Science.gov

Sample records for binary interaction classes

  1. Interacting jets from binary protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, G. C.; Lery, T.; O'Sullivan, S.; Spicer, D.; Bacciotti, F.; Rosen, A.

    2008-02-01

    Aims: We investigate potential models that could explain why multiple proto-stellar systems predominantly show single jets. During their formation, stars most frequently produce energetic outflows and jets. However, binary jets have only been observed in a very small number of systems. Methods: We model numerically 3D binary jets for various outflow parameters. We also model the propagation of jets from a specific source, namely L1551 IRS 5, known to have two jets, using recent observations as constraints for simulations with a new MHD code. We examine their morphology and dynamics, and produce synthetic emission maps. Results: We find that the two jets interfere up to the stage where one of them is almost destroyed or engulfed into the second one. We are able to reproduce some of the observational features of L1551 such as the bending of the secondary jet. Conclusions: While the effects of orbital motion are negligible over the jets dynamical timeline, their interaction has significant impact on their morphology. If the jets are not strictly parallel, as in most observed cases, we show that the magnetic field can help the collimation and refocusing of both of the two jets.

  2. Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.

    Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when

  3. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class.

    PubMed

    Rovetto, Carlos A; Concepción, Tomás J; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system's behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms. PMID:27548170

  4. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class.

    PubMed

    Rovetto, Carlos A; Concepción, Tomás J; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-08-18

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system's behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms.

  5. Virtual Control Policy for Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net Class

    PubMed Central

    Rovetto, Carlos A.; Concepción, Tomás J.; Cano, Elia Esther

    2016-01-01

    Prevention and avoidance of deadlocks in sensor networks that use the wormhole routing algorithm is an active research domain. There are diverse control policies that will address this problem being our approach a new method. In this paper we present a virtual control policy for the new specialized Petri net subclass called Binary Ordered Resources Petri Net (BORPN). Essentially, it is an ordinary class constructed from various state machines that share unitary resources in a complex form, which allows branching and joining of processes. The reduced structure of this new class gives advantages that allow analysis of the entire system’s behavior, which is a prohibitive task for large systems because of the complexity and routing algorithms. PMID:27548170

  6. Tidal Interactions in Merging White Dwarf Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2011-10-01

    The recently discovered system J0651 is the tightest known detached white dwarf (WD) binary. Since it has not yet initiated Roche-lobe overflow, it provides a relatively clean environment for testing our understanding of tidal interactions. I investigate the tidal heating of each WD, parameterized in terms of its tidal Q parameter. Assuming that the heating can be radiated efficiently, the current luminosities are consistent with Q 1 ≈ 7 × 1010 and Q 2 ≈ 2 × 107, for the He and C/O WDs, respectively. Conversely, if the observed luminosities are merely from the cooling of the WDs, these estimated values of Q represent the upper limits. A large Q 1 for the He WD means its spin velocity will be slower than that expected if it was tidally locked, which, since the binary is eclipsing, may be measurable via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. After one year, gravitational wave emission shifts the time of eclipses by 5.5 s, but tidal interactions cause the orbit to shrink more rapidly, changing the time by up to an additional 0.3 s after a year. Future eclipse timing measurements may therefore infer the degree of tidal locking.

  7. TIDAL INTERACTIONS IN MERGING WHITE DWARF BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2011-10-20

    The recently discovered system J0651 is the tightest known detached white dwarf (WD) binary. Since it has not yet initiated Roche-lobe overflow, it provides a relatively clean environment for testing our understanding of tidal interactions. I investigate the tidal heating of each WD, parameterized in terms of its tidal Q parameter. Assuming that the heating can be radiated efficiently, the current luminosities are consistent with Q {sub 1} {approx} 7 x 10{sup 10} and Q {sub 2} {approx} 2 x 10{sup 7}, for the He and C/O WDs, respectively. Conversely, if the observed luminosities are merely from the cooling of the WDs, these estimated values of Q represent the upper limits. A large Q {sub 1} for the He WD means its spin velocity will be slower than that expected if it was tidally locked, which, since the binary is eclipsing, may be measurable via the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect. After one year, gravitational wave emission shifts the time of eclipses by 5.5 s, but tidal interactions cause the orbit to shrink more rapidly, changing the time by up to an additional 0.3 s after a year. Future eclipse timing measurements may therefore infer the degree of tidal locking.

  8. MAGNETIC INTERACTIONS IN COALESCING NEUTRON STAR BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Piro, Anthony L.

    2012-08-10

    It is expected on both evolutionary and empirical grounds that many merging neutron star (NS) binaries are composed of a highly magnetized NS in orbit with a relatively low magnetic field NS. I study the magnetic interactions of these binaries using the framework of a unipolar inductor model. The electromotive force generated across the non-magnetic NS as it moves through the magnetosphere sets up a circuit connecting the two stars. The exact features of this circuit depend on the uncertain resistance in the space between the stars R{sub space}. Nevertheless, I show that there are interesting observational and/or dynamical effects irrespective of its exact value. When R{sub space} is large, electric dissipation as great as {approx}10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1} (for magnetar-strength fields) occurs in the magnetosphere, which would exhibit itself as a hard X-ray precursor in the seconds leading up to merger. With less certainty, there may also be an associated radio transient. When R{sub space} is small, electric dissipation largely occurs in the surface layers of the magnetic NS. This can reach {approx}10{sup 49} erg s{sup -1} during the final {approx}1 s before merger, similar to the energetics and timescales of short gamma-ray bursts. In addition, for dipole fields greater than Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12} G and a small R{sub space}, magnetic torques spin up the magnetized NS. This drains angular momentum from the binary and accelerates the inspiral. A faster coalescence results in less orbits occurring before merger, which would impact matched-filtering gravitational-wave searches by ground-based laser interferometers and could create difficulties for studying alternative theories of gravity with compact inspirals.

  9. Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars.

    PubMed

    Sana, H; de Mink, S E; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Gosset, E; Izzard, R G; Le Bouquin, J-B; Schneider, F R N

    2012-07-27

    The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously measured all relevant binary characteristics in a sample of Galactic massive O stars and quantified the frequency and nature of binary interactions. More than 70% of all massive stars will exchange mass with a companion, leading to a binary merger in one-third of the cases. These numbers greatly exceed previous estimates and imply that binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars, with implications for populations of massive stars and their supernovae. PMID:22837522

  10. Binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars.

    PubMed

    Sana, H; de Mink, S E; de Koter, A; Langer, N; Evans, C J; Gieles, M; Gosset, E; Izzard, R G; Le Bouquin, J-B; Schneider, F R N

    2012-07-27

    The presence of a nearby companion alters the evolution of massive stars in binary systems, leading to phenomena such as stellar mergers, x-ray binaries, and gamma-ray bursts. Unambiguous constraints on the fraction of massive stars affected by binary interaction were lacking. We simultaneously measured all relevant binary characteristics in a sample of Galactic massive O stars and quantified the frequency and nature of binary interactions. More than 70% of all massive stars will exchange mass with a companion, leading to a binary merger in one-third of the cases. These numbers greatly exceed previous estimates and imply that binary interaction dominates the evolution of massive stars, with implications for populations of massive stars and their supernovae.

  11. Binary colloidal structures assembled through Ising interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalil, Karim S.; Sagastegui, Amanda; Li, Yu; Tahir, Mukarram A.; Socolar, Joshua E. S.; Wiley, Benjamin J.; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2012-04-01

    New methods for inducing microscopic particles to assemble into useful macroscopic structures could open pathways for fabricating complex materials that cannot be produced by lithographic methods. Here we demonstrate a colloidal assembly technique that uses two parameters to tune the assembly of over 20 different pre-programmed structures, including kagome, honeycomb and square lattices, as well as various chain and ring configurations. We programme the assembled structures by controlling the relative concentrations and interaction strengths between spherical magnetic and non-magnetic beads, which behave as paramagnetic or diamagnetic dipoles when immersed in a ferrofluid. A comparison of our experimental observations with potential energy calculations suggests that the lowest energy configuration within binary mixtures is determined entirely by the relative dipole strengths and their relative concentrations.

  12. Analysis of interaction in binary odorant mixtures.

    PubMed

    Smith, B H

    1998-12-01

    An understanding of the olfactory system of any animal must account for how odor mixtures are perceived and processed. The present experiments apply associationist models to the study of how elements are processed in binary odorant mixtures. Using experimental designs for Proboscis Extension Conditioning of honey bees, I show that learning about a pure odorant element is frequently affected by its occurrence in a mixture with a second odorant. Presence of a background odor when an odorant is associated with sucrose reinforcement decreases the rate and/or asymptotic level of associative strength that accumulates to that odorant. This interaction is in part due to synthetic qualities that arise in sensory transduction and initial processing. In addition, it involves an attention-like processing system like that involved in overshadowing. Therefore, a model that includes representations of the component and configural qualities of odorants in mixtures is needed to provide a more complete account of learning about odor mixtures. PMID:9877404

  13. On the formation of Be stars through binary interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yong; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2014-11-20

    Be stars are rapidly rotating B-type stars. The origin of their rapid rotation is not certain, but binary interaction remains as a possibility. In this work, we investigate the formation of Be stars resulting from mass transfer in binaries in the Galaxy. We calculate binary evolution with both stars evolving simultaneously and consider different possible mass accretion histories for the accretor. From the calculated results, we obtain the critical mass ratios q {sub cr} that determine the stability of the mass transfer. We also numerically calculate the parameter λ in common envelope evolution and then incorporate both q {sub cr} and λ into the population synthesis calculations. We present the predicted numbers and characteristics of Be stars in binary systems with different types of companions, including helium stars, white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. We find that in Be/neutron star binaries, the Be stars can have a lower mass limit ∼8 M {sub ☉} if they are formed by stable (i.e., without the occurrence of common envelope evolution) and nonconservative mass transfer. We demonstrate that isolated Be stars may originate from both mergers of two main-sequence stars and disrupted Be binaries during the supernova explosions of the primary stars, but mergers seem to play a much more important role. Finally, the fraction of Be stars that have involved binary interactions in all B-type stars can be as high as ∼13%-30%, implying that most Be stars may result from binary interaction.

  14. The structure and evolution of interacting binary galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borne, K. D.

    1983-08-01

    A numerical code was constructed for the study of the evolution of interacting binary galaxies. This "multiple three-body" algorithm (MTBA) essentially involves N concurrent three-body integrations. MTBA incorporates a violent relaxation phase that allows the particles to redistribute themselves in the gravitational field of the perturber prior to the full binary orbital evolution calculation. This redistribution is important for systems with an initially strong tidal potential; their predicted merger times are 50-100% larger than previously estimated. Merger times are tabulated both for circular and for elliptical orbits. Typical close binary galaxies will merge in about twice their initial binary oribtal periods. A specific interacting binary simulation is described in detail in the first paper. Many of the results reported here are consistent with those obtained from the larger, more expensive N-body simulations. MTBA is altered so that each "galaxy" is represented by a configuration of test particles.

  15. PatternCoder: A Programming Support Tool for Learning Binary Class Associations and Design Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, J. H.; Cheng, K. F.; Haddow, J.

    2009-01-01

    PatternCoder is a software tool to aid student understanding of class associations. It has a wizard-based interface which allows students to select an appropriate binary class association or design pattern for a given problem. Java code is then generated which allows students to explore the way in which the class associations are implemented in a…

  16. EVERY INTERACTING DOUBLE WHITE DWARF BINARY MAY MERGE

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Ken J.

    2015-05-20

    Interacting double white dwarf (WD) binaries can give rise to a wide variety of astrophysical outcomes ranging from faint thermonuclear and Type Ia supernovae to the formation of neutron stars and stably accreting AM Canum Venaticorum systems. One key factor affecting the final outcome is whether mass transfer remains dynamically stable or instead diverges, leading to the tidal disruption of the donor and the merger of the binary. It is typically thought that for low ratios of the donor mass to the accretor mass, mass transfer remains stable, especially if accretion occurs via a disk. In this Letter, we examine low mass ratio double WD binaries and find that the initial phase of hydrogen-rich mass transfer leads to a classical nova-like outburst on the accretor. Dynamical friction within the expanding nova shell shrinks the orbit and causes the mass transfer rate to increase dramatically above the accretor's Eddington limit, possibly resulting in a binary merger. If the binary survives the first hydrogen-rich nova outbursts, dynamical friction within the subsequent helium-powered nova shells pushes the system even more strongly toward merger. While further calculations are necessary to confirm this outcome for the entire range of binaries previously thought to be dynamically stable, it appears likely that most, if not all, interacting double WD binaries will merge during the course of their evolution.

  17. Binary-disk interaction. II. Gap-opening criteria for unequal-mass binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Del Valle, Luciano; Escala, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    We study the interaction of an unequal-mass binary with an isothermal circumbinary disk, motivated by the theoretical and observational evidence that after a major merger of gas-rich galaxies, a massive gaseous disk with a supermassive black hole binary will be formed in the nuclear region. We focus on the gravitational torques that the binary exerts on the disk and how these torques can drive the formation of a gap in the disk. This exchange of angular momentum between the binary and the disk is mainly driven by the gravitational interaction between the binary and a strong nonaxisymmetric density perturbation that is produced in the disk, in response to the presence of the binary. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics numerical simulations, we test two gap-opening criteria, one that assumes the geometry of the density perturbation is an ellipsoid/thick spiral and another that assumes a flat spiral geometry for the density perturbation. We find that the flat spiral gap-opening criterion successfully predicts which simulations will have a gap in the disk and which will not. We also study the limiting cases predicted by the gap-opening criteria. Since the viscosity in our simulations is considerably smaller than the expected value in the nuclear regions of gas-rich merging galaxies, we conclude that in such environments the formation of a circumbinary gap is unlikely.

  18. Interactions in Massive Colliding Wind Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corcoran, M.

    2012-01-01

    The most massive stars (M> 60 Solar Mass) play crucial roles in altering the chemical and thermodynamic properties of their host galaxies. Stellar mass is the fundamental stellar parameter that determines their ancillary properties and which ultimately determines the fate of these stars and their influence on their galactic environs. Unfortunately, stellar mass becomes observationally and theoretically less well constrained as it increases. Theory becomes uncertain mostly because very massive stars are prone to strong, variable mass loss which is difficult to model. Observational constraints are uncertain too. Massive stars are rare, and massive binary stars (needed for dynamical determination of mass) are rarer still: and of these systems only a fraction have suitably high orbital inclinations for direct photometric and spectroscopic radial-velocity analysis. Even in the small number of cases in which a high-inclination binary near the upper mass limit can be identified, rotational broadening and contamination of spectral line features from thick circumstellar material (either natal clouds or produced by strong stellar wind driven mass loss from one or both of he stellar components) biases the analysis. In the wilds of the upper HR diagram, we're often left with indirect and circumstantial means of determining mass, a rather unsatisfactory state of affairs.

  19. The Effect of Binary Interactions in Infrared Passbands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, F.; Li, L.; Han, Z.

    2008-10-01

    We present the integrated J, H, K, L, M and N magnitudes and the colours involving infrared bands, for an extensive set of instantaneous-burst binary stellar populations (BSPs) by using evolutionary population synthesis (EPS). By comparing the results for BSPs WITH and WITHOUT binary interactions we show that the inclusion of binary interactions makes the magnitudes of populations larger (fainter) and the integrated colours smaller (bluer) for τ ≥ 1 Gyr. Also, we compare our model magnitudes and colours with those of Bruzual & Charlot (2003, hereafter BC03) and Maraston (2005, hereafter M05). At last, we compare these model broad colours with Magellanic Clouds globular clusters (GCs) and Milky Way GCs. In (V - R)-[Fe/H] and (V - I)-[Fe/H] diagrams it seems that our models match the observations better than those of BC03 and M05.

  20. Binary interactions and multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dengkai

    2015-08-01

    Observations revealed the presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. We present a scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the abundance anomalous stars observed in GCs are the merged stars and the accretor stars produced by binary interactions, which are rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation. The stellar population with binaries can reproduce two important observational evidences of multiple stellar populations, the Na-O anticorrelation and the multiple sequences in HR diagram. This suggests that binary interactions may be a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs.

  1. The Peculiar Interacting Binary V644 Monocerotis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenberg, Jason P.

    1994-12-01

    Spectroscopic techniques have been used to model the V644 Mon (HD 51840) system, a single-line binary consisting of an early-type main sequence (B1 V) star and a mass-losing late-type supergiant (K0 I-II). High resolution CCD spectra of V644 Mon were obtained at the Ritter and McMath-Pierce Observatories between November 1993 and April 1994. An orbital solution yields a period of 120.6+/-0.1 days and semi-amplitude for the K star of 60.4+/-1.4 km/s. A v sin i \\ for the K star of 20+/-5 km/s is measured, and its bolometric magnitude and temperature suggest a radius near 80R_sun. From these data an inclination near 40 degrees is estimated for the system. Photometric evidence for ellipsoidal variations suggests that the K star is tidally deformed and transferring matter through the inner Lagrangian point onto and around the B star. A consistent model yields masses of 4M_sun \\ and 13M_sun \\ for the K and B stars, respectively, the former having lost as much as 10M_sun. This material is most likely responsible for the shell/wind iron peak absorption features observed by IUE against the UV continuum of the B star. Optical shell/wind lines are also observed at Hα , He I lambda 5875, Na I D, and Ca II K.

  2. Improving Interactions in the Large Language Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Patricia M.; Raymond, Jacques; Pilon, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Describes a prototypical microcomputer system that improves the interactions between teacher and large language classes in a traditional language classroom setting. This system achieves dynamic interactions through multiple student/professor interventions, immediate and delayed feedback, and individual teacher/student conferences. The system uses…

  3. SMA OBSERVATIONS OF CLASS 0 PROTOSTARS: A HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION SURVEY OF PROTOSTELLAR BINARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G.; Dunham, Michael M.; Zhang Qizhou; Bourke, Tyler L.; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas; Jorgensen, Jes K.; Lee, Chin-Fei; Foster, Jonathan B.; Pineda, Jaime E. E-mail: xuepeng.chen@yale.edu

    2013-05-10

    We present high angular resolution 1.3 mm and 850 {mu}m dust continuum data obtained with the Submillimeter Array toward 33 Class 0 protostars in nearby clouds (distance < 500 pc), which represents so far the largest survey toward protostellar binary/multiple systems. The median angular resolution in the survey is 2.''5, while the median linear resolution is approximately 600 AU. Compact dust continuum emission is observed from all sources in the sample. Twenty-one sources in the sample show signatures of binarity/multiplicity, with separations ranging from 50 AU to 5000 AU. The numbers of singles, binaries, triples, and quadruples in the sample are 12, 14, 5, and 2, respectively. The derived multiplicity frequency (MF) and companion star fraction (CSF) for Class 0 protostars are 0.64 {+-} 0.08 and 0.91 {+-} 0.05, respectively, with no correction for completeness. The derived MF and CSF in this survey are approximately two times higher than the values found in the binary surveys toward Class I young stellar objects, and approximately three (for MF) and four (for CSF) times larger than the values found among main-sequence stars, with a similar range of separations. Furthermore, the observed fraction of high-order multiple systems to binary systems in Class 0 protostars (0.50 {+-} 0.09) is also larger than the fractions found in Class I young stellar objects (0.31 {+-} 0.07) and main-sequence stars ({<=}0.2). These results suggest that binary properties evolve as protostars evolve, as predicted by numerical simulations. The distribution of separations for Class 0 protostellar binary/multiple systems shows a general trend in which CSF increases with decreasing companion separation. We find that 67% {+-} 8% of the protobinary systems have circumstellar mass ratios below 0.5, implying that unequal-mass systems are preferred in the process of binary star formation. We suggest an empirical sequential fragmentation picture for binary star formation, based on this work and

  4. Bubble-Turbulence Interaction in Binary Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    F, Battista; M, Froio; F, Picano; P, Gualtieri; M, Casciola C.

    2011-12-01

    Multiphase flows represent a central issue in many natural, biological and industrial fields. For instance, liquid jets vaporization, petroleum refining and boiling, emulsions in pharmaceutical applications, are all characterized by a disperse phase, such as solid particles or liquid bubbles, which evolve in a Newtonian carrier fluid. Features such as the global evaporation rates of liquid fuels in air or the homogeneity of the emulsions are controlled by the finest interaction details occurring between the two phases. In this paper we study the rising motion of a bubble induced by buoyancy in a viscous fluid. Usually this issue is tackled by tracking the bubble interface by means of sharp interface methods. However this approach requires "ad hoc" techniques to describe changes in the topological features of the deforming interface and to enforce the mass preservation. Here the problem is addressed by using a different philosophy based on a diffuse interface method, that allows a straightforward analysis of complex phenomena such as bubbles coalescence and break up without any numerical expedient. The model we adopt, funded on a solid thermodynamical and physical base, relies on the Cahn-Hilliard equation for the disperse phase, see Cahn & Hilliard (1958) and Elliott & Songmu (1986).

  5. Hierarchical Classes Models for Three-Way Three-Mode Binary Data: Interrelations and Model Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceulemans, Eva; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2005-01-01

    Several hierarchical classes models can be considered for the modeling of three-way three-mode binary data, including the INDCLAS model (Leenen, Van Mechelen, De Boeck, and Rosenberg, 1999), the Tucker3-HICLAS model (Ceulemans,VanMechelen, and Leenen, 2003), the Tucker2-HICLAS model (Ceulemans and Van Mechelen, 2004), and the Tucker1-HICLAS model…

  6. Identification of binary interactions between human cytomegalovirus virion proteins.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Stacia L; Bresnahan, Wade A

    2011-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) virions are composed of a DNA-containing nucleocapsid surrounded by a tegument layer and host-derived lipid envelope studded with virally encoded glycoproteins. These complex virions are estimated to be composed of more than 50 viral proteins. Assembly of HCMV virions is poorly understood, especially with respect to acquisition of the tegument; however, it is thought to involve the stepwise addition of virion components through protein-protein interactions. We sought to identify interactions among HCMV virion proteins using yeast two-hybrid analysis. Using 33 known capsid and tegument proteins, we tested 1,089 pairwise combinations for binary interaction in the two-hybrid assay. We identified 24 interactions among HCMV virion proteins, including 13 novel interactions among tegument proteins and one novel interaction between capsid proteins. Several of these novel interactions were confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation of protein complexes from transfected cells. In addition, we demonstrate three of these interactions in the context of HCMV infection. This study reveals several new protein-protein interactions among HCMV tegument proteins, some of which are likely important for HCMV replication and pathogenesis. PMID:20962080

  7. Topological-distance-dependent transition in flocks with binary interactions.

    PubMed

    Bhattacherjee, Biplab; Mishra, Shradha; Manna, S S

    2015-12-01

    We have studied a flocking model with binary interactions (binary flock), where the velocity of an agent depends on the velocity of only another agent and its own velocity, topped by the angular noise. The other agent is selected as the nth topological neighbor; the specific value of n being a fixed parameter of the problem. On the basis of extensive numerical simulation results, we argue that for n = 1, the phase transition from the ordered to the disordered phase of the flock is a special kind of discontinuous transition. Here, the order parameter does not flip-flop between multiple metastable states. It continues its initial disordered state for a period t(c), then switches over to the ordered state and remains in this state ever after. For n = 2, it is the usual discontinuous transition between two metastable states. Beyond this range, the continuous transitions are observed for n≥3. Such a system of binary flocks has been further studied using the hydrodynamic equations of motion. Linear stability analysis of the homogeneous polarized state shows that such a state is unstable close to the critical point and above some critical speed, which increases as we increase n. The critical noise strengths, which depend on the average correlation between a pair of topological neighbors, are estimated for five different values of n, which match well with their simulated values. PMID:26764659

  8. Critical adsorption and colloidal interaction in binary liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Sharmine; Omari, Rami; Grabowski, Christopher; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2015-03-01

    We studied critical adsorption on colloidal nanoparticles in binary liquid mixture of 2,6 lutidine + water by using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Our results indicated that the adsorbed film thickness is of the order of correlation length associated with concentration fluctuations. The excess adsorption per unit area increases following a power law in reduced temperature with an exponent of -1, which is the mean-field value for the bulk susceptibility exponent. The measurements at higher particle volume fractions, where particle-particle interaction becomes important, will be presented. Acknowledgements are made to the Donors of the American Chemical Society Petroleum Research fund (PRF # 51694-ND10) for support of this research.

  9. Coordinated observations of interacting peculiar red giant binaries, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ake, T.

    1995-01-01

    IUE Observations were begun for a two-year program to monitor the UV variability of three interacting peculiar red giant (PRG) binaries, HD 59643 (C6,s) HD 35155 (S3/2), and HR 1105 (S3.5/2.5). All of these systems were suspected to involve accretion of material from the PRG to a white-dwarf secondary, based mainly on previous IUE investigations. From our earlier surveys of PRG's, they were primary candidates to test the hypothesis that Tc-poor PRG's are formed as a result of mass transfer from a secondary component rather than from internal thermal pulsing while on the asymptotic red giant branch.

  10. Next-Generation Sequencing for Binary Protein–Protein Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Bernhard; Zhang, Xinmin; Pesce, C. Gustavo; Mendelsohn, Andrew R.; Dinesh-Kumar, Savithramma P.; Mao, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) system exploits host cell genetics in order to display binary protein–protein interactions (PPIs) via defined and selectable phenotypes. Numerous improvements have been made to this method, adapting the screening principle for diverse applications, including drug discovery and the scale-up for proteome wide interaction screens in human and other organisms. Here we discuss a systematic workflow and analysis scheme for screening data generated by Y2H and related assays that includes high-throughput selection procedures, readout of comprehensive results via next-generation sequencing (NGS), and the interpretation of interaction data via quantitative statistics. The novel assays and tools will serve the broader scientific community to harness the power of NGS technology to address PPI networks in health and disease. We discuss examples of how this next-generation platform can be applied to address specific questions in diverse fields of biology and medicine. PMID:26734059

  11. Detecting qualitative interactions in clinical trials with binary responses.

    PubMed

    Kitsche, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This study considers the detection of treatment-by-subset interactions in a stratified, randomised clinical trial with a binary-response variable. The focus lies on the detection of qualitative interactions. In addition, the presented method is useful more generally, as it can assess the inconsistency of the treatment effects among strata by using an a priori-defined inconsistency margin. The methodology presented is based on the construction of ratios of treatment effects. In addition to multiplicity-adjusted p-values, simultaneous confidence intervals are recommended to use in detecting the source and the amount of a potential qualitative interaction. The proposed method is demonstrated on a multi-regional trial using the open-source statistical software R. PMID:25049176

  12. A CLASS OF ECCENTRIC BINARIES WITH DYNAMIC TIDAL DISTORTIONS DISCOVERED WITH KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Susan E.; Barclay, Thomas; Howell, Steve B.; Still, Martin; Ibrahim, Khadeejah A.; Everett, Mark; Mullally, Fergal; Rowe, Jason; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Kurtz, Donald W.; Hambleton, Kelly

    2012-07-01

    We have discovered a class of eccentric binary systems within the Kepler data archive that have dynamic tidal distortions and tidally induced pulsations. Each has a uniquely shaped light curve that is characterized by periodic brightening or variability at timescales of 4-20 days, frequently accompanied by shorter period oscillations. We can explain the dominant features of the entire class with orbitally varying tidal forces that occur in close, eccentric binary systems. The large variety of light curve shapes arises from viewing systems at different angles. This hypothesis is supported by spectroscopic radial velocity measurements for five systems, each showing evidence of being in an eccentric binary system. Prior to the discovery of these 17 new systems, only four stars, where KOI-54 is the best example, were known to have evidence of these dynamic tides and tidally induced oscillations. We perform preliminary fits to the light curves and radial velocity data, present the overall properties of this class, and discuss the work required to accurately model these systems.

  13. Four classes of interactions for evolutionary games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, György; Bodó, Kinga S.; Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A.

    2015-08-01

    The symmetric four-strategy games are decomposed into a linear combination of 16 basis games represented by orthogonal matrices. Among these basis games four classes can be distinguished as it is already found for the three-strategy games. The games with self-dependent (cross-dependent) payoffs are characterized by matrices consisting of uniform rows (columns). Six of 16 basis games describe coordination-type interactions among the strategy pairs and three basis games span the parameter space of the cyclic components that are analogous to the rock-paper-scissors games. In the absence of cyclic components the game is a potential game and the potential matrix is evaluated. The main features of the four classes of games are discussed separately and we illustrate some characteristic strategy distributions on a square lattice in the low noise limit if logit rule controls the strategy evolution. Analysis of the general properties indicates similar types of interactions at larger number of strategies for the symmetric matrix games.

  14. Four classes of interactions for evolutionary games.

    PubMed

    Szabó, György; Bodó, Kinga S; Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A

    2015-08-01

    The symmetric four-strategy games are decomposed into a linear combination of 16 basis games represented by orthogonal matrices. Among these basis games four classes can be distinguished as it is already found for the three-strategy games. The games with self-dependent (cross-dependent) payoffs are characterized by matrices consisting of uniform rows (columns). Six of 16 basis games describe coordination-type interactions among the strategy pairs and three basis games span the parameter space of the cyclic components that are analogous to the rock-paper-scissors games. In the absence of cyclic components the game is a potential game and the potential matrix is evaluated. The main features of the four classes of games are discussed separately and we illustrate some characteristic strategy distributions on a square lattice in the low noise limit if logit rule controls the strategy evolution. Analysis of the general properties indicates similar types of interactions at larger number of strategies for the symmetric matrix games.

  15. Constraining the disk masses of the class I binary protostar GV Tau

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, Patrick D.; Eisner, Josh A.

    2014-08-10

    We present new spatially resolved 1.3 mm imaging with CARMA of the GV Tau system. GV Tau is a Class I binary protostar system in the Taurus Molecular Cloud, the components of which are separated by 1.''2. Each protostar is surrounded by a protoplanetary disk, and the pair may be surrounded by a circumbinary envelope. We analyze the data using detailed radiative transfer modeling of the system. We create synthetic protostar model spectra, images, and visibilities and compare them with CARMA 1.3 mm visibilities, a Hubble Space Telescope near-infrared scattered light image, and broadband spectral energy distributions from the literature to study the disk masses and geometries of the GV Tau disks. We show that the protoplanetary disks around GV Tau fall near the lower end of estimates of the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, and may have just enough mass to form giant planets. When added to the sample of Class I protostars from Eisner, we confirm that Class I protostars are on average more massive than their Class II counterparts. This suggests that substantial dust grain processing occurs between the Class I and Class II stages, and may help to explain why the Class II protostars do not appear to have, on average, enough mass in their disks to form giant planets.

  16. OVRO N2H+ Observations of Class 0 Protostars: Constraints on the Formation of Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xuepeng; Launhardt, Ralf; Henning, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    We present the results of an interferometric study of the N2H+ (1-0) emission from nine nearby, isolated, low-mass protostellar cores, using the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) millimeter array. The main goal of this study is the kinematic characterization of the cores in terms of rotation, turbulence, and fragmentation. Eight of the nine objects have compact N2H+ cores with FWHM radii of 1200-3500 AU, spatially coinciding with the thermal dust continuum emission. The one more evolved (Class I) object in the sample (CB 188) shows only faint and extended N2H+ emission. The mean N2H+ line width was found to be 0.37 km s-1. Estimated virial masses range from 0.3 to 1.2 Msolar. We find that thermal and turbulent energy support are about equally important in these cores, while rotational support is negligible. The measured velocity gradients across the cores range from 6 to 24 km s-1 pc-1. Assuming these gradients are produced by bulk rotation, we find that the specific angular momenta of the observed Class 0 protostellar cores are intermediate between those of dense (prestellar) molecular cloud cores and the orbital angular momenta of wide pre-main-sequence (PMS) binary systems. There appears to be no evolution (decrease) of angular momentum from the smallest prestellar cores via protostellar cores to wide PMS binary systems. In the context that most protostellar cores are assumed to fragment and form binary stars, this means that most of the angular momentum contained in the collapse region is transformed into orbital angular momentum of the resulting stellar binary systems.

  17. Coordinated observations of interacting peculiar red giant binaries, 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ake, T.

    1995-01-01

    IUE and H alpha observations continued on a two-year program to monitor the UV variability of three interacting peculiar red giant (PRG) binaries, HD 59643 (C6,s), HD 35155 (S3/2), and HR 1105 (S3.5/2.5). All of these systems were suspected to involve accretion of material from the PRG to a white-dwarf secondary, based mainly on previous IUE investigations. They were primary candidates from earlier surveys of PRG's to test the hypothesis that the Tc-poor PRG's are formed as a result of mass transfer from a secondary component rather than from internal thermal pulsing while on the asymptotic red giant branch.

  18. PG 1346+082 - An interacting binary white dwarf system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, M. A.; Winget, D. E.; Nather, R. E.; Liebert, James; Wesemael, F.

    1987-01-01

    PG 1346+082 is both a photometric and a spectroscopic variable, spanning the B-magnitude range 13.6-17.2. High-speed photometric data reveal rapid flickering in the low-state light curve. The system also shows spectroscopic variations, displaying broad shallow He I absorption lines at maximum light and a weak emission feature at He I (4471 A) at minimum light. Hydrogen lines are conspicuous by their absence. Is is concluded that PG 1346+082 is an interacting binary white dwarf system. Furthermore, because continuum fits to IUE high-state data suggest temperatures consistent with membership in the DB white dwarf instability strip, it is suggested that some of the photometric variations may arise from pulsations.

  19. FUSE Observations of the Active Interacting Binary RY Persei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, G. J.; Polidan, R. S.

    2003-12-01

    RY Per (HD 17034, B4 V + F7 II-III, P=6.86 d) is a massive interacting binary (6.25 M⊙ + 1.60 M⊙, Olson & Plavec 1997, AJ, 113, 425) that displays a variable weak accretion disk that emits in Hα (Barai, et al., preprint). FUSE observations of this system, carried through in 2002 October at phases 0.20, 0.57, and 0.97 and during its total eclipse on 2002 December 8 are presented. The totality data were binned into two phase intervals: 0.0056-0.9976 (after second contact) and 0.0052-0.0089 (just before third contact). Both eclipse observations reveal broad, prominent emission lines of N III (UV1, λ λ 990-992 Å), O VI (UV1, λ λ 1032,1038 Å), N II (UV1, λ λ 1084-1086 Å), Si III (UV5, λ λ 1108,1109,1113 Å), Si IV(UV3, λ λ 1122,1138 Å), and Fe III (UV1, λ λ 1122-32 Å). Emission from C III (UV4, λ 1176 Å) seen during totality in FUSE observations of the Algol binaries V356 Sgr and TT Hya is conspicuously absent. C III (UV1, λ 977 Å) is also absent. This observation combined with the strong presence of N II, III emission suggests that material processed through the CNO cycle in the mass loser is now being transferred to the B star. The FUSE data imply that the emitting plasma is hot ( ˜100,000-300,000 K) and located above/below the orbital plane. The source of this apparent bipolar flow (also seen in V356 Sgr and TT Hya) may be the splash region detected near phase 0.5 in IUE observations of the N V resonance line, but absorption features from this region were not seen in the non-eclipse FUSE observations. A model for the circumstellar material in this system will be presented and the FUSE observations will be compared with those of V356 Sgr and TT Hya. GJP is grateful for support from NASA Grant NAG5-12253.

  20. AM CVn Stars: Structure and Evolution of Ultra-Short Period Interacting Binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froning, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This is the final report of a FUSE program to study the physics of accretion and outflows in ultra-compact, helium dominated, disk-accreting binaries. With FUSE, we observed the AM CVn binary V803 Cen, which is one of only two AM CVn systems observed by FUSE to date. V803 Cen is a short-period interacting binary in which a hydrogen-deficient white dwarf transfers mass to another white dwarf via a hot, steady-state accretion disk. Unlike other cataclysmic variables (CVs), AM CVn stars have undergone double common envelope evolution (one for each white dwarf in the binary) and so probe an alternate route of evolution in binary stars. Our goals in this project were to investigate how the structure of the accretion disk and the link between the disk and wind outflows are affected by the absence of hydrogen in the system and by the compact size of the binary and the accretion disk.

  1. An interacting binary system powers precessing outflows of an evolved star.

    PubMed

    Boffin, Henri M J; Miszalski, Brent; Rauch, Thomas; Jones, David; Corradi, Romano L M; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Day-Jones, Avril C; Köppen, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    Stars are generally spherical, yet their gaseous envelopes often appear nonspherical when ejected near the end of their lives. This quirk is most notable during the planetary nebula phase, when these envelopes become ionized. Interactions among stars in a binary system are suspected to cause the asymmetry. In particular, a precessing accretion disk around a companion is believed to launch point-symmetric jets, as seen in the prototype Fleming 1. Our finding of a post-common-envelope binary nucleus in Fleming 1 confirms that this scenario is highly favorable. Similar binary interactions are therefore likely to explain these kinds of outflows in a large variety of systems. PMID:23139326

  2. An interacting binary system powers precessing outflows of an evolved star.

    PubMed

    Boffin, Henri M J; Miszalski, Brent; Rauch, Thomas; Jones, David; Corradi, Romano L M; Napiwotzki, Ralf; Day-Jones, Avril C; Köppen, Joachim

    2012-11-01

    Stars are generally spherical, yet their gaseous envelopes often appear nonspherical when ejected near the end of their lives. This quirk is most notable during the planetary nebula phase, when these envelopes become ionized. Interactions among stars in a binary system are suspected to cause the asymmetry. In particular, a precessing accretion disk around a companion is believed to launch point-symmetric jets, as seen in the prototype Fleming 1. Our finding of a post-common-envelope binary nucleus in Fleming 1 confirms that this scenario is highly favorable. Similar binary interactions are therefore likely to explain these kinds of outflows in a large variety of systems.

  3. Case study of binary and ternary synthetic discriminant function filters with similar in-class and out-of-class images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downie, John D.

    1993-01-01

    A simulation study is reported of the performance of two designs of ternary synthetic discriminant function (SDF) filters. The filters are compared to binary SDFs in terms of the probability of correct identification P(ID) between in-class and out-of-class image sets. Compared to binary synthetic discriminant function (BSDF) filters, both ternary SDF filters designs offer improved performance in P(ID) and thus allow extension of the maximum filter direction range when evaluated in the presence of white image noise. Larger distortion range filters translate to fewer correlations required to perform image identification, and thus higher system speed. The TSDF(SNR) filters had the highest of system performance, while TSDF(d) filters were able to improve discrimination to a degree, but their optimal designs had essentially the same SNR performance as the BSDF filters.

  4. The formation of primordial binaries in globular clusters by star-disk interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, Stephen D.; Clarke, C. J.; Pringle, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    The formation of primordial binaries in globular clusters is examined using simple numerical models. Clusters of protostars collapse until their velocity dispersion rises sufficiently to reverse the infall and the cluster reaches equilibrium. During the collapse, interactions between stars and protostellar disks lead to stellar capture. It is found that binary fraction of a few percent typically result. Binary formation is terminated when the velocity dispersion rises to a point at which most encounters result in disk destruction rather than capture. As a result, much gas is returned to the cluster ISM, limiting the star formation efficiency to a value significantly below 100 percent.

  5. Interactive stars - Normal and compact stars in close binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swank, J. H.

    1990-01-01

    The missions planned for the 1990's will greatly expand the knowledge of close binary systems and the physical phenomena that can be studied in a member of a close binary, from stellar active regions to the highest density black hole candidates known. These systems and the phenomena are reviewed with reference to major outstanding questions, the expected capability to answer them, and the expansion of capability that would be necessary. A 'super' XMM or LAMAR experiment with larger area, but similar moderate energy resolution and moderate spatial resolution, could detect 0.1 millisecond bursts from Cyg X-1 and 1 millisecond bursts in quiescent black hole candidates, measure Doppler and gravitational energy shifts in the iron line features for black holes and neutron stars. It would also identify these objects in galaxies a few Mpc away and open the way for evolution studies. A somewhat less ambitious goal would be high energy resolution of about the area of LAMAR to make full use of the information in the emission lines in both normal and compact binaries.

  6. A Handy Interactive Class for Teaching Introductory Cell Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hande, Shyamala

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we share the experience of an interactive method of teaching that involves every student in the learning process in the classroom. We describe an interactive class conducted over a two year period for premedical students. The process involved three stages namely a study session, a test-yourself session and a review session. Through…

  7. Energy distribution in the strongly interacting binary system SX Cassiopeiae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.; Weiland, J. L.; Koch, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    IUE spectra and optical scans covering the 110-680 nm interval were obtained in a search for a source which would resolve the anomalous presence of strong Balmer emission lines in the SX Cas eclipsing binary system, which is inconsistent with the usual spectral classification of the components as A6 III + G6 III. The IUE spectra unexpectedly show such strong emission lines as those of C IV, N V and Si IV, which require higher temperatures that the already anomalously high Balmer lines, and a continuum several magnitudes higher than the extrapolated continuum of an A6 star. A model in which the UV continuum originates in the transition zone between the A6 star and an accretion disk fails to reproduce the observed energy distribution. A revision of component spectral types to B7 + K3 III removes the UV excess.

  8. Identification of five interacting binaries in the galactic bulge survey

    SciTech Connect

    Britt, C. T.; Hynes, R. I.; Mikles, V. J.; Gossen, L.; Torres, M. A. P.; Jonker, P. G.; Maccarone, T. J.; Knigge, C.; Dieball, A.; Greiss, S.; Steeghs, D.; Groot, P.; Nelemans, G.

    2013-06-01

    We present optical light curves, spectroscopy, and classification of five X-ray sources in the Chandra Galactic Bulge Survey (CXOGBS J174009.1–284725 (CX5), CXOGBS J173935.7–272935 (CX18), CXOGBS J173946.9–271809 (CX28), CXOGBS J173729.1–292804 (CX37), CXOGBS J174607.6–261547 (CX561)). These objects were selected based on bright optical counterparts which were quickly found to have emission lines in their optical spectra. This paper presents an illustration of GBS optical follow-up, targeting emission line objects. Of these five objects, four exhibit photometric variability in the Sloan r' band. CX5 shows a tentative period of 2.1 hr and is clearly an intermediate polar (IP). CX28 and CX37 both exhibit flickering with no clear period. Both are also suggested to be IPs. CX18 was observed to undergo two dwarf nova outbursts. Finally, CX561 shows no detectable variability, although its characteristics would be consistent with either a quiescent low-mass X-ray binary or cataclysmic variable.

  9. Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-07-01

    Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10‑2 M ⊙ yr‑1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr‑1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.

  10. Binary interactions with high accretion rates onto main sequence stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiber, Sagiv; Schreier, Ron; Soker, Noam

    2016-07-01

    Energetic outflows from main sequence stars accreting mass at very high rates might account for the powering of some eruptive objects, such as merging main sequence stars, major eruptions of luminous blue variables, e.g., the Great Eruption of Eta Carinae, and other intermediate luminosity optical transients (ILOTs; red novae; red transients). These powerful outflows could potentially also supply the extra energy required in the common envelope process and in the grazing envelope evolution of binary systems. We propose that a massive outflow/jets mediated by magnetic fields might remove energy and angular momentum from the accretion disk to allow such high accretion rate flows. By examining the possible activity of the magnetic fields of accretion disks, we conclude that indeed main sequence stars might accrete mass at very high rates, up to ≈ 10-2 M ⊙ yr-1 for solar type stars, and up to ≈ 1 M ⊙ yr-1 for very massive stars. We speculate that magnetic fields amplified in such extreme conditions might lead to the formation of massive bipolar outflows that can remove most of the disk's energy and angular momentum. It is this energy and angular momentum removal that allows the very high mass accretion rate onto main sequence stars.

  11. The FUSE Survey of Algol-Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Andersson, B.; Ake, T. B.; Sankrit, R.

    2006-12-01

    A survey of Algol binaries at random phases is currently being carried through with the FUSE spacecraft as part of the FUSE survey and supplemental program. A similar program was undertaken in FUSE Cycle 3. Both programs have produced multiple observations of 12 Algol systems with periods ranging from 1.2 37 d and include direct-impact and disk systems. We report on the status of the program. The absence of O VI absorption in the systems observed to date allows us to place an upper limit on the column density and temperature of the High Temperature Accretion Region, HTAR ( 100,000 K) confirmed in some Algols from earlier IUE data. The HTAR plasma component appears to be distinct from an O VI-emitting polar plasma discovered in FUSE totality observations of RY Per, V356 Sgr, and TT Hya. New observations of the direct-impact system U Cep have provided more information on the geometry and mass flow (including a splash plasma) in the vicinity of a hot spot at phase 0.90 that was discovered earlier. The extent of disk asymmetries in the long period ( 33 d) systems SX Cas and RX Cas is discussed. Models for direct-impact and the disk systems will be presented. The authors appreciate support from NASA grants NAG5-12253, NNG04GL17G, and NAS5-32985.

  12. DC CIRCUIT POWERED BY ORBITAL MOTION: MAGNETIC INTERACTIONS IN COMPACT OBJECT BINARIES AND EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Lai Dong

    2012-09-20

    The unipolar induction DC circuit model, originally developed by Goldreich and Lynden-Bell for the Jupiter-Io system, has been applied to different types of binary systems in recent years. We show that there exists an upper limit to the magnetic interaction torque and energy dissipation rate in such a model. This arises because when the resistance of the circuit is too small, the large current flow severely twists the magnetic flux tube connecting the two binary components, leading to the breakdown of the circuit. Applying this limit, we find that in coalescing neutron star binaries, magnetic interactions produce negligible correction to the phase evolution of the gravitational waveform, even for magnetar-like field strengths. However, energy dissipation in the binary magnetosphere may still give rise to electromagnetic radiation prior to the final merger. For ultracompact white dwarf binaries, we find that unipolar induction does not provide adequate energy dissipation to explain the observed X-ray luminosities of several sources. For exoplanetary systems containing close-in Jupiters or super-Earths, the magnetic torque and energy dissipation induced by the orbital motion are negligible, except possibly during the early T Tauri phase, when the stellar magnetic field is stronger than 10{sup 3} G.

  13. Eutectic interactions in binary systems containing cholesterol, cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols.

    PubMed

    Dorset, D L

    1990-11-12

    Binary phase behavior of saturated cholesterol esters with trilaurin or cholesterol, and cholesterol with trilaurin, is studied. The existence of specific molecular interactions is detected by comparing the liquidus curve of the eutectic with ideal theory of freezing point depression and correcting the theoretical curve with the Bragg-Williams model when necessary. X-ray data indicate that all eutectic solids are nearly totally fractionated. The phase diagrams are sometimes well-explained by ideal solution theory indicating that polar interactions (e.g., the hydrogen bonding of cholesterol) are much less important than van der Waals interactions between neighboring molecules. However, the hydrogen bonding networks of cholesterol can lead to nonideal solution behavior with other lipids, a phenomenon consistent with previous observations on simpler molecular binaries. An observed nonideal solution behavior of triacylglycerol with cholesterol esters, on the other hand, is unexpected since significant polar interactions are expected to be 'buried' in the predominant nonpolar volume of the molecules involved.

  14. Micellar solubilization in strongly interacting binary surfactant systems. [Binary surfactant systems of: dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate; benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethylammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Treiner, C. ); Nortz, M.; Vaution, C. )

    1990-07-01

    The apparent partition coefficient P of barbituric acids between micelles and water has been determined in mixed binary surfactant solutions from solubility measurements in the whole micellar composition range. The binary systems chosen ranged from the strongly interacting system dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride + sodium dodecyl sulfate to weakly interacting systems such as benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium chloride + tetradecyltrimethyammonium chloride. In all cases studied, mixed micelle formation is unfavorable to micellar solubilization. A correlation is found between the unlike surfactants interaction energy, as measured by the regular solution parameter {beta} and the solute partition coefficient change upon surfactant mixing. By use of literature data on micellar solubilization in binary surfactant solutions, it is shown that the change of P for solutes which are solubilized by surface adsorption is generally governed by the sign and amplitude of the interaction parameter {beta}.

  15. Interaction between Hele-Shaw flows and binary solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buddhavarapu, Sudhir S.

    A fair amount of work has been done in studying the stability aspects of the solid-liquid interface in a binary solidification process. Most of the earlier studies have looked into the linear ([76]) and nonlinear stability ([111] [99]) analyses of a pure morphological case, where the instability arises due to the discontinuity in the solute concentration across the interface. Also, significant theoretical work has been performed in the past to study the effects of natural and externally imposed flows ([28] [20] [87] [11]) on the pure morphological instability. All of the flows in the previous works have been viscous in nature. Significant experimental works ([29] [38] [39]) have studied the planar to cellular transition of the crystal. Experiments on board space shuttles flown by NASA have indicated the possibility of manufacturing high quality crystals in microgravity. Hele-Shaw cells provide a viable and a relatively inexpensive way to simulate microgravity in the terrestrial environment. A relatively unexplored topic is the study of the effects of flows encountered in Hele-Shaw cells, which are typically irrotational in nature ([45]). Theoretical, experimental and computational models are lacking in this regards. To understand the effect of irrotational flows on the interface growth, we carry out a detailed linear stability analysis for a case where we impose a parallel potential flow initially across the interface. Results indicate that it is possible to stabilize an otherwise unstable interface by imposing a large enough parallel mean flow across the interface, although this generates traveling interfacial waves. We build a highly accurate numerical model to simulate the fully nonlinear equations in order to capture the dynamics near the interface. We validate our model by comparing with the linear stability results from both the pure morphological case and the convective case. Excellent agreement is obtained for a wide range of wavenumbers and parameters at

  16. Interpretation of Association Behavior and Molecular Interactions in Binary Mixtures from Thermoacoustics and Molecular Compression Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Rajeev K.; Kumar, Atul; Srivastava, Urvashi; Srivastava, Kirti; Pandey, Vivek K.

    2016-09-01

    Density and acoustic velocity were measured for binary liquid mixtures of formamide, N-methylacetamide (NMA), dimethylformamide (DMF), and dimethylacetamide (DMA) with acetonitrile at atmospheric pressure and 293.15 K, 298.15 K, 303.15 K, 308.15 K, or 313.15 K over the concentration range 0.12 to 0.97. Models assuming association and nonassociation of the components of the mixtures were used to predict the behavior of the studied liquids, which would typically show weak interactions. The measured properties were fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial to estimate the binary coefficients and standard errors. The data were used to study the molecular interactions in the binary mixtures. Furthermore, the McAllister multibody interaction model was used to correlate the properties of the binary liquid mixtures. Testing of the nonassociation and association models for the different systems showed that, compared with the nonassociation model theoretical results, the association model theoretical results were more consistent with the experimental results.

  17. Solitary waves on inclined films: Flow structure and binary interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malamataris, N. A.; Vlachogiannis, M.; Bontozoglou, V.

    2002-03-01

    The downstream evolution of disturbances, introduced at the inlet of a liquid film flowing along an inclined plane wall, is studied numerically by solving the full, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equation. Computational results are validated against the predictions of spatial linear stability analysis and against detailed data of the entire evolution process. The structure of the flow field below the waves is analyzed, and the results are used to test assumptions frequently invoked in the theoretical study of film flow by long-wave equations. An interesting prediction is that solitary waves exhibit strongly nonparabolic velocity profiles in front of the main hump, including a slim region of backflow. The computational scheme is subsequently used to study solitary wave interactions. It is predicted that coalescence (the inelastic collision of two humps) is not inevitable but occurs only when the waves differ appreciably in height. Waves of similar size repel monotonically, whereas for intermediate differences in height a strong oscillatory interaction between the two humps is predicted. Encouraging qualitative agreement with the limited experimental information available is noted.

  18. Energy level realignment in weakly interacting donor-acceptor binary molecular networks.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jian-Qiang; Qin, Xinming; Zhang, Jia-Lin; Kera, Satoshi; Ueno, Nobuo; Wee, Andrew Thye Shen; Yang, Jinlong; Chen, Wei

    2014-02-25

    Understanding the effect of intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions on molecular electronic states is key to revealing the energy level alignment mechanism at organic-organic heterojunctions or organic-inorganic interfaces. In this paper, we investigate the energy level alignment mechanism in weakly interacting donor-acceptor binary molecular superstructures, comprising copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F16CuPc) intermixed with copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), or manganese phthalocynine (MnPc) on graphite. The molecular electronic structures have been systematically studied by in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (LT-STM/STS) experiments and corroborated by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. As demonstrated by the UPS and LT-STM/STS measurements, the observed unusual energy level realignment (i.e., a large downward shift in donor HOMO level and a corresponding small upward shift in acceptor HOMO level) in the CuPc-F16CuPc binary superstructures originates from the balance between intermolecular and molecule-substrate interactions. The enhanced intermolecular interactions through the hydrogen bonding between neighboring CuPc and F16CuPc can stabilize the binary superstructures and modify the local molecular electronic states. The obvious molecular energy level shift was explained by gap-state-mediated interfacial charge transfer. PMID:24433044

  19. Abundance anomalies of carbon and nitrogen in the IUE spectra of Algol-type interacting binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluskey, Carolina P. S.

    1990-01-01

    There are two primary ways in which the products of nucleosynthesis in stellar interiors may appear at the surface of a star. These are mixing and/or loss of the original unburned stellar envelope. In interacting binaries, overflow can contribute dramatically to envelope loss. The simplest abundance anomalies to be expected from nuclear burning of hydrogen, helium, or carbon would be under or over abundances H, He, C, O, Ne, and Mg. In addition, it is expected that carbon is initially severely depleted, while nitrogen is enhanced during hydrogen burning via the CNO cycle in stars above two solar masses. Other, more subtle anomalies are also expected, and elements heavier than magnesium can be created during very late evolution by nuclear burning in massive stars. Consequently, it is expected that abundance anomalies of various kinds should occur in interacting binaries where one or both stars have lost significant amounts of mass.

  20. Optical observations of the unusual interacting binary V644 Monocerotis (HD 51480)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, Bernard W.; Dempsey, Robert C.

    1989-01-01

    New optical spectroscopic and UBV photometric observations of the bright Be/shell star V644 Mon (HD 51480) are presented. The object, which has been described as an interacting binary system, exhibits strong, variable Balmer emission as well as numerous metallic emission features in the blue. No signs of absorption features due to any late-type companion are seen at wavelengths below 6500 A.

  1. Optical observations of the unusual interacting binary V644 Monocerotis (HD 51480)

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, B.W.; Dempsey, R.C. )

    1989-11-01

    New optical spectroscopic and UBV photometric observations of the bright Be/shell star V644 Mon (HD 51480) are presented. The object, which has been described as an interacting binary system, exhibits strong, variable Balmer emission as well as numerous metallic emission features in the blue. No signs of absorption features due to any late-type companion are seen at wavelengths below 6500 A. 9 refs.

  2. Interactive or Inactive? A Consideration of the Nature of Interaction in Whole Class Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Chris; Myhill, Debra

    2004-01-01

    Recent learning theories and the suggested importance of 'interactive' approaches in national initiatives, (NLS, NNS) led to an ESRC-funded action research project involving the University of Exeter and teachers in three schools--'Using Talk to Activate Learners' Knowledge' (TALK). This investigated how 'interactive' whole class teaching was and…

  3. Using the Generalized Index of Dissimilarity to Detect Gene-Gene Interactions in Multi-Class Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Jaeyong; Kim, Yongkang; Park, Taesung; Park, Mira

    2016-01-01

    To find genetic association between complex diseases and phenotypic traits, one important procedure is conducting a joint analysis. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) is an efficient method of examining the interactions between genes in genetic association studies. It commonly assumes a dichotomous classification of the binary phenotypes. Its usual approach to determining the genomic association is to construct a confusion matrix to estimate a classification error, where a binary risk status is determined and assigned to each genotypic multifactor class. While multi-class phenotypes are commonly observed, the current MDR approach does not handle these phenotypes appropriately because the thresholds for the risk statuses may not be clear. In this study, we suggest a new method for estimating gene-gene interactions for multi-class phenotypes. Our approach adopts the index of dissimilarity (IDS) as an evaluation measure. This is analytically equivalent to the common association measure of balanced accuracy (BA) for the binary traits, while it is not required to determine the risk status for the estimation. Moreover, it is easily expandable to the generalized index of dissimilarity (GIDS), which has an explicit form that can handle any number of categories. The performance of the proposed method was compared with those of other approaches via simulation studies in which fifteen genetic models were generated with three class outcomes. A consistently better performance was observed using the proposed method. The effect of a varying number of categories was examined. The proposed method was also illustrated using real genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. PMID:27556585

  4. Using the Generalized Index of Dissimilarity to Detect Gene-Gene Interactions in Multi-Class Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Yee, Jaeyong; Kim, Yongkang; Park, Taesung; Park, Mira

    2016-01-01

    To find genetic association between complex diseases and phenotypic traits, one important procedure is conducting a joint analysis. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) is an efficient method of examining the interactions between genes in genetic association studies. It commonly assumes a dichotomous classification of the binary phenotypes. Its usual approach to determining the genomic association is to construct a confusion matrix to estimate a classification error, where a binary risk status is determined and assigned to each genotypic multifactor class. While multi-class phenotypes are commonly observed, the current MDR approach does not handle these phenotypes appropriately because the thresholds for the risk statuses may not be clear. In this study, we suggest a new method for estimating gene-gene interactions for multi-class phenotypes. Our approach adopts the index of dissimilarity (IDS) as an evaluation measure. This is analytically equivalent to the common association measure of balanced accuracy (BA) for the binary traits, while it is not required to determine the risk status for the estimation. Moreover, it is easily expandable to the generalized index of dissimilarity (GIDS), which has an explicit form that can handle any number of categories. The performance of the proposed method was compared with those of other approaches via simulation studies in which fifteen genetic models were generated with three class outcomes. A consistently better performance was observed using the proposed method. The effect of a varying number of categories was examined. The proposed method was also illustrated using real genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data from the Korean Association Resource (KARE) project. PMID:27556585

  5. Analytical modeling and experimental investigation on optical properties of new class of nanofluids (Al2O3-CuO binary nanofluids) for direct absorption solar thermal energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menbari, Amir; Alemrajabi, Ali Akbar

    2016-02-01

    Nanofluids play a major role in many modern engineering processes. Binary nanofluids are a new class of nanofluids that are prepared by dispersing simultaneously two dissimilar nanoparticles in a base fluid. They offer a good potential for use in direct absorption solar systems. The present study investigates both experimentally and analytically the optical properties of binary nanofluids for direct absorption in solar applications. For this purpose, two dissimilar nanoparticles, i.e. CuO and γ-Al2O3, are dispersed in water, ethylene glycol, and the ethylene glycol-water mixture to form binary nanofluids. In addition, a new method is developed for calculating the extinction coefficient of the binary nanofluids based on the classical electromagnetic theory. It will be shown that the extinction coefficients obtained from both analytical and experimental studies are in good agreement. Moreover, the extinction coefficient of the binary nanofluids is found to be approximately equal to the sum of the extinction coefficients of the constituent components, determined both analytically and experimentally. By increasing the nanoparticle volume fraction, improvements are observed in the extinction coefficient of the binary nanofluids prepared. Also, the analytical and experimental results of the study show that the extinction coefficient of the binary nanoparticles dispersed in water as the "base fluid" is greater than those of the binary nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol or the mixture of ethylene glycol-water.

  6. Adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a random heterogeneous surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.

    1992-10-01

    Analytical expressions for the adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a heterogeneous surface are developed. The lateral interactions are of the Bragg-Williams type and the surface heterogeneity is modeled via a random distribution of sites described by a uniform distribution of Henry`s Law constants. The parametric study shows that complex phase behavior can be predicted, including azeotropes and sigmoidal shaped X-Y diagrams. Also, this model may be useful for modeling and designing adsorption processes as it requires few iterations to simultaneously solve the implicit and coupled algebraic expressions.

  7. Adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a random heterogeneous surface

    SciTech Connect

    Ritter, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Analytical expressions for the adsorption of a binary gas mixture which laterally interacts on a heterogeneous surface are developed. The lateral interactions are of the Bragg-Williams type and the surface heterogeneity is modeled via a random distribution of sites described by a uniform distribution of Henry's Law constants. The parametric study shows that complex phase behavior can be predicted, including azeotropes and sigmoidal shaped X-Y diagrams. Also, this model may be useful for modeling and designing adsorption processes as it requires few iterations to simultaneously solve the implicit and coupled algebraic expressions.

  8. Modeling the Dynamics of Tidally Interacting Binary Neutron Stars up to the Merger.

    PubMed

    Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Nagar, Alessandro; Dietrich, Tim; Damour, Thibault

    2015-04-24

    The data analysis of the gravitational wave signals emitted by coalescing neutron star binaries requires the availability of an accurate analytical representation of the dynamics and waveforms of these systems. We propose an effective-one-body model that describes the general relativistic dynamics of neutron star binaries from the early inspiral up to the merger. Our effective-one-body model incorporates an enhanced attractive tidal potential motivated by recent analytical advances in the post-Newtonian and gravitational self-force description of relativistic tidal interactions. No fitting parameters are introduced for the description of tidal interaction in the late, strong-field dynamics. We compare the model energetics and the gravitational wave phasing with new high-resolution multiorbit numerical relativity simulations of equal-mass configurations with different equations of state. We find agreement within the uncertainty of the numerical data for all configurations. Our model is the first semianalytical model that captures the tidal amplification effects close to merger. It thereby provides the most accurate analytical representation of binary neutron star dynamics and waveforms currently available. PMID:25955043

  9. Non-conservative evolution in short-period interacting binaries with the BINSTAR code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, Romain; Siess, Lionel; Braun, Killian; Jorissen, Alain; Davis, Philip

    2014-09-01

    Systemic mass loss in interacting binaries such as of the Algol type has been inferred since the 1950s. There is indeed gathering indirect evidence indicating that some Algols follow non-conservative evolution, but still no direct detection of large mass outflows. As a result, little is known about the eventual ejection mechanism, the total amount of mass ejected or the specific angular momentum carried with this outflow. In order to reconcile stellar models and observations, we compute Algol models with the state-of-the-art binary star evolution code BINSTAR. We investigate systemic mass losses within the hotspot paradigm, where large outflows of material form from the accretion impact during the mass transfer phase. We then study the impact of this outflow on the spectral emission distribution of the system with the radiative transfer codes CLOUDY and SKIRT.

  10. Interacting binary galaxies. III. Observations of NGC 1587/1588 and NGC 7236/7237

    SciTech Connect

    Borne, K.D.; Hoessel, J.G.

    1988-07-01

    The catalog of isolated galaxy pairs prepared by Karachentsev has been culled for its E-E constituents, and the results are reported. Radial variations of rotation velocity and velocity dispersion are extracted from the spectroscopic data for each of the two galaxies of a given pair. Such observations are described for two Karachentsev pairs, Nos. 99 and 564. The observed disturbances in rotation velocity and luminosity distribution are discussed in terms of the gravitational interaction hypothesis. It is argued that observational evidence of tidal friction in action is evidenced by these findings. One of the highest rotation rates known for an E2 galaxy of average luminosity is found in NGC 1587, the brighter component of K99. Because this rotation is in the same sense as the binary orbital motion, the net angular momentum in this isolated binary system is large, challenging simple tidal torque theories to identify the source of the momentum. 62 references.

  11. Nonlocal quartic interactions and universality classes in perovskite manganites.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rohit; Dutta, Kishore; Nandy, Malay K

    2015-07-01

    A modified Ginzburg-Landau model with a screened nonlocal interaction in the quartic term is treated via Wilson's renormalization-group scheme at one-loop order to explore the critical behavior of the paramagnetic-to-ferromagnetic phase transition in perovskite manganites. We find the Fisher exponent η to be O(ε) and the correlation exponent to be ν=1/2+O(ε) through epsilon expansion in the parameter ε=d(c)-d, where d is the space dimension, d(c)=4+2σ is the upper critical dimension, and σ is a parameter coming from the nonlocal interaction in the model Hamiltonian. The ensuing critical exponents in three dimensions for different values of σ compare well with various existing experimental estimates for perovskite manganites with various doping levels. This suggests that the nonlocal model Hamiltonian contains a wide variety of such universality classes. PMID:26274140

  12. PG0027 + 260 - An example of a class of cataclysmic binaries with mysterious, but consistent, behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorstensen, John R.; Ringwald, F. A.; Wade, Richard A.; Schmidt, Gary D.; Norsworthy, Jane E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports extensive optical observations on the PG0027 + 260 binary, carried out on August 1984 with the 1.3 McGraw-Hill telescope and Mark II spectrometer at Michigan-Dartmouth-MIT Observatory on Kitt Peak. It is shown that this object is an eclipsing novalike variable with an orbital period of 3.51 hr. The PG0027 + 260 displays several unexplained phenomena which are remarkably similar to those of the SW Sex, DW UMa, and V1315 Aql, which are eclipsing novalike stars with periods between 3 and 4 hrs. The eclipse of the PG0027 + 260 is modeled, and it is shown that, while the mean eclipse light curve is easy to match, there is no simple explanation for the variable depth.

  13. Interaction between mosquito-larvicidal Lysinibacillus sphaericus binary toxin components: analysis of complex formation.

    PubMed

    Kale, Avinash; Hire, Ramesh S; Hadapad, Ashok B; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Kumar, Vinay

    2013-11-01

    The two components (BinA and BinB) of Lysinibacillus sphaericus binary toxin together are highly toxic to Culex and Anopheles mosquito larvae, and have been employed world-wide to control mosquito borne diseases. Upon binding to the membrane receptor an oligomeric form (BinA2.BinB2) of the binary toxin is expected to play role in pore formation. It is not clear if these two proteins interact in solution as well, in the absence of receptor. The interactions between active forms of BinA and BinB polypeptides were probed in solution using size-exclusion chromatography, pull-down assay, surface plasmon resonance, circular dichroism, and by chemically crosslinking BinA and BinB components. We demonstrate that the two proteins interact weakly with first association and dissociation rate constants of 4.5×10(3) M(-1) s(-1) and 0.8 s(-1), resulting in conformational change, most likely, in toxic BinA protein that could kinetically favor membrane translocation of the active oligomer. The weak interactions between the two toxin components could be stabilized by glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The cross-linked complex, interestingly, showed maximal Culex larvicidal activity (LC50 value of 1.59 ng mL(-1)) reported so far for combination of BinA/BinB components, and thus is an attractive option for development of new bio-pesticides for control of mosquito borne vector diseases.

  14. Cohesin regulates MHC class II genes through interactions with MHC class II insulators.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Parimal; Boss, Jeremy M

    2011-10-15

    Cohesin is a multiprotein, ringed complex that is most well-known for its role in stabilizing the association of sister chromatids between S phase and M. More recently, cohesin was found to be associated with transcriptional insulators, elements that are associated with the organization of chromatin into regulatory domains. The human MHC class II (MHC-II) locus contains 10 intergenic elements, termed MHC-II insulators, which bind the transcriptional insulator protein CCCTC-binding factor. MHC-II insulators interact with each other, forming a base architecture of discrete loops and potential regulatory domains. When MHC-II genes are expressed, their proximal promoter regulatory regions reorganize to the foci established by the interacting MHC-II insulators. MHC-II insulators also bind cohesin, but the functional role of cohesin in regulating this system is not known. In this article, we show that the binding of cohesin to MHC-II insulators occurred irrespective of MHC-II expression but was required for optimal expression of the HLA-DR and HLA-DQ genes. In a DNA-dependent manner, cohesin subunits interacted with CCCTC-binding factor and the MHC-II-specific transcription factors regulatory factor X and CIITA. Intriguingly, cohesin subunits were important for DNA looping interactions between the HLA-DRA promoter region and a 5' MHC-II insulator but were not required for interactions between the MHC-II insulators themselves. This latter observation introduces cohesin as a regulator of MHC-II expression by initiating or stabilizing MHC-II promoter regulatory element interactions with the MHC-II insulator elements, events that are required for maximal MHC-II transcription.

  15. Binary interactions as a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Dengkai; Han, Zhanwen; Li, Lifang E-mail: zhanwenhan@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-07-01

    Observations have revealed the presence of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters (GCs) that exhibit wide abundance variations and multiple sequences in the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. We present a scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs. In this scenario, initial GCs are single-generation clusters, and our model predicts that the stars with anomalous abundances observed in GCs are merged stars and accretor stars produced by binary interactions—rapidly rotating stars at the moment of their formation—and that these stars are more massive than normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. We find that, due to their own evolution, these rapidly rotating stars have surface abundances, effective temperatures, and luminosities that are different from normal single stars in the same evolutionary stage. This stellar population of binaries reproduces two important points of observational evidence of multiple stellar populations: a Na-O anticorrelation and multiple sequences in the HR diagram. This evidence suggests that binary interactions may be a possible scenario for the formation of multiple stellar populations in GCs.

  16. Evidence of accretion triggered oscillations in the pre-main-sequence interacting binary AK Sco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, de Castro, Ana I.; López-Santiago, Javier; Talavera, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Pre-main sequence (PMS) binaries are surrounded by circumbinary discs from which matter falls on to both components. The material dragged from the circumbinary disc flows on to each star through independent streams channelled by the variable gravitational field. The action of the bar-like potential is most prominent in high eccentricity systems made of two equal mass stars. AK Sco is a unique PMS system composed of two F5 stars in an orbit with e = 0.47. Henceforth, it is an ideal laboratory to study matter infall in binaries and its role in orbit circularization. In this Letter, we report the detection of a 1.3 mHz ultra low-frequency oscillation in the ultraviolet light curve at periastron passage. This oscillation lasts 7 ks being most likely fed by the gravitational energy released when the stream's tails spiralling on to each star get in contact at periastron passage enhancing the accretion flow; this unveils a new mechanism for angular momentum loss during PMS evolution and a new type of interacting binary.

  17. Interactions between the Class II Transactivator and CREB Binding Protein Increase Transcription of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Genes

    PubMed Central

    Fontes, Joseph D.; Kanazawa, Satoshi; Jean, Dickson; Peterlin, B. Matija

    1999-01-01

    Class II major histocompatibility (class II) genes are regulated in a B-cell-specific and gamma interferon-inducible fashion. The master switch for the expression of these genes is the class II transactivator (CIITA). In this report, we demonstrate that one of the functions of CIITA is to recruit the CREB binding protein (CBP) to class II promoters. Not only functional but also specific binding interactions between CIITA and CBP were demonstrated. Moreover, a dominant negative form of CBP decreased the activity of class II promoters and levels of class II determinants on the surface of cells. Finally, the inhibition of class II gene expression by the glucocorticoid hormone could be attributed to the squelching of CBP by the glucocorticoid receptor. We conclude that CBP, a histone acetyltransferase, plays an important role in the transcription of class II genes. PMID:9858618

  18. Characterizing Olfactory Binary Mixture Interactions in Fischer 344 Rats Using Behavioral Reaction Times

    PubMed Central

    Yoder, Wendy M.; Gaynor, Leslie; Windham, Ethan; Lyman, Michelle; Munizza, Olivia; Setlow, Barry; Bizon, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Response times provide essential subthreshold perceptual data that extend beyond accuracy alone. Behavioral reaction times (RTs) were used to characterize rats’ ability to detect individual odorants in a series of complimentary binary odorant mixture ratios. We employed an automated, liquid-dilution olfactometer to train Fischer 344 rats (N = 8) on an odor identification task using nonreinforced probe trials. Binary mixture ratios composed of aliphatic odorants (citral and octanol) were arranged such that relative contributions of the 2 components varied systematically by a factor of 1% (v/v). Odorant concentrations for the target (S+), control (S−), and mixture (S+:S−) odorants were presented relative to threshold for each rat. Rats were initially trained to respond by licking at a spout to obtain liquid reward for either citral or octanol as the reinforced target (S+) odorant. After achieving 100% accuracy, rats were transferred to variable ratio (VR 2) reinforcement for correct responding. Nonreinforced probe trials (2 per block of 22 trials) were tested for each mixture ratio and recorded as either S+ (rats lick-responded in the presence of the mixture) or S− (rats refrained from licking), thereby indicating detection of the trained, S+ odorant. To determine the perceived salience for each ratio, RTs (latency from odorant onset to lick response) were recorded for each trial. Consistent with previous studies, RTs for both odorants were shortest (~150–200ms) when the probe trials consisted of a single, monomolecular component. Binary mixtures that contained as little as 1% of the S−, nontarget odorant, however, were sufficiently different perceptually to increase behavioral RTs (i.e., rats hesitated longer before responding); RTs changed systematically as a function of the binary ratio. Interestingly, the rate of RT change was dependent on which odorant served as the S+, suggesting an asymmetric interaction between the 2 odorants. The data demonstrate

  19. Mapping and Modeling the Extended Winds of the Massive Interacting Binary, Eta Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gull, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The combination HST/STIS high spatial and moderate spectral resolutions have revealed the massive interacting wind structure of Eta Carinae by forbidden lines of singly and doubly ionized elements. Throughout the 5.54-year period, lines of Fe++, Ne++, Ar++, S++ and N+ reveal the interacting wind structures, near critical electron densities of 10(exp 5) to 3 x 10(exp 7)cu cm, photoionized by the hot secondary, Eta Car B, Lines of Fe+ and Ni+ trace the denser (>10(exp 7)cu cm. less-ionized (< 8 eV) primary wind of Eta Car A as it wraps around the interacting binary stars. For 5 years of the 5.54 year period, the FUV radiation from Eta Car B escapes the orbital region, ionizing the boundaries of the expanding wind structures. But for three to six months, Eta Car B plunges into the primary wind approaching to within 1 to 2 AU, leading to cutoff of FUV and X-ray fluxes. The interacting wind structure, resolved out to 0.8", drops io ionization and then rebuilds as Eta Car B emerges from the primary wind envelope. Solid Particle Hydrodynamical(SPH) models have been developed extending out to 2000 AU and adapted to include FUV radiation effects of the winds. In turn, synthetic spectroimages of selected forbidden lines have been constructed and compared to the spectroimages recorded by the HST/STIS throughout 1998.0 to 2004.3, extending across the 1998 and 2003.5 minima. By this method, we show that the orbital axis of the binary system must bc within 15 degrees of the Homunculus axis of symmetry and that periastron occurs with Eta Car B passing on the far side of Eta Car B. This result ties the current binary orbit with the bipolar ejection with intervening skirt and leads to implications that the binary system influenced the mass ejection of the l840s and the lesser ejection of the 1890s.

  20. Exploration of binary virus-host interactions using an infectious protein complementation assay.

    PubMed

    Munier, Sandie; Rolland, Thomas; Diot, Cédric; Jacob, Yves; Naffakh, Nadia

    2013-10-01

    A precise mapping of pathogen-host interactions is essential for comprehensive understanding of the processes of infection and pathogenesis. The most frequently used techniques for interactomics are the yeast two-hybrid binary methodologies, which do not recapitulate the pathogen life cycle, and the tandem affinity purification mass spectrometry co-complex methodologies, which cannot distinguish direct from indirect interactions. New technologies are thus needed to improve the mapping of pathogen-host interactions. In the current study, we detected binary interactions between influenza A virus polymerase and host proteins during the course of an actual viral infection, using a new strategy based on trans-complementation of the Gluc1 and Gluc2 fragments of Gaussia princeps luciferase. Infectious recombinant influenza viruses that encode a Gluc1-tagged polymerase subunit were engineered to infect cultured cells transiently expressing a selected set of Gluc2-tagged cellular proteins involved in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways. A random set and a literature-curated set of Gluc2-tagged cellular proteins were tested in parallel. Our assay allowed the sensitive and accurate recovery of previously described interactions, and it revealed 30% of positive, novel viral-host protein-protein interactions within the exploratory set. In addition to cellular proteins involved in the nuclear import pathway, components of the nuclear pore complex such as NUP62 and mRNA export factors such as NXF1, RMB15B, and DDX19B were identified for the first time as interactors of the viral polymerase. Gene silencing experiments further showed that NUP62 is required for efficient viral replication. Our findings give new insights regarding the subversion of host nucleocytoplasmic trafficking pathways by influenza A viruses. They also demonstrate the potential of our infectious protein complementation assay for high-throughput exploration of influenza virus interactomics in infected cells

  1. THE REFLECTION EFFECT IN INTERACTING BINARIES OR IN PLANET-STAR SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Budaj, J.

    2011-02-15

    There are many similarities between interacting binary stars and stars with a close-in giant extrasolar planet. The reflection effect is a well-known example. Although the generally accepted treatment of this effect in interacting binaries is successful in fitting light curves of eclipsing binaries, it is not very suitable for studying cold objects irradiated by hot objects or extrasolar planets. The aim of this paper is to develop a model of the reflection effect which could be easily incorporated into the present codes for modeling of interacting binaries so that these can be used to study the aforementioned objects. Our model of the reflection effect takes into account the reflection (scattering), heating, and heat redistribution over the surface of the irradiated object. The shape of the object is described by the non-spherical Roche potential expected for close objects. Limb and gravity darkening are included in the calculations of the light output from the system. The model also accounts for the orbital revolution and rotation of the exoplanet with appropriate Doppler shifts for the scattered and thermal radiation. Subsequently, light curves and/or spectra of several exoplanets have been modeled and the effects of the heat redistribution, limb darkening/brightening, (non-)gray albedo, and non-spherical shape have been studied. Recent observations of planet-to-star flux ratio of HD189733b, WASP12b, and WASP-19b at various phases were reproduced with very good accuracy. It was found that HD189733b has a low Bond albedo and intense heat redistribution, while WASP-19b has a low Bond albedo and low heat redistribution. The exact Roche geometries and temperature distributions over the surface of all 78 transiting extrasolar planets have been determined. Departures from the spherical shape may vary considerably but departures of about 1% in the radius are common within the sample. In some cases, these departures can reach 8%, 12%, or 14%, for WASP-33b, WASP-19b, and

  2. Class Blogs as a Teaching Tool to Promote Writing and Student Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Miriam; Longnecker, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Blogs are a useful teaching tool for improving student writing and increasing class interaction. However, most studies have looked at individual blogs rather than blogs maintained by a whole class. We introduced assignments involving participation in class blogs to four science communication classes with enrolments of between 15 and 36 students.…

  3. Who Benefits from Dyadic Teacher-Student Interactions in Whole-Class Settings?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flieller, André; Jarlégan, Annette; Tazouti, Youssef

    2016-01-01

    To what extent can teacher-student dyadic interactions modify the hierarchy of student performances within a single class? To answer this insufficiently researched question, the authors conducted two parallel studies involving 33 Grade 5 classes in France (759 students) and 15 Grade 5 classes in Luxembourg (243 students). Interactions were…

  4. X-ray emission from interacting wind massive binaries: A review of 15 years of progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, Gregor; Nazé, Yaël

    2016-09-01

    Previous generations of X-ray observatories revealed a group of massive binaries that were relatively bright X-ray emitters. This was attributed to emission of shock-heated plasma in the wind-wind interaction zone located between the stars. With the advent of the current generation of X-ray observatories, the phenomenon could be studied in much more detail. In this review, we highlight the progress that has been achieved in our understanding of the phenomenon over the last 15 years, both on theoretical and observational grounds. All these studies have paved the way for future investigations using the next generation of X-ray satellites that will provide crucial information on the X-ray emission formed in the innermost part of the wind-wind interaction.

  5. PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC INTERACTION FOR A BINARY MIXTURE OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND DIAZINON IN THE RAT

    SciTech Connect

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Hinman, Melissa N.; Busby, Andrea L.; Kousba, Ahmed A.

    2005-05-15

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) are two commonly used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and potential exists for concurrent exposures. The primary neurotoxic effects from OP pesticide exposures result from the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by their oxon metabolites. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic impact of acute binary exposures to CPF and DZN in rats were evaluated in this study. Rats were orally administered CPF, DZN or a CPF/DZN mixture (0, 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg) and blood (plasma and RBC), and brain were collected at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-dosing, urine was also collected at 24 h. Chlorpyrifos, DZN and their respective metabolites 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMHP) were quantified in blood and/or urine and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition was measured in brain, RBCs and plasma. Co-exposure to CPF/DZN at 15/15 mg/kg, did not appreciably alter the pharmacokinetics of CPF, DZN or their metabolites in blood; whereas, a 60/60 mg/kg dose resulted in a transient increase in Cmax, AUC, and decreased clearance of both compounds, likely due to competition between CPF and DZN for CYP450 metabolism. At lower doses, most likely to be encountered in occupational or environmental exposures, the pharmacokinetics were linear. A dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was noted in tissues for both the single and co-exposures. The overall potency for ChE inhibition was greater for CPF than DZN and the binary mixture response appeared to be strongly influenced by CPF. A comparison of the ChE binary response at the low dose (15 mg/kg), where there were no apparent pharmacokinetic interactions, suggested that the overall ChE response was additive. These are the first reported experiments we are aware of that characterize both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between CPF and DZN in the rat, and will be used to further develop a binary physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic

  6. Spectroscopy, MOST photometry, and interferometry of MWC 314: is it an LBV or an interacting binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Noel D.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Maltais-Tariant, Raphaël; Pablo, Herbert; Gies, Douglas R.; Saio, Hideyuki; St-Louis, Nicole; Schaefer, Gail; Miroshnichenko, Anatoly S.; Farrington, Chris; Aldoretta, Emily J.; Artigau, Étienne; Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Gordon, Kathryn; Jones, Jeremy; Matson, Rachel; McAlister, Harold A.; O'Brien, David; Raghavan, Deepak; Ramiaramanantsoa, Tahina; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Scott, Nic; Sturmann, Judit; Sturmann, Laszlo; Brummelaar, Theo ten; Thomas, Joshua D.; Turner, Nils; Vargas, Norm; Zharikov, Sergey; Matthews, Jaymie; Cameron, Chris; Guenther, David; Kuschnig, Rainer; Rowe, Jason; Rucinski, Slavek; Sasselov, Dimitar; Weiss, Werner

    2016-01-01

    MWC 314 is a bright candidate luminous blue variable (LBV) that resides in a fairly close binary system, with an orbital period of 60.753 ± 0.003 d. We observed MWC 314 with a combination of optical spectroscopy, broad-band ground- and space-based photometry, as well as with long baseline, near-infrared interferometry. We have revised the single-lined spectroscopic orbit and explored the photometric variability. The orbital light curve displays two minima each orbit that can be partially explained in terms of the tidal distortion of the primary that occurs around the time of periastron. The emission lines in the system are often double-peaked and stationary in their kinematics, indicative of a circumbinary disc. We find that the stellar wind or circumbinary disc is partially resolved in the K'-band with the longest baselines of the CHARA Array. From this analysis, we provide a simple, qualitative model in an attempt to explain the observations. From the assumption of Roche Lobe overflow and tidal synchronization at periastron, we estimate the component masses to be M1 ≈ 5 M⊙ and M2 ≈ 15 M⊙, which indicates a mass of the LBV that is extremely low. In addition to the orbital modulation, we discovered two pulsational modes with the MOST satellite. These modes are easily supported by a low-mass hydrogen-poor star, but cannot be easily supported by a star with the parameters of an LBV. The combination of these results provides evidence that the primary star was likely never a normal LBV, but rather is the product of binary interactions. As such, this system presents opportunities for studying mass-transfer and binary evolution with many observational techniques.

  7. The Effect of Tides on the Population of PN from Interacting Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madappatt, Niyas; De Marco, Orsola; Villaver, Eva

    2016-08-01

    We have used the tidal equations of Zahn to determine the maximum orbital distance at which companions are brought into Roche lobe contact with their giant primary, when the primary expands during the giant phases. This is a key step when determining the rates of interaction between giants and their companions. Our stellar structure calculations are presented as maximum radii reached during the red and asymptotic giant branch (RGB and AGB, respectively) stages of evolution for masses between 0.8 and 4.0 M⊙ (Z=0.001 - 0.04) and compared with other models to gauge the uncertainty on radii deriving from details of these calculations. We find overall tidal capture distances that are typically 1-4 times the maximum radial extent of the giant star, where companions are in the mass range from 1 MJ to a mass slightly smaller than the mass of the primary. We find that only companions at initial orbital separations between ˜320 and ˜630 R⊙ will be typically captured into a Roche lobe-filling interaction or a common envelope on the AGB. Comparing these limits with the period distribution for binaries that will make PN, we deduce that in the standard scenario where all ˜1-8 M⊙ stars make a PN, at most 2.5 per cent of all PN should have a post-common envelope central star binary, at odds with the observational lower limit of 15-20 per cent. The observed over-abundance of post-interaction central stars of PN cannot be easily explained considering the uncertainties. We examine a range of explanations for this discrepancy.

  8. The effect of tides on the population of PN from interacting binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madappatt, Niyas; De Marco, Orsola; Villaver, Eva

    2016-11-01

    We have used the tidal equations of Zahn to determine the maximum orbital distance at which companions are brought into Roche lobe contact with their giant primary, when the primary expands during the giant phases. This is a key step when determining the rates of interaction between giants and their companions. Our stellar structure calculations are presented as maximum radii reached during the red and asymptotic giant branch (RGB and AGB, respectively) stages of evolution for masses between 0.8 and 4.0 M⊙ (Z = 0.001-0.04) and compared with other models to gauge the uncertainty on radii deriving from details of these calculations. We find overall tidal capture distances that are typically 1-4 times the maximum radial extent of the giant star, where companions are in the mass range from 1 MJ to a mass slightly smaller than the mass of the primary. We find that only companions at initial orbital separations between ˜320 and ˜630 R⊙ will be typically captured into a Roche lobe-filling interaction or a common envelope on the AGB. Comparing these limits with the period distribution for binaries that will make planetary nebula (PN), we deduce that in the standard scenario where all ˜1-8 M⊙ stars make a PN, at most 2.5 per cent of all PN should have a post-common envelope central star binary, at odds with the observational lower limit of 15-20 per cent. The observed overabundance of post-interaction central stars of PN cannot be easily explained considering the uncertainties. We examine a range of explanations for this discrepancy.

  9. MODELING MULTI-WAVELENGTH STELLAR ASTROMETRY. I. SIM LITE OBSERVATIONS OF INTERACTING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Harrison, Thomas E.; Gelino, Dawn M.; Ciardi, David R.; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Benedict, G. Fritz; McArthur, Barbara E.; Howell, Steve B.

    2010-07-10

    Interacting binaries (IBs) consist of a secondary star that fills or is very close to filling its Roche lobe, resulting in accretion onto the primary star, which is often, but not always, a compact object. In many cases, the primary star, secondary star, and the accretion disk can all be significant sources of luminosity. SIM Lite will only measure the photocenter of an astrometric target, and thus determining the true astrometric orbits of such systems will be difficult. We have modified the Eclipsing Light Curve code to allow us to model the flux-weighted reflex motions of IBs, in a code we call REFLUX. This code gives us sufficient flexibility to investigate nearly every configuration of IB. We find that SIM Lite will be able to determine astrometric orbits for all sufficiently bright IBs where the primary or secondary star dominates the luminosity. For systems where there are multiple components that comprise the spectrum in the optical bandpass accessible to SIM Lite, we find it is possible to obtain absolute masses for both components, although multi-wavelength photometry will be required to disentangle the multiple components. In all cases, SIM Lite will at least yield accurate inclinations and provide valuable information that will allow us to begin to understand the complex evolution of mass-transferring binaries. It is critical that SIM Lite maintains a multi-wavelength capability to allow for the proper deconvolution of the astrometric orbits in multi-component systems.

  10. Interaction of Avibactam with Class B Metallo-β-Lactamases

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Martine I.; Damblon, Christian; Brem, Jürgen; Smargiasso, Nicolas; Mercuri, Paola; Gilbert, Bernard; Rydzik, Anna M.; Claridge, Timothy D. W.

    2016-01-01

    β-Lactamases are the most important mechanisms of resistance to the β-lactam antibacterials. There are two mechanistic classes of β-lactamases: the serine β-lactamases (SBLs) and the zinc-dependent metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs). Avibactam, the first clinically useful non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor, is a broad-spectrum SBL inhibitor, which is used in combination with a cephalosporin antibiotic (ceftazidime). There are multiple reports on the interaction of avibactam with SBLs but few such studies with MBLs. We report biochemical and biophysical studies on the binding and reactivity of avibactam with representatives from all 3 MBL subfamilies (B1, B2, and B3). Avibactam has only limited or no activity versus MBL-mediated resistance in pathogens. Avibactam does not inhibit MBLs and binds only weakly to most of the MBLs tested; in some cases, avibactam undergoes slow hydrolysis of one of its urea N-CO bonds followed by loss of CO2, in a process different from that observed with the SBLs studied. The results suggest that while the evolution of MBLs that more efficiently catalyze avibactam hydrolysis should be anticipated, pursuing the development of dual-action SBL and MBL inhibitors based on the diazabicyclooctane core of avibactam may be productive. PMID:27401561

  11. Spectral studies on the interaction of pinacyanol chloride with binary surfactants in aqueous medium.

    PubMed

    Manna, Kausik; Panda, Amiya Kumar

    2009-12-01

    Interaction of pinacyanol chloride (PIN) with pure and binary mixtures of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium deoxycholate (NaDC) was spectroscopically studied. Interaction of PIN with pure NaDC produced a blue shifted metachromatic band (at approximately 502 nm), which gradually shifted to higher wavelength region as the concentration of NaDC increased in the pre-micellar stage. For CTAB only intensity of both the bands increased without any shift. Mixed surfactant systems behaved differently than the pure components. Absorbance of monomeric band with a slight red-shift, and a simultaneous decrease in the absorbance of dimeric band of PIN, were observed for all the combinations in the post-micellar region. PIN-micelle binding constant (K(b)) for pure as well as mixed was determined from spectral data using Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Using the idea of Regular Solution Theory, micellar aggregates were assumed to be predominant than other aggregated state, like vesicles. Aggregation number was determined by fluorescence quenching method. Spectral analyses were also done to evaluate CMC values. Rubinigh's model for Regular Solution Theory was employed to evaluate the interaction parameters and micellar composition. Strong synergistic interaction between the oppositely charged surfactants was noted. Bulkier nature of NaDC lowered down its access in mixed micellar system.

  12. Gas-liquid phase coexistence and crossover behavior of binary ionic fluids with screened Coulomb interactions.

    PubMed

    Patsahan, O

    2014-06-01

    We study the effects of an interaction range on the gas-liquid phase diagram and the crossover behavior of a simple model of ionic fluids: an equimolar binary mixture of equisized hard spheres interacting through screened Coulomb potentials which are repulsive between particles of the same species and attractive between particles of different species. Using the collective variables theory, we find explicit expressions for the relevant coefficients of the effective φ{4} Ginzburg-Landau Hamiltonian in a one-loop approximation. Within the framework of this approximation, we calculate the critical parameters and gas-liquid phase diagrams for varying inverse screening length z. Both the critical temperature scaled by the Yukawa potential contact value and the critical density rapidly decrease with an increase of the interaction range (a decrease of z) and then for z<0.05 they slowly approach the values found for a restricted primitive model (RPM). We find that gas-liquid coexistence region reduces with an increase of z and completely vanishes at z≃2.78. Our results clearly show that an increase in the interaction range leads to a decrease of the crossover temperature. For z≃0.01, the crossover temperature is the same as for the RPM.

  13. Synthetic Spectra and Light Curves of Interacting Binaries and Exoplanets with Circumstellar Material: SHELLSPEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budaj, Ján

    2012-04-01

    Program SHELLSPEC is designed to calculate light-curves, spectra and images of interacting binaries and extrasolar planets immersed in a moving circumstellar environment which is optically thin. It solves simple radiative transfer along the line of sight in moving media. The assumptions include LTE and optional known state quantities and velocity fields in 3D. Optional (non)transparent objects such as a spot, disc, stream, jet, shell or stars may be defined (embedded) in 3D and their composite synthetic spectrum calculated. The Roche model can be used as a boundary condition for the radiative transfer. Recently, a new model of the reflection effect, dust and Mie scattering were incorporated into the code. ɛ Aurigae is one of the most mysterious objects on the sky. Prior modeling of its light-curve assumed a dark, inclined, disk of dust with a central hole to explain the light-curve with a sharp mid-eclipse brightening. Our model consists of two geometrically thick flared disks: an internal optically thick disk and an external optically thin disk which absorbs and scatters radiation. Shallow mid-eclipse brightening may result from eclipses by nearly edge-on flared (dusty or gaseous) disks. Mid-eclipse brightening may also be due to strong forward scattering and optical properties of the dust which can have an important effect on the light-curves. There are many similarities between interacting binary stars and transiting extrasolar planets. The reflection effect which is briefly reviewed is one of them. The exact Roche shape and temperature distributions over the surface of all currently known transiting extrasolar planets have been determined. In some cases (HAT-P-32b, WASP-12b, WASP-19b), departures from the spherical shape can reach 7-15%.

  14. A Mixture Model Approach in Gene-Gene and Gene-Environmental Interactions for Binary Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lang; Yu, Menggang; Jason, Robarge D.; Shen, Changyu; Azzouz, Faouzi; McLeod, Howard L.; Borges-Gonzales, Silvana; Nguyen, Anne; Skaar, Todd; Desta, Zeruesenay; Sweeney, Christopher J.; Flockhart, David A

    2009-01-01

    Summary In translational research, a genetic association study of a binary outcome has a two-fold aim: test whether genetic/environmental variables or their combinations are associated with a clinical phenotype; and determine how those combinations are grouped to predict the phenotype (i.e. which combinations have a similarly distributed phenotype, and which ones have differently distributed phenotypes). The second part of this aim has high clinical appeal, because it can directly facilitate clinical decisions. Although traditional logistic regression can detect gene-gene or gene-environmental interaction effects on binary phenotypes, they cannot decisively determine how genotype combinations are grouped to predict the phenotype. Our proposed mixture model approach is valuable in this context. It concurrently detects main and interaction effects of genetic and environmental variables through a likelihood ratio test (LRT), and conducts phenotype cluster analysis based on genetic and environmental variable combinations. The theoretical distribution of the proposed mixture model’s likelihood ratio test is robust not only to small sample size, but also to unequal sample size in various genotype and environmental subgroups. Hypothesis testing through a likelihood ratio test results in a fast algorithm for p-value calculations. Extensive simulation studies demonstrate that mixture model, overall test in logistic regression, and Monte Carlo based logic regression constantly possess the best power to detect multi-way gene/environmental combinations. The mixture model approach has the highest recovery probability to recover the true partition in the simulation studies. Its applications are exemplified in interim data analyses for two cancer studies. PMID:18991114

  15. Quasi-Periodic Long-Term Quadrature Light Variability in Early Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine Joan

    2015-08-01

    Four years of Kepler observations have revealed a class of Algol-type binaries in which the relative brightness of the quadrature light varies from > 1 to <1 on a time scale of about 100-400 days. The behavior pattern is quasi-periodic. We call these systems L/T (leading hemisphere/ trailing hemisphere) variables. Although L/T inequality in eclipsing binaries has been noted from ground-based photometry by several observers since the early 1950s, the regular or quasi-regular switching between maxima is new. Twenty L/T systems have so far been found in the Kepler database and at least three classes of L/T behavior have been identified. In this presentation I will give an update on the L/T phenomenon gleaned from the Kepler and K2 databases. The Kepler and K2 light curves are being analyzed with the 2015 version of the Wilson-Devinney (WD) program that includes major improvements in modeling star spots (i.e. spot motions due to drift and stellar rotation and spot growth and decay). The prototype L/T variable is WX Draconis (A8V + K0IV, P=1.80 d) which shows L/ T light variations of 2-3%. The primary is a delta Scuti star with a dominant pulsation period of 41 m. Preliminary analysis of the WX Dra data suggests that the L/T variability can be fit with either an accretion hot spot on the primary (T = 2.3 Tphot) that jumps in longitude or a magnetic cool spotted region on the secondary. If the latter model is correct the dark region must occupy at least 20% of the surface of the facing hemisphere of the secondary if it is completely black, or a larger area if not completely black. In both hot and cool spot scenarios magnetic fields must play a role in the activity. Support from NASA grants NNX11AC78G and NNX12AE44G and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  16. Effects of hydrodynamic interactions in binary colloidal mixtures driven oppositely by oscillatory external fields.

    PubMed

    Wysocki, Adam; Löwen, Hartmut

    2011-07-20

    The collective dynamics in a binary mixture of colloidal particles which are driven in opposite directions by an external oscillatory field is examined by computer simulations in two spatial dimensions. Both Brownian dynamics (BD) computer simulations, which ignore solvent-mediated hydrodynamic interactions between the colloidal particles, and multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD) simulations, which include hydrodynamic interactions, are employed. We first review recent results obtained by BD. Depending on the driving frequency and amplitude, lane formation parallel to the drive and band formation perpendicular to the drive occur. Band formation is stable only in a finite window of oscillation frequencies and driving strengths and is taken over by lane formation if the driving force is increased or the oscillation frequency is decreased. MPCD simulations, on the other hand, reveal that band formation is blurred by hydrodynamic interactions. During the front collisions of oppositely driven particles there is a strong vortical movement of the solvent which tends to mix particles and broaden the interface of the bands. This can either lead to a novel intermittent dynamical behaviour or to band rupture into local clusters. These effects, which are absent for BD, are characterized by the strengths of the enstrophy and its spectrum. We finally discuss possible experimental realizations of the models employed.

  17. A Study of the High Temperature Polar Plasma in B-Type Interacting Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.

    FUSE observations of the interacting binaries V356 Sgr (B2V + A2II) and TT Hya (B9.5Ve + K1III-IV) in Cycle 1 at several phase points during totality revealed the presence of broad O VI emission that was especially strong in V356 Sgr. The high temperature plasma that produces this emission is presumably located at the base of the polar jets in these systems that were detected from HST-FOS spectropolarimetry. In order to determine physical conditions in the jet and obtain information on its geometry and formation, we propose new FUSE observations of V356 Sgr, TT Hya, and a comparison system RY Per (B3V + F6III). New observations of V356 Sgr will provide information on whether the O VI emission is concentrated near the site where the gas stream impacts the primary or if it emanates from an extended region and will enable one to assess whether the jet is a stable structure. Since the Cycle 1 observations revealed that the O VI Si III, and other emission lines vary during totality in V356 Sgr, we request a continuous set of FUSE exposures throughout the 10.2 hr eclipse that include the ingress and egress phases. Observations of RY Per throughout its 2.3 hr total phase are proposed to investigate the effect of binary separation on the polar plasma, as it has similar component stars to those in V356 Sgr but a shorter period. To remove the contribution from the strong ISM lines, mostly H_2, that pervade the emission features, we request a single observation of each star outside of eclipse.

  18. Effects of Class Size and Attendance Policy on University Classroom Interaction in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Yin; Chang, Te-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Classroom interaction experience is one of the main parts of students' learning lives. However, surprisingly little research has investigated students' perceptions of classroom interaction with different attendance policies across different class sizes in the higher education system. To elucidate the effects of class size and attendance policy on…

  19. Wind-jet interaction in high-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    Jets in high-mass X-ray binaries can strongly interact with the stellar wind from the donor. The interaction leads, in particular, to formation of recollimation shocks. The shocks can then accelerate electrons in the jet and lead to enhanced emission, observable in the radio and gamma-ray bands. DooSoo, Zdziarski & Heinz (2016) have formulated a condition on the maximum jet power (as a function of the jet velocity and wind rate and velocity) at which such shocks form. This criterion can explain the large difference in the radio and gamma-ray loudness between Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3. The orbital modulation of radio emission observed in Cyg X-1 and Cyg X-3 allows a measurement of the location of the height along the jet where the bulk of emission at a given frequency occurs. Strong absorption of X-rays in the wind of Cyg X-3 is required to account for properties of the correlation of the radio emission with soft and hard X-rays. That absorption can also account for the unusual spectral and timing X-ray properties of this source.

  20. Symmetry breaking in a localized interacting binary Bose-Einstein condensate in a bichromatic optical lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.

    2010-02-15

    By direct numerical simulation of the time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii equation using the split-step Fourier spectral method, we study different aspects of the localization of a cigar-shaped interacting binary (two-component) Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a one-dimensional bichromatic quasiperiodic optical-lattice potential, as used in a recent experiment on the localization of a BEC [Roati et al., Nature 453, 895 (2008)]. We consider two types of localized states: (i) when both localized components have a maximum of density at the origin x=0, and (ii) when the first component has a maximum of density and the second a minimum of density at x=0. In the noninteracting case, the density profiles are symmetric around x=0. We numerically study the breakdown of this symmetry due to interspecies and intraspecies interactions acting on the two components. Where possible, we have compared the numerical results with a time-dependent variational analysis. We also demonstrate the stability of the localized symmetry-broken BEC states under small perturbation.

  1. Impact of kinase activating and inactivating patient mutations on binary PKA interactions

    PubMed Central

    Röck, Ruth; Mayrhofer, Johanna E.; Bachmann, Verena; Stefan, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    The second messenger molecule cAMP links extracellular signals to intracellular responses. The main cellular cAMP effector is the compartmentalized protein kinase A (PKA). Upon receptor initiated cAMP-mobilization, PKA regulatory subunits (R) bind cAMP thereby triggering dissociation and activation of bound PKA catalytic subunits (PKAc). Mutations in PKAc or RIa subunits manipulate PKA dynamics and activities which contribute to specific disease patterns. Mutations activating cAMP/PKA signaling contribute to carcinogenesis or hormone excess, while inactivating mutations cause hormone deficiency or resistance. Here we extended the application spectrum of a Protein-fragment Complementation Assay based on the Renilla Luciferase to determine binary protein:protein interactions (PPIs) of the PKA network. We compared time- and dose-dependent influences of cAMP-elevation on mutually exclusive PPIs of PKAc with the phosphotransferase inhibiting RIIb and RIa subunits and the protein kinase inhibitor peptide (PKI). We analyzed PKA dynamics following integration of patient mutations into PKAc and RIa. We observed that oncogenic modifications of PKAc(L206R) and RIa(Δ184-236) as well as rare disease mutations in RIa(R368X) affect complex formation of PKA and its responsiveness to cAMP elevation. With the cell-based PKA PPI reporter platform we precisely quantified the mechanistic details how inhibitory PKA interactions and defined patient mutations contribute to PKA functions. PMID:26347651

  2. Interaction behavior between binary xCe-yNd alloy and HT9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun Hwan; Cheon, Jin Sik; Lee, Byoung Oon; Kim, June Hyung

    2016-10-01

    Studies were carried out to investigate the role of Ce and Nd, contained inside metal fuel during reactor operation, and their effect on the Fuel-Cladding Chemical Interaction (FCCI) phenomenon, which limits fuel performance in the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). Binary model alloys of xCe-yNd were manufactured, and then diffusion couple tests with HT9 (12Cr-1MoWV) ferritic-martensitic cladding material were carried out at a temperature of 660 °C for up to 25 h. The results showed that both Ce and Nd reacted with Fe in the cladding material to form an interaction layer. Analysis of the microstructure and reaction kinetics revealed that Fe in the cladding material rapidly migrates into Ce to form eutectic reaction, leaving a Fe depleted zone, in which Ce substitutes. In the case of Nd element, a typical solid-solid diffusion process governed to form a Fe17Nd2 type intermetallic compound. Synergism between Ce and Nd occurred so that the reaction thickness was increased, reaching the maximum reaction thickness in the case of the xCe-yNd alloy, whose composition was nearly 1:1.

  3. Assessing Gene-Environment Interactions for Common and Rare Variants with Binary Traits Using Gene-Trait Similarity Regression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guolin; Marceau, Rachel; Zhang, Daowen; Tzeng, Jung-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Accounting for gene–environment (G×E) interactions in complex trait association studies can facilitate our understanding of genetic heterogeneity under different environmental exposures, improve the ability to discover susceptible genes that exhibit little marginal effect, provide insight into the biological mechanisms of complex diseases, help to identify high-risk subgroups in the population, and uncover hidden heritability. However, significant G×E interactions can be difficult to find. The sample sizes required for sufficient power to detect association are much larger than those needed for genetic main effects, and interactions are sensitive to misspecification of the main-effects model. These issues are exacerbated when working with binary phenotypes and rare variants, which bear less information on association. In this work, we present a similarity-based regression method for evaluating G×E interactions for rare variants with binary traits. The proposed model aggregates the genetic and G×E information across markers, using genetic similarity, thus increasing the ability to detect G×E signals. The model has a random effects interpretation, which leads to robustness against main-effect misspecifications when evaluating G×E interactions. We construct score tests to examine G×E interactions and a computationally efficient EM algorithm to estimate the nuisance variance components. Using simulations and data applications, we show that the proposed method is a flexible and powerful tool to study the G×E effect in common or rare variant studies with binary traits. PMID:25585620

  4. INTERACTING BINARIES WITH ECCENTRIC ORBITS. II. SECULAR ORBITAL EVOLUTION DUE TO NON-CONSERVATIVE MASS TRANSFER

    SciTech Connect

    Sepinsky, J. F.; Willems, B.; Kalogera, V.; Rasio, F. A.

    2009-09-10

    We investigate the secular evolution of the orbital semimajor axis and eccentricity due to mass transfer in eccentric binaries, allowing for both mass and angular momentum loss from the system. Adopting a delta function mass transfer rate at the periastron of the binary orbit, we find that, depending on the initial binary properties at the onset of mass transfer, the orbital semimajor axis and eccentricity can either increase or decrease at a rate linearly proportional to the magnitude of the mass transfer rate at periastron. The range of initial binary mass ratios and eccentricities that lead to increasing orbital semimajor axes and eccentricities broadens with increasing degrees of mass loss from the system and narrows with increasing orbital angular momentum loss from the binary. Comparison with tidal evolution timescales shows that the usual assumption of rapid circularization at the onset of mass transfer in eccentric binaries is not justified, irrespective of the degree of systemic mass and angular momentum loss. This work extends our previous results for conservative mass transfer in eccentric binaries and can be incorporated into binary evolution and population synthesis codes to model non-conservative mass transfer in eccentric binaries.

  5. Interacting massive binaries, HR-diagram of the LMC and SN1987A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathnasree, N.

    1993-05-01

    The observational constraints on massive star models for the LMC arise essentially from (1) the distribution of stars in the HR-diagram of the LMC, (2) the observations of SN 1987A and its progenitor and (3) from the determinations of surface abundances of certain blue supergiants in the LMC which are seen to be helium and nitrogen enriched. The standard physical inputs used in single star evolutionary models do not give good agreement with these observational constraints. The study of interacting binary stars, taking into account the effect of the transfer of CNO processed and helium enriched material to the secondaries in these systems, reveals that the presence of a substantial fraction of such stars in the BSG region in the HR-diagram of the LMC gives good agreement with the observational constraints discussed above. Mass transfer to the secondary while it is still within its main-sequence could give an evolutionary model at 20 M_⊙ which stays in the blue through out its lifetime and yet could show helium enrichment and CNO processing in its circumstellar material and the envelope of the star consistent with the observations of SN1987A. However, a more consistent model for the progenitor is obtained if the component masses are nearly equal and the secondary star accretes matter from the primary after it evolves to the Hayashi track. The presence of highly helium and nitrogen enriched BSG stars at high temperatures is shown to arise as a natural consequence of interacting binary star evolution, a feature in general difficult to reconcile with all the existing evolutionary models. It is predicted that these stars should be abundant at high temperatures close to the main-sequence while lower temperature regions should be populated by stars with moderate helium and nitrogen enrichment. This research was partially supported by 8(th) Five year plan project 8P-45 at TIFR, India. Supercomputing time on the CRAY XMP and YMP at the University of Illinois is

  6. ORDER AND CHAOS IN A THREE-DIMENSIONAL BINARY SYSTEM OF INTERACTING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zotos, Euaggelos E.

    2012-05-01

    We present a galactic gravitational model of three degrees of freedom in order to investigate and reveal the behavior of orbits in a binary quasar system. The two quasars are hosted in a pair of interacting disk galaxies. We study in detail the regular or chaotic character of motion in two different cases: the time-independent model in both two-dimensional (2D) and 3D dynamical systems, and the evolving 3D model. Our numerical calculations indicate that a large fraction of orbits in the 2D system are chaotic in the time-independent case. A careful analysis suggests that several Lindblad resonances are also responsible for the chaotic motion of stars in both host galaxies. In the time-dependent system, we follow the evolution of 3D orbits in our dynamical model, as the two interacting host galaxies develop dense and massive quasars in their cores by mass transportation from the disks to their nuclei. In this interesting case, there are orbits that change their orbital character from regular to chaotic and vice versa; there are also orbits that maintain their characters during the galactic evolution. These results strongly indicate that the ordered or chaotic nature of 3D orbits depends not only on the galactic interaction but also on the presence of quasars in the galactic cores of the host galaxies. The outcomes derived from our dynamical model are compared with observational data. Some theoretical arguments to support the numerically derived outcomes are presented, both in 2D and 3D systems, and a comparison with similar earlier work is also made.

  7. A new class of large band gap quantum spin hall insulators: 2D fluorinated group-IV binary compounds.

    PubMed

    Padilha, J E; Pontes, R B; Schmidt, T M; Miwa, R H; Fazzio, A

    2016-05-23

    We predict a new class of large band gap quantum spin Hall insulators, the fluorinated PbX (X = C, Si, Ge and Sn) compounds, that are mechanically stable two-dimensional materials. Based on first principles calculations we find that, while the PbX systems are not topological insulators, all fluorinated PbX (PbXF2) compounds are 2D topological insulators. The quantum spin Hall insulating phase was confirmed by the explicitly calculation of the Z2 invariant. In addition we performed a thorough investigation of the role played by the (i) fluorine saturation, (ii) crystal field, and (iii) spin-orbital coupling in PbXF2. By considering nanoribbon structures, we verify the appearance of a pair of topologically protected Dirac-like edge states connecting the conduction and valence bands. The insulating phase which is a result of the spin orbit interaction, reveals that this new class of two dimensional materials present exceptional nontrivial band gaps, reaching values up to 0.99 eV at the Γ point, and an indirect band gap of 0.77 eV. The topological phase is arisen without any external field, making this system promising for nanoscale applications, using topological properties.

  8. A new class of large band gap quantum spin hall insulators: 2D fluorinated group-IV binary compounds

    PubMed Central

    Padilha, J. E.; Pontes, R. B.; Schmidt, T. M.; Miwa, R. H.; Fazzio, A.

    2016-01-01

    We predict a new class of large band gap quantum spin Hall insulators, the fluorinated PbX (X = C, Si, Ge and Sn) compounds, that are mechanically stable two-dimensional materials. Based on first principles calculations we find that, while the PbX systems are not topological insulators, all fluorinated PbX (PbXF2) compounds are 2D topological insulators. The quantum spin Hall insulating phase was confirmed by the explicitly calculation of the Z2 invariant. In addition we performed a thorough investigation of the role played by the (i) fluorine saturation, (ii) crystal field, and (iii) spin-orbital coupling in PbXF2. By considering nanoribbon structures, we verify the appearance of a pair of topologically protected Dirac-like edge states connecting the conduction and valence bands. The insulating phase which is a result of the spin orbit interaction, reveals that this new class of two dimensional materials present exceptional nontrivial band gaps, reaching values up to 0.99 eV at the Γ point, and an indirect band gap of 0.77 eV. The topological phase is arisen without any external field, making this system promising for nanoscale applications, using topological properties. PMID:27212604

  9. Adding Interactivity to a Non-Interative Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Gary; Krichen, Jack

    2004-01-01

    The IT 3050 course at Capella University is an introduction to fundamental computer networking. This course is one of the required courses in the Bachelor of Science in Information Technology program. In order to provide a more enriched learning environment for learners, Capella has significantly modified this class (and others) by infusing it…

  10. 'Acquisition Disappears in Adultery': Interaction in the Translation Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Julian

    1986-01-01

    Describes a classroom procedure which: (1) applies to translation classes lessons learned from the communicative approach , (2) motivates students to produce learning materials for each other, (3) makes translation the topic of peer discussion, and (4) facilitates discussion of accuracy and appropriateness in natural and target languages. (SED)

  11. Restructuring Heterogeneous Classes for Cognitive Development: Social Interactive Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Ari, Rachel; Kedem-Friedrich, Peri

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study of students in grades three, four, and five that tried an educational application derived from the social constructivism view based on theories of Vygotsky and Piaget to improve cognitive development in a heterogeneous class. Path analysis showed that complex learning techniques are related to cognitive development. (Author/LRW)

  12. Characterizing interactive engagement activities in a flipped introductory physics class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-06-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of how they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in practice is needed. Our aim in this paper is to present a characterization of the type and duration of interactions, as experienced by students, that took place during two introductory physics courses (1A and 1B) at a university in the United Kingdom. Through this work, a simple framework for analyzing lectures—the framework for interactive learning in lectures (FILL), which focuses on student interactions (with the lecturer, with each other, and with the material) is proposed. The pedagogical approach is based on Peer Instruction (PI) and both courses are taught by the same lecturer. We find lecture activities can be categorized into three types: interactive (25%), vicarious interactive (20%) (involving questions to and from the lecturer), and noninteractive (55%). As expected, the majority of both interactive and vicarious interactive activities took place during PI. However, the way that interactive activities were used during non-PI sections of the lecture varied significantly between the two courses. Differences were also found in the average time spent on lecturer-student interactions (28% for 1A and 12% for 1B), although not on student-student interactions (12% and 12%) or on individual learning (10% and 7%). These results are explored in detail and the implications for future research are discussed.

  13. THE ROTATION RATES OF MASSIVE STARS: THE ROLE OF BINARY INTERACTION THROUGH TIDES, MASS TRANSFER, AND MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    De Mink, S. E.; Langer, N.; Izzard, R. G.; Sana, H.; De Koter, A.

    2013-02-20

    Rotation is thought to be a major factor in the evolution of massive stars-especially at low metallicity-with consequences for their chemical yields, ionizing flux, and final fate. Deriving the birth spin distribution is of high priority given its importance as a constraint on theories of massive star formation and as input for models of stellar populations in the local universe and at high redshift. Recently, it has become clear that the majority of massive stars interact with a binary companion before they die. We investigate how this affects the distribution of rotation rates, through stellar winds, expansion, tides, mass transfer, and mergers. For this purpose, we simulate a massive binary-star population typical for our Galaxy assuming continuous star formation. We find that, because of binary interaction, 20{sup +5} {sub -10}% of all massive main-sequence stars have projected rotational velocities in excess of 200 km s{sup -1}. We evaluate the effect of uncertain input distributions and physical processes and conclude that the main uncertainties are the mass transfer efficiency and the possible effect of magnetic braking, especially if magnetic fields are generated or amplified during mass accretion and stellar mergers. The fraction of rapid rotators we derive is similar to that observed. If indeed mass transfer and mergers are the main cause for rapid rotation in massive stars, little room remains for rapidly rotating stars that are born single. This implies that spin-down during star formation is even more efficient than previously thought. In addition, this raises questions about the interpretation of the surface abundances of rapidly rotating stars as evidence for rotational mixing. Furthermore, our results allow for the possibility that all early-type Be stars result from binary interactions and suggest that evidence for rotation in explosions, such as long gamma-ray bursts, points to a binary origin.

  14. [Fe II] emissions associated with the young interacting binary UY Aurigae

    SciTech Connect

    Pyo, Tae-Soo; Hayashi, Masahiko; Beck, Tracy L.; Davis, Christopher J.; Takami, Michihiro

    2014-05-01

    We present high-resolution 1.06-1.28 μm spectra toward the interacting binary UY Aur obtained with GEMINI/NIFS and the adaptive optics system Altair. We have detected [Fe II] λ1.257 μm and He I λ1.083 μm lines from both UY Aur A (the primary source) and UY Aur B (the secondary). In [Fe II] UY Aur A drives fast and widely opening outflows with an opening angle of ∼90° along a position angle of ∼40°, while UY Aur B is associated with a redshifted knot. The blueshifted and redshifted emissions show a complicated structure between the primary and secondary. The radial velocities of the [Fe II] emission features are similar for UY Aur A and B: ∼ –100 km s{sup –1} for the blueshifted emission and ∼ +130 km s{sup –1} for the redshifted component. The He I line profile observed toward UY Aur A comprises a central emission feature with deep absorptions at both blueshifted and redshifted velocities. These absorption features may be explained by stellar wind models. The He I line profile of UY Aur B shows only an emission feature.

  15. Cation-network interactions in binary alkali metal borate glasses. A far-infrared study

    SciTech Connect

    Kamitsos, E.I.; Karakassides, M.A.; Chryssikos, G.D.

    1987-10-22

    The far-infrared spectra of compositions probing the glass-forming regions of all five binary alkali metal borate systems chi M/sub 2/O x (1 - chi)B/sub 2/O/sub 3/ (0 < chi less than or equal to 0.40, M = Na; and 0 < chi less than or equal to 0.35, M = K, Rb, Cs) have been measured and analyzed to systematically study the alkali metal cation-network interactions and their compositional dependence. Band deconvolution of the measured spectra showed the presence of two distinct distributions of alkali metal cation sites in Li, Na, and K glasses. Similar results have been obtained for rubidium and cesium borate glasses of compositions chi > 0.25. One distribution of cation sites has been observed for the lower alkali metal content Rb and Cs glasses. The fractions of cations in the two different network sites have also been evaluated. The squares of the frequencies of the cation-motion bands were found to vary linearly with composition, and exhibit kinks at chi similarly ordered 20, for all but the Cs glasses. This behavior was explained on the basis of the network structural changes known to occur at this composition.

  16. Reduced order model for binary neutron star waveforms with tidal interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackey, Benjamin; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Galley, Chad

    2016-03-01

    Observations of inspiralling binary neutron star (BNS) systems with Advanced LIGO can be used to determine the unknown neutron-star equation of state by measuring the phase shift in the gravitational waveform due to tidal interactions. Unfortunately, this requires computationally efficient waveform models for use in parameter estimation codes that typically require 106-107 sequential waveform evaluations, as well as accurate waveform models with phase errors less than 1 radian over the entire inspiral to avoid systematic errors in the measured tidal deformability. The effective one body waveform model with l = 2 , 3, and 4 tidal multipole moments is currently the most accurate model for BNS systems, but takes several minutes to evaluate. We develop a reduced order model of this waveform by constructing separate orthonormal bases for the amplitude and phase evolution. We find that only 10-20 bases are needed to reconstruct any BNS waveform with a starting frequency of 10 Hz. The coefficients of these bases are found with Chebyshev interpolation over the waveform parameter space. This reduced order model has maximum errors of 0.2 radians, and results in a speedup factor of more than 103, allowing parameter estimation codes to run in days to weeks rather than decades.

  17. The effect of a wider initial separation on common envelope binary interaction simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaconi, Roberto; Reichardt, Thomas; Staff, Jan; De Marco, Orsola; Passy, Jean-Claude; Price, Daniel; Wurster, James; Herwig, Falk

    2016-09-01

    We present hydrodynamic simulations of the common envelope binary interaction between a giant star and a compact companion carried out with the adaptive mesh refinement code ENZO and the smooth particle hydrodynamics code PHANTOM. These simulations mimic the parameters of one of the simulations by Passy et al., but assess the impact of a larger, more realistic initial orbital separation on the simulation outcome. We conclude that for both codes the post-common envelope separation is somewhat larger and the amount of unbound mass slightly greater when the initial separation is wide enough that the giant does not yet overflow or just overflows its Roche lobe. PHANTOM has been adapted to the common envelope problem here for the first time and a full comparison with ENZO is presented, including an investigation of convergence as well as energy and angular momentum conservation. We also set our simulations in the context of past simulations. This comparison reveals that it is the expansion of the giant before rapid in-spiral and not spinning up of the star that causes a larger final separation. We also suggest that the large range in unbound mass for different simulations is difficult to explain and may have something to do with simulations that are not fully converged.

  18. Cross-sections for planetary systems interacting with passing stars and binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gongjie; Adams, Fred

    2015-08-01

    Most planetary systems are formed within stellar clusters, and these environments can shape their properties. This paper considers scattering encounters between solar systems and passing cluster members, and calculates the corresponding interaction cross-sections. The target solar systems are generally assumed to have four giant planets, with a variety of starting states, including circular orbits with the semimajor axes of our planets, a more compact configuration, an ultracompact state with multiple mean motion resonances, and systems with massive planets. We then consider the effects of varying the cluster velocity dispersion, the relative importance of binaries versus single stars, different stellar host masses, and finite starting eccentricities of the planetary orbits. For each state of the initial system, we perform an ensemble of numerical scattering experiments and determine the cross-sections for eccentricity increase, inclination angle increase, planet ejection, and capture. This paper reports results from over 2 million individual scattering simulations. Using supporting analytic considerations, and fitting functions to the numerical results, we find a universal formula that gives the crosssections as a function of stellar host mass, cluster velocity dispersion, starting planetary orbital radius, and final eccentricity. The resulting cross-sections can be used in a wide variety of applications. As one example, we revisit constraints on the birth aggregate of our Solar system due to dynamical scattering and find N ≤104 (consistent with previous estimates).

  19. Characterizing Interactive Engagement Activities in a Flipped Introductory Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of "how" they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in…

  20. JavaScript: Convenient Interactivity for the Class Web Page.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Patricia

    This paper shows how JavaScript can be used within HTML pages to add interactive review sessions and quizzes incorporating graphics and sound files. JavaScript has the advantage of providing basic interactive functions without the use of separate software applications and players. Because it can be part of a standard HTML page, it is…

  1. DISSOLUTION AND COMPATIBILITY STUDY OF BINARY AND TERNARY INTERACTIVE MIXTURES OF INDOMETHACIN: COMPARISON WITH COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE CAPSULES.

    PubMed

    Maswadeh, Hamzah M

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to use Weibull distribution function and Baker-Lonsdale models to study the dissolution kinetics of prepared binary and ternary interactive mixtures containing indomethacin in comparison with three commercially available capsules of indomethacin, namely, Rothacin®, Indomin® and Indylon®. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in conjunction with cloud point method was used to study the compatibility of indomethacin with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and lactose and to provide an explanation(s) for the insignificant increase in dissolution rate observed in the ternary interactive mixture as well as for the reduction in the dissolution rate observed from the binary system in our previous study. Results showed that the Weibull distribution function equation was the best fit to the dissolution data for all formulations used in this study. DSC curves showed that the decrease in dissolution rate from the binary and ternary interactive mixtures was due to incompatibility of indomethacin with PVP. Also DSC curves showed that lactose was compatible with indomethacin and that lactose was used as excipient in two commercial products (Rothacin® and Indylon®). Results from the cloud point method showed that the addition of indomethacin to 1% PVP solution containing ammonium sulfate (with cloud point at 76°C) reduces the cloud point of PVP indicating that there is an interaction between indomethacin and PVP, while the cloud point of 1% PVP containing ammonium sulfate was not affected by the addition of lactose. PMID:27476292

  2. Student Response Systems' Virtual Interaction Effects on Learning in Adult Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassihi Langroodi, Sayedeh Parvanak

    2010-01-01

    In an English as a second language (ESL) or English as a foreign language (EFL) class, special emphasis is often put on interaction and negotiation as a means of learning and understanding the language being taught (Long, 1981; Pica, 1994). However, student-student interaction as well as student-teacher interaction could be difficult to achieve in…

  3. Interacting binary galaxies. IV. Simulations, masses, and spatial orientations for NGC 1587/1588 and NGC 7236/7237

    SciTech Connect

    Borne, K.D.

    1988-07-01

    Successful efforts to match interaction models to all of the available data for two pairs of interacting binary galaxies, Nos. 99 and 564 in the Karachentsev catalog of isolated pairs, are described. The results validate simple Newtonian gravity on the 10 kpc scale. The dynamical orbital status of both K99 and K564 is uniquely determined, and the masses and spatial orientations of the pairs are tightly constrained. Total masses for the pairs are derived which are quite reasonable and yield M/L values near 10. It is concluded that the observed disturbances in rotation velocity and luminosity distribution for these binary galaxies are entirely consistent with the merger hypothesis. Distortions including U-shaped rotation profiles and one-sided luminosity disturbances provide solid observational evidence of tidal friction in action. 18 references.

  4. DISCOVERY OF THE DISTURBED RADIO MORPHOLOGY IN THE INTERACTING BINARY QUASAR FIRST J164311.3+315618

    SciTech Connect

    Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2011-08-01

    We report the high-resolution radio observations and the subsequent analysis of the radio-loud compact steep spectrum quasar FIRST J164311.3+315618, one of the members of a binary system. The second component of the system is a radio-quiet active galactic nucleus. The projected separation of this pair is 2.''3 (15 kpc); it is one of the smallest-known-separation binary quasars. The multi-band images of this binary system made with the Hubble Space Telescope show that the host galaxy of the radio-loud quasar is highly disturbed. The radio observations presented here were made with the Multi-Element Radio-Linked interferometer network (MERLIN) at 1.66 GHz and 5 GHz. We show that the radio morphology of FIRST J164311.3+315618 is complex on both frequencies and exhibits four components that indicate the intermittent activity with a possible rapid change of the jet direction and/or restarting of the jet due to the interaction with the companion. The radio components that are no longer powered by the jet can quickly fade away. We suggest that this makes the potential distortions of the radio structure short-lived phenomena. Our numerical simulations show that the influence of the companion can lead to prolonged current and future activities. FIRST J164311.3+315618 is an unusual and statistically very rare low redshift binary quasar wherein the first close encounter is probably just taking place.

  5. Strategies for Building Positive Student-Instructor Interactions in Large Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Oscar J.; Turner, Windi D.

    2016-01-01

    Although large classes in and of themselves are pragmatic for universities, they can be challenging for both students and instructors. The purpose of this study was to investigate pedagogical strategies that instructors teaching large classes can utilize to create positive student-instructor interactions to counter these challenges. Both…

  6. Interpreting NEAR XGRS Results for the Class S Asteroid 433 Eros with an Interactive Meteorite Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. E.; Murphy, M. E.; Nittler, L. R.

    2000-01-01

    The NEAR X-ray spectrometer, based on calculations using an interactive meteorite database, should be able to identify potential meteorite class and subclass analogs on a scale of 2 to 3 kilometers on asteroid 433 Eros.

  7. Spicing Up Information Literacy Tutorials: Interactive Class Activities that Worked

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zdravkovic, Neda

    2010-01-01

    Constructivist learning theories promote students' engagement as one of the key factors in successful learning and knowledge building. Research indicates that the short attention span of adult learners, their need to "learn-by-doing," interact and multitask in the learning process can be accommodated with a positive outcome by introducing…

  8. Focused Interactive Learning: A Tool for Active Class Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harton, Helen C.; Richardson, Deborah S.; Barreras, Ricardo E.; Rockloff, Matthew J.; Latane, Bibb

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of focused interactive learning (FIL), in which students participate in focused discussions with their peers to learn about psychological concepts. Evaluates the use of FIL at Florida Atlantic University (Boca Raton, Florida). Addresses student benefits resulting from this technique. (CMK)

  9. ALMA observations of the T Tauri binary system AS 205: evidence for molecular winds and/or binary interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Salyk, Colette; Pontoppidan, Klaus; Corder, Stuartt; Muñoz, Diego; Zhang, Ke; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we present high-resolution millimeter observations of the dust and gas disk of the T Tauri star AS 205 N and its companion, AS 205 S, obtained with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The gas disk around AS 205 N, for which infrared emission spectroscopy demonstrates significant deviations from Keplerian motion that has been interpreted as evidence for a disk wind, also displays significant deviations from Keplerian disk emission in the observations presented here. Detections near both AS 205 N and S are obtained in 1.3 mm continuum, {sup 12}CO 2-1, {sup 13}CO 2-1, and C{sup 18}O 2-1. The {sup 12}CO emission is extended up to ∼2'' from AS 205 N, and both {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO display deviations from Keplerian rotation at all angular scales. Two possible explanations for these observations hold up best to close scrutiny—tidal interaction with AS 205 S or disk winds (or a combination of the two)—and we discuss these possibilities in some detail.

  10. Non-Gaussian polymers described by alpha-stable chain statistics: Model, effective interactions in binary mixtures, and application to on-surface separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majka, M.; Góra, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    The Gaussian chain model is the classical description of a polymeric chain, which provides analytical results regarding end-to-end distance, the distribution of segments around the mass center of a chain, coarse-grained interactions between two chains and effective interactions in binary mixtures. This hierarchy of results can be calculated thanks to the α stability of the Gaussian distribution. In this paper we show that it is possible to generalize the model of Gaussian chain to the entire class of α -stable distributions, obtaining the analogous hierarchy of results expressed by the analytical closed-form formulas in the Fourier space. This allows us to establish the α -stable chain model. We begin with reviewing the applications of Levy flights in the context of polymer sciences, which include: chains described by the heavy-tailed distributions of persistence length; polymers adsorbed to the surface; and the chains driven by a noise with power-law spatial correlations. Further, we derive the distribution of segments around the mass center of the α -stable chain and construct the coarse-grained interaction potential between two chains. These results are employed to discuss the model of binary mixture consisting of the α -stable chains. In what follows, we establish the spinodal decomposition condition generalized to the mixtures of the α -stable polymers. This condition is further applied to compare the on-surface phase separation of adsorbed polymers (which are known to be described with heavy-tailed statistics) with the phase separation condition in the bulk. Finally, we predict the four different scenarios of simultaneous mixing and demixing in the two- and three-dimensional systems.

  11. Long-Term Quadrature Light Variability in Early Type Interacting Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Wilson, R. E.; Vaccaro, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    Four years of Kepler observations have revealed a phenomenon in the light curves of short-period Algol-type eclipsing binaries that has never been reported from ground-based photometry. These systems display unequal brightness at their quadrature phases that numerically reverses over a time scale of about 100-400 days. We call these systems L/T (leading hemisphere/ trailing hemisphere) variables. Twenty-one such systems have so far been identified in the Kepler database and at least three classes of L/T behavior have been identified. The prototype is WX Draconis (A8V + K0IV, P=1.80 d) which shows L/ T light variations of 2-3%. The primary is a delta Scuti star with a dominant pulsation period of 41 m. The Kepler light curves are being analyzed with the 2013 version of the Wilson-Devinney (WD) program that includes major improvements in modeling star spots (i.e. spot motions due to drift and stellar rotation and spot growth and decay). Preliminary analysis of the WX Dra data suggests that the L/T variability can be fit with either an accretion hot spot on the primary (T = 2.3 T_phot) that jumps in longitude or a magnetic cool spotted region on the secondary. If the latter model is correct the dark region must occupy at least 20% of the surface of the facing hemisphere of the secondary if it is completely black, or a larger area if not completely black. In both hot and cool spot scenarios magnetic fields must play a role in the activity. Echelle spectra were recently secured with the KPNO 4-m telescope to determine the mass ratios of the L/T systems and their spectral types. This information will allow us to assess whether the hot or cool spot model explains the L/T activity. Progress toward this goal will be presented. Support from NASA grants NNX11AC78G and NNX12AE44G and USC’s Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  12. Essential glycan-dependent interactions optimize MHC class I peptide loading

    PubMed Central

    Wearsch, Pamela A.; Peaper, David R.; Cresswell, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this study we sought to better understand the role of the glycoprotein quality control machinery in the assembly of MHC class I molecules with high-affinity peptides. The lectin-like chaperone calreticulin (CRT) and the thiol oxidoreductase ERp57 participate in the final step of this process as part of the peptide-loading complex (PLC). We provide evidence for an MHC class I/CRT intermediate before PLC engagement and examine the nature of that chaperone interaction in detail. To investigate the mechanism of peptide loading and roles of individual components, we reconstituted a PLC subcomplex, excluding the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing, from purified, recombinant proteins. ERp57 disulfide linked to the class I-specific chaperone tapasin and CRT were the minimal PLC components required for MHC class I association and peptide loading. Mutations disrupting the interaction of CRT with ERp57 or the class I glycan completely eliminated PLC activity in vitro. By using the purified system, we also provide direct evidence for a role for UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1 in MHC class I assembly. The recombinant Drosophila enzyme reglucosylated MHC class I molecules associated with suboptimal ligands and allowed PLC reengagement and high-affinity peptide exchange. Collectively, the data indicate that CRT in the PLC enhances weak tapasin/class I interactions in a manner that is glycan-dependent and regulated by UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase 1. PMID:21383180

  13. The Use of a Web-Based Classroom Interaction System in Introductory Physics Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corpuz, Edgar D.; Corpuz, Ma. Aileen A.; Rosalez, Rolando

    2010-10-01

    A web-based interaction system was used in algebra-based and calculus-based physics classes to enhance students' classroom interaction. The interactive teaching approach primarily incorporated elements of Mazur's Peer Instruction and Interactive Lecture Demonstration. In our implementation, students used personal digital assistants (PDAs) to interact with their instructor during lecture and classroom demonstration. In this paper, we document the perceptions and attitudes of algebra-based and calculus-based physics students towards the interactive teaching approach and likewise present data on how this approach affected students' performance on the Force Concept Inventory (FCI).

  14. UV and X-ray emission in the interacting binary U Cephei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gimenez, A.; Guinan, E. F.; Gonzalez-Riestra, R.

    1993-01-01

    The active close binary U Cep has been monitored in the ultraviolet, using IUE, during 1.25 orbital cycles. The emission spectrum at the bottom of the primary total eclipse confirms earlier suggestions of an unexpected absence of the Hell 1640 A line. Stronger than expected emission in some other lines like NV, CII, CIV or AlIII, indicative of hot plasma, points out that some important differences still remain between the active components of RS CVn-type binaries and the mass-losing components of semidetached Algols. Simultaneous X-ray measurements, carried out with GINGA, indicated a low upper limit flux in the observed energy range (1 to 10 keV). A comparison with other binary systems or isolated stars is discussed in order to understand the obtained results.

  15. Effects of drug-carrier interactions on drug dissolution from binary and ternary matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Zafar

    For nearly five decades, pharmaceutical researchers have studied solid solutions of drugs in polymers as a potential means to enhance the dissolution of drugs with poor aqueous solubility. This has become of greater importance in recent years because most new potential drug compounds (new chemical entities) exhibit poor water solubility and present great challenges to scientists who must design dosage forms from which the drugs are bioavailable. During the formulation of a solid solution, the drug undergoes physical but not chemical alterations that increase its chemical potential in the formulation relative to that of the pure drug in its stable form. This increased chemical potential is responsible for enhanced dissolution as well as physical instabilities, such as amorphous to crystalline conversions and precipitation within the solid state. The chemical potential is derived from the Gibbs free energy, so it is reasonable to explain the behavior of solid solution systems in terms of thermodynamics. Solid solutions and dispersions have been extensively studied by pharmaceutical scientists, both with regard to manufacturing aspects and the proposal of various models in attempts to explain the physical bases for how these systems work. Recently, Dave and Bellantone proposed a model based on the thermodynamic changes resulting from the formulation of binary solid solutions of a drug in the polymer PVP. Their model introduced a modification of the F-H theory, which was used to quantify the drug-polymer interaction energies and calculate the entropy of mixing of the drug and polymer. In this work, the model of Dave and Bellantone was extended to include three-component systems, consisting of one drug mixed in a carrier matrix consisting of mixture of two polymers or a polymer and a surfactant. For this research, solid solutions were formed using various drug weight fractions in the formulations. The study focused on the following points: (1) Prepare solid solution

  16. On a class of nonlinear dispersive-dissipative interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenau, P.

    1997-07-29

    The authors study the prototypical, genuinely nonlinear, equation; u{sub t} + a(u{sup m}){sub x} + (u{sup n}){sub xxx} = {mu}(u{sup k}){sub xx}, a, {mu} = consts., which encompasses a wide variety of dissipative-dispersive interactions. The parametric surface k = (m + n)/2 separates diffusion dominated from dissipation dominated phenomena. On this surface dissipative and dispersive effects are in detailed balance for all amplitudes. In particular, the m = n + 2 = k + 1 subclass can be transformed into a form free of convection and dissipation making it accessible to theoretical studies. Both bounded and unbounded oscillations are found and certain exact solutions are presented. When a = (2{mu}3/){sup 2} the map yields a linear equation; rational, periodic and aperiodic solutions are constructed.

  17. Functional analysis of Mycoplasma arthritidis-derived mitogen interactions with class II molecules.

    PubMed Central

    Bernatchez, C; Al-Daccak, R; Mayer, P E; Mehindate, K; Rink, L; Mecheri, S; Mourad, W

    1997-01-01

    The ability of superantigens (SAGs) to trigger various cellular events via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules is largely mediated by their mode of interaction. Having two MHC class II binding sites, staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is able to dimerize MHC class II molecules on the cell surface and consequently induces cytokine gene expression in human monocytes. In contrast, cross-linking with specific monoclonal antibodies or T-cell receptor is required for staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST-1) to induce similar responses. In the present study, we report how Mycoplasma arthritidis-derived mitogen (MAM) may interact with MHC class II molecules to induce cytokine gene expression in human monocytes. The data presented indicate that MAM-induced cytokine gene expression in human monocytes is Zn2+ dependent. The MAM-induced response is completely abolished by pretreatment with SEA mutants that have lost their capacity to bind either the MHC class II alpha or beta chain, with wild-type SEB, or with wild-type TSST-1, suggesting that MAM induces cytokine gene expression most probably by inducing dimerization of class II molecules. In addition, it seems that SEA and MAM interact with the same or overlapping binding sites on the MHC class II beta chain and, on the other hand, that they bind to the alpha chain most probably through the regions that are involved in SEB and TSST-1 binding. PMID:9169724

  18. Regulation of calreticulin-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I interactions by ATP.

    PubMed

    Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva Joseph; Gagnon, Jessica K; Arora, Karunesh; Brooks, Charles L; Raghavan, Malini

    2015-10-13

    The MHC class I peptide loading complex (PLC) facilitates the assembly of MHC class I molecules with peptides, but factors that regulate the stability and dynamics of the assembly complex are largely uncharacterized. Based on initial findings that ATP, in addition to MHC class I-specific peptide, is able to induce MHC class I dissociation from the PLC, we investigated the interaction of ATP with the chaperone calreticulin, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal, calcium-binding component of the PLC that is known to bind ATP. We combined computational and experimental measurements to identify residues within the globular domain of calreticulin, in proximity to the high-affinity calcium-binding site, that are important for high-affinity ATP binding and for ATPase activity. High-affinity calcium binding by calreticulin is required for optimal nucleotide binding, but both ATP and ADP destabilize enthalpy-driven high-affinity calcium binding to calreticulin. ATP also selectively destabilizes the interaction of calreticulin with cellular substrates, including MHC class I molecules. Calreticulin mutants that affect ATP or high-affinity calcium binding display prolonged associations with monoglucosylated forms of cellular MHC class I, delaying MHC class I dissociation from the PLC and their transit through the secretory pathway. These studies reveal central roles for ATP and calcium binding as regulators of calreticulin-substrate interactions and as key determinants of PLC dynamics.

  19. Cultivar x binary mixture interaction effect on agronomic traits in orchardgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate and characterize the agronomic value, including dry matter yield and forage quality of 25 orchardgrass cultivars grown in monoculture and binary mixtures with alfalfa under supplemental irrigation from 2009 to 2012 at a Millville, UT, field site. Orchardgrass monoc...

  20. Phase behaviour, interactions, and structural studies of (amines+ionic liquids) binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Johan; Bendová, Magdalena; Sedláková, Zuzana; Blesic, Marijana; Holbrey, John D; Mullan, Claire L; Youngs, Tristan G A; Pison, Laure; Wagner, Zdeněk; Aim, Karel; Costa Gomes, Margarida F; Hardacre, Christopher

    2012-05-14

    We present a study on the phase equilibrium behaviour of binary mixtures containing two 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide-based ionic liquids, [C(n)mim] [NTf(2)] (n=2 and 4), mixed with diethylamine or triethylamine as a function of temperature and composition using different experimental techniques. Based on this work, two systems showing an LCST and one system with a possible hourglass shape are measured. Their phase behaviours are then correlated and predicted by using Flory-Huggins equations and the UNIQUAC method implemented in Aspen. The potential of the COSMO-RS methodology to predict the phase equilibria was also tested for the binary systems studied. However, this methodology is unable to predict the trends obtained experimentally, limiting its use for systems involving amines in ionic liquids. The liquid-state structure of the binary mixture ([C(2)mim] [NTf(2)]+diethylamine) is also investigated by molecular dynamics simulation and neutron diffraction. Finally, the absorption of gaseous ethane by the ([C(2)mim][NTf(2)]+diethylamine) binary mixture is determined and compared with that observed in the pure solvents.

  1. Specificity of Amyloid Precursor-like Protein 2 Interactions with MHC Class I Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Amit; Sharma, Mahak; Naslavsky, Naava; Caplan, Steve; Solheim, Joyce C.

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2) has been previously found to regulate cell surface expression of the MHC class I molecule Kd and bind strongly to Kd. In the study reported here, we demonstrated that APLP2 binds, in varied degrees, to several other mouse MHC class I allotypes, and that the ability of APLP2 to affect cell surface expression of an MHC class I molecule is not limited to Kd. Ld, like Kd, was found associated with APLP2 in the Golgi, but Kd was also associated with APLP2 within intracellular vesicular structures. We also investigated the effect of β2m on APLP2/MHC interaction, and found that human β2m transfection increased the association of APLP2 with mouse MHC class I molecules, likely by affecting H2 class I heavy chain conformation. APLP2 was demonstrated to bind specifically to the conformation of Ld having folded outer domains, consistent with our previous results with Kd and indicating APLP2 interacts with the α1α2 region on each of these H2 class I molecules. Furthermore, we observed that binding to APLP2 involved the MHC α3/transmembrane/cytoplasmic region, suggesting that conserved as well as polymorphic regions of the H2 class I molecule may participate in interaction with APLP2. In summary, we demonstrated that APLP2′s binding, co-localization pattern, and functional impact vary among H2 class I molecules, and that APLP2/MHC association is influenced by multiple domains of the MHC class I heavy chain and by β2m’s effects on the conformation of the heavy chain. PMID:18452037

  2. Binary Mixtures of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Display Nonadditive Mixture Interactions in an In Vitro Liver Cell Model.

    PubMed

    Gaskill, Stacey J; Bruce, Erica D

    2016-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been labeled contaminants of concern due to their carcinogenic potential, insufficient toxicological data, environmental ubiquity, and inconsistencies in the composition of environmental mixtures. The Environmental Protection Agency is reevaluating current methods for assessing the toxicity of PAHs, including the assumption of toxic additivity in mixtures. This study was aimed at testing mixture interactions through in vitro cell culture experimentation, and modeling the toxicity using quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). Clone-9 rat liver cells were used to analyze cellular proliferation, viability, and genotoxicity of 15 PAHs in single doses and binary mixtures. Tests revealed that many mixtures have nonadditive toxicity, but display varying mixture effects depending on the mixture composition. Many mixtures displayed antagonism, similar to other published studies. QSARs were then developed using the genetic function approximation algorithm to predict toxic activity both in single PAH congeners and in binary mixtures. Effective concentrations inhibiting 50% of the cell populations were modeled, with R(2) = 0.90, 0.99, and 0.84, respectively. The QSAR mixture algorithms were then adjusted to account for the observed mixture interactions as well as the mixture composition (ratios) to assess the feasibility of QSARs for mixtures. Based on these results, toxic addition is improbable and therefore environmental PAH mixtures are likely to see nonadditive responses when complex interactions occur between components. Furthermore, QSAR may be a useful tool to help bridge these data gaps surrounding the assessment of human health risks that are associated with PAH exposures.

  3. Interacting binary galaxies. V - NGC 4782/4783 (3C 278): Unbound colliders, not a supermassive pair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borne, Kirk D.; Balcells, Marc; Hoessel, John G.

    1988-01-01

    CCD imaging data of the elliptical galaxies NGC 4782 and NGC 4783 have been analyzed along with published spectroscopic measurements in order to develop a viable interaction model for this system. The best-fit model suggests that the binary orbit was hyperbolic before the encounter, but that the energy loss during the collision has led to a loosely bound system. The total system mass in the region occupied by the luminous matter is shown to be 1.4 x 10 to the 12th solar masses. The results support the previous theory that the internal velocity dispersions of colliding galaxies tend to increase just past closest approach.

  4. Phase equilibrium calculations of ternary liquid mixtures with binary interaction parameters and molecular size parameters determined from molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Oh, Suk Yung; Bae, Young Chan

    2010-07-15

    The method presented in this paper was developed to predict liquid-liquid equilibria in ternary liquid mixtures by using a combination of a thermodynamic model and molecular dynamics simulations. In general, common classical thermodynamic models have many parameters which are determined by fitting a model with experimental data. This proposed method, however, provides a simple procedure for calculating liquid-liquid equilibria utilizing binary interaction parameters and molecular size parameters determined from molecular dynamics simulations. This method was applied to mixtures containing water, hydrocarbons, alcohols, chlorides, ketones, acids, and other organic liquids over various temperature ranges. The predicted results agree well with the experimental data without the use of adjustable parameters.

  5. Parameter Estimation of Binary Neutron Stars using an Effective One Body Model including Tidal Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Monica; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Lackey, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    Ground gravitational wave detectors, built to detect perturbations in spacetime, can pick up signals produced by inspiraling binary neutron stars, the remnants of the core collapse of massive stars. A new EOB model (Bernuzzi et al. 2015) simulates the inspiral and merger of binary neutron star systems, including how they are deformed due to tides. We used a Bayesian parameter estimation algorithm to infer how well a plausible gravitational wave detection would allow us to constrain this tidal deformability. We then compared our results to prior investigations (Wade et al. 2014) which employed a post-Newtonian-based approximation for the inspiral. I would like to thank the RIT Department of Physics and Astronomy, and the RIT Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation.

  6. Phase Behavior of Nematic-Nonnematic Binary Systems: III. The Effect of Hydrogen Bonding Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaba, Kazunori; Igarashi, Atsuko; Kobinata, Shunsuke

    1998-12-01

    For the binary mixtures of nematic 4-pentyl-4‧-cyanobiphenyl (5CB) with some kinds of nonnematic solutes, which showed `unusual' increase in nematic-isotropic phase transition temperature compared with that of pure 5CB, we have measured the temperature dependence of the IR dichroic ratio for several bands of 5CB and of the solutes. The dichroic ratios and their temperature dependence distinctly showed the presence of rather firmly hydrogen-bonded complexes in these binary systems. We found some interesting results, e.g., the dichroic ratios for the OH stretching mode of phenol, which is hydrogen bonded to the CN group of 5CB, and for p-ethyl benzoic acid were larger than the dichroic ratio of the CN band. The temperature dependence of the second-order parameters derived from IR dichroic ratios was analyzed based on a Maier-Saupe-type mean field theory.

  7. Hydrodynamics of rotating stars and close binary interactions: Compressible ellipsoid models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lai, Dong; Rasio, Frederic A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.

    1994-01-01

    We develop a new formalism to study the dynamics of fluid polytropes in three dimensions. The stars are modeled as compressible ellipsoids, and the hydrodynamic equations are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations for the evolution of the principal axes and other global quantities. Both viscous dissipation and the gravitational radiation reaction are incorporated. We establish the validity of our approximations and demonstrate the simplicity and power of the method by rederiving a number of known results concerning the stability and dynamical oscillations of rapidly rotating polytropes. In particular, we present a generalization to compressible fluids of Chandrasekhar's classical results for the secular and dynamical instabilities of incompressible Maclaurin spheroids. We also present several applications of our method to astrophysical problems of great current interest, such as the tidal disruption of a star by a massive black hole, the coalescence of compact binaries driven by the emission of gravitational waves, and the development of instabilities in close binary systems.

  8. Interaction of the LILRB1 inhibitory receptor with HLA class Ia dimers.

    PubMed

    Baía, Diogo; Pou, Jordi; Jones, Des; Mandelboim, Ofer; Trowsdale, John; Muntasell, Aura; López-Botet, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor subfamily B member 1 (LILRB1) has been reported to interact with a wide spectrum of HLA class I (HLA-I) molecules, albeit with different affinities determined by allelic polymorphisms and conformational features. HLA-G dimerization and the presence of intracellular Cys residues in HLA-B7 have been shown to be critical for their recognition by LILRB1. We hypothesized that dimerization of classical HLA class Ia molecules, previously detected in exosomes, might enhance their interaction with LILRB1. A soluble LILRB1-Fc fusion protein and a sensitive cellular reporter system expressing a LILRB1-ζ chimera were employed to assess receptor interaction with different HLA class Ia molecules transfected in the human lymphoblastoid 721.221 cell line. Under these conditions, intracellular Cys residues and HLA-I dimerization appeared associated with increased LILRB1 recognition. On the other hand, a marginal interaction of LILRB1 with primary monocytic cells, irrespective of their high HLA-I expression, was enhanced by type I interferon (IFN). This effect appeared disproportionate to the cytokine-induced increase of surface HLA-I expression and was accompanied by detection of HLA class Ia dimers. Altogether, the results support that a regulated assembly of these noncanonical HLA-I conformers during the immune response may enhance the avidity of their interaction with LILRB1.

  9. Global Simulations of the Interaction of Microquasar Jets with a Stellar Wind in High-mass X-ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, D.; Heinz, S.

    2015-03-01

    Jets powered by high-mass X-ray binaries must traverse the powerful wind of the companion star. We present the first global three-dimensional simulations of jet-wind interaction in high-mass X-ray binaries. We show that the wind momentum flux intercepted by the jet can lead to significant bending of the jet and that jets propagating through a spherical wind will be bent to an asymptotic angle {{\\psi }∞ }. We derive simple expressions for {{\\psi }∞ } as a function of jet power and wind thrust. For known wind parameters, measurements of {{\\psi }∞ } can be used to constrain the jet power. In the case of Cygnus X-1, the lack of jet precession as a function of orbital phase observed by the Very Long Baseline Array can be used to put a lower limit on the jet power of {{L}jet}≳ {{10}36} ergs {{s}-1}. We further discuss the case where the initial jet is inclined relative to the binary orbital axis. We also analyze the case of Cygnus X-3 and show that jet bending is likely negligible unless the jet is significantly less powerful or much wider than currently thought. Our numerical investigation is limited to isotropic stellar winds. We discuss the possible effects of wind clumping on jet-wind interaction, which are likely significant, but argue that our limits on jet power for Cygnus X-1 are likely unaffected by clumping unless the global wind mass-loss rate is orders of magnitude below the commonly assumed range for Cyg X-1.

  10. Images of gravitational and magnetic phenomena derived from two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography of interacting binary stars

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Cocking, Alexander S.; Fisher, John G.; Conover, Marshall J. E-mail: asc5097@psu.edu

    2014-11-10

    We have used two-dimensional back-projection Doppler tomography as a tool to examine the influence of gravitational and magnetic phenomena in interacting binaries that undergo mass transfer from a magnetically active star onto a non-magnetic main-sequence star. This multitiered study of over 1300 time-resolved spectra of 13 Algol binaries involved calculations of the predicted dynamical behavior of the gravitational flow and the dynamics at the impact site, analysis of the velocity images constructed from tomography, and the influence on the tomograms of orbital inclination, systemic velocity, orbital coverage, and shadowing. The Hα tomograms revealed eight sources: chromospheric emission, a gas stream along the gravitational trajectory, a star-stream impact region, a bulge of absorption or emission around the mass-gaining star, a Keplerian accretion disk, an absorption zone associated with hotter gas, a disk-stream impact region, and a hot spot where the stream strikes the edge of a disk. We described several methods used to extract the physical properties of the emission sources directly from the velocity images, including S-wave analysis, the creation of simulated velocity tomograms from hydrodynamic simulations, and the use of synthetic spectra with tomography to sequentially extract the separate sources of emission from the velocity image. In summary, the tomography images have revealed results that cannot be explained solely by gravitational effects: chromospheric emission moving with the mass-losing star, a gas stream deflected from the gravitational trajectory, and alternating behavior between stream state and disk state. Our results demonstrate that magnetic effects cannot be ignored in these interacting binaries.

  11. Binary Superlattices from {Mo132} Polyoxometalates and Maghemite Nanocrystals: Long-Range Ordering and Fine-Tuning of Dipole Interactions.

    PubMed

    Breitwieser, Romain; Auvray, Thomas; Volatron, Florence; Salzemann, Caroline; Ngo, Anh-Tu; Albouy, Pierre-Antoine; Proust, Anna; Petit, Christophe

    2016-01-13

    In the present article, the successful coassembly of spherical 6.2 nm maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanocrystals and giant polyoxometalates (POMs) such as 2.9 nm {Mo132} is demonstrated. To do so, colloidal solutions of oleic acid-capped γ-Fe2O3 and long-chain alkylammonium-encapsulated {Mo132 } dispersed in chloroform are mixed together and supported self-organized binary superlattices are obtained upon the solvent evaporation on immersed substrates. Both electronic microscopy and small angles X-ray scattering data reveal an AB-type structure and an enhanced structuration of the magnetic nanocrystals (MNCs) assembly with POMs in octahedral interstices. Therefore, {Mo132} acts as an efficient binder constituent for improving the nanocrystals ordering in 3D films. Interestingly, in the case of didodecyldimethylammonium (C12)-encapsulated POMs, the long-range ordered binary assemblies are obtained while preserving the nanocrystals magnetic properties due to weak POMs-MNCs interactions. On the other hand, POMs of larger effective diameter can be employed as spacer blocks for MNCs as shown by using {Mo132} capped with dioctadecyldimethylammonium (C18) displaying longer chains. In that case, it is shown that POMs can also be used for fine-tuning the dipolar interactions in γ-Fe2O3 nanocrystal assemblies. PMID:26578032

  12. Communicative Aspects of Definitions in Classroom Interaction: Learning to Define in Class for First and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temmerman, Martina

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the interactive structure and the interactive meaning of definitions in primary school classroom interaction. The classes that were chosen are classes which consisted solely or for a large part of second language learners, as definitions might have a special importance for them in their second language acquisition. Three…

  13. Covering #SAE: A Mobile Reporting Class's Changing Patterns of Interaction on Twitter over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Julie

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the social network that emerged on Twitter surrounding a mobile reporting class as they covered a national breaking news event. The work introduces pedagogical strategies that enhance students' learning opportunities. Through NodeXL and social network cluster analysis, six groups emerged from the Twitter interactions tied to…

  14. Activities Contributing a Great Deal to the Students' Interactive Skills in Foreign Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asatryan, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    While teaching speaking it is desired to provide a rich environment in class for meaningful communication to take place. With this aim, various speaking activities can contribute a great deal to students in developing their interactive skills necessary for life. These activities make students active in the learning process and at the same time…

  15. Child-to-Child Interaction and Corrective Feedback in a Computer Mediated L2 Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The current study examined the provision of corrective feedback and learner repair following feedback in the interactional context of child-to-child conversations, particularly computer mediated, in an elementary Spanish immersion class. The relationship among error types, feedback types, and immediate learner repair were also examined. A total of…

  16. Non-Ideal Behaviour and Solution Interactions in Binary DMSO Solutions.

    PubMed

    Virk, Amninder S; Codling, Dale J; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Price, William S

    2015-12-21

    The structure and dynamics of hydrogen-bonded structures are of significant importance in understanding many binary mixtures. Since self-diffusion is very sensitive to changes in the molecular weight and shape of the diffusing species, hydrogen-bonded associated structures in dimethylsulfoxide-methanol (DMSO-MeOH) and DMSO-ethanol (DMSO-EtOH) mixtures are investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations over the entire composition range at 298 K. The self-diffusion coefficients of DMSO-MeOH and DMSO-EtOH mixtures decrease by up to 15% and 10%, respectively, with DMSO concentration, indicating weaker association as compared to DMSO-water mixtures. The calculated heat of mixing and radial distribution functions reveal that the intermolecular structures of DMSO-MeOH and DMSO-EtOH mixtures do not change on mixing. DMSO-alcohol hydrogen-bonded dimers are the dominant species in mixtures. Direct comparison of the simulated and experimental data afford greater insights into the structural properties of binary mixtures. PMID:26477530

  17. Non-Ideal Behaviour and Solution Interactions in Binary DMSO Solutions.

    PubMed

    Virk, Amninder S; Codling, Dale J; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Price, William S

    2015-12-21

    The structure and dynamics of hydrogen-bonded structures are of significant importance in understanding many binary mixtures. Since self-diffusion is very sensitive to changes in the molecular weight and shape of the diffusing species, hydrogen-bonded associated structures in dimethylsulfoxide-methanol (DMSO-MeOH) and DMSO-ethanol (DMSO-EtOH) mixtures are investigated using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion experiments and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations over the entire composition range at 298 K. The self-diffusion coefficients of DMSO-MeOH and DMSO-EtOH mixtures decrease by up to 15% and 10%, respectively, with DMSO concentration, indicating weaker association as compared to DMSO-water mixtures. The calculated heat of mixing and radial distribution functions reveal that the intermolecular structures of DMSO-MeOH and DMSO-EtOH mixtures do not change on mixing. DMSO-alcohol hydrogen-bonded dimers are the dominant species in mixtures. Direct comparison of the simulated and experimental data afford greater insights into the structural properties of binary mixtures.

  18. Abell 58 - a Planetary Nebula with an ONe-rich knot: a signature of binary interaction? .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, H. H. B.; De Marco, O.; Liu, X.-W.

    We have investigated the possibility that binary evolution is involved in the formation of the planetary nebula Abell 58. In particular, we assume a neon nova is responsible for the observed high oxygen and neon abundances of the central hydrogen-deficient knot of the H-deficient planetary nebula Abell 58 and the ejecta from the explosion are mixed with the planetary nebula. We have investigated different scenarios involving mergers and wind accretion and found that the most promising formation scenario involves a primary SAGB star that ends its evolution as an ONe white dwarf with an AGB companion at a moderately close separation. Mass is deposited on the white dwarf through wind accretion. So neon novae could occur just after the secondary AGB companion undergoes its final flash. However, the initial separation has to be fine-tuned. To estimate the frequency of such systems we evolve a population of binary systems and find that that Abell 58-like objects should indeed be rare and the fraction of Abell-58 planetary nebula is on the order of 10-4, or lower, among all planetary nebulae.

  19. THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF INTERACTIVE BINARY STARS TO DOUBLE MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFFS AND DUAL RED CLUMP OF INTERMEDIATE-AGE STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Wuming; Bi Shaolan; Tian Zhijia; Li Tanda; Liu Kang; Meng Xiangcun E-mail: woomyang@gmail.com

    2011-04-20

    Double or extended main-sequence turnoffs (DMSTOs) and dual red clump (RC) were observed in intermediate-age clusters, such as in NGC 1846 and 419. The DMSTOs are interpreted as that the cluster has two distinct stellar populations with differences in age of about 200-300 Myr but with the same metallicity. The dual RC is interpreted as a result of a prolonged star formation. Using a stellar population-synthesis method, we calculated the evolution of a binary-star stellar population. We found that binary interactions and merging can reproduce the dual RC in the color-magnitude diagrams of an intermediate-age cluster, whereas in actuality only a single population exists. Moreover, the binary interactions can lead to an extended main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) rather than DMSTOs. However, the rest of the main sequence, subgiant branch, and first giant branch are hardly spread by the binary interactions. Part of the observed dual RC and extended MSTO may be the results of binary interactions and mergers.

  20. Assessment of odor activity value coefficient and odor contribution based on binary interaction effects in waste disposal plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chuandong; Liu, Jiemin; Yan, Luchun; Chen, Haiying; Shao, Huiqi; Meng, Tian

    2015-02-01

    Odor activity value (OAV) has been widely used for the assessment of odor pollution from various sources. However, little attention has been paid to the extreme OAV variation and potential inaccuracies of odor contribution assessment caused by odor interaction effects. The objective of this study is to assess the odor interaction effect for precise assessment of odor contribution. In this paper, samples were collected from a food waste disposal plant, and analyzed by instrumental and olfactory method to conclude odorants' occurrence and OAV. Then odor activity value coefficient (γ) was first proposed to evaluate the type and the level of binary interaction effects based on determination of OAV variation. By multiplying OAV and γ, odor activity factor (OAF) was used to reflect the real OAV. Correlation between the sum of OAF and odor concentration reached 80.0 ± 5.7%, which was 10 times higher than the sum of OAV used before. Results showed that hydrogen sulfide contributed most (annual average 66.4 ± 15.8%) to odor pollution in the waste disposal plant. However, as odor intensity of samples in summer rising, odor contribution of trimethylamine increased to 48.3 ± 3.7% by the strong synergistic interaction effect, while odor contribution of phenol decreased to 0.1 ± 0.02% for the increasing antagonistic interaction effect.

  1. A Low Cost Key Agreement Protocol Based on Binary Tree for EPCglobal Class 1 Generation 2 RFID Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeng, Albert; Chang, Li-Chung; Chen, Sheng-Hui

    There are many protocols proposed for protecting Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) system privacy and security. A number of these protocols are designed for protecting long-term security of RFID system using symmetric key or public key cryptosystem. Others are designed for protecting user anonymity and privacy. In practice, the use of RFID technology often has a short lifespan, such as commodity check out, supply chain management and so on. Furthermore, we know that designing a long-term security architecture to protect the security and privacy of RFID tags information requires a thorough consideration from many different aspects. However, any security enhancement on RFID technology will jack up its cost which may be detrimental to its widespread deployment. Due to the severe constraints of RFID tag resources (e. g., power source, computing power, communication bandwidth) and open air communication nature of RFID usage, it is a great challenge to secure a typical RFID system. For example, computational heavy public key and symmetric key cryptography algorithms (e. g., RSA and AES) may not be suitable or over-killed to protect RFID security or privacy. These factors motivate us to research an efficient and cost effective solution for RFID security and privacy protection. In this paper, we propose a new effective generic binary tree based key agreement protocol (called BKAP) and its variations, and show how it can be applied to secure the low cost and resource constraint RFID system. This BKAP is not a general purpose key agreement protocol rather it is a special purpose protocol to protect privacy, un-traceability and anonymity in a single RFID closed system domain.

  2. V404 Cyg - an Interacting Black-Hole Low-Mass X-ray Binary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Ori; Mauerhan, Jon; Graham, Melissa

    2015-07-01

    This DDT proposal is prompted by the June 15, 2015 outburst of V404 Cyg, a black-hole (BH) low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). This outburst stands out since it is the first black hole system with a measured parallax, lying at a distance of only 2.39+/-0.14 kpc. An extensive and loosely organized multi-wavelength campaign is already underway by the astronomical community. One of the missing pieces of the puzzle is the mid-infrared (IR). Combined with radio, optical, and X-ray data, the mid-IR will help to discriminate discriminate between an accretion disk, jet emission, or circumstellar dust scenarios. Spitzer offers a unique opportunity to observe at these wavelengths. Here we propose 4 very short (5-minutes at 3.6 and 4.5 micron) observations of IRAC hotometry to search for the presence of warm dust and, if present, constrain the heating mechanism.

  3. Analysis of the interactions between Rab GTPases and class V myosins.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Andrew J; Miserey-Lenkei, Stéphanie; Goud, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Myosins are actin-based motor proteins that are involved in a wide variety of cellular processes such as membrane transport, muscle contraction, and cell division. Humans have over 40 myosins that can be placed into 18 classes, the malfunctioning of a number of which can lead to disease. There are three members of the human class V myosin family, myosins Va, Vb, and Vc. People lacking functional myosin Va suffer from a rare autosomal recessive disease called Griscelli's Syndrome type I (GS1) that is characterized by severe neurological defects and partial albinism. Mutations in the myosin Vb gene lead to an epithelial disorder called microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) that is often fatal in infants. The class V myosins have been implicated in the transport of diverse cargoes such as melanosomes in pigment cells, synaptic vesicles in neurons, RNA transcripts in a variety of cell types, and organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum. The Rab GTPases play a critical role in recruiting class V myosins to their cargo. We recently published a study in which we used the yeast two-hybrid system to systematically test myosin Va for its ability to interact with each member of the human Rab GTPase family. We present here a detailed description of this yeast two-hybrid "living chip" assay. Furthermore, we present a protocol for validating positive interactions obtained from this screen by coimmunoprecipitation. PMID:25800833

  4. Explaining two recent intermediate-luminosity optical transients (ILOTs) by a binary interaction and jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam; Kashi, Amit

    2016-10-01

    We propose that two recent intermediate-luminosity optical transients (ILOTs), M31LRN 2015 and SN 2015bh (SNHunt 275; PTF 13efv) can be accounted for with a stellar binary model involving mass transfer that leads to the launching of jets. We inspect observations of the ILOT M31LRN 2015 and conclude that it cannot be explained by the onset of a common envelope evolution (CEE). Instead, we conjecture that an M ˜eq 1 - 3 {M_{⊙}} main-sequence star accreted ≃ 0.04 M⊙ from the giant star, possibly during a periastron passage. The main-sequence star-accreted mass through an accretion disc, that launches jets. The radiation from the disc and the collision of the jets with the ambient gas can account for the luminosity of the event. Along similar lines, we suggest that the 2013 eruption of SN 2015bh (SNHunt 275) can also be explained by the high-accretion-powered ILOT (HAPI) model. In this case, a massive secondary star M2 ≳ 10 M⊙ accreted ≈ 0.05 M⊙ from a much more massive and more evolved star during a periastron passage. If the much more energetic 2015 outburst of SN 2015bh (SNHunt 275) was not a supernova explosion, it might have been a full almost head-on merger event, or else can be accounted for by the HAPI-jets model in a very highly eccentric orbit.

  5. Water-solid interactions in amorphous maltodextrin-crystalline sucrose binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mohamed K; Toth, Scott J; Simpson, Garth J; Mauer, Lisa J; Taylor, Lynne S

    2014-03-01

    Amorphous and crystalline solids are commonly found together in a variety of pharmaceutical and food products. In this study, the influence of co-formulation of amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and crystalline sucrose (S) on moisture sorption, deliquescence, and glass transition (Tg) properties of powder blends was investigated. Individual components and binary mixtures of four different molecular weight MDs with sucrose in 1:1 w/w ratios were exposed to various relative humidity (RH) environments and their equilibrium and dynamic moisture contents were monitored. The deliquescence point (RH0) and dissolution behavior of sucrose alone and in blends was also monitored by polarized light microscopy and second harmonic generation imaging. In S:MD blends, the deliquescence RH of sucrose was lower than the RH0 of sucrose alone, and synergistic moisture sorption also occurred at RHs lower than the RH0. Intimate contact of sucrose crystals with the amorphous MDs resulted in complete dissolution of sucrose at RH < RH0. When blends were stored at conditions exceeding the Tg of the individual MDs (25 °C and 60%, 49% and 34%RH for MD21, MD29 and MD40, respectively), the Tg of the blends was lower than that of individual MDs. Thus, co-formulation of amorphous MDs with crystalline sucrose sensitizes the blend to moisture, potentially leading to deleterious changes in the formulation if storage conditions are not adequately controlled.

  6. Analysis of the IUE spectra of the strongly interacting binary beta Lyrae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluskey, George E., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The six-band ultraviolet light curves of beta Lyrae obtained with the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory A-2 in 1970 exhibited a very unusual behavior. The secondary minimum deepened at shorter wavelength, indicating that one was not observing light variations caused primarily by the eclipses of two stars having a roughly Planckian energy distribution. It was then suggested that the light variations were caused by a viewing angle effect of an optically-thick, ellipsoidal circumbinary gas cloud. Since 1978 beta Lyrae has been observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. We have constructed ultraviolet light curves from the IUE archival data for comparison with the OAO-A2 results. We find that they are in substantial agreement with each other. The Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer was also used to observe this binary during a period covered by IUE observations. The Voyager results agree with those of the two other satellite observatories at wavelengths longer than about 1350 A. However, in the wavelength region shorter than the Lyman-alpha line at 1216 A, the light curves at 1085 A and 965 A show virtually no light variation except an apparent flaring near phase 0.7, which is also in evidence at longer wavelengths. We suggest that the optically-thick circumbinary gas cloud, which envelops the two stars completely, assumes a roughly spherical shape when observed at these shorter wavelengths.

  7. Periodic and aperiodic variability of the interacting binary and long-periodic stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andronov, I. L.; Baklanov, A. V.; Chinarova, L. L.; Chochol, D.; Gazeas, K.; Halevin, A. V.; Kolesnikov, S. V.; Kudashkina, L. S.; Marsakova, V. I.; Mason, P. A.; Niarchos, P. G.; Patkos, L.; Pavlenko, E. P.; Shakhovskoy, N. M.; Shapovalova, L. L.; Tremko, J.; Zola, S.

    2000-09-01

    Recent results obtained within the framework of the international observational and research campaigns are reviewed. The main topics are following: magnetic cataclysmic variables: synchronization of the spin and orbital period of the white dwarf; observational evidence on the switching of the accretion from one pole to another; non-dipole configuration of the magnetic field; ``swingings'' of the orientation of the magnetic axis in the `` synchronous systems''; instability of the accretion and the ``red noise''; long-term luminosity changes; UV Cet - like flares; two-pole accretion in the intermediate polars; weakly- and non- magnetic cataclysmic variables: negative and positive superhumps in the nova-like variables; ``red noise'' and/or quasi-periodic oscillations; unprecedented switch of the superhump period in TT Ari; the luminosity dependence of the superhump period in BZ Cam and V725 Aql; long-term variations of the outburst characteristics of dwarf novae and luminosity of old novae - magnetic activity of the red secondary vs third body orbiting around a cataclysmic variable; symbiotic binaries: light curve variations in symbiotic novae and stars with a pulsating component; long-periodic pulsating variables: statistical study of the characteristics of the mean phase curves and of the individual cycles; additional classification criteria for the Mira-type and semi-regular stars. Some of the original papers are available at http://www.paco.odessa.ua/~il-a and http://ila.webjump.com

  8. A combined binary interaction and phenotypic map of C. elegans cell polarity proteins

    PubMed Central

    Koorman, Thijs; Lemmens, Irma; Ramalho, João J.; Nieuwenhuize, Susan; van den Heuvel, Sander; Tavernier, Jan; Nance, Jeremy; Boxem, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of cell polarity is an essential process for the development of multicellular organisms and the functioning of cells and tissues. Here, we combine large-scale protein interaction mapping with systematic phenotypic profiling to study the network of physical interactions that underlies polarity establishment and maintenance in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Using a fragment-based yeast two-hybrid strategy, we identified 439 interactions between 296 proteins, as well as the protein regions that mediate these interactions. Phenotypic profiling of the network resulted in the identification of 100 physically interacting protein pairs for which RNAi-mediated depletion caused a defect in the same polarity-related process. We demonstrate the predictive capabilities of the network by showing that the physical interaction between the RhoGAP PAC-1 and PAR-6 is required for radial polarization of the C. elegans embryo. Our network represents a valuable resource of candidate interactions that can be used to further our insight into cell polarization. PMID:26780296

  9. A note on the binary interaction potential in complex (dusty) plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Khrapak, S. A.; Morfill, G. E.

    2008-08-15

    The effect of ion-neutral collisions on the potential of interaction between a pair of negatively charged grains in isotropic weakly collisional plasmas is investigated. Two interaction mechanisms are considered: Electric repulsion between like-charged grains and attraction due to the so-called ''ion shadow'' effect. It is demonstrated that in the presence of collisions, both interaction potentials exhibit Coulomb-like {proportional_to}r{sup -1} decay at large distances. A necessary condition for the existence of long-range attraction is derived. The obtained results are then used to reconsider the possibility of liquid-vapor critical point occurrence in complex plasmas.

  10. ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3HIOT1/2 CL8 CELLS.

    Studies of defined mixtures of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have identified three major categories of interacti...

  11. Preliminary Studies of Interacting Binaries From NURO Observations : V963 Cygni and GSC 1419 0091

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samec, R. G.; Jones, S. M.; Scott, T.; Branning, J.; Miller, J.; Faulkner, D. R.; Hawkins, N. C.

    2005-12-01

    We present preliminary analyses of V963 and V965 Cygni based on observations taken at the National Undergraduate Research Observatory (NURO). Our CCD observations were taken 07-12 March 2005 and 19-25 July 2004 by DRF,RGS, and NCH with the Lowell Observatory 31-inch reflector. Standard UBVRI filters were used. Preliminary light curve analyses and updated periodicity studies are presented for these variables. V963 Cyg (GSC 2656 1995,α (2000) = 19h 44m 04.92s, δ (2000) = +31 41 50.17) is a detached binary discovered by Wachmann (Ast Abh Ham St VI, #1, 1961). The eclipse depths are nearly equal, 0.78 and 0.67 magnitudes in in V in the primary and secondary eclipses, respectively, causing observers to MISTAKINGLY classify it as an Algol-type system. Thus the two stars are similar in temperature and the period has to be DOUBLED. The curves appear fairlysymmetrical with a depressed section following the primary eclipse in R and I about 0.2 phase units wide. In BVRI, 100 to 130 observations were taken along with 75 in U. We determined three new times of minimum light, two secondary eclipses, HJD Min II = 2453207.76857±0.00029d and 2453211.9540±0.0032d, and one primary eclipse HJD Min I = 2453209.86073±0.00095d. A corrected period and an improved ephemeris was computed using available times of minimum light: HJD Min I = 2453209.8616(±0.0011)d + 1.39466792(±0.00000019)*E. GSC 1419 0091 (Brh V132) [α (2000) = 10h 11m 59.152s,δ (2000) = +16 52 30.28] is an overcontact binary discovered by Klaus Bernhard (BAV, http://www.var-mo.de/star/brh_v132.htm). We took approximately 60-65 observations in each of B,V,R, and I. We determined four new times of minimum light: HJD Min I = 2453437.8293(±0.0003) and 2453441.8291(±0.0019), and HJD Min II = 2453437.6973(±0.0012) and 2453442.76317(±0.0005). We computed an improved ephemeris from all available times of minimum and low light: HJD Min I = 2452754.4733(±0.0030)d + 0.2667251*E(±0.0000011). The light curves show shallow

  12. LILRB2 interaction with HLA class I correlates with control of HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Bashirova, Arman A; Martin-Gayo, Enrique; Jones, Des C; Qi, Ying; Apps, Richard; Gao, Xiaojiang; Burke, Patrick S; Taylor, Craig J; Rogich, Jerome; Wolinsky, Steven; Bream, Jay H; Duggal, Priya; Hussain, Shehnaz; Martinson, Jeremy; Weintrob, Amy; Kirk, Gregory D; Fellay, Jacques; Buchbinder, Susan P; Goedert, James J; Deeks, Steven G; Pereyra, Florencia; Trowsdale, John; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Telenti, Amalio; Walker, Bruce D; Allen, Rachel L; Carrington, Mary; Yu, Xu G

    2014-03-01

    Natural progression of HIV-1 infection depends on genetic variation in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I locus, and the CD8+ T cell response is thought to be a primary mechanism of this effect. However, polymorphism within the MHC may also alter innate immune activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by changing interactions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules with leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR), a group of immunoregulatory receptors mainly expressed on myelomonocytic cells including dendritic cells (DCs). We used previously characterized HLA allotype-specific binding capacities of LILRB1 and LILRB2 as well as data from a large cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals (N = 5126) to test whether LILR-HLA class I interactions influence viral load in HIV-1 infection. Our analyses in persons of European descent, the largest ethnic group examined, show that the effect of HLA-B alleles on HIV-1 control correlates with the binding strength between corresponding HLA-B allotypes and LILRB2 (p = 10(-2)). Moreover, overall binding strength of LILRB2 to classical HLA class I allotypes, defined by the HLA-A/B/C genotypes in each patient, positively associates with viral replication in the absence of therapy in patients of both European (p = 10(-11)-10(-9)) and African (p = 10(-5)-10(-3)) descent. This effect appears to be driven by variations in LILRB2 binding affinities to HLA-B and is independent of individual class I allelic effects that are not related to the LILRB2 function. Correspondingly, in vitro experiments suggest that strong LILRB2-HLA binding negatively affects antigen-presenting properties of DCs. Thus, we propose an impact of LILRB2 on HIV-1 disease outcomes through altered regulation of DCs by LILRB2-HLA engagement. PMID:24603468

  13. LILRB2 Interaction with HLA Class I Correlates with Control of HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ying; Apps, Richard; Gao, Xiaojiang; Burke, Patrick S.; Taylor, Craig J.; Rogich, Jerome; Wolinsky, Steven; Bream, Jay H.; Duggal, Priya; Hussain, Shehnaz; Martinson, Jeremy; Weintrob, Amy; Kirk, Gregory D.; Fellay, Jacques; Buchbinder, Susan P.; Goedert, James J.; Deeks, Steven G.; Pereyra, Florencia; Trowsdale, John; Lichterfeld, Mathias; Telenti, Amalio; Walker, Bruce D.; Allen, Rachel L.; Carrington, Mary; Yu, Xu G.

    2014-01-01

    Natural progression of HIV-1 infection depends on genetic variation in the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I locus, and the CD8+ T cell response is thought to be a primary mechanism of this effect. However, polymorphism within the MHC may also alter innate immune activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by changing interactions of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules with leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptors (LILR), a group of immunoregulatory receptors mainly expressed on myelomonocytic cells including dendritic cells (DCs). We used previously characterized HLA allotype-specific binding capacities of LILRB1 and LILRB2 as well as data from a large cohort of HIV-1-infected individuals (N = 5126) to test whether LILR-HLA class I interactions influence viral load in HIV-1 infection. Our analyses in persons of European descent, the largest ethnic group examined, show that the effect of HLA-B alleles on HIV-1 control correlates with the binding strength between corresponding HLA-B allotypes and LILRB2 (p = 10−2). Moreover, overall binding strength of LILRB2 to classical HLA class I allotypes, defined by the HLA-A/B/C genotypes in each patient, positively associates with viral replication in the absence of therapy in patients of both European (p = 10−11–10−9) and African (p = 10−5–10−3) descent. This effect appears to be driven by variations in LILRB2 binding affinities to HLA-B and is independent of individual class I allelic effects that are not related to the LILRB2 function. Correspondingly, in vitro experiments suggest that strong LILRB2-HLA binding negatively affects antigen-presenting properties of DCs. Thus, we propose an impact of LILRB2 on HIV-1 disease outcomes through altered regulation of DCs by LILRB2-HLA engagement. PMID:24603468

  14. Mechanistic understanding and significance of small peptides interaction with MHC class II molecules for therapeutic applications.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Saifullah; Hoessli, Daniel C; Hameed, Muhammad Waqar

    2016-07-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are expressed by antigen-presenting cells and stimulate CD4(+) T cells, which initiate humoral immune responses. Over the past decade, interest has developed to therapeutically impact the peptides to be exposed to CD4(+) T cells. Structurally diverse small molecules have been discovered that act on the endogenous peptide exchanger HLA-DM by different mechanisms. Exogenously delivered peptides are highly susceptible to proteolytic cleavage in vivo; however, it is only when successfully incorporated into stable MHC II-peptide complexes that these peptides can induce an immune response. Many of the small molecules so far discovered have highlighted the molecular interactions mediating the formation of MHC II-peptide complexes. As potential drugs, these small molecules open new therapeutic approaches to modulate MHC II antigen presentation pathways and influence the quality and specificity of immune responses. This review briefly introduces how CD4(+) T cells recognize antigen when displayed by MHC class II molecules, as well as MHC class II-peptide-loading pathways, structural basis of peptide binding and stabilization of the peptide-MHC complexes. We discuss the concept of MHC-loading enhancers, how they could modulate immune responses and how these molecules have been identified. Finally, we suggest mechanisms whereby MHC-loading enhancers could act upon MHC class II molecules.

  15. Developmental Robustness by Obligate Interaction of Class B Floral Homeotic Genes and Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lenser, Thorsten; Theißen, Günter; Dittrich, Peter

    2009-01-01

    DEF-like and GLO-like class B floral homeotic genes encode closely related MADS-domain transcription factors that act as developmental switches involved in specifying the identity of petals and stamens during flower development. Class B gene function requires transcriptional upregulation by an autoregulatory loop that depends on obligate heterodimerization of DEF-like and GLO-like proteins. Because switch-like behavior of gene expression can be displayed by single genes already, the functional relevance of this complex circuitry has remained enigmatic. On the basis of a stochastic in silico model of class B gene and protein interactions, we suggest that obligate heterodimerization of class B floral homeotic proteins is not simply the result of neutral drift but enhanced the robustness of cell-fate organ identity decisions in the presence of stochastic noise. This finding strongly corroborates the view that the appearance of this regulatory mechanism during angiosperm phylogeny led to a canalization of flower development and evolution. PMID:19148269

  16. Latent Class Analysis of Antisocial Behavior: Interaction of Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, James J.

    2010-01-01

    To improve understanding about genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior (ASB), we tested the association of the 44-base pair polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and maltreatment using latent class analysis in 2,488 boys and girls from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. In boys, ASB was defined by three classes (Exclusive Covert, Mixed Covert and Overt, and No Problems) whereas in girls, ASB was defined by two classes (Exclusive Covert, No Problems). In boys, 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment were not significantly related to ASB. However, in girls, maltreatment, but not 5-HTTLPR, was significantly associated with ASB. A significant interaction between 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment was also observed, where maltreated girls homozygous for the short allele were 12 times more likely to be classified in the Exclusive Covert group than in the No Problems group. Structural differences in the latent structure of ASB at Wave 2 and Wave 3 prevented repeat LCA modeling. However, using counts of ASB, 5-HTTLPR, maltreatment, and its interaction were unrelated to overt and covert ASB at Wave 2 and only maltreatment was related to covert ASB at Wave 3. We discuss these findings within the context of sex differences in ASB and relevant models of gene-environment interplay across developmental periods. PMID:20405199

  17. The Training of a Child with Autism in a Greek Preschool Inclusive Class through Intensive Interaction: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argyropoulou, Zoe; Papoudi, Despina

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of intensive interaction during interactive play between a preschool boy with autism and his teacher and, as a consequence, improve the social interaction between the boy and a non-autistic girl in an inclusive class in Greece. A single subject ABA design was applied. Observed variables…

  18. Considerations on the role of fall-back discs in the final stages of the common envelope binary interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuruwita, Rajika L.; Staff, Jan; De Marco, Orsola

    2016-09-01

    The common envelope interaction is thought to be the gateway to all evolved compact binaries and mergers. Hydrodynamic simulations of the common envelope interaction between giant stars and their companions are restricted to the dynamical, fast, in-spiral phase. They find that the giant envelope is lifted during this phase, but remains mostly bound to the system. At the same time, the orbital separation is greatly reduced, but in most simulations it levels off at values larger than measured from observations. We conjectured that during the post-in-spiral phase the bound envelope gas will return to the system. Using hydrodynamic simulations, we generate initial conditions for our simulation that result in a fall-back disc with total mass and angular momentum in line with quantities from the simulations of Passy et al. We find that the simulated fall-back event reduces the orbital separation efficiently, but fails to unbind the gas before the separation levels off once again. We also find that more massive fall-back discs reduce the orbital separation more efficiently, but the efficiency of unbinding remains invariably very low. From these results we deduce that unless a further energy source contributes to unbinding the envelope (such as was recently tested by Nandez et al.), all common envelope interactions would result in mergers. On the other hand, additional energy sources are unlikely to help, on their own, to reduce the orbital separation. We conclude by discussing our dynamical fall-back event in the context of a thermally regulated post-common envelope phase.

  19. Interaction of the Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT and Its Host Cell Receptor, Lipolysis-stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR).

    PubMed

    Hemmasi, Sarah; Czulkies, Bernd A; Schorch, Björn; Veit, Antonia; Aktories, Klaus; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis

    2015-05-29

    CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase) is a binary, actin ADP-ribosylating toxin frequently associated with hypervirulent strains of the human enteric pathogen C. difficile, the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. CDT leads to the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton and, eventually, to cell death. Low doses of CDT result in the formation of microtubule-based protrusions on the cell surface that increase the adherence and colonization of C. difficile. The lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is the host cell receptor for CDT, and our aim was to gain a deeper insight into the interplay between both proteins. We show that CDT interacts with the extracellular, Ig-like domain of LSR with an affinity in the nanomolar range. We identified LSR splice variants in the colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 and disrupted the LSR gene in these cells by applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology. LSR truncations ectopically expressed in LSR knock-out cells indicated that intracellular parts of LSR are not essential for plasma membrane targeting of the receptor and cellular uptake of CDT. By generating a series of N- and C-terminal truncations of the binding component of CDT (CDTb), we found that amino acids 757-866 of CDTb are sufficient for binding to LSR. With a transposon-based, random mutagenesis approach, we identified potential LSR-interacting epitopes in CDTb. This study increases our understanding about the interaction between CDT and its receptor LSR, which is key to the development of anti-toxin strategies for preventing cell entry of the toxin.

  20. Interaction of the Clostridium difficile Binary Toxin CDT and Its Host Cell Receptor, Lipolysis-stimulated Lipoprotein Receptor (LSR)*

    PubMed Central

    Hemmasi, Sarah; Czulkies, Bernd A.; Schorch, Björn; Veit, Antonia; Aktories, Klaus; Papatheodorou, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    CDT (Clostridium difficile transferase) is a binary, actin ADP-ribosylating toxin frequently associated with hypervirulent strains of the human enteric pathogen C. difficile, the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis. CDT leads to the collapse of the actin cytoskeleton and, eventually, to cell death. Low doses of CDT result in the formation of microtubule-based protrusions on the cell surface that increase the adherence and colonization of C. difficile. The lipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR) is the host cell receptor for CDT, and our aim was to gain a deeper insight into the interplay between both proteins. We show that CDT interacts with the extracellular, Ig-like domain of LSR with an affinity in the nanomolar range. We identified LSR splice variants in the colon carcinoma cell line HCT116 and disrupted the LSR gene in these cells by applying the CRISPR-Cas9 technology. LSR truncations ectopically expressed in LSR knock-out cells indicated that intracellular parts of LSR are not essential for plasma membrane targeting of the receptor and cellular uptake of CDT. By generating a series of N- and C-terminal truncations of the binding component of CDT (CDTb), we found that amino acids 757–866 of CDTb are sufficient for binding to LSR. With a transposon-based, random mutagenesis approach, we identified potential LSR-interacting epitopes in CDTb. This study increases our understanding about the interaction between CDT and its receptor LSR, which is key to the development of anti-toxin strategies for preventing cell entry of the toxin. PMID:25882847

  1. Evolution of Close Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K; Eggleton, P

    2005-01-24

    We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.

  2. Effective interaction in asymmetric charged binary mixtures: the non-monotonic behaviour with the colloidal charge.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Fernández, M; Callejas-Fernández, J; Moncho-Jordá, A

    2012-11-01

    In this work we study the effective force between charged spherical colloids induced by the presence of smaller charged spheres using Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis is performed for two size ratios, q = R(s)/R(b), two screened direct repulsions, κ, and two small particle packing fractions, Ø(s). We specially focus on the effect of the charge of the big colloids (Z(b)), and observe that the repulsion between big particles shows a non-monotonic behaviour: for sufficiently small charge, we find an anomalous regime where the total repulsion weakens by increasing the big colloid charge. For larger charges, the system recovers the usual behaviour and the big-big interaction becomes more repulsive increasing Z(b). This effect is linked to the existence of strong attractive depletion interactions caused by the small-big electrostatic repulsion. We have also calculated the effective force using the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the HNC closure. In general, this theory agrees with the simulation results, and is able to capture this non-monotonic behaviour. PMID:23179012

  3. Effective interaction in asymmetric charged binary mixtures: the non-monotonic behaviour with the colloidal charge.

    PubMed

    Peláez-Fernández, M; Callejas-Fernández, J; Moncho-Jordá, A

    2012-11-01

    In this work we study the effective force between charged spherical colloids induced by the presence of smaller charged spheres using Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis is performed for two size ratios, q = R(s)/R(b), two screened direct repulsions, κ, and two small particle packing fractions, Ø(s). We specially focus on the effect of the charge of the big colloids (Z(b)), and observe that the repulsion between big particles shows a non-monotonic behaviour: for sufficiently small charge, we find an anomalous regime where the total repulsion weakens by increasing the big colloid charge. For larger charges, the system recovers the usual behaviour and the big-big interaction becomes more repulsive increasing Z(b). This effect is linked to the existence of strong attractive depletion interactions caused by the small-big electrostatic repulsion. We have also calculated the effective force using the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the HNC closure. In general, this theory agrees with the simulation results, and is able to capture this non-monotonic behaviour.

  4. Case Studies of Interactive Whole-Class Teaching in Primary Science: Communicative approach and pedagogic purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Kendra

    2012-07-01

    By developing two case studies of expert teaching in action, this study aimed to develop knowledge of talk in whole-class teaching in UK primary science lessons and understand this in relation to both the teachers' interpretations and sociocultural theoretical frameworks. Lessons were observed and video-recorded and the teachers engaged in video-stimulated-reflective dialogue to capture participants' reflections upon their own pedagogic purposes and interactions in the classroom. The analytic framework was developed at three levels: sequence of lessons, lesson, and episode. For each episode, the 'communicative approach' and teaching purposes were recorded. Transcripts were developed for fine grain analysis of selected episodes and a quantitative analysis was undertaken of the use of communicative approaches. Findings exemplify how different communicative approaches were used by the case-study teachers for different pedagogical purposes at different points in the sequence of lessons, contributing to primary teachers' repertoire for planning and practice. The initial elicitation of children's ideas can be understood as pooling them to enhance multivoicedness and develop a shared resource for future dialogues. Whole-class talk can support univocality by rehearsing procedural knowledge and exploring the meanings of scientific terminology. Identifying salient features of phenomena in the context of the whole-class marks them as significant as shared knowledge but valuing other observations extends the multivoicedness of the discourse.

  5. Indications for common origin and gravitational interaction in three binary LMC clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kontizas, E.; Kontizas, M.; Michalitsianos, A.

    1993-01-01

    Three close pair clusters of the LMC, NGC 2006/SL 538, NGC 2011 a/b, and NGC 2042 a/b, have been studied in order to establish their binarity. The stellar content in the outer region of each cluster has been investigated by means of low resolution objective UK Schmidt prism spectra, the cores of the clusters have been examined using low resolution integrated IUE spectra, whereas their density profiles and their observed dynamical parameters have been derived by means of star counts. The integrated spectra of their cores and the stellar content of their outer cluster regions have shown a common origin and a very young age (less than 2 x 10 exp 7 yr) for each member of the pairs, whereas their dynamical study has shown that they are gravitationally interacting. Comparing the age of their stellar content with their dynamical and relaxation times, it has been found that these clusters are physically associated and had no time to relax by stellar encounters, no time to merge, and no time to be destroyed by dynamical friction.

  6. Orientation-dependent interaction between Drosophila insulators is a property of this class of regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Kyrchanova, Olga; Chetverina, Darya; Maksimenko, Oksana; Kullyev, Andrey; Georgiev, Pavel

    2008-12-01

    Insulators are defined as a class of regulatory elements that delimit independent transcriptional domains within eukaryotic genomes. According to previous data, an interaction (pairing) between some Drosophila insulators can support distant activation of a promoter by an enhancer. Here, we have demonstrated that pairs of well-studied insulators such as scs-scs, scs'-scs', 1A2-1A2 and Wari-Wari support distant activation of the white promoter by the yeast GAL4 activator in an orientation-dependent manner. The same is true for the efficiency of the enhancer that stimulates white expression in the eyes. In all insulator pairs tested, stimulation of the white gene was stronger when insulators were inserted between the eye enhancer or GAL4 and the white promoter in opposite orientations relative to each other. As shown previously, Zw5, Su(Hw) and dCTCF proteins are required for the functioning of different insulators that do not interact with each other. Here, strong functional interactions have been revealed between DNA fragments containing binding sites for either Zw5 or Su(Hw) or dCTCF protein but not between heterologous binding sites [Zw5-Su(Hw), dCTCF-Su(Hw), or dCTCF-Zw5]. These results suggest that insulator proteins can support selective interactions between distant regulatory elements.

  7. Interaction of 3β-amino-5-cholestene with phospholipids in binary and ternary bilayer membranes

    PubMed Central

    Lönnfors, Max; Engberg, Oskar; Peterson, Blake R.; Slotte, J. Peter

    2011-01-01

    3β-Amino-5-cholestene (aminocholesterol) is a synthetic sterol whose properties in bilayer membranes have been examined. In fluid palmitoyl sphingomyelin (PSM) bilayers, aminocholesterol and cholesterol were equally effective in increasing acyl chain order, based on changes in diphenylhexatriene (DPH) anisotropy. In fluid 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) bilayers, aminocholesterol ordered acyl chains, but slightly less efficiently than cholesterol. Aminocholesterol eliminated the PSM and DPPC gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition enthalpy linearly with concentration, and the enthalpy approached zero at 30 mol% sterol. Whereas cholesterol was able to increase the thermostability of ordered PSM domains in a fluid bilayer, aminocholesterol under equal conditions failed to do this, suggesting that its interaction with PSM was not as favorable as cholesterol’s. In ternary mixed bilayers, containing 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), PSM or DPPC, and cholesterol at proportions to contain a liquid-ordered phase (60:40 by mol of POPC and PSM or DPPC, and 30 mol% cholesterol), the average life-time of trans parinaric acid (tPA) was close to 20 ns. When cholesterol was replaced with aminocholesterol in such mixed bilayers, the average life-time of tPA was only marginally shorter (about 18 ns). This observation, together with acyl chain ordering data, clearly shows that aminocholesterol was able to form a liquid-ordered phase with saturated PSM or DPPC. We conclude that aminocholesterol should be a good sterol replacement in model membrane systems for which a partial positive charge is deemed beneficial. PMID:22128897

  8. Higher-order-in-spin interaction Hamiltonians for binary black holes from source terms of Kerr geometry in approximate ADM coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    Hergt, Steven; Schaefer, Gerhard

    2008-05-15

    The Kerr metric outside the ergosphere is transformed into Arnowitt-Deser-Misner coordinates up to the orders 1/r{sup 4} and a{sup 2}, respectively, in radial coordinate r and reduced angular momentum variable a, starting from the Kerr solution in quasi-isotropic as well as harmonic coordinates. The distributional source terms for the approximate solution are calculated. To leading order in linear momenta, higher-order-in-spin interaction Hamiltonians for black hole binaries are derived.

  9. Does Use of ICT-Based Teaching Encourage Innovative Interactions in the Classroom? Presentation of the CLI-O: Class Learning Interactions--Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manny-Ikan, Edith; Tikochinski, Tal Berger; Bashan, Zipi

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a new classroom observations analysis tool (CLI-O: Class Learning Interactions--Observation tool). The CLI-O tool enables the collection of various data regarding the use of ICT tools, organization of learning, and teacher-student interactions in the lesson. Several examples demonstrating the use of CLI-O and some preliminary…

  10. Class I TCP-DELLA interactions in inflorescence shoot apex determine plant height.

    PubMed

    Davière, Jean-Michel; Wild, Michael; Regnault, Thomas; Baumberger, Nicolas; Eisler, Herfried; Genschik, Pascal; Achard, Patrick

    2014-08-18

    Regulation of plant height, one of the most important agronomic traits, is the focus of intensive research for improving crop performance. Stem elongation takes place as a result of repeated cell divisions and subsequent elongation of cells produced by apical and intercalary meristems. The gibberellin (GA) phytohormones have long been known to control stem and internodal elongation by stimulating the degradation of nuclear growth-repressing DELLA proteins; however, the mechanism allowing GA-responsive growth is only slowly emerging. Here, we show that DELLAs directly regulate the activity of the plant-specific class I TCP transcription factor family, key regulators of cell proliferation. Our results demonstrate that class I TCP factors directly bind the promoters of core cell-cycle genes in Arabidopsis inflorescence shoot apices while DELLAs block TCP function by binding to their DNA-recognition domain. GAs antagonize such repression by promoting DELLA destruction and therefore cause a concomitant accumulation of TCP factors on promoters of cell-cycle genes. Consistent with this model, the quadruple mutant tcp8 tcp14 tcp15 tcp22 exhibits severe dwarfism and reduced responsiveness to GA action. Altogether, we conclude that GA-regulated DELLA-TCP interactions in inflorescence shoot apex provide a novel mechanism to control plant height.

  11. Whole-class interactions and code-switching in secondary mathematics teaching in Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehmohamed, Asifa; Rowland, Tim

    2014-09-01

    This paper reports a study of whole-class interactions in mathematics classrooms in a girls' secondary school in Mauritius. It focuses on three teachers and their instructional language practices. Analysis of audio-recordings of lessons showed that code-switching was commonly practised by all the teachers in the study. The teachers' comments on their use of language within the classroom show that although they are aware of the languages they use, they are not always conscious of their code-switching. Different functions of the teachers' code-switching practices were identified, indicating it can be an important support for learning mathematics, despite some related tensions that teachers face in using code-switch in their teaching. The paper concludes with some implications for national policy and for teacher education.

  12. Collaborative filtering for brain-computer interaction using transfer learning and active class selection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dongrui; Lance, Brent J; Parsons, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interaction (BCI) and physiological computing are terms that refer to using processed neural or physiological signals to influence human interaction with computers, environment, and each other. A major challenge in developing these systems arises from the large individual differences typically seen in the neural/physiological responses. As a result, many researchers use individually-trained recognition algorithms to process this data. In order to minimize time, cost, and barriers to use, there is a need to minimize the amount of individual training data required, or equivalently, to increase the recognition accuracy without increasing the number of user-specific training samples. One promising method for achieving this is collaborative filtering, which combines training data from the individual subject with additional training data from other, similar subjects. This paper describes a successful application of a collaborative filtering approach intended for a BCI system. This approach is based on transfer learning (TL), active class selection (ACS), and a mean squared difference user-similarity heuristic. The resulting BCI system uses neural and physiological signals for automatic task difficulty recognition. TL improves the learning performance by combining a small number of user-specific training samples with a large number of auxiliary training samples from other similar subjects. ACS optimally selects the classes to generate user-specific training samples. Experimental results on 18 subjects, using both k nearest neighbors and support vector machine classifiers, demonstrate that the proposed approach can significantly reduce the number of user-specific training data samples. This collaborative filtering approach will also be generalizable to handling individual differences in many other applications that involve human neural or physiological data, such as affective computing. PMID:23437188

  13. Infrastructure for genomic interactions: Bioconductor classes for Hi-C, ChIA-PET and related experiments.

    PubMed

    Lun, Aaron T L; Perry, Malcolm; Ing-Simmons, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The study of genomic interactions has been greatly facilitated by techniques such as chromatin conformation capture with high-throughput sequencing (Hi-C). These genome-wide experiments generate large amounts of data that require careful analysis to obtain useful biological conclusions. However, development of the appropriate software tools is hindered by the lack of basic infrastructure to represent and manipulate genomic interaction data. Here, we present the InteractionSet package that provides classes to represent genomic interactions and store their associated experimental data, along with the methods required for low-level manipulation and processing of those classes. The InteractionSet package exploits existing infrastructure in the open-source Bioconductor project, while in turn being used by Bioconductor packages designed for higher-level analyses. For new packages, use of the functionality in InteractionSet will simplify development, allow access to more features and improve interoperability between packages.

  14. Infrastructure for genomic interactions: Bioconductor classes for Hi-C, ChIA-PET and related experiments.

    PubMed

    Lun, Aaron T L; Perry, Malcolm; Ing-Simmons, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The study of genomic interactions has been greatly facilitated by techniques such as chromatin conformation capture with high-throughput sequencing (Hi-C). These genome-wide experiments generate large amounts of data that require careful analysis to obtain useful biological conclusions. However, development of the appropriate software tools is hindered by the lack of basic infrastructure to represent and manipulate genomic interaction data. Here, we present the InteractionSet package that provides classes to represent genomic interactions and store their associated experimental data, along with the methods required for low-level manipulation and processing of those classes. The InteractionSet package exploits existing infrastructure in the open-source Bioconductor project, while in turn being used by Bioconductor packages designed for higher-level analyses. For new packages, use of the functionality in InteractionSet will simplify development, allow access to more features and improve interoperability between packages. PMID:27303634

  15. Molecular interactions in binary mixtures of methyl formate with 1-butanol, 1-pentanol, and 1-hexanol by using ultrasonic data at 303 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, S.; Mullainathan, S.

    2016-05-01

    Density (ρ), viscosity (η), and ultrasonic velocity ( U) have been measured for binary mixtures of methyl formate with 1-butanol, 1-pentanol and 1-hexanol at 303 K. From the experimental results, adiabatic compressibility (β), acoustic impedance ( Z), viscous relaxation time (τ), free length ( L f), free volume ( V f), internal pressure (πi), and Gibbs free energy (Δ G) have been determined. Excess values of various parameters have also been calculated and interoperated in terms of molecular interactions. The deviations in the parameters show that strength of intermolecular interactions between methyl formate with selected 1-alcohols have been observed in the order of 1-butanol < 1-pentanol < 1-hexanol.

  16. Analytical studies of the interaction of Tb(III)-2-{[(4-methoxy benzoyl) oxy]} methyl benzoic acid binary complex with nucleosides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shehata, A. M. A.; Azab, H. A.; El-assy, N. B.; Anwar, Z. M.; Mostafa, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of Tb(III)-2-{[(4-methoxy benzoyl) oxy]} methyl benzoic acid binary complex with nucleosides (adenosine, cytidine, guanosine and inosine) was investigated using UV and fluorescence methods. The reaction of Tb-complex with cytidine, guanosine and adenosine is accompanied by shift to longer wavelength in the absorption band, while there is a blue shift in the absorption band with an enhancement in the molar absorptivity upon the reaction with inosine. The fluorescence intensity of Tb(III)-2-{[(4- methoxy benzoyl) oxy]} methyl benzoic acid binary complex at λ = 545 nm (5D4 → 7F5) was decreased with the addition of the nucleoside molecule following the order: cytidine > inosine > guanosine > adenosine.

  17. Massive Black Hole Binary Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, David; Milosavljević, Milos

    2005-11-01

    Coalescence of binary supermassive black holes (SBHs) would constitute the strongest sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. While the formation of binary SBHs during galaxy mergers is almost inevitable, coalescence requires that the separation between binary components first drop by a few orders of magnitude, due presumably to interaction of the binary with stars and gas in a galactic nucleus. This article reviews the observational evidence for binary SBHs and discusses how they would evolve. No completely convincing case of a bound, binary SBH has yet been found, although a handful of systems (e.g. interacting galaxies; remnants of galaxy mergers) are now believed to contain two SBHs at projected separations of <~ 1kpc. N-body studies of binary evolution in gas-free galaxies have reached large enough particle numbers to reproduce the slow, "diffusive" refilling of the binary's loss cone that is believed to characterize binary evolution in real galactic nuclei. While some of the results of these simulations - e.g. the binary hardening rate and eccentricity evolution - are strongly N-dependent, others - e.g. the "damage" inflicted by the binary on the nucleus - are not. Luminous early-type galaxies often exhibit depleted cores with masses of ~ 1-2 times the mass of their nuclear SBHs, consistent with the predictions of the binary model. Studies of the interaction of massive binaries with gas are still in their infancy, although much progress is expected in the near future. Binary coalescence has a large influence on the spins of SBHs, even for mass ratios as extreme as 10:1, and evidence of spin-flips may have been observed.

  18. Specificity of CTL interactions with peptide-MHC class I tetrameric complexes is temperature dependent.

    PubMed

    Whelan, J A; Dunbar, P R; Price, D A; Purbhoo, M A; Lechner, F; Ogg, G S; Griffiths, G; Phillips, R E; Cerundolo, V; Sewell, A K

    1999-10-15

    Tetrameric peptide-MHC class I complexes ("tetramers") are proving invaluable as reagents for characterizing immune responses involving CTLs. However, because the TCR can exhibit a degree of promiscuity for binding peptide-MHC class I ligands, there is potential for cross-reactivity. Recent reports showing that the TCR/peptide-MHC interaction is dramatically dependent upon temperature led us to investigate the effects of incubation temperature on tetramer staining. We find that tetramers rapidly stain CTLs with high intensity at 37 degrees C. We examine the fine specificity of tetramer staining using a well-characterized set of natural epitope variants. Peptide variants that elicit little or no functional cellular response from CTLs can stain these cells at 4 degrees C but not at 37 degrees C when incorporated into tetramers. These results suggest that some studies reporting tetramer incubations at 4 degrees C could detect cross-reactive populations of CTLs with minimal avidity for the tetramer peptide, especially in the tetramer-low population. For identifying specific CTLs among polyclonal cell populations such as PBLs, incubation with tetramers at 37 degrees C improves the staining intensity of specific CTLs, resulting in improved separation of tetramer-high CD8+ cells. Confocal microscopy reveals that tetramers incubated at 37 degrees C can be rapidly internalized by specific CTLs into vesicles that overlap with the early endocytic compartment. This TCR-specific internalization suggests that coupling of tetramers or analogues with toxins, which are activated only after receptor internalization, may create immunotoxins capable of killing CTLs of single specificities.

  19. Mother-Child Interaction: Social Class Differences in the First Year of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulkin, Steven R.; Kagan, Jerome

    To study maternal behaviors as related to social class differences, 30 middle class and 30 working class white mothers were observed at home on two separate days with their 10-month-old firstborn baby girls. Predesignated behaviors which occurred during 5-second intervals were recorded by an observer. Total observation time was 4 hours for each…

  20. Teleducation : Linking Continents Across Time and Space Through Live, Real-Time Interactive Classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macko, S. A.; Szuba, T.; Swap, R.; Annegarn, H.; Marjanovic, B.; Vieira, F.; Brito, R.

    2005-12-01

    International education is a natural extension of global economies, global environmental concerns, and global science. While faculty and student exchanges between geographic areas permit for educational experiences and cultural exchanges for the privileged few, distance learning offers opportunities for educational exchanges under any circumstance where time, expense, or location otherwise inhibit offering or taking a particular course of study. However, there are severe pedagogical limitations to traditional Web-based courses that suffer from a lack of personalized, spontaneous exchange between instructor and student. The technology to establish a real time, interactive teleducation program exists, but to our knowledge is relatively untested in a science classroom situation, especially internationally over great distances. In a project to evaluate this type of linkage, we offered a real-time, interactive class at three separate universities, which communicated instantaneously across an ocean at a distance of greater than 8,000 miles and seven time zones. The course, 'Seminar on the Ecology of African Savannas', consisted of a series of 11 lectures originating in either Mozambique (University of Eduardo Mondlane), South Africa (University of the Witwatersrand) or the United States (University of Virginia). We combined ISDN, internet and satellite linkages to facilitate the lectures and real time discussions between instructors and approximately 200 university students in the three countries. Although numerous technical, logistical, and pedagogical issues - both expected and unexpected - arose throughout the pilot year, the project can be viewed as overwhelmingly successful and certainly serves as proof-of-concept for future initiatives, both internationally and locally. This review of our experience will help to prepare other students, faculty, and institutions interested in establishing or developing international education initiatives

  1. FOXP3 interactions with histone acetyltransferase and class II histone deacetylases are required for repression.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Samanta, Arabinda; Song, Xiaomin; Iacono, Kathryn T; Bembas, Kathryn; Tao, Ran; Basu, Samik; Riley, James L; Hancock, Wayne W; Shen, Yuan; Saouaf, Sandra J; Greene, Mark I

    2007-03-13

    The forkhead family protein FOXP3 acts as a repressor of transcription and is both an essential and sufficient regulator of the development and function of regulatory T cells. The molecular mechanism by which FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression occurs remains unclear. Here, we report that transcriptional repression by FOXP3 involves a histone acetyltransferase-deacetylase complex that includes histone acetyltransferase TIP60 (Tat-interactive protein, 60 kDa) and class II histone deacetylases HDAC7 and HDAC9. The N-terminal 106-190 aa of FOXP3 are required for TIP60-FOXP3, HDAC7-FOXP3 association, as well as for the transcriptional repression of FOXP3 via its forkhead domain. FOXP3 can be acetylated in primary human regulatory T cells, and TIP60 promotes FOXP3 acetylation in vivo. Overexpression of TIP60 but not its histone acetyltransferase-deficient mutant promotes, whereas knockdown of endogenous TIP60 relieved, FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression. A minimum FOXP3 ensemble containing native TIP60 and HDAC7 is necessary for IL-2 production regulation in T cells. Moreover, FOXP3 association with HDAC9 is antagonized by T cell stimulation and can be restored by the protein deacetylation inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating a complex dynamic aspect of T suppressor cell regulation. These findings identify a previously uncharacterized complex-based mechanism by which FOXP3 actively mediates transcriptional repression. PMID:17360565

  2. FOXP3 interactions with histone acetyltransferase and class II histone deacetylases are required for repression

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bin; Samanta, Arabinda; Song, Xiaomin; Iacono, Kathryn T.; Bembas, Kathryn; Tao, Ran; Basu, Samik; Riley, James L.; Hancock, Wayne W.; Shen, Yuan; Saouaf, Sandra J.; Greene, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    The forkhead family protein FOXP3 acts as a repressor of transcription and is both an essential and sufficient regulator of the development and function of regulatory T cells. The molecular mechanism by which FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression occurs remains unclear. Here, we report that transcriptional repression by FOXP3 involves a histone acetyltransferase–deacetylase complex that includes histone acetyltransferase TIP60 (Tat-interactive protein, 60 kDa) and class II histone deacetylases HDAC7 and HDAC9. The N-terminal 106–190 aa of FOXP3 are required for TIP60–FOXP3, HDAC7–FOXP3 association, as well as for the transcriptional repression of FOXP3 via its forkhead domain. FOXP3 can be acetylated in primary human regulatory T cells, and TIP60 promotes FOXP3 acetylation in vivo. Overexpression of TIP60 but not its histone acetyltransferase-deficient mutant promotes, whereas knockdown of endogenous TIP60 relieved, FOXP3-mediated transcriptional repression. A minimum FOXP3 ensemble containing native TIP60 and HDAC7 is necessary for IL-2 production regulation in T cells. Moreover, FOXP3 association with HDAC9 is antagonized by T cell stimulation and can be restored by the protein deacetylation inhibitor trichostatin A, indicating a complex dynamic aspect of T suppressor cell regulation. These findings identify a previously uncharacterized complex-based mechanism by which FOXP3 actively mediates transcriptional repression. PMID:17360565

  3. High Mass X-ray Binary Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, Sachindra

    2016-07-01

    High Mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) are interesting objects that provide a wide range of observational probes to the nature of the two stellar components, accretion process, stellar wind and orbital parameters of the systems. Most of the transient HMXBs are found to Be/X-ray binaries (~67%), consisting of a compact object (neutron star) in orbit around the companion Be star. The orbit of the compact object around the Be star is wide and highly eccentric. Be/X-ray binaries are generally quiescent in X-ray emission. The transient X-ray outbursts seen in these objects are known to be due to interaction between the compact object and the circumstellar disk surrounding the Be star. In the recent years, another class of transient HMXBs have been found which have supergiant companions and show shorter X-ray outbursts. X-ray, infrared and optical observations of these HMXBs provide vital information regarding these systems. The timing and broad-band X-ray spectral properties of a few HMXB pulsars, mainly Be/X-ray binary pulsars during regular X-ray outbursts will be discussed.

  4. Student-Faculty Interaction in Research Universities: Differences by Student Gender, Race, Social Class, and First-Generation Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young K.; Sax, Linda J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether the effects of student-faculty interaction on a range of student outcomes--i.e., college GPA, degree aspiration, integration, critical thinking and communication, cultural appreciation and social awareness, and satisfaction with college experience--vary by student gender, race, social class, and first-generation status.…

  5. Using Social Networking Environments to Support Collaborative Learning in a Chinese University Class: Interaction Pattern and Influencing Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Jie; Churchill, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a study that investigated the social interaction pattern of collaborative learning and the factors affecting the effectiveness of collaborative learning in a social networking environment (SNE). A class of 55 undergraduate students enrolled in an elective course at a Chinese university was recruited for the study. The…

  6. The Nature of Interactions between Chinese Immigrant Families and Preschool Staff: How Culture, Class, and Methodology Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heng, Tang T.

    2014-01-01

    While the parental involvement field has progressed from asking what the impact of parental involvement is to how we can better involve parents, research has lagged in finding out how sociocultural and class differentials between homes and schools affect immigrant families' interactions with schools. This case study uses ethnographic tools to…

  7. Interactional Concerns in Implementing Group Tasks: Addressing Silence, Dominance, and Off-Task Talk in an Academic Writing Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Bal Krishna

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the teacher role in mediating the task and the learner in an advanced academic writing class. Having identified three verbal (non-)participation patterns of students in collaborative tasks (silence, dominance, and off-task talk), I examine how these interactional concerns are understood and addressed by English as a second…

  8. Thermal analysis study of the interactions between acetaminophen and excipients in solid dosage forms and in some binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Tomassetti, M; Catalani, A; Rossi, V; Vecchio, S

    2005-04-29

    Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used to assess the compatibility between acetaminophen (Ac) and some excipients (polyvinylpyrrolidone (P), magnesium stearate (M), citric acid (C), aspartame (As), mannitol (Mn), cellulose (Cll) and starch (S)) in several of the more commercially available pharmaceutical formulations and in solid binary mixtures. The present study compared thermodynamic data on acetaminophen melting and vaporization processes of pure acetaminophen with those found for several solid mixtures and in some commercially available acetaminophen-based dosage forms. Appreciable modifications occur only for solid mixtures with high content of excipient. Acetaminophen-based dosage forms and its solid binary mixtures usually show "additivity" of calorimetric peaks number of pure components in their calorimetric curve profiles, thus revealing a good thermoanalytical compatibility between acetaminophen and the excipients examined, except for samples containing appreciable content of mannitol.

  9. Kepler's Cool Eclipsing Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swift, Jonathan; Muirhead, P. S.; Johnson, J. A.; Gonzales, A.; Shporer, A.; Plavchan, P.; Lockwood, A.; Morton, T.

    2014-01-01

    Some of the most exciting exoplanet results to date have come from the smallest and coolest sample of stars in the Kepler field—the M dwarfs. These cool stars represent the largest stellar population in the Galaxy which in turn harbors one of the largest known exoplanet populations. However, an accurate understanding of their physical properties currently eludes us. Detached, M dwarf eclipsing binary systems provide an accurate and precise, model-independent means of measuring the fundamental properties of low-mass stars shedding light on the rich physics embodied by this spectral class and refining our knowledge of their exoplanets. We have undertaken an observational campaign to obtain masses, radii, and effective temperatures of the Kepler eclipsing binaries having an M dwarf primary with periods between 1 and 60 days. These data will allow detailed comparisons between stellar properties, binary period, rotation, metallicity and activity levels.

  10. [Intern(euron)al affairs : The role of specific neocortical interneuron classes in the interaction between acetylcholine and GABAergic anesthetics].

    PubMed

    Liebig, L; Grasshoff, C; Hentschke, H

    2016-08-01

    Acetylcholine is a neuromodulator which is released throughout the central nervous system and plays an essential role in consciousness and cognitive processes including attention and learning. Due to its 'activating' effect on the neuronal and behavioral level its interaction with anesthetics has long been of interest to anesthesiologists. It is widely held that a reduction of the release of acetylcholine by general anesthetics constitutes part of the anesthetic effect. This notion is backed by numerous human and animal studies, but is also in seeming contradiction to findings that acetylcholine activates specific classes of inhibitory neurons: if acetylcholine excites elements within the neuronal network responsible for the release of the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), its withdrawal should diminish, not enhance, the effect of anesthetics.Focusing on cortical circuits, we present an overview of recent advances in cellular neurophysiology, particularly the interactions between inhibitory neuron classes, which provide insights on the interaction between acetylcholine and GABA.

  11. A qualitative investigation of out-of-class student-faculty interaction in an undergraduate residential learning community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strong, Philip E.

    The central question of this study was to investigate the nature of and outcomes associated with out-of-class student-faculty interaction in a residential learning community (RLC). There exists a strong national movement in residential higher education for the development of residential learning communities. Using qualitative methodology, I interviewed 14 second-year undergraduate students who were pursuing a bachelor degree in the sciences. Ten of the 14 students were members of the same RLC. From the analysis of the interview data, I found that the students interacted with their faculty outside of class at two distinct levels---rudimentary and heightened---as interpreted through four primary variables---frequency of interactions, quality of the interaction experiences, the intensity of interactions, and location of interactions. Students reported significant impacts on their academic, social, and personal development with the specific outcomes of increased student learning, motivation, self-worth, effort, and comfort level. Students also identified their perceptions of faculty members' roles at the institution as well as preferred characteristics of a 'good' faculty member. The residential learning community at the center of this study, and other institutionally developed programs, were shown to have positive impacts on students in their academic, personal, and social development as well as their access to heightened-level interactions with faculty.

  12. Interactions between the Isolated-Interactive Elements Effect and Levels of Learner Expertise: Experimental Evidence from an Accountancy Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated interactions between the isolated-interactive elements effect and levels of learner expertise with first year undergraduate university accounting students. The isolated-interactive elements effect occurs when learning is facilitated by initially presenting elements of information sequentially in an isolated form rather than…

  13. Social stars: Modeling the interactive lives of stars in dense clusters and binary systems in the era of time domain astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLeod, Morgan Elowe

    This thesis uses computational modeling to study of phases of dramatic interaction that intersperse stellar lifetimes. In galactic centers stars trace dangerously wandering orbits dictated by the combined gravitational force of a central, supermassive black hole and all of the surrounding stars. In binary systems, stars' evolution -- which causes their radii to increase substantially -- can bring initially non-interacting systems into contact. Moments of strong stellar interaction transform stars, their subsequent evolution, and the stellar environments they inhabit. In tidal disruption events, a star is partially or completely destroyed as tidal forces from a supermassive black hole overwhelm the star's self gravity. A portion of the stellar debris falls back to the black hole powering a luminous flare as it accretes. This thesis studies the relative event rates and properties of tidal disruption events for stars across the stellar evolutionary spectrum. Tidal disruptions of giant stars occur with high specific frequency; these objects' extended envelopes make them vulnerable to disruption. More-compact white dwarf stars are tidally disrupted relatively rarely. Their transients are also of very different duration and luminosity. Giant star disruptions power accretion flares with timescales of tens to hundreds of years; white dwarf disruption flares take hours to days. White dwarf tidal interactions can additionally trigger thermonuclear burning and lead to transients with signatures similar to type I supernovae. In binary star systems, a phase of hydrodynamic interaction called a common envelope episode occurs when one star evolves to swallow its companion. Dragged by the surrounding gas, the companion star spirals through the envelope to tighter orbits. This thesis studies accretion and flow morphologies during this phase. Density gradients across the gravitationally-focussed material lead to a strong angular momentum barrier to accretion during common envelope

  14. The magnetic field of the hot spectroscopic binary HD 5550

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiner, C.; Alecian, E.

    2015-12-01

    HD 5550 is a spectroscopic binary composed of two A stars observed with Narval at TBL in the frame of the BinaMIcS (Binarity and Magnetic Interactions in various classes of Stars) Large Program. One component of the system is found to be an Ap star with a surprisingly weak dipolar field of ˜65 G. The companion is an Am star for which no magnetic field is detected, with a detection threshold on the dipolar field of ˜40 G. The system is tidally locked, the primary component is synchronised with the orbit, but the system is probably not completely circularised yet. This work is only the second detailed study of magnetic fields in a hot short-period spectroscopic binary. More systems are currently being observed with both Narval at TBL and ESPaDOnS at CFHT within the BinaMIcS project, with the goal of understanding how magnetism can impact binary evolution and vice versa.

  15. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars.

  16. Binary stars.

    PubMed

    Paczynacuteski, B

    1984-07-20

    Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars. PMID:17749544

  17. Binary supramolecular adduct based upon trimeric perfluoro-ortho-phenylenemercury and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde: Enumerating the strength of perfluorophenyl-perfluorophenyl interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Steven P.; Krueger, Herman R.; Groeneman, Ryan H.; Reinheimer, Eric W.

    2016-01-01

    Due to its proximity of Hg(II) atoms, electron-withdrawing properties and inherent accessibility to electrophilic sites on the molecular surface, trimeric perfluoro-ortho-phenylenemercury, (o-C6F4Hg)3, has demonstrated a capacity to form supramolecular adducts with a variety of neutral and anionic substrates. Often within these complexes the Lewis acid, (o-C6F4Hg)3, interacts with a Lewis base rather than itself in the solid state via various supramolecular interactions. Among these, perfluorophenyl-perfluorophenyl interactions have been utilized in the construction of various supramolecular materials; however, within these molecular complexes, this category of non-covalent interaction is not often observed. Even though these perfluorophenyl-perfluorophenyl interactions have been used to produce new materials, their overall strength has not been generally reported in the literature. In this contribution, we highlight not only the synthesis, structural and spectroscopic properties of a novel binary supramolecular adduct between (o-C6F4Hg)3 and 4-chlorobenzaldehyde (4-ClBA) [(o-C6F4Hg)3(4-ClBA)] 1, but also report on the overall strength of the perfluorophenyl-perfluorophenyl interaction energies determined by means of computational chemistry. The carbonyl group of the 4-ClBA substrate was found to interact with all three mercury atoms within (o-C6F4Hg)3 via Hg⋯O contacts. An infrared spectroscopic analysis of 1 demonstrated a lower wavenumber for the carbonyl stretching frequency when compared to that for the free substrate confirming the presence of these Hg⋯O interactions.

  18. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    We present preliminary results of our implementation of a novel electrophoresis separation technique: Binary Oscillatory Cross flow Electrophoresis (BOCE). The technique utilizes the interaction of two driving forces, an oscillatory electric field and an oscillatory shear flow, to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged species. Analytical and numerical studies have indicated that this technique is capable of separating proteins with electrophoretic mobilities differing by less than 10%. With an experimental device containing a separation chamber 20 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 1 mm thick, an order of magnitude increase in throughput over commercially available electrophoresis devices is theoretically possible.

  19. The Brave New World of Binary Star Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Engle, Scott G.

    2006-08-01

    In this paper we discuss some of the new and exciting developments in the study of binary stars. Recent technological advances (such as CCDs) now make it possible (even easy) to study faint, astrophysically important binaries that in the past could only be done with large 4 + meter class telescopes. Also, the panoramic nature of CCDs (and the use of mosaics), permit large numbers of stars to be imaged and studied. At this conference, most of the observational material discussed was secured typically with smaller aperture 0.5 - 2 m telescopes. Excellent examples are the discovery of over 104 new ˜13 - 20 mag eclipsing (and interacting) binaries now found in nearby galaxies from the EROS, OGLE, MACHO and DIRECT programs. As briefly discussed here, and in more detail in several papers in this volume, a small fraction of these extragalactic eclipsing binaries are now serving as “standard candles” to secure accurate distances to the Magellanic Clouds, as well as to M31 and M33. Moreover, the discovery of increasingly larger numbers of eclipsing binaries has stimulated the development of automatic methods for reducing and analyzing the light curves of thousands of systems. In the near future, hundreds of thousands (possibly millions) of additional systems are expected to be discovered by Pan-STARRS, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescopes (LSST), and later by GAIA. Over the last decade, new classes of binary systems have also been found which contain Jupiter-size planets and binaries containing pulsating stars. Some examples of these important binaries are discussed. Also discussed are the increasing numbers (now eight) of eclipsing binary planet-star systems that have been found from high precision photometry. These systems are very important since the radii and masses of the hosted planets can be directly measured. Moreover, from the upcoming COROT and KEPLER missions hundreds of additional transiting planet-star systems are expected to be found. All in all, we hope

  20. Comparing Interactions in Literature Circles in Both Online and in Class Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skeen, Christel Ghrist

    2014-01-01

    Discourse analysis of literature circles can lead educators to understand the different types of interactions taking place as students talk about text. Social and academic interactions exist in both face-to-face and online discussions of reading material. This study examines two different settings of literature circles and compares interactions of…

  1. Solar System binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.

    The discovery of binaries in each of the major populations of minor bodies in the solar system is propelling a rapid growth of heretofore unattainable physical information. The availability of mass and density constraints for minor bodies opens the door to studies of internal structure, comparisons with meteorite samples, and correlations between bulk-physical and surface-spectral properties. The number of known binaries is now more than 70 and is growing rapidly. A smaller number have had the extensive followup observations needed to derive mass and albedo information, but this list is growing as well. It will soon be the case that we will know more about the physical parameters of objects in the Kuiper Belt than has been known about asteroids in the Main Belt for the last 200 years. Another important aspect of binaries is understanding the mechanisms that lead to their formation and survival. The relative sizes and separations of binaries in the different minor body populations point to more than one mechanism for forming bound pairs. Collisions appear to play a major role in the Main Belt. Rotational and/or tidal fission may be important in the Near Earth population. For the Kuiper Belt, capture in multi-body interactions may be the preferred formation mechanism. However, all of these conclusions remain tentative and limited by observational and theoretical incompleteness. Observational techniques for identifying binaries are equally varied. High angular resolution observations from space and from the ground are critical for detection of the relatively distant binaries in the Main Belt and the Kuiper Belt. Radar has been the most productive method for detection of Near Earth binaries. Lightcurve analysis is an independent technique that is capable of exploring phase space inaccessible to direct observations. Finally, spacecraft flybys have played a crucial paradigm-changing role with discoveries that unlocked this now-burgeoning field.

  2. Latent Class Analysis of Antisocial Behavior: Interaction of Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2010-01-01

    To improve understanding about genetic and environmental influences on antisocial behavior (ASB), we tested the association of the 44-base pair polymorphism of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) and maltreatment using latent class analysis in 2,488 boys and girls from Wave 1 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. In boys,…

  3. Using Interactive Content and Online Activities to Accommodate Diversity in a Large First Year Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowball, J. D.

    2014-01-01

    As in many universities, class sizes have increased more quickly than teaching and learning resources. A related challenge is the increasing diversity of the student body in terms of socio-economic background, learning styles, English language ability and preparedness. This paper explores ways in which traditional face-to-face teaching methods…

  4. Brief Report: Interaction between Social Class and Risky Decision-Making in Children with Psychopathic Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Baker, Laura A.; Raine, Adrian; Wu, Henry; Bezdjian, Serena

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Adult psychopaths are thought to have risky decision-making and behavioral disinhibition, but little is known about the moderating effects of psychosocial factors and whether these associations can be observed in children with psychopathic tendencies. This study tests the biosocial hypothesis that social class will moderate…

  5. How to Make Upper-Level University English Classes More Interactive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lytovchenko, Irina

    2009-01-01

    Upper-level English classes often pose special problems for teachers. Known as English for Specific Purposes (ESP), this type of English instruction integrates the specialized subject matter of the field into the classroom. ESP requires the acquisition of highly specialized terminology and the ability to explain formal processes as students…

  6. Case Studies of Interactive Whole-Class Teaching in Primary Science: Communicative Approach and Pedagogic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Kendra

    2012-01-01

    By developing two case studies of expert teaching in action, this study aimed to develop knowledge of talk in whole-class teaching in UK primary science lessons and understand this in relation to both the teachers' interpretations and sociocultural theoretical frameworks. Lessons were observed and video-recorded and the teachers engaged in…

  7. Performing Mutuality in the Writing Class: Creating Emancipatory Teacher-Student Relationships through Response and Interactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrebik, John Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This study offers a step-by-step process for encouraging mutuality in the freshman composition class. This discussion begins by reexamining the theoretical underpinnings of response methodology in an effort to situate the act of responding to student writing within the scope of mutuality. In particular, this reconsideration reveals that most…

  8. Modulated gamma-ray emission from compact millisecond pulsar binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, W.

    2014-01-01

    Context. A significant number of the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) have been discovered within binary systems. Tens of these MSPs emit γ-rays that are modulated with the pulsar period since this emission is produced in the inner pulsar magnetosphere. In several such binary systems, the masses of the companion stars have been derived allowing two classes of objects to be distinguished, which are called the black widow and the redback binaries. Pulsars in these binary systems are expected to produce winds that create conditions for acceleration of electrons, when colliding with stellar winds. These electrons should interact with the anisotropic radiation from the companion stars producing γ-ray emission modulated with the orbital period of the binary system, similar to what is observed in the massive TeV γ-ray binary systems. Aims: We consider the interaction of a MSP wind with a very inhomogeneous stellar wind from the companion star within binary systems of the black widow and redback types. Our aim is to determine the features of γ-ray emission produced in the collision region of the winds from a few typical MSP binary systems. Methods: It is expected that the pulsar wind should mix efficiently with the inhomogeneous stellar wind. The mixed winds move outside the binary with relatively low velocity. Electrons accelerated in such mixed, turbulent winds can interact with the magnetic field and strong radiation from the companion star, producing not only synchrotron radiation but also γ-rays in the inverse Compton process, fluxes of which are expected to be modulated on the periods of the binary systems. Applying numerical methods, we calculated the GeV-TeV gamma-ray spectra and the light curves expected from some MSP binary systems. Results: Gamma-ray emission, produced within the binary systems, is compared with the sensitivities of the present and future gamma-ray telescopes. It is concluded that energetic MSP binary systems create a new class of TeV

  9. Interactive effects of waterborne metals in binary mixtures on short-term gill-metal binding and ion uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Niyogi, Som; Nadella, Sunita R; Wood, Chris M

    2015-08-01

    Metal binding to fish gills forms the basis of the biotic ligand model (BLM) approach, which has emerged as a useful tool for conducting site-specific water quality assessments for metals. The current BLMs are designed to assess the toxicity of individual metals, and cannot account for the interactive effects of metal mixtures to aquatic organisms including fish. The present study was designed mainly to examine the interactive effects of waterborne metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Ni) in specific binary combinations on short-term (3h) gill-metal binding and essential ion (Ca(2+) and Na(+)) uptake (a physiological index of toxicity) in fish, using juvenile freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as the model species. We hypothesized that binary mixtures of metals that share a common mode of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Zn - Ca(2+) antagonists, Cu and Ag - Na(+) antagonists) would reduce the gill binding of each other via competitive interactions and induce less than additive effects on ion transport. In addition, the mixture of metals that have different modes of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Cu, or Cd and Ni) would not exhibit any interactive effects either on gill-metal binding or ion transport. We found that both Zn and Cu reduced gill-Cd binding and vice versa, however, Ni did not influence gill-Cd binding in fish. Surprisingly, Ag was found to stimulate gill-Cu binding especially at high exposure concentrations, whereas, Cu had no effect on gill-Ag binding. The inhibitory effect of Cd and Zn in mixture on branchial Ca(2+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cd or Zn alone. Similarly, the inhibitory effect of Cu and Ag in mixture on branchial Na(+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cu or Ag alone. The inhibitory effects of Cd and Zn mixture on Ca(2+) uptake as well as Cu and Ag mixture on Na(+) uptake were found to follow the principles of simple additivity. In contrast, no significant additive effect on either Ca(2+) or Na

  10. Interactive effects of waterborne metals in binary mixtures on short-term gill-metal binding and ion uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Niyogi, Som; Nadella, Sunita R; Wood, Chris M

    2015-08-01

    Metal binding to fish gills forms the basis of the biotic ligand model (BLM) approach, which has emerged as a useful tool for conducting site-specific water quality assessments for metals. The current BLMs are designed to assess the toxicity of individual metals, and cannot account for the interactive effects of metal mixtures to aquatic organisms including fish. The present study was designed mainly to examine the interactive effects of waterborne metals (Cd, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Ni) in specific binary combinations on short-term (3h) gill-metal binding and essential ion (Ca(2+) and Na(+)) uptake (a physiological index of toxicity) in fish, using juvenile freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as the model species. We hypothesized that binary mixtures of metals that share a common mode of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Zn - Ca(2+) antagonists, Cu and Ag - Na(+) antagonists) would reduce the gill binding of each other via competitive interactions and induce less than additive effects on ion transport. In addition, the mixture of metals that have different modes of uptake and toxicity (e.g., Cd and Cu, or Cd and Ni) would not exhibit any interactive effects either on gill-metal binding or ion transport. We found that both Zn and Cu reduced gill-Cd binding and vice versa, however, Ni did not influence gill-Cd binding in fish. Surprisingly, Ag was found to stimulate gill-Cu binding especially at high exposure concentrations, whereas, Cu had no effect on gill-Ag binding. The inhibitory effect of Cd and Zn in mixture on branchial Ca(2+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cd or Zn alone. Similarly, the inhibitory effect of Cu and Ag in mixture on branchial Na(+) uptake was significantly greater than that of Cu or Ag alone. The inhibitory effects of Cd and Zn mixture on Ca(2+) uptake as well as Cu and Ag mixture on Na(+) uptake were found to follow the principles of simple additivity. In contrast, no significant additive effect on either Ca(2+) or Na

  11. Surface interactions, thermodynamics and topography of binary monolayers of Insulin with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Grasso, E J; Oliveira, R G; Maggio, B

    2016-02-15

    The molecular packing, thermodynamics and surface topography of binary Langmuir monolayers of Insulin and DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) or POCP (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine) at the air/water interface on Zn(2+) containing solutions were studied. Miscibility and interactions were ascertained by the variation of surface pressure-mean molecular area isotherms, surface compressional modulus and surface (dipole) potential with the film composition. Brewster Angle Microscopy was used to visualize the surface topography of the monolayers. Below 20mN/m Insulin forms stable homogenous films with DPPC and POPC at all mole fractions studied (except for films with XINS=0.05 at 10mN/m where domain coexistence was observed). Above 20mN/m, a segregation process between mixed phases occurred in all monolayers without squeezing out of individual components. Under compression the films exhibit formation of a viscoelastic or kinetically trapped organization leading to considerable composition-dependent hysteresis under expansion that occurs with entropic-enthalpic compensation. The spontaneously unfavorable interactions of Insulin with DPPC are driven by favorable enthalpy that is overcome by unfavorable entropic ordering; in films with POPC both the enthalpic and entropic effects are unfavorable. The surface topography reveals domain coexistence at relatively high pressure showing a striped appearance. The interactions of Insulin with two major membrane phospholipids induces composition-dependent and long-range changes of the surface organization that ought to be considered in the context of the information-transducing capabilities of the hormone for cell functioning.

  12. Surface interactions, thermodynamics and topography of binary monolayers of Insulin with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine at the air/water interface.

    PubMed

    Grasso, E J; Oliveira, R G; Maggio, B

    2016-02-15

    The molecular packing, thermodynamics and surface topography of binary Langmuir monolayers of Insulin and DPPC (dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine) or POCP (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoylphosphatidylcholine) at the air/water interface on Zn(2+) containing solutions were studied. Miscibility and interactions were ascertained by the variation of surface pressure-mean molecular area isotherms, surface compressional modulus and surface (dipole) potential with the film composition. Brewster Angle Microscopy was used to visualize the surface topography of the monolayers. Below 20mN/m Insulin forms stable homogenous films with DPPC and POPC at all mole fractions studied (except for films with XINS=0.05 at 10mN/m where domain coexistence was observed). Above 20mN/m, a segregation process between mixed phases occurred in all monolayers without squeezing out of individual components. Under compression the films exhibit formation of a viscoelastic or kinetically trapped organization leading to considerable composition-dependent hysteresis under expansion that occurs with entropic-enthalpic compensation. The spontaneously unfavorable interactions of Insulin with DPPC are driven by favorable enthalpy that is overcome by unfavorable entropic ordering; in films with POPC both the enthalpic and entropic effects are unfavorable. The surface topography reveals domain coexistence at relatively high pressure showing a striped appearance. The interactions of Insulin with two major membrane phospholipids induces composition-dependent and long-range changes of the surface organization that ought to be considered in the context of the information-transducing capabilities of the hormone for cell functioning. PMID:26624532

  13. Interaction of Dopamine Transporter (DAT1) Genotype and Maltreatment for ADHD: A Latent Class Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, James J.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the association of the dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been widely studied, far less is known about its potential interaction with environmental risk factors. Given that maltreatment is a replicated risk factor for ADHD, we explored the interaction between DAT1 and…

  14. SN~2012cg: Evidence for Interaction Between a Normal Type Ia Supernova and a Non-degenerate Binary Companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marion, G. H.; Brown, Peter J.; Vinkó, Jozsef; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Sand, David J.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Wheeler, J. Craig; Berlind, Perry; Brown, Warren R.; Calkins, Michael L.; Camacho, Yssavo; Dhungana, Govinda; Foley, Ryan J.; Friedman, Andrew S.; Graham, Melissa L.; Howell, D. Andrew; Hsiao, Eric Y.; Irwin, Jonathan M.; Jha, Saurabh W.; Kehoe, Robert; Macri, Lucas M.; Maeda, Keiichi; Mandel, Kaisey; McCully, Curtis; Pandya, Viraj; Rines, Kenneth J.; Wilhelmy, Steven; Zheng, Weikang

    2016-04-01

    We report evidence for excess blue light from the Type Ia supernova (Sn Ia) SN 2012cg at 15 and 16 days before maximum B-band brightness. The emission is consistent with predictions for the impact of the supernova on a non-degenerate binary companion. This is the first evidence for emission from a companion to a normal SN Ia. Sixteen days before maximum light, the B-V color of SN 2012cg is 0.2 mag bluer than for other normal SN Ia. At later times, this supernova has a typical SN Ia light curve, with extinction-corrected {M}B=-19.62+/- 0.02 mag and {{Δ }}{m}15(B)=0.86+/- 0.02. Our data set is extensive, with photometry in seven filters from five independent sources. Early spectra also show the effects of blue light, and high-velocity features are observed at early times. Near maximum, the spectra are normal with a silicon velocity vSi = -10,500 km s-1. Comparing the early data with models by Kasen favors a main-sequence companion of about six solar masses. It is possible that many other SN Ia have main-sequence companions that have eluded detection because the emission from the impact is fleeting and faint.

  15. The interaction of calcium nitrate and a Class C fly ash during hydration

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.; Daugherty, K.

    1996-07-01

    Different analytical techniques were used to study the hydration of a Class C fly ash in the presence of various concentrations of calcium nitrate. Calcium nitrate was found to accelerate the hydration of calcium aluminate phases in relationship to dosage. Hydration mechanisms were modified resulting in altered products. The new products consisted of calcium aluminate hydrate and nitrate. Evidence suggested that the modified nitrate-hydrates competed with or inhibited the formation of calcium aluminate sulfates hydrates.

  16. Repetition deficits, list context, and word-class interactions in the RSVP of words in sentences.

    PubMed

    Vokey, John R; Allen, Scott W

    2002-06-01

    We report a failure to find a repetition deficit in recall following the rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of words within sentences, using adjectives rather than nouns as the critical items. In a series of experiments that ruled out participant and procedural differences as the source of the failure, both word class and list context were found to moderate the repetition deficit, but grammatical necessity did not. The presence in the list of sentences in which the repeated adjectives were separated by more than three words (i.e., more than 400 ms in RSVP) not only eliminated the repetition deficit for the recall of those sentences but also for the recall of sentences in which the repeated adjectives were separated by three or fewer words (i.e., less than 400 ms in RSVP). However, although substantially reduced, a repetition deficit with noun-based materials was still found in this list context. Matching the adjective-based sentences with the noun-based sentences in sentence length and position of the critical items revealed that the moderating effect of word-class on the repetition deficit was mediated by the biases in sentence structure that using different word classes tend to induce.

  17. Solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions in the preferential solvation of 4-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide in 24 binary solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilaqua, Tharly; Gonçalves, Thaini F.; Venturini, Cristina de G.; Machado, Vanderlei G.

    2006-11-01

    The molar transition energy ( ET) polarity values for the dye 4-[4-(dimethylamino)styryl]-1-methylpyridinium iodide were collected in binary mixtures comprising a hydrogen-bond accepting (HBA) solvent (acetone, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF)) and a hydrogen-bond donating (HBD) solvent (water, methanol, ethanol, propan-2-ol, and butan-1-ol). Data referring to mixtures of water with alcohols were also analyzed. These data were used in the study of the preferential solvation of the probe, in terms of both solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions. These latter interactions are of importance in explaining the synergistic behavior observed for many mixed solvent systems. All data were successfully fitted to a model based on solvent-exchange equilibria. The ET values of the dye dissolved in the solvents show that the position of the solvatochromic absorption band of the dye is dependent on the medium polarity. The solvation of the dye in HBA solvents occurs with a very important contribution from ion-dipole interactions. In HBD solvents, the hydrogen bonding between the dimethylamino group in the dye and the OH group in the solvent plays an important role in the solvation of the dye. The interaction of the hydroxylic solvent with the other component in the mixture can lead to the formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes, which solvate the dye using a lower polar moiety, i.e. alkyl groups in the solvents. The dye has a hydrophobic nature and a dimethylamino group with a minor capability for hydrogen bonding with the medium in comparison with the phenolate group present in Reichardt's pyridiniophenolate. Thus, the probe is able to detect solvent-solvent interactions, which are implicit to the observed synergistic behavior.

  18. Hox Proteins Display a Common and Ancestral Ability to Diversify Their Interaction Mode with the PBC Class Cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Hudry, Bruno; Remacle, Sophie; Delfini, Marie-Claire; Rezsohazy, René; Graba, Yacine; Merabet, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Hox transcription factors control a number of developmental processes with the help of the PBC class proteins. In vitro analyses have established that the formation of Hox/PBC complexes relies on a short conserved Hox protein motif called the hexapeptide (HX). This paradigm is at the basis of the vast majority of experimental approaches dedicated to the study of Hox protein function. Here we questioned the unique and general use of the HX for PBC recruitment by using the Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation (BiFC) assay. This method allows analyzing Hox-PBC interactions in vivo and at a genome-wide scale. We found that the HX is dispensable for PBC recruitment in the majority of investigated Drosophila and mouse Hox proteins. We showed that HX-independent interaction modes are uncovered by the presence of Meis class cofactors, a property which was also observed with Hox proteins of the cnidarian sea anemone Nematostella vectensis. Finally, we revealed that paralog-specific motifs convey major PBC-recruiting functions in Drosophila Hox proteins. Altogether, our results highlight that flexibility in Hox-PBC interactions is an ancestral and evolutionary conserved character, which has strong implications for the understanding of Hox protein functions during normal development and pathologic processes. PMID:22745600

  19. Interactions of synthetic peptide analogs of the class A amphipathic helix with lipids. Evidence for the snorkel hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, V K; Palgunachari, M N; Segrest, J P; Anantharamaiah, G M

    1994-03-11

    Class A amphipathic helixes present in exchangeable plasma apolipoproteins are characterized by the location of positively charged amino acid residues at the non-polar-polar interface and negatively charged amino acid residues at the center of the polar face. The objectives of the present study were: (i) to investigate the role of hydrocarbon side chain length of the interfacial positively charged amino acid residues in the lipid affinity of class A amphipathic helixes, and (ii) to investigate the importance of the nature of interfacial charge in the lipid affinity of class A amphipathic helixes. Toward this end, lipid interactions of the following two analogs of the class A amphipathic helix, Ac-18A-NH2 (acetyl-Asp-Trp-Leu-Lys-Ala-Phe-Tyr- Asp-Lys-Val-Ala-Glu-Lys-Leu-Lys-Glu-Ala-Phe-NH2), and Ac-18A(Lys > Haa)-NH2 (acetyl-Asp-Trp-Leu-Haa-Ala-Phe-Tyr-Asp-Haa-Val-Ala-Glu-Haa-Leu-Haa-Glu- Ala-Phe-NH2) (Haa = homoaminoalanine), were studied. The side chain of Haa has two CH2 groups less than that of lysine. The lipid affinities of these two peptide analogs were compared with that of Ac-18R-NH2, an analog of Ac-18A-NH2 with positions of the charged amino acid residues reversed. The techniques used in these studies were circular dichroism, fluorescence spectroscopy, right-angle light scattering measurements, and differential scanning calorimetry. The results of these studies indicated the following rank order of lipid affinity: Ac-18A-NH2 > Ac-18A(Lys > Haa)-NH2 > Ac-18R-NH2. These results are in agreement with the "snorkel" model proposed earlier to explain the higher lipid affinity of class A amphipathic helixes (Segrest, J. P., Loof, H. D., Dohlman, J. G., Brouillette, C. G., and Anantharamaiah, G. M. (1990) Proteins Struct. Funct. Genetics 8, 103-117). In addition, it was observed from the differential scanning calorimetry studies that Ac-18A-NH2 and Ac-18A(Lys > Haa)-NH2 interact more strongly than Ac-18R-NH2 with negatively charged dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol

  20. NEW EVIDENCE OF MAGNETIC INTERACTIONS BETWEEN STARS FROM THREE-DIMENSIONAL DOPPLER TOMOGRAPHY OF ALGOL BINARIES: {beta} PER AND RS VUL

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, Mercedes T.; Agafonov, Michail I.; Sharova, Olga I. E-mail: agfn@nirfi.sci-nnov.ru

    2012-11-20

    Time-resolved H{alpha} spectra of magnetically active interacting binaries have been used to create three-dimensional (3D) Doppler tomograms by means of the Radioastronomical Approach. This is the first 3D reconstruction of {beta} Per, with RS Vul for comparison. These 3D tomograms have revealed evidence of the mass transfer process (gas stream, circumprimary emission, localized region, absorption zone), as well as loop prominences and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in {beta} Per and RS Vul that could not be discovered from two-dimensional tomograms alone. The gas stream in both binaries may have been deflected beyond the central plane by the donor star's magnetic field. The stream was more elongated along the predicted trajectory in RS Vul than in {beta} Per, but not as pronounced as in U CrB (stream state). The loop prominence reached maximum V{sub z} velocities of {+-}155 km s{sup -1} in RS Vul compared to {+-}120 km s{sup -1} in {beta} Per, while the CME reached a maximum V{sub z} velocity of +150 km s{sup -1} in RS Vul and +100 km s{sup -1} in {beta} Per. The 3D tomograms show that the gas flows are not symmetric relative to the central plane and are not confined to that plane, a result confirmed by recent 15 GHz VLBI radio images of {beta} Per. Both the 3D H{alpha} tomography and the VLBI radio images support an earlier prediction of the superhump phenomenon in {beta} Per: that the gas between the stars is threaded with a magnetic field even though the hot B8V mass-gaining star is not known to have a magnetic field.

  1. Anion binding characteristics of the band 3 / 4,4-dibenzamidostilbene-2,2-disulfonate binary complex: evidence for both steric and allosteric interactions.

    PubMed

    Salhany, J M

    1999-01-01

    A novel kinetic approach was used to measure monovalent anion binding to better define the mechanistic basis for competition between stilbenedisulfonates and transportable anions on band 3. An anion-induced acceleration in the release of 4,4'-dibenzamidostilbene-2,2'-disulfonate (DBDS) from its complex with band 3 was measured using monovalent anions of various size and relative affinity for the transport site. The K1/2 values for anion binding were determined and correlated with transport site affinity constants obtained from the literature and the dehydrated radius of each anion. The results show that anions with ionic radii of 120-200 pm fall on a well-defined correlation line where the ranking of the K1/2 values matched the ranking of the transport site affinity constants (thiocyanate < nitrate approximately bromide < chloride < fluoride). The K1/2 values for the anions on this line were about 4-fold larger than expected for anion binding to inhibitor-free band 3. Such a lowered affinity can be explained in terms of allosteric site-site interactions, since the K1/2 values decreased with increasing anionic size. In contrast, iodide, with an ionic radius of about 212 pm, had a 10-fold lower affinity than predicted by the correlation line established by the smaller monovalent anions. These results indicate that smaller monovalent anions have unobstructed access to the transport site within the band 3 / DBDS binary complex, while iodide experiences significant steric hindrance when binding. The observation of steric hindrance in iodide binding to the band 3 / DBDS binary complex, but not in the binding of smaller monovalent anions, suggests that the stilbenedisulfonate binding site is located at the outer surface of an access channel leading to the transport site.

  2. Binary Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Keegan; Nakajima, Miki; Stevenson, David J.

    2014-11-01

    Can a bound pair of similar mass terrestrial planets exist? We are interested here in bodies with a mass ratio of ~ 3:1 or less (so Pluto/Charon or Earth/Moon do not qualify) and we do not regard the absence of any such discoveries in the Kepler data set to be significant since the tidal decay and merger of a close binary is prohibitively fast well inside of 1AU. SPH simulations of equal mass “Earths” were carried out to seek an answer to this question, assuming encounters that were only slightly more energetic than parabolic (zero energy). We were interested in whether the collision or near collision of two similar mass bodies would lead to a binary in which the two bodies remain largely intact, effectively a tidal capture hypothesis though with the tidal distortion being very large. Necessarily, the angular momentum of such an encounter will lead to bodies separated by only a few planetary radii if capture occurs. Consistent with previous work, mostly by Canup, we find that most impacts are disruptive, leading to a dominant mass body surrounded by a disk from which a secondary forms whose mass is small compared to the primary, hence not a binary planet by our adopted definition. However, larger impact parameter “kissing” collisions were found to produce binaries because the dissipation upon first encounter was sufficient to provide a bound orbit that was then rung down by tides to an end state where the planets are only a few planetary radii apart. The long computational times for these simulation make it difficult to fully map the phase space of encounters for which this outcome is likely but the indications are that the probability is not vanishingly small and since planetary encounters are a plausible part of planet formation, we expect binary planets to exist and be a non-negligible fraction of the larger orbital radius exoplanets awaiting discovery.

  3. Morphology evolution by controlling solvent-solute interactions using a binary solvent in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Namchul; Yip, Hin-Lap; Jen, Alex K.-Y.

    2013-06-01

    Improved power conversion efficiency of poly(indacenodithiophene-co-phananthrene-quinoxaline) (PIDT-PhanQ)/[6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) based bulk- heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells was achieved upon adding tetrahydrofuran (THF) as a co-solvent to 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB). This reasonably large enhancement is achieved due to THF changes the morphology in the active layer by reducing the solvent-solute interaction. The Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and cohesive energy densities for PIDT-PhanQ and PD71BM with different solvents were further studied to understand the underlying phase separation mechanism in BHJ films.

  4. Interaction of learning approach with concept integration and achievement in a large guided inquiry organic class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewhinney, Christina

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship of students' concept integration and achievement with time spent within a topic and across related topics in a large first semester guided inquiry organic chemistry class. Achievement was based on evidence of algorithmic problem solving; and concept integration was based on demonstrated performance explaining, applying, and relating concepts to each other. Twelve individual assessments were made of both variables over three related topics---acid/base, nucleophilic substitution and electrophilic addition reactions. Measurements included written, free response and ordered multiple answer questions using a classroom response system. Results demonstrated that students can solve problems without conceptual understanding. A second study was conducted to compare the students' learning approach at the beginning and end of the course. Students were scored on their preferences for a deep, strategic, or surface approach to learning based on their responses to a pre and post survey. Results suggest that students significantly decreased their preference for a surface approach during the semester. Analysis of the data collected was performed to determine the relationship between students' learning approach and their concept integration and achievement in this class. Results show a correlation between a deep approach and concept integration and a strong negative correlation between a surface approach and concept integration.

  5. Using a dual safeguard web-based interactive teaching approach in an introductory physics class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lie-Ming; Li, Bin; Luo, Ying

    2015-06-01

    We modified the Just-in-Time Teaching approach and developed a dual safeguard web-based interactive (DGWI) teaching system for an introductory physics course. The system consists of four instructional components that improve student learning by including warm-up assignments and online homework. Student and instructor activities involve activities both in the classroom and on a designated web site. An experimental study with control groups evaluated the effectiveness of the DGWI teaching method. The results indicate that the DGWI method is an effective way to improve students' understanding of physics concepts, develop students' problem-solving abilities through instructor-student interactions, and identify students' misconceptions through a safeguard framework based on questions that satisfy teaching requirements and cover all of the course material. The empirical study and a follow-up survey found that the DGWI method increased student-teacher interaction and improved student learning outcomes.

  6. Binary 2in1 Vectors Improve in Planta (Co)localization and Dynamic Protein Interaction Studies1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Andreas; Wallmeroth, Niklas; Peter, Sébastien; Blatt, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-based protein-protein interaction techniques are vital tools for understanding in vivo cellular functions on a mechanistic level. However, only under the condition of highly efficient (co)transformation and accumulation can techniques such as Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) realize their potential for providing highly accurate and quantitative interaction data. FRET as a fluorescence-based method unifies several advantages, such as measuring in an in vivo environment, real-time context, and the ability to include transient interactions as well as detecting the mere proximity of proteins. Here, we introduce a novel vector set that incorporates the benefit of the recombination-based 2in1 cloning system with the latest state-of-the-art fluorescent proteins for optimal coaccumulation and FRET output studies. We demonstrate its utility across a range of methods. Merging the 2in1 cloning system with new-generation FRET fluorophore pairs allows for enhanced detection, speeds up the preparation of clones, and enables colocalization studies and the identification of meaningful protein-protein interactions in vivo. PMID:25971551

  7. Calculation of the first nonlinear contribution to the general-relativistic spin-spin interaction for binary systems.

    PubMed

    Porto, Rafael A; Rothstein, Ira Z

    2006-07-14

    We use recently developed effective field theory techniques to calculate the third order post-Newtonian correction to the spin-spin potential between two spinning objects. This correction represents the first contribution to the spin-spin interaction due to the nonlinear nature of general relativity and will play an important role in forthcoming gravity wave experiments.

  8. Using a Dual Safeguard Web-Based Interactive Teaching Approach in an Introductory Physics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Lie-Ming; Li, Bin; Luo, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We modified the Just-in-Time Teaching approach and developed a dual safeguard web-based interactive (DGWI) teaching system for an introductory physics course. The system consists of four instructional components that improve student learning by including warm-up assignments and online homework. Student and instructor activities involve activities…

  9. Multiyear, Multi-Instructor Evaluation of a Large-Class Interactive-Engagement Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Michael J.; Hynes, K. Mairin; Trousil, Rebecca; Brooks, Lisa A.; McDaniel, Mark A.; Repice, Michelle; Zhao, Jiuqing; Frey, Regina F.

    2014-01-01

    Interactive-engagement (IE) techniques consistently enhance conceptual learning gains relative to traditional-lecture courses, but attitudinal gains typically emerge only in small, inquiry-based curricula. The current study evaluated whether a "scalable IE" curriculum--a curriculum used in a large course (~130 students per section) and…

  10. Use Your Languages! From Monolingual to Multilingual Interaction in a Language Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyppö, Anna; Natri, Teija; Pietarinen, Margarita; Saaristo, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    This reflective paper presents a new course concept for multilingual interaction, which was piloted at the University of Jyväskylä Language Centre in the spring of 2014. The course, implemented as part of the centre's action research, is the result of a development process aimed at enhancing students' multilingual and multicultural academic…

  11. Behavioral Consultation in a Secondary Class: Using DRL to Decrease Negative Verbal Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwald, Linda; Gresham, Frank M.

    1982-01-01

    The effectiveness of behavioral consultation with secondary-age students is evaluated. A differential reinforcement of low rates procedure is applied within the context of an independent group contingency to decrease negative verbal interactions of adolescents in a resource room setting. (PN)

  12. Absent Presences: The Recognition of Social Class and Gender Dimensions within Peer Assessment Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossouard, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the discursive characteristics of peer assessment interactions, drawing upon recent research into formative assessment within a task design involving extended project-based work tackled in groups by pupils. Case studies were conducted within two schools in socially deprived areas of Scotland. They included classroom…

  13. Teacher-Pupil Interaction and Teacher Expectations for Pupil Achievement in Secondary Social Studies Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornbleth, Catherine; And Others

    Identification of behavioral correlates of differential teacher expectations for pupil performance is made through a system of dyadic interaction analysis. Observable differences in secondary teachers' behavior with pupils from whom they expect high achievement and pupils from whom they expect low achievement are measured in seven social studies…

  14. Molecular interactions in the ionic liquid emim acetate and water binary mixtures probed via NMR spin relaxation and exchange spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jesse J; Bowser, Sage R; Damodaran, Krishnan

    2014-05-01

    Interactions of ionic liquids (ILs) with water are of great interest for many potential IL applications. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (emim) acetate, in particular, has shown interesting interactions with water including hydrogen bonding and even chemical exchange. Previous studies have shown the unusual behavior of emim acetate when in the presence of 0.43 mole fraction of water, and a combination of NMR techniques is used herein to investigate the emim acetate-water system and the unusual behavior at 0.43 mole fraction of water. NMR relaxometry techniques are used to describe the effects of water on the molecular motion and interactions of emim acetate with water. A discontinuity is seen in nuclear relaxation behavior at the concentration of 0.43 mole fraction of water, and this is attributed to the formation of a hydrogen bonded network. EXSY measurements are used to determine the exchange rates between the H2 emim proton and water, which show a complex dependence on the concentration of the mixture. The findings support and expand our previous results, which suggested the presence of an extended hydrogen bonding network in the emim acetate-water system at concentrations close to 0.50 mole fraction of H2O. PMID:24654003

  15. Evidence of a robust universality class in the critical behavior of self-propelled agents: metric versus topological interactions.

    PubMed

    Barberis, Lucas; Albano, Ezequiel V

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the interactions among self-propelled agents (SPA), i.e., topological versus metric or a combination of both types, is a relevant open question in the field of self-organization phenomena. We studied the critical behavior of a Vicsek-like system of SPA given by a group of agents moving at constant speed and interacting among themselves under the action of a topological rule: each agent aligns itself with the average direction of its seven nearest neighbors, independent of the distance, under the influence of some noise. Based on both stationary and dynamic measurements, we provide strong evidence that both types of interactions are manifestations of the same phenomenon, which defines a robust universality class. Also, the cluster size distribution evaluated at the critical point shows a power-law behavior, and the exponent corresponding to the topological model is in excellent agreement with that of the metric one, further reinforcing our claim. Furthermore, we found that with topological interactions the average distance of influence between agents undergoes large fluctuations that diverge at the critical noise, thus providing clues about a mechanism that could be implemented by the agents to change their moving strategy.

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinase p38b interaction with delta class glutathione transferases from the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Wongtrakul, Jeerang; Sukittikul, Suchada; Saisawang, Chonticha; Ketterman, Albert J

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are a family of multifunctional enzymes involved in xenobiotic biotransformation, drug metabolism, and protection against oxidative damage. The p38b mitogen-activated protein kinase is involved in cellular stress response. This study screened interactions between Drosophila melanogaster Meigen (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Delta class glutathione transferases (DmGSTs) and the D. melanogaster p38b MAPK. Therefore, 12 DmGSTs and p38b kinase were obtained as recombinant proteins. The study showed that DmGSTD8 and DmGSTD11b significantly increased p38b activity toward ATF2 and jun, which are transcription factor substrates. DmGSTD3 and DmGSTD5 moderately increased p38b activity for jun. In addition, GST activity in the presence of p38b was also measured. It was found that p38b affected substrate specificity toward CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and DCNB (1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene) of several GST isoforms, i.e., DmGSTD2, DmGSTD5, DmGSTD8, and DmGSTD11b. The interaction of a GST and p38b can affect the substrate specificity of either enzyme, which suggests induced conformational changes affecting catalysis. Similar interactions do not occur for all the Delta enzymes and p38b, which suggests that these interactions could be specific. PMID:23438069

  17. English language learners with learning disabilities interacting in a science class within an inclusion setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Vivian Luz

    In today's schools there are by far more students identified with learning disabilities (LD) than with any other disability. The U.S. Department of Education in the year 1997--98 reported that there are 38.13% students with LD in our nations' schools (Smith, Polloway, Patton, & Dowdy, 2001; U.S. Department of Education, 1999). Of those, 1,198,200 are considered ELLs with LD (Baca & Cervantes. 1998). These figures which represent an increase evidence the need to provide these students with educational experiences geared to address both their academic and language needs (Ortiz, 1997; Ortiz, & Garcia, 1995). English language learners with LD must be provided with experiences in the least restrictive environment (LRE) and must be able to share the same kind of social and academic experiences as those students from the general population (Etscheidt & Bartlett, 1999; Lloyd, Kameenui, & Chard, 1997) The purpose of this research was to conduct a detailed qualitative study on classroom interactions to enhance the understanding of the science curriculum in order to foster the understanding of content and facilitate the acquisition of English as a second language (Cummins, 2000; Echevarria, Vogt, & Short, 2000). This study was grounded on the theories of socioconstructivism, second language acquisition, comprehensible input, and classroom interactions. The participants of the study were fourth and fifth grade ELLS with LD in a science elementary school bilingual inclusive setting. Data was collected through observations, semi-structured interviews (students and teacher), video and audio taping, field notes, document analysis, and the Classroom Observation Schedule (COS). The transcriptions of the video and audio tapes were coded to highlight emergent patterns on the type of interactions and language used by the participants. The findings of the study intend to provide information for teachers of ELLs with LD about the implications of using classroom interactions point to

  18. Rural N(SO) and German middle-class mothers' interaction with their 3- and 6-month-old infants: A longitudinal cross-cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Bettina; Gudi, Helene; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Teubert, Manuel; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Keller, Heidi

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to analyze culture-specific development of maternal interactional behavior longitudinally. Rural Cameroonian Nso mothers (n = 72) and German middle-class mothers (n = 106) were observed in free-play interactions with their 3- and 6-month-old infants. Results reveal the expected shift from a social to a nonsocial focus only in the German middle-class mothers' play interactions but not the rural Nso mothers' play. Nso mothers continue their proximal interactional style with a focus on body contact and body stimulation, whereas German middle-class mothers prefer a distal style of interaction with increasing object-centeredness. These cultural differences are in line with broader cultural models and become more accentuated as the infants grow older.

  19. Rural N(SO) and German middle-class mothers' interaction with their 3- and 6-month-old infants: A longitudinal cross-cultural analysis.

    PubMed

    Lamm, Bettina; Gudi, Helene; Fassbender, Ina; Freitag, Claudia; Graf, Frauke; Goertz, Claudia; Spangler, Sibylle; Teubert, Manuel; Knopf, Monika; Lohaus, Arnold; Schwarzer, Gudrun; Keller, Heidi

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to analyze culture-specific development of maternal interactional behavior longitudinally. Rural Cameroonian Nso mothers (n = 72) and German middle-class mothers (n = 106) were observed in free-play interactions with their 3- and 6-month-old infants. Results reveal the expected shift from a social to a nonsocial focus only in the German middle-class mothers' play interactions but not the rural Nso mothers' play. Nso mothers continue their proximal interactional style with a focus on body contact and body stimulation, whereas German middle-class mothers prefer a distal style of interaction with increasing object-centeredness. These cultural differences are in line with broader cultural models and become more accentuated as the infants grow older. PMID:26075741

  20. Solubilities of p-nitroanilines in various classes of solvents. Specific solute-solvent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyskens, François; Morissen, Heidi; Huyskens, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    The solubilities ф B in volume fractions of p-nitroaniline (PNA) and N,N-dimethyl p-nitroaniline (N,N-PNA) were determined near 25°C in some 40 solvents belonging to different classes using a thermoturbidimetric method. The ratio between the solubilities of the two compounds can be corrected for the differences in the melting characteristics determined from DSC measurements. The solubilities at 25°C of N,N-PNA have then to be multiplied by the factor 2.72. The corrected ratios {ф PNA}/{ф∗ N,N-PNA} give indications on the formation of H-bonds between the solvent molecules and the NH groups of PNA. This is observed in solvent classes with electron donor oxygens like sulfoxides, ketones, esters and cyclic ethers. However, the ratio {ф PNA}/{ф∗ N,N-PNA} decreases in an homologous series when the molar volume of the solvent increases, indicating that the formation of H-bonds by PNA depends also on the concentration of the active sites in the solvent and that not all the PNA molecules are involved in H-bonding. {ф PNA}/{ф∗ N,N-PNA} is also markedly larger than 2 in the lower alcohols demonstrating the formation of N-HO hydrogen bonds at the end of the self-association chains. The fraction γ of the PNA molecules escaping from H-bonding in the electron donor solvents and in alcohols is quantitatively estimated from the solubility using the equations of the theory of the mobile order and disorder of Huyskens and Ruelle. In nitriles a weak formation of N-HHC bonds is observed. In contrast H-bonds are not observed in nitroalkanes. Unexpectedly the ratio's {ф PNA}/{ф∗ N,N-PNA} are much smaller than 1 in chloro alkanes. The formation of EDA bonds between N,N-PNA and these solvents acting as Lewis acids is therefore probable.

  1. Antibiotic interactions with the hammerhead ribozyme:tetracyclines as a new class of hammerhead inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J B; Arnold, J R

    1996-01-01

    A screening of a range of common laboratory antibiotics for inhibition of the hammerhead ribozyme has shown that in addition to certain aminoglycosides (most notably neomycin B) the tetracyclines are also effective inhibitors, with chlorotetracycline being more effective than tetracycline. Inhibition by chlorotetracycline is not as strong as that by neomycin B but is more complicated, with at least two binding sites apparent. As with hammerhead inhibition by neomycin B, chlorotetracycline inhibition can be overcome by raising the concentration of the Mg2+ ion cofactor. We find that around six Mg2+ ions will displace neomycin B, compared with twelve for chlorotetracycline. Inhibition observed in the presence of mixtures of neomycin B and chlorotetracycline is consistent with separate binding sites on the hammerhead for these two classes of antibiotic. Under certain conditions of the mixing order and low concentration of chlorotetracycline, enhancement of single-turnover hammerhead cleavage by up to 20% is observed, with higher concentrations of antibiotic being inhibitory. We have also found that the presence of 2.5% (v/v) DMSO causes a 30% enhancement of the single-turnover cleavage. These results thus extend the range of known inhibitors of hammerhead cleavage, and also demonstrate how the cleavage can be accelerated. PMID:8760373

  2. The MHC class II cofactor, HLA-DM, interacts with immunoglobulin in B cells

    PubMed Central

    Ayyangar, Sashi; Jiang, Wei; Rajasekaran, Narendiran; Spura, Armin; Hessell, Ann J.; Madec, Anne-Marie; Mellins, Elizabeth D.

    2014-01-01

    B cells internalize extracellular antigen into endosomes using the immunoglobulin (Ig) component of the B cell receptor. In endosomes, antigen-derived peptides are loaded onto MHC class II proteins (MHC-II). How these pathways intersect remains unclear. We find that HLA-DM (DM), a catalyst for MHC-II peptide loading, co-precipitates with Ig in lysates from human tonsillar B cells and B cell lines. The molecules in the Ig/DM complexes have mature glycans, and the complexes co-localize with endosomal markers in intact cells. A larger fraction of Ig precipitates with DM after BCR crosslinking, implying that complexes can form when DM meets endocytosed Ig. In vitro, in the endosomal pH range, soluble HLA-DM (sDM) directly binds the Ig Fab domain, and increases levels of free antigen released from immune complexes. Together, these results argue that DM and Ig intersect in the endocytic pathway of B cells with potential functional consequences. PMID:25098292

  3. Application of Molecular Interaction Volume Model for Phase Equilibrium of Sn-Based Binary System in Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Lingxin; Yang, Bin; Xu, Baoqiang; Li, Yifu

    2014-09-01

    Based on the molecular interaction volume model (MIVM), the activities of components of Sn-Sb, Sb-Bi, Sn-Zn, Sn-Cu, and Sn-Ag alloys were predicted. The predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental data, which indicate that the MIVM is of better stability and reliability due to its good physical basis. A significant advantage of the MIVM lies in its ability to predict the thermodynamic properties of liquid alloys using only two parameters. The phase equilibria of Sn-Sb and Sn-Bi alloys were calculated based on the properties of pure components and the activity coefficients, which indicates that Sn-Sb and Sn-Bi alloys can be separated thoroughly by vacuum distillation. This study extends previous investigations and provides an effective and convenient model on which to base refining simulations for Sn-based alloys.

  4. Interaction of Fanaroff-Riley class II radio jets with a randomly magnetized intracluster medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huarte-Espinosa, M.; Krause, M.; Alexander, P.

    2011-12-01

    A combination of 3D magnetohydrodynamics and synthetic numerical simulations are presented to follow the evolution of a randomly magnetized plasma that models the intracluster medium, under the isolated effects of powerful, light, hypersonic and bipolar Fanaroff-Riley class II jets. We prescribe the cluster magnetic field (CMF) as a Gaussian random field with a Kolmogorov-like energy spectrum. Both the power of the jets and the viewing angle that is used for the synthetic rotation measure (RM) observations are investigated. We find the model radio sources introduce and amplify fluctuations on the RM statistical properties which we analyse as a function of time as well as the viewing angle. The average RM and the RM standard deviation are increased by the action of the jets. Energetics, RM statistics and magnetic power spectral analysis consistently show that the effects also correlate with the jets' power, and that the lightest, fastest jets produce the strongest changes in their environment. We see jets distort and amplify the CMFs especially near the edges of the lobes and the jets' heads. This process leads to a flattening of the RM structure functions at scales comparable to the source size. The edge features we find are similar to ones observed in Hydra A. The results show that jet-produced RM enhancements are more apparent in quasars than in radio galaxies. Globally, jets tend to enhance the RM standard deviation which may lead to overestimations of the CMFs' strength by about 70 per cent. This study means to serve as a pathfinder for the SKA, EVLA and LOFAR to follow the evolution of cosmic magnetic fields.

  5. Triazolopyridyl ketones as a novel class of antileishmanial agents. DNA binding and BSA interaction.

    PubMed

    Adam, Rosa; Bilbao-Ramos, Pablo; López-Molina, Sonia; Abarca, Belén; Ballesteros, Rafael; González-Rosende, M Eugenia; Dea-Ayuela, M Auxiliadora; Alzuet-Piña, Gloria

    2014-08-01

    A new series of triazolopyridyl pyridyl ketones has been synthetized by regioselective lithiation of the corresponding [1,2,3]triazolo[1,5-a]pyridine at 7 position followed by reaction with different electrophiles. The in vitro antileishmanial activity of these compounds was evaluated against Leishmaniainfantum, Leishmaniabraziliensis, Leishmaniaguyanensis and Leishmaniaamazonensis. Compounds 6 and 7 were found to be the most active leishmanicidal agents. Both of them showed activities at micromolar concentration against cultured promastigotes of Leishmania spp. (IC₅₀=99.8-26.8 μM), without cytotoxicity on J774 macrophage cells. These two compounds were also tested in vivo in a murine model of acute infection by L. infantum. The triazolopyridine derivative 6 was effective against both spleen and liver parasites forms, while 7 was inactive against liver parasites. Mechanistic aspects of the antileishmanial activity were investigated by means of DNA binding studies (UV-titration and viscosimetry). Results have revealed that these active ligands are able to interact strongly with DNA [Kb=1.14 × 10(5)M(-1) (6) and 3.26 × 10(5)M(-1) (7)]. Moreover, a DNA groove binding has been proposed for both 6 and 7. To provide more insight on the mode of action of compounds 6 and 7 under biological conditions, their interaction with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was monitored by fluorescence titrations and UV-visible spectroscopy. The quenching constants and binding parameters were determined. Triazolopyridine ketones 6 and 7 have exhibited significant affinity towards BSA [Kb=2.5 × 10(4)M(-1) (6) and 1.9 × 10(4)M(-1) (7)]. Finally, to identify the binding location of compounds 6 and 7 on the BSA, competitive binding experiments were carried out, using warfarin, a characteristic marker for site I, and ibuprofen as one for site II. Results derived from these studies have indicated that both compounds interact at BSA site I and, to a lesser extent, at site II.

  6. Using Research-Based Interactive Video Vignettes to Enhance Out-of-Class Learning in Introductory Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Jackson, David P.; Koenig, Kathleen; Teese, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Ever since the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system (PLATO1) was introduced over 50 years ago, educators have been adding computer-based materials to their classes. Today many textbooks have complete online versions that include video lectures and other supplements. In the past 25 years the web has fueled an explosion of online homework and course management systems, both as blended learning and online courses. Meanwhile, introductory physics instructors have been implementing new approaches to teaching based on the outcomes of Physics Education Research (PER). A common theme of PER-based instruction has been the use of active-learning strategies designed to help students overcome alternative conceptions that they often bring to the study of physics.2 Unfortunately, while classrooms have become more active, online learning typically relies on passive lecture videos or Kahn-style3 tablet drawings. To bring active learning online, the LivePhoto Physics Group has been developing Interactive Video Vignettes (IVVs) that add interactivity and PER-based elements to short presentations. These vignettes incorporate web-based video activities that contain interactive elements and typically require students to make predictions and analyze real-world phenomena.

  7. Social Orders and Interactions among Children in Age-Mixed Classes in Primary Schools--New Perspectives from a Synthesis of Ethnographic Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huf, Christina; Raggl, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The article synthesises data from two ethnographic projects, which both explore interactions of children in age-mixed groups in primary schools. It illuminates critical perspectives on social orders and children's interactions in age-mixed classes by showing how pupils in age-mixed groups become involved in power relations and how the teacher's…

  8. Examining the Effect of Class Size on Classroom Engagement and Teacher-Pupil Interaction: Differences in Relation to Pupil Prior Attainment and Primary vs. Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatchford, Peter; Bassett, Paul; Brown, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    It is widely recognized that we need to know more about effects of class size on classroom interactions and pupil behavior. This paper extends research by comparing effects on pupil classroom engagement and teacher-pupil interaction, and examining if effects vary by pupil attainment level and between primary and secondary schools. Systematic…

  9. Two Classes of Gap Junction Channels Mediate Soma-Germline Interactions Essential for Germline Proliferation and Gametogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Starich, Todd A.; Hall, David H.; Greenstein, David

    2014-01-01

    In all animals examined, somatic cells of the gonad control multiple biological processes essential for germline development. Gap junction channels, composed of connexins in vertebrates and innexins in invertebrates, permit direct intercellular communication between cells and frequently form between somatic gonadal cells and germ cells. Gap junctions comprise hexameric hemichannels in apposing cells that dock to form channels for the exchange of small molecules. Here we report essential roles for two classes of gap junction channels, composed of five innexin proteins, in supporting the proliferation of germline stem cells and gametogenesis in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Transmission electron microscopy of freeze-fracture replicas and fluorescence microscopy show that gap junctions between somatic cells and germ cells are more extensive than previously appreciated and are found throughout the gonad. One class of gap junctions, composed of INX-8 and INX-9 in the soma and INX-14 and INX-21 in the germ line, is required for the proliferation and differentiation of germline stem cells. Genetic epistasis experiments establish a role for these gap junction channels in germline proliferation independent of the glp-1/Notch pathway. A second class of gap junctions, composed of somatic INX-8 and INX-9 and germline INX-14 and INX-22, is required for the negative regulation of oocyte meiotic maturation. Rescue of gap junction channel formation in the stem cell niche rescues germline proliferation and uncovers a later channel requirement for embryonic viability. This analysis reveals gap junctions as a central organizing feature of many soma–germline interactions in C. elegans. PMID:25195067

  10. The HOPS/Class C Vps Complex Tethers High-Curvature Membranes via a Direct Protein-Membrane Interaction.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ruoya; Stroupe, Christopher

    2016-10-01

    Membrane tethering is a physical association of two membranes before their fusion. Many membrane tethering factors have been identified, but the interactions that mediate inter-membrane associations remain largely a matter of conjecture. Previously, we reported that the homotypic fusion and protein sorting/Class C vacuolar protein sorting (HOPS/Class C Vps) complex, which has two binding sites for the yeast vacuolar Rab GTPase Ypt7p, can tether two low-curvature liposomes when both membranes bear Ypt7p. Here, we show that HOPS tethers highly curved liposomes to Ypt7p-bearing low-curvature liposomes even when the high-curvature liposomes are protein-free. Phosphorylation of the curvature-sensing amphipathic lipid-packing sensor (ALPS) motif from the Vps41p HOPS subunit abrogates tethering of high-curvature liposomes. A HOPS complex without its Vps39p subunit, which contains one of the Ypt7p binding sites in HOPS, lacks tethering activity, though it binds high-curvature liposomes and Ypt7p-bearing low-curvature liposomes. Thus, HOPS tethers highly curved membranes via a direct protein-membrane interaction. Such high-curvature membranes are found at the sites of vacuole tethering and fusion. There, vacuole membranes bend sharply, generating large areas of vacuole-vacuole contact. We propose that HOPS localizes via the Vps41p ALPS motif to these high-curvature regions. There, HOPS binds via Vps39p to Ypt7p in an apposed vacuole membrane. PMID:27307091

  11. The Long-Period Binary Frequency of the M67 Blue Stragglers and Binary-Binary Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, P. J. T.

    1993-12-01

    The old open cluster M67 contains a dozen blue stragglers (BSs), one of which is a short-period spectroscopic binary, and thus is likely the result of binary mass transfer. A clue to the origin of the other BSs may be the fact that (>_ ~ ) 50% of them appear to be members of long-period (>10(3) days) binary systems (Milone et al. 1991, ASP Conference Series, 13, 424). If the majority of the M67 BSs are due to the slow coalescence of isolated binaries (Mateo et al. 1990, AJ, 100, 469), then there are two possible explanations for their anomalously high long-period binary frequency: 1) the frequency of triple star systems in M67 was initially similar to the binary frequency, and the inner components of some of these triple systems have merged to form BSs, or 2) the typical massive star in the core of M67 has suffered an exchange interaction with a binary star. The former solution requires a triple frequency that is vastly higher than in any other stellar population, and thus appears unlikely. The latter requires a rate of interactions involving binary stars in M67 so high that at least some of the BSs in the cluster must be the result of physical stellar collisions during binary-binary interactions. Consequently, one cannot accept the slow binary coalescence scenario for the M67 BSs without accepting that at least some of the M67 BSs have been produced via physical stellar collisions. Of course, the high long-period binary frequency of the M67 BSs can be naturally accounted for by the collisional hypothesis, since the majority of the merged stars produced by binary-binary collisions are expected to possess such companions (Leonard & Fahlman 1991, AJ, 102, 994; Leonard & Linnell 1992, AJ, 103, 1928). The high binary frequency observed in M67 (e.g., Montgomery et al. 1993, AJ, 106, 181) makes binary-binary interactions inevitable, and thus the collisional hypothesis appears to be quite a realistic possibility.

  12. Use of interactive live digital imaging to enhance histology learning in introductory level anatomy and physiology classes.

    PubMed

    Higazi, Tarig B

    2011-01-01

    Histology is one of the main subjects in introductory college-level Human Anatomy and Physiology classes. Institutions are moving toward the replacement of traditional microscope-based histology learning with virtual microscopy learning amid concerns of losing the valuable learning experience of traditional microscopy. This study used live digital imaging (LDI) of microscopic slides on a SMART board to enhance Histology laboratory teaching. The interactive LDI system consists of a digital camera-equipped microscope that projects live images on a wall-mounted SMART board via a computer. This set-up allows real-time illustration of microscopic slides with highlighted key structural components, as well as the ability to provide the students with relevant study and review material. The impact of interactive LDI on student learning of Histology was then measured based on performance in subsequent laboratory tests before and after its implementation. Student grades increased from a mean of 76% (70.3-82.0, 95% CI) before to 92% (88.8-95.3, 95% CI) after integration of LDI indicating highly significant (P < 0.001) enhancement in students' Histology laboratory performance. In addition, student ratings of the impact of the interactive LDI on their Histology learning were strongly positive, suggesting that a majority of students who valued this learning approach also improved learning and understanding of the material as a result. The interactive LDI technique is an innovative, highly efficient and affordable tool to enhance student Histology learning, which is likely to expand knowledge and student perception of the subject and in turn enrich future science careers.

  13. Identification of the Isoform-specific Interactions between the Tail and the Head of Class V Myosin.

    PubMed

    Yao, Lin-Lin; Shen, Mei; Lu, Zekuan; Ikebe, Mitsuo; Li, Xiang-dong

    2016-04-01

    Vertebrates have three isoforms of class V myosin (Myo5), Myo5a, Myo5b, and Myo5c, which are involved in transport of multiple cargoes. It is well established that the motor functions of Myo5a and Myo5b are regulated by a tail inhibition mechanism. Here we found that the motor function of Myo5c was also inhibited by its globular tail domain (GTD), and this inhibition was abolished by high Ca(2+), indicating that the tail inhibition mechanism is conserved in vertebrate Myo5. Interestingly, we found that Myo5a-GTD and Myo5c-GTD were not interchangeable in terms of inhibition of motor function, indicating isoform-specific interactions between the GTD and the head of Myo5. To identify the isoform-specific interactions, we produced a number of Myo5 chimeras by swapping the corresponding regions of Myo5a and Myo5c. We found that Myo5a-GTD, with its H11-H12 loop being substituted with that of Myo5c, was able to inhibit the ATPase activity of Myo5c and that Myo5a-GTD was able to inhibit the ATPase activity of Myo5c-S1 and Myo5c-HMM only when their IQ1 motif was substituted with that of Myo5a. Those results indicate that the H11-H12 loop in the GTD and the IQ1 motif in the head dictate the isoform-specific interactions between the GTD and head of Myo5. Because the IQ1 motif is wrapped by calmodulin, whose conformation is influenced by the sequence of the IQ1 motif, we proposed that the calmodulin bound to the IQ1 motif interacts with the H11-H12 loop of the GTD in the inhibited state of Myo5. PMID:26912658

  14. An interactive approach based on a discrete differential evolution algorithm for a class of integer bilevel programming problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hong; Zhang, Li; Jiao, Yong-Chang

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an interactive approach based on a discrete differential evolution algorithm to solve a class of integer bilevel programming problems, in which integer decision variables are controlled by an upper-level decision maker and real-value or continuous decision variables are controlled by a lower-level decision maker. Using the Karush--Kuhn-Tucker optimality conditions in the lower-level programming, the original discrete bilevel formulation can be converted into a discrete single-level nonlinear programming problem with the complementarity constraints, and then the smoothing technique is applied to deal with the complementarity constraints. Finally, a discrete single-level nonlinear programming problem is obtained, and solved by an interactive approach. In each iteration, for each given upper-level discrete variable, a system of nonlinear equations including the lower-level variables and Lagrange multipliers is solved first, and then a discrete nonlinear programming problem only with inequality constraints is handled by using a discrete differential evolution algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  15. Post-translational regulation of rice MADS29 function: homodimerization or binary interactions with other seed-expressed MADS proteins modulate its translocation into the nucleus.

    PubMed

    Nayar, Saraswati; Kapoor, Meenu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    OsMADS29 is a seed-specific MADS-box transcription factor that affects embryo development and grain filling by maintaining hormone homeostasis and degradation of cells in the nucellus and nucellar projection. Although it has a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, the transiently expressed OsMADS29 monomer does not localize specifically in the nucleus. Dimerization of the monomers alters the intracellular localization fate of the resulting OsMADS29 homodimer, which then translocates into the nucleus. By generating domain-specific deletions/mutations, we show that two conserved amino acids (lysine(23) and arginine(24)) in the NLS are important for nuclear localization of the OsMADS29 homodimer. Furthermore, the analyses involving interaction of OsMADS29 with 30 seed-expressed rice MADS proteins revealed 19 more MADS-box proteins, including five E-class proteins, which interacted with OsMADS29. Eleven of these complexes were observed to be localized in the nucleus. Deletion analysis revealed that the KC region (K-box and C-terminal domain) plays a pivotal role in homodimerization. These data suggest that the biological function of OsMADS29 may not only be regulated at the level of transcription and translation as reported earlier, but also at the post-translational level by way of the interaction between OsMADS29 monomers, and between OsMADS29 and other MADS-box proteins.

  16. Post-translational regulation of rice MADS29 function: homodimerization or binary interactions with other seed-expressed MADS proteins modulate its translocation into the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Nayar, Saraswati; Kapoor, Meenu; Kapoor, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    OsMADS29 is a seed-specific MADS-box transcription factor that affects embryo development and grain filling by maintaining hormone homeostasis and degradation of cells in the nucellus and nucellar projection. Although it has a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, the transiently expressed OsMADS29 monomer does not localize specifically in the nucleus. Dimerization of the monomers alters the intracellular localization fate of the resulting OsMADS29 homodimer, which then translocates into the nucleus. By generating domain-specific deletions/mutations, we show that two conserved amino acids (lysine23 and arginine24) in the NLS are important for nuclear localization of the OsMADS29 homodimer. Furthermore, the analyses involving interaction of OsMADS29 with 30 seed-expressed rice MADS proteins revealed 19 more MADS-box proteins, including five E-class proteins, which interacted with OsMADS29. Eleven of these complexes were observed to be localized in the nucleus. Deletion analysis revealed that the KC region (K-box and C-terminal domain) plays a pivotal role in homodimerization. These data suggest that the biological function of OsMADS29 may not only be regulated at the level of transcription and translation as reported earlier, but also at the post-translational level by way of the interaction between OsMADS29 monomers, and between OsMADS29 and other MADS-box proteins. PMID:25096923

  17. A Decade in the Life of the Massive Black-Hole Binary IC10 X-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, Silas

    2014-11-01

    Chandra thanks to its angular resolution, sensitivity and endurance has been able to monitor individual X-ray binaries in the starburst galaxy IC 10. The WR+BH binary known as IC10 X-1 is regarded as one of the most massive stellar black holes; a class of objects representing the pinnacle of the stellar mass function. BH binaries occupy key roles in seeding SMBHs, producing long GRBs at birth, and gravitational waves at death. We report our use of Chandra to refine the orbital ephemeris of X1 and match-up the radial velocity curve of the optical spectral lines with the X-ray eclipse. The resulting phase offset has fascinating implications for our understanding of the interactions between the WR star, its wind, and the radiation field of the BH.

  18. Exoplanets bouncing between binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeckel, Nickolas; Veras, Dimitri

    2012-05-01

    Exoplanetary systems are found not only among single stars, but also among binaries of widely varying parameters. Binaries with separations of 100-1000 au are prevalent in the solar neighbourhood; at these separations, planet formation around a binary member may largely proceed as if around a single star. During the early dynamical evolution of a planetary system, planet-planet scattering can eject planets from a star's grasp. In a binary, the motion of a planet ejected from one star has effectively entered a restricted three-body system consisting of itself and the two stars, and the equations of motion of the three-body problem will apply as long as the ejected planet remains far from the remaining planets. Depending on its energy, escape from the binary as a whole may be impossible or delayed until the three-body approximation breaks down, and further close interactions with its planetary siblings boost its energy when it passes close to its parent star. Until then, this planet may be able to transition from the space around one star to the other, and chaotically 'bounce' back and forth. In this paper, we directly simulate scattering planetary systems that are around one member of a circular binary, and quantify the frequency of bouncing in scattered planets. We find that a great majority (70-85 per cent) of ejected planets will pass at least once through the space of it's host's binary companion, and depending on the binary parameters about 35-75 per cent will begin bouncing. The time spent bouncing is roughly lognormally distributed with a peak at about 104 yr, with only a small percentage bouncing for more than 1 Myr. This process may perturb and possibly incite instability among existing planets around the companion star. In rare cases, the presence of multiple planets orbiting both stars may cause post-bouncing capture or planetary swapping.

  19. HLA Class II Antigens and Their Interactive Effect on Perinatal Mother-To-Child HIV-1 Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ma; Embree, Joanne; Ramdahin, Suzie; Bielawny, Thomas; Laycock, Tyler; Tuff, Jeffrey; Haber, Darren; Plummer, Mariel; Plummer, Francis A.

    2015-01-01

    HLA class II antigens are central in initiating antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses to HIV-1. Specific alleles have been associated with differential responses to HIV-1 infection and disease among adults. This study aims to determine the influence of HLA class II genes and their interactive effect on mother-child perinatal transmission in a drug naïve, Mother-Child HIV transmission cohort established in Kenya, Africa in 1986. Our study showed that DRB concordance between mother and child increased risk of perinatal HIV transmission by three fold (P = 0.00035/Pc = 0.0014, OR: 3.09, 95%CI, 1.64-5.83). Whereas, DPA1, DPB1 and DQB1 concordance between mother and child had no significant influence on perinatal HIV transmission. In addition, stratified analysis showed that DRB1*15:03+ phenotype (mother or child) significantly increases the risk of perinatal HIV-1 transmission. Without DRB1*15:03, DRB1 discordance between mother and child provided 5 fold protection (P = 0.00008, OR: 0.186, 95%CI: 0.081-0.427). However, the protective effect of DRB discordance was diminished if either the mother or the child was DRB1*15:03+ phenotype (P = 0.49-0.98, OR: 0.7-0.99, 95%CI: 0.246-2.956). DRB3+ children were less likely to be infected perinatally (P = 0.0006, Pc = 0.014; OR:0.343, 95%CI:0.183-0.642). However, there is a 4 fold increase in risk of being infected at birth if DRB3+ children were born to DRB1*15:03+ mother compared to those with DRB1*15:03- mother. Our study showed that DRB concordance/discordance, DRB1*15:03, children’s DRB3 phenotype and their interactions play an important role in perinatal HIV transmission. Identification of genetic factors associated with protection or increased risk in perinatal transmission will help develop alternative prevention and treatment methods in the event of increases in drug resistance of ARV. PMID:25945792

  20. The evolution of close binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutukov, A. V.; Cherepashchuk, A. M.

    2016-05-01

    A review of our current understanding of the physics and evolution of close binary stars with various masses under the influence of the nuclear evolution of their components and their magnetic stellar winds is presented. The role of gravitational-wave radiation by close binaries on their evolution and the loss of their orbital angular momentum is also considered. The final stages in the evolution of close binary systems are described. The review also notes the main remaining tasks related to studies of the physics and evolution of various classes of close binaries, including analyses of collisions of close binaries and supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei. Such a collision could lead to the capture of one of the components by the black hole and the acceleration of the remaining component to relativistic speeds.

  1. Planets in Evolved Binary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perets, Hagai B.

    2011-03-01

    Exo-planets are typically thought to form in protoplanetary disks left over from protostellar disk of their newly formed host star. However, additional planetary formation and evolution routes may exist in old evolved binary systems. Here we discuss the implications of binary stellar evolution on planetary systems in such environments. In these binary systems stellar evolution could lead to the formation of symbiotic stars, where mass is lost from one star and could be transferred to its binary companion, and may form an accretion disk around it. This raises the possibility that such a disk could provide the necessary environment for the formation of a new, second generation of planets in both circumstellar or circumbinary configurations. Pre-existing first generation planets surviving the post-MS evolution of such systems would be dynamically effected by the mass loss in the systems and may also interact with the newly formed disk. Such planets and/or planetesimals may also serve as seeds for the formation of the second generation planets, and/or interact with them, possibly forming atypical planetary systems. Second generation planetary systems should be typically found in white dwarf binary systems, and may show various observational signatures. Most notably, second generation planets could form in environment which are inaccessible, or less favorable, for first generation planets. The orbital phase space available for the second generation planets could be forbidden (in terms of the system stability) to first generation planets in the pre-evolved progenitor binaries. In addition planets could form in metal poor environments such as globular clusters and/or in double compact object binaries. Observations of exo-planets in such forbidden or unfavorable regions could possibly serve to uniquely identify their second generation character. Finally, we point out a few observed candidate second generation planetary systems, including Gl 86, HD 27442 and all of the

  2. Be/X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reig, Pablo

    2011-03-01

    The interest in X/ γ-ray Astronomy has grown enormously in the last decades thanks to the ability to send X-ray space missions above the Earth’s atmosphere. There are more than half a million X-ray sources detected and over a hundred missions (past and currently operational) devoted to the study of cosmic X/ γ rays. With the improved sensibilities of the currently active missions new detections occur almost on a daily basis. Among these, neutron-star X-ray binaries form an important group because they are among the brightest extra-solar objects in the sky and are characterized by dramatic variability in brightness on timescales ranging from milliseconds to months and years. Their main source of power is the gravitational energy released by matter accreted from a companion star and falling onto the neutron star in a relatively close binary system. Neutron-star X-ray binaries divide into high-mass and low-mass systems according to whether the mass of the donor star is above ˜8 or below ˜2 M⊙, respectively. Massive X-ray binaries divide further into supergiant X-ray binaries and Be/X-ray binaries depending on the evolutionary status of the optical companion. Virtually all Be/X-ray binaries show X-ray pulsations. Therefore, these systems can be used as unique natural laboratories to investigate the properties of matter under extreme conditions of gravity and magnetic field. The purpose of this work is to review the observational properties of Be/X-ray binaries. The open questions in Be/X-ray binaries include those related to the Be star companion, that is, the so-called “Be phenomenon”, such as, timescales associated to the formation and dissipation of the equatorial disc, mass-ejection mechanisms, V/ R variability, and rotation rates; those related to the neutron star, such as, mass determination, accretion physics, and spin period evolution; but also, those that result from the interaction of the two constituents, such as, disc truncation and mass

  3. Semi-empirical correlation for binary interaction parameters of the Peng–Robinson equation of state with the van der Waals mixing rules for the prediction of high-pressure vapor–liquid equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Fateen, Seif-Eddeen K.; Khalil, Menna M.; Elnabawy, Ahmed O.

    2012-01-01

    Peng–Robinson equation of state is widely used with the classical van der Waals mixing rules to predict vapor liquid equilibria for systems containing hydrocarbons and related compounds. This model requires good values of the binary interaction parameter kij. In this work, we developed a semi-empirical correlation for kij partly based on the Huron–Vidal mixing rules. We obtained values for the adjustable parameters of the developed formula for over 60 binary systems and over 10 categories of components. The predictions of the new equation system were slightly better than the constant-kij model in most cases, except for 10 systems whose predictions were considerably improved with the new correlation. PMID:25685411

  4. Semi-empirical correlation for binary interaction parameters of the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the van der Waals mixing rules for the prediction of high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Fateen, Seif-Eddeen K; Khalil, Menna M; Elnabawy, Ahmed O

    2013-03-01

    Peng-Robinson equation of state is widely used with the classical van der Waals mixing rules to predict vapor liquid equilibria for systems containing hydrocarbons and related compounds. This model requires good values of the binary interaction parameter kij . In this work, we developed a semi-empirical correlation for kij partly based on the Huron-Vidal mixing rules. We obtained values for the adjustable parameters of the developed formula for over 60 binary systems and over 10 categories of components. The predictions of the new equation system were slightly better than the constant-kij model in most cases, except for 10 systems whose predictions were considerably improved with the new correlation. PMID:25685411

  5. Discs in misaligned binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawiraswattana, Krisada; Hubber, David A.; Goodwin, Simon P.

    2016-08-01

    We perform SPH simulations to study precession and changes in alignment between the circumprimary disc and the binary orbit in misaligned binary systems. We find that the precession process can be described by the rigid-disc approximation, where the disc is considered as a rigid body interacting with the binary companion only gravitationally. Precession also causes change in alignment between the rotational axis of the disc and the spin axis of the primary star. This type of alignment is of great important for explaining the origin of spin-orbit misaligned planetary systems. However, we find that the rigid-disc approximation fails to describe changes in alignment between the disc and the binary orbit. This is because the alignment process is a consequence of interactions that involve the fluidity of the disc, such as the tidal interaction and the encounter interaction. Furthermore, simulation results show that there are not only alignment processes, which bring the components towards alignment, but also anti-alignment processes, which tend to misalign the components. The alignment process dominates in systems with misalignment angle near 90°, while the anti-alignment process dominates in systems with the misalignment angle near 0° or 180°. This means that highly misaligned systems will become more aligned but slightly misaligned systems will become more misaligned.

  6. Pseudolikelihood decimation algorithm improving the inference of the interaction network in a general class of Ising models.

    PubMed

    Decelle, Aurélien; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-02-21

    In this Letter we propose a new method to infer the topology of the interaction network in pairwise models with Ising variables. By using the pseudolikelihood method (PLM) at high temperature, it is generally possible to distinguish between zero and nonzero couplings because a clear gap separate the two groups. However at lower temperatures the PLM is much less effective and the result depends on subjective choices, such as the value of the ℓ1 regularizer and that of the threshold to separate nonzero couplings from null ones. We introduce a decimation procedure based on the PLM that recursively sets to zero the less significant couplings, until the variation of the pseudolikelihood signals that relevant couplings are being removed. The new method is fully automated and does not require any subjective choice by the user. Numerical tests have been performed on a wide class of Ising models, having different topologies (from random graphs to finite dimensional lattices) and different couplings (both diluted ferromagnets in a field and spin glasses). These numerical results show that the new algorithm performs better than standard PLM.

  7. Pseudolikelihood Decimation Algorithm Improving the Inference of the Interaction Network in a General Class of Ising Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decelle, Aurélien; Ricci-Tersenghi, Federico

    2014-02-01

    In this Letter we propose a new method to infer the topology of the interaction network in pairwise models with Ising variables. By using the pseudolikelihood method (PLM) at high temperature, it is generally possible to distinguish between zero and nonzero couplings because a clear gap separate the two groups. However at lower temperatures the PLM is much less effective and the result depends on subjective choices, such as the value of the ℓ1 regularizer and that of the threshold to separate nonzero couplings from null ones. We introduce a decimation procedure based on the PLM that recursively sets to zero the less significant couplings, until the variation of the pseudolikelihood signals that relevant couplings are being removed. The new method is fully automated and does not require any subjective choice by the user. Numerical tests have been performed on a wide class of Ising models, having different topologies (from random graphs to finite dimensional lattices) and different couplings (both diluted ferromagnets in a field and spin glasses). These numerical results show that the new algorithm performs better than standard PLM.

  8. The thematic hierarchy in sentence comprehension: A study on the interaction between verb class and word order in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Carolina A; Dickey, Michael W; Wainselboim, Alejandro J; París, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Linking is the theory that captures the mapping of the semantic roles of lexical arguments to the syntactic functions of the phrases that realize them. At the sentence level, linking allows us to understand "who did what to whom" in an event. In Spanish, linking has been shown to interact with word order, verb class, and case marking. The current study aims to provide the first piece of experimental evidence about the interplay between word order and verb type in Spanish. We achieve this by adopting role and reference grammar and the extended argument dependency model. Two different types of clauses were examined in a self-paced reading task: clauses with object-experiencer psychological verbs and activity verbs. These types of verbs differ in the way that their syntactic and semantic structures are linked, and thus they provide interesting evidence on how information that belongs to the syntax-semantics interface might influence the predictive and integrative processes of sentence comprehension with alternative word orders. Results indicate that in Spanish, comprehension and processing speed is enhanced when the order of the constituents in the sentence mirrors their ranking on a semantic hierarchy that encodes a verb's lexical semantics. Moreover, results show that during online comprehension, predictive mechanisms based on argument hierarchization are used rapidly to inform the processing system. Our findings corroborate already existing cross-linguistic evidence on the issue and are briefly discussed in the light of other sentence-processing models.

  9. The thematic hierarchy in sentence comprehension: A study on the interaction between verb class and word order in Spanish.

    PubMed

    Gattei, Carolina A; Dickey, Michael W; Wainselboim, Alejandro J; París, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Linking is the theory that captures the mapping of the semantic roles of lexical arguments to the syntactic functions of the phrases that realize them. At the sentence level, linking allows us to understand "who did what to whom" in an event. In Spanish, linking has been shown to interact with word order, verb class, and case marking. The current study aims to provide the first piece of experimental evidence about the interplay between word order and verb type in Spanish. We achieve this by adopting role and reference grammar and the extended argument dependency model. Two different types of clauses were examined in a self-paced reading task: clauses with object-experiencer psychological verbs and activity verbs. These types of verbs differ in the way that their syntactic and semantic structures are linked, and thus they provide interesting evidence on how information that belongs to the syntax-semantics interface might influence the predictive and integrative processes of sentence comprehension with alternative word orders. Results indicate that in Spanish, comprehension and processing speed is enhanced when the order of the constituents in the sentence mirrors their ranking on a semantic hierarchy that encodes a verb's lexical semantics. Moreover, results show that during online comprehension, predictive mechanisms based on argument hierarchization are used rapidly to inform the processing system. Our findings corroborate already existing cross-linguistic evidence on the issue and are briefly discussed in the light of other sentence-processing models. PMID:25529525

  10. Dynamics of noncovalent interactions in all-α and all-β class proteins: implications for the stability of amyloid aggregates.

    PubMed

    Jain, Alok; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2011-12-27

    A fully folded functional protein is stabilized by several noncovalent interactions. When a protein undergoes conformational motions, the existing noncovalent interactions may be maintained. They may also break or new interactions may be formed. Knowledge of the dynamical nature of the different types of noncovalent interactions is extremely important to understand the structural stability, function, and folding of a protein. There are experimental limitations to investigate the dynamics of different noncovalent interactions simultaneously in a biomolecule. We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations on four different proteins, two belonging to all-α class proteins and the other two are representatives of all-β class proteins. The dynamical nature of eight different noncovalent interactions was studied by monitoring the maximum residence time (MRT) and lifetime (LT). The conventional hydrogen bonds are the dominant interactions in all four proteins, and the majority of those formed between the main-chain atoms were maintained during most of the simulation time with MRT greater than 10 ns. Such interactions with more than 1 ns lifetime provide stability to the secondary structures, and hence they are responsible for the overall stability of the protein. The weak C-H···O hydrogen bond is the next major type of interactions. However, a large number of such interactions are observed between the main-chain atoms only in all-β proteins as interstrand interactions, and, surprisingly, they are observed during most part of the simulation although their average lifetime is only about 20 to 30 ps. The strong cation···π and salt-bridge interactions are present few in number. However, in many cases they are almost uninterrupted indicating the higher strength of these interactions. Four other interactions involving the π-electron cloud of aromatic rings are very small in number, and, in many cases, their presence is not maintained throughout the simulation. Our

  11. Implementation of Pair Work and Group Work for Creation of Interaction Opportunities for Learners in Large Classes: The Viability of the Two Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otienoh, Ruth O.

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based on an action research carried out in two Kenyan Primary schools in Nairobi. The purpose was to implement group work and pair work to improve teaching and learning in large classes by creating interaction opportunities for learners. This was a mixed method study of dominant/less dominant design where interviews and structured…

  12. The Impact of Self-Efficacy and Peer Support on Student Participation with Interactive White Boards in the Middle School Mathematics Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Angie; LeMire, Steven; Baker, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the factors of middle school math student self-efficacy and perceived peer support in relation to student willingness to participate with in-class activities with an interactive white board (IWB). One-hundred and five seventh grade math students were assessed on their attitudes of IWB engagement in relationship to low…

  13. SMS as Out-of-Class, Student-Instructor Interaction Tool: A Case Study of Jordanian Graduate Students' Perceptions and Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasaymeh, Al-Mothana M.; Qablan, Bassam Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the Jordanian university students' perceptions toward and use of Short Message Service (SMS) as out-of-class student-instructor interaction tool. The participants in this study were 33 graduate students who were enrolled in on-campus information technology course at a public Jordanian university. SMS was used in the…

  14. A Comparative Study on the Influence between Interaction and Performance in Postgraduate In-Class and Distance Learning Courses Based on the Analysis of LMS Logs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Miguel, Félix; Chaparro-Peláez, Julián; Hernández-García, Ángel; Iglesias-Pradas, Santiago

    Learning Management Systems' use has been rapidly increasing during the last ten years, mainly in online distance learning courses but also in in-class courses. In parallel, technological advances have made it possible to track and store all the activity taking place in the LMS, and therefore to register the participation and interaction of students. This paper addresses two key questions: a) Is student interaction in the LMS an indicator of the final academic performance in a course?; and b) Is this interaction carried out in a different way in distance and in-class education, with different final results?. In order to answer this question, different types of interaction have been classified and extracted from Moodle LMS activity record logs during two years in one master program with online distance learning and in-class learning modalities at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. The results show partial or no evidence of influence between interaction indicators and academic performance. The last section of this study covers a discussion of results and implications.

  15. Tucker2 Hierarchical Classes Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceulemans, Eva; Van Mechelen, Iven

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new hierarchical classes model, called Tucker2-HICLAS, for binary three-way three-mode data. As any three-way hierarchical classes model, the Tucker2-HICLAS model includes a representation of the association relation among the three modes and a hierarchical classification of the elements of each mode. A distinctive feature of…

  16. Combining operant-baseline-derived conditioned excitors and inhibitors from the same and different incentive classes: an investigation of appetitive-aversive interactions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, S J; Thomas, D A; Weissman, R D

    1996-11-01

    The dynamics of appetitive-aversive interaction theory were assayed in an experiment where excitors and inhibitors from the same and different incentive classes were compounded. Excitatory and inhibitory incentive properties acquired by the discriminative stimuli resulted from the reinforcement differences between components of four-component multiple training schedules, with the influence of competing peripheral responses factored into the design. Rats' barpressing was maintained in tone and in click by food or free-operant shock avoidance; extinction was programmed in click-plus-light and in the simultaneous absence of tone, click, and light. In Test 1, an excitor that occasioned operant responding and an inhibitor that occasioned response cessation were compounded. Here, compounding an inhibitor with an excitor from the same incentive class reduced responding significantly more than did compounding an inhibitor with an excitor from the other incentive class. In Test 2, the compounds consisted of elements that individually occasioned operant responding. Here, compounding stimuli that were excitors from different incentive classes appeared to create reciprocal inhibition that counteracted the additive effects produced when these stimuli were excitors from the same incentive class. Predictions from appetitive-aversive interaction theory and Weiss' two-factor model of stimulus control were confirmed within this experimental design, where all conditioning was a by-product of the behavioural contingencies programmed on the operant baselines.

  17. Interactive effects involving different classes of excitatory amino acid receptors and the survival of cerebellar granule cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Balázs, R; Hack, N; Jørgensen, O S

    1990-01-01

    Differentiating granule cells develop survival requirements in culture which can be met by treatment with high K+ or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and, according to our recent findings, also with low concentrations of kainic acid (KA, 50 microM). We have now attempted to elucidate the mechanism(s) underlying the trophic effect of KA. KA rescue of cells was completely suppressed by blockers of voltage-sensitive calcium channels, such as nifedipine in low concentrations (5 x 10(-7) M), indicating that the promotion of cell survival is mediated through the activation of these channels by membrane depolarization. Thus the trophic influences of KA and NMDA share a common mechanism, increased Ca2+ influx (albeit through different routes), a conclusion that is supported by the observation that the effects of these agonists at concentrations causing maximal promotion of cell survival were not additive. Interactive effects involving different classes of excitatory amino acid receptors were revealed by the potentiation of the KA rescue of cells by the NMDA receptor antagonists, 2-amino 5-phosphonovalerate (APV) or (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclohept-5,10-imine hydrogen maleate (MK-801), which on their own failed to promote, but rather reduced cell survival. The potentiation of the KA effect by the competitive NMDA antagonist APV was counteracted by the weak NMDA agonist, quinolinic acid. These observations suggest that KA alone has both trophic and toxic effects, the latter being mediated secondarily through an NMDA-like glutamate receptor, which is distinct from the conventional NMDA, KA and quisqualate preferring subtypes.

  18. Kinetic studies on the interactions between glycolipid biosurfactant assembled monolayers and various classes of immunoglobulins using surface plasmon resonance.

    PubMed

    Ito, Seya; Imura, Tomohiro; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2007-08-01

    Kinetic studies on the interactions between self-assembled monolayers of mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), which are glycolipid biosurfactants abundantly produced by microorganisms, and various classes of immunoglobulins including human IgG, IgA, and IgM were performed using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The effect of the MEL structure on the binding behavior of HIgG was examined. Assembled monolayers of MEL-A having two acetyl groups on the headgroup gave a high affinity (K(d)=1.7x10(-6)M) toward HIgG, while those of MEL-B or MEL-C having only one acetyl group at C-6' or C-4' position gave little affinity. Our kinetic analysis revealed that the binding manner of HIgG, HIgA (K(d)=2.4x10(-7)M), and HIgM (K(d)=2.2x10(-7)M) to the assembled monolayers of MEL-A is not the monovalent mode but the bivalent mode, and both the first and second rate association constants (k(a1), k(a2)) increase with an increase in the number of antibody binding sites, while those for dissociation (k(d1), k(d2)) changed little. Moreover, we succeeded in directly observing great amounts of HIgG, HIgA, and HIgM bound to MEL-A monolayers using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Finally, we found that MEL-A assembled monolayer binds toward various IgG derived from mouse, pig, rabbit, horse, goat, rat, and bovine as well as human IgG (HIgG), and the only exception was sheep IgG. These results clearly demonstrate that MEL-A assembled monolayers would be useful as noble affinity ligand system for various immunoglobulins. PMID:17428643

  19. TeV emission from close binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskalenko, I. V.

    1995-05-01

    It is commonly accepted that candidates for very high energy γ-ray sources are neutron stars, binary systems, black holes etc. Close binary systems containing a normal hot star and a neutron star (or a black hole) form an important class of very high energy γ-ray sources. Such systems are variable in any region of the electromagnetic spectrum and they enable us to study various stages of stellar evolution, accretion processes, mechanisms of particle acceleration, etc. Phenomena connected with this class of very high energy γ-ray sources are discussed. Particular emphasis has been placed on the TeV energy region.

  20. Modeling the Interaction of Binary and Ternary Mixtures of Estradiol with Bisphenol A and Bisphenol AF in an In Vitro Estrogen-Mediated Transcriptional Activation Assay (T47D-KBluc)

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, Dieldrich S.; Gray, Leon E.; Wilson, Vickie S.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to xenoestrogens occurs against a backdrop to physiological levels of endogenous estrogens. Endogenous estrogen levels vary from low levels in early childhood to high levels during pregnancy and in young women. However, few studies have addressed how xenoestrogens interact with endogenous estrogens. The current study was designed to characterize the individual dose-response curves of estradiol-17β (E2), bisphenol A (BPA), tetrabromo-bisphenol A (TBBPA), and bisphenol AF (BPAF, 4,4'-hexafluoroisopropylidene diphenol) on estrogen-dependent luciferase expression in T47D-KBluc cells and to determine how binary (8 × 8 factorial) and ternary (4 × 4 × 4 factorial) mixtures of an endogenous estrogen (E2) interact with BPA and/or BPAF. Log EC50 and hillslope values with SEs, respectively, for individual compounds were as follows: E2, −12.10M ± 0.06071, 0.7702 ± 0.1739; BPA, −6.679M ± 0.08505, 1.194 ± 0.2137; and BPAF, −7.648M ± 0.05527, 1.273 ± 0.1739. TBBPA was not evaluated in mixture studies because of its minimally estrogenic response at 3 ×10−5M and elicited cytotoxicity at higher concentrations. Both the binary mixtures of E2 with BPA and BPAF and the ternary mixture of E2, BPA, and BPAF behaved in an additive manner. For binary mixtures, as E2 concentration increased, higher concentrations of BPA and BPAF were necessary to induce a significant increase in the estrogenic response. Understanding the behavior of mixture interactions of xenoestrogens, like BPA and BPAF, with endogenous estrogens will allow a better assessment of the potential risk associated with exposure to these chemicals, individually or as mixtures. PMID:20498000

  1. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    SciTech Connect

    Abell, Jeffrey A; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2015-01-06

    A system includes host and learning machines. Each machine has a processor in electrical communication with at least one sensor. Instructions for predicting a binary quality status of an item of interest during a repeatable process are recorded in memory. The binary quality status includes passing and failing binary classes. The learning machine receives signals from the at least one sensor and identifies candidate features. Features are extracted from the candidate features, each more predictive of the binary quality status. The extracted features are mapped to a dimensional space having a number of dimensions proportional to the number of extracted features. The dimensional space includes most of the passing class and excludes at least 90 percent of the failing class. Received signals are compared to the boundaries of the recorded dimensional space to predict, in real time, the binary quality status of a subsequent item of interest.

  2. Single versus binary star progenitors of Type IIb supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sravan, Niharika

    2016-07-01

    Stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) represent a challenge to our understanding of massive star evolution. Wind mass loss and binary interactions are the leading candidates to explain observations. The latter has gained support in the recent years with growing evidence that mass-loss rates due to line-driven winds are, in reality, 2 - 3 times lower. Type IIb SNe retain a small amount of their Hydrogen envelope before undergoing core-collapse and are the only class of stripped-envelope SNe with identified progenitors. Thus they are powerful tools for testing our understanding of massive stellar evolution. To identify possible evolutionary pathways to Type IIb SNe, we use Modules for Experiments in Stellar Astrophysics (MESA) to model a large population of single and binary star sequences covering a broad parameter space with a wide range of component masses and initial orbital periods and identify those that undergo core-collapse with 0.01 to 0.5 solar masses of residual Hydrogen envelope. We find no single star Type IIb progenitors in the parameter space covered. We find a few Type IIb binary progenitors. These sequences have initial mass ratios greater than 0.6, wide orbital periods and undergo non-conservative mass transfer.

  3. A model for binary-binary close encounters and collisions from a dynamical point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramírez, Martha; Medina, Mario

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a model for binary-binary interactions in star clusters, which is based on simultaneous binary collision of a special case of the one-dimensional 4-body problem where four masses move symmetrically about the center of mass. From the theoretical point of view, the singularity due to binary collisions between point masses can be handled by means of regularization theory. Our main tool is a change of coordinates due to McGehee by which we blow-up the singular set associated to total collision and replace it with an invariant manifold which includes binary and simultaneous binary collisions, and then gain a complete picture of the local behavior of the solutions near to total collision via the homothetic orbit.

  4. THE PROGENITORS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE. II. ARE THEY DOUBLE-DEGENERATE BINARIES? THE SYMBIOTIC CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect

    Di Stefano, R.

    2010-08-10

    In order for a white dwarf (WD) to achieve the Chandrasekhar mass, M{sub C} , and explode as a Type Ia supernova (SNIa), it must interact with another star, either accreting matter from or merging with it. The failure to identify the class or classes of binaries which produce SNeIa is the long-standing 'progenitor problem'. Its solution is required if we are to utilize the full potential of SNeIa to elucidate basic cosmological and physical principles. In single-degenerate models, a WD accretes and burns matter at high rates. Nuclear-burning white dwarfs (NBWDs) with mass close to M{sub C} are hot and luminous, potentially detectable as supersoft X-ray sources (SSSs). In previous work, we showed that >90%-99% of the required number of progenitors do not appear as SSSs during most of the crucial phase of mass increase. The obvious implication might be that double-degenerate binaries form the main class of progenitors. We show in this paper, however, that many binaries that later become double degenerates must pass through a long-lived NBWD phase during which they are potentially detectable as SSSs. The paucity of SSSs is therefore not a strong argument in favor of double-degenerate models. Those NBWDs that are the progenitors of double-degenerate binaries are likely to appear as symbiotic binaries for intervals >10{sup 6} years. In fact, symbiotic pre-double-degenerates should be common, whether or not the WDs eventually produce SNeIa. The key to solving the Type Ia progenitor problem lies in understanding the appearance of NBWDs. Most of them do not appear as SSSs most of the time. We therefore consider the evolution of NBWDs to address the question of what their appearance may be and how we can hope to detect them.

  5. Conformational changes of trialanine induced by direct interactions between alanine residues and alcohols in binary mixtures of water with glycerol and ethanol.

    PubMed

    Toal, Siobhan; Amidi, Omid; Schweitzer-Stenner, Reinhard

    2011-08-17

    Despite the increasing relevance of characterizing local conformational distributions in the unfolded state, an unambiguous description of the role that solvation and the addition of certain cosolvents play in altering this ensemble has yet to emerge. Alcohol cosolvents, and specifically glycerol, are known to act as protein stabilizers. The underlying mechanism of this effect is, however, still debated. Short alanine-based peptides provide a suitable model system for exploring the influence of cosolvents on backbone conformations, as ample experimental evidence now indicates that alanine does not exhibit a true statistical coil behavior but rather shows strong preference for sampling the polyproline II (PPII) region of the Ramachadran map when solvated in water. To explore the effect glycerol and ethanol cosolvents have on the conformational distribution of trialanine, we combined UV-CD and H NMR spectroscopies. The temperature dependence of the conformationally sensitive maximum dichroism (Δε) and (3)J(H(α)H(N)) coupling constants of two amide protons (N- and C-terminal) was subjected to a global thermodynamic analysis based on simple two-state PPII↔β models. Interestingly, our results show that even small admixtures of alcohol (5% v/v) considerably change the spectral parameters, Δε(PPII) and Δε(β), as well as the enthalpic and entropic differences between the two states. For the central residue of trialanine in 5% glycerol, we obtained a gain in enthalpy favoring PPII of ΔΔH(n) = -4.80 kJ/mol and a compensating increase in entropy favoring the β-strand of ΔΔS(n) = -13.53[J/mol K]. This causes increases in -ΔG and slight increases in PPII content. Further addition of alcohol, however, reverses the trend in that it causes a destabilization of the hydration shell and a shift toward β-strand conformations. The combined manifold of ΔH and ΔS values obtained for the investigated binary mixtures and the pure aqueous solvent exhibits an excellent

  6. Classes of two-photon states defined by linear interactions and destructive two-photon quantum interference in a single mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, A. P.

    2015-11-01

    We describe a two-photon quantum interference effect which differs from the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect in that the destructive quantum inference occurs on a component of the state where two photons are in a single output mode while maintaining the two-photon events in the alternative mode. This effect is manifestly nonclassical but requires more sophisticated technology to observe than the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. The theory outlined in this paper can also be used to classify two-photon states into classes which are related by the ability to transform the states within the class by using only linear optical interactions. This theory shows that there is an infinite number of these classes of two photon states when there are two or more modes which can support the photons.

  7. The impact of IUE on binary star studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of IUE observations in the investigation of binary stars is discussed. The results of data analysis of several classes of binary systems are briefly reviewed including zeta Aurigae and VV Cephei stars, mu Sagittarii, epsilon Aurigae, beta Lyrae and the W Serpentis stars, symbiotic stars, and the Algols.

  8. R144: a very massive binary likely ejected from R136 through a binary-binary encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seungkyung; Kroupa, Pavel; Banerjee, Sambaran

    2014-02-01

    R144 is a recently confirmed very massive, spectroscopic binary which appears isolated from the core of the massive young star cluster R136. The dynamical ejection hypothesis as an origin for its location is claimed improbable by Sana et al. due to its binary nature and high mass. We demonstrate here by means of direct N-body calculations that a very massive binary system can be readily dynamically ejected from an R136-like cluster, through a close encounter with a very massive system. One out of four N-body cluster models produces a dynamically ejected very massive binary system with a mass comparable to R144. The system has a system mass of ≈355 M⊙ and is located at 36.8 pc from the centre of its parent cluster, moving away from the cluster with a velocity of 57 km s-1 at 2 Myr as a result of a binary-binary interaction. This implies that R144 could have been ejected from R136 through a strong encounter with another massive binary or single star. In addition, we discuss all massive binaries and single stars which are ejected dynamically from their parent cluster in the N-body models.

  9. Stability of binaries. Part 1: Rigid binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2015-09-01

    We consider the stability of binary asteroids whose members are possibly granular aggregates held together by self-gravity alone. A binary is said to be stable whenever each member is orbitally and structurally stable to both orbital and structural perturbations. To this end, we extend the stability test for rotating granular aggregates introduced by Sharma (Sharma, I. [2012]. J. Fluid Mech., 708, 71-99; Sharma, I. [2013]. Icarus, 223, 367-382; Sharma, I. [2014]. Icarus, 229, 278-294) to the case of binary systems comprised of rubble members. In part I, we specialize to the case of a binary with rigid members subjected to full three-dimensional perturbations. Finally, we employ the stability test to critically appraise shape models of four suspected binary systems, viz., 216 Kleopatra, 25143 Itokawa, 624 Hektor and 90 Antiope.

  10. Binary Inspiral in Quadratic Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent

    2015-01-01

    Quadratic gravity is a general class of quantum-gravity-inspired theories, where the Einstein-Hilbert action is extended through the addition of all terms quadratic in the curvature tensor coupled to a scalar field. In this article, we focus on the scalar Gauss- Bonnet (sGB) theory and consider the black hole binary inspiral in this theory. By applying the post-Newtonian (PN) formalism, we found that there is a scalar dipole radiation which leads to -1PN correction in the energy flux relative to gravitational radiation in general relativity. From the orbital decay rate of a low-mass X-ray binary A0600-20, we obtain the bound that is six orders of magnitude stronger than the current solar system bound. Furthermore, we show that the excess in the orbital decay rate of XTE J1118+480 can be explained by the scalar radiation in sGB theory.

  11. Discovery of a novel class of highly potent inhibitors of the p53-MDM2 interaction by structure-based design starting from a conformational argument.

    PubMed

    Furet, Pascal; Masuya, Keiichi; Kallen, Joerg; Stachyra-Valat, Thérèse; Ruetz, Stephan; Guagnano, Vito; Holzer, Philipp; Mah, Robert; Stutz, Stefan; Vaupel, Andrea; Chène, Patrick; Jeay, Sébastien; Schlapbach, Achim

    2016-10-01

    The p53-MDM2 interaction is an anticancer drug target under investigation in the clinic. Our compound NVP-CGM097 is one of the small molecule inhibitors of this protein-protein interaction currently evaluated in cancer patients. As part of our effort to identify new classes of p53-MDM2 inhibitors that could lead to additional clinical candidates, we report here the design of highly potent inhibitors having a pyrazolopyrrolidinone core structure. The conception of these new inhibitors originated in a consideration on the MDM2 bound conformation of the dihydroisoquinolinone class of inhibitors to which NVP-CGM097 belongs. This work forms the foundation of the discovery of HDM201, a second generation p53-MDM2 inhibitor that recently entered phase I clinical trial.

  12. ECCENTRIC EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasawa, Masaki; An, Sangyong; Matsubayashi, Tatsushi; Funato, Yoko; Makino, Junichiro

    2011-04-10

    In recent numerical simulations, it has been found that the eccentricity of supermassive black hole (SMBH)-intermediate black hole (IMBH) binaries grows toward unity through interactions with the stellar background. This increase of eccentricity reduces the merging timescale of the binary through the gravitational radiation to a value well below the Hubble time. It also gives a theoretical explanation of the existence of eccentric binaries such as that in OJ287. In self-consistent N-body simulations, this increase of eccentricity is always observed. On the other hand, the result of the scattering experiment between SMBH binaries and field stars indicated that the eccentricity dose not change significantly. This discrepancy leaves the high eccentricity of the SMBH binaries in N-body simulations unexplained. Here, we present a stellar-dynamical mechanism that drives the increase of the eccentricity of an SMBH binary with a large mass ratio. There are two key processes involved. The first one is the Kozai mechanism under a non-axisymmetric potential, which effectively randomizes the angular momenta of surrounding stars. The other is the selective ejection of stars with prograde orbits. Through these two mechanisms, field stars extract the orbital angular momentum of the SMBH binary. Our proposed mechanism causes the increase in the eccentricity of most of SMBH binaries, resulting in the rapid merger through gravitational wave radiation. Our result has given a definite solution to the 'last-parsec problem'.

  13. The activation threshold of CD4+ T cells is defined by TCR/peptide-MHC class II interactions in the thymic medulla.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Tom Li; Tikhonova, Anastasia; Riberdy, Janice M; Laufer, Terri M

    2009-11-01

    Immature thymocytes that are positively selected based upon their response to self-peptide-MHC complexes develop into mature T cells that are not overtly reactive to those same complexes. Developmental tuning is the active process through which TCR-associated signaling pathways of single-positive thymocytes are attenuated to respond appropriately to the peptide-MHC molecules that will be encountered in the periphery. In this study, we explore the mechanisms that regulate the tuning of CD4(+) single-positive T cells to MHC class II encountered in the thymic medulla. Experiments with murine BM chimeras demonstrate that tuning can be mediated by MHC class II expressed by either thymic medullary epithelial cells or thymic dendritic cells. Tuning does not require the engagement of CD4 by MHC class II on stromal cells. Rather, it is mediated by interactions between MHC class II and the TCR. To understand the molecular changes that distinguish immature hyperactive T cells from tuned mature CD4(+) T cells, we compared their responses to TCR stimulation. The altered response of mature CD4 single-positive thymocytes is characterized by the inhibition of ERK activation by low-affinity self-ligands and increased expression of the inhibitory tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1. Thus, persistent TCR engagement by peptide-MHC class II on thymic medullary stroma inhibits reactivity to self-Ags and prevents autoreactivity in the mature repertoire.

  14. The interaction of mammalian Class C Vps with nSec-1/Munc18-a and syntaxin 1A regulates pre-synaptic release

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Bong Yoon; Sahara, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Kominami, Eiki; Kohsaka, Shinichi; Akazawa, Chihiro . E-mail: akazawa1@ncnp.go.jp

    2006-11-24

    Membrane docking and fusion in neurons is a highly regulated process requiring the participation of a large number of SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) and SNARE-interacting proteins. We found that mammalian Class C Vps protein complex associated specifically with nSec-1/Munc18-a, and syntaxin 1A both in vivo and in vitro. In contrast, VAMP2 and SNAP-25, other neuronal core complex proteins, did not interact. When co-transfected with the human growth hormone (hGH) reporter gene, mammalian Class C Vps proteins enhanced Ca{sup 2+}-dependent exocytosis, which was abolished by the Ca{sup 2+}-channel blocker nifedipine. In hippocampal primary cultures, the lentivirus-mediated overexpression of hVps18 increased asynchronous spontaneous synaptic release without changing mEPSCs. These results indicate that mammalian Class C Vps proteins are involved in the regulation of membrane docking and fusion through an interaction with neuronal specific SNARE molecules, nSec-1/Munc18-a and syntaxin 1A.

  15. Effectiveness of Personal Interaction in a Learner-Centered Paradigm Distance Education Class Based on Student Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Shu-Hui Hsieh; Smith, Roger A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined relationships between students' perceptions of course-related interaction and their course satisfaction within the learner-centered paradigm in distance education. A Students' Perceived Interaction Survey (SPIS) instrument was developed to examine nine separate hypotheses about the nature of course-related interaction. A…

  16. Binary mask programmable hologram.

    PubMed

    Tsang, P W M; Poon, T-C; Zhou, Changhe; Cheung, K W K

    2012-11-19

    We report, for the first time, the concept and generation of a novel Fresnel hologram called the digital binary mask programmable hologram (BMPH). A BMPH is comprised of a static, high resolution binary grating that is overlaid with a lower resolution binary mask. The reconstructed image of the BMPH can be programmed to approximate a target image (including both intensity and depth information) by configuring the pattern of the binary mask with a simple genetic algorithm (SGA). As the low resolution binary mask can be realized with less stringent display technology, our method enables the development of simple and economical holographic video display.

  17. Preferential Solvation of a Highly Medium Responsive Pentacyanoferrate(II) Complex in Binary Solvent Mixtures: Understanding the Role of Dielectric Enrichment and the Specificity of Solute-Solvent Interactions.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Raffaello

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the preferential solvation of an intensely solvatochromic ferrocyanide(II) dye involving a 4,4'-bipyridine-based ligand was examined in various binary solvent mixtures. Its solvatochromic behavior was rationalized in terms of specific and nonspecific solute-solvent interactions. An exceptional case of solvatochromic inversion was observed when going from alcohol/water to amide/water mixtures. These effects were quantified using Onsager's solvent polarity function. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the solvatochromism of the dye was determined using various solvatochromic parameters such as π* expressing the dipolarity/polarizability of solvents and α expressing the hydrogen-bond-donor acidity of solvents. This analysis was useful for the rationalization of the selective solvation phenomena occurring in the three types of alcohol/water and amide/water mixtures studied. Furthermore, two preferential solvation models were employed for the interpretation of the experimental spectral results in binary solvent mixtures, namely, the model of Suppan on dielectric enrichment [J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1 1987, 83, 495-509] and the model of Bosch, Rosés, and co-workers [J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 1995, 8, 1607-1615]. The first model successfully predicted the charge transfer energies of the dye in formamide/water and N-methylformamide/water mixtures, but in the case of MeOH/water mixtures, the prediction was less accurate because of the significant contribution of specific solute-solvent interactions in that case. The second model gave more insights for both specific solute-solvent as well as solvent-solvent interactions in the cybotactic region. The role of dielectric enrichment and specific interactions was discussed based on the findings. PMID:27525362

  18. Preferential Solvation of a Highly Medium Responsive Pentacyanoferrate(II) Complex in Binary Solvent Mixtures: Understanding the Role of Dielectric Enrichment and the Specificity of Solute-Solvent Interactions.

    PubMed

    Papadakis, Raffaello

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the preferential solvation of an intensely solvatochromic ferrocyanide(II) dye involving a 4,4'-bipyridine-based ligand was examined in various binary solvent mixtures. Its solvatochromic behavior was rationalized in terms of specific and nonspecific solute-solvent interactions. An exceptional case of solvatochromic inversion was observed when going from alcohol/water to amide/water mixtures. These effects were quantified using Onsager's solvent polarity function. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the solvatochromism of the dye was determined using various solvatochromic parameters such as π* expressing the dipolarity/polarizability of solvents and α expressing the hydrogen-bond-donor acidity of solvents. This analysis was useful for the rationalization of the selective solvation phenomena occurring in the three types of alcohol/water and amide/water mixtures studied. Furthermore, two preferential solvation models were employed for the interpretation of the experimental spectral results in binary solvent mixtures, namely, the model of Suppan on dielectric enrichment [J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1 1987, 83, 495-509] and the model of Bosch, Rosés, and co-workers [J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 1995, 8, 1607-1615]. The first model successfully predicted the charge transfer energies of the dye in formamide/water and N-methylformamide/water mixtures, but in the case of MeOH/water mixtures, the prediction was less accurate because of the significant contribution of specific solute-solvent interactions in that case. The second model gave more insights for both specific solute-solvent as well as solvent-solvent interactions in the cybotactic region. The role of dielectric enrichment and specific interactions was discussed based on the findings.

  19. Search for Binary Trojans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noll, Keith S.; Grundy, W. M.; Ryan, E. L.; Benecchi, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    We have reexamined 41 Trojan asteroids observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to search for unresolved binaries. We have identified one candidate binary with a separation of 53 milliarcsec, about the width of the diffraction limited point-spread function (PSF). Sub-resolution-element detection of binaries is possible with HST because of the high signal-to-noise ratio of the observations and the stability of the PSF. Identification and confirmation of binary Trojans is important because a Trojan Tour is one of five possible New Frontiers missions. A binary could constitute a potentially high value target because of the opportunity to study two objects and to test models of the primordial nature of binaries. The potential to derive mass-based physical information from the binary orbit could yield more clues to the origin of Trojans.

  20. Use of Interactive Live Digital Imaging to Enhance Histology Learning in Introductory Level Anatomy and Physiology Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higazi, Tarig B.

    2011-01-01

    Histology is one of the main subjects in introductory college-level Human Anatomy and Physiology classes. Institutions are moving toward the replacement of traditional microscope-based histology learning with virtual microscopy learning amid concerns of losing the valuable learning experience of traditional microscopy. This study used live digital…

  1. Making Large Class Basic Histology Lectures More Interactive: The Use of Draw-Along Mapping Techniques and Associated Educational Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2015-01-01

    At Stellenbosch University, South Africa, basic histology is taught to a combination class of almost 400 first-year medical, physiotherapy, and dietetic students. Many students often find the amount of work in basic histology lectures overwhelming and consequently loose interest. The aim was to determine if a draw-along mapping activity would…

  2. Using Research-Based Interactive Video Vignettes to Enhance Out-of-Class Learning in Introductory Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Priscilla W.; Willis, Maxine C.; Jackson, David P.; Koenig, Kathleen; Teese, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Ever since the first generalized computer-assisted instruction system (PLATO) was introduced over 50 years ago, educators have been adding computer-based materials to their classes. Today many textbooks have complete online versions that include video lectures and other supplements. In the past 25 years the web has fueled an explosion of online…

  3. Using Cooperative Learning 100% of the Time in Mathematics Classes Establishes a Student-Centered Interactive Learning Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitz, Theodore

    This paper describes one approach to implementing cooperative learning in mathematics classes virtually 100% of the time. By describing this maximum approach, it is hoped that teachers will be encouraged to try cooperative learning at least part of the time in their classrooms. Cooperative learning activities help identify widespread student…

  4. PHOEBE: PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prsa, Andrej; Matijevic, Gal; Latkovic, Olivera; Vilardell, Francesc; Wils, Patrick

    2011-06-01

    PHOEBE (PHysics Of Eclipsing BinariEs) is a modeling package for eclipsing binary stars, built on top of the widely used WD program (Wilson & Devinney 1971). This introductory paper overviews most important scientific extensions (incorporating observational spectra of eclipsing binaries into the solution-seeking process, extracting individual temperatures from observed color indices, main-sequence constraining and proper treatment of the reddening), numerical innovations (suggested improvements to WD's Differential Corrections method, the new Nelder & Mead's downhill Simplex method) and technical aspects (back-end scripter structure, graphical user interface). While PHOEBE retains 100% WD compatibility, its add-ons are a powerful way to enhance WD by encompassing even more physics and solution reliability.

  5. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    SciTech Connect

    Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2014-06-24

    A system includes host and learning machines in electrical communication with sensors positioned with respect to an item of interest, e.g., a weld, and memory. The host executes instructions from memory to predict a binary quality status of the item. The learning machine receives signals from the sensor(s), identifies candidate features, and extracts features from the candidates that are more predictive of the binary quality status relative to other candidate features. The learning machine maps the extracted features to a dimensional space that includes most of the items from a passing binary class and excludes all or most of the items from a failing binary class. The host also compares the received signals for a subsequent item of interest to the dimensional space to thereby predict, in real time, the binary quality status of the subsequent item of interest.

  6. Maternal-fetal interactions and birth order influence insulin variable number of tandem repeats allele class associations with head size at birth and childhood weight gain.

    PubMed

    Ong, Ken K; Petry, Clive J; Barratt, Bryan J; Ring, Susan; Cordell, Heather J; Wingate, Diane L; Pembrey, Marcus E; Todd, John A; Dunger, David B

    2004-04-01

    Polymorphism of the insulin gene (INS) variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR; class I or class III alleles) locus has been associated with adult diseases and with birth size. Therefore, this variant is a potential contributory factor to the reported fetal origins of adult disease. In the population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood birth cohort, we have confirmed in the present study the association between the INS VNTR III/III genotype and larger head circumference at birth (odds ratio [OR] 1.92, 95% CI 1.23-3.07; P = 0.004) and identified an association with higher cord blood IGF-II levels (P = 0.05 to 0.0001). The genotype association with head circumference was influenced by maternal parity (birth order): the III/III OR for larger head circumference was stronger in second and subsequent pregnancies (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.2-11.5; P = 0.00003) than in first pregnancies (1.2, 0.6-2.2; P = 0.8; interaction with birth order, P = 0.02). During childhood, the III/III genotype remained associated with larger head circumference (P = 0.004) and was also associated with greater BMI (P = 0.03), waist circumference (P = 0.03), and higher fasting insulin levels in girls (P = 0.02). In addition, there were interactions between INS VNTR genotype and early postnatal weight gain in determining childhood BMI (P = 0.001 for interaction), weight (P = 0.005), and waist circumference (P = 0.0005), such that in the approximately 25% of children (n = 286) with rapid early postnatal weight gain, class III genotype-negative children among this group gained weight more rapidly. Our results indicate that complex prenatal and postnatal gene-maternal/fetal interactions influence size at birth and childhood risk factors for adult disease. PMID:15047631

  7. B and V photoelectric photometry and light curve solution of the interacting binary systems HI Puppis,Bl Eridani and SY Horologii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, J. R.

    The first photoelectric observations of the eclipsing binary systems HI Puppis, BL Eridani and SY Horologii were obtained and complete B and V lights curves are presented. Improved light elements were derived for all three systems. The light curves of HI Puppis were analyzed by the computer models of Wilson and Devinney, Binnendijk and Wood to get the geometrical and photometric elements of the system. HI Puppis is shown to be a classic A type W Ursae Majoris system. The BL Eridani system is found to be a near contact system with the primary component filling its Roche lobe and the secondary nearly filling its lobe with a fill out ratio of approximately 1.0. The SY Horologii system is a near contact system with the secondary component filling its Roche lobe and the primary nearly filling its lobe with a fill out ratio of approximately 1.0.

  8. IUE observations of long period eclipsing binaries - A study of accretion onto non-degenerate stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plavec, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    IUE observations made in 1978-1979 recorded a whole class of interacting long-period binaries similar to beta Lyrae, which includes RX Cas, SX Cas, V 367 Cyg, W Cru, beta Lyr, and W Ser, called the W Serpentis stars. These mass-transferring binaries with relatively high mass transfer rate show two prominent features in the far ultraviolet: a continuum with a color temperature higher than the one observed in the optical region (about 12,000 K), and a strong emission line spectrum with the N V doublet at 1240 A, C IV doublet at 1550 A and lines of Si II, Si III, Si IV, C II, Fe III, AI III, etc. These phenomena are discussed on the assumption that they are due to accretion onto non-degenerate stars.

  9. Making large class basic histology lectures more interactive: The use of draw-along mapping techniques and associated educational activities.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Sanet Henriët; Mole, Calvin Gerald

    2015-01-01

    At Stellenbosch University, South Africa, basic histology is taught to a combination class of almost 400 first-year medical, physiotherapy, and dietetic students. Many students often find the amount of work in basic histology lectures overwhelming and consequently loose interest. The aim was to determine if a draw-along mapping activity would focus students during large class lectures. After each lecture on three basic histology tissues, a guided draw-along mapping session covering the work from the lecture was introduced in the form of a click-advance PowerPoint presentation which was used to demonstrate the unfolding of an "ideal" map. The lecturer simultaneously drew a similar map using an overhead projector allowing the students to draw their own maps on blank sheets of paper along with the lecturer. Students remained attentive during the activity and many participated in answering informal questions posed by the lecturer as the map-making session progressed. After the last session, students completed an anonymous, voluntary questionnaire (response rate of 78%). The majority of students found the draw-along maps useful (94%) and believed that its use should be continued in the future (93%). A significant increase (P < 0.001) was found in the test results of student cohorts who were given the current intervention compared to cohorts from previous years who were given mind maps as handouts only or had no intervention. The use of the draw-along mapping sessions were successful in focusing students during large class lectures while also providing them with a useful tool for their studies.

  10. (1)H(N), (13)C, and (15)N resonance assignments of the CDTb-interacting domain (CDTaBID) from the Clostridium difficile binary toxin catalytic component (CDTa, residues 1-221).

    PubMed

    Roth, Braden M; Varney, Kristen M; Rustandi, Richard R; Weber, David J

    2016-10-01

    Once considered a relatively harmless bacterium, Clostridium difficile has become a major concern for healthcare facilities, now the most commonly reported hospital-acquired pathogen. C. difficile infection (CDI) is usually contracted when the normal gut microbiome is compromised by antibiotic therapy, allowing the opportunistic pathogen to grow and produce its toxins. The severity of infection ranges from watery diarrhea and abdominal cramping to pseudomembranous colitis, sepsis, or death. The past decade has seen a marked increase in the frequency and severity of CDI among industrialized nations owing directly to the emergence of a highly virulent C. difficile strain, NAP1. Along with the large Clostridial toxins expressed by non-epidemic strains, C. difficile NAP1 produces a binary toxin, C. difficile transferase (CDT). As the name suggests, CDT is a two-component toxin comprised of an ADP-ribosyltransferase (ART) component (CDTa) and a cell-binding/translocation component (CDTb) that function to destabilize the host cytoskeleton by covalent modification of actin monomers. Central to the mechanism of binary toxin-induced pathogenicity is the formation of CDTa/CDTb complexes at the cell surface. From the perspective of CDTa, this interaction is mediated by the N-terminal domain (residues 1-215) and is spatially and functionally independent of ART activity, which is located in the C-terminal domain (residues 216-420). Here we report the (1)H(N), (13)C, and (15)N backbone resonance assignments of a 221 amino acid, ~26 kDa N-terminal CDTb-interacting domain (CDTaBID) construct by heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. These NMR assignments represent the first component coordination domain for a family of Clostridium or Bacillus species harboring ART activity. Our assignments lay the foundation for detailed solution state characterization of structure-function relationships, toxin complex formation, and NMR-based drug discovery efforts.

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis class II apurinic/apyrimidinic-endonuclease/3'-5' exonuclease III exhibits DNA regulated modes of interaction with the sliding DNA β-clamp.

    PubMed

    Khanam, Taran; Rai, Niyati; Ramachandran, Ravishankar

    2015-10-01

    The class-II AP-endonuclease (XthA) acts on abasic sites of damaged DNA in bacterial base excision repair. We identified that the sliding DNA β-clamp forms in vivo and in vitro complexes with XthA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A novel 239 QLRFPKK245 motif in the DNA-binding domain of XthA was found to be important for the interactions. Likewise, the peptide binding-groove (PBG) and the C-terminal of β-clamp located on different domains interact with XthA. The β-clamp-XthA complex can be disrupted by clamp binding peptides and also by a specific bacterial clamp inhibitor that binds at the PBG. We also identified that β-clamp stimulates the activities of XthA primarily by increasing its affinity for the substrate and its processivity. Additionally, loading of the β-clamp onto DNA is required for activity stimulation. A reduction in XthA activity stimulation was observed in the presence of β-clamp binding peptides supporting that direct interactions between the proteins are necessary to cause stimulation. Finally, we found that in the absence of DNA, the PBG located on the second domain of the β-clamp is important for interactions with XthA, while the C-terminal domain predominantly mediates functional interactions in the substrate's presence.

  12. The long-period K + Be binary HR 2577 (MWC 827)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Robert C.; Bopp, Bernard W.; Parsons, Sidney B.

    1988-01-01

    New spectroscopic observations near H-alpha and Na I D, along with ultraviolet IUE scans, have been obtained for the K + Be composite system HR 2577. High-precision radial-velocity measures do not support the suggested 58-year orbit of Hendry (1982). The H-alpha emission from the Be component undergoes considerable variations typical of its class. The presence of a Li I 6707 A feature as well as the IUE observations support the idea that little or no interaction between the binary components of HR 2577 is taking place.

  13. Identification of β Clamp-DNA Interaction Regions That Impair the Ability of E. coli to Tolerate Specific Classes of DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Nanfara, Michael T.; Babu, Vignesh M. P.; Ghazy, Mohamed A.; Sutton, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    The E. coli dnaN-encoded β sliding clamp protein plays a pivotal role in managing the actions on DNA of the 5 bacterial DNA polymerases, proteins involved in mismatch repair, as well as several additional proteins involved in DNA replication. Results of in vitro experiments indicate that the loading of β clamp onto DNA relies on both the DnaX clamp loader complex as well as several discrete sliding clamp-DNA interactions. However, the importance of these DNA interactions to E. coli viability, as well as the ability of the β clamp to support the actions of its numerous partner proteins, have not yet been examined. To determine the contribution of β clamp-DNA interactions to the ability of E. coli to cope with different classes of DNA damage, we used alanine scanning to mutate 22 separate residues mapping to 3 distinct β clamp surfaces known or nearby those known to contact the DNA template, including residues P20-L27 (referred to here as loop I), H148-Y154 (loop II) and 7 different residues lining the central pore of the β clamp through which the DNA template threads. Twenty of these 22 dnaN mutants supported bacterial growth. While none of these 20 conferred sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide or ultra violet light, 12 were sensitized to NFZ, 5 were sensitized to MMS, 8 displayed modestly altered frequencies of DNA damage-induced mutagenesis, and 2 may be impaired for supporting hda function. Taken together, these results demonstrate that discrete β clamp-DNA interaction regions contribute to the ability of E. coli to tolerate specific classes of DNA damage. PMID:27685804

  14. Binary and ternary new water soluble copper(II) complexes of L-tyrosine and substituted 1,10-phenanthrolines: Effect of substitution on DNA interactions and cytotoxicities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    İnci, Duygu; Aydın, Rahmiye; Vatan, Özgür; Yılmaz, Dilek; Gençkal, Hasene Mutlu; Zorlu, Yunus; Cavaş, Tolga

    2015-06-01

    Binary and ternary water soluble copper(II) complexes - [Cu(nphen)2(H2O)](NO3)2·H2O (1), [Cu(phen)2(H2O)](NO3)2 (2), [Cu(nphen)(L-tyr)(H2O)]NO3·2H2O (3), [Cu(phen)(tyr)(H2O)] NO3·2H2O (4) - and diquarternary salts of nphen and phen (nphen = 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and tyr = L-tyrosine) have been synthesized and characterized by CHN analysis, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. The CT-DNA binding properties of these compounds have been investigated by thermal denaturation measurements, absorption and emission spectroscopy. The supercoiled pUC19 plasmid DNA cleavage activity of these compounds has been explored by agarose gel electrophoresis. The cytotoxicity of these compounds against MCF-7, Caco-2, A549 cancer cells and BEAS-2B healthy cells was also studied by using XTT method. The complexes 1-4 exhibit significant high cytotoxicity with low IC50 values in compared with cisplatin. The effect of the substituents of phen and coordinated amino acid in the above complexes are presented and discussed.

  15. CLASS-Infant: An Observational Measure for Assessing Teacher-Infant Interactions in Center-Based Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Kristen Roorbach; Cabell, Sonia Q.; LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Hamre, Bridget K.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The growing body of literature demonstrating the importance of quality interactions with caregivers to infant development coupled with the increasing number of infants spending time in classroom settings highlights the need for a measure of interpersonal relationships between infants and caregivers. This article introduces a new…

  16. Perceived Support from Adults, Interactions with Police, and Adolescents' Depressive Symptomology: An Examination of Sex, Race, and Social Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Several risk factors, including female sex, racial minority status, and family poverty, have been implicated in adolescents' depression. The present study focused on the role of one specific aspect of adolescents' ecological context, interactions with adults, in depressive symptomology. We examined the relationship between perceived support from…

  17. Quaternary ammonium room-temperature ionic liquid including an oxygen atom in side chain/lithium salt binary electrolytes: ab initio molecular orbital calculations of interactions between ions.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Seiji; Hayamizu, Kikuko; Seki, Shiro; Ohno, Yasutaka; Kobayashi, Yo; Miyashiro, Hajime

    2008-08-14

    Interactions of the lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (LiTFSA) complex with N, N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl) ammonium (DEME), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium (EMIM) cations, neutral diethylether (DEE), and the DEMETFSA complex were studied by ab initio molecular orbital calculations. An interaction energy potential calculated for the DEME cation with the LiTFSA complex has a minimum when the Li atom has contact with the oxygen atom of DEME cation, while potentials for the EMIM cation with the LiTFSA complex are always repulsive. The MP2/6-311G**//HF/6-311G** level interaction energy calculated for the DEME cation with the LiTFSA complex was -18.4 kcal/mol. The interaction energy for the neutral DEE with the LiTFSA complex was larger (-21.1 kcal/mol). The interaction energy for the DEMETFSA complex with LiTFSA complex is greater (-23.2 kcal/mol). The electrostatic and induction interactions are the major source of the attraction in the two systems. The substantial attraction between the DEME cation and the LiTFSA complex suggests that the interaction between the Li cation and the oxygen atom of DEME cation plays important roles in determining the mobility of the Li cation in DEME-based room temperature ionic liquids.

  18. Hybrid black-hole binary initial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundim, Bruno; Kelly, Bernard; Zlochower, Yosef; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela

    2011-04-01

    Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class.Quant.Grav.27:114005,2010], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculation was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless ``wavy'' metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features. Thanks NSF and NASA for support.

  19. Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    "Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."

  20. Neutron-Star-Black-Hole Binaries Produced by Binary-Driven Hypernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fryer, Chris L.; Oliveira, F. G.; Rueda, J. A.; Ruffini, R.

    2015-12-01

    Binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (Eiso≳1052 erg ), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed "ultrastripped" binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compact binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs.

  1. Neutron-star–black-hole binaries produced by binary-driven hypernovae

    DOE PAGES

    Fryer, Chris L.; Oliveira, F. G.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2015-12-04

    Here, binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (Eiso ≳1052 erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed “ultrastripped” binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compactmore » binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs.« less

  2. Neutron-star–black-hole binaries produced by binary-driven hypernovae

    SciTech Connect

    Fryer, Chris L.; Oliveira, F. G.; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo

    2015-12-04

    Here, binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (Eiso ≳1052 erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed “ultrastripped” binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compact binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs.

  3. Neutron-Star-Black-Hole Binaries Produced by Binary-Driven Hypernovae.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Chris L; Oliveira, F G; Rueda, J A; Ruffini, R

    2015-12-01

    Binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (E_{iso}≳10^{52}  erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed "ultrastripped" binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compact binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs. PMID:26684106

  4. Neutron-Star-Black-Hole Binaries Produced by Binary-Driven Hypernovae.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Chris L; Oliveira, F G; Rueda, J A; Ruffini, R

    2015-12-01

    Binary-driven hypernovae (BdHNe) within the induced gravitational collapse paradigm have been introduced to explain energetic (E_{iso}≳10^{52}  erg), long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) associated with type Ic supernovae (SNe). The progenitor is a tight binary composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron-star (NS) companion, a subclass of the newly proposed "ultrastripped" binaries. The CO-NS short-period orbit causes the NS to accrete appreciable matter from the SN ejecta when the CO core collapses, ultimately causing it to collapse to a black hole (BH) and producing a GRB. These tight binaries evolve through the SN explosion very differently than compact binaries studied in population synthesis calculations. First, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion alters both the mass and the momentum of the binary. Second, because the explosion time scale is on par with the orbital period, the mass ejection cannot be assumed to be instantaneous. This dramatically affects the post-SN fate of the binary. Finally, the bow shock created as the accreting NS plows through the SN ejecta transfers angular momentum, braking the orbit. These systems remain bound even if a large fraction of the binary mass is lost in the explosion (well above the canonical 50% limit), and even large kicks are unlikely to unbind the system. Indeed, BdHNe produce a new family of NS-BH binaries unaccounted for in current population synthesis analyses and, although they may be rare, the fact that nearly 100% remain bound implies that they may play an important role in the compact merger rate, important for gravitational waves that, in turn, can produce a new class of ultrashort GRBs.

  5. The student-institution fit at university: interactive effects of academic competition and social class on achievement goals.

    PubMed

    Sommet, Nicolas; Quiamzade, Alain; Jury, Mickaël; Mugny, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    As compared to continuing-generation students, first-generation students are struggling more at university. In the present article, we question the unconditional nature of such a phenomenon and argue that it depends on structural competition. Indeed, most academic departments use harsh selection procedure all throughout the curriculum, fostering between-student competition. In these departments, first-generation students tend to suffer from a lack of student-institution fit, that is, inconsistencies with the competitive institution's culture, practices, and identity. However, one might contend that in less competitive academic departments continuing-generation students might be the ones experiencing a lack of fit. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the consequences of such a context- and category-dependent lack of fit on the endorsement of scholastically adaptive goals. We surveyed N = 378 first- and continuing-generation students from either a more competitive or a less competitive department in their first or final year of bachelor's study. In the more competitive department, first-to-third year decrease of mastery goals (i.e., the desire to learn) was found to be steeper for first- than for continuing-generation students. In the less competitive department, the reversed pattern was found. Moreover, first-to-third year decrease of performance goals (i.e., the desire to outperform others) was found to be steeper within the less competitive department but did not depend on social class. This single-site preliminary research highlights the need to take the academic context into account when studying the social class graduation gap. PMID:26124732

  6. The student-institution fit at university: interactive effects of academic competition and social class on achievement goals

    PubMed Central

    Sommet, Nicolas; Quiamzade, Alain; Jury, Mickaël; Mugny, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    As compared to continuing-generation students, first-generation students are struggling more at university. In the present article, we question the unconditional nature of such a phenomenon and argue that it depends on structural competition. Indeed, most academic departments use harsh selection procedure all throughout the curriculum, fostering between-student competition. In these departments, first-generation students tend to suffer from a lack of student-institution fit, that is, inconsistencies with the competitive institution’s culture, practices, and identity. However, one might contend that in less competitive academic departments continuing-generation students might be the ones experiencing a lack of fit. Using a cross-sectional design, we investigated the consequences of such a context- and category-dependent lack of fit on the endorsement of scholastically adaptive goals. We surveyed N = 378 first- and continuing-generation students from either a more competitive or a less competitive department in their first or final year of bachelor’s study. In the more competitive department, first-to-third year decrease of mastery goals (i.e., the desire to learn) was found to be steeper for first- than for continuing-generation students. In the less competitive department, the reversed pattern was found. Moreover, first-to-third year decrease of performance goals (i.e., the desire to outperform others) was found to be steeper within the less competitive department but did not depend on social class. This single-site preliminary research highlights the need to take the academic context into account when studying the social class graduation gap. PMID:26124732

  7. Naturally processed HLA class II peptides reveal highly conserved immunogenic flanking region sequence preferences that reflect antigen processing rather than peptide-MHC interactions.

    PubMed

    Godkin, A J; Smith, K J; Willis, A; Tejada-Simon, M V; Zhang, J; Elliott, T; Hill, A V

    2001-06-01

    MHC class II heterodimers bind peptides 12-20 aa in length. The peptide flanking residues (PFRs) of these ligands extend from a central binding core consisting of nine amino acids. Increasing evidence suggests that the PFRs can alter the immunogenicity of T cell epitopes. We have previously noted that eluted peptide pool sequence data derived from an MHC class II Ag reflect patterns of enrichment not only in the core binding region but also in the PFRS: We sought to distinguish whether these enrichments reflect cellular processes or direct MHC-peptide interactions. Using the multiple sclerosis-associated allele HLA-DR2, pool sequence data from naturally processed ligands were compared with the patterns of enrichment obtained by binding semicombinatorial peptide libraries to empty HLA-DR2 molecules. Naturally processed ligands revealed patterns of enrichment reflecting both the binding motif of HLA-DR2 (position (P)1, aliphatic; P4, bulky hydrophobic; and P6, polar) as well as the nonbound flanking regions, including acidic residues at the N terminus and basic residues at the C terminus. These PFR enrichments were independent of MHC-peptide interactions. Further studies revealed similar patterns in nine other HLA alleles, with the C-terminal basic residues being as highly conserved as the previously described N-terminal prolines of MHC class II ligands. There is evidence that addition of C-terminal basic PFRs to known peptide epitopes is able to enhance both processing as well as T cell activation. Recognition of these allele-transcending patterns in the PFRs may prove useful in epitope identification and vaccine design.

  8. Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries by Gravitational Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorny, David; Youdin, A. N.; Richardson, D. C.

    2010-10-01

    A large fraction of 100-km-class low-inclination objects in the classical Kuiper Belt (KB) are binaries with comparable mass and wide separation of components. A favored model for their formation was capture during the coagulation growth of bodies in the early KB. Instead, recent studies suggested that large, 100-km and larger objects can rapidly form in the protoplanetary disks when swarms of locally concentrated solids collapse under their own gravity. Here we examine the possibility that KB binaries formed during gravitational collapse when the excess of angular momentum prevented the agglomeration of available mass into a solitary object. We find that this new mechanism provides a robust path toward the formation of KB binaries with observed properties, and can explain wide systems such as 2001 QW322 and multiples such as (47171) 1999 TC36. Notably, the gravitational collapse is capable of producing 100% binary fraction for a wide range of the swarm's initial angular momentum values. The binary components have similar masses ( 80% have the secondary-over-primary radius ratio >0.7) and their separation ranges from 1,000 to 100,000 km. The binary orbits have eccentricities from e=0 to 1, with the majority having e<0.6. The model inclinations are consistent with the observed general preference for prograde binary orbits. Our binary formation mechanism also implies that the primary and secondary components in each binary pair should have identical bulk composition, which is consistent with the current photometric data.

  9. Asynchronous interaction, online technologies self-efficacy and self-regulated learning as predictors of academic achievement in an online class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGhee, Rosie M. Hector

    This research is a correlational study of the relationship among the independent variables: asynchronous interaction, online technologies self-efficacy, and self-regulated learning, and the dependent variable; academic achievement. This study involves an online computer literacy course at a local community college. Very little research exists on the relationship among asynchronous interaction, online technologies self-efficacy and self-regulated learning on predicting academic achievement in an online class. Liu (2008), in his study on student interaction in online courses, concluded that student interaction is a complex issue that needs more research to increase our understanding as it relates to distance education. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between asynchronous interaction, online technologies self-efficacy, self-regulated learning and academic achievement in an online computer literacy class at a community college. The researcher used quantitative methods to obtain and analyze data on the relationships among the variables during the summer 2010 semester. Forty-five community college students completed three web-based self-reporting instruments: (a) the GVU 10th WWW User Survey Questionnaire, (b) the Online Technologies Self-Efficacy Survey, and (c) selected items from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Additional data was obtained from asynchronous discussions posted on Blackboard(TM) Learning Management System. The results of this study found that there were statistically significant relationships between asynchronous interaction and academic achievement (r = .55, p < .05) and between online technologies self-efficacy and academic achievement (r = .50, p < .05). However, there were low correlations between self-regulated learning and academic achievement ( r = -.02, p < .05). The results of this study reflect the constructivist tenants that the student is at the center of the learning experience. Driscoll (2005

  10. The formation of eccentric compact binary inspirals and the role of gravitational wave emission in binary-single stellar encounters

    SciTech Connect

    Samsing, Johan; MacLeod, Morgan; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2014-03-20

    The inspiral and merger of eccentric binaries leads to gravitational waveforms distinct from those generated by circularly merging binaries. Dynamical environments can assemble binaries with high eccentricity and peak frequencies within the LIGO band. In this paper, we study binary-single stellar scatterings occurring in dense stellar systems as a source of eccentrically inspiraling binaries. Many interactions between compact binaries and single objects are characterized by chaotic resonances in which the binary-single system undergoes many exchanges before reaching a final state. During these chaotic resonances, a pair of objects has a non-negligible probability of experiencing a very close passage. Significant orbital energy and angular momentum are carried away from the system by gravitational wave (GW) radiation in these close passages, and in some cases this implies an inspiral time shorter than the orbital period of the bound third body. We derive the cross section for such dynamical inspiral outcomes through analytical arguments and through numerical scattering experiments including GW losses. We show that the cross section for dynamical inspirals grows with increasing target binary semi-major axis a and that for equal-mass binaries it scales as a {sup 2/7}. Thus, we expect wide target binaries to predominantly contribute to the production of these relativistic outcomes. We estimate that eccentric inspirals account for approximately 1% of dynamically assembled non-eccentric merging binaries. While these events are rare, we show that binary-single scatterings are a more effective formation channel than single-single captures for the production of eccentrically inspiraling binaries, even given modest binary fractions.

  11. Helix 3 acts as a conformational hinge in Class A GPCR activation: An analysis of interhelical interaction energies in crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Lans, Isaias; Dalton, James A R; Giraldo, Jesús

    2015-12-01

    A collection of crystal structures of rhodopsin, β2-adrenergic and adenosine A2A receptors in active, intermediate and inactive states were selected for structural and energetic analyses to identify the changes involved in the activation/deactivation of Class A GPCRs. A set of helix interactions exclusive to either inactive or active/intermediate states were identified. The analysis of these interactions distinguished some local conformational changes involved in receptor activation, in particular, a packing between the intracellular domains of transmembrane helices H3 and H7 and a separation between those of H2 and H6. Also, differential movements of the extracellular and intracellular domains of these helices are apparent. Moreover, a segment of residues in helix H3, including residues L/I3.40 to L3.43, is identified as a key component of the activation mechanism, acting as a conformational hinge between extracellular and intracellular regions. Remarkably, the influence on the activation process of some glutamic and aspartic acidic residues and, as a consequence, the influence of variations on local pH is highlighted. Structural hypotheses that arose from the analysis of rhodopsin, β2-adrenergic and adenosine A2A receptors were tested on the active and inactive M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor structures and further discussed in the context of the new mechanistic insights provided by the recently determined active and inactive crystal structures of the μ-opioid receptor. Overall, the structural and energetic analyses of the interhelical interactions present in this collection of Class A GPCRs suggests the existence of a common general activation mechanism featuring a chemical space useful for drug discovery exploration.

  12. "Racializing" Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatt-Echeverria, Beth; Urrieta, Luis, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to explore how racial and class oppressions intersect, the authors use their autobiographical narratives to depict cultural and experiential continuity and discontinuity in growing up white working class versus Chicano working class. They specifically focus on "racializing class" due to the ways class is often used as a copout by…

  13. The effect of ethanol on oral cocaine pharmacokinetics reveals an unrecognized class of ethanol-mediated drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Parker, Robert B; Laizure, S Casey

    2010-02-01

    Ethanol decreases the clearance of cocaine by inhibiting the hydrolysis of cocaine to benzoylecgonine and ecgonine methyl ester by carboxylesterases, and there is a large body of literature describing this interaction as it relates to the abuse of cocaine. In this study, we describe the effect of intravenous ethanol on the pharmacokinetics of cocaine after intravenous and oral administration in the dog. The intent is to determine the effect ethanol has on metabolic hydrolysis using cocaine metabolism as a surrogate marker of carboxylesterase activity. Five dogs were administered intravenous cocaine alone, intravenous cocaine after ethanol, oral cocaine alone, and oral cocaine after ethanol on separate study days. Cocaine, benzoylecgonine, and cocaethylene concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cocaine had poor systemic bioavailability with an area under the plasma concentration-time curve that was approximately 4-fold higher after intravenous than after oral administration. The coadministration of ethanol and cocaine resulted in a 23% decrease in the clearance of intravenous cocaine and a 300% increase in the bioavailability of oral cocaine. Cocaine behaves as a high extraction drug, which undergoes first-pass metabolism in the intestines and liver that is profoundly inhibited by ethanol. We infer from these results that ethanol could inhibit the hydrolysis of other drug compounds subject to hydrolysis by carboxylesterases. Indeed, there are numerous commonly prescribed drugs with significant carboxylesterase-mediated metabolism such as enalapril, lovastatin, irinotecan, clopidogrel, prasugrel, methylphenidate, meperidine, and oseltamivir that may interact with ethanol. The clinical significance of the interaction of ethanol with specific drugs subject to carboxylesterase hydrolysis is not well recognized and has not been adequately studied. PMID:19920055

  14. Transport theory beyond binary collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Carrington, Margaret E.; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2005-03-15

    Using the Schwinger-Keldysh technique, we derive the transport equations for a system of quantum scalar fields. We first discuss the general structure of the equations and then their collision terms. Taking into account up to three-loop diagrams in {phi}{sup 3} model and up to four-loop diagrams in {phi}{sup 4} model, we obtain transport equations which include the contributions of multiparticle collisions and particle production processes, in addition to mean-field effects and binary interactions.

  15. Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    Electrophoresis has long been recognized as an effective analytic technique for the separation of proteins and other charged species, however attempts at scaling up to accommodate commercial volumes have met with limited success. In this report we describe a novel electrophoretic separation technique - Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis (BOCE). Numerical simulations indicate that the technique has the potential for preparative scale throughputs with high resolution, while simultaneously avoiding many problems common to conventional electrophoresis. The technique utilizes the interaction of an oscillatory electric field and a transverse oscillatory shear flow to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged protein species. An oscillatory electric field is applied across the narrow gap of a rectangular channel inducing a periodic motion of charged protein species. The amplitude of this motion depends on the dimensionless electrophoretic mobility, alpha = E(sub o)mu/(omega)d, where E(sub o) is the amplitude of the electric field oscillations, mu is the dimensional mobility, omega is the angular frequency of oscillation and d is the channel gap width. An oscillatory shear flow is induced along the length of the channel resulting in the separation of species with different mobilities. We present a model that predicts the oscillatory behavior of charged species and allows estimation of both the magnitude of the induced convective velocity and the effective diffusivity as a function of a in infinitely long channels. Numerical results indicate that in addition to the mobility dependence, the steady state behavior of solute species may be strongly affected by oscillating fluid into and out of the active electric field region at the ends of the cell. The effect is most pronounced using time dependent shear flows of the same frequency (cos((omega)t)) flow mode) as the electric field oscillations. Under such conditions, experiments indicate that

  16. Long-Term Stability of Planets in Binary Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Matthew J.; Wiegert, Paul A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple question of celestial mechanics is investigated: in what regions of phase space near a binary system can planets persist for long times? The planets are taken to be test particles moving in the field of an eccentric binary system. A range of values of the binary eccentricity and mass ratio is studied, and both the case of planets orbiting close to one of the stars, and that of planets outside the binary orbiting the systems center of mass, are examined. From the results, empirical expressions are developed for both (1) the largest orbit around each of the stars and (2) the smallest orbit around the binary system as a whole, in which test particles survive the length of the integration (10A4 binary periods). The empirical expressions developed, which are roughly linear in both the mass ratio mu and the binary eccentricity e, are determined for the range 0.0=e=0.7-0.8 and 0.1=mu=0.9 in both regions and can be used to guide searches for planets in binary systems. After considering the case of a single low-mass planet in binary systems, the stability of a mutually interacting system of planets orbiting one star of a binary system is examined, though in less detail.

  17. Positive and Negative Contributions in the Solvation Enthalpy due to Specific Interactions in Binary Mixtures of C1-C4 n-Alkanols and Chloroform with Butan-2-one.

    PubMed

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A; Rakipov, Ilnaz T; Solomonov, Boris N; Lodowski, Piotr; Marczak, Wojciech

    2015-06-25

    In the paper, results of calorimetric measurements, IR spectra, and calculated ab initio stabilization energies of dimers are reported for binary systems butan-2-one + (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and chloroform). Changes in the total enthalpy of specific interactions due to dissolution of butan-2-one in the alcohols, calculated using equations derived in previous works, are positive. That results from the endothermic breaking of the O-H···O-H bonds not completely compensated by the exothermic effects of formation of the O-H···O═C ones. Moreover, the concentration of nonbonded molecules of butan-2-one is significant even in dilute solutions, as is evidenced by the shape of the C═O stretching vibrations band in the IR spectra. Apart from that, the spectra do not confirm 1:2 complexes in spite of two lone electron pairs in the carbonyl group of butan-2-one capable of forming the hydrogen bonds. The changes in enthalpy of specific interactions are negative for dilute solutions of alcohols and chloroform in butan-2-one and of butan-2-one in chloroform, because no hydrogen bonds occur in pure butan-2-one. The experimental results are positively correlated with the enthalpies estimated from the ab initio energies using a simple "chemical reaction" approach. PMID:26012694

  18. Positive and Negative Contributions in the Solvation Enthalpy due to Specific Interactions in Binary Mixtures of C1-C4 n-Alkanols and Chloroform with Butan-2-one.

    PubMed

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A; Rakipov, Ilnaz T; Solomonov, Boris N; Lodowski, Piotr; Marczak, Wojciech

    2015-06-25

    In the paper, results of calorimetric measurements, IR spectra, and calculated ab initio stabilization energies of dimers are reported for binary systems butan-2-one + (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and chloroform). Changes in the total enthalpy of specific interactions due to dissolution of butan-2-one in the alcohols, calculated using equations derived in previous works, are positive. That results from the endothermic breaking of the O-H···O-H bonds not completely compensated by the exothermic effects of formation of the O-H···O═C ones. Moreover, the concentration of nonbonded molecules of butan-2-one is significant even in dilute solutions, as is evidenced by the shape of the C═O stretching vibrations band in the IR spectra. Apart from that, the spectra do not confirm 1:2 complexes in spite of two lone electron pairs in the carbonyl group of butan-2-one capable of forming the hydrogen bonds. The changes in enthalpy of specific interactions are negative for dilute solutions of alcohols and chloroform in butan-2-one and of butan-2-one in chloroform, because no hydrogen bonds occur in pure butan-2-one. The experimental results are positively correlated with the enthalpies estimated from the ab initio energies using a simple "chemical reaction" approach.

  19. Absolute parameters of stars in semidetached eclipsing binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budding, E.

    1985-06-01

    A number of questions concerning the absolute parameters of stars in semidetached binary systems are addressed. Consideration is given to: similarities between Algol-type binaries and unevolved detached binaries with respect to the mass-luminosity law; and the single-line classical Algol candidates with known mass functions and photometric solutions for mass ratio. It is shown that the validity of the mass luminosity-law cannot be verified for individual Algol-type binaries though it does hold well on average; and (2), the existence of a definite class of sd-binaries not containing a proportion of significantly undersize types is apparent. The conclusions are found to be in general agreement with the observations of Hall and Neff (1979).

  20. The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Udi; Asis, Lior; Eshed Williams, Leor

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the production of flowers marks the beginning of the reproductive phase. At the emergence of flower primordia on the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, the WUSCHEL (WUS) gene, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor starts to be expressed and establishes de novo stem cell population, founder of the floral meristem (FM). Similarly to the shoot apical meristem a precise spatial and temporal expression pattern of WUS is required and maintained through strict regulation by multiple regulatory inputs to maintain stem cell homeostasis. However, following the formation of a genetically determined fixed number of floral organs, this homeostasis is shifted towards organogenesis and the FM is terminated. In here we performed a genetic study to test how a reduction in ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways affects floral meristem activity and flower development. We revealed strong synergistic phenotypes of extra flower number, supernumerary whorls, total loss of determinacy and extreme enlargement of the meristem as compared to any double mutant combination indicating that the three pathways, CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII distinctively regulate meristem activity and that they act in parallel. Our findings yield several new insights into stem cell-driven development. We demonstrate the crucial requirement for coupling floral meristem termination with carpel formation to ensure successful reproduction in plants. We also show how regulation of meristem size and alternation in spatial structure of the meristem serve as a mechanism to determine flower organogenesis. We propose that the loss of FM determinacy due to the reduction in CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII activity is genetically separable from the AGAMOUS core mechanism of meristem termination. PMID:25946150

  1. A New Class of Orthosteric uPAR•uPA Small-Molecule Antagonists Are Allosteric Inhibitors of the uPAR•Vitronectin Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Degang; Zhou, Donghui; Wang, Bo; Knabe, William Eric; Meroueh, Samy O.

    2015-01-01

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored cell surface receptor that is at the center of an intricate network of protein-protein interactions. Its immediate binding partners are the serine proteinase urokinase (uPA), and vitronectin (VTN), a component of the extracellular matrix. uPA and VTN bind at distinct sites on uPAR to promote extracellular matrix degradation and integrin signaling, respectively. Here, we report the discovery of a new class of pyrrolone small-molecule inhibitors of the tight ∼1 nM uPAR•uPA protein-protein interaction. These compounds were designed to bind to the uPA pocket on uPAR. The highest affinity compound, namely 7, displaced a fluorescently-labeled α-helical peptide (AE147-FAM) with an inhibition constant Ki of 0.7 µM and inhibited the tight uPAR•uPAATF interaction with an IC50 of 18 µM. Biophysical studies with surface plasmon resonance showed that VTN binding is highly dependent on uPA. This cooperative binding was confirmed as 7, which binds at the uPAR•uPA interface, also inhibited the distal VTN•uPAR interaction. In cell culture, 7 blocked the uPAR•uPA interaction in uPAR-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells, and impaired cell adhesion to VTN, a process that is mediated by integrins. As a result, 7 inhibited integrin signaling in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells as evidenced by a decrease in focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and Rac1 GTPase activation. Consistent with these results, 7 blocked breast MDA-MB-231 cancer cell invasion with IC50 values similar to those observed in ELISA and surface plasmon resonance competition studies. Explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations show that the cooperativity between uPA and VTN is attributed to stabilization of uPAR motion by uPA. In addition, free energy calculations revealed that uPA stabilizes the VTN•uPARSMB interaction through more favorable electrostatics and entropy. Disruption of the uPAR•VTNSMB interaction by 7 is consistent with the

  2. A new class of orthosteric uPAR·uPA small-molecule antagonists are allosteric inhibitors of the uPAR·vitronectin interaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Degang; Zhou, Donghui; Wang, Bo; Knabe, William Eric; Meroueh, Samy O

    2015-06-19

    The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-anchored cell surface receptor that is at the center of an intricate network of protein-protein interactions. Its immediate binding partners are the serine proteinase urokinase (uPA), and vitronectin (VTN), a component of the extracellular matrix. uPA and VTN bind at distinct sites on uPAR to promote extracellular matrix degradation and integrin signaling, respectively. Here, we report the discovery of a new class of pyrrolone small-molecule inhibitors of the tight ∼1 nM uPAR·uPA protein-protein interaction. These compounds were designed to bind to the uPA pocket on uPAR. The highest affinity compound, namely 7, displaced a fluorescently labeled α-helical peptide (AE147-FAM) with an inhibition constant Ki of 0.7 μM and inhibited the tight uPAR·uPAATF interaction with an IC50 of 18 μM. Biophysical studies with surface plasmon resonance showed that VTN binding is highly dependent on uPA. This cooperative binding was confirmed as 7, which binds at the uPAR·uPA interface, also inhibited the distal VTN·uPAR interaction. In cell culture, 7 blocked the uPAR·uPA interaction in uPAR-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK-293) cells and impaired cell adhesion to VTN, a process that is mediated by integrins. As a result, 7 inhibited integrin signaling in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells as evidenced by a decrease in focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation and Rac1 GTPase activation. Consistent with these results, 7 blocked breast MDA-MB-231 cancer cell invasion with IC50 values similar to those observed in ELISA and surface plasmon resonance competition studies. Explicit-solvent molecular dynamics simulations show that the cooperativity between uPA and VTN is attributed to stabilization of uPAR motion by uPA. In addition, free energy calculations revealed that uPA stabilizes the VTNSMB·uPAR interaction through more favorable electrostatics and entropy. Disruption of the uPAR·VTNSMB interaction by 7 is consistent with the

  3. Interaction between the CD8 coreceptor and major histocompatibility complex class I stabilizes T cell receptor-antigen complexes at the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Linda; van den Berg, Hugo A; Glick, Meir; Gostick, Emma; Laugel, Bruno; Hutchinson, Sarah L; Milicic, Anita; Brenchley, Jason M; Douek, Daniel C; Price, David A; Sewell, Andrew K

    2005-07-29

    The off-rate (k(off)) of the T cell receptor (TCR)/peptide-major histocompatibility complex class I (pMHCI) interaction, and hence its half-life, is the principal kinetic feature that determines the biological outcome of TCR ligation. However, it is unclear whether the CD8 coreceptor, which binds pMHCI at a distinct site, influences this parameter. Although biophysical studies with soluble proteins show that TCR and CD8 do not bind cooperatively to pMHCI, accumulating evidence suggests that TCR associates with CD8 on the T cell surface. Here, we titrated and quantified the contribution of CD8 to TCR/pMHCI dissociation in membrane-constrained interactions using a panel of engineered pMHCI mutants that retain faithful TCR interactions but exhibit a spectrum of affinities for CD8 of >1,000-fold. Data modeling generates a "stabilization factor" that preferentially increases the predicted TCR triggering rate for low affinity pMHCI ligands, thereby suggesting an important role for CD8 in the phenomenon of T cell cross-reactivity.

  4. Quantum chemical calculations predict biological function: the case of T cell receptor interaction with a peptide/MHC class I

    PubMed Central

    Antipas, Georgios S. E.; Germenis, Anastasios E.

    2015-01-01

    A combination of atomic correlation statistics and quantum chemical calculations are shown to predict biological function. In the present study, various antigenic peptide-Major Histocompatibility Complex (pMHC) ligands with near-identical stereochemistries, in complexation with the same T cell receptor (TCR), were found to consistently induce distinctly different quantum chemical behavior, directly dependent on the peptide's electron spin density and intrinsically expressed by the protonation state of the peptide's N-terminus. Furthermore, the cumulative coordination difference of any variant in respect to the native peptide was found to accurately reflect peptide biological function and immerges as the physical observable which is directly related to the immunological end-effect of pMHC-TCR interaction. PMID:25713797

  5. Quantum chemical calculations predict biological function: The case of T cell receptor interaction with a peptide/MHC class I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antipas, Georgios S. E.; Germenis, Anastasios

    2015-02-01

    A combination of atomic correlation statistics and quantum chemical calculations are shown to predict biological function. In the present study, various antigenic peptide-Major Histocompatibility Complex (pMHC) ligands with near-identical stereochemistries, in complexation with the same T cell receptor (TCR), were found to consistently induce distinctly different quantum chemical behavior, directly dependent on the peptide’s electron spin density and intrinsically expressed by the protonation state of the peptide’s N-terminus. Furthermore, the cumulative coordination difference of any variant in respect to the native peptide was found to accurately reflect peptide biological function and immerges as the physical observable which is directly related to the immunological end-effect of pMHC-TCR interaction.

  6. Cloning and modeling of CD8 beta in the amphibian ambystoma Mexicanum. Evolutionary conserved structures for interactions with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

    PubMed

    Fellah, Julien S; Tuffèry, Pierre; Etchebest, Catherine; Guillet, Françoise; Bleux, Christian; Charlemagne, Jacques

    2002-04-17

    Mammalian and avian T-cells exhibit a large number of well characterized surface molecules associated with their maturation degree. Very little is known in comparison with T-cell differentiation in ectothermic vertebrates. This is mainly due to the lack of probes to identify T-cell subsets. We cloned and sequenced the first ectothermic CD8 beta DNA complementary to RNA from an amphibian species, the Mexican axolotl. The CD8 beta chain was 30-36% identical with its avian and mammalian homologues. The extracellular V-like domain contained the two typically conserved cysteines and was followed by a J-like sequence containing the canonical Phe-Gly-X-Gly stretch. The connecting peptide was much longer than in other species and contained potential O-glycosylation sites. The axolotl CD8 beta and major histocompatibility complex class I molecules were modeled using human HLA-A2/CD8 alphaalpha complex as template. The backbone conformation of axolotl CD8 beta matched well with the CD8 alpha-2 subunit of the human complex but significant structural differences were located in the CDR1, CDR2 and DE loops. Both axolotl and human class I showed large negative surface potential. The interacting area of the human CD8 alpha chain and of the corresponding region of axolotl CD8 beta had positive electrostatic potential compatible with complexation with the corresponding class I molecules. The presence of a CD8 beta homologue in an amphibian species implies that it was already present in the Devonian ancestor of amphibians and mammals, i.e. more than 400 million years ago. PMID:12034498

  7. Effectiveness of Intensive Interactive Classes and Hands on Practice to Increase Awareness about Sharps Injuries and Splashes among Health Care Workers

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Purva; Gunjiyal, Jacinta; Misra, Mahesh Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to sharps and splashes pose a major hazard among health care workers (HCWs); so knowledge and awareness regarding sharps/splashes by blood and potentially infectious body fluids (BBF) is a must. Hence, the study was done to assess the extent of knowledge of the staff and using awareness classes and hands on practice as a model to increase awareness as well as prevention. Materials and Methods This prospective interventional cohort study, using before – after trial, was conducted in a Level I trauma care centre. All cadres of HCWs were enrolled randomly into 5 different groups of 15 each. This study was conducted in 2 phases – interactive classes and hands on practice (Phase I) and questionnaire assessment and work area observation (phase II). This was repeated twice and the final outcome was analysed. A systematic level of grading was used to assess the improvement. Results It was observed that Group 1 (doctors) and group 2 (nurses) had the maximum knowledge about such exposures and its prevention compared to the other groups (groups 3, 4 and 5) during the initial assessment (Phase I). The remaining groups showed a major improvement after the 2nd assessment, though their knowledge was poor in the beginning. Groups 1and 2 showed 32% and remaining groups showed a 25% improvement in voluntary reporting after the second assessment (Phase II). Conclusion Awareness classes and hands on practice are indeed useful in generating knowledge about sharps/ splashes. Certain incentives given at right time can improve it further. PMID:26393129

  8. Binaries in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hut, Piet; Mcmillan, Steve; Goodman, Jeremy; Mateo, Mario; Phinney, E. S.; Pryor, Carlton; Richer, Harvey B.; Verbunt, Frank; Weinberg, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Recent observations have shown that globular clusters contain a substantial number of binaries most of which are believed to be primordial. We discuss different successful optical search techniques, based on radial-velocity variables, photometric variables, and the positions of stars in the color-magnitude diagram. In addition, we review searches in other wavelengths, which have turned up low-mass X-ray binaries and more recently a variety of radio pulsars. On the theoretical side, we give an overview of the different physical mechanisms through which individual binaries evolve. We discuss the various simulation techniques which recently have been employed to study the effects of a primordial binary population, and the fascinating interplay between stellar evolution and stellar dynamics which drives globular-cluster evolution.

  9. Sometimes binary is better

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprows, David

    2015-04-01

    This note uses material involving perfect numbers and Zeno's paradoxes to show that although most students prefer to use base 10 when working with mathematical concepts there are times when the binary system is best.

  10. Double Degenerate Binary Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yakut, K.

    2011-09-21

    In this study, angular momentum loss via gravitational radiation in double degenerate binary (DDB)systems (NS + NS, NS + WD, WD + WD, and AM CVn) is studied. Energy loss by gravitational waves has been estimated for each type of systems.

  11. X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Satellite X-ray experiments and ground-based programs aimed at observation of X-ray binaries are discussed. Experiments aboard OAO-3, OSO-8, Ariel 5, Uhuru, and Skylab are included along with rocket and ground-based observations. Major topics covered are: Her X-1, Cyg X-3, Cen X-3, Cyg X-1, the transient source A0620-00, other possible X-ray binaries, and plans and prospects for future observational programs.

  12. Binary-Symmetry Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Hiram

    1987-01-01

    Transmission errors for zeros and ones tabulated separately. Binary-symmetry detector employs psuedo-random data pattern used as test message coming through channel. Message then modulo-2 added to locally generated and synchronized version of test data pattern in same manner found in manufactured test sets of today. Binary symmetrical channel shows nearly 50-percent ones to 50-percent zeroes correspondence. Degree of asymmetry represents imbalances due to either modulation, transmission, or demodulation processes of system when perturbed by noise.

  13. Scattering from binary optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Douglas W.

    1993-01-01

    There are a number of sources of scattering in binary optics: etch depth errors, line edge errors, quantization errors, roughness, and the binary approximation to the ideal surface. These sources of scattering can be systematic (deterministic) or random. In this paper, scattering formulas for both systematic and random errors are derived using Fourier optics. These formulas can be used to explain the results of scattering measurements and computer simulations.

  14. Spectroscopic Binary Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batten, A.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Historically, spectroscopic binary stars were binary systems whose nature was discovered by the changing DOPPLER EFFECT or shift of the spectral lines of one or both of the component stars. The observed Doppler shift is a combination of that produced by the constant RADIAL VELOCITY (i.e. line-of-sight velocity) of the center of mass of the whole system, and the variable shift resulting from the o...

  15. Orbits of 6 Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olevic, D.; Cvetkovic, Z.

    In this paper the orbits of binaries WDS 10093+2020 = A 2145, WDS 21074-0814 = BU 368 AB and WDS 22288-0001 = STF 2909 AB are recalculated because of significant deviations of more recent observations from the ephemerides. For binaries WDS 22384-0754 = A 2695, WDS 23474-7118 = FIN 375 Aa and WDS 23578+2508 = McA 76 the orbital elements are calculated for the first time.

  16. Interactions between CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in reconstituted binary systems influence their catalytic activity: possible rationale for the inability of CYP2C19 to catalyze methoxychlor demethylation in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Hazai, Eszter; Kupfer, David

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that among cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450 (P450) supersomes, CYP2C19 was the most active in methoxychlor-O-demethylation. However, based on the lack of inhibition of methoxychlor-O-demethylation by monoclonal anti-CYP2C19 antibodies in human liver microsomes (HLM), CYP2C19 did not seem to catalyze that reaction in HLM. By contrast, CYP2C9, much less active than CYP2C19 in supersomes, was the most active in HLM. The current study examines whether the lack of methoxychlor-O-demethylation by CYP2C19 in HLM was due to CYP2C19 exhibiting inferior competition for the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR) versus CYP2C9 and explores the interactions between CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in a singular and binary complex of a reconstituted system. When reconstituted with CPR, cytochrome b(5), and lipid, purified CYP2C19 and CYP2C9 catalyzed methoxychlor-O-demethylation. However, whereas equimolar CPR to CYP2C9 supported maximal rates of methoxychlor demethylation and diclofenac hydroxylation, the rate of methoxychlor demethylation by CYP2C19 was not fully saturated, even with a 9-fold molar excess of CPR over CYP2C19. This behavior of CYP2C19 was also observed with S-mephenytoin as the substrate. When a binary reconstitution system was prepared by mixing CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 enzymes, methoxychlor-O-demethylation and S-mephenytoin hydroxylation by CYP2C19 were dramatically inhibited. Inhibition depended on the amount of CPR and substrate used. By contrast, in the incubation containing CYP2C9, diclofenac hydroxylation was activated by the presence of CYP2C19. These results show that interactions among P450 enzymes can modulate their catalytic rates, which depend on the substrate undergoing metabolism.

  17. Structural insights into the editing of germ-line-encoded interactions between T-cell receptor and MHC class II by Vα CDR3.

    PubMed

    Deng, Lu; Langley, Ries J; Wang, Qian; Topalian, Suzanne L; Mariuzza, Roy A

    2012-09-11

    The conserved diagonal docking mode observed in structures of T-cell receptors (TCRs) bound to peptide-MHC ligands is believed to reflect coevolution of TCR and MHC genes. This coevolution is supported by the conservation of certain interactions between the germ-line-encoded complementarity-determining region (CDR)1 and CDR2 loops of TCR and MHC. However, the rules governing these interactions are not straightforward, even when the same variable (V) region recognizes the same MHC molecule. Here, we demonstrate that the somatically generated CDR3 loops can markedly alter evolutionarily selected contacts between TCR and MHC ("CDR3 editing"). To understand CDR3 editing at the atomic level, we determined the structure of a human melanoma-specific TCR (G4) bound to the MHC class II molecule HLA-DR1 and an epitope from mutant triose phosphate isomerase (mutTPI). A comparison of the G4-mutTPI-DR1 complex with a complex involving a TCR (E8) that uses the same Vα region to recognize the same mutTPI-DR1 ligand as G4 revealed that CDR1α adopts markedly different conformations in the two TCRs, resulting in an almost entirely different set of contacts with MHC. Based on the structures of unbound G4 and E8, the distinct conformations of CDR1α in these TCRs are not induced by binding to mutTPI-DR1 but result from differences in the length and sequence of CDR3α that are transmitted to CDR1α. The editing of germ-line-encoded TCR-MHC interactions by CDR3 demonstrates that these interactions possess sufficient intrinsic flexibility to accommodate large structural variations in CDR3 and, consequently, in the TCR-binding site.

  18. SN 2011ht: confirming a class of interacting supernovae with plateau light curves (Type IIn-P)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauerhan, Jon C.; Smith, Nathan; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Morgan, Adam N.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Ganeshalingam, Mohan; Clubb, Kelsey I.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Matheson, Thomas; Milne, Peter

    2013-05-01

    We present photometry and spectroscopy of the Type IIn supernova (SN) 2011ht, identified previously as a possible SN impostor. The light curve exhibits an abrupt transition from a well-defined ˜120 d plateau to a steep bolometric decline, plummeting 4-5 mag in the optical and 2-3 mag in the infrared in only ˜10 d. Leading up to peak brightness (MV = -17.4 mag), a hot emission-line spectrum exhibits strong signs of interaction with circumstellar material (CSM), in the form of relatively narrow P-Cygni features of H I and He I superimposed on broad Lorentzian wings. For the latter half of the plateau phase, the spectrum exhibits strengthening P-Cygni profiles of Fe II, Ca II and Hα. By day 147, after the plateau has ended, the SN entered the nebular phase, heralded by the appearance of forbidden transitions of [O I], [O II] and [Ca II] over a weak continuum. At this stage, the light curve exhibits a low optical luminosity that is comparable to that of the most subluminous Type II-P supernovae, and a relatively fast visual wavelength decline that appeared to be significantly steeper than the 56Co decay rate. However, the total pseudo-bolometric decline, including the infrared luminosity, is consistent with 56Co decay, and implies a low 56Ni mass in the range 0.006-0.01 M⊙, near the lower end of the range exhibited by SNe II-P. We therefore characterize SN 2011ht as a core-collapse SN very similar to the peculiar SNe IIn 1994W and 2009kn. These three SNe appear to define a subclass, which are Type IIn based on their spectrum, but that also exhibit well-defined plateaus and produce low 56Ni yields. We therefore suggest Type IIn-P as a name for this subclass. The absence of observational signatures of high-velocity material from SNe IIn-P could be the result of an opaque shell at the shocked SN-CSM interface, which remains optically thick longer than the time-scale for the inner ejecta to cool and become transparent. Possible progenitors of SNe IIn-P, consistent

  19. 3D Models of Symbiotic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, S.; Booth, R.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W.; Maercker, M.

    2015-12-01

    Symbiotic binaries consist of a cool, mass-losing giant and an accreting, compact companion. We present 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of two such interacting binaries, RS Oph and Mira AB. RS Oph is also a recurrent nova system, thus we model multiple quiescent mass transfer-nova outburst cycles. The resulting circumstellar structures of both systems are highly complex with the formation of spirals, arcs, shells, equatorial and bipolar outflows. We compare the models to recent observations and discuss the implications of our results for related systems, e.g., bipolar nebulae and jets, chemically peculiar stars, and the progenitors of Type Ia supernovae.

  20. Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries by Gravitational Collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesvorný, David; Youdin, Andrew N.; Richardson, Derek C.

    2010-09-01

    A large fraction of ~100 km class low-inclination objects in the classical Kuiper Belt (KB) are binaries with comparable masses and a wide separation of components. A favored model for their formation is that they were captured during the coagulation growth of bodies in the early KB. However, recent studies have suggested that large, gsim100 km objects can rapidly form in the protoplanetary disks when swarms of locally concentrated solids collapse under their own gravity. Here, we examine the possibility that KB binaries formed during gravitational collapse when the excess of angular momentum prevented the agglomeration of available mass into a solitary object. We find that this new mechanism provides a robust path toward the formation of KB binaries with observed properties, and can explain wide systems such as 2001 QW322 and multiples such as (47171) 1999 TC36. Notably, the gravitational collapse is capable of producing ~100% binary fraction for a wide range of the swarm's initial angular momentum values. The binary components have similar masses (~80% have a secondary-over-primary radius ratio >0.7) and their separation ranges from ~1000 to ~100,000 km. The binary orbits have eccentricities from e = 0 to ~1, with the majority having e < 0.6. The binary orbit inclinations with respect to the initial angular momentum of the swarm range from i = 0 to ~90°, with most cases having i < 50°. The total binary mass represents a characteristic fraction of the collapsing swarm's total initial mass, M tot, suggesting M tot equivalent to that of a radius ~100-250 km compact object. Our binary formation mechanism also implies that the primary and secondary components in each binary pair should have identical bulk composition, which is consistent with the current photometric data. We discuss the applicability of our results to the Pluto-Charon, Orcus-Vanth, (617) Patroclus-Menoetius, and (90) Antiope binary systems.

  1. Rheological Analysis of Polymer Interactions and Ageing of Poly(Methylvinylether-Co-Maleic Anhydride)/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Binary Networks and Their Effects on Mucoadhesion.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Gavin P; Laverty, Thomas P; Jones, David S

    2015-12-01

    Polymer blends of poly(vinylalcohol, PVA) and poly(methylvinylether-co-maleic anhydride, PMVE/MA) were formulated and their viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties characterised. The viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties were dependent on polymer concentration, molecular weight of PVA and PVA:PMVE/MA ratio. Alteration of these properties allowed platforms to be designed to offer defined rheological and mucoadhesive properties, properties that could not be achieved using monopolymeric platforms. A strong correlation was noted between the modulus of the polymeric blends and mucoadhesion. After storage, the polymeric blends underwent rheological structuring (ageing) with an attendant enhancement of mucoadhesion. In certain blends containing the highest molecular weight of PVA (146-186 kDa), storage ultimately resulted in an increase and then a significant decrease in the rheological and mucoadhesive properties, the latter phenomenon being accredited to polymer recrystallisation. Ageing of the rheological and mucoadhesive properties was modelled using an exponential growth model, allowing predictions of the storage period associated with the maxima in viscoelastic and mucoadhesive properties. These observations highlight the possible implications whenever interactive polymeric blends are employed in drug delivery. Caution is therefore urged whenever a formulation strategy based on interactive polymer blends is employed to ensure that ageing is fully understood and mathematically characterised. PMID:26502109

  2. Identification of the First Inhibitor of the GBP1:PIM1 Interaction. Implications for the Development of a New Class of Anticancer Agents against Paclitaxel Resistant Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Class III β-tubulin plays a prominent role in the development of drug resistance to paclitaxel by allowing the incorporation of the GBP1 GTPase into microtubules. Once in the cytoskeleton, GBP1 binds to prosurvival kinases such as PIM1 and initiates a signaling pathway that induces resistance to paclitaxel. Therefore, the inhibition of the GBP1:PIM1 interaction could potentially revert resistance to paclitaxel. A panel of 44 4-azapodophyllotoxin derivatives was screened in the NCI-60 cell panel. The result is that 31 are active and the comparative analysis demonstrated specific activity in paclitaxel-resistant cells. Using surface plasmon resonance, we were able to prove that NSC756093 is a potent in vitro inhibitor of the GBP1:PIM1 interaction and that this property is maintained in vivo in ovarian cancer cells resistant to paclitaxel. Through bioinformatics, molecular modeling, and mutagenesis studies, we identified the putative NSC756093 binding site at the interface between the helical and the LG domain of GBP1. According to our results by binding to this site, the NSC756093 compound is able to stabilize a conformation of GBP1 not suitable for binding to PIM1. PMID:25211704

  3. Evidence for an Interaction between the SH3 Domain and the N-terminal Extension of the Essential Light Chain in Class II Myosins

    PubMed Central

    Lowey, Susan; Saraswat, Lakshmi D.; Liu, HongJun; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The function of the src-homology 3 (SH3) domain in class II myosins, a distinct β-barrel structure, remains unknown. Here we provide evidence, using electron cryomicroscopy, in conjunction with light scattering, fluorescence and kinetic analyses, that the SH3 domain facilitates the binding of the N-terminal extension of the essential light chain isoform (ELC-1) to actin. The 41-residue extension contains four conserved lysines followed by a repeating sequence of seven Pro/Ala residues. It is widely believed that the highly charged region interacts with actin, while the Pro/Ala-rich sequence forms a rigid tether that bridges the ~9 nm distance between the myosin lever arm and the thin filament. In order to localize the N-terminus of ELC in the actomyosin complex, an engineered Cys was reacted with undecagold-maleimide, and the labeled ELC was exchanged into myosin subfragment-1 (S1). Electron cryomicroscopy of S1-bound actin filaments, together with computer-based docking of the skeletal S1 crystal structure into 3D reconstructions, showed a well-defined peak for the gold cluster near the SH3 domain. Given that SH3 domains are known to bind proline-rich ligands, we suggest that the N-terminal extension of ELC interacts with actin and modulates myosin kinetics by binding to the SH3 domain during the ATPase cycle. PMID:17597155

  4. Adaptive interactions between HLA and HIV-1: Highly divergent selection imposed by HLA class I molecules with common supertype motifs1

    PubMed Central

    John, Mina; Heckerman, David; James, Ian; Park, Lawrence P.; Carlson, Jonathan M.; Chopra, Abha; Gaudieri, Silvana; Nolan, David; Haas, David W.; Riddler, Sharon A.; Haubrich, Richard; Mallal, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Currently 1.1 million individuals in the United States of America are living with HIV-1 infection. While this is a relatively small proportion of the global pandemic, the remarkable mix of ancestries in the U.S.A, drawn together over the past two centuries of continuous population migrations, provides an important and unique perspective on adaptive interactions between HIV-1 and human genetic diversity. HIV-1 is a rapidly adaptable organism and mutates within or near immune epitopes which are determined by the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I genotype of the infected host. We characterized HLA-associated polymorphisms across the full HIV-1 proteome in a large, ethnically diverse, national U.S cohort of HIV-1 infected individuals. We found a striking divergence in the immunoselection patterns associated with HLA variants which have very similar or identical peptide binding specificities but are differentially distributed among racial/ethnic groups. Though their similarity in peptide binding functionally clusters these HLA variants into supertypes, their differences at sites within the peptide binding groove contributes to ‘race-specific’ selection effects on circulating HIV-1 viruses. This suggests that the interactions between the HLA/HIV peptide complex and the T cell receptor (TCR) varies significantly within HLA supertype groups, which in turn, influences HIV-1 evolution. PMID:20231689

  5. Interacting genes that affect microtubule function in Drosophila melanogaster: Two classes of mutation revert the failure to complement between hay sup nc2 and mutations in tubulin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, C.L.; Fuller, M.T. )

    1990-05-01

    The recessive male sterile mutation hay{sup nc2} of Drosophila melanogaster fails to complement certain {beta}{sub 2}-tubulin and {alpha}-tubulin mutations, suggesting that the haywire product plays a role in microtubule function, perhaps as a structural component of microtubules. The genetic interaction appears to require the presence of the aberrant product encoded by hay{sup nc2}, which may act as a structural poison. Based on this observation, the authors have isolated ten new mutations with EMS that revert the failure to complement between hay{sup nc2} and B2t{sup n}. The revertants tested behaved as intragenic mutations of hay in recombination tests, and feel into two phenotypic classes, suggesting two functional domains of the hay gene product. Some revertants were hemizygous viable and less severe than hay{sup nc2} in their recessive phenotype. These mutations might revert the poison by restoring the aberrant product encoded by the hay{sup nc2} allele to more wild-type function. Most of the revertants were recessive lethal mutations, indicating that the hay gene product is essential for viability. These more extreme mutations could revert the poison by destroying the ability of the aberrant haywire{sup nc2} product to interact structurally with microtubules. Flies heterozygous for the original hay{sup nc2} allele and an extreme revertant show defects in both the structure and the function of the male meiotic spindle.

  6. Jets in black-hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdziarski, Andrzej

    2016-07-01

    I will review selected aspects of observations and theory of jets in black-hole binaries. The radio and gamma-ray emission of jets differs significantly between the low and high-mass X-ray binaries, which appears to be due jet-wind interaction (in particular, formation of recollimation shocks) in the latter. Also, both radio and X-ray emission of the jets can be significantly absorbed in the stellar wind of the donors in high-mass binaries. I will also review the theory of radiative processes in jets, their contributions to broad-band spectra, estimates of the jet power, the role of black-hole spin in powering jets, and the possibility that the base of the jet is the main source of X-ray emission (the lamppost model).

  7. The Outflows of Binary AGB Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramstedt, S.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Mohamed, S.

    2015-12-01

    The required conditions for stars to evolve into planetary nebulae (PNs) continues to puzzle. Since PNs are found in a wide variety of shapes, processes that could sculpt circumstellar envelopes (CSEs) are being investigated. A binary companion will have a strong gravitational effect, but known binary AGB stars are rare. Using ALMA in Cycle 1 and 2, we have observed a small sample of well-studied, binary AGB stars, covering a decisive range in separation, in order to determine the influence of a companion on the circumstellar morphology of the AGB primary. The first steps toward interpreting and analyzing the data have been taken, and the results will be compared to 3D Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) models of the gravitational interaction.

  8. Estimating neighborhood variability with a binary comparison matrix.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murphy, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    A technique which utilizes a binary comparison matrix has been developed to implement a neighborhood function for a raster format data base. The technique assigns an index value to the center pixel of 3- by 3-pixel neighborhoods. The binary comparison matrix provides additional information not found in two other neighborhood variability statistics; the function is sensitive to both the number of classes within the neighborhood and the frequency of pixel occurrence in each of the classes. Application of the function to a spatial data base from the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, demonstrates 1) the numerical distribution of the index values, and 2) the spatial patterns exhibited by the numerical values. -Author

  9. Canonical angles in a compact binary star system with spinning components: Approximative solution through next-to-leading-order spin-orbit interaction for circular orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessmer, Manuel; Steinhoff, Jan; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2013-03-01

    This paper will deal with an explicit determination of the time evolution of the spin orientation axes and the evolution of the orbital phase in the case of circular orbits under next-to-leading-order spin-orbit interactions. We modify the method of Schneider and Cui proposed [Theoreme über Bewegungsintegrale und ihre Anwendung in Bahntheorien, A Theoretische Geodäsie Vol. 121 (Verlag der Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, München, Germany, 2005)] to iteratively remove oscillatory terms in the equations of motion for different masses that were not present in the case of equal masses. Our smallness parameter is chosen to be the difference of the symmetric mass ratio to the value 1/4. Before the first Lie transformation, the set of conserved quantities consists of the total angular momentum J and the amplitudes of the orbital angular momentum and of the spins, L, S1, and S2. In contrast, S≔|S1+S2| is not conserved, and we wish to shift its nonconservation to higher orders of the smallness parameter. We perform the iterations explicitly to first order, while performing higher orders would mean no structural difference or harder mathematical difficulties. To apply this method, we develop a canonical system of spin variables reduced by the conservation law of total angular momentum, which is imposed on the phase space as a constraint. The result is an asymptotic series in ɛ that may be truncated appropriately by considering the physical properties of the regarded system.

  10. Fe XXV line profiles in colliding wind binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauw, Gregor; Mossoux, Enmanuelle; Nazé, Yaël

    2016-02-01

    Strong wind-wind collisions in massive binaries generate a very hot plasma that frequently produces a moderately strong iron line. The morphology of this line depends upon the properties of the wind interaction zone and its orientation with respect to the line of sight. As the binary components revolve around their common centre of mass, the line profiles are thus expected to vary. With the advent of the next generation of X-ray observatories (Astro-H, Athena) that will offer high-resolution spectroscopy above 6 keV, it will become possible to exploit these changes as the most sensitive probe of the inner parts of the colliding wind interaction. Using a simple prescription of the wind-wind interaction in an early-type binary, we have generated synthetic line profiles for a number of configurations and orbital phases. These profiles can help constrain the properties of the stellar winds in such binary systems.

  11. Binary ferrihydrite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, Gerald P.; Zhao, Jianmin; Feng, Zhen

    1996-01-01

    A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered.

  12. Binary ferrihydrite catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Huffman, G.P.; Zhao, J.; Feng, Z.

    1996-12-03

    A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered. 3 figs.

  13. Identification list of binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malkov,, O.; Karchevsky,, A.; Kaygorodov, P.; Kovaleva, D.

    The Identification List of Binaries (ILB) is a star catalogue constructed to facilitate cross-referencing between different catalogues of binary stars. As of 2015, it comprises designations for approximately 120,000 double/multiple systems. ILB contains star coordinates and cross-references to the Bayer/Flemsteed, DM (BD/CD/CPD), HD, HIP, ADS, WDS, CCDM, TDSC, GCVS, SBC9, IGR (and some other X-ray catalogues), PSR designations, as well as identifications in the recently developed BSDB system. ILB eventually became a part of the BDB stellar database.

  14. Odour suppression in binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Cashion, Larry; Livermore, Andrew; Hummel, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    It has been suggested that odours causing stronger trigeminal activation suppress weaker trigeminal stimuli and that mixed olfactory-trigeminal stimuli suppress odorants that only activate one of these systems. Volunteer normosmic participants (n=20) were exposed to six odorants with varying trigeminal impact to test the hypothesis that more intense "trigeminal" odorants would suppress weaker trigeminal stimuli in binary odour mixtures. It was also hypothesised that stronger trigeminal odorants would dominate six-odour mixtures. The predicted linear pattern of suppression was not seen, with a quadratic model emerging from the data. Stronger trigeminal stimuli failed to dominate six-odour mixtures. Despite the fact that the major hypothesis was not supported, it can be hypothesised from this experiment that the effect of suppression in binary mixtures is reliant upon two major effects: (1) the association formed between odours and the multiple memory systems that they interact with during the encoding and recognition processes, and (2) the balance between activation of the olfactory and trigeminal systems.

  15. Class Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Thomas I.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief introduction identifying current issues and trends in research on class size, this brochure reviews five recent studies bearing on the relationship of class size to educational effectiveness. Part 1 is a review of two interrelated and highly controversial "meta-analyses" or statistical integrations of research findings on class size,…

  16. Class Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdata, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    Ever since George Washington opted for the title of president rather than king, Americans have been uncomfortable with the idea of class distinctions. This article presents an interview with Dr. Janet Galligani Casey regarding the idea of class distinctions. Galligani Casey, who grew up in a working-class neighborhood in Somerville, Massachusetts,…

  17. Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu

    2004-10-01

    Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.

  18. N-Bit Binary Resistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tcheng, Ping

    1989-01-01

    Binary resistors in series tailored to precise value of resistance. Desired value of resistance obtained by cutting appropriate traces across resistors. Multibit, binary-based, adjustable resistor with high resolution used in many applications where precise resistance required.

  19. The Arabidopsis GRAS Protein SCL14 Interacts with Class II TGA Transcription Factors and Is Essential for the Activation of Stress-Inducible Promoters[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Fode, Benjamin; Siemsen, Tanja; Thurow, Corinna; Weigel, Ralf; Gatz, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    The plant signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) and/or xenobiotic chemicals like the auxin mimic 2,4-D induce transcriptional activation of defense- and stress-related genes that contain activation sequence-1 (as-1)–like cis-elements in their promoters. as-1–like sequences are recognized by basic/leucine zipper transcription factors of the TGA family. Expression of genes related to the SA-dependent defense program systemic acquired resistance requires the TGA-interacting protein NPR1. However, a number of as-1–containing promoters can be activated independently from NPR1. Here, we report the identification of Arabidopsis thaliana SCARECROW-like 14 (SCL14), a member of the GRAS family of regulatory proteins, as a TGA-interacting protein that is required for the activation of TGA-dependent but NPR1-independent SA- and 2,4-D–inducible promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that class II TGA factors TGA2, TGA5, and/or TGA6 are needed to recruit SCL14 to promoters of selected SCL14 target genes identified by whole-genome transcript profiling experiments. The coding regions and the expression profiles of the SCL14-dependent genes imply that they might be involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and possibly endogenous harmful metabolites. Consistently, plants ectopically expressing SCL14 showed increased tolerance to toxic doses of the chemicals isonicotinic acid and 2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid, whereas the scl14 and the tga2 tga5 tga6 mutants were more susceptible. Hence, the TGA/SCL14 complex seems to be involved in the activation of a general broad-spectrum detoxification network upon challenge of plants with xenobiotics. PMID:18984675

  20. The Arabidopsis GRAS protein SCL14 interacts with class II TGA transcription factors and is essential for the activation of stress-inducible promoters.

    PubMed

    Fode, Benjamin; Siemsen, Tanja; Thurow, Corinna; Weigel, Ralf; Gatz, Christiane

    2008-11-01

    The plant signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) and/or xenobiotic chemicals like the auxin mimic 2,4-D induce transcriptional activation of defense- and stress-related genes that contain activation sequence-1 (as-1)-like cis-elements in their promoters. as-1-like sequences are recognized by basic/leucine zipper transcription factors of the TGA family. Expression of genes related to the SA-dependent defense program systemic acquired resistance requires the TGA-interacting protein NPR1. However, a number of as-1-containing promoters can be activated independently from NPR1. Here, we report the identification of Arabidopsis thaliana SCARECROW-like 14 (SCL14), a member of the GRAS family of regulatory proteins, as a TGA-interacting protein that is required for the activation of TGA-dependent but NPR1-independent SA- and 2,4-D-inducible promoters. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that class II TGA factors TGA2, TGA5, and/or TGA6 are needed to recruit SCL14 to promoters of selected SCL14 target genes identified by whole-genome transcript profiling experiments. The coding regions and the expression profiles of the SCL14-dependent genes imply that they might be involved in the detoxification of xenobiotics and possibly endogenous harmful metabolites. Consistently, plants ectopically expressing SCL14 showed increased tolerance to toxic doses of the chemicals isonicotinic acid and 2,4,6-triiodobenzoic acid, whereas the scl14 and the tga2 tga5 tga6 mutants were more susceptible. Hence, the TGA/SCL14 complex seems to be involved in the activation of a general broad-spectrum detoxification network upon challenge of plants with xenobiotics.

  1. Binary stars - Formation by fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boss, Alan P.

    1988-01-01

    Theories of binary star formation by capture, separate nuclei, fission and fragmentation are compared, assessing the success of theoretical attempts to explain the observed properties of main-sequence binary stars. The theory of formation by fragmentation is examined, discussing the prospects for checking the theory against observations of binary premain-sequence stars. It is concluded that formation by fragmentation is successful at explaining many of the key properties of main-sequence binary stars.

  2. Team Learning in Large Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roueche, Suanne D., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Information and suggestions are provided on the use of team learning in large college classes. Introductory material discusses the negative cycle of student-teacher interaction that may be provoked by large classes, and the use of permanent, heterogeneous, six- or seven-member student learning groups as the central focus of class activity as a…

  3. Separation in Binary Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frazier, D. O.; Facemire, B. R.; Kaukler, W. F.; Witherow, W. K.; Fanning, U.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of monotectic alloys and alloy analogs reviewed. Report surveys research on liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation in binary monotectic alloys. Emphasizes separation processes in low gravity, such as in outer space or in free fall in drop towers. Advances in methods of controlling separation in experiments highlighted.

  4. ALIGNMENT OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARY ORBITS AND SPINS

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, M. Coleman; Krolik, Julian H.

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies of accretion onto supermassive black hole binaries suggest that much, perhaps most, of the matter eventually accretes onto one hole or the other. If so, then for binaries whose inspiral from {approx}1 pc to {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} pc is driven by interaction with external gas, both the binary orbital axis and the individual black hole spins can be reoriented by angular momentum exchange with this gas. Here we show that, unless the binary mass ratio is far from unity, the spins of the individual holes align with the binary orbital axis in a time {approx}few-100 times shorter than the binary orbital axis aligns with the angular momentum direction of the incoming circumbinary gas; the spin of the secondary aligns more rapidly than that of the primary by a factor {approx}(m{sub 1}/m{sub 2}){sup 1/2} > 1. Thus the binary acts as a stabilizing agent, so that for gas-driven systems, the black hole spins are highly likely to be aligned (or counteraligned if retrograde accretion is common) with each other and with the binary orbital axis. This alignment can significantly reduce the recoil speed resulting from subsequent black hole merger.

  5. Merging Galaxies Create a Binary Quasar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-02-01

    Astronomers have found the first clear evidence of a binary quasar within a pair of actively merging galaxies. Quasars are the extremely bright centers of galaxies surrounding super-massive black holes, and binary quasars are pairs of quasars bound together by gravity. Binary quasars, like other quasars, are thought to be the product of galaxy mergers. Until now, however, binary quasars have not been seen in galaxies that are unambiguously in the act of merging. But images of a new binary quasar from the Carnegie Institution's Magellan telescope in Chile show two distinct galaxies with "tails" produced by tidal forces from their mutual gravitational attraction. "This is really the first case in which you see two separate galaxies, both with quasars, that are clearly interacting," says Carnegie astronomer John Mulchaey who made observations crucial to understanding the galaxy merger. Most, if not all, large galaxies, such as our galaxy the Milky Way, host super-massive black holes at their centers. Because galaxies regularly interact and merge, astronomers have assumed that binary super-massive black holes have been common in the Universe, especially during its early history. Black holes can only be detected as quasars when they are actively accreting matter, a process that releases vast amounts of energy. A leading theory is that galaxy mergers trigger accretion, creating quasars in both galaxies. Because most such mergers would have happened in the distant past, binary quasars and their associated galaxies are very far away and therefore difficult for most telescopes to resolve. The binary quasar, labeled SDSS J1254+0846, was initially detected by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, a large scale astronomical survey of galaxies and over 120,000 quasars. Further observations by Paul Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and colleagues* using NASA's Chandra's X-ray Observatory and telescopes at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona and Palomar

  6. Dynamics and Habitability in Binary Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Georgakarakos, Nikolaos; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2014-07-01

    Determining planetary habitability is a complex matter, as the interplay between a planet's physical and atmospheric properties with stellar insolation has to be studied in a self consistent manner. Standardized atmospheric models for Earth-like planets exist and are commonly accepted as a reference for estimates of Habitable Zones. In order to define Habitable Zone boundaries, circular orbital configurations around main sequence stars are generally assumed. In gravitationally interacting multibody systems, such as double stars, however, planetary orbits are forcibly becoming non circular with time. Especially in binary star systems even relatively small changes in a planet's orbit can have a large impact on habitability. Hence, we argue that a minimum model for calculating Habitable Zones in binary star systems has to include dynamical interactions.

  7. BROWN DWARF BINARIES FROM DISINTEGRATING TRIPLE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo E-mail: Seppo.Mikkola@utu.fi

    2015-04-15

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi–Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  8. Brown Dwarf Binaries from Disintegrating Triple Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Mikkola, Seppo

    2015-04-01

    Binaries in which both components are brown dwarfs (BDs) are being discovered at an increasing rate, and their properties may hold clues to their origin. We have carried out 200,000 N-body simulations of three identical stellar embryos with masses drawn from a Chabrier IMF and embedded in a molecular core. The bodies are initially non-hierarchical and undergo chaotic motions within the cloud core, while accreting using Bondi-Hoyle accretion. The coupling of dynamics and accretion often leads to one or two dominant bodies controlling the center of the cloud core, while banishing the other(s) to the lower-density outskirts, leading to stunted growth. Eventually each system transforms either to a bound hierarchical configuration or breaks apart into separate single and binary components. The orbital motion is followed for 100 Myr. In order to illustrate 200,000 end-states of such dynamical evolution with accretion, we introduce the “triple diagnostic diagram,” which plots two dimensionless numbers against each other, representing the binary mass ratio and the mass ratio of the third body to the total system mass. Numerous freefloating BD binaries are formed in these simulations, and statistical properties are derived. The separation distribution function is in good correspondence with observations, showing a steep rise at close separations, peaking around 13 AU and declining more gently, reaching zero at separations greater than 200 AU. Unresolved BD triple systems may appear as wider BD binaries. Mass ratios are strongly peaked toward unity, as observed, but this is partially due to the initial assumptions. Eccentricities gradually increase toward higher values, due to the lack of viscous interactions in the simulations, which would both shrink the orbits and decrease their eccentricities. Most newborn triple systems are unstable and while there are 9209 ejected BD binaries at 1 Myr, corresponding to about 4% of the 200,000 simulations, this number has grown to

  9. Binary Cepheids: Separations and Mass Ratios in 5 M ⊙ Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nancy Evans; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D.; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ~5 M ⊙—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M ⊙. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M ⊙ binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M ⊙ stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained by the Space Telescope Science Institute. STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  10. BINARY CEPHEIDS: SEPARATIONS AND MASS RATIOS IN 5 M {sub ☉} BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Nancy Remage; Karovska, Margarita; Tingle, Evan; Bond, Howard E.; Schaefer, Gail H.; Mason, Brian D. E-mail: heb11@psu.edu

    2013-10-01

    Deriving the distribution of binary parameters for a particular class of stars over the full range of orbital separations usually requires the combination of results from many different observing techniques (radial velocities, interferometry, astrometry, photometry, direct imaging), each with selection biases. However, Cepheids—cool, evolved stars of ∼5 M {sub ☉}—are a special case because ultraviolet (UV) spectra will immediately reveal any companion star hotter than early type A, regardless of the orbital separation. We have used International Ultraviolet Explorer UV spectra of a complete sample of all 76 Cepheids brighter than V = 8 to create a list of all 18 Cepheids with companions more massive than 2.0 M {sub ☉}. Orbital periods of many of these binaries are available from radial-velocity studies, or can be estimated for longer-period systems from detected velocity variability. In an imaging survey with the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3, we resolved three of the companions (those of η Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen), allowing us to make estimates of the periods out to the long-period end of the distribution. Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations, orbital periods, and mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 M {sub ☉} binaries have systematically shorter periods than do 1 M {sub ☉} stars. Our data also suggest that the distribution of mass ratios depends on both binary separation and system multiplicity. The distribution of mass ratios as a function of orbital separation, however, does not depend on whether a system is a binary or a triple.

  11. Hunting for brown dwarf binaries with X-Shooter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjavacas, E.; Goldman, B.; Alcalá, J. M.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, B. J. S.; Homeier, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Smart, R. L.; Henning, T.; Allard, F.

    2015-05-01

    The refinement of the brown dwarf binary fraction may contribute to the understanding of the substellar formation mechanisms. Peculiar brown dwarf spectra or discrepancy between optical and near-infrared spectral type classification of brown dwarfs may indicate unresolved brown dwarf binary systems. We obtained medium-resolution spectra of 22 brown dwarfs of potential binary candidates using X-Shooter at the VLT. We aimed to select brown dwarf binary candidates. We also tested whether BT-Settl 2014 atmospheric models reproduce the physics in the atmospheres of these objects. To find different spectral type spectral binaries, we used spectral indices and we compared the selected candidates to single spectra and composition of two single spectra from libraries, to try to reproduce our X-Shooter spectra. We also created artificial binaries within the same spectral class, and we tried to find them using the same method as for brown dwarf binaries with different spectral types. We compared our spectra to the BT-Settl models 2014. We selected six possible candidates to be combination of L plus T brown dwarfs. All candidates, except one, are better reproduced by a combination of two single brown dwarf spectra than by a single spectrum. The one-sided F-test discarded this object as a binary candidate. We found that we are not able to find the artificial binaries with components of the same spectral type using the same method used for L plus T brown dwarfs. Best matches to models gave a range of effective temperatures between 950 K and 1900 K, a range of gravities between 4.0 and 5.5. Some best matches corresponded to supersolar metallicity.

  12. On the Eccentricity Excitation in Post-main-sequence Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafikov, Roman R.

    2016-10-01

    Several classes of stellar binaries with post-main-sequence (post-MS) components—millisecond pulsars with the white dwarf companions (MSP+WD) and periods of {P}b∼ 30 days, binaries hosting post-asymptotic giant branch stars, or barium stars with {P}b ∼ several years—feature high eccentricities (up to 0.4) despite the expectation of their efficient tidal circularization during their post-MS evolution. It was suggested that the eccentricities of these binaries can be naturally excited by their tidal coupling to the circumbinary disk, formed by the material ejected from the binary. Here we critically reassess this idea using simple arguments rooted in the global angular momentum conservation of the disk+binary system. Compared to previous studies, we (1) fully account for the viscous spreading of the circumbinary disk, (2) consider the possibility of reaccretion from the disk onto the binary (in agreement with simulations and empirical evidence), and (3) allow for the reduced viscosity after the disk expands, cools, and forms dust. These ingredients conspire to significantly lower the efficiency of eccentricity excitation by the disk tides. We find that explaining eccentricities of the post-MS binaries is difficult and requires massive (≳ {10}-2 {M}ȯ ), long-lived (≳ {10}5 years) circumbinary disks that do not reaccrete. While disk tides may account for the eccentricities of the MSP+WD binaries, we show reaccretion to also be detrimental for these systems. Reduced efficiency of the disk-driven excitation motivates the study of alternative mechanisms for producing the peculiar eccentricities of the post-MS binaries.

  13. Evolution of weak disturbances in inert binary mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, M. L.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of weak disturbances in inert binary mixtures is determined for the one-dimensional piston problem. The interaction of the dissipative and nonlinear mechanisms is described by Burgers' equation. The binary mixture diffusion mechanisms enter as an additive term in an effective diffusivity. Results for the impulsive motion of a piston moving into an ambient medium and the sinusoidally oscillating piston are used to illustrate the results and elucidate the incorrect behavior pertaining to the associated linear theory.

  14. Gravitational wave astrophysics with compact binary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addison, Eric

    2014-10-01

    Gravitational waves are ripples in the fabric of spacetime that convey information about changing gravitational fields. Large-scale detection projects are currently in operation, and more advanced detectors are being designed and built. Though we have yet to make a direct detection of a gravitational wave signal, upgrades to current detectors are expected to bring the first detections within the next year or two. Gravitational waves will bring us information about astrophysical phenomena that is complementary to the information gained from photon-based observations (e.g., telescopes and radio receivers). One of the primary sources of gravitational waves are binary systems: two massive objects that orbit around each other due to their mutual gravitational attraction. These systems can have very predictable gravitational wave signatures due to their repetitive motions, making them ideal gravitational wave sources. In this dissertation, I present two research projects pertaining to gravitational wave astrophysics and compact binary systems. In the first, I explore interactions between compact binary systems near the center of our galaxy with the supermassive black hole that resides there. I am interested in the final state of the binary as a result of the interaction, ranging from small perturbations to the orbit up to total disruption. In the case of disruption, I characterize the new orbits formed between the binary components and the central black hole, known as extreme mass ratio inspirals. For binaries that survive the encounter, I examine the changes they experience, and find on average, they will merge together as a result of gravitational wave emission faster than before the encounter. In the second project, I propose a new method of measuring the radius of the swirling disc of gas and dust that encircles some stars in compact binary systems, known as the accretion disc. This method relies on the use of coupled electromagnetic and gravitational wave

  15. Acceleration by pulsar winds in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Gaisser, T. K.

    1990-01-01

    In the absence of accretion torques, a pulsar in a binary system will spin down due to electromagnetic dipole radiation and the spin-down power will drive a wind of relativistic electron-positron pairs. Winds from pulsars with short periods will prevent any subsequent accretion but may be confined by the companion star atmosphere, wind, or magnetosphere to form a standing shock. The authors investigate the possibility of particle acceleration at such a pulsar wind shock and the production of very high energy (VHE) and ultra high energy (UHE) gamma rays from interactions of accelerated protons in the companion star's wind or atmosphere. They find that in close binaries containing active pulsars, protons will be shock accelerated to a maximum energy dependent on the pulsar spin-down luminosity. If a significant fraction of the spin-down power goes into particle acceleration, these systems should be sources of VHE and possibly UHE gamma rays. The authors discuss the application of the pulsar wind model to binary sources such as Cygnus X-3, as well as the possibility of observing VHE gamma-rays from known binary radio pulsar systems.

  16. Markov counting models for correlated binary responses.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Forrest W; Zelterman, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    We propose a class of continuous-time Markov counting processes for analyzing correlated binary data and establish a correspondence between these models and sums of exchangeable Bernoulli random variables. Our approach generalizes many previous models for correlated outcomes, admits easily interpretable parameterizations, allows different cluster sizes, and incorporates ascertainment bias in a natural way. We demonstrate several new models for dependent outcomes and provide algorithms for computing maximum likelihood estimates. We show how to incorporate cluster-specific covariates in a regression setting and demonstrate improved fits to well-known datasets from familial disease epidemiology and developmental toxicology. PMID:25792624

  17. Markov counting models for correlated binary responses.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Forrest W; Zelterman, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    We propose a class of continuous-time Markov counting processes for analyzing correlated binary data and establish a correspondence between these models and sums of exchangeable Bernoulli random variables. Our approach generalizes many previous models for correlated outcomes, admits easily interpretable parameterizations, allows different cluster sizes, and incorporates ascertainment bias in a natural way. We demonstrate several new models for dependent outcomes and provide algorithms for computing maximum likelihood estimates. We show how to incorporate cluster-specific covariates in a regression setting and demonstrate improved fits to well-known datasets from familial disease epidemiology and developmental toxicology.

  18. Binary Love relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2016-07-01

    When in a tight binary, the mutual tidal deformations of neutron stars get imprinted onto observables, encoding information about their internal structure at supranuclear densities and gravity in the extreme-gravity regime. Gravitational wave (GW) observations of their late binary inspiral may serve as a tool to extract the individual tidal deformabilities, but this is made difficult by degeneracies between them in the GW model. We here resolve this problem by discovering approximately equation-of-state (EoS)-insensitive relations between dimensionless combinations of the individual tidal deformabilities. We show that these relations break degeneracies in the GW model, allowing for the accurate extraction of both deformabilities. Such measurements can be used to better differentiate between EoS models, and improve tests of general relativity and cosmology.

  19. Non-genetic sources of variation of milk production and reproduction and interactions between both classes of traits in Sicilo-Sarde dairy sheep.

    PubMed

    Meraï, A; Gengler, N; Hammami, H; Rekik, M; Bastin, C

    2014-09-01

    This work aimed to study the sources of variation in productive and reproductive traits of the dairy Sicilo-Sarde ewes and to further investigate the interaction between both classes of traits. After edits, a database containing 5935 lactation records collected during 6 successive years in eight dairy flocks in the North of Tunisia was used. Total milked milk (TMM) in the milking-only period was retained as productive trait. The interval from the start of the mating period to the subsequent lambing (IML) and the lambing status (LS) were designed as reproductive traits. Sicilo-Sarde ewes had an average TMM of 60.93 l (±44.12) during 132.8 days (±46.6) after a suckling period of 100.4 days (±24.9). Average IML was 165.7 days. In a first step, the major factors influencing milk production and reproductive traits were determined. The significant sources of variation identified for TMM were: flock, month of lambing, year of lambing, parity, suckling length, litter size and milking-only length. Flock×month of the start of the mating period, parity, year of mating and litter size were identified as significant factors of variation for IML, while flock×month of the start of the mating period, parity and year of mating were identified as significant sources of variation for LS. In a second step, variance components were estimated using a three traits threshold mixed model, which combined LS as categorical trait and TMM and IML as continuous traits. Repeatability estimates were 0.21 (±0.03) for TMM, 0.09 (±0.02) for IML, and 0.10 (±0.05) for LS. Moreover, TMM and IML were found to be favorably associated for the flock× year of lambing effect (-0.45±0.18) but unfavorably associated for the animal effect (0.20±0.09).

  20. Parametric binary dissection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.; Crockett, Thomas W.; Nicol, David M.

    1993-01-01

    Binary dissection is widely used to partition non-uniform domains over parallel computers. This algorithm does not consider the perimeter, surface area, or aspect ratio of the regions being generated and can yield decompositions that have poor communication to computation ratio. Parametric Binary Dissection (PBD) is a new algorithm in which each cut is chosen to minimize load + lambda x(shape). In a 2 (or 3) dimensional problem, load is the amount of computation to be performed in a subregion and shape could refer to the perimeter (respectively surface) of that subregion. Shape is a measure of communication overhead and the parameter permits us to trade off load imbalance against communication overhead. When A is zero, the algorithm reduces to plain binary dissection. This algorithm can be used to partition graphs embedded in 2 or 3-d. Load is the number of nodes in a subregion, shape the number of edges that leave that subregion, and lambda the ratio of time to communicate over an edge to the time to compute at a node. An algorithm is presented that finds the depth d parametric dissection of an embedded graph with n vertices and e edges in O(max(n log n, de)) time, which is an improvement over the O(dn log n) time of plain binary dissection. Parallel versions of this algorithm are also presented; the best of these requires O((n/p) log(sup 3)p) time on a p processor hypercube, assuming graphs of bounded degree. How PBD is applied to 3-d unstructured meshes and yields partitions that are better than those obtained by plain dissection is described. Its application to the color image quantization problem is also discussed, in which samples in a high-resolution color space are mapped onto a lower resolution space in a way that minimizes the color error.

  1. Binary Optics Toolkit

    1996-04-02

    This software is a set of tools for the design and analysis of binary optics. It consists of a series of stand-alone programs written in C and some scripts written in an application-specific language interpreted by a CAD program called DW2000. This software can be used to optimize the design and placement of a complex lens array from input to output and produce contours, mask designs, and data exported for diffractive optic analysis.

  2. Separated Fringe Packet Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnuolo, W. G.; Taylor, S. F.; McAlister, H. A.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Sturmann, L.; Sturmann, J.; Turner, N. H.; Berger, D.; Ridgway, S. T.; CenterHigh Angular Resolution Astronomy (CHARA)

    2004-12-01

    Individually resolved packets are produced by scans from the CHARA Interferometer Array for binary stars with separations from 10 to 100 milli-arcsec (mas) in the K' band. We have used this data for astrometry of the binary with the goal of improving the visual orbits for these systems. About 12 data sets of 400 scans each can be collected for a star within an hour. The intrinsic accuracy with simple linear/quadratic fits to the time-separation curve yields accuracies of 0.15 mas. But, for systems with separations less than 80 mas, the measured separation is modulated periodically by the secondary star's packet riding over the sidelobes of the primary which provides a phase reference. This "sidelobe verniering" can improve the precision to better than 50 micro-arcsec. These techniques, represents 1-2 orders of magnitude improvement in astrometic accuracy over speckle interferometry techniques. Visual orbits can then be refined via a maximum liklihood technique, which leads to revisions in the stellar masses. We present the results for several binaries that have been observed at the CHARA Array, starting in 2001.

  3. Evolutionary models of binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Rensbergen, Walter; Mennekens, Nicki; de Greve, Jean-Pierre; Jansen, Kim; de Loore, Bert

    2011-07-01

    We have put on CDS a catalog containing 561 evolutionary models of binaries: J/A+A/487/1129 (Van Rensbergen+, 2008). The catalog covers a grid of binaries with a B-type primary at birth, different values for the initial mass ratio and a wide range of initial orbital periods. The evolution was calculated with the Brussels code in which we introduced the spinning up and the creation of a hot spot on the gainer or its accretion disk, caused by impacting mass coming from the donor. When the kinetic energy of fast rotation added to the radiative energy of the hot spot exceeds the binding energy, a fraction of the transferred matter leaves the system: the evolution is liberal during a short lasting era of rapid mass transfer. The spin-up of the gainer was modulated using both strong and weak tides. The catalog shows the results for both types. For comparison, we included the evolutionary tracks calculated with the conservative assumption. Binaries with an initial primary below 6 Msolar show hardly any mass loss from the system and thus evolve conservatively. Above this limit differences between liberal and conservative evolution grow with increasing initial mass of the primary star.

  4. Cell-cell interaction in graft rejection responses: induction of anti- allo-class I H-2 tolerance is prevented by immune responses against allo-class II H-2 antigens coexpressed on tolerogen

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The intravenous sensitization of C57BL/6 (B6) mice with class I H-2- disparate B6-C-H-2bm1 (bm1) spleen cells results in almost complete abrogation of anti-bm1 CD8+ helper (proliferative and interleukin 2- producing) T cell (Th) activities. Although an appreciable portion of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) precursors themselves remained after this regimen, such a residual CTL activity was eliminated after the engrafting of bm1 grafts, and these grafts exhibited prolonged survival. In contrast, the intravenous sensitization with (bm1 x B6-C-H- 2bm12 [bm12])F1 cells instead of bm1 cells failed to induce the prolongation of bm1 graft survival as well as bm12 and (bm1 x bm12)F1 graft survival. In the (bm1 x bm12)F1-presensitized B6 mice before as well as after the engrafting of bm1 grafts, anti-bm1 CTL responses that were comparable to or slightly stronger than those observed in unpresensitized mice were induced in the absence of anti-bm1 Th activities. bm1 graft survival was also prolonged by intravenous presensitization with a mixture of bm1 and bm12 cells but not with a mixture of bm1 and (bm1 x bm12)F1 cells. The capacity of CD4+ T cells to reject bm12 grafts was eliminated by intravenous presensitization with antigen-presenting cell (APC)-depleted bm12 spleen cells. However, intravenous presensitization with APC-depleted (bm1 x bm12)F1 cells failed to induce the prolongation of bm1 graft survival under conditions in which appreciably prolonged bm12 graft survival was induced. More surprisingly, bm1 graft survival was not prolonged even when the (bm1 x bm12)F1 cell presensitization was performed in CD4+ T cell-depleted B6 mice. This contrasted with the fact that conventional class I-disparate grafts capable of activating self Ia-restricted CD4+ as well as allo-class I-reactive CD8+ Th exhibited prolonged survival in CD4+ T cell-depleted, class I-disparate cell-presensitized mice. These results indicate that: (a) intravenous presensitization with class I- and II

  5. Binary-Signal Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2011-01-01

    Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition

  6. On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl

    2003-07-01

    Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.

  7. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A

    2015-07-31

    The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments. PMID:26274407

  8. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A

    2015-07-31

    The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments.

  9. Cool and luminous transients from mass-losing binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Metzger, Brian D.; Tomida, Kengo

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the recently established link between luminous red novae (LRN) and catastrophic phases of binary star evolution, we perform smoothed particle hydrodynamic calculations of outflows from binary stars with realistic equation of state and opacities. We focus on the case of mass loss from the outer Lagrangian point (L2), where the resulting spiral stream experiences tidal torques from the binary and becomes unbound. As the individual spiral arms merge and collide near the binary, the outflow thermalizes about 5% of its kinetic energy. For reasonable binary parameters, the outflow can produce luminosities up to 106 L ⨀ with effective temperatures between 500 and 6000 K, depending on the optical depth through the outflow. This is compatible with many examples of the LRN such as V838 Mon and V1309 Sco. The luminosity and the expansion velocity are correlated, as is roughly observed in the known LRN. The outflow readily forms dust, leading to great variations of the appearance of the transient as a function of the viewing angle. Our results are relevant for a more general class of equatorial outflows with asymptotic velocity and heating rate near the binary proportional to its orbital speed.

  10. Gravitational waves from spinning eccentric binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csizmadia, Péter; Debreczeni, Gergely; Rácz, István; Vasúth, Mátyás

    2012-12-01

    This paper is to introduce a new software called CBwaves which provides a fast and accurate computational tool to determine the gravitational waveforms yielded by generic spinning binaries of neutron stars and/or black holes on eccentric orbits. This is done within the post-Newtonian (PN) framework by integrating the equations of motion and the spin precession equations, while the radiation field is determined by a simultaneous evaluation of the analytic waveforms. In applying CBwaves various physically interesting scenarios have been investigated. In particular, we have studied the appropriateness of the adiabatic approximation, and justified that the energy balance relation is indeed insensitive to the specific form of the applied radiation reaction term. By studying eccentric binary systems, it is demonstrated that circular template banks are very ineffective in identifying binaries even if they possess tiny residual orbital eccentricity, thus confirming a similar result obtained by Brown and Zimmerman (2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 024007). In addition, by investigating the validity of the energy balance relation we show that, contrary to the general expectations, the PN approximation should not be applied once the PN parameter gets beyond the critical value ˜0.08 - 0.1. Finally, by studying the early phase of the gravitational waves emitted by strongly eccentric binary systems—which could be formed e.g. in various many-body interactions in the galactic halo—we have found that they possess very specific characteristics which may be used to identify these type of binary systems. This paper is dedicated to the memory of our colleague and friend Péter Csizmadia a young physicist, computer expert and one of the best Hungarian mountaineers who disappeared in China’s Sichuan near the Ren Zhong Feng peak of the Himalayas on 23 Oct. 2009. We started to develop CBwaves jointly with Péter a couple of months before he left for China.

  11. Binary spreading process with parity conservation.

    PubMed

    Park, K; Hinrichsen, H; Kim, I M

    2001-06-01

    Recently there has been a debate concerning the universal properties of the phase transition in the pair contact process with diffusion (PCPD) 2A-->3A, 2A-->0. Although some of the critical exponents seem to coincide with those of the so-called parity-conserving universality class, it was suggested that the PCPD might represent an independent class of phase transitions. This point of view is motivated by the argument that the PCPD does not conserve parity of the particle number. In the present work we question what happens if the parity conservation law is restored. To this end, we consider the reaction-diffusion process 2A-->4A, 2A-->0. Surprisingly, this process displays the same type of critical behavior, leading to the conclusion that the most important characteristics of the PCPD is the use of binary reactions for spreading, regardless of whether parity is conserved or not.

  12. Formation of Short-Period Binary Pulsars in Globular Clusters.

    PubMed

    Rasio; Pfahl; Rappaport

    2000-03-20

    We present a new dynamical scenario for the formation of short-period binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters. Our work is motivated by the recent observations of 20 radio pulsars in 47 Tuc. In a dense cluster such as 47 Tuc, most neutron stars acquire binary companions through exchange interactions with primordial binaries. The resulting systems have semimajor axes in the range approximately 0.1-1 AU and neutron star companion masses approximately 1-3 M middle dot in circle. For many of these systems, we find that when the companion evolves off the main sequence and fills its Roche lobe, the subsequent mass transfer is dynamically unstable. This leads to a common envelope phase and the formation of short-period neutron star-white dwarf binaries. For a significant fraction of these binaries, the decay of the orbit due to gravitational radiation will be followed by a period of stable mass transfer driven by a combination of gravitational radiation and tidal heating of the companion. The properties of the resulting short-period binaries match well those of observed binary pulsars in 47 Tuc. PMID:10702129

  13. Formation of Short-Period Binary Pulsars in Globular Clusters.

    PubMed

    Rasio; Pfahl; Rappaport

    2000-03-20

    We present a new dynamical scenario for the formation of short-period binary millisecond pulsars in globular clusters. Our work is motivated by the recent observations of 20 radio pulsars in 47 Tuc. In a dense cluster such as 47 Tuc, most neutron stars acquire binary companions through exchange interactions with primordial binaries. The resulting systems have semimajor axes in the range approximately 0.1-1 AU and neutron star companion masses approximately 1-3 M middle dot in circle. For many of these systems, we find that when the companion evolves off the main sequence and fills its Roche lobe, the subsequent mass transfer is dynamically unstable. This leads to a common envelope phase and the formation of short-period neutron star-white dwarf binaries. For a significant fraction of these binaries, the decay of the orbit due to gravitational radiation will be followed by a period of stable mass transfer driven by a combination of gravitational radiation and tidal heating of the companion. The properties of the resulting short-period binaries match well those of observed binary pulsars in 47 Tuc.

  14. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  15. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-08-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  16. Nonlinear Tides in Coalescing Binary Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, Nevin

    2016-03-01

    Coalescing binary neutron stars are among the most promising sources for ground-based gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO. Tidal interactions in such systems extract energy from the orbit and, at some level, modify the gravitational wave signal. Previous studies found that tidal effects are probably too small to be detected from individual systems with LIGO. However, these studies typically assumed that the tide can be treated as a linear perturbation to the star. I will show that the linear approximation is invalid even during the early stages of inspiral and that nonlinear fluid effects in the form of tide-internal wave interactions become important around the time the binary first enters LIGO's bandpass (at gravitational wave frequencies around 30 Hz). Although the precise influence of nonlinear fluid effects is not yet well constrained, I will show that they may significantly modify the gravitational wave signal and electromagnetic emission from coalescing binary neutron stars. This research was supported by NASA Grant NNX14AB40G.

  17. Binary Stars in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateo, M.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Globular clusters have long been known to be among the richest stellar groupings within our Galaxy, but for many years they were believed to be largely devoid of the most minimal stellar group: binary stars (see BINARY STARS: OVERVIEW). For many years, the only evidence that any binaries existed in these clusters came from the presence of BLUE STRAGGLERS—stars that appear to be significantly you...

  18. BINARY FREQUENCIES IN A SAMPLE OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. I. METHODOLOGY AND INITIAL RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ji Jun; Bregman, Joel N. E-mail: jbregman@umich.edu

    2013-05-10

    Binary stars are thought to be a controlling factor in globular cluster evolution, since they can heat the environmental stars by converting their binding energy to kinetic energy during dynamical interactions. Through such interaction, the binaries determine the time until core collapse. To test predictions of this model, we have determined binary fractions for 35 clusters. Here we present our methodology with a representative globular cluster NGC 4590. We use Hubble Space Telescope archival Advanced Camera for Surveys data in the F606W and F814W bands and apply point-spread-function-fitting photometry to obtain high quality color-magnitude diagrams. We formulate the star superposition effect as a Poisson probability distribution function, with parameters optimized through Monte Carlo simulations. A model-independent binary fraction of (6.2 {+-} 0.3)% is obtained by counting stars that extend to the red side of the residual color distribution after accounting for the photometric errors and the star superposition effect. A model-dependent binary fraction is obtained by constructing models with a known binary fraction and an assumed binary mass-ratio distribution function. This leads to a binary fraction range of 6.8%-10.8%, depending on the assumed shape to the binary mass-ratio distribution, with the best fit occurring for a binary distribution that favors low mass ratios (and higher binary fractions). We also represent the method for radial analysis of the binary fraction in the representative case of NGC 6981, which shows a decreasing trend for the binary fraction toward the outside, consistent with theoretical predictions for the dynamical effect on the binary fraction.

  19. Cool and luminous transients from mass-losing binary stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pejcha, Ondřej; Metzger, Brian D.; Tomida, Kengo

    2016-02-01

    We study transients produced by equatorial disc-like outflows from catastrophically mass-losing binary stars with an asymptotic velocity and energy deposition rate near the inner edge which are proportional to the binary escape velocity vesc. As a test case, we present the first smoothed-particle radiation-hydrodynamics calculations of the mass loss from the outer Lagrange point with realistic equation of state and opacities. The resulting spiral stream becomes unbound for binary mass ratios 0.06 ≲ q ≲ 0.8. For synchronous binaries with non-degenerate components, the spiral-stream arms merge at a radius of ˜10a, where a is the binary semi-major axis, and the accompanying shock thermalizes about 10 per cent of the kinetic power of the outflow. The mass-losing binary outflows produce luminosities reaching up to ˜106 L⊙ and effective temperatures spanning 500 ≲ Teff ≲ 6000 K, which is compatible with many of the class of recently discovered red transients such as V838 Mon and V1309 Sco. Dust readily forms in the outflow, potentially in a catastrophic global cooling transition. The appearance of the transient is viewing angle-dependent due to vastly different optical depths parallel and perpendicular to the binary plane. We predict a correlation between the peak luminosity and the outflow velocity, which is roughly obeyed by the known red transients. Outflows from mass-losing binaries can produce luminous (105 L⊙) and cool (Teff ≲ 1500 K) transients lasting a year or longer, as has potentially been detected by Spitzer surveys of nearby galaxies.

  20. Uncovering Binary Supermassive Black Holes in Merging Galaxy Pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNulty, Paul; Satyapal, Shobita; Ellison, Sara L.; Secrest, Nathan; Gliozzi, Mario; Rothberg, Barry

    2016-01-01

    It is now well known that virtually all galaxies host a central supermassive black hole (SMBH) and that galaxy interactions are ubiquitous. Theory predicts these interactions would funnel gas toward the central regions of galaxies, potentially triggering gas accretion onto the SMBH, causing them to appear as binary active galactic nuclei (AGN). However, despite decades of searching and strong theoretical reasons that they should exist, observationally confirmed cases of binary AGNs are extremely rare, and most have been discovered serendipitously. Since galaxy mergers are likely to be characterized by dusty environments, it is possible that the optical signatures of a significant number of binary AGNs are obscured. Observations from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) may hold the key for increasing the rate of discovery of binary AGN in late-stage mergers. Starting with a sample of ~4,000 galaxy pairs, we searched for mid-IR signatures of binary AGNs. In this poster, we report on the detection frequency of binary AGNs identified through mid-infrared observations and explore its dependence on merger stage.

  1. Coalescence of Magnetized Binary Neutron Star Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motl, Patrick M.; Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos; Ponce, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We present simulations of the merger of binary neutron star systems calculated with full general relativity and incorporating the global magnetic field structure for the stars evolved with resistive magnetohydrodynamics. Our simulation tools have recently been improved to incorporate the effects of neutrino cooling and have been generalized to allow for tabular equations of state to describe the degenerate matter. Of particular interest are possible electromagnetic counterparts to the gravitational radiation that emerges from these systems. We focus on magnetospheric interactions that ultimately tap into the gravitational potential energy of the binary to power a Poynting flux and deposition of energy through Joule heating and magnetic reconnection. We gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA through the Astrophysics Theory Program grant NNX13AH01G.

  2. Massive Binaries in the Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figer, D. F.; Kim, S. S.

    We review the status of massive-star interaction research in the Galactic center (GC). Given the short lifetimes of massive stars, massive binaries will necessarily be located near their formation sites in starburst clusters. The GC contains three recently formed clusters having a very high stellar density, as high as 106 stars pc-3. We discuss these extreme environments, and possible massive binaries therein. In addition, we argue that they may host the products of massive stellar mergers and collisions. In particular, we predict that at least one massive star in the Arches cluster has already experienced stellar merger events in its short lifetime. Further, the Pistol Star, in the nearby Quintuplet cluster, might owe its apparent relative youth to a rejuvinating stellar merger. Finally, the apparently young stars in the central arcsecond could be products of either collisions, inducing atmospheric stripping, or mergers.

  3. Stellivore extraterrestrials? Binary stars as living systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Clément

    2016-11-01

    We lack signs of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) despite decades of observation in the whole electromagnetic spectrum. Could evidence be buried in existing data? To recognize ETI, we first propose criteria discerning life from non-life based on thermodynamics and living systems theory. Then we extrapolate civilizational development to both external and internal growth. Taken together, these two trends lead to an argument that some existing binary stars might actually be ETI. Since these hypothetical beings feed actively on stars, we call them "stellivores". I present an independent thermodynamic argument for their existence, with a metabolic interpretation of interacting binary stars. The jury is still out, but the hypothesis is empirically testable with existing astrophysical data.

  4. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  5. BINARY STORAGE ELEMENT

    DOEpatents

    Chu, J.C.

    1958-06-10

    A binary storage device is described comprising a toggle provided with associsted improved driver circuits adapted to produce reliable action of the toggle during clearing of the toggle to one of its two states. or transferring information into and out of the toggle. The invention resides in the development of a self-regulating driver circuit to minimize the fluctuation of the driving voltages for the toggle. The disclosed driver circuit produces two pulses in response to an input pulse: a first or ''clear'' pulse beginning nt substantially the same time but endlrg slightly sooner than the second or ''transfer'' output pulse.

  6. The ζ Aurigae Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, R. Elizabeth; Ake, Thomas B.

    This opening chapter provides a brief historical overview of the ζ Aur stars, with a focus on what K.O. Wright, his predecessors and colleagues at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory, and his contemporaries further afield, achieved during the era of pre-electronic data. It places the topic within the framework of modern observing, data management and computing, outlines the principal features of the chromospheric-eclipse phenomena which single out the ζ Aur binaries for special study, and describes the considerable potential which this remarkable yet very select group of stars offers for increasing our understanding of stellar physics.

  7. Binary porous convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Michael Richard

    Binary porous convection falls into the larger category of pattern formation---a symmetry breaking instability which creates a spatially periodic structure within a homogeneous system. The experiments and model presented in this dissertation indicate that an essential piece of physics is missing from the standard Darcian picture used to describe pattern formation in a porous medium convection system. Present theory predicts a bifurcation to an oscillatory state at onset for a binary mixture in a porous media over a wide range of experimental parameters (Brand and Steinberg, Physics Letters 93A 333 (1983)). This theory is inadequate in explaining the predominant large amplitude, backward, stationary overturning convection state observed in our experiments after transients have decayed. Convection experiments were visualized with magnetic resonance imaging and performed with a foam medium in slot and cylindrical geometries as well as a rectangular, packed bead system with water-ethanol mixtures. We explore the possibility that the difference between theory and experiment is due to enhanced solutal mixing not included in previous theories. The enhanced mixing of the fluid produces an effective diffusion coefficient that largely suppresses gradients in the concentration field, resulting in single-fluid like behavior. We model the experimental system with a Lorenz truncation of the binary Darcy equations with enhanced mixing. This model predicts results qualitatively similar to experiments: a forward bifurcation to small amplitude oscillations with a secondary backward bifurcation to large amplitude stationary convection. We have also developed an experimental nuclear magnetic resonance technique that measures the effective diffusion coefficient, D = D(v), as a function of velocity, v, for the individual species of the binary mixture simultaneously. However, the mixing effect measured in plug flow experiments is roughly two to three orders of magnitude too small to have

  8. Race, gender, class, sexuality (RGCS) and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2013-07-01

    Informed by intersectionality theory, a tradition that theorizes intersecting power relations of racism, patriarchy, classism and heterosexism, this paper investigates the degree to which race, gender, class and sexuality manifest distinct and interconnected associations with self-reported hypertension in nationally-representative survey data from Canada. Binary logistic regression is used to model the main effects of, and interactions between, race, gender, education, household income and sexual orientation on hypertension, controlling for age, using data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 90,310). From a main effects ('additive') perspective, Black respondents, respondents with less than high school and poorer respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents, university-educated Canadians and wealthier Canadians, respectively, to report hypertension. However, the interactive models indicate that the additive models were poor predictors of hypertension for wealthy Black men, wealthy South Asian women, women with less than a high school diploma and wealthy bisexual respondents, who were more likely than expected to report hypertension, and for poor Black men, poor South Asian women, poor South Asian men and women with a university degree, who were less likely than expected to report hypertension. It appears that, with regard to blood pressure at least, Canadians experience the health effects of education differently by their genders and the health effects of income differently by their identities defined at the intersection of race and gender. This study provides empirical support for the intersectional approach to cardiovascular health inequalities by demonstrating that race, gender, class and sexuality cannot be disentangled from one another as predictors of hypertension.

  9. Race, gender, class, sexuality (RGCS) and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, Gerry

    2013-07-01

    Informed by intersectionality theory, a tradition that theorizes intersecting power relations of racism, patriarchy, classism and heterosexism, this paper investigates the degree to which race, gender, class and sexuality manifest distinct and interconnected associations with self-reported hypertension in nationally-representative survey data from Canada. Binary logistic regression is used to model the main effects of, and interactions between, race, gender, education, household income and sexual orientation on hypertension, controlling for age, using data from the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey (n = 90,310). From a main effects ('additive') perspective, Black respondents, respondents with less than high school and poorer respondents were significantly more likely than White respondents, university-educated Canadians and wealthier Canadians, respectively, to report hypertension. However, the interactive models indicate that the additive models were poor predictors of hypertension for wealthy Black men, wealthy South Asian women, women with less than a high school diploma and wealthy bisexual respondents, who were more likely than expected to report hypertension, and for poor Black men, poor South Asian women, poor South Asian men and women with a university degree, who were less likely than expected to report hypertension. It appears that, with regard to blood pressure at least, Canadians experience the health effects of education differently by their genders and the health effects of income differently by their identities defined at the intersection of race and gender. This study provides empirical support for the intersectional approach to cardiovascular health inequalities by demonstrating that race, gender, class and sexuality cannot be disentangled from one another as predictors of hypertension. PMID:23726211

  10. Binaries traveling through a gaseous medium: dynamical drag forces and internal torques

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.; Chametla, Raul O.

    2014-10-20

    Using time-dependent linear theory, we investigate the morphology of the gravitational wake induced by a binary, whose center of mass moves at velocity V{sub cm} against a uniform background of gas. For simplicity, we assume that the components of the binary are on circular orbits about their common center of mass. The consequences of dynamical friction is twofold. First, gas dynamical friction may drag the center of mass of the binary and cause the binary to migrate. Second, drag forces also induce a braking torque, which causes the orbits of the components of the binary to shrink. We compute the drag forces acting on one component of the binary due to the gravitational interaction with its own wake. We show that the dynamical friction force responsible for decelerating the center of mass of the binary is smaller than it is in the point-mass case because of the loss of gravitational focusing. We show that the braking internal torque depends on the Mach numbers of each binary component about their center of mass, and also on the Mach number of the center of mass of the binary. In general, the internal torque decreases with increasing the velocity of the binary relative to the ambient gas cloud. However, this is not always the case. We also mention the relevance of our results to the period distribution of binaries.

  11. Effects of Accretion Disks on Spins and Eccentricities of Binaries, and Implications for Gravitational Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John

    2012-01-01

    Effects of accretion disks on spins and eccentricities of binaries, and implications for gravitational waves. John Baker Space-based gravitational wave observations will allow exquisitely precise measurements of massive black hole binary properties. Through several recently suggested processes, these properties may depend on interactions with accretion disks through the merger process. I will discuss ways that accretion may influence those binary properties which may be probed by gravitational-wave observations.

  12. SECULAR EVOLUTION OF BINARIES NEAR MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: FORMATION OF COMPACT BINARIES, MERGER/COLLISION PRODUCTS AND G2-LIKE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Prodan, Snezana; Antonini, Fabio; Perets, Hagai B. E-mail: antonini@cita.utoronto.ca

    2015-02-01

    Here we discuss the evolution of binaries around massive black holes (MBHs) in nuclear stellar clusters. We focus on their secular evolution due to the perturbation by the MBHs, while simplistically accounting for their collisional evolution. Binaries with highly inclined orbits with respect to their orbits around MBHs are strongly affected by secular processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (e.g., Kozai-Lidov cycles). During periapsis approach, dissipative processes such as tidal friction may become highly efficient, and may lead to shrinkage of a binary orbit and even to its merger. Binaries in this environment can therefore significantly change their orbital evolution due to the MBH third-body perturbative effects. Such orbital evolution may impinge on their later stellar evolution. Here we follow the secular dynamics of such binaries and its coupling to tidal evolution, as well as the stellar evolution of such binaries on longer timescales. We find that stellar binaries in the central parts of nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) are highly likely to evolve into eccentric and/or short-period binaries, and become strongly interacting binaries either on the main sequence (at which point they may even merge), or through their later binary stellar evolution. The central parts of NSCs therefore catalyze the formation and evolution of strongly interacting binaries, and lead to the enhanced formation of blue stragglers, X-ray binaries, gravitational wave sources, and possible supernova progenitors. Induced mergers/collisions may also lead to the formation of G2-like cloud-like objects such as the one recently observed in the Galactic center.

  13. Risk factors for temporomandibular disorder: Binary logistic regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Bruno G.; de-Sousa, Stéphanie T.; de Mello, Victor V C.; da-Silva-Barbosa, André C.; de-Assis-Morais, Mariana P L.; Barbosa-Vasconcelos, Márcia M V.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To analyze the influence of socioeconomic and demographic factors (gender, economic class, age and marital status) on the occurrence of temporomandibular disorder. Study Design: One hundred individuals from urban areas in the city of Recife (Brazil) registered at Family Health Units was examined using Axis I of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) which addresses myofascial pain and joint problems (disc displacement, arthralgia, osteoarthritis and oesteoarthrosis). The Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria (CCEB) was used for the collection of socioeconomic and demographic data. Then, it was categorized as Class A (high social class), Classes B/C (middle class) and Classes D/E (very poor social class). The results were analyzed using Pearson’s chi-square test for proportions, Fisher’s exact test, nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and Binary logistic regression analysis. Results: None of the participants belonged to Class A, 72% belonged to Classes B/C and 28% belonged to Classes D/E. The multivariate analysis revealed that participants from Classes D/E had a 4.35-fold greater chance of exhibiting myofascial pain and 11.3-fold greater chance of exhibiting joint problems. Conclusions: Poverty is a important condition to exhibit myofascial pain and joint problems. Key words:Temporomandibular joint disorders, risk factors, prevalence. PMID:24316706

  14. Modeling Binary Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Conner; Read, Jocelyn; Flynn, Eric; Lockett-Ruiz, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    Gravitational waves, predicted by Einstein's Theory of Relativity, are a new frontier in astronomical observation we can use to observe phenomena in the universe. Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) is currently searching for gravitational wave signals, and requires accurate predictions in order to best extract astronomical signals from all other sources of fluctuations. The focus of my research is in increasing the accuracy of Post-Newtonian models of binary neutron star coalescence to match the computationally expensive Numerical models. Numerical simulations can take months to compute a couple of milliseconds of signal whereas the Post-Newtonian can generate similar signals in seconds. However the Post-Newtonian model is an approximation, e.g. the Taylor T4 Post-Newtonian model assumes that the two bodies in the binary neutron star system are point charges. To increase the effectiveness of the approximation, I added in tidal effects, resonance frequencies, and a windowing function. Using these observed effects from simulations significantly increases the Post-Newtonian model's similarity to the Numerical signal.

  15. FORMATION OF KUIPER BELT BINARIES BY GRAVITATIONAL COLLAPSE

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David; Youdin, Andrew N.; Richardson, Derek C.

    2010-09-15

    A large fraction of {approx}100 km class low-inclination objects in the classical Kuiper Belt (KB) are binaries with comparable masses and a wide separation of components. A favored model for their formation is that they were captured during the coagulation growth of bodies in the early KB. However, recent studies have suggested that large, {approx}>100 km objects can rapidly form in the protoplanetary disks when swarms of locally concentrated solids collapse under their own gravity. Here, we examine the possibility that KB binaries formed during gravitational collapse when the excess of angular momentum prevented the agglomeration of available mass into a solitary object. We find that this new mechanism provides a robust path toward the formation of KB binaries with observed properties, and can explain wide systems such as 2001 QW{sub 322} and multiples such as (47171) 1999 TC{sub 36}. Notably, the gravitational collapse is capable of producing {approx}100% binary fraction for a wide range of the swarm's initial angular momentum values. The binary components have similar masses ({approx}80% have a secondary-over-primary radius ratio >0.7) and their separation ranges from {approx}1000 to {approx}100,000 km. The binary orbits have eccentricities from e = 0 to {approx}1, with the majority having e < 0.6. The binary orbit inclinations with respect to the initial angular momentum of the swarm range from i = 0 to {approx}90{sup 0}, with most cases having i < 50{sup 0}. The total binary mass represents a characteristic fraction of the collapsing swarm's total initial mass, M{sub tot}, suggesting M{sub tot} equivalent to that of a radius {approx}100-250 km compact object. Our binary formation mechanism also implies that the primary and secondary components in each binary pair should have identical bulk composition, which is consistent with the current photometric data. We discuss the applicability of our results to the Pluto-Charon, Orcus-Vanth, (617) Patroclus

  16. Repression of MHC class I transcription by HPV16E7 through interaction with a putative RXRbeta motif and NF-kappaB cytoplasmic sequestration.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhan, Tailan; Li, Chang; Liu, Mugen; Wang, Qing K

    2009-10-16

    Down-regulation of transcription of the MHC class I genes in HPV16 tumorigenic cells is partly due to HPV16E7 associated with the MHC class I promoter and repressed chromatin activation. In this study, we further demonstrated that HPV16E7 is physically associated with a putative RXRbeta binding motif (GGTCA) of the proximal promoter of the MHC class I genes by using reporter transcriptional assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Our data also provide evidence that HPV16E7 inhibits TNF-alpha-induced up-regulation of MHC class I transcription by impaired nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. More importantly, CaSki tumor cells treated with TSA and transfected with the constitutively active mutant form of IKK-alpha (which can activate NF-kappaB directly) showed a maximal level of up-regulation of MHC-I expression. Taken together, our results suggest that HPV16E7 may employ two independent mechanisms to ensure that either the constitutive or inducible transcription of MHC class I genes is down-regulated. PMID:19665994

  17. Tidal capture formation of low-mass X-ray binaries from wide binaries in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michaely, Erez; Perets, Hagai B.

    2016-06-01

    We present a dynamical formation scenario for low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the field, focusing on black hole (BH) LMXBs. In this formation channel, LMXBs are formed from wide binaries (>1000 au) with a BH component and a stellar companion. The wide binary is perturbed by fly-bys of field stars, its orbit random walks, until driven into a sufficiently eccentric orbit such that the binary components tidally interact and the binary evolves to become a short period binary, which eventually evolves into an LMXB. We consider several models for the formation and survival of such wide binaries, and calculate the LMXB formation rates for each model. We find that models where BHs form through direct collapse with no/little natal kicks can give rise to high formation rates comparable with those inferred from observations. This formation scenario had several observational signatures: (1) the number density of LMXBs generally follows the background stellar density, beside the densest regions, where the dependence is stronger, (2) the mass function of the BH stellar companion should be comparable to the mass function of the background stellar population, likely peaking at 0.4-0.6 M⊙, and (3) the LMXBs orbit should not correlate with the spin of the BH. These aspects generally differ from the expectations from previously suggested LMXB formation models following common envelope binary stellar evolution. We note that neutron star LMXBs can similarly form from wide binaries, but their formation rate through this channel is likely significantly smaller due to their much higher natal kicks.

  18. Multilevel Models for Binary Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The methods and models for categorical data analysis cover considerable ground, ranging from regression-type models for binary and binomial data, count data, to ordered and unordered polytomous variables, as well as regression models that mix qualitative and continuous data. This article focuses on methods for binary or binomial data, which are…

  19. Epsilon glutathione transferases possess a unique class-conserved subunit interface motif that directly interacts with glutathione in the active site.

    PubMed

    Wongsantichon, Jantana; Robinson, Robert C; Ketterman, Albert J

    2015-10-20

    Epsilon class glutathione transferases (GSTs) have been shown to contribute significantly to insecticide resistance. We report a new Epsilon class protein crystal structure from Drosophila melanogaster for the glutathione transferase DmGSTE6. The structure reveals a novel Epsilon clasp motif that is conserved across hundreds of millions of years of evolution of the insect Diptera order. This histidine-serine motif lies in the subunit interface and appears to contribute to quaternary stability as well as directly connecting the two glutathiones in the active sites of this dimeric enzyme.

  20. Epsilon glutathione transferases possess a unique class-conserved subunit interface motif that directly interacts with glutathione in the active site

    PubMed Central

    Wongsantichon, Jantana; Robinson, Robert C.; Ketterman, Albert J.

    2015-01-01

    Epsilon class glutathione transferases (GSTs) have been shown to contribute significantly to insecticide resistance. We report a new Epsilon class protein crystal structure from Drosophila melanogaster for the glutathione transferase DmGSTE6. The structure reveals a novel Epsilon clasp motif that is conserved across hundreds of millions of years of evolution of the insect Diptera order. This histidine-serine motif lies in the subunit interface and appears to contribute to quaternary stability as well as directly connecting the two glutathiones in the active sites of this dimeric enzyme. PMID:26487708

  1. Signature Visualization of Software Binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Panas, T

    2008-07-01

    In this paper we present work on the visualization of software binaries. In particular, we utilize ROSE, an open source compiler infrastructure, to pre-process software binaries, and we apply a landscape metaphor to visualize the signature of each binary (malware). We define the signature of a binary as a metric-based layout of the functions contained in the binary. In our initial experiment, we visualize the signatures of a series of computer worms that all originate from the same line. These visualizations are useful for a number of reasons. First, the images reveal how the archetype has evolved over a series of versions of one worm. Second, one can see the distinct changes between version. This allows the viewer to form conclusions about the development cycle of a particular worm.

  2. Gravitational-wave Emission from Compact Galactic Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissanke, Samaya; Vallisneri, Michele; Nelemans, Gijs; Prince, Thomas A.

    2012-10-01

    Compact Galactic binaries where at least one member is a white dwarf (WD) or neutron star constitute the majority of individually detectable sources for future low-frequency space-based gravitational-wave (GW) observatories; they also form an unresolved continuum, the dominant Galactic foreground at frequencies below a few mHz. Due to the paucity of electromagnetic observations, the majority of studies of Galactic-binary populations so far have been based on population-synthesis simulations. However, recent surveys have reported several new detections of WD binaries, providing new constraints for population estimates. In this article, we evaluate the impact of revised local densities of interacting WD binaries on future GW observations. Specifically, we consider five scenarios that explain these densities with different assumptions on the formation of interacting systems; we simulate corresponding populations of detached and interacting WD binaries; we estimate the number of individually detectable GW sources and the magnitude of the confusion-noise foreground, as observed by space-based detectors with 5 and 1 Mkm arms. We confirm earlier estimates of thousands of detached-binary detections, but project only a few ten to a few hundred detections of interacting systems. This reduction is partly due to our assessment of detection prospects, based on the iterative identification and subtraction of bright sources with respect to both instrument and confusion noise. We also confirm earlier estimates for the confusion-noise foreground, except in one scenario that explains smaller local densities of interacting systems with smaller numbers of progenitor detached systems.

  3. BINARY ASTROMETRIC MICROLENSING WITH GAIA

    SciTech Connect

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2015-04-15

    We investigate whether or not Gaia can specify the binary fractions of massive stellar populations in the Galactic disk through astrometric microlensing. Furthermore, we study whether or not some information about their mass distributions can be inferred via this method. In this regard, we simulate the binary astrometric microlensing events due to massive stellar populations according to the Gaia observing strategy by considering (i) stellar-mass black holes, (ii) neutron stars, (iii) white dwarfs, and (iv) main-sequence stars as microlenses. The Gaia efficiency for detecting the binary signatures in binary astrometric microlensing events is ∼10%–20%. By calculating the optical depth due to the mentioned stellar populations, the numbers of the binary astrometric microlensing events being observed with Gaia with detectable binary signatures, for the binary fraction of about 0.1, are estimated to be 6, 11, 77, and 1316, respectively. Consequently, Gaia can potentially specify the binary fractions of these massive stellar populations. However, the binary fraction of black holes measured with this method has a large uncertainty owing to a low number of the estimated events. Knowing the binary fractions in massive stellar populations helps with studying the gravitational waves. Moreover, we investigate the number of massive microlenses for which Gaia specifies masses through astrometric microlensing of single lenses toward the Galactic bulge. The resulting efficiencies of measuring the mass of mentioned populations are 9.8%, 2.9%, 1.2%, and 0.8%, respectively. The numbers of their astrometric microlensing events being observed in the Gaia era in which the lens mass can be inferred with the relative error less than 0.5 toward the Galactic bulge are estimated as 45, 34, 76, and 786, respectively. Hence, Gaia potentially gives us some information about the mass distribution of these massive stellar populations.

  4. Java implementation of Class Association Rule algorithms

    2007-08-30

    Java implementation of three Class Association Rule mining algorithms, NETCAR, CARapriori, and clustering based rule mining. NETCAR algorithm is a novel algorithm developed by Makio Tamura. The algorithm is discussed in a paper: UCRL-JRNL-232466-DRAFT, and would be published in a peer review scientific journal. The software is used to extract combinations of genes relevant with a phenotype from a phylogenetic profile and a phenotype profile. The phylogenetic profiles is represented by a binary matrix andmore » a phenotype profile is represented by a binary vector. The present application of this software will be in genome analysis, however, it could be applied more generally.« less

  5. Java implementation of Class Association Rule algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Tamura, Makio

    2007-08-30

    Java implementation of three Class Association Rule mining algorithms, NETCAR, CARapriori, and clustering based rule mining. NETCAR algorithm is a novel algorithm developed by Makio Tamura. The algorithm is discussed in a paper: UCRL-JRNL-232466-DRAFT, and would be published in a peer review scientific journal. The software is used to extract combinations of genes relevant with a phenotype from a phylogenetic profile and a phenotype profile. The phylogenetic profiles is represented by a binary matrix and a phenotype profile is represented by a binary vector. The present application of this software will be in genome analysis, however, it could be applied more generally.

  6. Accreting binary population synthesis and feedback prescriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragos, Tassos

    2016-04-01

    Studies of extagalactic X-ray binary populations have shown that the characteristics of these populations depend strongly on the characteristics of the host galaxy's parent stellar population (e.g. star-formation history and metallicity). These dependencies not only make X-ray binaries promising for aiding in the measurement of galaxy properties themselves, but they also have important astrophysical and cosmological implications. For example, due to the relatively young stellar ages and primordial metallicities in the early Universe (z > 3), it is predicted that X-ray binaries were more luminous than today. The more energetic X-ray photons, because of their long mean-free paths, can escape the galaxies where they are produced, and interact at long distances with the intergalactic medium. This could result in a smoother spatial distribution of ionized regions, and more importantly in an overall warmer intergalactic medium. The energetic X-ray photons emitted from X-ray binaries dominate the X-ray radiation field over active galactic nuclei at z > 6 - 8, and hence Χ-ray binary feedback can be a non-negligible contributor to the heating and reionization of the inter-galactic medium in the early universe. The spectral energy distribution shape of the XRB emission does not change significantly with redshift, suggesting that the same XRB subpopulation, namely black-hole XRBs in the high-soft state, dominates the cumulative emission at all times. On the contrary, the normalization of the spectral energy distribution does evolve with redshift. To zeroth order, this evolution is driven by the cosmic star-formation rate evolution. However, the metallicity evolution of the universe and the mean stellar population age are two important factors that affect the X-ray emission from high-mass and low-mass XRBs, respectively. In this talk, I will review recent studies on the potential feedback from accreting binary populations in galactic and cosmological scales. Furthermore, I

  7. Evolution of Small Binary Asteroids with the Binary YORP Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouard, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Small, Near-Earth binaries are believed to be created following the fission of an asteroid spun up by the YORP effect. It is then believed that the YORP effect acting on the secondary (Binary YORP) increases or decreases the binary mutual distance on 10^5 yr timescales. How long this mechanism can apply is not yet fully understood. We investigate the binary orbital and rotational dynamics by using non-averaged, direct numerical simulations, taking into account the relative motion of two ellipsoids (primary and secondary) and the solar perturbation. We add the YORP force and torque on the orbital and rotational motion of the secondary. As a check of our code we obtain a ~ 7.2 cm/yr drift in semi-major axis for 1999 KW4 beta, consistent with the values obtained with former analytical studies. The synchronous rotation of the secondary is required for the Binary YORP to be effective. We investigate the synchronous lock of the secondary in function of different parameters ; mutual distance, shape of the secondary, and heliocentric orbit. For example we show that the secondary of 1999 KW4 can be synchronous only up to 7 Rp (primary radius), where the resonance becomes completely chaotic even for very small eccentricities. We use Gaussian Random Spheres to obtain various secondary shapes, and check the evolution of the binaries with the Binary YORP effect.

  8. Class Sizes and Dissadvantaged Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David

    1978-01-01

    Describes a program in which smaller class groups for socially and culturally deprived children resulted in enhanced social attitudes and more responsive, mature behavior in interaction with both adults and peers. (Author/IRT)

  9. Moments of Meeting: Difficulties and Developments in Shared Attention, Interaction, and Communication with Children with Autism during Two Years of Music Therapy in a Public Preschool Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Geoffrey Prescott

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon video recordings over two years, teacher interviews, school reports, and field notes, this practitioner research study described and analyzed 16 video excerpts from a music therapy group in a public preschool class serving 14 children with autism, for durations ranging from two to sixteen months. The research centered on three of the…

  10. Making In-Class Skills Training More Effective: The Scope for Interactive Videos to Complement the Delivery of Practical Pedestrian Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, James; Cherrett, Tom; Waterson, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Skills and awareness of young pedestrians can be improved with on-street practical pedestrian training, often delivered in schools in the UK by local authorities with the intention of improving road safety. This training is often supplemented by in-class paper-based worksheet activities that are seen to be less effective than practical training in…

  11. Binary neutron stars with realistic spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichy, Wolfgang; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Dietrich, Tim; Bruegmann, Bernd

    2014-03-01

    Astrophysical neutron stars are expected to be spinning. We present the first, fully nonlinear general relativistic dynamical evolutions of the last three orbits for constraint satisfying initial data of spinning neutron star binaries, with astrophysically realistic spins aligned and anti-aligned to the orbital angular momentum. The dynamics of the systems are analyzed in terms of gauge-invariant binding energy vs. orbital angular momentum curves. By comparing to a binary black hole configuration we can estimate the different tidal and spin contributions to the binding energy for the first time. First results on the gravitational wave forms are presented. The phase evolution of the gravitational waves during the orbital motion is significantly affected by spin-orbit interactions, leading to delayed or early mergers. Furthermore, a frequency shift in the main emission mode of the hyper massive neutron star is observed. Our results suggest that a detailed modeling of merger waveforms requires the inclusion of spin, even for the moderate magnitudes observed in binary neutron star systems. This work was supported by NSF grants PHY-1204334, PHY-1305387 and DFG grant SFB/Transregio 7.

  12. Stellar and Binary Evolution in Star Clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMillan, Stephen L. W.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a final report on research activities covered on Stellar and Binary Evolution in Star Clusters. Substantial progress was made in the development and dissemination of the "Starlab" software environment. Significant improvements were made to "kira," an N-body simulation program tailored to the study of dense stellar systems such as star clusters and galactic nuclei. Key advances include (1) the inclusion of stellar and binary evolution in a self-consistent manner, (2) proper treatment of the anisotropic Galactic tidal field, (3) numerous technical enhancements in the treatment of binary dynamics and interactions, and (4) full support for the special-purpose GRAPE-4 hardware, boosting the program's performance by a factor of 10-100 over the accelerated version. The data-reduction and analysis tools in Starlab were also substantially expanded. A Starlab Web site (http://www.sns.ias.edu/-starlab) was created and developed. The site contains detailed information on the structure and function of the various tools that comprise the package, as well as download information, "how to" tips and examples of common operations, demonstration programs, animations, etc. All versions of the software are freely distributed to all interested users, along with detailed installation instructions.

  13. VLSI binary updown counter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, Trieu-Kie (Inventor); Hsu, In-Shek (Inventor); Reed, Irving S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A pipeline binary updown counter is comprised of simple stages that may be readily replicated. Each stage is defined by the Boolean logic equation: A(sub n)(t) = A(sub n)(t - 1) exclusive OR (U AND P(sub n)) inclusive OR (D AND Q(sub n)), where A(sub n)(t) denotes the value of the nth bit at time t. The input to the counter has three values represented by two binary signals U and D such that if both are zero, the input is zero, if U = 0 and D = 1, the input is -1 and if U = 1 and D = 0, the input is +1. P(sub n) represents a product of A(sub k)'s for 1 is less than or equal to k is less than or equal to -1, while Q(sub n) represents the product of bar A's for 1 is less than or equal to K is less than or equal to n - 1, where bar A(sub k) is the complement of A(sub k) and P(sub n) and Q(sub n) are expressed as the following two equations: P(sub n) = A(sub n - 1) A(sub n - 2)...A(sub 1) and Q(sub n) = bar A(sub n - 1) bar A(sub n - 2)...bar A(sub 1), which can be written in recursive form as P(sub n) = P(sub n - 1) AND bar A(sub n - 1) and Q(sub n) = Q(sub n - 1) AND bar A(sub n - 1) with the initial values P(sub 1) = 1 and Q(sub 1) = 1.

  14. Class Trash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity in which students calculate the amount and types of trash thrown out by their class at school to investigate how much trash is generated, where it goes, and speculate about alternatives. Students need to be familiar with the concepts of weight, volume, and numbers. (MCO)

  15. Electromagnetic and gravitational outputs from binary-neutron-star coalescence.

    PubMed

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Ponce, Marcelo; Liebling, Steven L; Anderson, Matthew; Neilsen, David; Motl, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    The late stage of an inspiraling neutron-star binary gives rise to strong gravitational wave emission due to its highly dynamic, strong gravity. Moreover, interactions between the stellar magnetospheres can produce considerable electromagnetic radiation. We study this scenario using fully general relativistic, resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. We show that these interactions extract kinetic energy from the system, dissipate heat, and power radiative Poynting flux, as well as develop current sheets. Our results indicate that this power can (i) outshine pulsars in binaries, (ii) display a distinctive angular- and time-dependent pattern, and (iii) radiate within large opening angles. These properties suggest that some binary neutron-star mergers are ideal candidates for multimessenger astronomy.

  16. Misaligned protoplanetary disks in a young binary star system.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric L N; Akeson, Rachel

    2014-07-31

    Many extrasolar planets follow orbits that differ from the nearly coplanar and circular orbits found in our Solar System; their orbits may be eccentric or inclined with respect to the host star's equator, and the population of giant planets orbiting close to their host stars suggests appreciable orbital migration. There is at present no consensus on what produces such orbits. Theoretical explanations often invoke interactions with a binary companion star in an orbit that is inclined relative to the planet's orbital plane. Such mechanisms require significant mutual inclinations between the planetary and binary star orbital planes. The protoplanetary disks in a few young binaries are misaligned, but often the measurements of these misalignments are sensitive only to a small portion of the inner disk, and the three-dimensional misalignment of the bulk of the planet-forming disk mass has hitherto not been determined. Here we report that the protoplanetary disks in the young binary system HK Tauri are misaligned by 60 to 68 degrees, such that one or both of the disks are significantly inclined to the binary orbital plane. Our results demonstrate that the necessary conditions exist for misalignment-driven mechanisms to modify planetary orbits, and that these conditions are present at the time of planet formation, apparently because of the binary formation process. PMID:25079553

  17. Misaligned protoplanetary disks in a young binary star system.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Eric L N; Akeson, Rachel

    2014-07-31

    Many extrasolar planets follow orbits that differ from the nearly coplanar and circular orbits found in our Solar System; their orbits may be eccentric or inclined with respect to the host star's equator, and the population of giant planets orbiting close to their host stars suggests appreciable orbital migration. There is at present no consensus on what produces such orbits. Theoretical explanations often invoke interactions with a binary companion star in an orbit that is inclined relative to the planet's orbital plane. Such mechanisms require significant mutual inclinations between the planetary and binary star orbital planes. The protoplanetary disks in a few young binaries are misaligned, but often the measurements of these misalignments are sensitive only to a small portion of the inner disk, and the three-dimensional misalignment of the bulk of the planet-forming disk mass has hitherto not been determined. Here we report that the protoplanetary disks in the young binary system HK Tauri are misaligned by 60 to 68 degrees, such that one or both of the disks are significantly inclined to the binary orbital plane. Our results demonstrate that the necessary conditions exist for misalignment-driven mechanisms to modify planetary orbits, and that these conditions are present at the time of planet formation, apparently because of the binary formation process.

  18. Bayesian analysis of binary prediction tree models for retrospectively sampled outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Jennifer; Huang, Erich; Nevins, Joseph; Wang, Quanli; West, Mike

    2004-10-01

    Classification tree models are flexible analysis tools which have the ability to evaluate interactions among predictors as well as generate predictions for responses of interest. We describe Bayesian analysis of a specific class of tree models in which binary response data arise from a retrospective case-control design. We are also particularly interested in problems with potentially very many candidate predictors. This scenario is common in studies concerning gene expression data, which is a key motivating example context. Innovations here include the introduction of tree models that explicitly address and incorporate the retrospective design, and the use of nonparametric Bayesian models involving Dirichlet process priors on the distributions of predictor variables. The model specification influences the generation of trees through Bayes' factor based tests of association that determine significant binary partitions of nodes during a process of forward generation of trees. We describe this constructive process and discuss questions of generating and combining multiple trees via Bayesian model averaging for prediction. Additional discussion of parameter selection and sensitivity is given in the context of an example which concerns prediction of breast tumour status utilizing high-dimensional gene expression data; the example demonstrates the exploratory/explanatory uses of such models as well as their primary utility in prediction. Shortcomings of the approach and comparison with alternative tree modelling algorithms are also discussed, as are issues of modelling and computational extensions.

  19. ELECTROMAGNETIC EXTRACTION OF ENERGY FROM BLACK-HOLE-NEUTRON-STAR BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    McWilliams, Sean T.; Levin, Janna

    2011-12-01

    The coalescence of black-hole-neutron-star binaries is expected to be a principal source of gravitational waves for the next generation of detectors, Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. For black hole masses not much larger than the neutron star mass, the tidal disruption of the neutron star by the black hole provides one avenue for generating an electromagnetic counterpart. However, in this work, we demonstrate that, for all black-hole-neutron-star binaries observable by Advanced LIGO/Virgo, the interaction of the black hole with the magnetic field of the neutron star will generate copious luminosity, comparable to supernovae and active galactic nuclei. This novel effect may have already been observed as a new class of very short gamma-ray bursts by the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Telescope. These events may be observable to cosmological distances, so that any black-hole-neutron-star coalescence detectable with gravitational waves by Advanced LIGO/Virgo could also be detectable electromagnetically.

  20. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in binary condensates

    SciTech Connect

    Gautam, S.; Angom, D.

    2010-05-15

    We propose a well-controlled experimental scheme to initiate and examine the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in two-species Bose-Einstein condensates. We identify the {sup 85}Rb-{sup 87}Rb mixture as an excellent candidate to observe experimentally. The instability is initiated by tuning the {sup 85}Rb-{sup 85}Rb interaction through a magnetic Feshbach resonance. We show that the observable signature of the instability is the damping of the radial oscillations. We also propose a semianalytic scheme to determine the stationary state of binary condensates with the Thomas-Fermi approximation for axisymmetric traps.

  1. The orbital evolution of binary galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, R.; Junqueira, S.

    2001-02-01

    We present the results of self-consistent numerical simulations performed to study the orbital circularization of binary galaxies. We have generalized a previous model (Junqueira & de Freitas Pacheco 1994) and confirmed partially their results. The orbital evolution of pairs of galaxies is faster when we consider interacting pairs with contacting ``live'' galaxy halos but the circularization time remains larger than the Hubble time. Besides, the time behavior of the orbits has changed in comparison with previous work because of tidal forces and dynamical friction acting on the halos.

  2. Formation of Nanoparticles in binary polymer mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tong; Lu, Xihua; Hu, Zhibin

    2000-10-01

    Formation of Nanoparticles in binary polymer mixtures Tong CAI, Xihua LU, and Zhibin HU Department of Physics, Denton, TX76203 The nanoparticles of hydrorypropyl cellulose (HPC)-polyacrylic acid (PAA) complex have been studied using light scattering method. The formation of the nanoparticles results from the hydrogen-bonding interaction between HPC and PAA. The particle size and size distribution, characterized by dynamic light scattering, depend on the HPC concentration, PAA concentration and reactive temperature. Because HPC and PAA have been approved for use inside human body by FDA, the nanoparticle obtained in this study could be used as drug carriers for controlled release.

  3. FIVE MORE MASSIVE BINARIES IN THE CYGNUS OB2 ASSOCIATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kiminki, Daniel C.; Kobulnicky, Henry A.; Gilbert, Ian; Bird, Sarah; Chunev, Georgi

    2009-06-15

    We present the orbital solutions for four OB spectroscopic binaries, MT145, GSC 03161 - 00815, 2MASS J20294666+4105083, and Schulte 73, and the partial orbital solution to the B spectroscopic binary, MT372, as part of an ongoing study to determine the distribution of orbital parameters for massive binaries in the Cygnus OB2 Association. MT145 is a new, single-lined, moderately eccentric (e = 0.291 {+-} 0.009) spectroscopic binary with period of 25.140 {+-} 0.008 days. GSC 03161 - 00815 is a slightly eccentric (e = 0.10 {+-} 0.01), eclipsing, interacting and double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 4.674 {+-} 0.004 days. 2MASS J20294666+4105083 is a moderately eccentric (e = 0.273 {+-} 0.002) double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 2.884 {+-} 0.001 days. Schulte 73 is a slightly eccentric (e = 0.169 {+-} 0.009), double-lined spectroscopic binary with a period of 17.28 {+-} 0.03 days and the first 'twin' in our survey with a mass ratio of q = 0.99 {+-} 0.02. MT372 is a single-lined, eclipsing system with a period of 2.228 days and low eccentricity (e {approx} 0). Of the now 18 known OB binaries in Cyg OB2, 14 have periods and mass ratios. Emerging evidence also shows that the distribution of log(P) is flat and consistent with 'Oepik's Law'.

  4. A Link Between Massive Binary Stars and Non-thermal Radio Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Debra

    1999-07-01

    Non-thermal radio emission in Wolf-Rayet {WR} stars is explained in terms of synchrotron emission from shocks in the wind. For single star models, the shocks arise from instabilities in the wind itself, whereas in binary models, the shocks form at the wind-wind interaction zone. In Niemela et al. 1998 {from WFPC2 data}, we support the binary theory, for two WR stars, linking the non-thermal emission with the colliding wind region. Before we can conclusively link non- thermal emission to binarity, we must demonstrate that all non-thermal emitters are binary, and that all thermal emitters are either single stars or binary systems with separations that are either too wide or too close to result in a wind-wind interaction that produces shocks. We cannot yet conclusively state this because WFPC2 does not resolve binaries with separations less than about 0.100''. We propose to use the FGS to observe 9 non-thermal and 9 thermal WR stars to search for binary companions. The FGS ca n resolve angular separations as s mall as .007''. If the non-thermal stars are resolved as binaries and the thermal emitters are determined to be single, the single star theory of non-thermal emission can be disavowed. Co-latterally, we will have demonstrated a new method of detecting massive binaries, and, for all WR stars, we will establish a more accurate binary incidence rate.

  5. Binary tree of SVM: a new fast multiclass training and classification algorithm.

    PubMed

    Fei, Ben; Liu, Jinbai

    2006-05-01

    We present a new architecture named Binary Tree of support vector machine (SVM), or BTS, in order to achieve high classification efficiency for multiclass problems. BTS and its enhanced version, c-BTS, decrease the number of binary classifiers to the greatest extent without increasing the complexity of the original problem. In the training phase, BTS has N - 1 binary classifiers in the best situation (N is the number of classes), while it has log4/3 ((N + 3)/4) binary tests on average when making a decision. At the same time the upper bound of convergence complexity is determined. The experiments in this paper indicate that maintaining comparable accuracy, BTS is much faster to be trained than other methods. Especially in classification, due to its Log complexity, it is much faster than directed acyclic graph SVM (DAGSVM) and ECOC in problems that have big class number.

  6. Content identification: binary content fingerprinting versus binary content encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdowsi, Sohrab; Voloshynovskiy, Svyatoslav; Kostadinov, Dimche

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we address the problem of content identification. We consider content identification as a special case of multiclass classification. The conventional approach towards identification is based on content fingerprinting where a short binary content description known as a fingerprint is extracted from the content. We propose an alternative solution based on elements of machine learning theory and digital communications. Similar to binary content fingerprinting, binary content representation is generated based on a set of trained binary classifiers. We consider several training/encoding strategies and demonstrate that the proposed system can achieve the upper theoretical performance limits of content identification. The experimental results were carried out both on a synthetic dataset with different parameters and the FAMOS dataset of microstructures from consumer packages.

  7. Merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in short-period stellar binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandel, Ilya; de Mink, Selma E.

    2016-05-01

    We explore a newly proposed channel to create binary black holes of stellar origin. This scenario applies to massive, tight binaries where mixing induced by rotation and tides transports the products of hydrogen burning throughout the stellar envelopes. This slowly enriches the entire star with helium, preventing the build-up of an internal chemical gradient. The stars remain compact as they evolve nearly chemically homogeneously, eventually forming two black holes, which we estimate typically merge 4-11 Gyr after formation. Like other proposed channels, this evolutionary pathway suffers from significant theoretical uncertainties, but could be constrained in the near future by data from advanced ground-based gravitational-wave detectors. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the expected merger rate over cosmic time to explore the implications and uncertainties. Our default model for this channel yields a local binary black hole merger rate of about 10 Gpc-3 yr-1 at redshift z = 0, peaking at twice this rate at z = 0.5. This means that this channel is competitive, in terms of expected rates, with the conventional formation scenarios that involve a common-envelope phase during isolated binary evolution or dynamical interaction in a dense cluster. The events from this channel may be distinguished by the preference for nearly equal-mass components and high masses, with typical total masses between 50 and 110 M⊙. Unlike the conventional isolated binary evolution scenario that involves shrinkage of the orbit during a common-envelope phase, short time delays are unlikely for this channel, implying that we do not expect mergers at high redshift.

  8. DISPERSING ENVELOPE AROUND THE KEPLERIAN CIRCUMBINARY DISK IN L1551 NE AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR BINARY GROWTH

    SciTech Connect

    Takakuwa, Shigehisa; Kiyokane, Kazuhiro; Saigo, Kazuya; Saito, Masao

    2015-12-01

    We performed mapping observations of the Class I protostellar binary system L1551 NE in the C{sup 18}O (J = 3–2), {sup 13}CO (J = 3–2), CS (J = 7–6), and SO (J{sub N} = 7{sub 8}–6{sub 7}) lines with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). The ASTE C{sup 18}O data were combined with our previous SMA C{sup 18}O data, which show a r ∼ 300 AU scale Keplerian disk around the protostellar binary system. The C{sup 18}O maps show a ∼20,000 AU scale protostellar envelope surrounding the central Keplerian circumbinary disk. The envelope exhibits a northeast (blue) to southwest (red) velocity gradient along the minor axis, which can be interpreted as a dispersing gas motion with an outward velocity of 0.3 km s{sup −1}, while no rotational motion in the envelope is seen. In addition to the envelope, two ≲4000 AU scale, high-velocity (≳1.3 km s{sup −1}) redshifted {sup 13}CO and CS emission components are found ∼40″ southwest and ∼20″ west of the protostellar binary. These redshifted components are most likely outflow components driven from the neighboring protostellar source L1551 IRS 5, and are colliding with the envelope in L1551 NE. The net momentum, kinetic, and internal energies of the L1551 IRS 5 outflow components are comparable to those of the L1551 NE envelope, and the interactions between the outflows and the envelope are likely to cause the dissipation of the envelope and thus suppression of further growth of the mass and mass ratio of the central protostellar binary in L1551 NE.

  9. Stability of binaries. Part II: Rubble-pile binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ishan

    2016-10-01

    We consider the stability of the binary asteroids whose members are granular aggregates held together by self-gravity alone. A binary is said to be stable whenever both its members are orbitally and structurally stable to both orbital and structural perturbations. To this end, we extend the stability analysis of Sharma (Sharma [2015] Icarus, 258, 438-453), that is applicable to binaries with rigid members, to the case of binary systems with rubble members. We employ volume averaging (Sharma et al. [2009] Icarus, 200, 304-322), which was inspired by past work on elastic/fluid, rotating and gravitating ellipsoids. This technique has shown promise when applied to rubble-pile ellipsoids, but requires further work to settle some of its underlying assumptions. The stability test is finally applied to some suspected binary systems, viz., 216 Kleopatra, 624 Hektor and 90 Antiope. We also see that equilibrated binaries that are close to mobilizing their maximum friction can sustain only a narrow range of shapes and, generally, congruent shapes are preferred.

  10. The CD8 coreceptor interaction with the alpha 3 domain of HLA class I is critical to the differentiation of human cytotoxic T-lymphocytes specific for HLA-A2 and HLA-Cw4.

    PubMed

    Wesley, P K; Clayberger, C; Lyu, S C; Krensky, A M

    1993-03-01

    The CD8 coreceptor interacts with MHC class I molecules through an acidic loop in the MHC alpha 3 domain. Mutations in this region reduced binding between cells expressing mutant HLA molecules and CHO cells transfected with CD8 alpha chain, with mutations at residue 227 having the greatest effects. This study was undertaken to examine the role of the CD8-HLA interaction in the generation of primary and long-term CTLs. HLA-A*0201 genes (wild type or mutated at residue 227) were transfected into a cell line that lacked expression of HLA-A or B molecules but expressed HLA-Cw4. These cells were used as stimulators for PBLs from a normal donor. Cultures were tested for cytotoxicity at various times thereafter. Transfectants expressing the HLA-A*0201 mutant gene were poor stimulators of primary HLA-A2-specific CTLs. In long-term culture, HLA-Cw4-specific CTLs predominated, indicating that continuous expansion of allogeneic CTLs depends upon an efficient CD8-MHC class I interaction. PMID:8320133

  11. Invited OSU class lecture: An integrated eco-hydrologic modeling framework for assessing the effects of interacting stressors on multiple ecosystem services

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently established the Ecosystem Services Research Program to help formulate methods and models for conducting comprehensive risk assessments that quantify how multiple ecosystem services interact and respond in concert to environmental ...

  12. A modified grapefruit juice eliminates two compound classes as major mediators of the Grapefruit Juice-Fexofenadine Interaction: an In Vitro-In Vivo 'Connect'

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The grapefruit juice (GFJ)-fexofenadine interaction involves inhibition of intestinal organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-mediated active uptake of fexofenadine by GFJ, manifesting as a decrease in systemic drug exposure. Flavonoids, furanocoumarins, and polymethoxyflavones have been ident...

  13. From wide to close binaries?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleton, Peter P.

    The mechanisms by which the periods of wide binaries (mass 8 solar mass or less and period 10-3000 d) are lengthened or shortened are discussed, synthesizing the results of recent theoretical investigations. A system of nomenclature involving seven evolutionary states, three geometrical states, and 10 types of orbital-period evolution is developed and applied; classifications of 71 binaries are presented in a table along with the basic observational parameters. Evolutionary processes in wide binaries (single-star-type winds, magnetic braking with tidal friction, and companion-reinforced attrition), late case B systems, low-mass X-ray binaries, and triple systems are examined in detail, and possible evolutionary paths are shown in diagrams.

  14. An adaptable binary entropy coder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.

    2001-01-01

    We present a novel entropy coding technique which is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to-variable length binary source codes. We discuss code design and performance estimation methods, as well as practical encoding and decoding algorithms.

  15. Cryptography with DNA binary strands.

    PubMed

    Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H

    2000-06-01

    Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'.

  16. CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, Ivan I.

    2015-01-20

    The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.

  17. Separation in 5 Msun Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.

    2013-01-01

    Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.

  18. Simulating relativistic binaries with Whisky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiotti, L.

    We report about our first tests and results in simulating the last phase of the coalescence and the merger of binary relativistic stars. The simulations were performed using our code Whisky and mesh refinement through the Carpet driver.

  19. Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez, A.; Guinan, E.; Niarchos, P.; Rucinski, S.

    2006-12-01

    An International Conference entitled "Close Binaries in the 21st Century: New Opportunities and Challenges", was held in Syros island, Greece, from 27 to 30 June, 2005. There are many binary star systems whose components are so close together, that they interact in various ways. Stars in such systems do not pass through all stages of their evolution independently of each other; in fact their evolutionary path is significantly affected by their companions. Processes of interaction include gravitational effects, mutual irradiation, mass exchange, mass loss from the system, phenomena of extended atmospheres, semi-transparent atmospheric clouds, variable thickness disks and gas streams. The zoo of Close Binary Systems includes: Close Eclipsing Binaries (Detached, Semi-detached, Contact), High and Low-Mass X-ray Binaries, Cataclysmic Variables, RS CVn systems, Pulsar Binaries and Symbiotic Stars. The study of these binaries triggered the development of new branches of astrophysics dealing with the structure and evolution of close binaries and the interaction effects displayed by these exciting objects. Close Binaries are classic examples of the fundamental contribution that stellar astrophysics makes to our general understanding of physical processes in the universe. Ground-based and space surveys will discover many new close binaries, which were previously unknown. In the future, new approaches will also be possible with highly efficient photometric searches looking for very shallow eclipses, such as those produced by Earth-like extra-solar planets. Contributions to this conference covered the latest achievements in the field and reflected the state of the art of the dynamically evolving area of binary star research. Link: http://www.springer.com/east/home/generic/search/results?SGWID=5-40109-22-173660047-0

  20. Social Class and Work-Related Decisions: Measurement, Theory, and Social Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Fitzpatrick, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    In this reaction to Diemer and Ali's article, "Integrating Social Class Into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications," the authors point out concerns with binary schema of social class, highlight the contribution of social class to the social cognitive career theory, argue for a more nuanced look at ways that work provides social…