and collegial interactions in a non-threatening professional environment are critical dispositional and cognitive components of this

  14. Blended Polyurethane and Tropoelastin as a Novel Class of Biologically Interactive Elastomer.

    PubMed

    Wise, Steven G; Liu, Hongjuan; Yeo, Giselle C; Michael, Praveesuda L; Chan, Alex H P; Ngo, Alan K Y; Bilek, Marcela M M; Bao, Shisan; Weiss, Anthony S

    2016-03-01

    Polyurethanes are versatile elastomers but suffer from biological limitations such as poor control over cell attachment and the associated disadvantages of increased fibrosis. We address this problem by presenting a novel strategy that retains elasticity while modulating biological performance. We describe a new biomaterial that comprises a blend of synthetic and natural elastomers: the biostable polyurethane Elast-Eon and the recombinant human tropoelastin protein. We demonstrate that the hybrid constructs yield a class of coblended elastomers with unique physical properties. Hybrid constructs displayed higher elasticity and linear stress-strain responses over more than threefold strain. The hybrid materials showed increased overall porosity and swelling in comparison to polyurethane alone, facilitating enhanced cellular interactions. In vitro, human dermal fibroblasts showed enhanced proliferation, while in vivo, following subcutaneous implantation in mice, hybrid scaffolds displayed a reduced fibrotic response and tunable degradation rate. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a blend of synthetic and natural elastomers and is a promising approach for generating tailored bioactive scaffolds for tissue repair.

  15. Probing Molecular Interactions between Human Carbonic Anhydrases (hCAs) and a Novel Class of Benzenesulfonamides.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Elvira; Buemi, Maria Rosa; Di Fiore, Anna; De Luca, Laura; Ferro, Stefania; Angeli, Andrea; Cirilli, Roberto; Sadutto, Daniele; Alterio, Vincenzo; Monti, Simona Maria; Supuran, Claudiu T; De Simone, Giuseppina; Gitto, Rosaria

    2017-05-25

    On the basis of X-ray crystallographic studies of the complex of hCA II with 4-(3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinoline-2-carbonyl)benzenesulfonamide (3) (PDB code 4Z1J ), a novel series of 4-(1-aryl-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-carbonyl)benzenesulfonamides (23-33) was designed. Specifically, our idea was to improve the selectivity toward druggable isoforms through the introduction of additional hydrophobic/hydrophilic functionalities. Among the synthesized and tested compounds, the (R,S)-4-(6,7-dihydroxy-1-phenyl-3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-1H-2-carbonyl)benzenesulfonamide (30) exhibited a remarkable inhibition for the brain-expressed hCA VII (Ki = 0.20 nM) and selectivity over wider distributed hCA I and hCA II isoforms. By enantioselective HPLC, we solved the racemic mixture and ascertained that the two enantiomers (30a and 30b) are equiactive inhibitors for hCA VII. Crystallographic and docking studies revealed the main interactions of these inhibitors into the carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalytic site, thus highlighting the relevant role of nonpolar contacts for this class of hCA inhibitors.

  16. Blended Polyurethane and Tropoelastin as a Novel Class of Biologically Interactive Elastomer

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Steven G.; Liu, Hongjuan; Yeo, Giselle C.; Michael, Praveesuda L.; Chan, Alex H.P.; Ngo, Alan K.Y.; Bilek, Marcela M.M.; Bao, Shisan

    2016-01-01

    Polyurethanes are versatile elastomers but suffer from biological limitations such as poor control over cell attachment and the associated disadvantages of increased fibrosis. We address this problem by presenting a novel strategy that retains elasticity while modulating biological performance. We describe a new biomaterial that comprises a blend of synthetic and natural elastomers: the biostable polyurethane Elast-Eon and the recombinant human tropoelastin protein. We demonstrate that the hybrid constructs yield a class of coblended elastomers with unique physical properties. Hybrid constructs displayed higher elasticity and linear stress–strain responses over more than threefold strain. The hybrid materials showed increased overall porosity and swelling in comparison to polyurethane alone, facilitating enhanced cellular interactions. In vitro, human dermal fibroblasts showed enhanced proliferation, while in vivo, following subcutaneous implantation in mice, hybrid scaffolds displayed a reduced fibrotic response and tunable degradation rate. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a blend of synthetic and natural elastomers and is a promising approach for generating tailored bioactive scaffolds for tissue repair. PMID:26857114

  17. Social stars: Modeling the interactive lives of stars in dense clusters and binary systems in the era of time domain astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Morgan Elowe

    This thesis uses computational modeling to study of phases of dramatic interaction that intersperse stellar lifetimes. In galactic centers stars trace dangerously wandering orbits dictated by the combined gravitational force of a central, supermassive black hole and all of the surrounding stars. In binary systems, stars' evolution -- which causes their radii to increase substantially -- can bring initially non-interacting systems into contact. Moments of strong stellar interaction transform stars, their subsequent evolution, and the stellar environments they inhabit. In tidal disruption events, a star is partially or completely destroyed as tidal forces from a supermassive black hole overwhelm the star's self gravity. A portion of the stellar debris falls back to the black hole powering a luminous flare as it accretes. This thesis studies the relative event rates and properties of tidal disruption events for stars across the stellar evolutionary spectrum. Tidal disruptions of giant stars occur with high specific frequency; these objects' extended envelopes make them vulnerable to disruption. More-compact white dwarf stars are tidally disrupted relatively rarely. Their transients are also of very different duration and luminosity. Giant star disruptions power accretion flares with timescales of tens to hundreds of years; white dwarf disruption flares take hours to days. White dwarf tidal interactions can additionally trigger thermonuclear burning and lead to transients with signatures similar to type I supernovae. In binary star systems, a phase of hydrodynamic interaction called a common envelope episode occurs when one star evolves to swallow its companion. Dragged by the surrounding gas, the companion star spirals through the envelope to tighter orbits. This thesis studies accretion and flow morphologies during this phase. Density gradients across the gravitationally-focussed material lead to a strong angular momentum barrier to accretion during common envelope

  18. Health Science students' evaluation of courses and Instructors: the effect of response rate and class size interaction.

    PubMed

    Kuwaiti, Ahmed Al

    2015-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the effect of response rate and class size interaction on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at heath science colleges in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective study design was adapted to ascertain Course Evaluation Surveys (CES) conducted at the health science colleges of the University of Dammam [UOD] in the academic year 2013-2014. Accordingly, the CES data which was downloaded from an exclusive online application 'UDQUEST' which includes 337 different courses and 15,264 surveys were utilized in this study. Two-way analysis of variance was utilized to test whether there is any significant interaction between the class size and the response rate on the students' evaluation of courses and instructors. The study showed that high response rate is required for student evaluation of instructors at Health Science colleges when the class size is small whereas a medium response rate is required for students' evaluation of courses. On the other hand, when the class size is medium, a medium or high response rate is needed for students' evaluation of both instructors and courses. The results of this study recommend that the administrators of the health science colleges to be aware of the interpretation of students' evaluations of courses and instructors. The study also suggests that the interaction between response rate and class size is a very important factor that needs to be taken into consideration while interpreting the findings of the students' evaluation of instructors and courses.

  19. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars.

  20. Novel Interaction of Class IIb Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) with Class IIa HDAC9 Controls Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neuronal Cell Survival and Movement.

    PubMed

    Salian-Mehta, Smita; Xu, Mei; McKinsey, Timothy A; Tobet, Stuart; Wierman, Margaret E

    2015-05-29

    The impact of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the control of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal development is unknown. We identified an increase in many HDACs in GT1-7 (differentiated) compared with NLT (undifferentiated) GnRH neuronal cell lines. Increased HDAC9 mRNA and protein and specific deacetylase activity in GT1-7 cells suggested a functional role. Introduction of HDAC9 in NLT cells protected from serum withdrawal induced apoptosis and impaired basal neuronal cell movement. Conversely, silencing of endogenous HDAC9 in GT1-7 cells increased apoptosis and cell movement. Comparison of WT and mutant HDAC9 constructs demonstrated that the HDAC9 pro-survival effects required combined cytoplasmic and nuclear localization, whereas the effects on cell movement required a cytoplasmic site of action. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated a novel interaction of HDAC9 selectively with the Class IIb HDAC6. HDAC6 was also up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels, and HDAC6 catalytic activity was significantly increased in GT1-7 compared with NLT cells. HDAC9 interacted with HDAC6 through its second catalytic domain. Silencing of HDAC6, HDAC9, or both, in GT1-7 cells augmented apoptosis compared with controls. HDAC6 and -9 had additive effects to promote cell survival via modulating the BAX/BCL2 pathway. Silencing of HDAC6 resulted in an activation of movement of GT1-7 cells with induction in acetylation of α-tubulin. Inhibition of HDAC6 and HDAC9 together resulted in an additive effect to increase cell movement but did not alter the acetylation of αtubulin. Together, these studies identify a novel interaction of Class IIa HDAC9 with Class IIb HDAC6 to modulate cell movement and survival in GnRH neurons. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Novel Interaction of Class IIb Histone Deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) with Class IIa HDAC9 Controls Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) Neuronal Cell Survival and Movement*

    PubMed Central

    Salian-Mehta, Smita; Xu, Mei; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Tobet, Stuart; Wierman, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the control of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal development is unknown. We identified an increase in many HDACs in GT1-7 (differentiated) compared with NLT (undifferentiated) GnRH neuronal cell lines. Increased HDAC9 mRNA and protein and specific deacetylase activity in GT1-7 cells suggested a functional role. Introduction of HDAC9 in NLT cells protected from serum withdrawal induced apoptosis and impaired basal neuronal cell movement. Conversely, silencing of endogenous HDAC9 in GT1-7 cells increased apoptosis and cell movement. Comparison of WT and mutant HDAC9 constructs demonstrated that the HDAC9 pro-survival effects required combined cytoplasmic and nuclear localization, whereas the effects on cell movement required a cytoplasmic site of action. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated a novel interaction of HDAC9 selectively with the Class IIb HDAC6. HDAC6 was also up-regulated at the mRNA and protein levels, and HDAC6 catalytic activity was significantly increased in GT1-7 compared with NLT cells. HDAC9 interacted with HDAC6 through its second catalytic domain. Silencing of HDAC6, HDAC9, or both, in GT1-7 cells augmented apoptosis compared with controls. HDAC6 and -9 had additive effects to promote cell survival via modulating the BAX/BCL2 pathway. Silencing of HDAC6 resulted in an activation of movement of GT1-7 cells with induction in acetylation of α-tubulin. Inhibition of HDAC6 and HDAC9 together resulted in an additive effect to increase cell movement but did not alter the acetylation of αtubulin. Together, these studies identify a novel interaction of Class IIa HDAC9 with Class IIb HDAC6 to modulate cell movement and survival in GnRH neurons. PMID:25873389

  2. Tugboat model for OB binaries, X-ray stars and pulsars.

    PubMed

    Helfand, D J; Tademaru, E

    1977-05-12

    An examination of the kinematical properties of binary OB stars, binary X-ray sources and pulsars suggests an evolutionary sequence linking an apparent low-velocity class of pulsars to the binary nature of their extreme Population I progenitors.

  3. Binary technetium halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, Erik Vaughan

    In this work, the synthetic and coordination chemistry as well as the physico-chemical properties of binary technetium (Tc) chlorides, bromides, and iodides were investigated. Resulting from these studies was the discovery of five new binary Tc halide phases: alpha/beta-TcCl3, alpha/beta-TcCl 2, and TcI3, and the reinvestigation of the chemistries of TcBr3 and TcX4 (X = Cl, Br). Prior to 2009, the chemistry of binary Tc halides was poorly studied and defined by only three compounds, i.e., TcF6, TcF5, and TcCl4. Today, ten phases are known (i.e., TcF6, TcF5, TcCl4, TcBr 4, TcBr3, TcI3, alpha/beta-TcCl3 and alpha/beta-TcCl2) making the binary halide system of Tc comparable to those of its neighboring elements. Technetium binary halides were synthesized using three methods: reactions of the elements in sealed tubes, reactions of flowing HX(g) (X = Cl, Br, and I) with Tc2(O2CCH3)4Cl2, and thermal decompositions of TcX4 (X = Cl, Br) and alpha-TcCl 3 in sealed tubes under vacuum. Binary Tc halides can be found in various dimensionalities such as molecular solids (TcF6), extended chains (TcF5, TcCl4, alpha/beta-TcCl2, TcBr 3, TcI3), infinite layers (beta-TcCl3), and bidimensional networks of clusters (alpha-TcCl3); eight structure-types with varying degrees of metal-metal interactions are now known. The coordination chemistry of Tc binary halides can resemble that of the adjacent elements: molybdenum and ruthenium (beta-TcCl3, TcBr3, TcI 3), rhenium (TcF5, alpha-TcCl3), platinum (TcCl 4, TcBr4), or can be unique (alpha-TcCl2 and beta-TcCl 2) in respect to other known transition metal binary halides. Technetium binary halides display a range of interesting physical properties that are manifested from their electronic and structural configurations. The thermochemistry of binary Tc halides is extensive. These compounds can selectively volatilize, decompose, disproportionate, or convert to other phases. Ultimately, binary Tc halides may find application in the nuclear fuel

  4. Interactions between lower urinary tract symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors determine distinct patterns of erectile dysfunction: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, João A B A; Muracca, Eduardo; Nakano, Élcio; Assalin, Adriana R; Cordeiro, Paulo; Paranhos, Mario; Cury, José; Srougi, Miguel; Antunes, Alberto A

    2013-12-01

    An epidemiological association between lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction is well established. However, interactions among multiple risk factors and the role of each in pathological mechanisms are not fully elucidated We enrolled 898 men undergoing prostate cancer screening for evaluation with the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) and simplified International Index of Erectile Function-5 (IIEF-5) questionnaires. Age, race, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, serum hormones and anthropometric parameters were also evaluated. Risk factors for erectile dysfunction were identified by logistic regression. The 333 men with at least mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (IIEF 16 or less) were included in a latent class model to identify relationships across erectile dysfunction risk factors. Age, hypertension, diabetes, lower urinary tract symptoms and cardiovascular event were independent predictors of erectile dysfunction (p<0.05). We identified 3 latent classes of patients with erectile dysfunction (R2 entropy=0.82). Latent class 1 had younger men at low cardiovascular risk and a moderate/high prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms. Latent class 2 had the oldest patients at moderate cardiovascular risk with an increased prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms. Latent class 3 had men of intermediate age with the highest prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and lower urinary tract symptoms. Erectile dysfunction severity and lower urinary tract symptoms increased from latent class 1 to 3. Risk factor interactions determined different severities of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction. The effect of lower urinary tract symptoms and cardiovascular risk outweighed that of age. While in the youngest patients lower urinary tract symptoms acted as a single risk factor for erectile dysfunction, the contribution of vascular disease resulted in significantly more severe

  5. Using Social Networking Environments to Support Collaborative Learning in a Chinese University Class: Interaction Pattern and Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jie; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study that investigated the social interaction pattern of collaborative learning and the factors affecting the effectiveness of collaborative learning in a social networking environment (SNE). A class of 55 undergraduate students enrolled in an elective course at a Chinese university was recruited for the study. The…

  6. The Nature of Interactions between Chinese Immigrant Families and Preschool Staff: How Culture, Class, and Methodology Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heng, Tang T.

    2014-01-01

    While the parental involvement field has progressed from asking what the impact of parental involvement is to how we can better involve parents, research has lagged in finding out how sociocultural and class differentials between homes and schools affect immigrant families' interactions with schools. This case study uses ethnographic tools to…

  7. Student-Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: Differences by Student Gender, Race, Social Class, and First-Generation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young K.; Sax, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of student-faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes--i.e., college GPA, degree aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction with college experience--vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status.…

  8. Creating Interactive Audiences for Student Writers in Large Classes: Blogging on the NewsActivist Learning Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldor, Eric; Flacks, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    This article considers how instructors with larger classes can utilize Web 2.0 tools to help students develop as writers. Meeting the needs of readers defines strong writing, yet students need to interact with authentic audiences to learn to do this well. A growing body of educators is exploring how blogging can be used to enhance student…

  9. Using Social Networking Environments to Support Collaborative Learning in a Chinese University Class: Interaction Pattern and Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jie; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study that investigated the social interaction pattern of collaborative learning and the factors affecting the effectiveness of collaborative learning in a social networking environment (SNE). A class of 55 undergraduate students enrolled in an elective course at a Chinese university was recruited for the study. The…

  10. In the Eye of the Beholder: Subjective and Observer Ratings of Middle-Class African American Mother-Adolescent Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campione-Barr, Nicole; Smetana, Judith G.

    2004-01-01

    Middle-class African American mothers and adolescents (n=81) participated in a dyadic interaction task in early adolescence (M=13.06 years, SD=1.27) and then again 2 years later (M=15.01 years, SD=1.27). Following the task, mothers and adolescents rated their own and their partner's support and involvement in the task; observers rated videotaped…

  11. Creating Interactive Audiences for Student Writers in Large Classes: Blogging on the NewsActivist Learning Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldor, Eric; Flacks, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    This article considers how instructors with larger classes can utilize Web 2.0 tools to help students develop as writers. Meeting the needs of readers defines strong writing, yet students need to interact with authentic audiences to learn to do this well. A growing body of educators is exploring how blogging can be used to enhance student…

  12. Interactional Concerns in Implementing Group Tasks: Addressing Silence, Dominance, and Off-Task Talk in an Academic Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the teacher role in mediating the task and the learner in an advanced academic writing class. Having identified three verbal (non-)participation patterns of students in collaborative tasks (silence, dominance, and off-task talk), I examine how these interactional concerns are understood and addressed by English as a second…

  13. Factors Facilitating Verbal Interaction in Group Work in a Ninth-Grade Content-Based ESL Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akcan, Sumru

    This case study investigated factors that increased verbal interaction for students in group work in a ninth grade, content-based, English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) class. Out of 11 tasks assigned to the students during the semester, four language-based and four genre-based tasks were analyzed. At the end of the study, the nature of verbal…

  14. Interactional Concerns in Implementing Group Tasks: Addressing Silence, Dominance, and Off-Task Talk in an Academic Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the teacher role in mediating the task and the learner in an advanced academic writing class. Having identified three verbal (non-)participation patterns of students in collaborative tasks (silence, dominance, and off-task talk), I examine how these interactional concerns are understood and addressed by English as a second…

  15. Understanding the Effect of Response Rate and Class Size Interaction on Students Evaluation of Teaching in a Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Kuwaiti, Ahmed; AlQuraan, Mahmoud; Subbarayalu, Arun Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to investigate the interaction between response rate and class size and its effects on students' evaluation of instructors and the courses offered at a higher education Institution in Saudi Arabia. Study Design: A retrospective study design was chosen. Methods: One thousand four hundred and forty four different courses…

  16. Relationship of Maternal Psychological Distress Classes to Later Mother-Infant Interaction, Home Environment, and Infant Development in Preterm Infants.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hudson; Yang, Qing; Docherty, Sharron L; White-Traut, Rosemary; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2016-06-01

    Latent class analyses can be used early in the postpartum period to identify mothers of preterm infants experiencing similar patterns of psychological distress symptoms, but whether these classes of mothers also differ in parental responses to their infants or in their infants' development is largely unknown. In this longitudinal multisite-repeated measures study, we evaluated the usefulness of three psychological distress classes (low distress, high depressive and anxiety symptoms, and extreme distress) in predicting mother-infant interactions, quality of home environment, and infant development in 229 mother-preterm infant pairs. Mothers completed psychological distress questionnaires at study entry; parent-infant interaction was recorded at 2 and 6 months of age corrected for prematurity; and infant developmental data were collected 12 months corrected age. Mothers in the extreme distress class engaged in more developmental stimulation at 2 months (β = .99, p < 0.01) and at 6 months (β = 1.38, p < .01) than mothers in the other classes and had better quality of home environment at 2 months (β = 2.52, p = .03). When not controlling for neurological insult, infants of mothers in the extreme distress class had poorer cognitive (β = -10.28, p = .01) and motor (β = -15.12, p < .01) development scores at 12 months corrected age than infants of mothers in the other distress classes, but after controlling for infant neurological insult, there were no differences in cognitive, motor, and language development based on maternal psychological distress class. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Multiwavelength observations of NaSt1 (WR 122): equatorial mass loss and X-rays from an interacting Wolf-Rayet binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhan, Jon; Smith, Nathan; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Morzinski, Katie M.; Close, Laird M.; Hinz, Philip M.; Males, Jared R.; Rodigas, Timothy J.

    2015-07-01

    NaSt1 (aka Wolf-Rayet 122) is a peculiar emission-line star embedded in an extended nebula of [N II] emission with a compact dusty core. The object was previously characterized as a Wolf-Rayet (WR) star cloaked in an opaque nebula of CNO-processed material, perhaps analogous to η Car and its Homunculus nebula, albeit with a hotter central source. To discern the morphology of the [N II] nebula we performed narrow-band imaging using the Hubble Space Telescope and Wide-field Camera 3. The images reveal that the nebula has a disc-like geometry tilted ≈12° from edge-on, composed of a bright central ellipsoid surrounded by a larger clumpy ring. Ground-based spectroscopy reveals radial velocity structure (±10 km s-1) near the outer portions of the nebula's major axis, which is likely to be the imprint of outflowing gas. Near-infrared adaptive-optics imaging with Magellan AO has resolved a compact ellipsoid of Ks-band emission aligned with the larger [N II] nebula, which we suspect is the result of scattered He I line emission (λ2.06 μm). Observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory have revealed an X-ray point source at the core of the nebula that is heavily absorbed at energies <1 keV and has properties consistent with WR stars and colliding-wind binaries. We suggest that NaSt1 is a WR binary embedded in an equatorial outflow that formed as the result of non-conservative mass transfer. NaSt1 thus appears to be a rare and important example of a stripped-envelope WR forming through binary interaction, caught in the brief Roche lobe overflow phase.

  18. INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF THE MILLISECOND PULSAR BINARY J1023+0038: EVIDENCE FOR THE SHORT-TERM NATURE OF ITS INTERACTING PHASE IN 2000-2001

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xuebing; Wang, Zhongxiang; Morrell, Nidia

    2013-02-20

    We report our multi-band infrared (IR) imaging of the transitional millisecond pulsar system J1023+0038, a rare pulsar binary known to have an accretion disk in 2000-2001. The observations were carried out with ground-based and space telescopes from near-IR to far-IR wavelengths. We detected the source in near-IR JH bands and Spitzer 3.6 and 4.5 {mu}m mid-IR channels. Combined with the previously reported optical spectrum of the source, the IR emission is found to arise from the companion star, with no excess emission detected in the wavelength range. Because our near-IR fluxes are nearly equal to those obtained by the 2MASS all-sky survey in 2000 February, the result indicates that the binary did not contain the accretion disk at the time, whose existence would have raised the near-IR fluxes to twice larger values. Our observations have thus established the short-term nature of the interacting phase seen in 2000-2001: the accretion disk existed for at most 2.5 yr. The binary was not detected by the WISE all-sky survey carried out in 2010 at its 12 and 22 {mu}m bands and our Herschel far-IR imaging at 70 and 160 {mu}m. Depending on the assumed properties of the dust, the resulting flux upper limits provide a constraint of <3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22}-3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} g on the mass of the dust grains that possibly exist as the remnants of the previously seen accretion disk.

  19. Perceived support from adults, interactions with police, and adolescents' depressive symptomology: an examination of sex, race, and social class.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina

    2013-02-01

    Several risk factors, including female sex, racial minority status, and family poverty, have been implicated in adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the role of one specific aspect of adolescents' ecological context, interactions with adults, in depressive symptomology. We examined the relationship between perceived support from adult family members and adults at school and depressive symptomology, and the relationship between negative interactions with police and depressive symptomology among adolescents, across sex, race, and social class. Participants included 707 adolescents (349 boys and 358 girls) from an urban high school. Analyses revealed that perceived support from adult family members was negatively associated with depressive symptoms, that negative interactions with police were positively associated with depressive symptoms, and that these relationships varied with respect to sex, race, and social class. The implications of the findings for research and practice with adolescents are discussed. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our implementation of a novel electrophoresis separation technique: Binary Oscillatory Cross flow Electrophoresis (BOCE). The technique utilizes the interaction of two driving forces, an oscillatory electric field and an oscillatory shear flow, to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged species. Analytical and numerical studies have indicated that this technique is capable of separating proteins with electrophoretic mobilities differing by less than 10%. With an experimental device containing a separation chamber 20 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 1 mm thick, an order of magnitude increase in throughput over commercially available electrophoresis devices is theoretically possible.

  1. Binary supramolecular adduct based upon trimeric perfluoro-ortho-phenylenemercury and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde: Enumerating the strength of perfluorophenyl-perfluorophenyl interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Steven P.; Krueger, Herman R.; Groeneman, Ryan H.; Reinheimer, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its proximity of Hg(II) atoms, electron-withdrawing properties and inherent accessibility to electrophilic sites on the molecular surface, trimeric perfluoro-ortho-phenylenemercury, (o-C6F4Hg)3, has demonstrated a capacity to form supramolecular adducts with a variety of neutral and anionic substrates. Often within these complexes the Lewis acid, (o-C6F4Hg)3, interacts with a Lewis base rather than itself in the solid state via various supramolecular interactions. Among these, perfluorophenyl-perfluorophenyl interactions have been utilized in the construction of various supramolecular materials; however, within these molecular complexes, this category of non-covalent interaction is not often observed. Even though these perfluorophenyl-perfluorophenyl interactions have been used to produce new materials, their overall strength has not been generally reported in the literature. In this contribution, we highlight not only the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic properties of a novel binary supramolecular adduct between (o-C6F4Hg)3 and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde (4-ClBA) [(o-C6F4Hg)3(4-ClBA)] 1, but also report on the overall strength of the perfluorophenyl-perfluorophenyl interaction energies determined by means of computational chemistry. The carbonyl group of the 4-ClBA substrate was found to interact with all three mercury atoms within (o-C6F4Hg)3 via Hg⋯O contacts. An infrared spectroscopic analysis of 1 demonstrated a lower wavenumber for the carbonyl stretching frequency when compared to that for the free substrate confirming the presence of these Hg⋯O interactions.

  2. Limit on second class polar vector couplings in semileptonic weak interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Holstein, B.R.

    1984-02-01

    Although a great deal of experimental work has succeeded in limiting a possible second class axial coupling to about ten percent of the size of weak magnetism, published limits on the size of a possible second class polar vector current are one order of magnitude less sensitive. We summarize the present situation and demonstrate that muon capture provides the strictest present limit.

  3. Interactions between the Isolated-Interactive Elements Effect and Levels of Learner Expertise: Experimental Evidence from an Accountancy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between the isolated-interactive elements effect and levels of learner expertise with first year undergraduate university accounting students. The isolated-interactive elements effect occurs when learning is facilitated by initially presenting elements of information sequentially in an isolated form rather than…

  4. Interactions between the Isolated-Interactive Elements Effect and Levels of Learner Expertise: Experimental Evidence from an Accountancy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between the isolated-interactive elements effect and levels of learner expertise with first year undergraduate university accounting students. The isolated-interactive elements effect occurs when learning is facilitated by initially presenting elements of information sequentially in an isolated form rather than…

  5. Aromatic interactions and rotational strengths within protein environment: An electronic structural study on β-lactamases from class A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christov, Christo; Karabencheva, Tatyana; Lodola, Alessio

    2008-04-01

    β-Lactamases are important enzymes, responsible for bacterial resistance against β-lactam antibiotics. The enzymes from class A are the most common and the most intensively studied. Here we present our electronic structural study on the relationships between electrostatic interactions and chiroptical properties of three enzymes from class A in the following directions: (i) an integrated influence of environment and ionization state on the rotational strengths mechanisms of tyrosine chromophore in TEM-1 β-lactamase; (ii) an effect of electrostatic environment on the mechanisms of aromatic rotational strengths in β-lactamases from Streptomyces albus and Staphylococcus aureus.

  6. Effects of high-energy neutrino production and interactions on stars in close X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaisser, T. K.; Stecker, F. W.; Harding, A. K.; Barnard, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Limits are discussed that may be placed on binary systems in which a compact partner is a strong source of high-energy particles that produce photons, neutrinos, and other secondary particles in the companion star. The highest energy neutrinos are absorbed deep in the companion and the associated energy deposition may be large enough to affect its structure or lead to its ultimate disruption. This neutrino heating is evaluated, starting with a detailed numerical calculation of the hadronic cascade induced in the atmosphere of the companion star. For some theoretical models, the resulting energy deposition from neutrino absorption may be so great as to disrupt the companion star over a time scale of 10,000-100,000 yr. Even if the energy deposition is smaller, it may still be high enough to alter the system substantially.

  7. Solar System binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.

    The discovery of binaries in each of the major populations of minor bodies in the solar system is propelling a rapid growth of heretofore unattainable physical information. The availability of mass and density constraints for minor bodies opens the door to studies of internal structure, comparisons with meteorite samples, and correlations between bulk-physical and surface-spectral properties. The number of known binaries is now more than 70 and is growing rapidly. A smaller number have had the extensive followup observations needed to derive mass and albedo information, but this list is growing as well. It will soon be the case that we will know more about the physical parameters of objects in the Kuiper Belt than has been known about asteroids in the Main Belt for the last 200 years. Another important aspect of binaries is understanding the mechanisms that lead to their formation and survival. The relative sizes and separations of binaries in the different minor body populations point to more than one mechanism for forming bound pairs. Collisions appear to play a major role in the Main Belt. Rotational and/or tidal fission may be important in the Near Earth population. For the Kuiper Belt, capture in multi-body interactions may be the preferred formation mechanism. However, all of these conclusions remain tentative and limited by observational and theoretical incompleteness. Observational techniques for identifying binaries are equally varied. High angular resolution observations from space and from the ground are critical for detection of the relatively distant binaries in the Main Belt and the Kuiper Belt. Radar has been the most productive method for detection of Near Earth binaries. Lightcurve analysis is an independent technique that is capable of exploring phase space inaccessible to direct observations. Finally, spacecraft flybys have played a crucial paradigm-changing role with discoveries that unlocked this now-burgeoning field.

  8. Assessing interactions of binary mixtures of Penicillium mycotoxins (PMs) by using a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMacs).

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Young; Cedergreen, Nina; Yiannikouris, Alexandros; Swamy, H V L N; Karrow, Niel A

    2017-03-01

    Penicillium mycotoxins (PMs) are toxic contaminants commonly found as mixtures in animal feed. Therefore, it is important to investigate potential joint toxicity of PM mixtures. In the present study, we assessed the joint effect of binary combinations of the following PMs: citrinin (CIT), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), mycophenolic acid (MPA) and penicillic acid (PA) using independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA) concepts. Previously published toxicity data (i.e. IC25; PM concentration that inhibited bovine macrophage (BoMacs) proliferation by 25%) were initially analyzed, and both concepts agreed that OTA+PA demonstrated synergism (p<0.05), while PAT+PA showed antagonism (p<0.05). When a follow-up dilution study was carried out using binary combinations of PMs at three different dilution levels (i.e. IC25, 0.5∗IC25, 0.25∗IC25), only the mixture of CIT+OTA at 0.5∗IC25 was determined to have synergism by both IA and CA concepts with Model Deviation Ratios (MDRs; the ratio of predicted versus observed effect concentrations) of 1.4 and 1.7, respectively. The joint effect of OTA+MPA, OTA+PA and CIT+PAT complied with the IA concept, while CIT+PA, PAT+MPA and PAT+PA were better predicted with the CA over the IA concept. The present study suggests to test both IA and CA concepts using multiple doses when assessing risk of mycotoxin mixtures if the mode of action is unknown. In addition, the study showed that the tested PMs could be predicted by IA or CA within an approximate two-fold certainty, raising the possibility for a joint risk assessment of mycotoxins in food and feed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantum chemical analysis explains hemagglutinin peptide-MHC Class II molecule HLA-DRbeta1*0101 interactions.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Constanza; Villaveces, José Luis; Bohórquez, Hugo; Llanos, Eugenio; Suárez, Carlos; Obregón, Mateo; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2004-10-29

    We present a new method to explore interactions between peptides and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules using the resultant vector of the three principal multipole terms of the electrostatic field expansion. Being that molecular interactions are driven by electrostatic interactions, we applied quantum chemistry methods to better understand variations in the electrostatic field of the MHC Class II HLA-DRbeta1*0101-HA complex. Multipole terms were studied, finding strong alterations of the field in Pocket 1 of this MHC molecule, and weak variations in other pockets, with Pocket 1>Pocket 4>Pocket 9 approximately Pocket 7>Pocket 6. Variations produced by "ideal" amino acids and by other occupying amino acids were compared. Two types of interactions were found in all pockets: a strong unspecific one (global interaction) and a weak specific interaction (differential interaction). Interactions in Pocket 1, the dominant pocket for this allele, are driven mainly by the quadrupole term, confirming the idea that aromatic rings are important in these interactions. Multipolar analysis is in agreement with experimental results, suggesting quantum chemistry methods as an adequate methodology to understand these interactions.

  10. Age, sex, social class, and quality of family interaction as determinants of adolescents' future orientation: a developmental task interpretation.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, J E

    1987-01-01

    This study is concerned with the effect of age, sex, social class, and quality of family interaction on the future orientation of adolescents aged 10-11, 14-15, and 17-19 years. Seventy-three girls and 75 boys were interviewed about their future hopes and fears. The content and extension of each aim and fear as well as the amount of planning, knowledge, and perceived locus of control involved was estimated from answers. The contents of aims and fears were closely related to the developmental tasks. Nearly half the subjects were afraid of war. The extension of subjects' future orientation decreased, whereas their knowledge about the future increased with age. The subjects from the higher social classes were oriented farther into the future than those from the lower classes. An interpretation emphasizing the importance of the principal developmental tasks on young people's future orientation is discussed.

  11. FT-IR study on interactions between medroxyprogesterone acetate and solvent in CHCl3/cyclo-C6H12 and CCl4/cyclo-C6H12 binary solvent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jie-hua; Fan, Chun-hui

    2012-09-01

    The intermolecular interactions between medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and CHCl3 and CCl4 solvent in CHCl3/cyclo-C6H12 and CCl4/cyclo-C6H12 binary solvent systems have been studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The experimental results showed that there are hydrogen bonding interactions between oxygen atoms of all carbonyl groups in MPA and hydrogen atom of CHCl3 so as to form 1:3 complex of MPA with CHCl3 and produce three new absorption bands at 1728.9-1736.1, 1712.7-1717.4 and 1661.9-1673.8 cm-1, respectively. And, 1:1 complex of MPA with CCl4 is formed in CCl4/cyclo-C6H12 binary solvent as a result of hydrogen bonding interaction between C3 carbonyl group and empty d-orbital in chlorine atom of CCl4 leading to producing new absorption band at 1673.2-1674.2 cm-1. However, all free carbonyl and associated carbonyl stretching vibrations of MPA in CHCl3/cyclo-C6H12 and CCl4/cyclo-C6H12 binary solvent systems shift to lower wavenumbers with the increasing of volume fraction of CHCl3 and CCl4 in binary solvent systems owing to the dipole-dipole interaction and the dipole-induced dipole interaction between MPA and solvents.

  12. Interactive effects of waterborne metals in binary mixtures on short-term gill-metal binding and ion uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Niyogi, Som; Nadella, Sunita R; Wood, Chris M

    2015-08-01

    Metal binding to fish gills forms the basis of the biotic ligand model (BLM) approach, which has emerged as a useful tool for conducting site-specific water quality assessments for metals. The current BLMs are designed to assess the toxicity of individual metals, and cannot account for the interactive effects of metal mixtures to aquatic organisms including fish. The present study was designed mainly to examine the interactive effects of waterborne metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Ni) in specific binary combinations on short-term (3h) gill-metal binding and essential ion (Ca(2+) and Na(+)) uptake (a physiological index of toxicity) in fish, using juvenile freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as the model species. We hypothesized that binary mixtures of metals that share a common mode of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Zn - Ca(2+) antagonists, Cu and Ag - Na(+) antagonists) would reduce the gill binding of each other via competitive interactions and induce less than additive effects on ion transport. In addition, the mixture of metals that have different modes of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Cu, or Cd and Ni) would not exhibit any interactive effects either on gill-metal binding or ion transport. We found that both Zn and Cu reduced gill-Cd binding and vice versa, however, Ni did not influence gill-Cd binding in fish. Surprisingly, Ag was found to stimulate gill-Cu binding especially at high exposure concentrations, whereas, Cu had no effect on gill-Ag binding. The inhibitory effect of Cd and Zn in mixture on branchial Ca(2+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cd or Zn alone. Similarly, the inhibitory effect of Cu and Ag in mixture on branchial Na(+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cu or Ag alone. The inhibitory effects of Cd and Zn mixture on Ca(2+) uptake as well as Cu and Ag mixture on Na(+) uptake were found to follow the principles of simple additivity. In contrast, no significant additive effect on either Ca(2+) or Na

  13. Social inequality and alcohol consumption-abuse in Bahia, Brazil-- interactions of gender, ethnicity and social class.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Filho, Naomar; Lessa, Ines; Magalhães, Lucélia; Araújo, Maria Jenny; Aquino, Estela; James, Sherman A; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2005-03-01

    This paper reports findings on Alcohol Consumption-Abuse (ACAb) in Bahia, Brazil, a research setting characterized by racial/ethnic and socioeconomic diversity. A household survey was conducted with a sample of 2,302 adults. ACAb was defined as daily intake of more than two units of beverage, with drunkenness, or weekly binge drinking plus episodes of drunkenness, or any use of alcoholic beverages with frequent drunkenness, with failed attempts to stop drinking. The rate of 12-month prevalence was 7%, with an overall male: female ratio of 6:1. A positive association of ACAb prevalence with education and social class was found. Male gender and higher socio-economic status were associated with increased odds of ACAb. No relationship was found between ethnicity and ACAb. Stratified analysis yielded consistent gender effects, throughout all strata of independent variables. A strong interaction of gender (male) and social class (upper class) was found for Mulattos and Morenos (maximum Prevalence rate=9.04). Interaction patterns found defy simple generalizations based on class, ethnicity, and gender considered alone.

  14. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of (lyso)phosphatidic acids, (lyso)phosphatidylserines and other lipid classes.

    PubMed

    Cífková, Eva; Hájek, Roman; Lísa, Miroslav; Holčapek, Michal

    2016-03-25

    The goal of this work is a systematic optimization of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation of acidic lipid classes (namely phosphatidic acids-PA, lysophosphatidic acids-LPA, phosphatidylserines-PS and lysophosphatidylserines-LPS) and other lipid classes under mass spectrometry (MS) compatible conditions. The main parameters included in this optimization are the type of stationary phases used in HILIC, pH of the mobile phase, the type and concentration of mobile phase additives. Nine HILIC columns with different chemistries (unmodified silica, modified silica using diol, 2-picolylamine, diethylamine and 1-aminoanthracene and hydride silica) are compared with the emphasis on peak shapes of acidic lipid classes. The optimization of pH is correlated with the theoretical calculation of acidobasic equilibria of studied lipid classes. The final method using the hydride column, pH 4 adjusted by formic acid and the gradient of acetonitrile and 40 mmol/L of aqueous ammonium formate provides good peak shapes for all analyzed lipid classes including acidic lipids. This method is applied for the identification of lipids in real samples of porcine brain and kidney extracts.

  15. Interaction of Bap31 and MHC class I molecules and their traffic out of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Abe, Fumiyoshi; Van Prooyen, Nancy; Ladasky, John J; Edidin, Michael

    2009-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein Bap31 associates with nascent class I MHC molecules. It appears to mediate the export of class I MHC molecules from the ER and may also be involved in their quality control. In this study, we use Förster resonance energy transfer and quantitative fluorescence imaging to show that in human, HeLa cells, Bap31 clusters with MHC class I (HLA-A2) molecules in the ER, and traffics via export vesicles to the ER/Golgi intermediate compartment. Förster resonance energy transfer between Bap31 and HLA-A2 and forward traffic increases when MHC class I molecules are loaded with a pulse of peptide. The increased forward traffic is blocked by overexpression of Bap29, a partner protein for Bap31, which localizes to the ER. Thus, in HeLa cells, Bap31 is involved in the exit of peptide-loaded MHC class I from the ER, and its function is regulated by its interaction with its homologue, Bap29.

  16. Realization of negative-U superconductivity in a class of purely repulsive systems - Interacting carrier and insulating bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, Kazuhiko; Aoki, Hideo

    1992-12-01

    The occurrence of superconductivity due to nonretarded attraction is demonstrated in a class of repulsively interacting electron systems that consists of a carrier band interacting with an insulating band. The superconductivity, which can be mapped to that in the attractive Hubbard model, has been confirmed from both the canonical transformation of the Hamiltonian and quantum Monte Carlo results. We indicate essential differences of the present models from existing models, including the d-p sub sigma model, and also discuss the relevance of our models to high TC materials.

  17. Asteroidal binary systems - Detection and formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappala, V.; Scaltriti, F.; Farinella, P.; Paolicchi, P.

    1980-04-01

    Recent occultation data and an analysis of some photometric light curves have shown the possible existence of asteroidal binary systems. A simple geometrical model taking into account mutual shadowing effects shows some peculiar features of the light curve which can be recovered in several previously observed objects. On the other hand, while the rotational period distribution of large asteroids (diameter greater than 200 km) is sharply peaked at about 5-8 hours, the surprisingly higher dispersion towards longer periods for intermediate size objects (diameters between 50 and 150 km) could be connected with a larger probability of binary nature within this class. From a theoretical point of view, the collisional fragmentation of asteroids could originate gravitationally bound fragments, with a tidal transfer of rotational into orbital angular momentum, causing a rapid synchronization of the system. This kind of processes could more easily occur for intermediate objects since: (1) for large ones, very massive colliding bodies are needed for fragmentation, that means a very rare event; and (2) for smaller asteroids, solid state interactions are stronger than the gravitational ones, so that breakage probably causes a complete disruption of the gravitational binding. Further collisional events could disintegrate some systems, so that the present frequency of binary asteroids could be lower than that of the objects whose rotational period was increased by such processes.

  18. SN~2012cg: Evidence for Interaction Between a Normal Type Ia Supernova and a Non-degenerate Binary Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. H.; Brown, Peter J.; Vinkó, Jozsef; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sand, David J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Calkins, Michael L.; Camacho, Yssavo; Dhungana, Govinda; Foley, Ryan J.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Graham, Melissa L.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kehoe, Robert; Macri, Lucas M.; Maeda, Keiichi; Mandel, Kaisey; McCully, Curtis; Pandya, Viraj; Rines, Kenneth J.; Wilhelmy, Steven; Zheng, Weikang

    2016-04-01

    We report evidence for excess blue light from the Type Ia supernova (Sn Ia) SN 2012cg at 15 and 16 days before maximum B-band brightness. The emission is consistent with predictions for the impact of the supernova on a non-degenerate binary companion. This is the first evidence for emission from a companion to a normal SN Ia. Sixteen days before maximum light, the B-V color of SN 2012cg is 0.2 mag bluer than for other normal SN Ia. At later times, this supernova has a typical SN Ia light curve, with extinction-corrected {M}B=-19.62+/- 0.02 mag and {{Δ }}{m}15(B)=0.86+/- 0.02. Our data set is extensive, with photometry in seven filters from five independent sources. Early spectra also show the effects of blue light, and high-velocity features are observed at early times. Near maximum, the spectra are normal with a silicon velocity vSi = -10,500 km s-1. Comparing the early data with models by Kasen favors a main-sequence companion of about six solar masses. It is possible that many other SN Ia have main-sequence companions that have eluded detection because the emission from the impact is fleeting and faint.

  19. The binary response of the GAL/MEL genetic switch of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is critically dependent on Gal80p-Gal4p interaction.

    PubMed

    Das Adhikari, Akshay Kumar; Bhat, Paike Jayadeva

    2016-09-01

    Studies on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae GAL/MEL genetic switch have revealed that its bistability is dependent on ultrasensitivity that can be altered or abolished by disabling different combinations of nested feedback loops. In contrast, we have previously demonstrated that weakening of the interaction between Gal80p and Gal4p alone is sufficient to abolish the ultrasensitivity (Das Adhikari et al. 2014). Here, we demonstrate that altering the epistatic interaction between Gal80p and Gal4p also abolishes the bistability, and the switch response to galactose becomes graded instead of binary. However, the GAL/MEL switch of wild-type and epistatically altered strains responded in a graded fashion to melibiose. The properties of the epistatically altered strain resemble Kluyveromyces lactis, which separated from the Saccharomyces lineage 100 mya before whole-genome duplication (WGD). Based on the results reported here, we propose that epistatic interactions played a crucial role in the evolution of the fine regulation of S. cerevisiae GAL/MEL switch following WGD. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Role of PTIP in class switch recombination and long-range chromatin interactions at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Kristopher R; Patel, Sanjeevkumar R; Dressler, Gregory R

    2011-04-01

    How distal transcriptional enhancer sequences interact with proximal promoters is poorly understood within the context of chromatin. In this report, we have used the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus to address the role of the PTIP protein in transcription regulation and class switch recombination in B cells, a process that depends on regulated transcription and DNA recombination via Pax5 and distal 3' enhancer sequences. We first show that PTIP is recruited to a Pax5 binding site to promote histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation. Using a CD19-Cre driver strain, we deleted PTIP in mature B cells. Loss of PTIP inhibited class switch recombination by suppressing transcription and histone H3K4 methylation at the germ line transcript promoters. In the absence of PTIP, Pax5 binding to the promoter regions is reduced and long-range chromatin interactions between the distal enhancer at the 3' regulatory region and the germ line transcript promoters are not detected. We propose a model whereby PTIP stabilizes the Pax5 DNA interactions that promote chromatin looping and regulate transcriptional responses needed for class switch recombination.

  1. Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.

    2017-01-01

    The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.

  2. Comparing Interactions in Literature Circles in Both Online and in Class Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeen, Christel Ghrist

    2014-01-01

    Discourse analysis of literature circles can lead educators to understand the different types of interactions taking place as students talk about text. Social and academic interactions exist in both face-to-face and online discussions of reading material. This study examines two different settings of literature circles and compares interactions of…

  3. Transforming a large-class lecture course to a smaller-group interactive course.

    PubMed

    Persky, Adam M; Pollack, Gary M

    2010-11-10

    To transition a large pharmacokinetics course that was delivered using a traditional lecture format into a smaller-group course with a discussion format. An e-book and Web-based multimedia learning modules were utilized to facilitate students' independent learning which allowed the number of classes they were required to attend to be reduced from 3 to 1 per week. Students were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 weekly class sessions. The majority of lecture time was replaced with active-learning activities including discussion, problem solving, and case studies to encourage higher-order learning. Changes in course delivery were assessed over a 4-year period by comparing students' grades and satisfaction ratings on course evaluations. Although student satisfaction with the course did not improve significantly, students preferred the smaller-group setting to a large lecture-based class. The resources and activities designed to shift responsibility for learning to the students did not affect examination grades even though a larger portion of examination questions focused on higher orders of learning (eg, application) in the smaller-group format. Transitioning to a smaller-group discussion format is possible in a pharmacokinetics course by increasing student accountability for acquiring factual content outside of the classroom. Students favored the smaller-class format over a large lecture-based class.

  4. Solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions in the preferential solvation of 4-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide in 24 binary solvent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, Tharly; Gonçalves, Thaini F; Venturini, Cristina de G; Machado, Vanderlei G

    2006-11-01

    The molar transition energy (E(T)) polarity values for the dye 4-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide were collected in binary mixtures comprising a hydrogen-bond accepting (HBA) solvent (acetone, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF)) and a hydrogen-bond donating (HBD) solvent (water, methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol, and butan-1-ol). Data referring to mixtures of water with alcohols were also analyzed. These data were used in the study of the preferential solvation of the probe, in terms of both solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions. These latter interactions are of importance in explaining the synergistic behavior observed for many mixed solvent systems. All data were successfully fitted to a model based on solvent-exchange equilibria. The E(T) values of the dye dissolved in the solvents show that the position of the solvatochromic absorption band of the dye is dependent on the medium polarity. The solvation of the dye in HBA solvents occurs with a very important contribution from ion-dipole interactions. In HBD solvents, the hydrogen bonding between the dimethylamino group in the dye and the OH group in the solvent plays an important role in the solvation of the dye. The interaction of the hydroxylic solvent with the other component in the mixture can lead to the formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes, which solvate the dye using a lower polar moiety, i.e. alkyl groups in the solvents. The dye has a hydrophobic nature and a dimethylamino group with a minor capability for hydrogen bonding with the medium in comparison with the phenolate group present in Reichardt's pyridiniophenolate. Thus, the probe is able to detect solvent-solvent interactions, which are implicit to the observed synergistic behavior.

  5. Solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions in the preferential solvation of 4-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide in 24 binary solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilaqua, Tharly; Gonçalves, Thaini F.; Venturini, Cristina de G.; Machado, Vanderlei G.

    2006-11-01

    The molar transition energy ( ET) polarity values for the dye 4-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide were collected in binary mixtures comprising a hydrogen-bond accepting (HBA) solvent (acetone, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)) and a hydrogen-bond donating (HBD) solvent (water, methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol, and butan-1-ol). Data referring to mixtures of water with alcohols were also analyzed. These data were used in the study of the preferential solvation of the probe, in terms of both solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions. These latter interactions are of importance in explaining the synergistic behavior observed for many mixed solvent systems. All data were successfully fitted to a model based on solvent-exchange equilibria. The ET values of the dye dissolved in the solvents show that the position of the solvatochromic absorption band of the dye is dependent on the medium polarity. The solvation of the dye in HBA solvents occurs with a very important contribution from ion-dipole interactions. In HBD solvents, the hydrogen bonding between the dimethylamino group in the dye and the OH group in the solvent plays an important role in the solvation of the dye. The interaction of the hydroxylic solvent with the other component in the mixture can lead to the formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes, which solvate the dye using a lower polar moiety, i.e. alkyl groups in the solvents. The dye has a hydrophobic nature and a dimethylamino group with a minor capability for hydrogen bonding with the medium in comparison with the phenolate group present in Reichardt's pyridiniophenolate. Thus, the probe is able to detect solvent-solvent interactions, which are implicit to the observed synergistic behavior.

  6. Binary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.

  7. NEW EVIDENCE OF MAGNETIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN STARS FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL DOPPLER TOMOGRAPHY OF ALGOL BINARIES: {beta} PER AND RS VUL

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Agafonov, Michail I.; Sharova, Olga I. E-mail: agfn@nirfi.sci-nnov.ru

    2012-11-20

    Time-resolved H{alpha} spectra of magnetically active interacting binaries have been used to create three-dimensional (3D) Doppler tomograms by means of the Radioastronomical Approach. This is the first 3D reconstruction of {beta} Per, with RS Vul for comparison. These 3D tomograms have revealed evidence of the mass transfer process (gas stream, circumprimary emission, localized region, absorption zone), as well as loop prominences and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in {beta} Per and RS Vul that could not be discovered from two-dimensional tomograms alone. The gas stream in both binaries may have been deflected beyond the central plane by the donor star's magnetic field. The stream was more elongated along the predicted trajectory in RS Vul than in {beta} Per, but not as pronounced as in U CrB (stream state). The loop prominence reached maximum V{sub z} velocities of {+-}155 km s{sup -1} in RS Vul compared to {+-}120 km s{sup -1} in {beta} Per, while the CME reached a maximum V{sub z} velocity of +150 km s{sup -1} in RS Vul and +100 km s{sup -1} in {beta} Per. The 3D tomograms show that the gas flows are not symmetric relative to the central plane and are not confined to that plane, a result confirmed by recent 15 GHz VLBI radio images of {beta} Per. Both the 3D H{alpha} tomography and the VLBI radio images support an earlier prediction of the superhump phenomenon in {beta} Per: that the gas between the stars is threaded with a magnetic field even though the hot B8V mass-gaining star is not known to have a magnetic field.

  8. How to Make Upper-Level University English Classes More Interactive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytovchenko, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Upper-level English classes often pose special problems for teachers. Known as English for Specific Purposes (ESP), this type of English instruction integrates the specialized subject matter of the field into the classroom. ESP requires the acquisition of highly specialized terminology and the ability to explain formal processes as students…

  9. Using Interactive Content and Online Activities to Accommodate Diversity in a Large First Year Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowball, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    As in many universities, class sizes have increased more quickly than teaching and learning resources. A related challenge is the increasing diversity of the student body in terms of socio-economic background, learning styles, English language ability and preparedness. This paper explores ways in which traditional face-to-face teaching methods…

  10. Latent Class Analysis of Antisocial Behavior: Interaction of Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2010-01-01

    To improve understanding about genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior (ASB), we tested the association of the 44-base pair polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and maltreatment using latent class analysis in 2,488 boys and girls from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. In boys,…

  11. Latent Class Analysis of Antisocial Behavior: Interaction of Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2010-01-01

    To improve understanding about genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior (ASB), we tested the association of the 44-base pair polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and maltreatment using latent class analysis in 2,488 boys and girls from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. In boys,…

  12. Case Studies of Interactive Whole-Class Teaching in Primary Science: Communicative Approach and Pedagogic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Kendra

    2012-01-01

    By developing two case studies of expert teaching in action, this study aimed to develop knowledge of talk in whole-class teaching in UK primary science lessons and understand this in relation to both the teachers' interpretations and sociocultural theoretical frameworks. Lessons were observed and video-recorded and the teachers engaged in…

  13. Brief Report: Interaction between Social Class and Risky Decision-Making in Children with Psychopathic Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Baker, Laura A.; Raine, Adrian; Wu, Henry; Bezdjian, Serena

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Adult psychopaths are thought to have risky decision-making and behavioral disinhibition, but little is known about the moderating effects of psychosocial factors and whether these associations can be observed in children with psychopathic tendencies. This study tests the biosocial hypothesis that social class will moderate…

  14. Case Studies of Interactive Whole-Class Teaching in Primary Science: Communicative Approach and Pedagogic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Kendra

    2012-01-01

    By developing two case studies of expert teaching in action, this study aimed to develop knowledge of talk in whole-class teaching in UK primary science lessons and understand this in relation to both the teachers' interpretations and sociocultural theoretical frameworks. Lessons were observed and video-recorded and the teachers engaged in…

  15. Brief Report: Interaction between Social Class and Risky Decision-Making in Children with Psychopathic Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Baker, Laura A.; Raine, Adrian; Wu, Henry; Bezdjian, Serena

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Adult psychopaths are thought to have risky decision-making and behavioral disinhibition, but little is known about the moderating effects of psychosocial factors and whether these associations can be observed in children with psychopathic tendencies. This study tests the biosocial hypothesis that social class will moderate…

  16. Planetary systems in binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Genya

    In this thesis we investigate the orbital evolution of planets in binaries. Unlike our own Solar System, at least one out of five planetary systems known to date is associated with additional stellar companions. Despite their large distances from the planetary systems, these stellar companions play an important role in significantly altering the planetary architecture over very long timescales. Most of the planets in binaries are found in hierarchical configurations in which a planet orbits around a component of a wide stellar binary. The evolution of such hierarchical triples has been analytically understood through the framework of the Kozai mechanism, in which the orbital eccentricity of a planet secularly grows through angular momentum exchange with the stellar companion. The aim of our first study is to investigate the global effect of stellar companions in exciting planetary eccentricities through the Kozai mechanism, using synthetic eccentricity distributions computed numerically from various initial assumptions motivated by observational studies. As inferred from observations and theoretical planet formation simulations, newly formed planetary systems are more likely to be oligarchic, containing multiple giant planets. However, the long-term evolution of gravitationally coupled planets perturbed by a stellar companion has been little understood in the previous studies. From a large ensemble of numerical integrations of double-planet systems in binaries, we have found that there are various evolutionary classes of multiple planets in binaries compared to simple hierarchical triple systems containing only one planet. Using the Kozai mechanism and the Laplace-Lagrange secular theory, we also provide analytic criteria that can readily predict the secular evolutionary behavior of a pair of planetary orbits in binaries. In the last part of this thesis we discuss an alternative channel of planetary migration induced by a combined effect of dissipative tidal forces

  17. Transcriptomics analysis of interactive effects of benzene, trichloroethylene and methyl mercury within binary and ternary mixtures on the liver and kidney following subchronic exposure in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriksen, Peter J.M. Freidig, Andreas P. Jonker, Diana Thissen, Uwe Bogaards, Jan J.P. Mumtaz, Moiz M. Groten, John P. Stierum, Rob H.

    2007-12-01

    The present research aimed to study the interaction of three chemicals, methyl mercury, benzene and trichloroethylene, on mRNA expression alterations in rat liver and kidney measured by microarray analysis. These compounds were selected based on presumed different modes of action. The chemicals were administered daily for 14 days at the Lowest-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (LOAEL) or at a two- or threefold lower concentration individually or in binary or ternary mixtures. The compounds had strong antagonistic effects on each other's gene expression changes, which included several genes encoding Phase I and II metabolizing enzymes. On the other hand, the mixtures affected the expression of 'novel' genes that were not or little affected by the individual compounds. The three compounds exhibited a synergistic interaction on gene expression changes at the LOAEL in the liver and both at the sub-LOAEL and LOAEL in the kidney. Many of the genes induced by mixtures but not by single compounds, such as Id2, Nr2f6, Tnfrsf1a, Ccng1, Mdm2 and Nfkb1 in the liver, are known to affect cellular proliferation, apoptosis and tissue-specific function. This indicates a shift from compound specific response on exposure to individual compounds to a more generic stress response to mixtures. Most of the effects on cell viability as concluded from transcriptomics were not detected by classical toxicological endpoints illustrating the benefit of increased sensitivity of assessing gene expression profiling. These results emphasize the benefit of applying toxicogenomics in mixture interaction studies, which yields biomarkers for joint toxicity and eventually can result in an interaction model for most known toxicants.

  18. A class of stochastic games with infinitely many interacting agents related to Glauber dynamics on random graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSantis, Emilio; Marinelli, Carlo

    2007-09-01

    We introduce and study a class of infinite-horizon non-zero-sum non-cooperative stochastic games with infinitely many interacting agents using ideas of statistical mechanics. First we show, in the general case of asymmetric interactions, the existence of a strategy that allows any player to eliminate losses after a finite random time. In the special case of symmetric interactions, we also prove that, as time goes to infinity, the game converges to a Nash equilibrium. Moreover, assuming that all agents adopt the same strategy, using arguments related to those leading to perfect simulation algorithms, spatial mixing and ergodicity are proved. In turn, ergodicity allows us to prove 'fixation', i.e. players will adopt a constant strategy after a finite time. The resulting dynamics is related to zero-temperature Glauber dynamics on random graphs of possibly infinite volume.

  19. Beyond Astro 101: A First Report on Applying Interactive Education Techniques to an Astronphysics Class for Majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Marshall D.; Ghez, A. M.

    2009-05-01

    Learner-centered interactive instruction methods now have a proven track record in improving learning in "Astro 101" courses for non-majors, but have rarely been applied to higher-level astronomy courses. Can we hope for similar gains in classes aimed at astrophysics majors, or is the subject matter too fundamentally different for those techniques to apply? We present here an initial report on an updated calculus-based Introduction to Astrophysics class at UCLA that suggests such techniques can indeed result in increased learning for major students. We augmented the traditional blackboard-derivation lectures and challenging weekly problem sets by adding online questions on pre-reading assignments (''just-in-time teaching'') and frequent multiple-choice questions in class ("Think-Pair-Share''). We describe our approach, and present examples of the new Think-Pair-Share questions developed for this more sophisticated material. Our informal observations after one term are that with this approach, students are more engaged and alert, and score higher on exams than typical in previous years. This is anecdotal evidence, not hard data yet, and there is clearly a vast amount of work to be done in this area. But our first impressions strongly encourage us that interactive methods should be able improve the astrophysics major just as they have improved Astro 101.

  20. Academic Help Seeking and Peer Interactions of High School Girls in Computer Science Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberman, Paul S.

    Through interviews and classroom observations, this study investigated the academic help-seeking and interactions of high school girls with their computer science classmates in both a private school and a public school setting. The study explored five aspects of this help-seeking interaction: (1) females as a gender minority in computer science;…

  1. Interaction of Dopamine Transporter (DAT1) Genotype and Maltreatment for ADHD: A Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the association of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been widely studied, far less is known about its potential interaction with environmental risk factors. Given that maltreatment is a replicated risk factor for ADHD, we explored the interaction between DAT1 and…

  2. Interaction of Dopamine Transporter (DAT1) Genotype and Maltreatment for ADHD: A Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the association of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been widely studied, far less is known about its potential interaction with environmental risk factors. Given that maltreatment is a replicated risk factor for ADHD, we explored the interaction between DAT1 and…

  3. Comprehensive Binary Interaction Mapping of SH2 Domains via Fluorescence Polarization Reveals Novel Functional Diversification of ErbB Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccio, Mark F.; Chuu, Chih-pin; Jones, Richard B.

    2012-01-01

    First-generation interaction maps of Src homology 2 (SH2) domains with receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) phosphosites have previously been generated using protein microarray (PM) technologies. Here, we developed a large-scale fluorescence polarization (FP) methodology that was able to characterize interactions between SH2 domains and ErbB receptor phosphosites with higher fidelity and sensitivity than was previously achieved with PMs. We used the FP assay to query the interaction of synthetic phosphopeptides corresponding to 89 ErbB receptor intracellular tyrosine sites against 93 human SH2 domains and 2 phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains. From 358,944 polarization measurements, the affinities for 1,405 unique biological interactions were determined, 83% of which are novel. In contrast to data from previous reports, our analyses suggested that ErbB2 was not more promiscuous than the other ErbB receptors. Our results showed that each receptor displays unique preferences in the affinity and location of recruited SH2 domains that may contribute to differences in downstream signaling potential. ErbB1 was enriched versus the other receptors for recruitment of domains from RAS GEFs whereas ErbB2 was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine and phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. ErbB3, the kinase inactive ErbB receptor family member, was predictably enriched for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol kinases and surprisingly, was enriched for recruitment of domains from tyrosine kinases, cytoskeletal regulatory proteins, and RHO GEFs but depleted for recruitment of domains from phosphatidyl inositol phosphatases. Many novel interactions were also observed with phosphopeptides corresponding to ErbB receptor tyrosines not previously reported to be phosphorylated by mass spectrometry, suggesting the existence of many biologically relevant RTK sites that may be phosphorylated but below the detection threshold of standard mass spectrometry procedures. This

  4. Interactions between amino-acid-defined MHC class II variants and smoking for seropositive rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwangwoo; Jiang, Xia; Cui, Jing; Lu, Bing; Costenbader, Karen H.; Sparks, Jeffrey A.; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-soon; Okada, Yukinori; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Alfredsson, Lars; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Klareskog, Lars; Karlson, Elizabeth W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to refine the interaction between cigarette smoking and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms in seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in the context of a recent amino-acid based HLA model for RA susceptibility. Methods We imputed HLA amino acids and classical alleles from case-control Immunochip array data of 3,588 Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA; case/control=1654/1934), 589 Nurses’ Health Study (NHS; 229/360) and 2,125 Korean (1390/735) subjects. We examined interaction effects between heavy smoking (>10 pack-years) and genetic risk score (GRS) from RA-associated amino-acid positions (11, 13, 71 and 74 in HLA-DRβ1; 9 in HLA-B; and 9 in HLA-DPβ1) and from HLA-DRβ1 four-amino-acid haplotypes with an attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) using the additive interaction model. Results Heavy smoking and all investigated HLA amino-acid positions and haplotypes were associated with RA susceptibility in all three populations. In the interaction analysis, we found a significant deviation from the expected additive joint effect between heavy smoking and the HLA-DRβ1 amino-acid haplotype in all three studies (0.416≤AP≤0.796). We further identified the key interacting variants as being located at amino-acid positions 11 and 13 of HLA-DRβ1 but not the other RA-risk amino-acid positions in all populations. At the positions 11 and 13, there were similar patterns between RA-risk effects and interaction effects of residues. Conclusion Our findings of significant gene-environment interaction effects implicate that a physical interaction between citrullinated auto-antigens produced by smoking and HLA-DR molecules is characterized by the HLA-DRβ1 four-amino-acid haplotype, primarily by the positions 11 and 13. PMID:26098791

  5. Molecular interactions in the ionic liquid emim acetate and water binary mixtures probed via NMR spin relaxation and exchange spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jesse J; Bowser, Sage R; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2014-05-07

    Interactions of ionic liquids (ILs) with water are of great interest for many potential IL applications. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (emim) acetate, in particular, has shown interesting interactions with water including hydrogen bonding and even chemical exchange. Previous studies have shown the unusual behavior of emim acetate when in the presence of 0.43 mole fraction of water, and a combination of NMR techniques is used herein to investigate the emim acetate-water system and the unusual behavior at 0.43 mole fraction of water. NMR relaxometry techniques are used to describe the effects of water on the molecular motion and interactions of emim acetate with water. A discontinuity is seen in nuclear relaxation behavior at the concentration of 0.43 mole fraction of water, and this is attributed to the formation of a hydrogen bonded network. EXSY measurements are used to determine the exchange rates between the H2 emim proton and water, which show a complex dependence on the concentration of the mixture. The findings support and expand our previous results, which suggested the presence of an extended hydrogen bonding network in the emim acetate-water system at concentrations close to 0.50 mole fraction of H2O.

  6. On the phase behavior of binary mixtures of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ben-Simon, Avi; Eshet, Hagai; Rabani, Eran

    2013-02-26

    The assembly of mixtures of nanoparticles with different properties into a binary nanoparticle superlattice (BNSL) provides a route to fabricate novel classes of materials with properties emerging from the choice of the building blocks. The common theoretical approach based on the hard-spheres model predicts crystallization of only a few metastable binary superstructures (NaCl, AlB₂ or the AB₁₃). Recently [Shevchenko, E. V.; Talapin, D. V.; O'Brien, S.; Murray, C. B. Nature 2006; 439, 55.)], it has been demonstrated that with the use of a combination of semiconducting, metallic, and magnetic nanoparticles, a variety of novel BNSL structures were formed, where at least 10 were low density structures that have not been previously reported. While some of the structures can be explained by the addition of electrostatic interactions, it is clear that at the nanometer scale one needs to consider other influences, such as van der Waals forces, steric effects, etc. Motivated by those experiments, we study, using Monte Carlo simulations, the phase behavior of binary mixtures of nanoparticles interacting via a combination of hard-core electrostatics and van der Waals forces. We include a tuning parameter that can be used to balance between electrostatic and dispersion interactions and study the phase behavior as a function of the different charges and size ratios of the nanoparticles. The results indicate that at the nanoscale, both electrostatic and dispersion interactions are necessary to explain the experimental observed BNSL structures.

  7. Binary AGB stars observed with Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornfeld, Klaus

    2012-03-01

    Asymptotic Giant Branch stars are stars at the end of their lifetime with low to intermediate masses. They are important in the Galactic context, since they contribute a lot of dust to the interstellar medium (ISM) and influence the chemical evolution of the Galaxy. Many AGB stars show peculiar outflow morphologies depending on their mass-loss rates. The outflowing wind of these stars collides with the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). The collisions with the ISM result in the formation of bow shocks or rings, well visible in the latest Herschel Space Observatory images made with the on-board PACS instrument. Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleight-Taylor instabilities were found in the bow shock regions. With the help of Herschel and within the framework of the MESS (Mass loss of Evolved StarS) Guaranteed Time Key Program it was tried to distinguish between the different morphologies. The outflow morphologies were categorized in 4 main classes: "fermata", "eye", "ring", and "irregular"; also point sources showing no resolved circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) were found. Some of the AGB stars in the MESS sample are known binary stars and the binary state of some other objects is still in discussion. A new attempt to clarify the binarity of the objects can be made by checking their outflow morphology and to compare the results with known morphological (a-)symmetries in binary systems. This Thesis discusses 14 binary AGB candidates from the MESS sample, the previous findings and the Herschel results. Herschel observes at infrared wavelengths. Light at this wavelengths can be seen through the dust, which is formed in the surrounding environment of these stars. For the unknown cases it is difficult to determine the binary state, because AGB stars can have very strong wind outflows, making the detection of a companion difficult. Photo- and spectroscopy, CO line outflow measurements or composite spectra can be used to identify features caused directly o! r indirectly by the

  8. Bayesian Hierarchical Classes Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenen, Iwin; Van Mechelen, Iven; Gelman, Andrew; De Knop, Stijn

    2008-01-01

    Hierarchical classes models are models for "N"-way "N"-mode data that represent the association among the "N" modes and simultaneously yield, for each mode, a hierarchical classification of its elements. In this paper we present a stochastic extension of the hierarchical classes model for two-way two-mode binary data. In line with the original…

  9. Use of spectroscopic, zeta potential and molecular dynamic techniques to study the interaction between human holo-transferrin and two antagonist drugs: comparison of binary and ternary systems.

    PubMed

    Kabiri, Mona; Amiri-Tehranizadeh, Zeinab; Baratian, Ali; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Jamshidkhan

    2012-03-12

    For the first time, the binding of ropinirole hydrochloride (ROP) and aspirin (ASA) to human holo-transferrin (hTf) has been investigated by spectroscopic approaches (fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, time-resolved fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism, resonance light scattering), as well as zeta potential and molecular modeling techniques, under simulated physiological conditions. Fluorescence analysis was used to estimate the effect of the ROP and ASA drugs on the fluorescence of hTf as well as to define the binding and quenching properties of binary and ternary complexes. The synchronized fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra demonstrated some micro-environmental and conformational changes around the Trp and Tyr residues with a faint red shift. Thermodynamic analysis displayed the van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds interactions are the major acting forces in stabilizing the complexes. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence data revealed that the fluorescence quenching of complexes are static mechanism. The effect of the drugs aggregating on the hTf resulted in an enhancement of the resonance light scattering (RLS) intensity. The average binding distance between were computed according to the forster non-radiation energy transfer theory. The circular dichroism (CD) spectral examinations indicated that the binding of the drugs induced a conformational change of hTf. Measurements of the zeta potential indicated that the combination of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between ROP, ASA and hTf formed micelle-like clusters. The molecular modeling confirmed the experimental results. This study is expected to provide important insight into the interaction of hTf with ROP and ASA to use in various toxicological and therapeutic processes.

  10. Surface interactions, thermodynamics and topography of binary monolayers of Insulin with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Grasso, E J; Oliveira, R G; Maggio, B

    2016-02-15

    The molecular packing, thermodynamics and surface topography of binary Langmuir monolayers of Insulin and DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) or POCP (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine) at the air/water interface on Zn(2+) containing solutions were studied. Miscibility and interactions were ascertained by the variation of surface pressure-mean molecular area isotherms, surface compressional modulus and surface (dipole) potential with the film composition. Brewster Angle Microscopy was used to visualize the surface topography of the monolayers. Below 20mN/m Insulin forms stable homogenous films with DPPC and POPC at all mole fractions studied (except for films with XINS=0.05 at 10mN/m where domain coexistence was observed). Above 20mN/m, a segregation process between mixed phases occurred in all monolayers without squeezing out of individual components. Under compression the films exhibit formation of a viscoelastic or kinetically trapped organization leading to considerable composition-dependent hysteresis under expansion that occurs with entropic-enthalpic compensation. The spontaneously unfavorable interactions of Insulin with DPPC are driven by favorable enthalpy that is overcome by unfavorable entropic ordering; in films with POPC both the enthalpic and entropic effects are unfavorable. The surface topography reveals domain coexistence at relatively high pressure showing a striped appearance. The interactions of Insulin with two major membrane phospholipids induces composition-dependent and long-range changes of the surface organization that ought to be considered in the context of the information-transducing capabilities of the hormone for cell functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental Investigation for 100-Joule-class TEA CO2 Laser and Gas Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Zhiguo; Yao, Honglin; Wang, Jun; Wen, Ming; Wang, Peng; Yang, Jan; Li, Chong

    2006-05-01

    Impulse coupling coefficient Cm is one of the most important performance parameters in laser propulsion. Cm is the impulse increment of lightcraft that per joule laser beam energy acts on. The TEA CO2 laser, whose single pulse energy is 100-Joule-class and wavelength is 10.6μm, is adopted by experimental research. In experimental environment cabin, the parabolic lightcraft is fixed on impact pendulum. Using Air, N2, He, CO2, N2-He and N2-CO2, different Cm is obtained. Experimental results indicate that Cm of the mixed gas is improved through changing gas component ratio.

  12. Interaction of learning approach with concept integration and achievement in a large guided inquiry organic class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewhinney, Christina

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship of students' concept integration and achievement with time spent within a topic and across related topics in a large first semester guided inquiry organic chemistry class. Achievement was based on evidence of algorithmic problem solving; and concept integration was based on demonstrated performance explaining, applying, and relating concepts to each other. Twelve individual assessments were made of both variables over three related topics---acid/base, nucleophilic substitution and electrophilic addition reactions. Measurements included written, free response and ordered multiple answer questions using a classroom response system. Results demonstrated that students can solve problems without conceptual understanding. A second study was conducted to compare the students' learning approach at the beginning and end of the course. Students were scored on their preferences for a deep, strategic, or surface approach to learning based on their responses to a pre and post survey. Results suggest that students significantly decreased their preference for a surface approach during the semester. Analysis of the data collected was performed to determine the relationship between students' learning approach and their concept integration and achievement in this class. Results show a correlation between a deep approach and concept integration and a strong negative correlation between a surface approach and concept integration.

  13. Using a dual safeguard web-based interactive teaching approach in an introductory physics class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lie-Ming; Li, Bin; Luo, Ying

    2015-06-01

    We modified the Just-in-Time Teaching approach and developed a dual safeguard web-based interactive (DGWI) teaching system for an introductory physics course. The system consists of four instructional components that improve student learning by including warm-up assignments and online homework. Student and instructor activities involve activities both in the classroom and on a designated web site. An experimental study with control groups evaluated the effectiveness of the DGWI teaching method. The results indicate that the DGWI method is an effective way to improve students' understanding of physics concepts, develop students' problem-solving abilities through instructor-student interactions, and identify students' misconceptions through a safeguard framework based on questions that satisfy teaching requirements and cover all of the course material. The empirical study and a follow-up survey found that the DGWI method increased student-teacher interaction and improved student learning outcomes.

  14. The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers' Competence in Classroom Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downer, Jason T.; Booren, Leslie M.; Lima, Olivia K.; Luckner, Amy E.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets children's interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability,…

  15. Solid state interaction studies on binary nitrate mixtures of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate and lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalekar, Bhupesh; Raje, Naina; Reddy, A. V. R.

    2017-02-01

    Interaction behavior of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) and lanthanum nitrate hexahydrate (LaNH) have been investigated on the mixtures in different molar ratios of the two precursors and monitoring the reactions at elevated temperatures with thermoanalytical and X-ray diffraction measurement techniques. During the decomposition of equimolar mixture of LaNH and UNH, formation of lanthanum uranate (U0.5La0.5)O2, was seen by the temperature of 500 °C along with lanthanum oxide (La2O3) and uranium trioxide (UO3). By the temperature of 700 °C, the formation of uranium sesquioxide (U3O8) was observed along with (U0.5La0.5)O2 as end products in uranium rich mixtures. Lanthanum rich compositions decomposed by the temperature of 700 °C to give (U0.5La0.5)O2 and La2O3 as end products.

  16. Classroom Response Systems for Implementing "Interactive Inquiry" in Large Organic Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Richard W.; Caughran, Joel A.; Sauers, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors have developed "sequence response applications" for classroom response systems (CRSs) that allow instructors to engage and actively involve students in the learning process, probe for common misconceptions regarding lecture material, and increase interaction between instructors and students. "Guided inquiry" and…

  17. Classroom Response Systems for Implementing "Interactive Inquiry" in Large Organic Chemistry Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Richard W.; Caughran, Joel A.; Sauers, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    The authors have developed "sequence response applications" for classroom response systems (CRSs) that allow instructors to engage and actively involve students in the learning process, probe for common misconceptions regarding lecture material, and increase interaction between instructors and students. "Guided inquiry" and…

  18. Use Your Languages! From Monolingual to Multilingual Interaction in a Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyppö, Anna; Natri, Teija; Pietarinen, Margarita; Saaristo, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    This reflective paper presents a new course concept for multilingual interaction, which was piloted at the University of Jyväskylä Language Centre in the spring of 2014. The course, implemented as part of the centre's action research, is the result of a development process aimed at enhancing students' multilingual and multicultural academic…

  19. Effects of Within-Class Ability Grouping on Social Interaction, Achievement, and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; De Jong, Ton

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how grouping arrangements affect students' achievement, social interaction, and motivation. Students of high, average and low ability were randomly assigned to homogeneous or heterogeneous ability groups. All groups attended the same plant biology course. The main results indicate that low-ability students achieve more and are…

  20. Absent Presences: The Recognition of Social Class and Gender Dimensions within Peer Assessment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossouard, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the discursive characteristics of peer assessment interactions, drawing upon recent research into formative assessment within a task design involving extended project-based work tackled in groups by pupils. Case studies were conducted within two schools in socially deprived areas of Scotland. They included classroom…

  1. Jigsaw Technique in Reading Class of Young Learners: Revealing Students' Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamah, Siti Mina

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to reveal classroom interaction patterns in jigsaw classroom of young learners. To be more specific, this study was aimed at depicting the ways young learners initiate discussion, respond to initiations, and evaluate responses and initiations. Methodology: Five graders of 2 elementary schools in Surabaya,…

  2. Using a Dual Safeguard Web-Based Interactive Teaching Approach in an Introductory Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lie-Ming; Li, Bin; Luo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We modified the Just-in-Time Teaching approach and developed a dual safeguard web-based interactive (DGWI) teaching system for an introductory physics course. The system consists of four instructional components that improve student learning by including warm-up assignments and online homework. Student and instructor activities involve activities…

  3. Multiyear, Multi-Instructor Evaluation of a Large-Class Interactive-Engagement Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Michael J.; Hynes, K. Mairin; Trousil, Rebecca; Brooks, Lisa A.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Repice, Michelle; Zhao, Jiuqing; Frey, Regina F.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive-engagement (IE) techniques consistently enhance conceptual learning gains relative to traditional-lecture courses, but attitudinal gains typically emerge only in small, inquiry-based curricula. The current study evaluated whether a "scalable IE" curriculum--a curriculum used in a large course (~130 students per section) and…

  4. The Response-Class Matrix: A Procedure for Recording Parent-Child Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mash, Eric J.; And Others

    A procedure is described for recording dyadic social interactions between family members. The procedure is presented within the context of general considerations for recording behavior, and the specific rationale underlying the present technique is given. Functional definitions for several behavior categories are included and an example of how the…

  5. Using a Dual Safeguard Web-Based Interactive Teaching Approach in an Introductory Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lie-Ming; Li, Bin; Luo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We modified the Just-in-Time Teaching approach and developed a dual safeguard web-based interactive (DGWI) teaching system for an introductory physics course. The system consists of four instructional components that improve student learning by including warm-up assignments and online homework. Student and instructor activities involve activities…

  6. Effects of Within-Class Ability Grouping on Social Interaction, Achievement, and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; De Jong, Ton

    2005-01-01

    This study examined how grouping arrangements affect students' achievement, social interaction, and motivation. Students of high, average and low ability were randomly assigned to homogeneous or heterogeneous ability groups. All groups attended the same plant biology course. The main results indicate that low-ability students achieve more and are…

  7. Multiyear, Multi-Instructor Evaluation of a Large-Class Interactive-Engagement Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Michael J.; Hynes, K. Mairin; Trousil, Rebecca; Brooks, Lisa A.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Repice, Michelle; Zhao, Jiuqing; Frey, Regina F.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive-engagement (IE) techniques consistently enhance conceptual learning gains relative to traditional-lecture courses, but attitudinal gains typically emerge only in small, inquiry-based curricula. The current study evaluated whether a "scalable IE" curriculum--a curriculum used in a large course (~130 students per section) and…

  8. Mesoscopic model for binary fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echeverria, C.; Tucci, K.; Alvarez-Llamoza, O.; Orozco-Guillén, E. E.; Morales, M.; Cosenza, M. G.

    2017-10-01

    We propose a model for studying binary fluids based on the mesoscopic molecular simulation technique known as multiparticle collision, where the space and state variables are continuous, and time is discrete. We include a repulsion rule to simulate segregation processes that does not require calculation of the interaction forces between particles, so binary fluids can be described on a mesoscopic scale. The model is conceptually simple and computationally efficient; it maintains Galilean invariance and conserves the mass and energy in the system at the micro- and macro-scale, whereas momentum is conserved globally. For a wide range of temperatures and densities, the model yields results in good agreement with the known properties of binary fluids, such as the density profile, interface width, phase separation, and phase growth. We also apply the model to the study of binary fluids in crowded environments with consistent results.

  9. Interactions of high-affinity cationic blockers with the translocation pores of B. anthracis, C. botulinum, and C. perfringens binary toxins.

    PubMed

    Bezrukov, Sergey M; Liu, Xian; Karginov, Vladimir A; Wein, Alexander N; Leppla, Stephen H; Popoff, Michel R; Barth, Holger; Nestorovich, Ekaterina M

    2012-09-19

    Cationic β-cyclodextrin derivatives were recently introduced as highly effective, potentially universal blockers of three binary bacterial toxins: anthrax toxin of Bacillus anthracis, C2 toxin of Clostridium botulinum, and iota toxin of Clostridium perfringens. The binary toxins are made of two separate components: the enzymatic A component, which acts on certain intracellular targets, and the binding/translocation B component, which forms oligomeric channels in the target cell membrane. Here we studied the voltage and salt dependence of the rate constants of binding and dissociation reactions of two structurally different β-cyclodextrins (AmPrβCD and AMBnTβCD) in the PA(63), C2IIa, and Ib channels (B components of anthrax, C2, and iota toxins, respectively). With all three channels, the blocker carrying extra hydrophobic aromatic groups on the thio-alkyl linkers of positively charged amino groups, AMBnTβCD, demonstrated significantly stronger binding compared with AmPrβCD. This effect is seen as an increased residence time of the blocker in the channels, whereas the time between blockages characterizing the binding reaction on-rate stays practically unchanged. Surprisingly, the voltage sensitivity, expressed as a slope of the logarithm of the blocker residence time as a function of voltage, turned out to be practically the same for all six cases studied, suggesting structural similarities among the three channels. Also, the more-effective AMBnTβCD blocker shows weaker salt dependence of the binding and dissociation rate constants compared with AmPrβCD. By estimating the relative contributions of the applied transmembrane field, long-range Coulomb, and salt-concentration-independent, short-range forces, we found that the latter represent the leading interaction, which accounts for the high efficiency of blockage. In a search for the putative groups in the channel lumen that are responsible for the short-range forces, we performed measurements with the F427A

  10. Motivated but not active: the dilemmas of incorporating interactive dance into gym class.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zan

    2012-08-01

    Dance Dance Revolution (DDR) is considered a tool to help children promote a healthy active lifestyle. Empirical studies in this field have been largely unexplored. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between students' mastery experiences, situational motivation, and physical activity levels in DDR. One hundred and ninety-five seventh, eighth, and ninth graders participated in a 2-week DDR unit. Students' physical activity levels and situational motivation [intrinsic motivation (IM), identified regulation (IR), external regulation, and amotivation) were measured for 3 classes. Students were motivated to play DDR, but their moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was low (ie, mean=4.95%). In addition, students with successful mastery experiences had significantly higher IM, IR, and MVPA. Although students were motivated for DDR, they were not physically active in DDR. In addition, successful mastery experience played an important role in students' motivation and physical activity levels in DDR.

  11. Universality classes of the absorbing state transition in a system with interacting static and diffusive populations.

    PubMed

    Argolo, C; Quintino, Yan; Siqueira, Y; Gleria, Iram; Lyra, M L

    2009-12-01

    In this work, we study the critical behavior of a one-dimensional model that mimics the propagation of an epidemic process mediated by a density of diffusive individuals which can infect a static population upon contact. We simulate the above model on linear chains to determine the critical density of the diffusive population, above which the system achieves a statistically stationary active state, as a function of two relevant parameters related to the average lifetimes of the diffusive and nondiffusive populations. A finite-size scaling analysis is employed to determine the order parameter and correlation length critical exponents. For high-recovery rates, the critical exponents are compatible with the usual directed percolation universality class. However, in the opposite regime of low-recovery rates, the diffusion is a relevant mechanism responsible for the propagation of the disease and the absorbing state phase transition is governed by a distinct set of critical exponents.

  12. Phase behavior of binary mixture systems of saturated-unsaturated mixed-acid triacylglycerols: effects of glycerol structures and chain-chain interactions.

    PubMed

    Bayés-García, Laura; Calvet, Teresa; Cuevas-Diarte, Miquel Àngel; Ueno, Satoru; Sato, Kiyotaka

    2015-03-26

    We systematically examined the phase behavior of binary mixtures of mixed-acid triacylglycerols (TAGs) containing palmitic and oleic acid moieties 1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoyl-glycerol (OPO), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-3-oleoyl-rac-glycerol (PPO), and 1,2-dioleoyl-3-palmitoyl-rac-glycerol (OOP), which are widely present in natural fats and are employed in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction methods were applied to observe the mixing behavior of PPO/OPO, OOP/OPO, and PPO/OOP under metastable and stable conditions. The results led to three conclusions: (1) Eutectic behavior was observed in PPO/OPO. (2) Molecular compound (MC) crystals were formed in the mixtures of OOP/OPO and PPO/OOP. (3) However, the MC crystals occurred only under metastable conditions and tended to separate into component TAGs to form eutectic mixture systems after 17 months of incubation. These results were contrary to those of previous studies on 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol (POP)/OPO and POP/PPO in which the MC crystals were thermodynamically stable. We determined that specific molecular interactions may cause this different phase behavior (stability of POP/OPO and POP/PPO MC crystals and metastability of OOP/OPO and PPO/OOP MC crystals). All results confirm the significant effects of molecular structures of glycerol groups, interactions of fatty acid chains, and polymorphism of the component TAGs on the mixing behavior of mixed-acid TAGs.

  13. First Ever Polarimetric Detection of a Wind-Wind Interaction Region and a Misaligned Flattening of the Wind in the Wolf-Rayet Binary CQ Cephei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villar-Sbaffi, A.; St-Louis, N.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Piirola, Vilppu

    2005-04-01

    In this paper we present unfiltered and multiband (i.e., UBVRI) polarimetric observations of the short-period Wolf-Rayet binary CQ Cep. Using the basic assumptions of an optically thin, corotating envelope and pointlike sources (i.e., BME78 assumptions), we determined the orbital parameters of the system (i.e., i=99deg+/-1deg and Ω=76deg+/-2deg at the 2 σ level) with an accuracy many times better than any previous work. Residual non-BME78 variability around phase 0.0 was present in our data, which we associate with the polarimetric eclipse of the dense central parts of the Wolf-Rayet (W-R) wind by the orbiting O star. We attribute the observed phase lag of -0.15 between our residuals and those expected for a standard polarimetric eclipse to a wind-wind interaction (WWI) region distorted by Coriolis forces using the model presented by Marchenko et al. This model was also able to explain the strong wavelength dependence of the polarimetric amplitudes in our multiband observations. Our analysis also reveals important epoch-dependent departures of the matter distribution from spherical symmetry that were not related to the orbital plane and therefore cannot be the result of tidal interaction. We conclude that binarity is not playing an important role in driving the wind of the W-R star in CQ Cep and contributing to the observed nonspherical matter distribution. On the other hand, this asymmetry could be explained by a rotationally induced disk misaligned with the orbital plane.

  14. Rational prescription of drugs within similar therapeutic or structural class for gastrointestinal disease treatment: Drug metabolism and its related interactions

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Quan; Yan, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Zhong-Miao; Pan, Wen-Sheng; Zeng, Su

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To review and summarize drug metabolism and its related interactions in prescribing drugs within the similar therapeutic or structural class for gastrointestinal disease treatment so as to promote rational use of medicines in clinical practice. METHODS: Relevant literature was identified by performing MEDLINE/Pubmed searches covering the period from 1988 to 2006. RESULTS: Seven classes of drugs were chosen, including gastric proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2-receptor antagonists, benzamide-type gastroprokinetic agents, selective 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, fluoroquinolones, macrolide antibiotics and azole antifungals. They showed significant differences in metabolic profile (i.e., the fraction of drug metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP), CYP reaction phenotype, impact of CYP genotype on interindividual pharmacokinetics variability and CYP-mediated drug-drug interaction potential). Many events of severe adverse drug reactions and treatment failures were closely related to the ignorance of the above issues. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should acquaint themselves with what kind of drug has less interpatient variability in clearance and whether to perform CYP genotyping prior to initiation of therapy. The relevant CYP knowledge helps clinicians to enhance the management of patients with gastrointestinal disease who may require treatment with polytherapeutic regimens. PMID:17948937

  15. Binaries and Multiple Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horch, Elliott

    Binary and multiple stellar systems have importance in three main areas of astronomy and astrophysics. First, because of the relatively simple gravitational interaction at work in the case of binary stars, these systems provide a basic check on stellar structure and evolution theory since the masses may be determined through observation. When these masses can be linked to other properties of the two stars, such as luminosity, color, and radius, they can provide very stringent constraints on stellar models. Second, the statistics of binary and multiple star systems provide clues to star formation mechanisms and environmental effects in the galactic gravitational potential and in clusters. Although a number of good results have been obtained in nearby star clusters and associations, knowledge of the field population has been somewhat limited until recently by a lack of large, complete samples of binaries. However, there appears to be a great deal of promise in this area for the coming decade in part due to astrometric satellites such as Hipparcos and Gaia. Third, the binary scenario is invoked to explain several important types of astrophysical phenomena such as Type Ia supernovae, cataclysmic variables, and stellar x-ray sources. Since the first of these mentioned is a standard candle for the extragalactic distance scale, it may even be said binary stars play a minor role in field of cosmology. However, in this chapter, the focus will mainly be on normal stars in binary and multiple-stellar systems. The basic physics of binaries will be reviewed, and the observational methods in use today will be discussed together with their limitations and prospects for the future. Finally, an overview of the current science in the three main areas mentioned where binaries have a significant impact will be given.

  16. Modeling of coupled motion and growth interaction of equiaxed dendritic crystals in a binary alloy during solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xin Bo; Chen, Yun; Kang, Xiu Hong; Li, Dian Zhong; Gong, Tong Zhao

    2017-03-01

    Motion of growing dendrites is a common phenomenon during solidification but often neglected in numerical simulations because of the complicate underlying multiphysics. Here a phase-field model incorporating dendrite-melt two-phase flow is proposed for simulating the dynamically interacted process. The proposed model circumvents complexity to resolve dendritic growth, natural convection and solid motion simultaneously. Simulations are performed for single and multiple dendritic growth of an Al-based alloy in a gravity environment. Computing results of an isolated dendrite settling down in the convective supersaturated melt shows that solid motion is able to overwhelm solutal convection and causes a rather different growth morphology from the stationary dendrite that considers natural convection alone. The simulated tip growth dynamics are correlated with a modified boundary layer model in the presence of melt flow, which well accounts for the variation of tip velocity with flow direction. Polycrystalline simulations reveal that the motion of dendrites accelerates the occurrence of growth impingement which causes the behaviors of multiple dendrites are distinct from that of single dendrite, including growth dynamics, morphology evolution and movement path. These polycrystalline simulations provide a primary understanding of the sedimentation of crystals and resulting chemical homogeneity in industrial ingots.

  17. Modeling of coupled motion and growth interaction of equiaxed dendritic crystals in a binary alloy during solidification

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xin Bo; Chen, Yun; Kang, Xiu Hong; Li, Dian Zhong; Gong, Tong Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Motion of growing dendrites is a common phenomenon during solidification but often neglected in numerical simulations because of the complicate underlying multiphysics. Here a phase-field model incorporating dendrite-melt two-phase flow is proposed for simulating the dynamically interacted process. The proposed model circumvents complexity to resolve dendritic growth, natural convection and solid motion simultaneously. Simulations are performed for single and multiple dendritic growth of an Al-based alloy in a gravity environment. Computing results of an isolated dendrite settling down in the convective supersaturated melt shows that solid motion is able to overwhelm solutal convection and causes a rather different growth morphology from the stationary dendrite that considers natural convection alone. The simulated tip growth dynamics are correlated with a modified boundary layer model in the presence of melt flow, which well accounts for the variation of tip velocity with flow direction. Polycrystalline simulations reveal that the motion of dendrites accelerates the occurrence of growth impingement which causes the behaviors of multiple dendrites are distinct from that of single dendrite, including growth dynamics, morphology evolution and movement path. These polycrystalline simulations provide a primary understanding of the sedimentation of crystals and resulting chemical homogeneity in industrial ingots. PMID:28361933

  18. Modeling of coupled motion and growth interaction of equiaxed dendritic crystals in a binary alloy during solidification.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xin Bo; Chen, Yun; Kang, Xiu Hong; Li, Dian Zhong; Gong, Tong Zhao

    2017-03-31

    Motion of growing dendrites is a common phenomenon during solidification but often neglected in numerical simulations because of the complicate underlying multiphysics. Here a phase-field model incorporating dendrite-melt two-phase flow is proposed for simulating the dynamically interacted process. The proposed model circumvents complexity to resolve dendritic growth, natural convection and solid motion simultaneously. Simulations are performed for single and multiple dendritic growth of an Al-based alloy in a gravity environment. Computing results of an isolated dendrite settling down in the convective supersaturated melt shows that solid motion is able to overwhelm solutal convection and causes a rather different growth morphology from the stationary dendrite that considers natural convection alone. The simulated tip growth dynamics are correlated with a modified boundary layer model in the presence of melt flow, which well accounts for the variation of tip velocity with flow direction. Polycrystalline simulations reveal that the motion of dendrites accelerates the occurrence of growth impingement which causes the behaviors of multiple dendrites are distinct from that of single dendrite, including growth dynamics, morphology evolution and movement path. These polycrystalline simulations provide a primary understanding of the sedimentation of crystals and resulting chemical homogeneity in industrial ingots.

  19. Evidence of a robust universality class in the critical behavior of self-propelled agents: metric versus topological interactions.

    PubMed

    Barberis, Lucas; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the interactions among self-propelled agents (SPA), i.e., topological versus metric or a combination of both types, is a relevant open question in the field of self-organization phenomena. We studied the critical behavior of a Vicsek-like system of SPA given by a group of agents moving at constant speed and interacting among themselves under the action of a topological rule: each agent aligns itself with the average direction of its seven nearest neighbors, independent of the distance, under the influence of some noise. Based on both stationary and dynamic measurements, we provide strong evidence that both types of interactions are manifestations of the same phenomenon, which defines a robust universality class. Also, the cluster size distribution evaluated at the critical point shows a power-law behavior, and the exponent corresponding to the topological model is in excellent agreement with that of the metric one, further reinforcing our claim. Furthermore, we found that with topological interactions the average distance of influence between agents undergoes large fluctuations that diverge at the critical noise, thus providing clues about a mechanism that could be implemented by the agents to change their moving strategy.

  20. English language learners with learning disabilities interacting in a science class within an inclusion setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Vivian Luz

    In today's schools there are by far more students identified with learning disabilities (LD) than with any other disability. The U.S. Department of Education in the year 1997--98 reported that there are 38.13% students with LD in our nations' schools (Smith, Polloway, Patton, & Dowdy, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Of those, 1,198,200 are considered ELLs with LD (Baca & Cervantes. 1998). These figures which represent an increase evidence the need to provide these students with educational experiences geared to address both their academic and language needs (Ortiz, 1997; Ortiz, & Garcia, 1995). English language learners with LD must be provided with experiences in the least restrictive environment (LRE) and must be able to share the same kind of social and academic experiences as those students from the general population (Etscheidt & Bartlett, 1999; Lloyd, Kameenui, & Chard, 1997) The purpose of this research was to conduct a detailed qualitative study on classroom interactions to enhance the understanding of the science curriculum in order to foster the understanding of content and facilitate the acquisition of English as a second language (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000). This study was grounded on the theories of socioconstructivism, second language acquisition, comprehensible input, and classroom interactions. The participants of the study were fourth and fifth grade ELLS with LD in a science elementary school bilingual inclusive setting. Data was collected through observations, semi-structured interviews (students and teacher), video and audio taping, field notes, document analysis, and the Classroom Observation Schedule (COS). The transcriptions of the video and audio tapes were coded to highlight emergent patterns on the type of interactions and language used by the participants. The findings of the study intend to provide information for teachers of ELLs with LD about the implications of using classroom interactions point to

  1. New Classes of Mind Bomb-Interacting Proteins Identified from Yeast Two-Hybrid Screens

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chun-Mei; Xu, Haoying; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Jiang, Yun-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Notch signaling pathway defines an evolutionarily conserved mechanism in cell-fate determination in a broad spectrum of developmental processes through local cell interactions. mind bomb (mib) encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase that is involved in Notch activation through Delta ubiquitylation and internalization. To further dissect the function of Mib, two yeast two-hybrid screens for zebrafish Mib/Mib2-binding proteins with different strategies have been performed. 81 putative interesting proteins were discovered and classified into six groups: ubiquitin proteasome pathway, cytoskeleton, trafficking, replication/transcription/translation factors, cell signaling and others. Confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation (Co-IP), Mib interacted with four tested proteins: ubiquitin specific protease 1 (Usp1), ubiquitin specific protease 9 (Usp9), tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated factor (TRAF)-binding domain (Trabid)/zinc finger, RAN-binding domain containing 1 (Zranb1) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit inhibitor (Hif1an)/factor inhibiting HIF 1 (Fih-1). Usp1, Usp9, Trabid and Fih-1 also bound to zebrafish Mib2, a Mib homolog with similar structural domains and functions. Both Mib and Mib2 can ubiquitylate Trabid and Fih-1, indicating a potential regulating role of Mib and Mib2 on Trabid and Fih-1 and, furthermore, the possible involvement of Notch signaling in hypoxia-regulated differentiation, tumorigenesis and NF-κB pathway. Finally, functions of confirmed Mib/Mib2-interacting proteins are collated, summarized and hypothesized, which depicts a regulating network beyond Notch signaling. PMID:24714733

  2. Rural N(SO) and German middle-class mothers' interaction with their 3- and 6-month-old infants: A longitudinal cross-cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Bettina; Gudi, Helene; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Teubert, Manuel; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Keller, Heidi

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to analyze culture-specific development of maternal interactional behavior longitudinally. Rural Cameroonian Nso mothers (n = 72) and German middle-class mothers (n = 106) were observed in free-play interactions with their 3- and 6-month-old infants. Results reveal the expected shift from a social to a nonsocial focus only in the German middle-class mothers' play interactions but not the rural Nso mothers' play. Nso mothers continue their proximal interactional style with a focus on body contact and body stimulation, whereas German middle-class mothers prefer a distal style of interaction with increasing object-centeredness. These cultural differences are in line with broader cultural models and become more accentuated as the infants grow older. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS): Preliminary Reliability and Validity of a System for Observing Preschoolers' Competence in Classroom Interactions.

    PubMed

    Downer, Jason T; Booren, Leslie M; Lima, Olivia K; Luckner, Amy E; Pianta, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the Individualized Classroom Assessment Scoring System (inCLASS), an observation tool that targets children's interactions in preschool classrooms with teachers, peers, and tasks. In particular, initial evidence is reported of the extent to which the inCLASS meets the following psychometric criteria: inter-rater reliability, normal distributions and adequate range, construct validity, and criterion-related validity. These initial findings suggest that the inCLASS has the potential to provide an authentic, contextualized assessment of young children's classroom behaviors. Future directions for research with the inCLASS are discussed.

  4. Facilitating and Bridging Out-of-Class and In-Class Learning: An Interactive E-Book-Based Flipped Learning Approach for Math Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Lai, Chiu-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Flipped learning is a well-recognized learning mode that reverses the traditional in-class instruction arrangement by delivering learning content outside of the classroom and engaging students in more activities in class. However, it remains a challenge for students to comprehend the learning material by themselves, particularly when learning…

  5. Facilitating and Bridging Out-of-Class and In-Class Learning: An Interactive E-Book-Based Flipped Learning Approach for Math Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Lai, Chiu-Lin

    2017-01-01

    Flipped learning is a well-recognized learning mode that reverses the traditional in-class instruction arrangement by delivering learning content outside of the classroom and engaging students in more activities in class. However, it remains a challenge for students to comprehend the learning material by themselves, particularly when learning…

  6. Probing X-ray burst - accretion disk interaction in low mass X-ray binaries through kilohertz quasiperiodic oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peille, P.; Olive, J.-F.; Barret, D.

    2014-07-01

    The intense radiation flux of Type I X-ray bursts is expected to interact with the accretion flow around neutron stars. High frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (kHz QPOs), observed at frequencies matching orbital frequencies at tens of gravitational radii, offer a unique probe of the innermost disk regions. In this paper, we follow the lower kHz QPOs, in response to Type I X-ray bursts, in two prototypical QPO sources, namely 4U 1636-536 and 4U 1608-522, as observed by the Proportional Counter Array of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We have selected a sample of 15 bursts for which the kHz QPO frequency can be tracked on timescales commensurable with the burst durations (tens of seconds). We find evidence that the QPOs are affected for over ~200 s during one exceptionally long burst and ~100 s during two others (although at a less significant level), while the burst emission has already decayed to a level that would enable the pre-burst QPO to be detected. On the other hand, for most of our burst-kHz QPO sample, we show that the QPO is detected as soon as the statistics allow and in the best cases, we are able to set an upper limit of ~20 s on the recovery time of the QPO. This diversity of behavior cannot be related to differences in burst peak luminosity. We discuss these results in the framework of recent findings that accretion onto the neutron star may be enhanced during Type I X-ray bursts. The subsequent disk depletion could explain the disappearance of the QPO for ~100 s, as possibly observed in two events. However, alternative scenarios would have to be invoked for explaining the short recovery timescales inferred from most bursts. Heating of the innermost disk regions would be a possibility, although we cannot exclude that the burst does not affect the QPO emission at all. Clearly the combination of fast timing and spectral information of Type I X-ray bursts holds great potential in the study of the dynamics of the inner accretion flow around neutron

  7. Antibiotic interactions with the hammerhead ribozyme:tetracyclines as a new class of hammerhead inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J B; Arnold, J R

    1996-01-01

    A screening of a range of common laboratory antibiotics for inhibition of the hammerhead ribozyme has shown that in addition to certain aminoglycosides (most notably neomycin B) the tetracyclines are also effective inhibitors, with chlorotetracycline being more effective than tetracycline. Inhibition by chlorotetracycline is not as strong as that by neomycin B but is more complicated, with at least two binding sites apparent. As with hammerhead inhibition by neomycin B, chlorotetracycline inhibition can be overcome by raising the concentration of the Mg2+ ion cofactor. We find that around six Mg2+ ions will displace neomycin B, compared with twelve for chlorotetracycline. Inhibition observed in the presence of mixtures of neomycin B and chlorotetracycline is consistent with separate binding sites on the hammerhead for these two classes of antibiotic. Under certain conditions of the mixing order and low concentration of chlorotetracycline, enhancement of single-turnover hammerhead cleavage by up to 20% is observed, with higher concentrations of antibiotic being inhibitory. We have also found that the presence of 2.5% (v/v) DMSO causes a 30% enhancement of the single-turnover cleavage. These results thus extend the range of known inhibitors of hammerhead cleavage, and also demonstrate how the cleavage can be accelerated. PMID:8760373

  8. Social class interacts with the association between macronutrient intake and subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Buemann, B; Tremblay, A; Bouchard, C

    1995-11-01

    A large amount of evidence shows that adiposity is associated both with macronutrient composition of the habitual diet and socio-economic variables. Since dietary habits may covariate with social status, these two groups of factors may act as mutual confounders when studying their independent impact on adiposity. To investigate the independent relationship between educational level and dietary habits with adiposity. To study interactive effects of educational level on the association between macronutrient intake and adiposity. This cross-sectional study was based on dietary records, interviews and anthropometry of 358 men and 368 women of the Québec Family Study. Partial correlation analyses were applied to clarify independent correlations of body fatness with educational level, dietary habits and other behavioural factors. ANCOVA was used to detect interactive effects of educational level on macronutrient versus adiposity relationships. Inverse associations between educational level and BMI, percent body fat, truncal skinfolds were found in women but not in men. Both protein and lipid intake correlated or tended to correlate positively with some of the adiposity measures in women. Protein intake correlated positively with truncal skinfolds in men of lower but not higher educational level. The results emphasize the importance of including demographic variables like social status in surveys dealing with the relationships between adiposity and dietary habits.

  9. Modified evolution of stellar binaries from supermassive black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Wang, Yi-Han; Yuan, Ye-Fei

    2017-04-01

    The evolution of main-sequence binaries resided in the galactic centre is influenced a lot by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to this perturbation, the stars in a dense environment are likely to experience mergers or collisions through secular or non-secular interactions. In this work, we study the dynamics of the stellar binaries at galactic centre, perturbed by another distant SMBH. Geometrically, such a four-body system is supposed to be decomposed into the inner triple (SMBH-star-star) and the outer triple (SMBH-stellar binary-SMBH). We survey the parameter space and determine the criteria analytically for the stellar mergers and the tidal disruption events (TDEs). For a relative distant and equal masses SMBH binary, the stars have more opportunities to merge as a result from the Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations in the inner triple. With a sample of tight stellar binaries, our numerical experiments reveal that a significant fraction of the binaries, ˜70 per cent, experience merger eventually. Whereas the majority of the stellar TDEs are likely to occur at a close periapses to the SMBH, induced by the outer Kozai effect. The tidal disruptions are found numerically as many as ˜10 per cent for a close SMBH binary that is enhanced significantly than the one without the external SMBH. These effects require the outer perturber to have an inclined orbit (≥40°) relatively to the inner orbital plane and may lead to a burst of the extremely astronomical events associated with the detection of the SMBH binary.

  10. Kinetic interactions of tazobactam with beta-lactamases from all major structural classes.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, K; Macalintal, C; Rasmussen, B A; Lee, V J; Yang, Y

    1993-01-01

    Tazobactam was shown to be a potent inhibitor of group 1, 2a, 2b, and 2b' beta-lactamases. Extended kinetic studies with class A and C serine beta-lactamases showed that the PC1, TEM-2, and P99 enzymes all were reversibly inhibited prior to inactivation of the enzymes. The CcrA metallo-beta-lactamase was less well inhibited, with a 50% inhibitory concentration at least 3 orders of magnitude less favorable than those for most serine beta-lactamases. The numbers of hydrolytic turnovers of tazobactam before inactivation were 2 for PC1, 125 for TEM-2, 50 for P99, and 4,000 for the CcrA enzyme. In spectral studies, transient intermediates were formed after reaction of tazobactam with the PC1, TEM-2, and CcrA beta-lactamases, corresponding to enzyme-associated intermediates responsible for hydrolysis of tazobactam. Chromophores absorbing at 270 nm (CcrA) and 288 nm (TEM-2 and PC1) were observed for these reaction intermediates. The P99 cephalosporinase formed a stable complex with a UV maximum at 295 nm. Incubation of tazobactam with all of the enzymes resulted in accumulation of a tazobactam reaction product with a short-wavelength absorbance. This product has characteristics similar to those of the major eucaryotic metabolite of tazobactam. Possible reaction mechanisms are presented to explain the findings. In conclusion, both serine-based and metallo-beta-lactamases were irreversibly inactivated by tazobactam following an initial transient inhibition phase. Images PMID:8388201

  11. The evolution of CVs: Clues from FUSE observations of Post Common Envelope Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gansicke, B.

    Cataclysmic variables (CVs) represent an important class of close interacting white dwarf + K/M dwarf binaries which routinely serve as astrophysical laboratories for the study of accretion discs and of plasma phyiscs at extreme temperatures and B-fields. However, it is precisely the accretion-related emission in CVs which makes accurate measurements of their binary parameters extremely difficult - and without the detailed knowledge of fundamental properties, such as their stellar masses, our understanding of the evolution of CVs is severely limited. Post Common Envelope Binaries (PCEBs), close but detached white dwarf/late type star binaries, will eventually evolve into CVs through the loss of angular momentum. The absence of mass transfer in these systems permits to determine their binary parameters at a level of precision unachievable in CVs, and measuring these parameters for an ensemble of PCEBs holds great potential for improving the theory of close binary evolution. Here, we propose to observe with FUSE four PCEBs (HR Cam, LM Com, RX J2130.3+4709, and KPD 2154+4048) in order to derive the effective temperatures, masses, photospheric abundances, and rotation rates of their white dwarf primaries.

  12. Triazolopyridyl ketones as a novel class of antileishmanial agents. DNA binding and BSA interaction.

    PubMed

    Adam, Rosa; Bilbao-Ramos, Pablo; López-Molina, Sonia; Abarca, Belén; Ballesteros, Rafael; González-Rosende, M Eugenia; Dea-Ayuela, M Auxiliadora; Alzuet-Piña, Gloria

    2014-08-01

    A new series of triazolopyridyl pyridyl ketones has been synthetized by regioselective lithiation of the corresponding [1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine at 7 position followed by reaction with different electrophiles. The in vitro antileishmanial activity of these compounds was evaluated against Leishmaniainfantum, Leishmaniabraziliensis, Leishmaniaguyanensis and Leishmaniaamazonensis. Compounds 6 and 7 were found to be the most active leishmanicidal agents. Both of them showed activities at micromolar concentration against cultured promastigotes of Leishmania spp. (IC₅₀=99.8-26.8 μM), without cytotoxicity on J774 macrophage cells. These two compounds were also tested in vivo in a murine model of acute infection by L. infantum. The triazolopyridine derivative 6 was effective against both spleen and liver parasites forms, while 7 was inactive against liver parasites. Mechanistic aspects of the antileishmanial activity were investigated by means of DNA binding studies (UV-titration and viscosimetry). Results have revealed that these active ligands are able to interact strongly with DNA [Kb=1.14 × 10(5)M(-1) (6) and 3.26 × 10(5)M(-1) (7)]. Moreover, a DNA groove binding has been proposed for both 6 and 7. To provide more insight on the mode of action of compounds 6 and 7 under biological conditions, their interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was monitored by fluorescence titrations and UV-visible spectroscopy. The quenching constants and binding parameters were determined. Triazolopyridine ketones 6 and 7 have exhibited significant affinity towards BSA [Kb=2.5 × 10(4)M(-1) (6) and 1.9 × 10(4)M(-1) (7)]. Finally, to identify the binding location of compounds 6 and 7 on the BSA, competitive binding experiments were carried out, using warfarin, a characteristic marker for site I, and ibuprofen as one for site II. Results derived from these studies have indicated that both compounds interact at BSA site I and, to a lesser extent, at site II. Copyright © 2014

  13. Using Research-Based Interactive Video Vignettes to Enhance Out-of-Class Learning in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Jackson, David P.; Koenig, Kathleen; Teese, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Ever since the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system (PLATO1) was introduced over 50 years ago, educators have been adding computer-based materials to their classes. Today many textbooks have complete online versions that include video lectures and other supplements. In the past 25 years the web has fueled an explosion of online homework and course management systems, both as blended learning and online courses. Meanwhile, introductory physics instructors have been implementing new approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of Physics Education Research (PER). A common theme of PER-based instruction has been the use of active-learning strategies designed to help students overcome alternative conceptions that they often bring to the study of physics.2 Unfortunately, while classrooms have become more active, online learning typically relies on passive lecture videos or Kahn-style3 tablet drawings. To bring active learning online, the LivePhoto Physics Group has been developing Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs) that add interactivity and PER-based elements to short presentations. These vignettes incorporate web-based video activities that contain interactive elements and typically require students to make predictions and analyze real-world phenomena.

  14. Carboxylate modified porous graphitic carbon: a new class of hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography phases.

    PubMed

    Wahab, M Farooq; Ibrahim, Mohammed E A; Lucy, Charles A

    2013-06-18

    Stationary phases for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) are predominantly based on silica and polymer supports. We present porous graphitic carbon particles with covalently attached carboxylic acid groups (carboxylate-PGC) as a new HILIC stationary phase. PGC particles were modified by adsorbing the diazonium salt of 4-aminobenzoic acid onto the PGC, followed by reduction of the adsorbed salt with sodium borohydride. The newly developed carboxylate-PGC phase exhibits different selectivity than that of 35 HPLC columns, including bare silica, zwitterionic, amine, reversed, and unmodified PGC phases. Carboxylate-PGC is stable from pH 2.0 to 12.6, yielding reproducible retention even at pH 12.6. Characterization of the new phase is presented by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, zeta potentials, and elemental analysis. The chromatographic performance of carboxylate-PGC as a HILIC phase is illustrated by separations of carboxylic acids, nucleotides, phenols, and amino acids.

  15. Examining the Effect of Class Size on Classroom Engagement and Teacher-Pupil Interaction: Differences in Relation to Pupil Prior Attainment and Primary vs. Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatchford, Peter; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that we need to know more about effects of class size on classroom interactions and pupil behavior. This paper extends research by comparing effects on pupil classroom engagement and teacher-pupil interaction, and examining if effects vary by pupil attainment level and between primary and secondary schools. Systematic…

  16. Examining the Effect of Class Size on Classroom Engagement and Teacher-Pupil Interaction: Differences in Relation to Pupil Prior Attainment and Primary vs. Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatchford, Peter; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that we need to know more about effects of class size on classroom interactions and pupil behavior. This paper extends research by comparing effects on pupil classroom engagement and teacher-pupil interaction, and examining if effects vary by pupil attainment level and between primary and secondary schools. Systematic…

  17. A Progress Report: The Relationship Between Mother-Infant Interaction and Sensory-Motor Development According to Age, Sex and Social Class Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curcio, Frank; And Others

    This paper describes the purposes and procedures of a longitudinal study designed to: (1) relate mother-infant interaction patterns to infant age, sex, and social class; (2) relate mother-infant interaction patterns to infant sensory-motor development; and (3) to examine the relationship between infant sensory-motor development and infant sex and…

  18. Social Orders and Interactions among Children in Age-Mixed Classes in Primary Schools--New Perspectives from a Synthesis of Ethnographic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huf, Christina; Raggl, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The article synthesises data from two ethnographic projects, which both explore interactions of children in age-mixed groups in primary schools. It illuminates critical perspectives on social orders and children's interactions in age-mixed classes by showing how pupils in age-mixed groups become involved in power relations and how the teacher's…

  19. Post-translational regulation of rice MADS29 function: homodimerization or binary interactions with other seed-expressed MADS proteins modulate its translocation into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Saraswati; Kapoor, Meenu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    OsMADS29 is a seed-specific MADS-box transcription factor that affects embryo development and grain filling by maintaining hormone homeostasis and degradation of cells in the nucellus and nucellar projection. Although it has a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, the transiently expressed OsMADS29 monomer does not localize specifically in the nucleus. Dimerization of the monomers alters the intracellular localization fate of the resulting OsMADS29 homodimer, which then translocates into the nucleus. By generating domain-specific deletions/mutations, we show that two conserved amino acids (lysine(23) and arginine(24)) in the NLS are important for nuclear localization of the OsMADS29 homodimer. Furthermore, the analyses involving interaction of OsMADS29 with 30 seed-expressed rice MADS proteins revealed 19 more MADS-box proteins, including five E-class proteins, which interacted with OsMADS29. Eleven of these complexes were observed to be localized in the nucleus. Deletion analysis revealed that the KC region (K-box and C-terminal domain) plays a pivotal role in homodimerization. These data suggest that the biological function of OsMADS29 may not only be regulated at the level of transcription and translation as reported earlier, but also at the post-translational level by way of the interaction between OsMADS29 monomers, and between OsMADS29 and other MADS-box proteins.

  20. Post-translational regulation of rice MADS29 function: homodimerization or binary interactions with other seed-expressed MADS proteins modulate its translocation into the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Saraswati; Kapoor, Meenu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    OsMADS29 is a seed-specific MADS-box transcription factor that affects embryo development and grain filling by maintaining hormone homeostasis and degradation of cells in the nucellus and nucellar projection. Although it has a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, the transiently expressed OsMADS29 monomer does not localize specifically in the nucleus. Dimerization of the monomers alters the intracellular localization fate of the resulting OsMADS29 homodimer, which then translocates into the nucleus. By generating domain-specific deletions/mutations, we show that two conserved amino acids (lysine23 and arginine24) in the NLS are important for nuclear localization of the OsMADS29 homodimer. Furthermore, the analyses involving interaction of OsMADS29 with 30 seed-expressed rice MADS proteins revealed 19 more MADS-box proteins, including five E-class proteins, which interacted with OsMADS29. Eleven of these complexes were observed to be localized in the nucleus. Deletion analysis revealed that the KC region (K-box and C-terminal domain) plays a pivotal role in homodimerization. These data suggest that the biological function of OsMADS29 may not only be regulated at the level of transcription and translation as reported earlier, but also at the post-translational level by way of the interaction between OsMADS29 monomers, and between OsMADS29 and other MADS-box proteins. PMID:25096923

  1. Two Classes of Gap Junction Channels Mediate Soma-Germline Interactions Essential for Germline Proliferation and Gametogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Starich, Todd A.; Hall, David H.; Greenstein, David

    2014-01-01

    In all animals examined, somatic cells of the gonad control multiple biological processes essential for germline development. Gap junction channels, composed of connexins in vertebrates and innexins in invertebrates, permit direct intercellular communication between cells and frequently form between somatic gonadal cells and germ cells. Gap junctions comprise hexameric hemichannels in apposing cells that dock to form channels for the exchange of small molecules. Here we report essential roles for two classes of gap junction channels, composed of five innexin proteins, in supporting the proliferation of germline stem cells and gametogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Transmission electron microscopy of freeze-fracture replicas and fluorescence microscopy show that gap junctions between somatic cells and germ cells are more extensive than previously appreciated and are found throughout the gonad. One class of gap junctions, composed of INX-8 and INX-9 in the soma and INX-14 and INX-21 in the germ line, is required for the proliferation and differentiation of germline stem cells. Genetic epistasis experiments establish a role for these gap junction channels in germline proliferation independent of the glp-1/Notch pathway. A second class of gap junctions, composed of somatic INX-8 and INX-9 and germline INX-14 and INX-22, is required for the negative regulation of oocyte meiotic maturation. Rescue of gap junction channel formation in the stem cell niche rescues germline proliferation and uncovers a later channel requirement for embryonic viability. This analysis reveals gap junctions as a central organizing feature of many soma–germline interactions in C. elegans. PMID:25195067

  2. The novel endosomal membrane protein Ema interacts with the class C Vps-HOPS complex to promote endosomal maturation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungsu; Wairkar, Yogesh P; Daniels, Richard W; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2010-03-08

    Endosomal maturation is critical for accurate and efficient cargo transport through endosomal compartments. Here we identify a mutation of the novel Drosophila gene, ema (endosomal maturation defective) in a screen for abnormal synaptic overgrowth and defective protein trafficking. Ema is an endosomal membrane protein required for trafficking of fluid-phase and receptor-mediated endocytic cargos. In the ema mutant, enlarged endosomal compartments accumulate as endosomal maturation fails, with early and late endosomes unable to progress into mature degradative late endosomes and lysosomes. Defective endosomal down-regulation of BMP signaling is responsible for the abnormal synaptic overgrowth. Ema binds to and genetically interacts with Vps16A, a component of the class C Vps-HOPS complex that promotes endosomal maturation. The human orthologue of ema, Clec16A, is a candidate susceptibility locus for autoimmune disorders, and its expression rescues the Drosophila mutant demonstrating conserved function. Characterizing this novel gene family identifies a new component of the endosomal pathway and provides insights into class C Vps-HOPS complex function.

  3. Interaction between model membranes and a new class of surfactants with antioxidant function.

    PubMed Central

    Przestalski, S; Hladyszowski, J; Kuczera, J; Rózycka-Roszak, B; Trela, Z; Chojnacki, H; Witek, S; Fisicaro, E

    1996-01-01

    The effect of two series of amphiphilic quaternary ammonium salts on some properties of phospholipid membranes was studied. The compounds of one series, N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-alkyl ammonium bromides, exert a destructive effect on membranes and are treated as reference compounds. The compounds of the other series, N-(3,5-di-t-butyl-4-hydroxy)benzyl-N,N-dimethyl-N-alkyl ammonium bromides, are derivatives of the former ones, exhibit antioxidant properties, and do only relatively slight damage to the membranes. The aim of the work was to explain the difference in molecular interaction with membranes between the two kinds of hydrophobic compounds. Thermodynamic methods, a new mixing technique, and monolayer and quantum calculation methods were used. It has been shown that the antioxidant molecules are less hydrophobic than those of the reference compounds and disturb the membrane organization to a lesser extent. On the basis of monolayer data, we suggest that the studied antioxidant behaves like a substitutional impurity, whereas the reference behaves like an interstitial one. Images FIGURE 8 FIGURE 10 FIGURE 12 PMID:9172744

  4. Multiyear, multi-instructor evaluation of a large-class interactive-engagement curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Michael J.; Hynes, K. Mairin; Trousil, Rebecca; Brooks, Lisa A.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Repice, Michelle; Zhao, Jiuqing; Frey, Regina F.

    2014-12-01

    Interactive-engagement (IE) techniques consistently enhance conceptual learning gains relative to traditional-lecture courses, but attitudinal gains typically emerge only in small, inquiry-based curricula. The current study evaluated whether a "scalable IE" curriculum—a curriculum used in a large course (˜130 students per section) and likely adoptable by a wide range of physics departments—could produce significant attitudinal benefits relative to a traditional-lecture curriculum. This study included data across three years, 10 instructors, over 30 sections, and over 1100 students, and our analytic strategy allowed us to isolate the effects that were due to the curriculum itself rather than other potential factors such as instructor differences or preexisting differences among students. Results revealed that our Active-Physics curriculum, which is based on Moore's Six Ideas That Shaped Physics, produced significant attitudinal and conceptual-learning benefits relative to our traditional-lecture physics curriculum. Further, the Active-Physics curriculum, for the most part, benefitted males and females equally, and relative to the Fall semester alone, the benefits of Active Physics became more robust when viewed across the entire two-semester sequence of introductory physics. Our data highlight that some (though not all) of the attitudinal benefits of small, inquiry-based courses may be achievable in larger course with scalable IE curricula that can potentially reach a large proportion of introductory physics students.

  5. The HOPS/Class C Vps Complex Tethers High-Curvature Membranes via a Direct Protein-Membrane Interaction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ruoya; Stroupe, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Membrane tethering is a physical association of two membranes before their fusion. Many membrane tethering factors have been identified, but the interactions that mediate inter-membrane associations remain largely a matter of conjecture. Previously, we reported that the homotypic fusion and protein sorting/Class C vacuolar protein sorting (HOPS/Class C Vps) complex, which has two binding sites for the yeast vacuolar Rab GTPase Ypt7p, can tether two low-curvature liposomes when both membranes bear Ypt7p. Here, we show that HOPS tethers highly curved liposomes to Ypt7p-bearing low-curvature liposomes even when the high-curvature liposomes are protein-free. Phosphorylation of the curvature-sensing amphipathic lipid-packing sensor (ALPS) motif from the Vps41p HOPS subunit abrogates tethering of high-curvature liposomes. A HOPS complex without its Vps39p subunit, which contains one of the Ypt7p binding sites in HOPS, lacks tethering activity, though it binds high-curvature liposomes and Ypt7p-bearing low-curvature liposomes. Thus, HOPS tethers highly curved membranes via a direct protein-membrane interaction. Such high-curvature membranes are found at the sites of vacuole tethering and fusion. There, vacuole membranes bend sharply, generating large areas of vacuole-vacuole contact. We propose that HOPS localizes via the Vps41p ALPS motif to these high-curvature regions. There, HOPS binds via Vps39p to Ypt7p in an apposed vacuole membrane. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cholesterol modulates interaction between an amphipathic class A peptide, Ac-18A-NH2, and phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Masashi; Gorbenko, Galyna; Tanaka, Masafumi; Saito, Hiroyuki; Molotkovsky, Julian; Nakano, Minoru; Handa, Tetsurou

    2002-03-26

    Cholesterol (Chol) in phosphatidylcholine large unilamellar vesicles (PC LUV) modulated interaction of the bilayers with a class A amphipathic peptide, Ac-18A-NH2: Chol increased the peptide binding capacity and reduced the affinity together with the peptide-induced leakage of calcein from LUV. Similar effects of Chol have been observed on the interaction of LUV with apoA-I [Saito, H., Miyako, Y., Handa, T., and Miyajima, K. (1997) J. Lipid Res. 38, 287-294]. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the peptide indicated a similar helical structure formation in LUV with and without Chol. The fluorescence spectral shift, quantum yield, anisotropy, and acrylamide-quenching of the peptide Trp indicated that in PC:Chol (3:2) LUV, Ac-18A-NH2 was located in a more polar membrane environment with increased motional freedom and greater accessibility to the aqueous medium. Fluorescence energy transfer from the Trp indole ring to acceptors situated at different depths in the bilayers revealed that the amphipathic peptide penetrated the hydrophobic interior of PC bilayers, while the peptide was located at the polar zwitterionic surface in PC:Chol LUV. The inclusion of Chol causes the headgroup separation of PC at the surface of LUV and increases the binding maximum of the wedge-shaped amphipathic peptide without disrupting the membrane structure. In addition, the rigidifying effect of Chol on PC acyl chains prevents the penetration of the peptide into the bilayer interior. These findings imply that Chol in membranes affects the binding and motional freedom of exchangeable plasma apolipoproteins containing class A amphipathic sequences, e.g., apoA-I and apoCs.

  7. Binary Black Holes from Dense Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The recent detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of compact object astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the universe, we must compare these observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. In this talk, I will review our current understanding of cluster dynamics, describing how binary black holes can be formed through gravitational interactions in dense stellar environments, such as globular clusters and galactic nuclei. I will review the properties and merger rates of binary black holes from the dynamical formation channel. Finally, I will describe how the spins of a binary black hole are determined by its formation history, and how we can use this to discriminate between dynamically-formed binaries and those formed from isolated evolution in galactic fields.

  8. Use of interactive live digital imaging to enhance histology learning in introductory level anatomy and physiology classes.

    PubMed

    Higazi, Tarig B

    2011-01-01

    Histology is one of the main subjects in introductory college-level Human Anatomy and Physiology classes. Institutions are moving toward the replacement of traditional microscope-based histology learning with virtual microscopy learning amid concerns of losing the valuable learning experience of traditional microscopy. This study used live digital imaging (LDI) of microscopic slides on a SMART board to enhance Histology laboratory teaching. The interactive LDI system consists of a digital camera-equipped microscope that projects live images on a wall-mounted SMART board via a computer. This set-up allows real-time illustration of microscopic slides with highlighted key structural components, as well as the ability to provide the students with relevant study and review material. The impact of interactive LDI on student learning of Histology was then measured based on performance in subsequent laboratory tests before and after its implementation. Student grades increased from a mean of 76% (70.3-82.0, 95% CI) before to 92% (88.8-95.3, 95% CI) after integration of LDI indicating highly significant (P < 0.001) enhancement in students' Histology laboratory performance. In addition, student ratings of the impact of the interactive LDI on their Histology learning were strongly positive, suggesting that a majority of students who valued this learning approach also improved learning and understanding of the material as a result. The interactive LDI technique is an innovative, highly efficient and affordable tool to enhance student Histology learning, which is likely to expand knowledge and student perception of the subject and in turn enrich future science careers. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Large-scale environments of binary AGB stars probed by Herschel. II. Two companions interacting with the wind of π1 Gruis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, A.; Jorissen, A.; Paladini, C.; Kerschbaum, F.; Pourbaix, D.; Siopis, C.; Ottensamer, R.; Mečina, M.; Cox, N. L. J.; Groenewegen, M. A. T.; Klotz, D.; Sadowski, G.; Spang, A.; Cruzalèbes, P.; Waelkens, C.

    2014-10-01

    Context. The Mass loss of Evolved StarS (MESS) sample observed with PACS on board the Herschel Space Observatory revealed that several asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are surrounded by an asymmetric circumstellar envelope (CSE) whose morphology is most likely caused by the interaction with a stellar companion. The evolution of AGB stars in binary systems plays a crucial role in understanding the formation of asymmetries in planetary nebulæ (PNe), but at present, only a handful of cases are known where the interaction of a companion with the stellar AGB wind is observed. Aims: We probe the environment of the very evolved AGB star π1 Gruis on large and small scales to identify the triggers of the observed asymmetries. Methods: Observations made with Herschel/PACS at 70 μm and 160 μm picture the large-scale environment of π1 Gru. The close surroundings of the star are probed by interferometric observations from the VLTI/AMBER archive. An analysis of the proper motion data of Hipparcos and Tycho-2 together with the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data help identify the possible cause for the observed asymmetry. Results: The Herschel/PACS images of π1 Gru show an elliptical CSE whose properties agree with those derived from a CO map published in the literature. In addition, an arc east of the star is visible at a distance of 38″ from the primary. This arc is most likely part of an Archimedean spiral caused by an already known G0V companion that is orbiting the primary at a projected distance of 460 au with a period of more than 6200 yr. However, the presence of the elliptical CSE, proper motion variations, and geometric modelling of the VLTI/AMBER observations point towards a third component in the system, with an orbital period shorter than 10 yr, orbiting much closer to the primary than the G0V star. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation

  10. Raman spectroscopic studies of dimyristoylphosphatidic acid and its interactions with ferricytochrome c in cationic binary and ternary lipid-protein complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, J. S.; Levin, I. W.

    1991-01-01

    The vibrational Raman spectra of both pure 1-alpha-dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA) liposomes and DMPA multilayers reconstituted with ferricytochrome c at pH 7 and pH 4, with either sodium or calcium as the cation, are reported as a function of temperature. Multilayers composed of a 1:1 mol ratio DMPA and dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine with perdeuterated acyl chains (DMPC-d54) have also been reconstituted with approximately 10(-4) M ferricytochrome c for Raman spectroscopic observation. Total integrated band intensities and relative peak height intensity ratios, two spectral Raman scattering parameters used to characterize bilayer properties, are sensitive to the presence of both ferricytochrome c and the cation in the reconstituted liposomes. Temperature profiles, derived from the various Raman intensity parameters for the 3,100-2,800 cm-1 lipid acyl chain C-H stretching mode region specifically reflect bilayer perturbations due to the interactions of ferricytochrome c. At pH 4 the calcium DMPA multilamellar gel to liquid crystalline phase transition temperatures Tm, defined by either the C-H stretching mode I2850/I2880 and I2935/I2880 peak height intensity ratios, are 58.5 +/- 0.5 degrees C and 60.0 +/- 0.3 degrees C, respectively. This difference in Tm's resolves the phase transition process into first an expansion of the lipid lattice and then a melting of the lipid acyl chains. At pH 7 the calcium DMPA liposomes show no distinct phase transition characteristics below 75 degrees C. For sodium DMPA liposomes reconstituted with ferricytochrome c at either pH 4.0 or pH 7.0, spontaneous Raman spectra show altered lipid structures at temperatures above 40 degrees C. Resonance Raman spectra indicate that ferricytochrome c reconstituted in either calcium or sodium DMPA liposomes changes irreversibly above Tm. For either the binary lipid or ternary lipid-protein systems reconstituted with DMPC-d54, linewidth parameters of the DMPC-d54 acyl chain CD2 symmetric

  11. Positive and negative functional interactions between promoter elements from different classes of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes.

    PubMed Central

    Parry, H D; Mattaj, I W

    1990-01-01

    Consensus tRNA gene promoter elements, A and B boxes, were introduced into the coding sequence of a Xenopus U6 gene. Combinations in which A and B boxes were coupled to wild-type or mutant U6 promoters were made. In this way information about both the functions of individual promoter elements and functional relationships between different classes of RNA polymerase III promoter element were obtained. Mutants in which the U6 PSE was non-functional were rescued by the presence of a B box, indicating a degree of functional relationship between these two elements. Moreover, the B box acted to increase the transcriptional activity and competitive strength of the wild-type U6 promoter. In contrast, no evidence was obtained to suggest that a tRNA A box can interact productively with U6 promoter elements in the absence of a B box. Data obtained suggest that the U6 PSE functions as an 'adaptor', being necessary to enable the basal U6 promoter to respond to upstream enhancement. Certain combinations of U6 and tRNA promoter elements are shown to be mutually antagonistic by a mechanism which is likely to involve blockage of transcription initiation. In summary, the U6 and tRNA promoters are shown to consist of functionally related, but distinct, promoter elements whose interactions shed new light on their normal roles in transcription. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2323333

  12. An interactive approach based on a discrete differential evolution algorithm for a class of integer bilevel programming problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Li; Jiao, Yong-Chang

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an interactive approach based on a discrete differential evolution algorithm to solve a class of integer bilevel programming problems, in which integer decision variables are controlled by an upper-level decision maker and real-value or continuous decision variables are controlled by a lower-level decision maker. Using the Karush--Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions in the lower-level programming, the original discrete bilevel formulation can be converted into a discrete single-level nonlinear programming problem with the complementarity constraints, and then the smoothing technique is applied to deal with the complementarity constraints. Finally, a discrete single-level nonlinear programming problem is obtained, and solved by an interactive approach. In each iteration, for each given upper-level discrete variable, a system of nonlinear equations including the lower-level variables and Lagrange multipliers is solved first, and then a discrete nonlinear programming problem only with inequality constraints is handled by using a discrete differential evolution algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  13. Alloreactive and syngeneic CTL are comparably dependent on interaction with MHC class I alpha-helical residues.

    PubMed

    Hornell, T M; Solheim, J C; Myers, N B; Gillanders, W E; Balendiran, G K; Hansen, T H; Connolly, J M

    1999-09-15

    The molecular basis for the difference in the strength of T cell responses to self vs alloantigens is unknown, but may reflect how T cells are selected in the thymus. Because T cells with a high affinity for foreign as opposed to self MHC molecules are able to mature, it has been proposed that alloreactive T cells may be more strongly dependent upon interaction with MHC residues than are self-restricted T cells. This study was undertaken to rigorously address this hypothesis. Whereas other studies have compared self vs alloantigen recognition of different MHC alleles by a single T cell clone, we have compared self vs alloantigen recognition of a single MHC allele, H-2Ld, by a large panel of self-restricted and alloreactive T cell clones. Target cells expressing Ld molecules mutated at several different potential TCR contact residues were analyzed to determine which residues are important for recognition by self-restricted vs alloreactive T cells. We unequivocally demonstrate that self-restricted and alloreactive T cells do not differ, but rather are comparably dependent on interaction with MHC residues. Importantly, both self-restricted and alloreactive T cells are dependent upon the same MHC residues as primary contacts and, in addition, share a common recognition pattern of Ld. Furthermore, our analysis enables us to provide a model for allotype-specific T cell recognition of Ld vs Kb class I molecules.

  14. Semi-empirical correlation for binary interaction parameters of the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the van der Waals mixing rules for the prediction of high-pressure vapor–liquid equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Fateen, Seif-Eddeen K.; Khalil, Menna M.; Elnabawy, Ahmed O.

    2012-01-01

    Peng–Robinson equation of state is widely used with the classical van der Waals mixing rules to predict vapor liquid equilibria for systems containing hydrocarbons and related compounds. This model requires good values of the binary interaction parameter kij. In this work, we developed a semi-empirical correlation for kij partly based on the Huron–Vidal mixing rules. We obtained values for the adjustable parameters of the developed formula for over 60 binary systems and over 10 categories of components. The predictions of the new equation system were slightly better than the constant-kij model in most cases, except for 10 systems whose predictions were considerably improved with the new correlation. PMID:25685411

  15. Semi-empirical correlation for binary interaction parameters of the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the van der Waals mixing rules for the prediction of high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Fateen, Seif-Eddeen K; Khalil, Menna M; Elnabawy, Ahmed O

    2013-03-01

    Peng-Robinson equation of state is widely used with the classical van der Waals mixing rules to predict vapor liquid equilibria for systems containing hydrocarbons and related compounds. This model requires good values of the binary interaction parameter kij . In this work, we developed a semi-empirical correlation for kij partly based on the Huron-Vidal mixing rules. We obtained values for the adjustable parameters of the developed formula for over 60 binary systems and over 10 categories of components. The predictions of the new equation system were slightly better than the constant-kij model in most cases, except for 10 systems whose predictions were considerably improved with the new correlation.

  16. Commission 42: Close Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, Ignasi; Richards, Mercedes T.; Rucinski, Slavek; Bradstreet, David H.; Harmanec, Petr; Kaluzny, Janusz; Mikolajewska, Joanna; Munari, Ulisse; Niarchos, Panagiotis; Olah, Katalin; Pribulla, Theodor; Scarfe, Colin D.; Torres, Guillermo

    2012-04-01

    The present report covers the main developments in the field of close binaries during the triennium 2009-2012. In addition to scientific publications, there have been several opportunities for direct interaction of researchers working on close binaries. A number of meetings focused on more or less specific topics have taken place during this past years but the highlight for Commission 42 is arguably IAU Symposium 282 held in 2011 in Slovakia. The meeting exploited a strong connection in the methodology and tools used by close binary studies and the rapidly advancing field of exoplanet research. After all, exoplanetary systems are mostly discovered and studied using techniques employed by analyses of close binaries for decades. Modelling of exoplanet radial velocity curves and transiting planet light curves are just particular cases of single-lined and eclipsing binary systems, respectively, with very unequal component properties. As shown by IAU Symposium 282, the synergies between the two fields are strong and potentially very useful. Found below is a summary of the main scientific topics and conclusions from this very successful Symposium.

  17. Evolutionary history exposes radical diversification among classes of interaction partners of the MLLE domain of plant poly(A)-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-López, Domingo; Bravo, Jaime; Guzmán, Plinio

    2015-09-16

    Poly(A)-binding proteins (PABPs) are evolutionarily conserved proteins that have important functions in the regulation of translation and the control of mRNA stability in eukaryotes. Most PABPs encode a C-terminal domain known as the MLLE domain (previously PABC or CTC), which can mediate protein interactions. In earlier work we identified and predicted that four classes of MLLE-interacting proteins were present in Arabidopsis thaliana, which we named CID A, B, C, and D. These proteins encode transcription-activating domains (CID A), the Lsm and LsmAD domains of ataxin-2 (CID B), the CUE and small MutS-related domains (CID C), and two RNA recognition domains (CID D). We recently found that a novel class that lacks the LsmAD domain is present in CID B proteins. We extended our analysis to other classes of CIDs present in the viridiplantae. We found that novel variants also evolved in classes CID A and CID C. A specific transcription factor domain is present in a distinct lineage in class A, and a variant that lacks at least two distinct domains was also identified in a divergent lineage in class C. We did not detect any variants in Class D CIDs. This class often consists of four to six highly conserved RNA-binding proteins, which suggests that major redundancy is present in this class. CIDs are likely to operate as components of posttranscriptional regulatory assemblies. The evident diversification of CIDs may be neutral or may be important for plant adaptation to the environment and for acquisition of specific traits during evolution. The fact that CIDs subclasses are maintained in early lineages suggest that a presumed interference between duplicates was resolved, and a defined function for each subclass was achieved.

  18. Very Wide Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olling, Robert; Shaya, E.

    2011-01-01

    We develop Bayesian statistical methods for discovering and assigning probabilities to physical stellar companions. The probabilities depend on similarities in "corrected" proper motion, parallax, and the phase-space density of field stars. Very wide binaries with separations over 10,000 AU have recently been predicted to form during the dissolution process of low-mass star clusters. In this case, these wide systems would still carry information about the density and size of the star cluster in which they formed. Alternatively, Galactic tides and weak interactions with passing stars peel off stars from such very wide binaries in less than 1/2 of a Hubble time. In the past, these systems have been used to rule in/out MACHOs or less compact dark (matter) objects. Ours is the first all-sky survey to locate escaped companions that are still drifting along with each other, long after their binary bond has been broken. We test stars for companionship up to an apparent separation of 8 parsec: 10 to 100 times wider than previous searches. Among Hipparcos stars within 100 pc, we find about 260 systems with separations between 0.01 and 1 pc, and another 190 with separation from 1 to 8 parsec. We find a number of previously unnoticed naked-eye companions, among which: Capella & 50 Per; Alioth, Megrez & Alcor; gamma & tau Cen; phi Eri & eta Hor; 62 & 63 Cnc; gamma & tau Per; zeta & delta Hya; beta01, beta02 & beta03 Tuc; 44 & 58 Oph and pi & rho Cep. At least 15 of our candidates are exoplanet host stars.

  19. Major histocompatibility class I gene transcription in thyrocytes: a series of interacting regulatory DNA sequence elements mediate thyrotropin/cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate repression.

    PubMed

    Kirshner, S; Palmer, L; Bodor, J; Saji, M; Kohn, L D; Singer, D S

    2000-01-01

    In response to TSH, thyroid cells decrease major histocompatibility (MHC) class I expression and transcription, providing an excellent model for studying the dynamic modulation of transcription of MHC class I genes. Here we show that protein kinase A (PKA), a downstream effector of the TSH/cAMP pathway, reproduces the effects of TSH in repressing class I transcription. PKA/cAMP-mediated repression of transcription involves multiple interacting upstream response elements in the class I promoter: an element extending from -127 to -90 bp containing a CRE-like core, and at least two elements within an upstream 30-bp segment (-160 to -130 bp), which overlaps with the interferon regulatory element. ICER (inducible cAMP early response), a transcriptional repressor induced by TSH/cAMP can decrease class I promoter activity when introduced into FRTL-5 thyroid cells in the absence of TSH/cAMP. ICER binds to both the CRE-like element and the upstream 30-bp segment, generating a novel TSH-induced ternary complex. The present studies led to the proposal that TSH-mediated repression of class I transcription is the result of integrating signals from transcription factors through the higher order interactions of multiple regulatory elements.

  20. Pseudolikelihood Decimation Algorithm Improving the Inference of the Interaction Network in a General Class of Ising Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decelle, Aurélien; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-02-01

    In this Letter we propose a new method to infer the topology of the interaction network in pairwise models with Ising variables. By using the pseudolikelihood method (PLM) at high temperature, it is generally possible to distinguish between zero and nonzero couplings because a clear gap separate the two groups. However at lower temperatures the PLM is much less effective and the result depends on subjective choices, such as the value of the ℓ1 regularizer and that of the threshold to separate nonzero couplings from null ones. We introduce a decimation procedure based on the PLM that recursively sets to zero the less significant couplings, until the variation of the pseudolikelihood signals that relevant couplings are being removed. The new method is fully automated and does not require any subjective choice by the user. Numerical tests have been performed on a wide class of Ising models, having different topologies (from random graphs to finite dimensional lattices) and different couplings (both diluted ferromagnets in a field and spin glasses). These numerical results show that the new algorithm performs better than standard PLM.

  1. Pseudolikelihood decimation algorithm improving the inference of the interaction network in a general class of Ising models.

    PubMed

    Decelle, Aurélien; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-02-21

    In this Letter we propose a new method to infer the topology of the interaction network in pairwise models with Ising variables. By using the pseudolikelihood method (PLM) at high temperature, it is generally possible to distinguish between zero and nonzero couplings because a clear gap separate the two groups. However at lower temperatures the PLM is much less effective and the result depends on subjective choices, such as the value of the ℓ1 regularizer and that of the threshold to separate nonzero couplings from null ones. We introduce a decimation procedure based on the PLM that recursively sets to zero the less significant couplings, until the variation of the pseudolikelihood signals that relevant couplings are being removed. The new method is fully automated and does not require any subjective choice by the user. Numerical tests have been performed on a wide class of Ising models, having different topologies (from random graphs to finite dimensional lattices) and different couplings (both diluted ferromagnets in a field and spin glasses). These numerical results show that the new algorithm performs better than standard PLM.

  2. The thematic hierarchy in sentence comprehension: A study on the interaction between verb class and word order in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Carolina A; Dickey, Michael W; Wainselboim, Alejandro J; París, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Linking is the theory that captures the mapping of the semantic roles of lexical arguments to the syntactic functions of the phrases that realize them. At the sentence level, linking allows us to understand "who did what to whom" in an event. In Spanish, linking has been shown to interact with word order, verb class, and case marking. The current study aims to provide the first piece of experimental evidence about the interplay between word order and verb type in Spanish. We achieve this by adopting role and reference grammar and the extended argument dependency model. Two different types of clauses were examined in a self-paced reading task: clauses with object-experiencer psychological verbs and activity verbs. These types of verbs differ in the way that their syntactic and semantic structures are linked, and thus they provide interesting evidence on how information that belongs to the syntax-semantics interface might influence the predictive and integrative processes of sentence comprehension with alternative word orders. Results indicate that in Spanish, comprehension and processing speed is enhanced when the order of the constituents in the sentence mirrors their ranking on a semantic hierarchy that encodes a verb's lexical semantics. Moreover, results show that during online comprehension, predictive mechanisms based on argument hierarchization are used rapidly to inform the processing system. Our findings corroborate already existing cross-linguistic evidence on the issue and are briefly discussed in the light of other sentence-processing models.

  3. Selection and function of CD4+ T lymphocytes in transgenic mice expressing mutant MHC class II molecules deficient in their interaction with CD4.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, S; Shen, X; König, R

    1998-12-15

    Interactions of the T cell coreceptors, CD4 and CD8, with MHC molecules participate in regulating thymocyte development and T lymphocyte activation and differentiation to memory T cells. However, the exact roles of these interactions in normal T cell development and function remain unclear. CD4 interacts with class II MHC7 molecules via several noncontiguous regions in both the class II MHC alpha- and beta-chains. We have introduced a double mutation that disrupts interaction with CD4 into the I-A(beta)k gene and used this construct to generate transgenic mice expressing only mutant class II MHC. Although CD4+ thymocytes matured to the single-positive stage in these mice, their frequency was reduced by threefold compared with that of wild-type transgenics. Positive selection of CD4+ T cells in the mutant transgenic mice may have been mediated by TCRs with a higher than usual affinity for class II MHC/Ag complexes. In A(beta)k mutant transgenics, peripheral CD4+ lymphocytes promoted B cell differentiation to plasma cells. These CD4+ T cells also secreted IFN-gamma in response to various stimuli (e.g., protein Ag, bacterial superantigen, and alloantigen), but were deficient in IL-2 secretion. Interactions between CD4 and class II MHC molecules appeared to regulate lymphokine production, with a strong bias toward IFN-gamma and against IL-2 in the absence of these interactions. Our results have implications for the manipulation of T cell-dependent immune responses.

  4. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    DOEpatents

    Abell, Jeffrey A; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2015-01-06

    A system includes host and learning machines. Each machine has a processor in electrical communication with at least one sensor. Instructions for predicting a binary quality status of an item of interest during a repeatable process are recorded in memory. The binary quality status includes passing and failing binary classes. The learning machine receives signals from the at least one sensor and identifies candidate features. Features are extracted from the candidate features, each more predictive of the binary quality status. The extracted features are mapped to a dimensional space having a number of dimensions proportional to the number of extracted features. The dimensional space includes most of the passing class and excludes at least 90 percent of the failing class. Received signals are compared to the boundaries of the recorded dimensional space to predict, in real time, the binary quality status of a subsequent item of interest.

  5. The Impact of Self-Efficacy and Peer Support on Student Participation with Interactive White Boards in the Middle School Mathematics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Angie; LeMire, Steven; Baker, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the factors of middle school math student self-efficacy and perceived peer support in relation to student willingness to participate with in-class activities with an interactive white board (IWB). One-hundred and five seventh grade math students were assessed on their attitudes of IWB engagement in relationship to low…

  6. Implementation of Pair Work and Group Work for Creation of Interaction Opportunities for Learners in Large Classes: The Viability of the Two Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otienoh, Ruth O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on an action research carried out in two Kenyan Primary schools in Nairobi. The purpose was to implement group work and pair work to improve teaching and learning in large classes by creating interaction opportunities for learners. This was a mixed method study of dominant/less dominant design where interviews and structured…

  7. The Impact of Self-Efficacy and Peer Support on Student Participation with Interactive White Boards in the Middle School Mathematics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Angie; LeMire, Steven; Baker, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the factors of middle school math student self-efficacy and perceived peer support in relation to student willingness to participate with in-class activities with an interactive white board (IWB). One-hundred and five seventh grade math students were assessed on their attitudes of IWB engagement in relationship to low…

  8. SMS as Out-of-Class, Student-Instructor Interaction Tool: A Case Study of Jordanian Graduate Students' Perceptions and Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.; Qablan, Bassam Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the Jordanian university students' perceptions toward and use of Short Message Service (SMS) as out-of-class student-instructor interaction tool. The participants in this study were 33 graduate students who were enrolled in on-campus information technology course at a public Jordanian university. SMS was used in the…

  9. Consequences of cytotoxic T lymphocyte interaction with major histocompatibility complex class I-expressing neurons in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Neurons have evolved strategies to evade immune surveillance that include an inability to synthesize the heavy chain of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC), proteins that are necessary for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognition of target cells. Multiple viruses have taken advantage of the lack of CTL-mediated recognition and killing of neurons by establishing persistent neuronal infections and thereby escaping attack by antiviral CTL. We have expressed a class I MHC molecule (Db) in neurons of transgenic mice using the neuron- specific enolase (NSE) promoter to determine the pathogenic consequences of CTL recognition of virally infected, MHC-expressing central nervous system (CNS) neurons. The NSE-Db transgene was expressed in H-2b founder mice, and transgene-derived messenger RNA was detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in transgenic brains from several lines. Purified primary neurons from transgenic but not from nontransgenic mice adhered to coverslips coated with a conformation-dependent monoclonal antibody directed against the Dv molecule and presented viral peptide to CTL in an MHC-restricted manner, indicating that the Db molecule was expressed on transgenic neurons in a functional form. Transgenic mice infected with the neurotropic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and given anti- LCMV, MHC-restricted CTL displayed a high morbidity and mortality when compared with controls receiving MHC-mismatched CTL or expressing alternative transgenes. After CTL transfer, transgenic brains showed an increased number of CD8+ cells compared with nontransgenic controls as well as an increased rate of clearance of infectious virus from the CNS. Additionally, an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability was detected during viral clearance in NSE-Db transgenic mice and lasted several months after clearance of virus from neurons. In contrast, LCMV- infected, nontransgenic littermates and mice expressing other gene products from

  10. Binary Inspiral in Quadratic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Quadratic gravity is a general class of quantum-gravity-inspired theories, where the Einstein-Hilbert action is extended through the addition of all terms quadratic in the curvature tensor coupled to a scalar field. In this article, we focus on the scalar Gauss- Bonnet (sGB) theory and consider the black hole binary inspiral in this theory. By applying the post-Newtonian (PN) formalism, we found that there is a scalar dipole radiation which leads to -1PN correction in the energy flux relative to gravitational radiation in general relativity. From the orbital decay rate of a low-mass X-ray binary A0600-20, we obtain the bound that is six orders of magnitude stronger than the current solar system bound. Furthermore, we show that the excess in the orbital decay rate of XTE J1118+480 can be explained by the scalar radiation in sGB theory.

  11. THE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. II. ARE THEY DOUBLE-DEGENERATE BINARIES? THE SYMBIOTIC CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, R.

    2010-08-10

    In order for a white dwarf (WD) to achieve the Chandrasekhar mass, M{sub C} , and explode as a Type Ia supernova (SNIa), it must interact with another star, either accreting matter from or merging with it. The failure to identify the class or classes of binaries which produce SNeIa is the long-standing 'progenitor problem'. Its solution is required if we are to utilize the full potential of SNeIa to elucidate basic cosmological and physical principles. In single-degenerate models, a WD accretes and burns matter at high rates. Nuclear-burning white dwarfs (NBWDs) with mass close to M{sub C} are hot and luminous, potentially detectable as supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs). In previous work, we showed that >90%-99% of the required number of progenitors do not appear as SSSs during most of the crucial phase of mass increase. The obvious implication might be that double-degenerate binaries form the main class of progenitors. We show in this paper, however, that many binaries that later become double degenerates must pass through a long-lived NBWD phase during which they are potentially detectable as SSSs. The paucity of SSSs is therefore not a strong argument in favor of double-degenerate models. Those NBWDs that are the progenitors of double-degenerate binaries are likely to appear as symbiotic binaries for intervals >10{sup 6} years. In fact, symbiotic pre-double-degenerates should be common, whether or not the WDs eventually produce SNeIa. The key to solving the Type Ia progenitor problem lies in understanding the appearance of NBWDs. Most of them do not appear as SSSs most of the time. We therefore consider the evolution of NBWDs to address the question of what their appearance may be and how we can hope to detect them.

  12. The Progenitors of Type Ia Supernovae. II. Are they Double-degenerate Binaries? The Symbiotic Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Stefano, R.

    2010-08-01

    In order for a white dwarf (WD) to achieve the Chandrasekhar mass, MC , and explode as a Type Ia supernova (SNIa), it must interact with another star, either accreting matter from or merging with it. The failure to identify the class or classes of binaries which produce SNeIa is the long-standing "progenitor problem." Its solution is required if we are to utilize the full potential of SNeIa to elucidate basic cosmological and physical principles. In single-degenerate models, a WD accretes and burns matter at high rates. Nuclear-burning white dwarfs (NBWDs) with mass close to MC are hot and luminous, potentially detectable as supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs). In previous work, we showed that >90%-99% of the required number of progenitors do not appear as SSSs during most of the crucial phase of mass increase. The obvious implication might be that double-degenerate binaries form the main class of progenitors. We show in this paper, however, that many binaries that later become double degenerates must pass through a long-lived NBWD phase during which they are potentially detectable as SSSs. The paucity of SSSs is therefore not a strong argument in favor of double-degenerate models. Those NBWDs that are the progenitors of double-degenerate binaries are likely to appear as symbiotic binaries for intervals >106 years. In fact, symbiotic pre-double-degenerates should be common, whether or not the WDs eventually produce SNeIa. The key to solving the Type Ia progenitor problem lies in understanding the appearance of NBWDs. Most of them do not appear as SSSs most of the time. We therefore consider the evolution of NBWDs to address the question of what their appearance may be and how we can hope to detect them.

  13. The impact of IUE on binary star studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of IUE observations in the investigation of binary stars is discussed. The results of data analysis of several classes of binary systems are briefly reviewed including zeta Aurigae and VV Cephei stars, mu Sagittarii, epsilon Aurigae, beta Lyrae and the W Serpentis stars, symbiotic stars, and the Algols.

  14. Conformational changes of trialanine induced by direct interactions between alanine residues and alcohols in binary mixtures of water with glycerol and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Toal, Siobhan; Amidi, Omid; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard

    2011-08-17

    Despite the increasing relevance of characterizing local conformational distributions in the unfolded state, an unambiguous description of the role that solvation and the addition of certain cosolvents play in altering this ensemble has yet to emerge. Alcohol cosolvents, and specifically glycerol, are known to act as protein stabilizers. The underlying mechanism of this effect is, however, still debated. Short alanine-based peptides provide a suitable model system for exploring the influence of cosolvents on backbone conformations, as ample experimental evidence now indicates that alanine does not exhibit a true statistical coil behavior but rather shows strong preference for sampling the polyproline II (PPII) region of the Ramachadran map when solvated in water. To explore the effect glycerol and ethanol cosolvents have on the conformational distribution of trialanine, we combined UV-CD and H NMR spectroscopies. The temperature dependence of the conformationally sensitive maximum dichroism (Δε) and (3)J(H(α)H(N)) coupling constants of two amide protons (N- and C-terminal) was subjected to a global thermodynamic analysis based on simple two-state PPII↔β models. Interestingly, our results show that even small admixtures of alcohol (5% v/v) considerably change the spectral parameters, Δε(PPII) and Δε(β), as well as the enthalpic and entropic differences between the two states. For the central residue of trialanine in 5% glycerol, we obtained a gain in enthalpy favoring PPII of ΔΔH(n) = -4.80 kJ/mol and a compensating increase in entropy favoring the β-strand of ΔΔS(n) = -13.53[J/mol K]. This causes increases in -ΔG and slight increases in PPII content. Further addition of alcohol, however, reverses the trend in that it causes a destabilization of the hydration shell and a shift toward β-strand conformations. The combined manifold of ΔH and ΔS values obtained for the investigated binary mixtures and the pure aqueous solvent exhibits an excellent

  15. A Comparative Study on the Influence between Interaction and Performance in Postgraduate In-Class and Distance Learning Courses Based on the Analysis of LMS Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Miguel, Félix; Chaparro-Peláez, Julián; Hernández-García, Ángel; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago

    Learning Management Systems' use has been rapidly increasing during the last ten years, mainly in online distance learning courses but also in in-class courses. In parallel, technological advances have made it possible to track and store all the activity taking place in the LMS, and therefore to register the participation and interaction of students. This paper addresses two key questions: a) Is student interaction in the LMS an indicator of the final academic performance in a course?; and b) Is this interaction carried out in a different way in distance and in-class education, with different final results?. In order to answer this question, different types of interaction have been classified and extracted from Moodle LMS activity record logs during two years in one master program with online distance learning and in-class learning modalities at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. The results show partial or no evidence of influence between interaction indicators and academic performance. The last section of this study covers a discussion of results and implications.

  16. ECCENTRIC EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasawa, Masaki; An, Sangyong; Matsubayashi, Tatsushi; Funato, Yoko; Makino, Junichiro

    2011-04-10

    In recent numerical simulations, it has been found that the eccentricity of supermassive black hole (SMBH)-intermediate black hole (IMBH) binaries grows toward unity through interactions with the stellar background. This increase of eccentricity reduces the merging timescale of the binary through the gravitational radiation to a value well below the Hubble time. It also gives a theoretical explanation of the existence of eccentric binaries such as that in OJ287. In self-consistent N-body simulations, this increase of eccentricity is always observed. On the other hand, the result of the scattering experiment between SMBH binaries and field stars indicated that the eccentricity dose not change significantly. This discrepancy leaves the high eccentricity of the SMBH binaries in N-body simulations unexplained. Here, we present a stellar-dynamical mechanism that drives the increase of the eccentricity of an SMBH binary with a large mass ratio. There are two key processes involved. The first one is the Kozai mechanism under a non-axisymmetric potential, which effectively randomizes the angular momenta of surrounding stars. The other is the selective ejection of stars with prograde orbits. Through these two mechanisms, field stars extract the orbital angular momentum of the SMBH binary. Our proposed mechanism causes the increase in the eccentricity of most of SMBH binaries, resulting in the rapid merger through gravitational wave radiation. Our result has given a definite solution to the 'last-parsec problem'.

  17. What Predicts Student Success in Introductory Data Management Classes? An Investigation of Demographic, Personality, Computer-Related, and Interaction Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Kenneth J.; Harris, Ranida B.; Lambert, Alysa D.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to data management classes are often times students' first exposure to advanced material in these areas. Many factors are likely to influence success in these classes, but empirical investigations have focused on relatively few variables. In this study, we extend this research by examining the relative contributions of the previously…

  18. Search for Binary Trojans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Grundy, W. M.; Ryan, E. L.; Benecchi, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    We have reexamined 41 Trojan asteroids observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to search for unresolved binaries. We have identified one candidate binary with a separation of 53 milliarcsec, about the width of the diffraction limited point-spread function (PSF). Sub-resolution-element detection of binaries is possible with HST because of the high signal-to-noise ratio of the observations and the stability of the PSF. Identification and confirmation of binary Trojans is important because a Trojan Tour is one of five possible New Frontiers missions. A binary could constitute a potentially high value target because of the opportunity to study two objects and to test models of the primordial nature of binaries. The potential to derive mass-based physical information from the binary orbit could yield more clues to the origin of Trojans.

  19. Hierarchical cooperative binary ionic porphyrin nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongming; Busani, Tito; Uyeda, Gregory H; Martin, Kathleen E; van Swol, Frank; Medforth, Craig J; Montaño, Gabriel A; Shelnutt, John A

    2012-05-18

    Cooperative binary ionic (CBI) solids comprise a versatile new class of opto-electronic and catalytic materials consisting of ionically self-assembled pairs of organic anions and cations. Herein, we report CBI nanocomposites formed by growing nanoparticles of one type of porphyrin CBI solid onto a second porphyrin CBI substructure with complementary functionality.

  20. Class Schedules Need Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monfette, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    Argues that college publications, including class schedules, must be accurate, timely, and easy to read and follow. Describes Schoolcraft College's unified format approach to publications marketing. Offers suggestions on the design, format, and distribution of class schedules. (DMM)