Brantley, P S; Martos, J N
2011-03-02
We describe a parallel benchmark procedure and numerical results for a three-dimensional binary stochastic medium particle transport benchmark problem. The binary stochastic medium is composed of optically thick spherical inclusions distributed in an optically thin background matrix material. We investigate three sphere mean chord lengths, three distributions for the sphere radii (constant, uniform, and exponential), and six sphere volume fractions ranging from 0.05 to 0.3. For each sampled independent material realization, we solve the associated transport problem using the Mercury Monte Carlo particle transport code. We compare the ensemble-averaged benchmark fiducial tallies of reflection from and transmission through the spatial domain as well as absorption in the spherical inclusion and background matrix materials. For the parameter values investigated, we find a significant dependence of the ensemble-averaged fiducial tallies on both sphere mean chord length and sphere volume fraction, with the most dramatic variation occurring for the transmission through the spatial domain. We find a weaker dependence of most benchmark tally quantities on the distribution describing the sphere radii, provided the sphere mean chord length used is the same in the different distributions. The exponential distribution produces larger differences from the constant distribution than the uniform distribution produces. The transmission through the spatial domain does exhibit a significant variation when an exponential radius distribution is used.
Stochastic learning in oxide binary synaptic device for neuromorphic computing.
Yu, Shimeng; Gao, Bin; Fang, Zheng; Yu, Hongyu; Kang, Jinfeng; Wong, H-S Philip
2013-01-01
Hardware implementation of neuromorphic computing is attractive as a computing paradigm beyond the conventional digital computing. In this work, we show that the SET (off-to-on) transition of metal oxide resistive switching memory becomes probabilistic under a weak programming condition. The switching variability of the binary synaptic device implements a stochastic learning rule. Such stochastic SET transition was statistically measured and modeled for a simulation of a winner-take-all network for competitive learning. The simulation illustrates that with such stochastic learning, the orientation classification function of input patterns can be effectively realized. The system performance metrics were compared between the conventional approach using the analog synapse and the approach in this work that employs the binary synapse utilizing the stochastic learning. The feasibility of using binary synapse in the neurormorphic computing may relax the constraints to engineer continuous multilevel intermediate states and widens the material choice for the synaptic device design.
Convergence of stochastic learning in perceptrons with binary synapses.
Senn, Walter; Fusi, Stefano
2005-06-01
The efficacy of a biological synapse is naturally bounded, and at some resolution, and is discrete at the latest level of single vesicles. The finite number of synaptic states dramatically reduce the storage capacity of a network when online learning is considered (i.e., the synapses are immediately modified by each pattern): the trace of old memories decays exponentially with the number of new memories (palimpsest property). Moreover, finding the discrete synaptic strengths which enable the classification of linearly separable patterns is a combinatorially hard problem known to be NP complete. In this paper we show that learning with discrete (binary) synapses is nevertheless possible with high probability if a randomly selected fraction of synapses is modified following each stimulus presentation (slow stochastic learning). As an additional constraint, the synapses are only changed if the output neuron does not give the desired response, as in the case of classical perceptron learning. We prove that for linearly separable classes of patterns the stochastic learning algorithm converges with arbitrary high probability in a finite number of presentations, provided that the number of neurons encoding the patterns is large enough. The stochastic learning algorithm is successfully applied to a standard classification problem of nonlinearly separable patterns by using multiple, stochastically independent output units, with an achieved performance which is comparable to the maximal ones reached for the task.
Analytic framework for a stochastic binary biological switch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Innocentini, Guilherme C. P.; Guiziou, Sarah; Bonnet, Jerome; Radulescu, Ovidiu
2016-12-01
We propose and solve analytically a stochastic model for the dynamics of a binary biological switch, defined as a DNA unit with two mutually exclusive configurations, each one triggering the expression of a different gene. Such a device has the potential to be used as a memory unit for biological computing systems designed to operate in noisy environments. We discuss a recent implementation of this switch in living cells, the recombinase addressable data (RAD) module. In order to understand the behavior of a RAD module we compute the exact time-dependent joint distribution of the two expressed genes starting in one state and evolving to another asymptotic state. We consider two operating regimes of the RAD module, a fast and a slow stochastic switching regime. The fast regime is aggregative and produces unimodal distributions, whereas the slow regime is separative and produces bimodal distributions. Both regimes can serve to prepare pure memory states when all cells are expressing the same gene. The slow regime can also separate mixed states by producing two subpopulations, each one expressing a different gene. Compared to the genetic toggle switch based on positive feedback, the RAD module ensures more rapid memory operations for the same quality of the separation between binary states. Our model provides a simplified phenomenological framework for studying RAD memory devices and our analytic solution can be further used to clarify theoretical concepts in biocomputation and for optimal design in synthetic biology.
STOCHASTIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVE BACKGROUND FROM COALESCING BINARY BLACK HOLES
Zhu Xingjiang; Zhu Zonghong; Howell, E.; Blair, D.; Regimbau, T.
2011-10-01
We estimate the stochastic gravitational wave (GW) background signal from the field population of coalescing binary stellar mass black holes (BHs) throughout the universe. This study is motivated by recent observations of BH-Wolf-Rayet (WR) star systems and by new estimates in the metallicity abundances of star-forming galaxies that imply BH-BH systems are more common than previously assumed. Using recent analytical results of the inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms for coalescing binary BH systems, we estimate the resulting stochastic GW background signal. Assuming average quantities for the single source energy emissions, we explore the parameter space of chirp mass and local rate density required for detection by advanced and third-generation interferometric GW detectors. For an average chirp mass of 8.7 M{sub sun}, we find that detection through 3 years of cross-correlation by two advanced detectors will require a rate density, r{sub 0} {>=} 0.5 Mpc{sup -3} Myr{sup -1}. Combining data from multiple pairs of detectors can reduce this limit by up to 40%. Investigating the full parameter space we find that detection could be achieved at rates r{sub 0} {approx} 0.1 Mpc{sup -3} Myr{sup -1} for populations of coalescing binary BH systems with average chirp masses of {approx}15 M{sub sun} which are predicted by recent studies of BH-WR star systems. While this scenario is at the high end of theoretical estimates, cross-correlation of data by two Einstein Telescopes could detect this signal under the condition r{sub 0} {>=} 10{sup -3}Mpc{sup -3} Myr{sup -1}. Such a signal could potentially mask a primordial GW background signal of dimensionless energy density, {Omega}{sub GW} {approx} 10{sup -10}, around the (1-500) Hz frequency range.
Ground Movement Analysis Based on Stochastic Medium Theory
Fei, Meng; Li-chun, Wu; Jia-sheng, Zhang; Guo-dong, Deng; Zhi-hui, Ni
2014-01-01
In order to calculate the ground movement induced by displacement piles driven into horizontal layered strata, an axisymmetric model was built and then the vertical and horizontal ground movement functions were deduced using stochastic medium theory. Results show that the vertical ground movement obeys normal distribution function, while the horizontal ground movement is an exponential function. Utilizing field measured data, parameters of these functions can be obtained by back analysis, and an example was employed to verify this model. Result shows that stochastic medium theory is suitable for calculating the ground movement in pile driving, and there is no need to consider the constitutive model of soil or contact between pile and soil. This method is applicable in practice. PMID:24701184
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigeland, Sarah; Siemens, Xavier
2017-01-01
Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are sensitive to the gravitational wave (GW) stochastic background produced by supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs). Environmental effects such as gas and stars accelerate the evolution of SMBHBs and may deplete the stochastic background at low frequencies. How much this effects the sensitivity of PTAs to the stochastic background depends on the astrophysical mechanism and where the binary's evolution transitions from being driven by environmental effects to driven by GW emission. We will discuss how these issues impact our observing strategy and estimated time-to-detection. National Science Foundation PIRE program.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigeland, Sarah; Siemens, Xavier
2017-01-01
Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) are sensitive to the gravitational wave (GW) stochastic background produced by supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs). Environmental effects such as gas and stars accelerate the evolution of SMBHBs and may deplete the stochastic background at low frequencies. How much this effects the sensitivity of PTAs to the stochastic background depends on the astrophysical mechanism and where the binary's evolution transitions from being driven by environmental effects to driven by GW emission. We will discuss how these issues impact our observing strategy and estimated time-to-detection.
Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers.
Mandic, Vuk; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias
2016-11-11
Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the Universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational-wave detectors, and conclude that constraining the dark matter component in the form of black holes using stochastic gravitational-wave background measurements will be very challenging.
Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background due to Primordial Binary Black Hole Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandic, Vuk; Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias
2016-11-01
Recent Advanced LIGO detections of binary black hole mergers have prompted multiple studies investigating the possibility that the heavy GW150914 binary system was of primordial origin, and hence could be evidence for dark matter in the form of black holes. We compute the stochastic background arising from the incoherent superposition of such primordial binary black hole systems in the Universe and compare it to the similar background spectrum due to binary black hole systems of stellar origin. We investigate the possibility of detecting this background with future gravitational-wave detectors, and conclude that constraining the dark matter component in the form of black holes using stochastic gravitational-wave background measurements will be very challenging.
Stochastic reacceleration of cosmic rays in the interstellar medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seo, E. S.; Ptuskin, V. S.
1994-01-01
The effects of reacceleration on cosmic rays have been studied over a wide charge and energy range using a model of reacceleration by the interstellar turbulence. We take into account only inevitable stochastic reacceleration of cosmic rays by the random hydrodynamic waves, which supposedly exist in the interstellar medium and provide a means for cosmic-ray scattering and spatial diffusion in the Galaxy. Our calculations reproduce not only the B/C ratio but also the H and He data over the entire energy range where the measurements are available. However, the sub-Fe to Fe ratio is not fitted as well as the B/C ratio, and the reacceleration effect does not seem to remove the need for truncation of short path lengths, which is apparently required by the standard leaky box model. This work demonstrates that the cosmic-ray data can be represented at least as well by a reacceleration model with a simple rigidity power-law escape length, which agrees with the Kolmogorov-type spectrum of hydromagnetic turbulence, as they can by the standard leaky box model with its ad hoc escape lengths.
Irradiation effects in close binaries in an electron scattering medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varghese, B. A.; Srinivasa Rao, M.
2016-03-01
In a close binary system, the effects of irradiation are studied from an extended surface of the secondary component on the atmosphere of the primary. Primary and the secondary components are assumed to have equal radii and the thickness of the atmosphere is assumed to be twice that of the stellar radius of the primary component. Self radiation of the primary component (Ss) is calculated through a numerical solution of line transfer equation in the comoving frame with Compton broadening due to electron scattering. The solution is developed through discrete space theory to deal with different velocities in a spherically expanding medium. The irradiation from the secondary (SI) is calculated using one dimensional rod model. It is assumed to be one, five and ten times the self radiation. The total source function (S=Ss+SI) is the sum of the source functions due to self radiation and that due to irradiation. The line fluxes are computed along the line of sight by using the above source functions. Line profiles are also computed for different line center optical depths along the line of sight of the observer at infinity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Sambaran; Ghosh, Pranab
2008-06-01
We continue the exploration that we began in Paper I of using the Boltzmann scheme to study the evolution of compact binary populations of globular clusters, introducing in this paper our method of handling the stochasticity inherent in the dynamical processes of binary formation, destruction, and hardening in globular clusters. We describe these stochastic processes as "Wiener processes," whereupon the Boltzmann equation becomes a stochastic partial differential equation, the solution of which involves the use of "Itō calculus" (this use being the first, to our knowledge, in this subject), in addition to ordinary calculus. As in Paper I, we focus on the evolution of (1) the number of X-ray binaries NXB in globular clusters and (2) the orbital period distribution of these binaries. We show that, although the details of the fluctuations in the above quantities differ from one "realization" to another of the stochastic processes, the general trends follow those found in the continuous-limit study of Paper I, and the average result over many such realizations is very close to the continuous-limit result. We investigate the dependence of NXB found by these calculations on two essential globular cluster properties, namely, the star-star and star-binary encounter rate parameters Γ and γ, for which we coined the name "Verbunt parameters" in Paper I. We compare our computed results with those from Chandra observations of Galactic globular clusters, showing that the expected scalings of NXB with the Verbunt parameters are in good agreement with those observed. We indicate additional features that can be incorporated into the scheme in the future, as well as how more elaborate problems can be tackled.
GW150914: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Binary Black Holes.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Bustillo, J Calderón; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Diaz, J Casanueva; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Baiardi, L Cerboni; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Canton, T Dal; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R T; De Rosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Castro, J M Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Haris, K; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vaulin, R; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, X; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Welborn, T; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; White, D J; Whiting, B F; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J
2016-04-01
The LIGO detection of the gravitational wave transient GW150914, from the inspiral and merger of two black holes with masses ≳30M_{⊙}, suggests a population of binary black holes with relatively high mass. This observation implies that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black holes, created from the incoherent superposition of all the merging binaries in the Universe, could be higher than previously expected. Using the properties of GW150914, we estimate the energy density of such a background from binary black holes. In the most sensitive part of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo band for stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict Ω_{GW}(f=25 Hz)=1.1_{-0.9}^{+2.7}×10^{-9} with 90% confidence. This prediction is robustly demonstrated for a variety of formation scenarios with different parameters. The differences between models are small compared to the statistical uncertainty arising from the currently poorly constrained local coalescence rate. We conclude that this background is potentially measurable by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors operating at their projected final sensitivity.
GW150914: Implications for the Stochastic Gravitational-Wave Background from Binary Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Haris, K.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-04-01
The LIGO detection of the gravitational wave transient GW150914, from the inspiral and merger of two black holes with masses ≳30 M⊙, suggests a population of binary black holes with relatively high mass. This observation implies that the stochastic gravitational-wave background from binary black holes, created from the incoherent superposition of all the merging binaries in the Universe, could be higher than previously expected. Using the properties of GW150914, we estimate the energy density of such a background from binary black holes. In the most sensitive part of the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo band for stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict ΩGW(f =25 Hz )=1. 1-0.9+2.7×10-9 with 90% confidence. This prediction is robustly demonstrated for a variety of formation scenarios with different parameters. The differences between models are small compared to the statistical uncertainty arising from the currently poorly constrained local coalescence rate. We conclude that this background is potentially measurable by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo detectors operating at their projected final sensitivity.
Algebraic Information Theory and Stochastic Resonance for Binary-Input Binary-Output Channels
2012-03-01
invertible channel matrices. In Proc. 44th Annual Conf. on Information Sciences and Systems, CISS 2010, Princeton, NJ, USA, March 2010. [4] J. Hopfield ...Neural networks and physical systems with emergent collective computational abilities. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 79...2554–2558, April 1982. [5] Bart Kosko and Sanya Mitiam. Stochastic resonance in noisy threshold neurons. Neural Networks , 16:755–761, 2003. [6] Bart
Stochastic histories of dust grains in the interstellar medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liffman, Kurt; Clayton, D. D.
1989-01-01
The purpose is to study an evolving system of refractory dust grains within the Interstellar Medium (ISM). This is done via a combination of Monte Carlo processes and a system of partial differential equations, where refractory dust grains formed within supernova remnants and ejecta from high mass loss stars are subjected to the processes of sputtering and collisional fragmentation in the diffuse media and accretion within the cold molecular clouds. In order to record chemical detail, the authors take each new particle to consist of a superrefractory core plus a more massive refractory mantle. The particles are allowed to transfer to and fro between the different phases of the interstellar medium (ISM) - on a time scale of 10(exp 8) years - until either the particles are destroyed or the program finishes at a Galaxy time of 6x10(exp 9) years. The resulting chemical and size spectrum(s) are then applied to various astrophysical problems with the following results. For an ISM which has no collisional fragmentation of the dust grains, roughly 10 percent by mass of the most refractory material survives the rigors of the ISM intact, which leaves open the possibility that fossilized isotopically anomalous material may have been present within the primordial solar nebula. Stuctured or layered refractory dust grains within the model cannot explain the observed interstellar depletions of refractory material. Fragmentation due to grain-grain collisions in the diffuse phase plus the accretion of material in the molecular cloud phase can under certain circumstances cause a bimodal distribution in grain size.
Optimal sensor selection for noisy binary detection in stochastic pooling networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDonnell, Mark D.; Li, Feng; Amblard, P.-O.; Grant, Alex J.
2013-08-01
Stochastic Pooling Networks (SPNs) are a useful model for understanding and explaining how naturally occurring encoding of stochastic processes can occur in sensor systems ranging from macroscopic social networks to neuron populations and nanoscale electronics. Due to the interaction of nonlinearity, random noise, and redundancy, SPNs support various unexpected emergent features, such as suprathreshold stochastic resonance, but most existing mathematical results are restricted to the simplest case where all sensors in a network are identical. Nevertheless, numerical results on information transmission have shown that in the presence of independent noise, the optimal configuration of a SPN is such that there should be partial heterogeneity in sensor parameters, such that the optimal solution includes clusters of identical sensors, where each cluster has different parameter values. In this paper, we consider a SPN model of a binary hypothesis detection task and show mathematically that the optimal solution for a specific bound on detection performance is also given by clustered heterogeneity, such that measurements made by sensors with identical parameters either should all be excluded from the detection decision or all included. We also derive an algorithm for numerically finding the optimal solution and illustrate its utility with several examples, including a model of parallel sensory neurons with Poisson firing characteristics.
Olson, Gordon L.
2015-09-24
One-dimensional models for the transport of radiation through binary stochastic media do not work in multi-dimensions. In addition, authors have attempted to modify or extend the 1D models to work in multidimensions without success. Analytic one-dimensional models are successful in 1D only when assuming greatly simplified physics. State of the art theories for stochastic media radiation transport do not address multi-dimensions and temperature-dependent physics coefficients. Here, the concept of effective opacities and effective heat capacities is found to well represent the ensemble averaged transport solutions in cases with gray or multigroup temperature-dependent opacities and constant or temperature-dependent heat capacities. Inmore » every case analyzed here, effective physics coefficients fit the transport solutions over a useful range of parameter space. The transport equation is solved with the spherical harmonics method with angle orders of n=1 and 5. Although the details depend on what order of solution is used, the general results are similar, independent of angular order.« less
Olson, Gordon L.
2015-09-24
One-dimensional models for the transport of radiation through binary stochastic media do not work in multi-dimensions. In addition, authors have attempted to modify or extend the 1D models to work in multidimensions without success. Analytic one-dimensional models are successful in 1D only when assuming greatly simplified physics. State of the art theories for stochastic media radiation transport do not address multi-dimensions and temperature-dependent physics coefficients. Here, the concept of effective opacities and effective heat capacities is found to well represent the ensemble averaged transport solutions in cases with gray or multigroup temperature-dependent opacities and constant or temperature-dependent heat capacities. In every case analyzed here, effective physics coefficients fit the transport solutions over a useful range of parameter space. The transport equation is solved with the spherical harmonics method with angle orders of n=1 and 5. Although the details depend on what order of solution is used, the general results are similar, independent of angular order.
Stochastic Background from Coalescences of Neutron Star-Neutron Star Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regimbau, T.; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.
2006-05-01
In this work, numerical simulations were used to investigate the gravitational stochastic background produced by coalescences of double neutron star systems occurring up to z~5. The cosmic coalescence rate was derived from Monte Carlo methods using the probability distributions for massive binaries to form and for a coalescence to occur in a given redshift. A truly continuous background is produced by events located only beyond the critical redshift z*=0.23. Events occurring in the redshift interval 0.027
Interstellar medium perturbations on transport-dominated debris discs in binary star systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzari, F.
2012-04-01
I explore the dynamics of small dust particles in transport-dominated circumstellar debris discs in binary star systems. In these tenuous discs the effects of mutual collisions are negligible and their morphology is determined by Poynting-Robertson drag and, possibly, by the strong perturbations induced by the interaction with the interstellar medium (ISM) flux of neutral atoms. The force due to the ISM flux can significantly affect the dynamical behaviour of the dust grains, causing a fast inward drift and a large periodic oscillation of both eccentricity and inclination. If the disc is around a star in a binary system, the gravity of the companion star competes with the ISM force and the dynamics is complex. The balance between the two forces depends strongly on the binary semimajor axis aB and eccentricity eB. In a scenario with an ISM flux similar to that observed in the Solar system neighbourhood, the binary secular perturbations, assuming a mass ratio of 0.5, dominate over the ISM force when aB < 600 au and eB= 0.2. This occurs when the dust disc is generated by a parent body ring encompassed between 50 and 60 aufrom the primary star. For a larger binary eccentricity eB= 0.6, the limit moves to aB < 700 au. Within these values of aB, the time-scale of the binary secular perturbations is much shorter than the period of the ISM-induced orbital variations, and the disc shape and density distribution are dominated by the companion gravity. It appears slightly eccentric and, if the binary is coplanar with the disc, only a limited warping due to the ISM perturbations is observed. In this scenario, the strong ISM perturbations, which may significantly affect debris discs around single stars embedded in strong ISM winds, are almost completely silenced. For larger semimajor axes, the scenario is reversed with the ISM perturbations ruling the dynamics of the dust. The disc develops a large clump oriented at 90° with respect to the direction of the ISM flux and it
Robustness of the Critical Behaviour in a Discrete Stochastic Reaction-Diffusion Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fatès, Nazim; Berry, Hugues
We study the steady states of a reaction-diffusion medium modelled by a stochastic 2D cellular automaton. We consider the Greenberg-Hastings model where noise and topological irregularities of the grid are taken into account. The decrease of the probability of excitation changes qualitatively the behaviour of the system from an "active" to an "extinct" steady state. Simulations show that this change occurs near a critical threshold; it is identified as a nonequilibrium phase transition which belongs to the directed percolation universality class. We test the robustness of the phenomenon by introducing persistent defects in the topology : directed percolation behaviour is conserved. Using experimental and analytical tools, we suggest that the critical threshold varies as the inverse of the average number of neighbours per cell.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigeland, S. J.; Siemens, X.
2016-12-01
One of the primary gravitational wave (GW) sources for pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) is the stochastic background formed by supermassive black holes binaries (SMBHBs). In this paper, we investigate how the environments of SMBHBs effect the sensitivity of PTAs by deriving scaling laws for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the optimal cross-correlation statistic. The presence of gas and stars around SMBHBs accelerates the merger at large distances, depleting the GW stochastic background at low frequencies. We show that environmental interactions may delay detection by a few years or more, depending on the PTA configuration and the frequency at which the dynamical evolution transitions from being dominated by environmental effects to GW dominated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zwitter, T.; Kos, J.; Žerjal, M.; Traven, G.
2016-10-01
Current ongoing stellar spectroscopic surveys (RAVE, GALAH, Gaia-ESO, LAMOST, APOGEE, Gaia) are mostly devoted to studying Galactic archaeology and the structure of the Galaxy. But they allow also for important auxiliary science: (i) the Galactic interstellar medium can be studied in four dimensions (position in space plus radial velocity) through weak but numerous diffuse interstellar bands and atomic absorptions seen in spectra of background stars, (ii) emission spectra which are quite frequent even in field stars can serve as a good indicator of their youth, pointing e.g. to stars recently ejected from young stellar environments, (iii) an astrometric solution of the photocenter of a binary to be obtained by Gaia can yield accurate masses when joined by spectroscopic information obtained serendipitously during a survey. These points are illustrated by first results from the first three surveys mentioned above. These hint at the near future: spectroscopic studies of the dynamics of the interstellar medium can identify and quantify Galactic fountains which may sustain star formation in the disk by entraining fresh gas from the halo; RAVE already provided a list of ˜ 14,000 field stars with chromospheric emission in Ca II lines, to be supplemented by many more observations by Gaia in the same band, and by GALAH and Gaia-ESO observations of Balmer lines; several millions of astrometric binaries with periods up to a few years which are being observed by Gaia can yield accurate masses when supplemented with measurements from only a few high-quality ground based spectra.
Binaries Traveling through a Gaseous Medium: Dynamical Drag Forces and Internal Torques
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.; Chametla, Raul O.
2014-10-01
Using time-dependent linear theory, we investigate the morphology of the gravitational wake induced by a binary, whose center of mass moves at velocity {\\boldsymbol {V}}_cm against a uniform background of gas. For simplicity, we assume that the components of the binary are on circular orbits about their common center of mass. The consequences of dynamical friction is twofold. First, gas dynamical friction may drag the center of mass of the binary and cause the binary to migrate. Second, drag forces also induce a braking torque, which causes the orbits of the components of the binary to shrink. We compute the drag forces acting on one component of the binary due to the gravitational interaction with its own wake. We show that the dynamical friction force responsible for decelerating the center of mass of the binary is smaller than it is in the point-mass case because of the loss of gravitational focusing. We show that the braking internal torque depends on the Mach numbers of each binary component about their center of mass, and also on the Mach number of the center of mass of the binary. In general, the internal torque decreases with increasing the velocity of the binary relative to the ambient gas cloud. However, this is not always the case. We also mention the relevance of our results to the period distribution of binaries.
Binaries traveling through a gaseous medium: dynamical drag forces and internal torques
Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J.; Chametla, Raul O.
2014-10-20
Using time-dependent linear theory, we investigate the morphology of the gravitational wake induced by a binary, whose center of mass moves at velocity V{sub cm} against a uniform background of gas. For simplicity, we assume that the components of the binary are on circular orbits about their common center of mass. The consequences of dynamical friction is twofold. First, gas dynamical friction may drag the center of mass of the binary and cause the binary to migrate. Second, drag forces also induce a braking torque, which causes the orbits of the components of the binary to shrink. We compute the drag forces acting on one component of the binary due to the gravitational interaction with its own wake. We show that the dynamical friction force responsible for decelerating the center of mass of the binary is smaller than it is in the point-mass case because of the loss of gravitational focusing. We show that the braking internal torque depends on the Mach numbers of each binary component about their center of mass, and also on the Mach number of the center of mass of the binary. In general, the internal torque decreases with increasing the velocity of the binary relative to the ambient gas cloud. However, this is not always the case. We also mention the relevance of our results to the period distribution of binaries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moglia, Belén; Albano, Ezequiel V.; Guisoni, Nara
2016-11-01
We study a stochastic lattice model for cell colony growth, which takes into account proliferation, diffusion, and rotation of cells, in a culture medium with quenched disorder. The medium is composed of sites that inhibit any possible change in the internal state of the cells, representing the disorder, as well as by active medium sites that do not interfere with the cell dynamics. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we find that the velocity of the growing interface, which is taken as the order parameter of the model, strongly depends on the density of active medium sites (ρA). In fact, the model presents a (continuous) second-order pinning-depinning transition at a certain critical value of ρAcrit, such as, for ρA>ρAcrit , the interface moves freely across the disordered medium, but for ρA<ρAcrit the interface becomes irreversible pinned by the disorder. By determining the relevant critical exponents, our study reveals that within the depinned phase the interface can be rationalized in terms of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, but when approaching the critical threshold, the nonlinear term of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation tends to vanish and then the pinned interface belongs to the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson universality class.
Moglia, Belén; Albano, Ezequiel V; Guisoni, Nara
2016-11-01
We study a stochastic lattice model for cell colony growth, which takes into account proliferation, diffusion, and rotation of cells, in a culture medium with quenched disorder. The medium is composed of sites that inhibit any possible change in the internal state of the cells, representing the disorder, as well as by active medium sites that do not interfere with the cell dynamics. By means of Monte Carlo simulations we find that the velocity of the growing interface, which is taken as the order parameter of the model, strongly depends on the density of active medium sites (ρ_{A}). In fact, the model presents a (continuous) second-order pinning-depinning transition at a certain critical value of ρ_{A}^{crit}, such as, for ρ_{A}>ρ_{A}^{crit}, the interface moves freely across the disordered medium, but for ρ_{A}<ρ_{A}^{crit} the interface becomes irreversible pinned by the disorder. By determining the relevant critical exponents, our study reveals that within the depinned phase the interface can be rationalized in terms of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang universality class, but when approaching the critical threshold, the nonlinear term of the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation tends to vanish and then the pinned interface belongs to the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson universality class.
STOCHASTIC VARIABILITY IN X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE BLACK HOLE BINARY GRS 1915+105
Polyakov, Yuriy S.; Neilsen, Joseph; Timashev, Serge F.
2012-06-15
We examine stochastic variability in the dynamics of X-ray emission from the black hole system GRS 1915+105, a strongly variable microquasar commonly used for studying relativistic jets and the physics of black hole accretion. The analysis of sample observations for 13 different states in both soft (low) and hard (high) energy bands is performed by flicker-noise spectroscopy (FNS), a phenomenological time series analysis method operating on structure functions and power spectrum estimates. We find the values of FNS parameters, including the Hurst exponent, flicker-noise parameter, and characteristic timescales, for each observation based on multiple 2500 s continuous data segments. We identify four modes of stochastic variability driven by dissipative processes that may be related to viscosity fluctuations in the accretion disk around the black hole: random (RN), power-law (1F), one-scale (1S), and two-scale (2S). The variability modes are generally the same in soft and hard energy bands of the same observation. We discuss the potential for future FNS studies of accreting black holes.
Improving enzymatic production of diglycerides by engineering binary ionic liquid medium system.
Guo, Zheng; Kahveci, Derya; Ozçelik, Beraat; Xu, Xuebing
2009-10-01
The tunable property of ionic liquids (ILs) offers tremendous opportunity to rethink the strategy of current efforts to resolve technical challenges that occurred in many production approaches. To establish an efficient glycerolysis approach for enzymatic production of diglycerides (DG), this work reported a novel concept to improve DG yield by applying a binary IL system that consisted of one IL with better DG production selectivity and another IL being able to achieve higher conversion of triglycerides (TG). The candidates for combination were determined by individually examining lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis in different ILs, as a result, promising ones are divided into two groups based on their reaction specificities. The effects of parametric variables were then preliminarily evaluated, following a further investigation of the reaction performance in different binary IL systems from cross-group combinations. The combination of TOMA.Tf(2)N/Ammoeng 102 was employed for optimization by Response Surface Methodology. Eighty to eighty-five percent (mol%) of oil conversion and up to 90% (mol%) of total DG yield (73%, wt%) were obtained, which are markedly higher than those previously reported. This work demonstrated the practical feasibility to couple the technical advantage (high TG conversion and high DG production selective in this work) of individual ILs into a binary system to over-perform the reaction. It is believed that binary IL system could be also applicable to other enzymatic reaction systems for establishment of more efficient reaction protocols.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suková, Petra; Grzedzielski, Mikolaj; Janiuk, Agnieszka
2016-02-01
Aims: Both the well known microquasar GRS 1915+105, as well as its recently discovered analogue, IGR J17091-3624, exhibit variability that is characteristic of a deterministic chaotic system. Their specific kind of quasi-periodic flares that are observed in some states is intrinsically connected with the global structure of the accretion flow, which are governed by the nonlinear hydrodynamics. One plausible mechanism that is proposed to explain this kind of variability is the thermal-viscous instability that operates in the accretion disk. The purely stochastic variability that occurs because of turbulent conditions in the plasma, is quantified by the power density spectra and appears in practically all types of sources and their spectral states. Methods: We pose a question as to whether these two microquasars are one of a kind, or if the traces of deterministic chaos, and hence the accretion disk instability, may also be hidden in the observed variability of other sources. We focus on the black hole X-ray binaries that accrete at a high rate and are, therefore, theoretically prone to the development of radiation pressure-induced instability. To study the nonlinear behaviour of the X-ray sources and distinguish between the chaotic and stochastic nature of their emission, we propose a novel method, which is based on recurrence analysis. Widely known in other fields of physics, this powerful method is used here for the first time in an astrophysical context. We estimate the indications of deterministic chaos quantitatively, such as the Rényi's entropy for the observed time series, and we compare them with surrogate data. Results: Using the observational data collected by the RXTE satellite, we reveal the oscillations pattern and the observable properties of six black hole systems. For five of them, we confirm the signatures of deterministic chaos being the driver of their observed variability. Conclusions: We test the method and confirm the deterministic nature of
Macroscopic Model for Head-On Binary Droplet Collisions in a Gaseous Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jie
2016-11-01
In this Letter, coalescence-bouncing transitions of head-on binary droplet collisions are predicted by a novel macroscopic model based entirely on fundamental laws of physics. By making use of the lubrication theory of Zhang and Law [Phys. Fluids 23, 042102 (2011)], we have modified the Navier-Stokes equations to accurately account for the rarefied nature of the interdroplet gas film. Through the disjoint pressure model, we have incorporated the intermolecular van der Waals forces. Our model does not use any adjustable (empirical) parameters. It therefore encompasses an extreme range of length scales (more than 5 orders of magnitude): from those of the external flow in excess of the droplet size (a few hundred μ m ) to the effective range of the van der Waals force around 10 nm. A state of the art moving adaptive mesh method, capable of resolving all the relevant length scales, has been employed. Our numerical simulations are able to capture the coalescence-bouncing and bouncing-coalescence transitions that are observed as the collision intensity increases. The predicted transition Weber numbers for tetradecane and water droplet collisions at different pressures show good agreement with published experimental values. Our study also sheds new light on the roles of gas density, droplet size, and mean free path in the rupture of the gas film.
Rätz, H-J; Charef, A; Abella, A J; Colloca, F; Ligas, A; Mannini, A; Lloret, J
2013-10-01
A medium-term (10 year) stochastic forecast model is developed and presented for mixed fisheries that can provide estimations of age-specific parameters for a maximum of 10 stocks and 10 fisheries. Designed to support fishery managers dealing with complex, multi-annual management plans, the model can be used to quantitatively test the consequences of various stock-specific and fishery-specific decisions, using non-equilibrium stock dynamics. Such decisions include fishing restrictions and other strategies aimed at achieving sustainable mixed fisheries consistent with the concept of maximum sustainable yield (MSY). In order to test the model, recently gathered data on seven stocks and four fisheries operating in the Ligurian and North Tyrrhenian Seas are used to generate quantitative, 10 year predictions of biomass and catch trends under four different management scenarios. The results show that using the fishing mortality at MSY as the biological reference point for the management of all stocks would be a strong incentive to reduce the technical interactions among concurrent fishing strategies. This would optimize the stock-specific exploitation and be consistent with sustainability criteria.
Heating the intergalactic medium by X-rays from population III binaries in high-redshift galaxies
Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu E-mail: jwise@gatech.edu
2014-08-20
Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc){sup 3}. We then combine three different methods—ray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modeling—to investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 10{sup 4} K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.
Heating the Intergalactic Medium by X-Rays from Population III Binaries in High-redshift Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Hao; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; Norman, Michael L.; O'Shea, Brian W.
2014-08-01
Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc)3. We then combine three different methods—ray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modeling—to investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 104 K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.
Feenstra, Adam D.; O'Neill, Kelly C.; Yagnik, Gargey B.; ...
2016-10-13
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a widely adopted, versatile technique, especially in high-throughput analysis and imaging. However, matrix-dependent selectivity of analytes is often a severe limitation. In this work, a mixture of organic 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and inorganic Fe3O4 nanoparticles is developed as a binary MALDI matrix to alleviate the well-known issue of triacylglycerol (TG) ion suppression by phosphatidylcholine (PC). In application to lipid standards and maize seed cross-sections, the binary matrix not only dramatically reduced the ion suppression of TG, but also efficiently desorbed and ionized a wide variety of lipids such as cationic PC, anionic phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)more » and phosphatidylinositol (PI), and neutral digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). The binary matrix was also very efficient for large polysaccharides, which were not detected by either of the individual matrices. As a result, the usefulness of the binary matrix is demonstrated in MS imaging of maize seed sections, successfully visualizing diverse medium-size molecules and acquiring high-quality MS/MS spectra for these compounds.« less
Feenstra, Adam D.; O'Neill, Kelly C.; Yagnik, Gargey B.; Lee, Young Jin
2016-10-13
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a widely adopted, versatile technique, especially in high-throughput analysis and imaging. However, matrix-dependent selectivity of analytes is often a severe limitation. In this work, a mixture of organic 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid and inorganic Fe_{3}O_{4} nanoparticles is developed as a binary MALDI matrix to alleviate the well-known issue of triacylglycerol (TG) ion suppression by phosphatidylcholine (PC). In application to lipid standards and maize seed cross-sections, the binary matrix not only dramatically reduced the ion suppression of TG, but also efficiently desorbed and ionized a wide variety of lipids such as cationic PC, anionic phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI), and neutral digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG). The binary matrix was also very efficient for large polysaccharides, which were not detected by either of the individual matrices. As a result, the usefulness of the binary matrix is demonstrated in MS imaging of maize seed sections, successfully visualizing diverse medium-size molecules and acquiring high-quality MS/MS spectra for these compounds.
A Stochastic Employment Problem
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Teng
2013-01-01
The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…
Ghosh; Moulik
1998-12-15
The formation of micelles of Tween-20 and Brij-35 as well as of SDS, Tween-20, and Brij-35 mixed in different proportions in aqueous medium has been physicochemically investigated. The critical micellar concentration (CMC), micellar aggregation number, counterion binding by micelles, micellar polarity, free energies of micellization and interfacial adsorption, and entropy of micellization have been evaluated by conductometric, tensiometric, and fluorimetric measurements. The solution composition has been found to have a complex say on the measured physicochemical parameters. The enthalpies of micellization of both Tween-20 + Brij-35 and SDS + Tween-20 + Brij-35 mixed surfactant systems have been found to be negligibly small. Attempts to understand the properties of mixed micelles (composition, mutual synergism, component activity coefficients, and CMC) have been made with the help of the propositions of Clint, Rubingh, and Rubingh and Holland. The mixed binary and ternary systems can be adequately described by these theories. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.
Research in Stochastic Processes.
1985-09-01
appear. G. Kallianpur, Finitely additive approach to nonlinear filtering, Proc. Bernoulli Soc. Conf. on Stochastic Processes, T. Hida , ed., Springer, to...Nov. 85, in Proc. Bernoulli Soc. Conf. on Stochastic Processes, T. Hida , ed., Springer, to appear. i. Preparation T. Hsing, Extreme value theory for...1507 Carroll, R.J., Spiegelman, C.H., Lan, K.K.G., Bailey , K.T. and Abbott, R.D., Errors in-variables for binary regression models, Aug.82. 1508
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magier, Ronen; Bergman, David J.
2008-04-01
The electrical response of a three-dimensional composite medium composed of two isotropic conductors with charge carriers of the same sign is investigated. We consider such mixtures when subject to a strong magnetic field. First, an asymptotic analysis of a self-consistent effective medium approximation (SEMA) is applied for this purpose. A critical point in the behavior of the effective transverse Ohmic resistivity is predicted. At this critical point, occurring when the Hall resistivities of the two constituents are equal, the dependence of the induced magnetoresistance on the externally applied magnetic field changes from nonsaturating to saturating. The crossover between these distinct strong-field behaviors is characterized by a closed-form function of an appropriate scaling variable. An analogy is found between the investigated composite and a parallel-slabs composite. This provides physical insight into some of the results found using SEMA and indicates that their validity transcends that of SEMA. It also leads to some surprising predictions regarding the distributions of the local electric field and current density in the system.
Kumar, S.; Gezari, S.; Heinis, S.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Soderberg, A.; Stubbs, C. W.; Kirshner, R. P.; Rest, A.; Huber, M. E.; Narayan, G.; Marion, G. H.; Burgett, W. S.; Foley, R. J.; Scolnic, D.; Riess, A. G.; Lawrence, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Smith, K.; Wood-Vasey, W. M.; and others
2015-03-20
We present a novel method for the light-curve characterization of Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (PS1 MDS) extragalactic sources into stochastic variables (SVs) and burst-like (BL) transients, using multi-band image-differencing time-series data. We select detections in difference images associated with galaxy hosts using a star/galaxy catalog extracted from the deep PS1 MDS stacked images, and adopt a maximum a posteriori formulation to model their difference-flux time-series in four Pan-STARRS1 photometric bands g {sub P1}, r {sub P1}, i {sub P1}, and z {sub P1}. We use three deterministic light-curve models to fit BL transients; a Gaussian, a Gamma distribution, and an analytic supernova (SN) model, and one stochastic light-curve model, the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, in order to fit variability that is characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We assess the quality of fit of the models band-wise and source-wise, using their estimated leave-out-one cross-validation likelihoods and corrected Akaike information criteria. We then apply a K-means clustering algorithm on these statistics, to determine the source classification in each band. The final source classification is derived as a combination of the individual filter classifications, resulting in two measures of classification quality, from the averages across the photometric filters of (1) the classifications determined from the closest K-means cluster centers, and (2) the square distances from the clustering centers in the K-means clustering spaces. For a verification set of AGNs and SNe, we show that SV and BL occupy distinct regions in the plane constituted by these measures. We use our clustering method to characterize 4361 extragalactic image difference detected sources, in the first 2.5 yr of the PS1 MDS, into 1529 BL, and 2262 SV, with a purity of 95.00% for AGNs, and 90.97% for SN based on our verification sets. We combine our light-curve classifications with their nuclear or off-nuclear host
Silva, Priscilla L; Trassi, Marco A S; Martins, Clarissa T; El Seoud, Omar A
2009-07-16
We have employed UV-vis spectroscopy in order to investigate details of the solvation of six solvatochromicindicators, hereafter designated as "probes", namely, 2,6-diphenyl-4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium-1-yl) phenolate(RB); 4-[(E)-2-(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)ethenyl] phenolate, MePM; 1-methylquinolinium-8-olate, QB;2-bromo-4-[(E)-2-(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)ethenyl] phenolate, MePMBr, 2,6-dichloro-4-(2,4,6-triphenylpyridinium-1-yl) phenolate (WB); and 2,6-dibromo-4-[(E)-2-(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)ethenyl] phenolate,MePMBr2, respectively. These can be divided into three pairs, each includes two probes of similar p kappa(a) in water and different lipophilicity. Solvation has been studied in binary mixtures, BMs, of water, W, with 12protic organic solvents, S, including mono- and bifunctional alcohols (2-alkoxyethanoles, unsaturated and chlorinated alcohols). Each medium was treated as a mixture of S, W, and a complex solvent, S-W, formed by hydrogen bonding. Values of lambda max (of the probe intramolecular charge transfer) were converted into empirical polarity scales, ET(probe) in kcal/mol, whose values were correlated with the effective mole fraction of waterin the medium, chi W(effective). This correlation furnished three equilibrium constants for the exchange of solvents int he probe solvation shell; phi W/S (W substitutes S); phi S-W/W (S-W substitutes W), and phi S-W/S (S-W substitutes S), respectively. The values of these constants depend on the physicochemical properties of the probe and the medium. We tested, for the first time, the applicability of a new solvation free energy relationship: phi =constant + a alpha(BM) + b beta(BM) + s(pi* (BM) + d delta) + p log P (BM), where a, b, s, and p are regression coefficients; RBM,alpha (BM), beta(BM) and pi (BM) are solvatochromic parameters of the BM, delta is a correction term for pi*, and log P is an empirical scale of lipophilicity. Correlations were carried out with two-, three-, and four-medium descriptors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi
2015-08-01
Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be an inevitable consequence of the hierarchical growth of massive galaxies through mergers, and the strongest sirens of gravitational waves (GWs) in the cosmos. And yet, their direct detection has remained elusive due to the compact (sub-parsec) orbital separations of gravitationally bound SMBHBs. Here we exploit a theoretically predicted signature of a SMBHB in the time domain: periodic variability caused by a mass accretion rate that is modulated by the binary's orbital motion. We report our first significant periodically varying quasar detection from the systematic search in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey, a result recently accepted for publication in The Astrophysical Journal Letters. Our SMBHB candidate, PSO J334.2028+01.4075, is a luminous radio-loud quasar at z = 2.060, with extended baseline photometry from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, as well as archival spectroscopy from the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey. The observed period (542 ± 15 days) and estimated black hole mass (log(MBH/M⊙) = 9.97 ± 0.50), correspond to an orbital separation of 7+8-4 Schwarzschild radii (~ 0.006+0.007-0.003 pc), assuming the rest-frame period of the quasar variability traces the orbital period of the binary. This SMBHB candidate, discovered at the peak redshift for SMBH mergers, is in a physically stable configuration for a circumbinary accretion disk, and within the regime of GW-driven orbital decay. Our search with PS1 is a benchmark study for the exciting capabilities of LSST, which will have orders of magnitude larger survey power, and will potentially pinpoint the locations of thousands of SMBHBs in the variable night sky.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi
Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be an inevitable consequence of the hierarchical growth of massive galaxies through mergers and the strongest sirens of gravitational waves (GWs) in the cosmos. Yet, their direct detection has remained elusive due to the compact (sub-parsec) orbital separations of gravitationally bound SMBHBs. Here we exploit a theoretically predicted signature of SMBHBs in the time domain. We have begun a systematic search for SMBHB candidates in the Pan-STARRS1 Medium Deep Survey (MDS) and reported our first significant detection of such a candidate from our pilot study of MD09 in Liu et al. (2015). Our candidate PSO J334.2028+01.4075 has a detected period of 542 days, varying persistently over the available baseline. From its archival spectrum, we estimated the black hole mass of the z = 2.06 quasar to be ~1010 M⊙. The inferred ~7 R s binary separation therefore puts this candidate in the regime of GW-dominated orbital decay, opening up the exciting possibility of finding GW sources detectable by pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) in a wide-field optical synoptic survey.
Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas
2015-01-01
In 1953, Lloyd Shapley contributed his paper “Stochastic games” to PNAS. In this paper, he defined the model of stochastic games, which were the first general dynamic model of a game to be defined, and proved that it admits a stationary equilibrium. In this Perspective, we summarize the historical context and the impact of Shapley’s contribution. PMID:26556883
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Tingting; Gezari, Suvi; Heinis, Sebastien; Magnier, Eugene A.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth; Flewelling, Heather; Huber, Mark; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Waters, Christopher
2015-04-01
Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) should be an inevitable consequence of the hierarchical growth of massive galaxies through mergers and the strongest sirens of gravitational waves (GWs) in the cosmos. Yet, their direct detection has remained elusive due to the compact (sub-parsec) orbital separations of gravitationally bound SMBHBs. Here, we exploit a theoretically predicted signature of an SMBHB in the time domain: periodic variability caused by a mass accretion rate that is modulated by the binary’s orbital motion. We report our first significant periodically varying quasar detection from the systematic search in the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) Medium Deep Survey. Our SMBHB candidate, PSO J334.2028+01.4075, is a luminous radio-loud quasar at z = 2.060, with extended baseline photometry from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey, as well as archival spectroscopy from the FIRST Bright Quasar Survey. The observed period (542 ± 15 days) and estimated black hole mass (log ({{M}BH}/{{M}⊙ })=9.97+/- 0.50) correspond to an orbital separation of 7-4+8 Schwarzschild radii (˜ 0.006-0.003+0.007 pc), assuming the rest-frame period of the quasar variability traces the orbital period of the binary. This SMBHB candidate, discovered at the peak redshift for SMBH mergers, is in a physically stable configuration for a circumbinary accretion disk and within the regime of GW-driven orbital decay. Our search with PS1 is a benchmark study for the exciting capabilities of LSST, which will have orders of magnitude larger survey power and will potentially pinpoint the locations of thousands of SMBHBs in the variable night sky.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noll, Keith S.
2015-08-01
The Pluto-Charon binary was the first trans-neptunian binary to be identified in 1978. Pluto-Charon is a true binary with both components orbiting a barycenter located between them. The Pluto system is also the first, and to date only, known binary with a satellite system consisting of four small satellites in near-resonant orbits around the common center of mass. Seven other Plutinos, objects in 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune, have orbital companions including 2004 KB19 reported here for the first time. Compared to the Cold Classical population, the Plutinos differ in the frequency of binaries, the relative sizes of the components, and their inclination distribution. These differences point to distinct dynamical histories and binary formation processes encountered by Plutinos.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik
2014-04-01
'Stochastic thermodynamics as a conceptual framework combines the stochastic energetics approach introduced a decade ago by Sekimoto [1] with the idea that entropy can consistently be assigned to a single fluctuating trajectory [2]'. This quote, taken from Udo Seifert's [3] 2008 review, nicely summarizes the basic ideas behind stochastic thermodynamics: for small systems, driven by external forces and in contact with a heat bath at a well-defined temperature, stochastic energetics [4] defines the exchanged work and heat along a single fluctuating trajectory and connects them to changes in the internal (system) energy by an energy balance analogous to the first law of thermodynamics. Additionally, providing a consistent definition of trajectory-wise entropy production gives rise to second-law-like relations and forms the basis for a 'stochastic thermodynamics' along individual fluctuating trajectories. In order to construct meaningful concepts of work, heat and entropy production for single trajectories, their definitions are based on the stochastic equations of motion modeling the physical system of interest. Because of this, they are valid even for systems that are prevented from equilibrating with the thermal environment by external driving forces (or other sources of non-equilibrium). In that way, the central notions of equilibrium thermodynamics, such as heat, work and entropy, are consistently extended to the non-equilibrium realm. In the (non-equilibrium) ensemble, the trajectory-wise quantities acquire distributions. General statements derived within stochastic thermodynamics typically refer to properties of these distributions, and are valid in the non-equilibrium regime even beyond the linear response. The extension of statistical mechanics and of exact thermodynamic statements to the non-equilibrium realm has been discussed from the early days of statistical mechanics more than 100 years ago. This debate culminated in the development of linear response
Paczynacuteski, B
1984-07-20
Most stars in the solar neighborhood are either double or multiple systems. They provide a unique opportunity to measure stellar masses and radii and to study many interesting and important phenomena. The best candidates for black holes are compact massive components of two x-ray binaries: Cygnus X-1 and LMC X-3. The binary radio pulsar PSR 1913 + 16 provides the best available evidence for gravitational radiation. Accretion disks and jets observed in close binaries offer a very good testing ground for models of active galactic nuclei and quasars.
Propagation of ultra-short solitons in stochastic Maxwell's equations
Kurt, Levent; Schäfer, Tobias
2014-01-15
We study the propagation of ultra-short short solitons in a cubic nonlinear medium modeled by nonlinear Maxwell's equations with stochastic variations of media. We consider three cases: variations of (a) the dispersion, (b) the phase velocity, (c) the nonlinear coefficient. Using a modified multi-scale expansion for stochastic systems, we derive new stochastic generalizations of the short pulse equation that approximate the solutions of stochastic nonlinear Maxwell's equations. Numerical simulations show that soliton solutions of the short pulse equation propagate stably in stochastic nonlinear Maxwell's equations and that the generalized stochastic short pulse equations approximate the solutions to the stochastic Maxwell's equations over the distances under consideration. This holds for both a pathwise comparison of the stochastic equations as well as for a comparison of the resulting probability densities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, D. K.; Moreau, William
1995-08-01
We investigate stochastic gravity as a potentially fruitful avenue for studying quantum effects in gravity. Following the approach of stochastic electrodynamics ( sed), as a representation of the quantum gravity vacuum we construct a classical state of isotropic random gravitational radiation, expressed as a spin-2 field,h µυ (x), composed of plane waves of random phase on a flat spacetime manifold. Requiring Lorentz invariance leads to the result that the spectral composition function of the gravitational radiation,h(ω), must be proportional to 1/ω 2. The proportionality constant is determined by the Planck condition that the energy density consist ofħω/2 per normal mode, and this condition sets the amplitude scale of the random gravitational radiation at the order of the Planck length, giving a spectral composition functionh(ω) =√16πc 2Lp/ω2. As an application of stochastic gravity, we investigate the Davies-Unruh effect. We calculate the two-point correlation function (R iojo(Oτ-δτ/2)R kolo(O,τ+δτ/2)) of the measureable geodesic deviation tensor field,R iojo, for two situations: (i) at a point detector uniformly accelerating through the random gravitational radiation, and (ii) at an inertial detector in a heat bath of the random radiation at a finite temperature. We find that the two correlation functions agree to first order inaδτ/c provided that the temperature and acceleration satisfy the relationkT=ħa/2πc.
The Formation of Contact and Very Close Binaries
Kisseleva-Eggleton, L; Eggleton, P P
2007-08-10
We explore the possibility that all close binaries, i.e. those with periods {approx}< 3 d, including contact (W UMa) binaries, are produced from initially wider binaries (periods of say 10's of days) by the action of a triple companion through the medium of Kozai Cycles with Tidal Friction (KCTF).
Blaskiewicz, M.
2011-01-01
Stochastic Cooling was invented by Simon van der Meer and was demonstrated at the CERN ISR and ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment). Operational systems were developed at Fermilab and CERN. A complete theory of cooling of unbunched beams was developed, and was applied at CERN and Fermilab. Several new and existing rings employ coasting beam cooling. Bunched beam cooling was demonstrated in ICE and has been observed in several rings designed for coasting beam cooling. High energy bunched beams have proven more difficult. Signal suppression was achieved in the Tevatron, though operational cooling was not pursued at Fermilab. Longitudinal cooling was achieved in the RHIC collider. More recently a vertical cooling system in RHIC cooled both transverse dimensions via betatron coupling.
Rényi entropy measure of noise-aided information transmission in a binary channel.
Chapeau-Blondeau, François; Rousseau, David; Delahaies, Agnès
2010-05-01
This paper analyzes a binary channel by means of information measures based on the Rényi entropy. The analysis extends, and contains as a special case, the classic reference model of binary information transmission based on the Shannon entropy measure. The extended model is used to investigate further possibilities and properties of stochastic resonance or noise-aided information transmission. The results demonstrate that stochastic resonance occurs in the information channel and is registered by the Rényi entropy measures at any finite order, including the Shannon order. Furthermore, in definite conditions, when seeking the Rényi information measures that best exploit stochastic resonance, then nontrivial orders differing from the Shannon case usually emerge. In this way, through binary information transmission, stochastic resonance identifies optimal Rényi measures of information differing from the classic Shannon measure. A confrontation of the quantitative information measures with visual perception is also proposed in an experiment of noise-aided binary image transmission.
Evolution of X-ray Binary Populations of Globular Clusters: A Boltzmann study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Pranab; Banerjee, S.
2008-03-01
We present a Boltzmann scheme for studying evolution of compact-binary populations of globular clusters, including dynamical formation and destruction processes, and binary hardening processes. For those processes which are stochastic (e.g., tidal formation, collisional destruction, and collisional hardening), we study the continuous limit first. We then introduce our stochastic model, showing that the continuous limit is an excellent representation of the average of many "realizations" of stochastic processes. We explore the scaling of the number of X-ray binaries in a globular cluster with two essential cluster parameters measuring star-star and star-binary encounter rates, which we call Verbunt parameters. We show that our computed scalings are in good agreement with CHANDRA data on Galactic globular cluster X-ray binaries. We discuss ways of extending our scheme, and of handling evolution of the cluster background.
Gravitational wave background from binary systems
Rosado, Pablo A.
2011-10-15
Basic aspects of the background of gravitational waves and its mathematical characterization are reviewed. The spectral energy density parameter {Omega}(f), commonly used as a quantifier of the background, is derived for an ensemble of many identical sources emitting at different times and locations. For such an ensemble, {Omega}(f) is generalized to account for the duration of the signals and of the observation, so that one can distinguish the resolvable and unresolvable parts of the background. The unresolvable part, often called confusion noise or stochastic background, is made by signals that cannot be either individually identified or subtracted out of the data. To account for the resolvability of the background, the overlap function is introduced. This function is a generalization of the duty cycle, which has been commonly used in the literature, in some cases leading to incorrect results. The spectra produced by binary systems (stellar binaries and massive black hole binaries) are presented over the frequencies of all existing and planned detectors. A semi-analytical formula for {Omega}(f) is derived in the case of stellar binaries (containing white dwarfs, neutron stars or stellar-mass black holes). Besides a realistic expectation of the level of background, upper and lower limits are given, to account for the uncertainties in some astrophysical parameters such as binary coalescence rates. One interesting result concerns all current and planned ground-based detectors (including the Einstein Telescope). In their frequency range, the background of binaries is resolvable and only sporadically present. In other words, there is no stochastic background of binaries for ground-based detectors.
Brennan,J.M.; Blaskiewicz, M. M.; Severino, F.
2009-05-04
After the success of longitudinal stochastic cooling of bunched heavy ion beam in RHIC, transverse stochastic cooling in the vertical plane of Yellow ring was installed and is being commissioned with proton beam. This report presents the status of the effort and gives an estimate, based on simulation, of the RHIC luminosity with stochastic cooling in all planes.
Stochastic differential equations
Sobczyk, K. )
1990-01-01
This book provides a unified treatment of both regular (or random) and Ito stochastic differential equations. It focuses on solution methods, including some developed only recently. Applications are discussed, in particular an insight is given into both the mathematical structure, and the most efficient solution methods (analytical as well as numerical). Starting from basic notions and results of the theory of stochastic processes and stochastic calculus (including Ito's stochastic integral), many principal mathematical problems and results related to stochastic differential equations are expounded here for the first time. Applications treated include those relating to road vehicles, earthquake excitations and offshore structures.
Stochastic symmetries of Wick type stochastic ordinary differential equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ünal, Gazanfer
2015-04-01
We consider Wick type stochastic ordinary differential equations with Gaussian white noise. We define the stochastic symmetry transformations and Lie equations in Kondratiev space (S)-1N. We derive the determining system of Wick type stochastic partial differential equations with Gaussian white noise. Stochastic symmetries for stochastic Bernoulli, Riccati and general stochastic linear equation in (S)-1N are obtained. A stochastic version of canonical variables is also introduced.
Papadakis, Raffaello
2016-09-08
In this work, the preferential solvation of an intensely solvatochromic ferrocyanide(II) dye involving a 4,4'-bipyridine-based ligand was examined in various binary solvent mixtures. Its solvatochromic behavior was rationalized in terms of specific and nonspecific solute-solvent interactions. An exceptional case of solvatochromic inversion was observed when going from alcohol/water to amide/water mixtures. These effects were quantified using Onsager's solvent polarity function. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the solvatochromism of the dye was determined using various solvatochromic parameters such as π* expressing the dipolarity/polarizability of solvents and α expressing the hydrogen-bond-donor acidity of solvents. This analysis was useful for the rationalization of the selective solvation phenomena occurring in the three types of alcohol/water and amide/water mixtures studied. Furthermore, two preferential solvation models were employed for the interpretation of the experimental spectral results in binary solvent mixtures, namely, the model of Suppan on dielectric enrichment [J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 1 1987, 83, 495-509] and the model of Bosch, Rosés, and co-workers [J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, 1995, 8, 1607-1615]. The first model successfully predicted the charge transfer energies of the dye in formamide/water and N-methylformamide/water mixtures, but in the case of MeOH/water mixtures, the prediction was less accurate because of the significant contribution of specific solute-solvent interactions in that case. The second model gave more insights for both specific solute-solvent as well as solvent-solvent interactions in the cybotactic region. The role of dielectric enrichment and specific interactions was discussed based on the findings.
Stochastic longshore current dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Restrepo, Juan M.; Venkataramani, Shankar
2016-12-01
We develop a stochastic parametrization, based on a 'simple' deterministic model for the dynamics of steady longshore currents, that produces ensembles that are statistically consistent with field observations of these currents. Unlike deterministic models, stochastic parameterization incorporates randomness and hence can only match the observations in a statistical sense. Unlike statistical emulators, in which the model is tuned to the statistical structure of the observation, stochastic parametrization are not directly tuned to match the statistics of the observations. Rather, stochastic parameterization combines deterministic, i.e physics based models with stochastic models for the "missing physics" to create hybrid models, that are stochastic, but yet can be used for making predictions, especially in the context of data assimilation. We introduce a novel measure of the utility of stochastic models of complex processes, that we call consistency of sensitivity. A model with poor consistency of sensitivity requires a great deal of tuning of parameters and has a very narrow range of realistic parameters leading to outcomes consistent with a reasonable spectrum of physical outcomes. We apply this metric to our stochastic parametrization and show that, the loss of certainty inherent in model due to its stochastic nature is offset by the model's resulting consistency of sensitivity. In particular, the stochastic model still retains the forward sensitivity of the deterministic model and hence respects important structural/physical constraints, yet has a broader range of parameters capable of producing outcomes consistent with the field data used in evaluating the model. This leads to an expanded range of model applicability. We show, in the context of data assimilation, the stochastic parametrization of longshore currents achieves good results in capturing the statistics of observation that were not used in tuning the model.
Stochastic Convection Parameterizations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teixeira, Joao; Reynolds, Carolyn; Suselj, Kay; Matheou, Georgios
2012-01-01
computational fluid dynamics, radiation, clouds, turbulence, convection, gravity waves, surface interaction, radiation interaction, cloud and aerosol microphysics, complexity (vegetation, biogeochemistry, radiation versus turbulence/convection stochastic approach, non-linearities, Monte Carlo, high resolutions, large-Eddy Simulations, cloud structure, plumes, saturation in tropics, forecasting, parameterizations, stochastic, radiation-clod interaction, hurricane forecasts
Collisionally induced stochastic dynamics of fast ions in solids
Burgdoerfer, J.
1989-01-01
Recent developments in the theory of excited state formation in collisions of fast highly charged ions with solids are reviewed. We discuss a classical transport theory employing Monte-Carlo sampling of solutions of a microscopic Langevin equation. Dynamical screening by the dielectric medium as well as multiple collisions are incorporated through the drift and stochastic forces in the Langevin equation. The close relationship between the extrinsically stochastic dynamics described by the Langevin and the intrinsic stochasticity in chaotic nonlinear dynamical systems is stressed. Comparison with experimental data and possible modification by quantum corrections are discussed. 49 refs., 11 figs.
Robust stochastic mine production scheduling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumral, Mustafa
2010-06-01
The production scheduling of open pit mines aims to determine the extraction sequence of blocks such that the net present value (NPV) of a mining project is maximized under capacity and access constraints. This sequencing has significant effect on the profitability of the mining venture. However, given that the values of coefficients in the optimization procedure are obtained in a medium of sparse data and unknown future events, implementations based on deterministic models may lead to destructive consequences to the company. In this article, a robust stochastic optimization (RSO) approach is used to deal with mine production scheduling in a manner such that the solution is insensitive to changes in input data. The approach seeks a trade off between optimality and feasibility. The model is demonstrated on a case study. The findings showed that the approach can be used in mine production scheduling problems efficiently.
Stochastic Pseudo-Boolean Optimization
2011-07-31
analysis of two-stage stochastic minimum s-t cut problems; (iv) exact solution algorithm for a class of stochastic bilevel knapsack problems; (v) exact...57 5 Bilevel Knapsack Problems with Stochastic Right-Hand Sides 58 6 Two-Stage Stochastic Assignment Problems 59 6.1 Introduction...programming formulations and related computational complexity issues. • Section 5 considers a specific stochastic extension of the bilevel knapsack
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewin, Walter H. G.; van Paradijs, Jan; van den Heuvel, Edward Peter Jacobus
1997-01-01
Preface; 1. The properties of X-ray binaries, N. E. White, F. Nagase and A. N. Parmar; 2. Optical and ultraviolet observations of X-ray binaries J. van Paradijs and J. E. McClintock; 3. Black-hole binaries Y. Tanaka and W. H. G. Lewin; 4. X-ray bursts Walter H. G. Lewin, Jan Van Paradijs and Ronald E. Taam; 5. Millisecond pulsars D. Bhattacharya; 6. Rapid aperiodic variability in binaries M. van der Klis; 7. Radio properties of X-ray binaries R. M. Hjellming and X. Han; 8. Cataclysmic variable stars France Anne-Dominic Córdova; 9. Normal galaxies and their X-ray binary populations G. Fabbiano; 10. Accretion in close binaries Andrew King; 11. Formation and evolution of neutron stars and black holes in binaries F. Verbunt and E. P. J. van den Heuvel; 12. The magnetic fields of neutron stars and their evolution D. Bhattacharya and G. Srinivasan; 13. Cosmic gamma-ray bursts K. Hurley; 14. A catalogue of X-ray binaries Jan van Paradijs; 15. A compilation of cataclysmic binaries with known or suspected orbital periods Hans Ritter and Ulrich Kolb; References; Index.
Stochastic Langevin Model for Flow and Transport in Porous Media
Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Tartakovsky, Daniel M.; Meakin, Paul
2008-07-25
A new stochastic Lagrangian model for fluid flow and transport in porous media is described. The fluid is represented by particles whose flow and dispersion in a continuous porous medium is governed by a Langevin equation. Changes in the properties of the fluid particles (e.g. the solute concentration) due to molecular diffusion is governed by the advection-diffusion equation. The separate treatment of advective and diffusive mixing in the stochastic model has an advantage over the classical advection-dispersion theory, which uses a single effective diffusion coefficient (the dispersion coefficient) to describe both types of mixing leading to over-prediction of mixing induced effective reaction rates. The stochastic model predicts much lower reaction product concentrations in mixing induced reactions. In addition the dispersion theory predicts more stable fronts (with a higher effective fractal dimension) than the stochastic model during the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities.
Nelson, C A; Eggleton, P P
2001-03-28
We undertake a comparison of observed Algol-type binaries with a library of computed Case A binary evolution tracks. The library consists of 5500 binary tracks with various values of initial primary mass M{sub 10}, mass ratio q{sub 0}, and period P{sub 0}, designed to sample the phase-space of Case A binaries in the range -0.10 {le} log M{sub 10} {le} 1.7. Each binary is evolved using a standard code with the assumption that both total mass and orbital angular momentum are conserved. This code follows the evolution of both stars until the point where contact or reverse mass transfer occurs. The resulting binary tracks show a rich variety of behavior which we sort into several subclasses of Case A and Case B. We present the results of this classification, the final mass ratio and the fraction of time spent in Roche Lobe overflow for each binary system. The conservative assumption under which we created this library is expected to hold for a broad range of binaries, where both components have spectra in the range G0 to B1 and luminosity class III - V. We gather a list of relatively well-determined observed hot Algol-type binaries meeting this criterion, as well as a list of cooler Algol-type binaries where we expect significant dynamo-driven mass loss and angular momentum loss. We fit each observed binary to our library of tracks using a {chi}{sup 2}-minimizing procedure. We find that the hot Algols display overall acceptable {chi}{sup 2}, confirming the conservative assumption, while the cool Algols show much less acceptable {chi}{sup 2} suggesting the need for more free parameters, such as mass and angular momentum loss.
Evolution of weak disturbances in inert binary mixtures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rasmussen, M. L.
1977-01-01
The evolution of weak disturbances in inert binary mixtures is determined for the one-dimensional piston problem. The interaction of the dissipative and nonlinear mechanisms is described by Burgers' equation. The binary mixture diffusion mechanisms enter as an additive term in an effective diffusivity. Results for the impulsive motion of a piston moving into an ambient medium and the sinusoidally oscillating piston are used to illustrate the results and elucidate the incorrect behavior pertaining to the associated linear theory.
Stochastic cooling at Fermilab
Marriner, J.
1986-08-01
The topics discussed are the stochastic cooling systems in use at Fermilab and some of the techniques that have been employed to meet the particular requirements of the anti-proton source. Stochastic cooling at Fermilab became of paramount importance about 5 years ago when the anti-proton source group at Fermilab abandoned the electron cooling ring in favor of a high flux anti-proton source which relied solely on stochastic cooling to achieve the phase space densities necessary for colliding proton and anti-proton beams. The Fermilab systems have constituted a substantial advance in the techniques of cooling including: large pickup arrays operating at microwave frequencies, extensive use of cryogenic techniques to reduce thermal noise, super-conducting notch filters, and the development of tools for controlling and for accurately phasing the system.
STOCHASTIC COOLING FOR BUNCHED BEAMS.
BLASKIEWICZ, M.
2005-05-16
Problems associated with bunched beam stochastic cooling are reviewed. A longitudinal stochastic cooling system for RHIC is under construction and has been partially commissioned. The state of the system and future plans are discussed.
Markov stochasticity coordinates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2017-01-01
Markov dynamics constitute one of the most fundamental models of random motion between the states of a system of interest. Markov dynamics have diverse applications in many fields of science and engineering, and are particularly applicable in the context of random motion in networks. In this paper we present a two-dimensional gauging method of the randomness of Markov dynamics. The method-termed Markov Stochasticity Coordinates-is established, discussed, and exemplified. Also, the method is tweaked to quantify the stochasticity of the first-passage-times of Markov dynamics, and the socioeconomic equality and mobility in human societies.
Stochastic demographic forecasting.
Lee, R D
1992-11-01
"This paper describes a particular approach to stochastic population forecasting, which is implemented for the U.S.A. through 2065. Statistical time series methods are combined with demographic models to produce plausible long run forecasts of vital rates, with probability distributions. The resulting mortality forecasts imply gains in future life expectancy that are roughly twice as large as those forecast by the Office of the Social Security Actuary.... Resulting stochastic forecasts of the elderly population, elderly dependency ratios, and payroll tax rates for health, education and pensions are presented."
Analysis of bilinear stochastic systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Willsky, A. S.; Martin, D. N.; Marcus, S. I.
1975-01-01
Analysis of stochastic dynamical systems that involve multiplicative (bilinear) noise processes. After defining the systems of interest, consideration is given to the evolution of the moments of such systems, the question of stochastic stability, and estimation for bilinear stochastic systems. Both exact and approximate methods of analysis are introduced, and, in particular, the uses of Lie-theoretic concepts and harmonic analysis are discussed.
Capacity Bounds and Stochastic Resonance for Binary Input Binary Output Channels
2012-01-01
Eq . 5 ], Ash [2, Eq ...that Cσ(. 5 + d ) = Cσ(. 5 − d ). Theorem 1.1: Cσ(. 5 + d ) = Cσ(. 5 − d ). Proof: Cσ(θ) = C (Fσ(θ), Fσ(θ − 1)) = C (Fσ(θ − 1), Fσ(θ)) = C (1− Fσ(1− θ), 1− Fσ(−θ...C (Fσ(1− θ), Fσ(−θ)) = Cσ(1 − θ), so Cσ(. 5 + d ) = Cσ (1− (. 5 + d )) = Cσ(. 5 − d ) Nota Bene: Therefore, without loss of generality, we will
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pourbaix, D.
2008-07-01
Astrometric binaries are both a gold mine and a nightmare. They are a gold mine because they are sometimes the unique source of orbital inclination for spectroscopic binaries, thus making it possible for astrophysicists to get some clues about the mass of the often invisible secondary. However, this is an ideal situation in the sense that one benefits from the additional knowledge that it is a binary for which some orbital parameters are somehow secured (e.g. the orbital period). On the other hand, binaries are a nightmare, especially when their binary nature is not established yet. Indeed, in such cases, depending on the time interval covered by the observations compared to the orbital period, either the parallax or the proper motion can be severely biased if the successive positions of the binary are modelled assuming it is a single star. With large survey campaigns sometimes monitoring some stars for the first time ever, it is therefore crucial to design robust reduction pipelines in which such troublesome objects are quickly identified and either removed or processed accordingly. Finally, even if an object is known not to be a single star, the binary model might turn out not to be the most appropriate for describing the observations. These different situations will be covered.
Searching for Signals of Merging Primordial Black Hole Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cholis, Ilias; Ali-Haimoud, Yacine; Bird, Simeon; Kamionkowski, Marc; Kovetz, Ely; Mandic, Vuk; Munoz, Julian; Raccanelli, Alvise
2017-01-01
It was recently advocated that the interactions of 30 solar masses primordial black holes composing the dark matter could explain the first ever observed coalescence event of BHs by the LIGO interferometers. We will discuss potential probes for such a scenario. One probe is the measurement of the eccentricities of the inspiralling binary black holes. We will show that PBH binaries are formed on highly eccentric orbits and can then merge on timescales that in some cases are years or less, retaining some eccentricity in the last seconds before the merger, which can be detected by LIGO or future Einstein Telescope by the observation of high frequency gravitational wave modes. In contrast, in massive-stellar-binaries, globular-clusters, or other astrophysical environment of binary black holes, the orbits have very effectively circularized by the time the binary enters the observable LIGO window.Finally we will discuss the possibility of detecting a signal of PBH binaries in the stochastic gravitational wave background with future gravitational wave detectors.
Origin of the computational hardness for learning with binary synapses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Haiping; Kabashima, Yoshiyuki
2014-11-01
Through supervised learning in a binary perceptron one is able to classify an extensive number of random patterns by a proper assignment of binary synaptic weights. However, to find such assignments in practice is quite a nontrivial task. The relation between the weight space structure and the algorithmic hardness has not yet been fully understood. To this end, we analytically derive the Franz-Parisi potential for the binary perceptron problem by starting from an equilibrium solution of weights and exploring the weight space structure around it. Our result reveals the geometrical organization of the weight space; the weight space is composed of isolated solutions, rather than clusters of exponentially many close-by solutions. The pointlike clusters far apart from each other in the weight space explain the previously observed glassy behavior of stochastic local search heuristics.
ON NONSTATIONARY STOCHASTIC MODELS FOR EARTHQUAKES.
Safak, Erdal; Boore, David M.
1986-01-01
A seismological stochastic model for earthquake ground-motion description is presented. Seismological models are based on the physical properties of the source and the medium and have significant advantages over the widely used empirical models. The model discussed here provides a convenient form for estimating structural response by using random vibration theory. A commonly used random process for ground acceleration, filtered white-noise multiplied by an envelope function, introduces some errors in response calculations for structures whose periods are longer than the faulting duration. An alternate random process, filtered shot-noise process, eliminates these errors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wolff, Hans
This paper deals with a stochastic process for the approximation of the root of a regression equation. This process was first suggested by Robbins and Monro. The main result here is a necessary and sufficient condition on the iteration coefficients for convergence of the process (convergence with probability one and convergence in the quadratic…
Stochastic decentralized systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barfoot, Timothy David
Fundamental aspects of decentralized systems are considered from a control perspective. The stochastic framework afforded by Markov systems is presented as a formal setting in which to study decentralized systems. A stochastic algebra is introduced which allows Markov systems to be considered in matrix format but also strikes an important connection to the classic linear system originally studied by Kalman [1960]. The process of decentralization is shown to impose constraints on observability and controllability of a system. However, it is argued that communicating decentralized controllers can implement any control law possible with a centralized controller. Communication is shown to serve a dual role, both enabling sensor data to be shared and actions to be coordinated. The viabilities of these two types of communication are tested on a real network of mobile robots where they are found to be successful at a variety of tasks. Action coordination is reframed as a decentralized decision making process whereupon stochastic cellular automata (SCA) are introduced as a model. Through studies of SCA it is found that coordination in a group of arbitrarily and sparsely connected agents is possible using simple rules. The resulting stochastic mechanism may be immediately used as a practical decentralized decision making tool (it is tested on a group of mobile robots) but, it furthermore provides insight into the general features of self-organizing systems.
Tollestrup, A.V.; Dugan, G
1983-12-01
Major headings in this review include: proton sources; antiproton production; antiproton sources and Liouville, the role of the Debuncher; transverse stochastic cooling, time domain; the accumulator; frequency domain; pickups and kickers; Fokker-Planck equation; calculation of constants in the Fokker-Planck equation; and beam feedback. (GHT)
Controlled Stochastic Dynamical Systems
2007-04-18
the existence of value functions of two-player zero-sum stochastic differential games Indiana Univ. Math. Journal, 38 (1989), pp 293-314. [6] George ...control problems, Adv. Appl. Prob., 15, (1983) pp 225-254. [10] Karatzas, I. Ocone, D., Wang, H. and Zervos , M., Finite fuel singular control with
Stochastic computing with biomolecular automata.
Adar, Rivka; Benenson, Yaakov; Linshiz, Gregory; Rosner, Amit; Tishby, Naftali; Shapiro, Ehud
2004-07-06
Stochastic computing has a broad range of applications, yet electronic computers realize its basic step, stochastic choice between alternative computation paths, in a cumbersome way. Biomolecular computers use a different computational paradigm and hence afford novel designs. We constructed a stochastic molecular automaton in which stochastic choice is realized by means of competition between alternative biochemical pathways, and choice probabilities are programmed by the relative molar concentrations of the software molecules coding for the alternatives. Programmable and autonomous stochastic molecular automata have been shown to perform direct analysis of disease-related molecular indicators in vitro and may have the potential to provide in situ medical diagnosis and cure.
Binary fish passage models for uniform and nonuniform flows
Neary, Vincent S
2011-01-01
Binary fish passage models are considered by many fisheries managers to be the best 21 available practice for culvert inventory assessments and for fishway and barrier design. 22 Misunderstandings between different binary passage modeling approaches often arise, 23 however, due to differences in terminology, application and presentation. In this paper 24 one-dimensional binary fish passage models are reviewed and refined to clarify their 25 origins and applications. For uniform flow, a simple exhaustion-threshold (ET) model 26 equation is derived that predicts the flow speed threshold in a fishway or velocity barrier 27 that causes exhaustion at a given maximum distance of ascent. Flow speeds at or above 28 the threshold predict failure to pass (exclusion). Flow speeds below the threshold predict 29 passage. The binary ET model is therefore intuitive and easily applied to predict passage 30 or exclusion. It is also shown to be consistent with the distance-maximizing model. The 31 ET model s limitation to uniform flow is addressed by deriving a passage model that 32 accounts for nonuniform flow conditions more commonly found in the field, including 33 backwater profiles and drawdown curves. Comparison of these models with 34 experimental observations of volitional passage for Gambusia affinis in uniform and 35 nonuniform flows indicates reasonable prediction of binary outcomes (passage or 36 exclusion) if the flow speed is not near the threshold flow velocity. More research is 37 needed on fish behavior, passage strategies under nonuniform flow regimes and 38 stochastic methods that account for individual differences in swimming performance at or 39 near the threshold flow speed. Future experiments should track and measure ground 40 speeds of ascending fish to test nonuniform flow passage strategies and to improve model 41 predictions. Stochastic models, such as Monte-Carlo techniques, that account for 42 different passage performance among individuals and allow
Massive Stars in Interactive Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
St.-Louis, Nicole; Moffat, Anthony F. J.
Massive stars start their lives above a mass of ~8 time solar, finally exploding after a few million years as core-collapse or pair-production supernovae. Above ~15 solar masses, they also spend most of their lives driving especially strong, hot winds due to their extreme luminosities. All of these aspects dominate the ecology of the Universe, from element enrichment to stirring up and ionizing the interstellar medium. But when they occur in close pairs or groups separated by less than a parsec, the interaction of massive stars can lead to various exotic phenomena which would not be seen if there were no binaries. These depend on the actual separation, and going from wie to close including colliding winds (with non-thermal radio emission and Wolf-Rayet dust spirals), cluster dynamics, X-ray binaries, Roche-lobe overflow (with inverse mass-ratios and rapid spin up), collisions, merging, rejuventation and massive blue stragglers, black-hole formation, runaways and gamma-ray bursts. Also, one wonders whether the fact that a massive star is in a binary affects its parameters compared to its isolated equivalent. These proceedings deal with all of these phenomena, plus binary statistics and determination of general physical properties of massive stars, that would not be possible with their single cousins. The 77 articles published in these proceedings, all based on oral talks, vary from broad revies to the lates developments in the field. About a third of the time was spent in open discussion of all participants, both for ~5 minutes after each talk and 8 half-hour long general dialogues, all audio-recorded, transcribed and only moderately edited to yield a real flavour of the meeting. The candid information in these discussions is sometimes more revealing than the article(s) that preceded them and also provide entertaining reading. The book is suitable for researchers and graduate students interested in stellar astrophysics and in various physical processes involved when
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freismuth, T.; Tokovinin, A.
2002-12-01
About 10% of all binary systems are close binaries (P<1000 days). Among those with P<10d, over 40% are known to belong to higher-multiplicity systems (triples, quadruples, etc.). Do ALL close systems have tertiary companions? For a selection of 12 nearby, and apparently "single" close binaries with solar-mass dwarf primary components from the 8-th catalogue of spectroscopic binary orbits, images in the B and R filters were taken at the CTIO 0.9m telescope and suitable tertiary candidates were be identified on color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs). Of the 12 SBs, four were found to have tertiary candidates: HD 67084, HD 120734, HD 93486, and VV Mon. However, none of these candidates were found to be common proper motion companions. Follow up observations using adaptive optics reveal a companion to HD 148704. Future observations are planned.
Double Degenerate Binary Systems
Yakut, K.
2011-09-21
In this study, angular momentum loss via gravitational radiation in double degenerate binary (DDB)systems (NS + NS, NS + WD, WD + WD, and AM CVn) is studied. Energy loss by gravitational waves has been estimated for each type of systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, Derek C.; Walsh, Kevin J.
2006-05-01
A review of observations and theories regarding binary asteroids and binary trans-Neptunian objects [collectively, binary minor planets (BMPs)] is presented. To date, these objects have been discovered using a combination of direct imaging, lightcurve analysis, and radar. They are found throughout the Solar System, and present a challenge for theorists modeling their formation in the context of Solar System evolution. The most promising models invoke rotational disruption for the smallest, shortest-lived objects (the asteroids nearest to Earth), consistent with the observed fast rotation of these bodies; impacts for the larger, longer-lived asteroids in the main belt, consistent with the range of size ratios of their components and slower rotation rates; and mutual capture for the distant, icy, trans-Neptunian objects, consistent with their large component separations and near-equal sizes. Numerical simulations have successfully reproduced key features of the binaries in the first two categories; the third remains to be investigated in detail.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hut, Piet; Mcmillan, Steve; Goodman, Jeremy; Mateo, Mario; Phinney, E. S.; Pryor, Carlton; Richer, Harvey B.; Verbunt, Frank; Weinberg, Martin
1992-01-01
Recent observations have shown that globular clusters contain a substantial number of binaries most of which are believed to be primordial. We discuss different successful optical search techniques, based on radial-velocity variables, photometric variables, and the positions of stars in the color-magnitude diagram. In addition, we review searches in other wavelengths, which have turned up low-mass X-ray binaries and more recently a variety of radio pulsars. On the theoretical side, we give an overview of the different physical mechanisms through which individual binaries evolve. We discuss the various simulation techniques which recently have been employed to study the effects of a primordial binary population, and the fascinating interplay between stellar evolution and stellar dynamics which drives globular-cluster evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnstone, Erik Vaughan
In this work, the synthetic and coordination chemistry as well as the physico-chemical properties of binary technetium (Tc) chlorides, bromides, and iodides were investigated. Resulting from these studies was the discovery of five new binary Tc halide phases: alpha/beta-TcCl3, alpha/beta-TcCl 2, and TcI3, and the reinvestigation of the chemistries of TcBr3 and TcX4 (X = Cl, Br). Prior to 2009, the chemistry of binary Tc halides was poorly studied and defined by only three compounds, i.e., TcF6, TcF5, and TcCl4. Today, ten phases are known (i.e., TcF6, TcF5, TcCl4, TcBr 4, TcBr3, TcI3, alpha/beta-TcCl3 and alpha/beta-TcCl2) making the binary halide system of Tc comparable to those of its neighboring elements. Technetium binary halides were synthesized using three methods: reactions of the elements in sealed tubes, reactions of flowing HX(g) (X = Cl, Br, and I) with Tc2(O2CCH3)4Cl2, and thermal decompositions of TcX4 (X = Cl, Br) and alpha-TcCl 3 in sealed tubes under vacuum. Binary Tc halides can be found in various dimensionalities such as molecular solids (TcF6), extended chains (TcF5, TcCl4, alpha/beta-TcCl2, TcBr 3, TcI3), infinite layers (beta-TcCl3), and bidimensional networks of clusters (alpha-TcCl3); eight structure-types with varying degrees of metal-metal interactions are now known. The coordination chemistry of Tc binary halides can resemble that of the adjacent elements: molybdenum and ruthenium (beta-TcCl3, TcBr3, TcI 3), rhenium (TcF5, alpha-TcCl3), platinum (TcCl 4, TcBr4), or can be unique (alpha-TcCl2 and beta-TcCl 2) in respect to other known transition metal binary halides. Technetium binary halides display a range of interesting physical properties that are manifested from their electronic and structural configurations. The thermochemistry of binary Tc halides is extensive. These compounds can selectively volatilize, decompose, disproportionate, or convert to other phases. Ultimately, binary Tc halides may find application in the nuclear fuel
Cosmological Impact of Population III Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Ke-Jung; Bromm, Volker; Heger, Alexander; Jeon, Myoungwon; Woosley, Stan
2015-03-01
We present the results of the stellar feedback from Population III (Pop III) binaries by employing improved, more realistic Pop III evolutionary stellar models. To facilitate a meaningful comparison, we consider a fixed mass of 60 {{M}⊙ } incorporated in Pop III stars, either contained in a single star, or split up in binary stars of 30 {{M}⊙ } each or an asymmetric case of one 45 and one 15 {{M}⊙ } star. Whereas the sizes of the resulting H ii regions are comparable across all cases, the He iii regions around binary stars are significantly smaller than that of the single star. Consequently, the He+ 1640 \\overset{\\circ}A recombination line is expected to become much weaker. Supernova (SN) feedback exhibits great variety due to the uncertainty in possible explosion pathways. If at least one of the component stars dies as a hypernova about 10 times more energetic than conventional core-collapse SNe, the gas inside the host minihalo is effectively blown out, chemically enriching the intergalactic medium (IGM) to an average metallicity of {{10}-4}-{{10}-3} {{Z}⊙ }, out to ˜ 2 kpc. The single star, however, is more likely to collapse into a black hole, accompanied by at most very weak explosions. The effectiveness of early chemical enrichment would thus be significantly reduced, in contrast to the lower mass binary stars, where at least one component is likely to contribute to heavy element production and dispersal. Important new feedback physics is also introduced if close binaries can form high-mass X-ray binaries, leading to the pre-heating and -ionization of the IGM beyond the extent of the stellar H ii regions.
Rapid Realization of the Stochastic Gravitational Wave Signal due to Galactic Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNeely, Trey; McWilliams, Sean
2017-01-01
Mergers of massive galaxies often result in a merger between their central supermassive black holes. These merging binaries will generate gravitational waves, all of which add up to create a stochastic gravitational-wave background in the nanohertz range. Full realization of this signal requires generation of a large population of binaries (N =1011) . Each of these binaries must be assigned a number of relevant parameters, including individual masses. By manipulating the distributions from which individual black holes are drawn, we demonstrate a method which allows generation of the full population in minutes rather than weeks. This forms the basis for analysis requiring multiple realizations of the background, such as constraining the variance of the stochastic signal.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lopez, Hiram
1987-01-01
Transmission errors for zeros and ones tabulated separately. Binary-symmetry detector employs psuedo-random data pattern used as test message coming through channel. Message then modulo-2 added to locally generated and synchronized version of test data pattern in same manner found in manufactured test sets of today. Binary symmetrical channel shows nearly 50-percent ones to 50-percent zeroes correspondence. Degree of asymmetry represents imbalances due to either modulation, transmission, or demodulation processes of system when perturbed by noise.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
Satellite X-ray experiments and ground-based programs aimed at observation of X-ray binaries are discussed. Experiments aboard OAO-3, OSO-8, Ariel 5, Uhuru, and Skylab are included along with rocket and ground-based observations. Major topics covered are: Her X-1, Cyg X-3, Cen X-3, Cyg X-1, the transient source A0620-00, other possible X-ray binaries, and plans and prospects for future observational programs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ricks, Douglas W.
1993-01-01
There are a number of sources of scattering in binary optics: etch depth errors, line edge errors, quantization errors, roughness, and the binary approximation to the ideal surface. These sources of scattering can be systematic (deterministic) or random. In this paper, scattering formulas for both systematic and random errors are derived using Fourier optics. These formulas can be used to explain the results of scattering measurements and computer simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Batten, A.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Historically, spectroscopic binary stars were binary systems whose nature was discovered by the changing DOPPLER EFFECT or shift of the spectral lines of one or both of the component stars. The observed Doppler shift is a combination of that produced by the constant RADIAL VELOCITY (i.e. line-of-sight velocity) of the center of mass of the whole system, and the variable shift resulting from the o...
Electromagnetic Propagationg of Waves in Helical Stochastic
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adrian, Reyes; Mendez, David
2012-02-01
We develop a model for studying the axial propagation of elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves in a spatially random helical media. We start by writing Maxwell equations for a structurally chiral medium whose helical angle contains both a stochastic contribution and a deterministic one, this latter corresponding to an uniform rotation. We write the electromagnetic equations into Marcuvitz Schwigner representation to transform them afterward by using the Oseen transformation. We exhibit that in the Oseen frame, Marcuvitz Schwigner equations turns out to be a linear vectorial stochastic system of equations with multiplicative noise. From this result and utilizing a well known formalism for treating stochastic differential equations, we find the governing equations for the first and second moments of the field amplitudes for a general correlation model for the slope angles, and calculate their corresponding band structure for a particular spectral noise density. We show that the average resulting electromagnetic fields exhibit dissipation and the appearance of a new reflection band whose chirality is the opposite of the one obtained for a simple cholesteric liquid crystals.
A stochastic approach to model validation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luis, Steven J.; McLaughlin, Dennis
This paper describes a stochastic approach for assessing the validity of environmental models. In order to illustrate basic concepts we focus on the problem of modeling moisture movement through an unsaturated porous medium. We assume that the modeling objective is to predict the mean distribution of moisture content over time and space. The mean moisture content describes the large-scale flow behavior of most interest in many practical applications. The model validation process attempts to determine whether the model's predictions are acceptably close to the mean. This can be accomplished by comparing small-scale measurements of moisture content to the model's predictions. Differences between these two quantities can be attributed to three distinct 'error sources': (1) measurement error, (2) spatial heterogeneity, and (3) model error. If we adopt appropriate stochastic descriptions for the first two sources of error we can view model validation as a hypothesis testing problem where the null hypothesis states that model error is negligible. We illustrate this concept by comparing the predictions of a simple two-dimensional deterministic model to measurements collected during a field experiment carried out near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Preliminary results from this field test indicate that a stochastic approach to validation can identify model deficiencies and provide objective standards for model performance.
Stochastic YORP On Real Asteroid Shapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMahon, Jay W.
2015-05-01
Since its theoretical foundation and subsequent observational verification, the YORP effect has been understood to be a fundamental process that controls the evolution of small asteroids in the inner solar system. In particular, the coupling of the YORP and Yarkovsky effects are hypothesized to be largely responsible for the transport of asteroids from the main belt to the inner solar system populations. Furthermore, the YORP effect is thought to lead to rotational fission of small asteroids, which leads to the creation of multiple asteroid systems, contact binary asteroids, and asteroid pairs. However recent studies have called into question the ability of YORP to produce these results. In particular, the high sensitivity of the YORP coefficients to variations in the shape of an asteroid, combined with the possibility of a changing shape due to YORP accelerated spin rates can combine to create a stochastic YORP coefficient which can arrest or change the evolution of a small asteroid's spin state. In this talk, initial results are presented from new simulations which comprehensively model the stochastic YORP process. Shape change is governed by the surface slopes on radar based asteroid shape models, where the highest slope regions change first. The investigation of the modification of YORP coefficients and subsequent spin state evolution as a result of this dynamically influenced shape change is presented and discussed.
Influence of binary fraction on the fragmentation of young massive clusters—a Monte Carlo simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Sinha, Abisa; Chattopadhyay, Asis Kumar
2016-04-01
A stochastic model has been developed to study the hierarchical fragmentation process of young massive clusters in external galaxies considering close binary components along with individual ones. Stellar masses for individual ones have been generated from truncated Pareto distribution and stellar masses for close binary components have been generated from a truncated Bi-variate Gumbel Exponential distribution. The above distribution is identified by fitting the observed bi-variate distribution of masses of eclipsing binary stars computed from the light curves catalogued in the package Binary Maker 3.0. The resulting mass spectra computed at different projected distances, show signature of mass segregation. Degree of mass segregation becomes reduced due to the inclusion of binary fraction. This might be due to the reduction of massive stars and inclusion of less massive stars rather than inclusion of single massive stars and the effect of line of sight length projected to an observer.
Stochastic ice stream dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca
2016-08-01
Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.
Stochastic ice stream dynamics
Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca
2016-01-01
Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution. PMID:27457960
BLASKIEWICZ,M.BRENNAN,J.M.CAMERON,P.WEI,J.
2003-05-12
Emittance growth due to Intra-Beam Scattering significantly reduces the heavy ion luminosity lifetime in RHIC. Stochastic cooling of the stored beam could improve things considerably by counteracting IBS and preventing particles from escaping the rf bucket [1]. High frequency bunched-beam stochastic cooling is especially challenging but observations of Schottky signals in the 4-8 GHz band indicate that conditions are favorable in RHIC [2]. We report here on measurements of the longitudinal beam transfer function carried out with a pickup kicker pair on loan from FNAL TEVATRON. Results imply that for ions a coasting beam description is applicable and we outline some general features of a viable momentum cooling system for RHIC.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almog, Assaf; Garlaschelli, Diego
2014-09-01
The dynamics of complex systems, from financial markets to the brain, can be monitored in terms of multiple time series of activity of the constituent units, such as stocks or neurons, respectively. While the main focus of time series analysis is on the magnitude of temporal increments, a significant piece of information is encoded into the binary projection (i.e. the sign) of such increments. In this paper we provide further evidence of this by showing strong nonlinear relations between binary and non-binary properties of financial time series. These relations are a novel quantification of the fact that extreme price increments occur more often when most stocks move in the same direction. We then introduce an information-theoretic approach to the analysis of the binary signature of single and multiple time series. Through the definition of maximum-entropy ensembles of binary matrices and their mapping to spin models in statistical physics, we quantify the information encoded into the simplest binary properties of real time series and identify the most informative property given a set of measurements. Our formalism is able to accurately replicate, and mathematically characterize, the observed binary/non-binary relations. We also obtain a phase diagram allowing us to identify, based only on the instantaneous aggregate return of a set of multiple time series, a regime where the so-called ‘market mode’ has an optimal interpretation in terms of collective (endogenous) effects, a regime where it is parsimoniously explained by pure noise, and a regime where it can be regarded as a combination of endogenous and exogenous factors. Our approach allows us to connect spin models, simple stochastic processes, and ensembles of time series inferred from partial information.
Methodology for Stochastic Modeling.
1985-01-01
AD-AISS 851 METHODOLOGY FOR STOCHASTIC MODELING(U) ARMY MATERIEL 11 SYSTEMS ANALYSIS ACTIYITY ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD H E COHEN JAN 95 RNSAA-TR-41...FORM T REPORT NUMBER 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’$ CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Methodology for...autoregression models, moving average models, ARMA, adaptive modeling, covariance methods , singular value decom- position, order determination rational
Dorogovtsev, Andrei A
2010-06-29
For sets in a Hilbert space the concept of quadratic entropy is introduced. It is shown that this entropy is finite for the range of a stochastic flow of Brownian particles on R. This implies, in particular, the fact that the total time of the free travel in the Arratia flow of all particles that started from a bounded interval is finite. Bibliography: 10 titles.
Stochastic Thermodynamics of Learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goldt, Sebastian; Seifert, Udo
2017-01-01
Virtually every organism gathers information about its noisy environment and builds models from those data, mostly using neural networks. Here, we use stochastic thermodynamics to analyze the learning of a classification rule by a neural network. We show that the information acquired by the network is bounded by the thermodynamic cost of learning and introduce a learning efficiency η ≤1 . We discuss the conditions for optimal learning and analyze Hebbian learning in the thermodynamic limit.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda
2016-11-01
We study a model of rolling particles subject to stochastic fluctuations, which may be relevant in systems of nano- or microscale particles where rolling is an approximation for strong static friction. We consider the simplest possible nontrivial system: a linear polymer of three disks constrained to remain in contact and immersed in an equilibrium heat bath so the internal angle of the polymer changes due to stochastic fluctuations. We compare two cases: one where the disks can slide relative to each other and the other where they are constrained to roll, like gears. Starting from the Langevin equations with arbitrary linear velocity constraints, we use formal homogenization theory to derive the overdamped equations that describe the process in configuration space only. The resulting dynamics have the formal structure of a Brownian motion on a Riemannian or sub-Riemannian manifold, depending on if the velocity constraints are holonomic or nonholonomic. We use this to compute the trimer's equilibrium distribution with and without the rolling constraints. Surprisingly, the two distributions are different. We suggest two possible interpretations of this result: either (i) dry friction (or other dissipative, nonequilibrium forces) changes basic thermodynamic quantities like the free energy of a system, a statement that could be tested experimentally, or (ii) as a lesson in modeling rolling or friction more generally as a velocity constraint when stochastic fluctuations are present. In the latter case, we speculate there could be a "roughness" entropy whose inclusion as an effective force could compensate the constraint and preserve classical Boltzmann statistics. Regardless of the interpretation, our calculation shows the word "rolling" must be used with care when stochastic fluctuations are present.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noll, Keith S.
The discovery of binaries in each of the major populations of minor bodies in the solar system is propelling a rapid growth of heretofore unattainable physical information. The availability of mass and density constraints for minor bodies opens the door to studies of internal structure, comparisons with meteorite samples, and correlations between bulk-physical and surface-spectral properties. The number of known binaries is now more than 70 and is growing rapidly. A smaller number have had the extensive followup observations needed to derive mass and albedo information, but this list is growing as well. It will soon be the case that we will know more about the physical parameters of objects in the Kuiper Belt than has been known about asteroids in the Main Belt for the last 200 years. Another important aspect of binaries is understanding the mechanisms that lead to their formation and survival. The relative sizes and separations of binaries in the different minor body populations point to more than one mechanism for forming bound pairs. Collisions appear to play a major role in the Main Belt. Rotational and/or tidal fission may be important in the Near Earth population. For the Kuiper Belt, capture in multi-body interactions may be the preferred formation mechanism. However, all of these conclusions remain tentative and limited by observational and theoretical incompleteness. Observational techniques for identifying binaries are equally varied. High angular resolution observations from space and from the ground are critical for detection of the relatively distant binaries in the Main Belt and the Kuiper Belt. Radar has been the most productive method for detection of Near Earth binaries. Lightcurve analysis is an independent technique that is capable of exploring phase space inaccessible to direct observations. Finally, spacecraft flybys have played a crucial paradigm-changing role with discoveries that unlocked this now-burgeoning field.
Stochastic Quantization of Instantons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grandati, Y.; Bérard, A.; Grangé, P.
1996-03-01
The method of Parisi and Wu to quantize classical fields is applied to instanton solutionsϕIof euclidian non-linear theory in one dimension. The solutionϕεof the corresponding Langevin equation is built through a singular perturbative expansion inε=ℏ1/2in the frame of the center of mass of the instanton, where the differenceϕε-ϕIcarries only fluctuations of the instanton form. The relevance of the method is shown for the stochasticK dVequation with uniform noise in space: the exact solution usually obtained by the inverse scattering method is retrieved easily by the singular expansion. A general diagrammatic representation of the solution is then established which makes a thorough use of regrouping properties of stochastic diagrams derived in scalar field theory. Averaging over the noise and in the limit of infinite stochastic time, we obtain explicit expressions for the first two orders inεof the perturbed instanton and of its Green function. Specializing to the Sine-Gordon andϕ4models, the first anharmonic correction is obtained analytically. The calculation is carried to second order for theϕ4model, showing good convergence.
Modeling microstructure evolution of binary systems subjected to irradiation and mechanical loading
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Shchokotova, Olga M.; Lysenko, Irina O.; Kharchenko, Vasyl O.
2015-07-01
We study a change in mechanical properties of binary systems subjected to irradiation influence described by ballistic flux of atomic mixing having regular and stochastic contributions. By using numerical modeling based on the phase field approach we study dynamics of deformation fields in a previously irradiated system and in the binary system deformed during irradiation. An influence of both deterministic and stochastic components of ballistic flux onto both yield strength and ultimate strength is studied. We have found that degradation of mechanical properties relates to the formation of percolating clusters of shear bands. Considering a hardening coefficient we analyze stages of plastic deformation of both initially irradiated alloy and alloy subjected to sustained irradiation. Stability of binary alloy under mechanical loading in the form of shear strain with a constant rate and cyclic deformation is discussed.
X-Ray Background from Early Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-11-01
What impact did X-rays from the first binary star systems have on the universe around them? A new study suggests this radiation may have played an important role during the reionization of our universe.Ionizing the UniverseDuring the period of reionization, the universe reverted from being neutral (as it was during recombination, the previous period)to once again being ionized plasma a state it has remained in since then. This transition, which occurred between 150 million and one billion years after the Big Bang (redshift of 6 z 20), was caused by the formation of the first objects energetic enough to reionize the universes neutral hydrogen.ROSAT image of the soft X-ray background throughout the universe. The different colors represent different energy bands: 0.25 keV (red), 0.75 keV (green), 1.5 keV (blue). [NASA/ROSAT Project]Understanding this time period in particular, determining what sources caused the reionization, and what the properties were of the gas strewn throughout the universe during this time is necessary for us to be able to correctly interpret cosmological observations.Conveniently, the universe has provided us with an interesting clue: the large-scale, diffuse X-ray background we observe all around us. What produced these X-rays, and what impact did this radiation have on the intergalactic medium long ago?The First BinariesA team of scientists led by Hao Xu (UC San Diego) has suggested that the very first generation of stars might be an important contributor to these X-rays.This hypothetical first generation, Population III stars, are thought to have formed before and during reionization from large clouds of gas containing virtually no metals. Studies suggest that a large fraction of Pop III stars formed in binaries and when those stars ended their lives as black holes, ensuing accretion from their companions could produceX-ray radiation.The evolution with redshift of the mean X-ray background intensities. Each curve represents a different
Low cost paths to binary optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nelson, Arthur; Domash, Lawrence
1993-01-01
Application of binary optics has been limited to a few major laboratories because of the limited availability of fabrication facilities such as e-beam machines and the lack of standardized design software. Foster-Miller has attempted to identify low cost approaches to medium-resolution binary optics using readily available computer and fabrication tools, primarily for the use of students and experimenters in optical computing. An early version of our system, MacBEEP, made use of an optimized laser film recorder from the commercial typesetting industry with 10 micron resolution. This report is an update on our current efforts to design and build a second generation MacBEEP, which aims at 1 micron resolution and multiple phase levels. Trails included a low cost scanning electron microscope in microlithography mode, and alternative laser inscribers or photomask generators. Our current software approach is based on Mathematica and PostScript compatibility.
Stochastic electrotransport selectively enhances the transport of highly electromobile molecules
Kim, Sung-Yon; Cho, Jae Hun; Murray, Evan; Bakh, Naveed; Choi, Heejin; Ohn, Kimberly; Ruelas, Luzdary; Hubbert, Austin; McCue, Meg; Vassallo, Sara L.; Keller, Philipp J.; Chung, Kwanghun
2015-01-01
Nondestructive chemical processing of porous samples such as fixed biological tissues typically relies on molecular diffusion. Diffusion into a porous structure is a slow process that significantly delays completion of chemical processing. Here, we present a novel electrokinetic method termed stochastic electrotransport for rapid nondestructive processing of porous samples. This method uses a rotational electric field to selectively disperse highly electromobile molecules throughout a porous sample without displacing the low-electromobility molecules that constitute the sample. Using computational models, we show that stochastic electrotransport can rapidly disperse electromobile molecules in a porous medium. We apply this method to completely clear mouse organs within 1–3 days and to stain them with nuclear dyes, proteins, and antibodies within 1 day. Our results demonstrate the potential of stochastic electrotransport to process large and dense tissue samples that were previously infeasible in time when relying on diffusion. PMID:26578787
A retrodictive stochastic simulation algorithm
Vaughan, T.G. Drummond, P.D.; Drummond, A.J.
2010-05-20
In this paper we describe a simple method for inferring the initial states of systems evolving stochastically according to master equations, given knowledge of the final states. This is achieved through the use of a retrodictive stochastic simulation algorithm which complements the usual predictive stochastic simulation approach. We demonstrate the utility of this new algorithm by applying it to example problems, including the derivation of likely ancestral states of a gene sequence given a Markovian model of genetic mutation.
Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes
Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John
2015-01-01
Here we characterize the low noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: there exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction. PMID:25768447
Gene regulation and noise reduction by coupling of stochastic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramos, Alexandre F.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Reinitz, John
2015-02-01
Here we characterize the low-noise regime of a stochastic model for a negative self-regulating binary gene. The model has two stochastic variables, the protein number and the state of the gene. Each state of the gene behaves as a protein source governed by a Poisson process. The coupling between the two gene states depends on protein number. This fact has a very important implication: There exist protein production regimes characterized by sub-Poissonian noise because of negative covariance between the two stochastic variables of the model. Hence the protein numbers obey a probability distribution that has a peak that is sharper than those of the two coupled Poisson processes that are combined to produce it. Biochemically, the noise reduction in protein number occurs when the switching of the genetic state is more rapid than protein synthesis or degradation. We consider the chemical reaction rates necessary for Poisson and sub-Poisson processes in prokaryotes and eucaryotes. Our results suggest that the coupling of multiple stochastic processes in a negative covariance regime might be a widespread mechanism for noise reduction.
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.
Lorimer, Duncan R
2008-01-01
We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion.
Huffman, G.P.; Zhao, J.; Feng, Z.
1996-12-03
A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered. 3 figs.
Huffman, Gerald P.; Zhao, Jianmin; Feng, Zhen
1996-01-01
A method of preparing a catalyst precursor comprises dissolving an iron salt and a salt of an oxoanion forming agent, in water so that a solution of the iron salt and oxoanion forming agent salt has a ratio of oxoanion/Fe of between 0.0001:1 to 0.5:1. Next is increasing the pH of the solution to 10 by adding a strong base followed by collecting of precipitate having a binary ferrihydrite structure. A binary ferrihydrite catalyst precursor is also prepared by dissolving an iron salt in water. The solution is brought to a pH of substantially 10 to obtain ferrihydrite precipitate. The precipitate is then filtered and washed with distilled water and subsequently admixed with a hydroxy carboxylic acid solution. The admixture is mixed/agitated and the binary ferrihydrite precipitate is then filtered and recovered.
Identification list of binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malkov,, O.; Karchevsky,, A.; Kaygorodov, P.; Kovaleva, D.
The Identification List of Binaries (ILB) is a star catalogue constructed to facilitate cross-referencing between different catalogues of binary stars. As of 2015, it comprises designations for approximately 120,000 double/multiple systems. ILB contains star coordinates and cross-references to the Bayer/Flemsteed, DM (BD/CD/CPD), HD, HIP, ADS, WDS, CCDM, TDSC, GCVS, SBC9, IGR (and some other X-ray catalogues), PSR designations, as well as identifications in the recently developed BSDB system. ILB eventually became a part of the BDB stellar database.
1984-11-01
BINARY PROCESSES 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) R.F. Pawula and S.O. Rice 13s. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED.!14 DATE OF REPORT MY,, o.. Day) 15. PAGE COUNT...APR EDITION OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE eO R.TR. 85-0055 On Filtered Binary Processes R . F. Pawula ...is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints for governmental purposes notwithstanding any copyright notation ",."/ hereon. R. F. Pawula is with
Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.
Lorimer, Duncan R
2005-01-01
We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.
Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.
1996-01-01
We present preliminary results of our implementation of a novel electrophoresis separation technique: Binary Oscillatory Cross flow Electrophoresis (BOCE). The technique utilizes the interaction of two driving forces, an oscillatory electric field and an oscillatory shear flow, to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged species. Analytical and numerical studies have indicated that this technique is capable of separating proteins with electrophoretic mobilities differing by less than 10%. With an experimental device containing a separation chamber 20 cm long, 5 cm wide, and 1 mm thick, an order of magnitude increase in throughput over commercially available electrophoresis devices is theoretically possible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Belgin, M.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, A. S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campbell, W.; Canepa, M.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H.-P.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, E.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devenson, J.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Dovale Álvarez, M.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Essick, R. C.; Etienne, Z.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernández Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Krämer, C.; Kringel, V.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGrath, C.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A. M.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Rhoades, E.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheuer, J.; Schlassa, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tao, D.; Tápai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thrane, E.; Tippens, T.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2017-03-01
A wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological sources are expected to contribute to a stochastic gravitational-wave background. Following the observations of GW150914 and GW151226, the rate and mass of coalescing binary black holes appear to be greater than many previous expectations. As a result, the stochastic background from unresolved compact binary coalescences is expected to be particularly loud. We perform a search for the isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background using data from Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory's (aLIGO) first observing run. The data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. We constrain the dimensionless energy density of gravitational waves to be Ω0<1.7 ×10-7 with 95% confidence, assuming a flat energy density spectrum in the most sensitive part of the LIGO band (20-86 Hz). This is a factor of ˜33 times more sensitive than previous measurements. We also constrain arbitrary power-law spectra. Finally, we investigate the implications of this search for the background of binary black holes using an astrophysical model for the background.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Ananyeva, A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Appert, S; Arai, K; Araya, M C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Avila-Alvarez, A; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Beer, C; Bejger, M; Belahcene, I; Belgin, M; Bell, A S; Berger, B K; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Billman, C R; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Biscoveanu, A S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blackman, J; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bohe, A; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Broida, J E; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Brunett, S; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T A; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Campbell, W; Canepa, M; Cannon, K C; Cao, H; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Cheeseboro, B D; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, H-P; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Chmiel, T; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, A J K; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Cocchieri, C; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conti, L; Cooper, S J; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, E; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Covas, P B; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cullen, T J; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Dasgupta, A; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Davis, D; Daw, E J; Day, B; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dergachev, V; De Rosa, R; DeRosa, R T; DeSalvo, R; Devenson, J; Devine, R C; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Girolamo, T; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Doctor, Z; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Dorrington, I; Douglas, R; Dovale Álvarez, M; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Essick, R C; Etienne, Z; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Fauchon-Jones, E J; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Fernández Galiana, A; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Forsyth, S S; Fournier, J-D; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fries, E M; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H; Gadre, B U; Gaebel, S M; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gaur, G; Gayathri, V; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghonge, S; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Grado, A; Graef, C; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Henry, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hofman, D; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacqmin, T; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Junker, J; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Karvinen, K S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kéfélian, F; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kennedy, R; Key, J S; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J C; Kim, Whansun; Kim, W; Kim, Y-M; Kimbrell, S J; King, E J; King, P J; Kirchhoff, R; Kissel, J S; Klein, B; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koch, P; Koehlenbeck, S M; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Krämer, C; Kringel, V; Królak, A; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lang, R N; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lanza, R K; Lartaux-Vollard, A; Lasky, P D; Laxen, M; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lehmann, J; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Liu, J; Lockerbie, N A; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lovelace, G; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; Macfoy, S; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martynov, D V; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Mastrogiovanni, S; Matas, A; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGrath, C; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McRae, T; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E L; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Metzdorff, R; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, A L; Miller, A; Miller, B B; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Muniz, E A M; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Napier, K; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nelemans, G; Nelson, T J N; Neri, M; Nery, M; Neunzert, A; Newport, J M; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Noack, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ottaway, D J; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pace, A E; Page, J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perez, C J; Perreca, A; Perri, L M; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O J; Pichot, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poe, M; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Pratt, J W W; Predoi, V; Prestegard, T; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L G; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Qiu, S; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rajan, C; Rakhmanov, M; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Rhoades, E; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Rizzo, M; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Sakellariadou, M; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sampson, L M; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Scheuer, J; Schlassa, S; Schmidt, E; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Schwalbe, S G; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Setyawati, Y; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T J; Shahriar, M S; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sieniawska, M; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, B; Smith, J R; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Spencer, A P; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strigin, S E; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sunil, S; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tao, D; Tápai, M; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thrane, E; Tippens, T; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Toland, K; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Tornasi, Z; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Trinastic, J; Tringali, M C; Trozzo, L; Tse, M; Tso, R; Turconi, M; Tuyenbayev, D; Ugolini, D; Unnikrishnan, C S; Urban, A L; Usman, S A; Vahlbruch, H; Vajente, G; Valdes, G; van Bakel, N; van Beuzekom, M; van den Brand, J F J; Van Den Broeck, C; Vander-Hyde, D C; van der Schaaf, L; van Heijningen, J V; van Veggel, A A; Vardaro, M; Varma, V; Vass, S; Vasúth, M; Vecchio, A; Vedovato, G; Veitch, J; Veitch, P J; Venkateswara, K; Venugopalan, G; Verkindt, D; Vetrano, F; Viceré, A; Viets, A D; Vinciguerra, S; Vine, D J; Vinet, J-Y; Vitale, S; Vo, T; Vocca, H; Vorvick, C; Voss, D V; Vousden, W D; Vyatchanin, S P; Wade, A R; Wade, L E; Wade, M; Walker, M; Wallace, L; Walsh, S; Wang, G; Wang, H; Wang, M; Wang, Y; Ward, R L; Warner, J; Was, M; Watchi, J; Weaver, B; Wei, L-W; Weinert, M; Weinstein, A J; Weiss, R; Wen, L; Weßels, P; Westphal, T; Wette, K; Whelan, J T; Whiting, B F; Whittle, C; Williams, D; Williams, R D; Williamson, A R; Willis, J L; Willke, B; Wimmer, M H; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Woehler, J; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, D S; Wu, G; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, T; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, S J; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zweizig, J
2017-03-24
A wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological sources are expected to contribute to a stochastic gravitational-wave background. Following the observations of GW150914 and GW151226, the rate and mass of coalescing binary black holes appear to be greater than many previous expectations. As a result, the stochastic background from unresolved compact binary coalescences is expected to be particularly loud. We perform a search for the isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background using data from Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory's (aLIGO) first observing run. The data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. We constrain the dimensionless energy density of gravitational waves to be Ω_{0}<1.7×10^{-7} with 95% confidence, assuming a flat energy density spectrum in the most sensitive part of the LIGO band (20-86 Hz). This is a factor of ∼33 times more sensitive than previous measurements. We also constrain arbitrary power-law spectra. Finally, we investigate the implications of this search for the background of binary black holes using an astrophysical model for the background.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Potapov, V. A.; Ilyasov, Yu. P.; Oreshko, V. V.; Rodin, A. E.
2003-04-01
We present the timing results for the binary millisecond pulsar J1640+2224 obtained with the RT-64 radio telescope (TNA-1500, Special Design Bureau, Moscow Power Engineering Institute) at the Kalyazin Observatory (Astrospace Center of the Lebedev Institute of Physics) in 1997-2002. We obtained Keplerian and post-Keplerian parameters of the binary system, which allowed us to estimate an upper limit for the energy density of the stochastic gravitational-wave background radiation at very low frequencies.
Limits on Anisotropy in the Nanohertz Stochastic Gravitational Wave Background.
Taylor, S R; Mingarelli, C M F; Gair, J R; Sesana, A; Theureau, G; Babak, S; Bassa, C G; Brem, P; Burgay, M; Caballero, R N; Champion, D J; Cognard, I; Desvignes, G; Guillemot, L; Hessels, J W T; Janssen, G H; Karuppusamy, R; Kramer, M; Lassus, A; Lazarus, P; Lentati, L; Liu, K; Osłowski, S; Perrodin, D; Petiteau, A; Possenti, A; Purver, M B; Rosado, P A; Sanidas, S A; Smits, R; Stappers, B; Tiburzi, C; van Haasteren, R; Vecchio, A; Verbiest, J P W
2015-07-24
The paucity of observed supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) may imply that the gravitational wave background (GWB) from this population is anisotropic, rendering existing analyses suboptimal. We present the first constraints on the angular distribution of a nanohertz stochastic GWB from circular, inspiral-driven SMBHBs using the 2015 European Pulsar Timing Array data. Our analysis of the GWB in the ~2-90 nHz band shows consistency with isotropy, with the strain amplitude in l>0 spherical harmonic multipoles ≲40% of the monopole value. We expect that these more general techniques will become standard tools to probe the angular distribution of source populations.
Stochastic Physicochemical Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsekov, R.
2001-02-01
Thermodynamic Relaxation in Quantum Systems: A new approach to quantum Markov processes is developed and the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation is derived. The latter is examined to reproduce known results from classical and quantum physics. It was also applied to the phase-space description of a mechanical system thus leading to a new treatment of this problem different from the Wigner presentation. The equilibrium probability density obtained in the mixed coordinate-momentum space is a reasonable extension of the Gibbs canonical distribution. The validity of the Einstein fluctuation-dissipation relation is discussed in respect to the type of relaxation in an isothermal system. The first model, presuming isothermic fluctuations, leads to the Einstein formula. The second model supposes adiabatic fluctuations and yields another relation between the diffusion coefficient and mobility of a Brownian particle. A new approach to relaxations in quantum systems is also proposed that demonstrates applicability only of the adiabatic model for description of the quantum Brownian dynamics. Stochastic Dynamics of Gas Molecules: A stochastic Langevin equation is derived, describing the thermal motion of a molecule immersed in a rested fluid of identical molecules. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem is proved and a number of correlation characteristics of the molecular Brownian motion are obtained. A short review of the classical theory of Brownian motion is presented. A new method is proposed for derivation of the Fokker-Planck equations, describing the probability density evolution, from stochastic differential equations. It is also proven via the central limit theorem that the white noise is only Gaussian. The applicability of stochastic differential equations to thermodynamics is considered and a new form, different from the classical Ito and Stratonovich forms, is introduced. It is shown that the new presentation is more appropriate for the description of thermodynamic
Portfolio Optimization with Stochastic Dividends and Stochastic Volatility
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Varga, Katherine Yvonne
2015-01-01
We consider an optimal investment-consumption portfolio optimization model in which an investor receives stochastic dividends. As a first problem, we allow the drift of stock price to be a bounded function. Next, we consider a stochastic volatility model. In each problem, we use the dynamic programming method to derive the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman…
Stochastic thermodynamics of resetting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fuchs, Jaco; Goldt, Sebastian; Seifert, Udo
2016-03-01
Stochastic dynamics with random resetting leads to a non-equilibrium steady state. Here, we consider the thermodynamics of resetting by deriving the first and second law for resetting processes far from equilibrium. We identify the contributions to the entropy production of the system which arise due to resetting and show that they correspond to the rate with which information is either erased or created. Using Landauer's principle, we derive a bound on the amount of work that is required to maintain a resetting process. We discuss different regimes of resetting, including a Maxwell demon scenario where heat is extracted from a bath at constant temperature.
Stochastic ontogenetic growth model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
West, B. J.; West, D.
2012-02-01
An ontogenetic growth model (OGM) for a thermodynamically closed system is generalized to satisfy both the first and second law of thermodynamics. The hypothesized stochastic ontogenetic growth model (SOGM) is shown to entail the interspecies allometry relation by explicitly averaging the basal metabolic rate and the total body mass over the steady-state probability density for the total body mass (TBM). This is the first derivation of the interspecies metabolic allometric relation from a dynamical model and the asymptotic steady-state distribution of the TBM is fit to data and shown to be inverse power law.
Stochastic processes in cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cáceres, Manuel O.; Diaz, Mario C.; Pullin, Jorge A.
1987-08-01
The behavior of a radiation filled de Sitter universe in which the equation of state is perturbed by a stochastic term is studied. The corresponding two-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation is solved. The finiteness of the cosmological constant appears to be a necessary condition for the stability of the model which undergoes an exponentially expanding state. Present address: Facultad de Matemática Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Laprida 854, 5000 Códoba, Argentina.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hairer, Martin
2006-03-01
We consider a class of parabolic stochastic PDEs driven by white noise in time, and we are interested in showing ergodicity for some cases where the noise is degenerate, i.e., acts only on part of the equation. In some cases where the standard Strong Feller / Irreducibility argument fails, one can nevertheless implement a coupling construction that ensures uniqueness of the invariant measure. We focus on the example of the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation driven by real space-time white noise.
Binary coding for hyperspectral imagery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jing; Chang, Chein-I.; Chang, Chein-Chi; Lin, Chinsu
2004-10-01
Binary coding is one of simplest ways to characterize spectral features. One commonly used method is a binary coding-based image software system, called Spectral Analysis Manager (SPAM) for remotely sensed imagery developed by Mazer et al. For a given spectral signature, the SPAM calculates its spectral mean and inter-band spectral difference and uses them as thresholds to generate a binary code word for this particular spectral signature. Such coding scheme is generally effective and also very simple to implement. This paper revisits the SPAM and further develops three new SPAM-based binary coding methods, called equal probability partition (EPP) binary coding, halfway partition (HP) binary coding and median partition (MP) binary coding. These three binary coding methods along with the SPAM well be evaluated for spectral discrimination and identification. In doing so, a new criterion, called a posteriori discrimination probability (APDP) is also introduced for performance measure.
Eclipsing Binary Update, No. 2.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Williams, D. B.
1996-01-01
Contents: 1. Wrong again! The elusive period of DHK 41. 2. Stars observed and not observed. 3. Eclipsing binary chart information. 4. Eclipsing binary news and notes. 5. A note on SS Arietis. 6. Featured star: TX Ursae Majoris.
Reconstruction of pulse noisy images via stochastic resonance
Han, Jing; Liu, Hongjun; Sun, Qibing; Huang, Nan
2015-01-01
We investigate a practical technology for reconstructing nanosecond pulse noisy images via stochastic resonance, which is based on the modulation instability. A theoretical model of this method for optical pulse signal is built to effectively recover the pulse image. The nanosecond noise-hidden images grow at the expense of noise during the stochastic resonance process in a photorefractive medium. The properties of output images are mainly determined by the input signal-to-noise intensity ratio, the applied voltage across the medium, and the correlation length of noise background. A high cross-correlation gain is obtained by optimizing these parameters. This provides a potential method for detecting low-level or hidden pulse images in various imaging applications. PMID:26067911
Binary stars - Formation by fragmentation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boss, Alan P.
1988-01-01
Theories of binary star formation by capture, separate nuclei, fission and fragmentation are compared, assessing the success of theoretical attempts to explain the observed properties of main-sequence binary stars. The theory of formation by fragmentation is examined, discussing the prospects for checking the theory against observations of binary premain-sequence stars. It is concluded that formation by fragmentation is successful at explaining many of the key properties of main-sequence binary stars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetkovic, Z.; Novakovic, B.
2006-12-01
In this paper orbits for 13 binaries are recalculated and presented. The reason is that recent observations show higher residuals than the corresponding ephemerides calculated by using the orbital elements given in the Sixth Catalog of Orbits of Visual Binary Stars. The binaries studied were: WDS 00182+7257 = A 803, WDS 00335+4006 = HO 3, WDS 00583+2124 = BU 302, WDS 01011+6022 = A 926, WDS 01014+1155 = BU 867, WDS 01112+4113 = A 655, WDS 01361-2954 + HJ 3447, WDS 02333+5219 = STT 42 AB, WDS 04362+0814 = A 1840 AB, WDS 08017-0836 = A 1580, WDS 08277-0425 = A 550, WDS 17471+1742 = STF 2215 and WDS 18025+4414 = BU 1127 Aa-B. In addition, for three binaries - WDS 01532+1526 = BU 260, WDS 02563+7253 =STF 312 AB and WDS 05003+3924 = STT 92 AB - the orbital elements are calculated for the first time. In this paper the authors present not only the orbital elements, but the masses, dynamical parallaxes, absolute magnitudes and ephemerides for the next five years, as well.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frazier, D. O.; Facemire, B. R.; Kaukler, W. F.; Witherow, W. K.; Fanning, U.
1986-01-01
Studies of monotectic alloys and alloy analogs reviewed. Report surveys research on liquid/liquid and solid/liquid separation in binary monotectic alloys. Emphasizes separation processes in low gravity, such as in outer space or in free fall in drop towers. Advances in methods of controlling separation in experiments highlighted.
Test of Optical Stochastic Cooling in the IOTA Ring
Lebedev, V. A.; Tokpanov, Yu.; Zolotorev, M. S.
2013-09-26
A new 150 MeV electron storage ring is being built at Fermilab. The construction of a new machine pursues two goals a test of highly non-linear integrable optics and a test of optical stochastic cooling. This paper discusses details of OSC arrangements, choice of major parameters of the cooling scheme and incoming experimental tests of the optical amplifier prototype which uses highly doped Ti-sapphire crystal as amplification medium.
Schilstra, Maria J; Martin, Stephen R
2009-01-01
Stochastic simulations may be used to describe changes with time of a reaction system in a way that explicitly accounts for the fact that molecules show a significant degree of randomness in their dynamic behavior. The stochastic approach is almost invariably used when small numbers of molecules or molecular assemblies are involved because this randomness leads to significant deviations from the predictions of the conventional deterministic (or continuous) approach to the simulation of biochemical kinetics. Advances in computational methods over the three decades that have elapsed since the publication of Daniel Gillespie's seminal paper in 1977 (J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2340-2361) have allowed researchers to produce highly sophisticated models of complex biological systems. However, these models are frequently highly specific for the particular application and their description often involves mathematical treatments inaccessible to the nonspecialist. For anyone completely new to the field to apply such techniques in their own work might seem at first sight to be a rather intimidating prospect. However, the fundamental principles underlying the approach are in essence rather simple, and the aim of this article is to provide an entry point to the field for a newcomer. It focuses mainly on these general principles, both kinetic and computational, which tend to be not particularly well covered in specialist literature, and shows that interesting information may even be obtained using very simple operations in a conventional spreadsheet.
Astrometric Binaries: White Dwarfs?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliversen, Nancy A.
We propose to observe a selection of astrometric or spectroscopicastrometric binaries nearer than about 20 pc with unseen low mass companions. Systems of this type are important for determining the luminosity function of low mass stars (white dwarfs and very late main sequence M stars), and their contribution to the total mass of the galaxy. Systems of this type are also important because the low mass, invisible companions are potential candidates in the search for planets. Our target list is selected primarily from the list of 31 astrometric binaries near the sun by Lippincott (1978, Space Sci. Rev., 22, 153), with additional candidates from recent observations by Kamper. The elimination of stars with previous IUE observations, red companions resolved by infrared speckle interferometry, or primaries later than M1 (because if white dwarf companions are present they should have been detected in the visible region) reduces the list to 5 targets which need further information. IUE SWP low dispersion observations of these targets will show clearly whether the remaining unseen companions are white dwarfs, thus eliminating very cool main sequence stars or planets. This is also important in providing complete statistical information about the nearest stars. The discovery of a white dwarf in such a nearby system would provide important additional information about the masses of white dwarfs. Recent results by Greenstein (1986, A. J., 92, 859) from binary systems containing white dwarfs imply that 80% of such systems are as yet undetected. The preference of binaries for companions of approximately equal mass makes the Lippincott-Kamper list of A through K primaries with unseen companions a good one to use to search for white dwarfs. The mass and light dominance of the current primary over the white dwarf in the visible makes ultraviolet observations essential to obtain an accurate census of white dwarf binaries.
Harnack inequality and strong Feller property for stochastic fast-diffusion equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wei; Wang, Feng-Yu
2008-06-01
As a continuation to [F.-Y. Wang, Harnack inequality and applications for stochastic generalized porous media equations, Ann. Probab. 35 (2007) 1333-1350], where the Harnack inequality and the strong Feller property are studied for a class of stochastic generalized porous media equations, this paper presents analogous results for stochastic fast-diffusion equations. Since the fast-diffusion equation possesses weaker dissipativity than the porous medium one does, some technical difficulties appear in the study. As a compensation to the weaker dissipativity condition, a Sobolev-Nash inequality is assumed for the underlying self-adjoint operator in applications. Some concrete examples are constructed to illustrate the main results.
Stochastic switching in biology: from genotype to phenotype
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bressloff, Paul C.
2017-03-01
There has been a resurgence of interest in non-equilibrium stochastic processes in recent years, driven in part by the observation that the number of molecules (genes, mRNA, proteins) involved in gene expression are often of order 1–1000. This means that deterministic mass-action kinetics tends to break down, and one needs to take into account the discrete, stochastic nature of biochemical reactions. One of the major consequences of molecular noise is the occurrence of stochastic biological switching at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels. For example, individual gene regulatory networks can switch between graded and binary responses, exhibit translational/transcriptional bursting, and support metastability (noise-induced switching between states that are stable in the deterministic limit). If random switching persists at the phenotypic level then this can confer certain advantages to cell populations growing in a changing environment, as exemplified by bacterial persistence in response to antibiotics. Gene expression at the single-cell level can also be regulated by changes in cell density at the population level, a process known as quorum sensing. In contrast to noise-driven phenotypic switching, the switching mechanism in quorum sensing is stimulus-driven and thus noise tends to have a detrimental effect. A common approach to modeling stochastic gene expression is to assume a large but finite system and to approximate the discrete processes by continuous processes using a system-size expansion. However, there is a growing need to have some familiarity with the theory of stochastic processes that goes beyond the standard topics of chemical master equations, the system-size expansion, Langevin equations and the Fokker–Planck equation. Examples include stochastic hybrid systems (piecewise deterministic Markov processes), large deviations and the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin (WKB) method, adiabatic reductions, and queuing/renewal theory. The major aim of
Richard V. Field, Jr.; Emery, John M.; Grigoriu, Mircea Dan
2015-05-19
The stochastic collocation (SC) and stochastic Galerkin (SG) methods are two well-established and successful approaches for solving general stochastic problems. A recently developed method based on stochastic reduced order models (SROMs) can also be used. Herein we provide a comparison of the three methods for some numerical examples; our evaluation only holds for the examples considered in the paper. The purpose of the comparisons is not to criticize the SC or SG methods, which have proven very useful for a broad range of applications, nor is it to provide overall ratings of these methods as compared to the SROM method.more » Furthermore, our objectives are to present the SROM method as an alternative approach to solving stochastic problems and provide information on the computational effort required by the implementation of each method, while simultaneously assessing their performance for a collection of specific problems.« less
Richard V. Field, Jr.; Emery, John M.; Grigoriu, Mircea Dan
2015-05-19
The stochastic collocation (SC) and stochastic Galerkin (SG) methods are two well-established and successful approaches for solving general stochastic problems. A recently developed method based on stochastic reduced order models (SROMs) can also be used. Herein we provide a comparison of the three methods for some numerical examples; our evaluation only holds for the examples considered in the paper. The purpose of the comparisons is not to criticize the SC or SG methods, which have proven very useful for a broad range of applications, nor is it to provide overall ratings of these methods as compared to the SROM method. Furthermore, our objectives are to present the SROM method as an alternative approach to solving stochastic problems and provide information on the computational effort required by the implementation of each method, while simultaneously assessing their performance for a collection of specific problems.
Stochastic simulation of transport phenomena
Wedgewood, L.E.; Geurts, K.R.
1995-10-01
In this paper, four examples are given to demonstrate how stochastic simulations can be used as a method to obtain numerical solutions to transport problems. The problems considered are two-dimensional heat conduction, mass diffusion with reaction, the start-up of Poiseuille flow, and Couette flow of a suspension of Hookean dumbbells. The first three examples are standard problems with well-known analytic solutions which can be used to verify the results of the stochastic simulation. The fourth example combines a Brownian dynamics simulation for Hookean dumbbells, a crude model of a dilute polymer suspension, and a stochastic simulation for the suspending, Newtonian fluid. These examples illustrate appropriate methods for handling source/sink terms and initial and boundary conditions. The stochastic simulation results compare well with the analytic solutions and other numerical solutions. The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the wide applicability of stochastic simulation as a numerical method for transport problems.
Variance decomposition in stochastic simulators
Le Maître, O. P.; Knio, O. M.; Moraes, A.
2015-06-28
This work aims at the development of a mathematical and computational approach that enables quantification of the inherent sources of stochasticity and of the corresponding sensitivities in stochastic simulations of chemical reaction networks. The approach is based on reformulating the system dynamics as being generated by independent standardized Poisson processes. This reformulation affords a straightforward identification of individual realizations for the stochastic dynamics of each reaction channel, and consequently a quantitative characterization of the inherent sources of stochasticity in the system. By relying on the Sobol-Hoeffding decomposition, the reformulation enables us to perform an orthogonal decomposition of the solution variance. Thus, by judiciously exploiting the inherent stochasticity of the system, one is able to quantify the variance-based sensitivities associated with individual reaction channels, as well as the importance of channel interactions. Implementation of the algorithms is illustrated in light of simulations of simplified systems, including the birth-death, Schlögl, and Michaelis-Menten models.
Learning to assign binary weights to binary descriptor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zhoudi; Wei, Zhenzhong; Zhang, Guangjun
2016-10-01
Constructing robust binary local feature descriptors are receiving increasing interest due to their binary nature, which can enable fast processing while requiring significantly less memory than their floating-point competitors. To bridge the performance gap between the binary and floating-point descriptors without increasing the computational cost of computing and matching, optimal binary weights are learning to assign to binary descriptor for considering each bit might contribute differently to the distinctiveness and robustness. Technically, a large-scale regularized optimization method is applied to learn float weights for each bit of the binary descriptor. Furthermore, binary approximation for the float weights is performed by utilizing an efficient alternatively greedy strategy, which can significantly improve the discriminative power while preserve fast matching advantage. Extensive experimental results on two challenging datasets (Brown dataset and Oxford dataset) demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.
Constraining Supermassive Black Hole Binary Dynamics Using Pulsar Timing Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, Justin
2015-08-01
Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) offer a unique opportunity to detect low frequency gravitational waves (GWs) in the near future. In this frequency band, the expected source of GWs are Supermassive Black Hole Binaries (SMBHBs) and they will most likely form in an ensemble creating a stochastic GW background with the possibility of a few nearby/massive sources that will be individually resolvable. In this talk we present upper limits on the strength of the isotropic stochastic background of gravitational waves using the new 9-year North American NanoHertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) data release. Using several published models for merger rate of SMBHBs we place meaningful constraints on the transition frequency at which environmental factors such as stellar hardening and circumbinary interactions become comparable to the energy loss due to GW emission.
2012-08-01
AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2012-0397 INVERSE PROBLEM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPAGATION IN A DIELECTRIC MEDIUM USING MARKOV CHAIN MONTE CARLO METHOD ...SUBTITLE INVERSE PROBLEM FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPAGATION IN A DIELECTRIC MEDIUM USING MARKOV CHAIN MONTE CARLO METHOD (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT...a stochastic inverse methodology arising in electromagnetic imaging. Nondestructive testing using guided microwaves covers a wide range of
DOES A ''STOCHASTIC'' BACKGROUND OF GRAVITATIONAL WAVES EXIST IN THE PULSAR TIMING BAND?
Ravi, V.; Wyithe, J. S. B.; Hobbs, G.; Shannon, R. M.; Manchester, R. N.; Yardley, D. R. B.; Keith, M. J.
2012-12-20
We investigate the effects of gravitational waves (GWs) from a simulated population of binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) on pulsar timing array data sets. We construct a distribution describing the binary SMBH population from an existing semi-analytic galaxy formation model. Using realizations of the binary SMBH population generated from this distribution, we simulate pulsar timing data sets with GW-induced variations. We find that the statistics of these variations do not correspond to an isotropic, stochastic GW background. The ''Hellings and Downs'' correlations between simulated data sets for different pulsars are recovered on average, though the scatter of the correlation estimates is greater than expected for an isotropic, stochastic GW background. These results are attributable to the fact that just a few GW sources dominate the GW-induced variations in every Fourier frequency bin of a five-year data set. Current constraints on the amplitude of the GW signal from binary SMBHs will be biased. Individual binary systems are likely to be detectable in five-year pulsar timing array data sets where the noise is dominated by GW-induced variations. Searches for GWs in pulsar timing array data therefore need to account for the effects of individual sources of GWs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pravec, Petr; Harris, A. W.; Warner, B. D.
2007-05-01
Of nearly 3900 near-Earth asteroids known in June 2006, 325 have got estimated rotation periods. NEAs with sizes down to 10 meters have been sampled. Observed spin distribution shows a major changing point around D=200 m. Larger NEAs show a barrier against spin rates >11 d-1 (period P~2.2 h) that shifts to slower rates with increasing equatorial elongation. The spin barrier is interpreted as a critical spin rate for bodies held together by self-gravitation only, suggesting that NEAs larger than 200 m are mostly strenghtless bodies (i.e., with zero tensile strength), so called `rubble piles'. The barrier disappears at D<200 m where most objects rotate too fast to be held together by self-gravitation only, so a non-zero cohesion is implied in the smaller NEAs. The distribution of NEA spin rates in the `rubble pile' range (D>0.2 km) is non-Maxwellian, suggesting that other mechanisms than just collisions worked there. There is a pile up in front of the barrier (P of 2-3 h). It may be related to a spin up mechanism crowding asteroids to the barrier. An excess of slow rotators is seen at P>30 h. The spin-down mechanism has no clear lower limit on spin rate; periods as long as tens of days occur. Most NEAs appear to be in basic spin states with rotation around the principal axis. Excited rotations are present among and actually dominate in slow rotators with damping timescales >4.5 byr. A few tumblers observed among fast rotating coherent objects consistently appear to be more rigid or younger than the larger, rubble-pile tumblers. An abundant population of binary systems among NEAs has been found. The fraction of binaries among NEAs larger than 0.3 km has been estimated to be 15 +/-4%. Primaries of the binary systems concentrate at fast spin rates (periods 2-3 h) and low amplitudes, i.e., they lie just below the spin barrier. The total angular momentum content in the binary systems suggests that they formed at the critical spin rate, and that little or no angular
Medium-Frequency Pseudonoise Georadar
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Arendt, G. Dickey; Carl, J. R.; Byerly, Kent A.; Amini, B. Jon
2005-01-01
Ground-probing radar systems featuring medium-frequency carrier signals phase-modulated by binary pseudonoise codes have been proposed. These systems would be used to locate and detect movements of subterranean surfaces; the primary intended application is in warning of the movement of underground water toward oil-well intake ports in time to shut down those ports to avoid pumping of water. Other potential applications include oil-well logging and monitoring of underground reservoirs. A typical prior georadar system operates at a carrier frequency of at least 50 MHz in order to provide useable range resolution. This frequency is too high for adequate penetration of many underground layers of interest. On the other hand, if the carrier frequency were to be reduced greatly to increase penetration, then bandwidth and thus range resolution would also have to be reduced, thereby rendering the system less useful. The proposed medium-frequency pseudonoise georadar systems would offer the advantage of greater penetration at lower carrier frequencies, but without the loss of resolution that would be incurred by operating typical prior georadar systems at lower frequencies.
Stochastic modeling of triple-frequency BeiDou signals: estimation, assessment and impact analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Bofeng
2016-07-01
Stochastic models are important in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) estimation problems. One can achieve reliable ambiguity resolution and precise positioning only by use of a suitable stochastic model. The BeiDou system has received increased research focus, but based only on empirical stochastic models from the knowledge of GPS. In this paper, we will systematically study the estimation, assessment and impacts of a triple-frequency BeiDou stochastic model. In our estimation problem, a single-difference, geometry-free functional model is used to extract pure random noise. A very sophisticated structure of unknown variance matrix is designed to allow the estimation of satellite-specific variances, cross correlations between two arbitrary frequencies, as well as the time correlations for phase and code observations per frequency. In assessing the stochastic models, six data sets with four brands of BeiDou receivers on short and zero-length baselines are processed, and the results are compared. In impact analysis of stochastic model, the performance of integer ambiguity resolution and positioning are numerically demonstrated using a realistic stochastic model. The results from ultrashort (shorter than 10 m) and zero-length baselines indicate that BeiDou stochastic models are affected by both observation and receiver brands. The observation variances have been modeled by an elevation-dependent function, but the modeling errors for geostationary earth orbit (GEO) satellites are larger than for inclined geosynchronous satellite orbit (IGSO) and medium earth orbit (MEO) satellites. The stochastic model is governed by both the internal errors of the receiver and external errors at the site. Different receivers have different capabilities for resisting external errors. A realistic stochastic model is very important for achieving ambiguity resolution with a high success rate and small false alarm and for determining realistic variances for position estimates. To
RS CVn binaries: Testing the solar-stellar dynamo connection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dempsey, R.
1995-01-01
We have used the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer satellite to study the coronal emission from the EUV-bright RS CVn binaries Sigma2 CrB, observed February 10-21, 1994, and II Peg, observed October 1-5, 1993. We present time-resolved and integrated EUV short-, medium-, and long-wavelength spectra for these binaries. Sigma2 CrB shows significant first-order emission features in the long-wavelength region. The coronal emission distributions and electron densities are estimated for those active coronae dominated by high temperature plasma.
Bunched beam stochastic cooling
Wei, Jie.
1992-01-01
The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.
Bunched beam stochastic cooling
Wei, Jie
1992-09-01
The scaling laws for bunched-beam stochastic cooling has been derived in terms of the optimum cooling rate and the mixing condition. In the case that particles occupy the entire sinusoidal rf bucket, the optimum cooling rate of the bunched beam is shown to be similar to that predicted from the coasting-beam theory using a beam of the same average density and mixing factor. However, in the case that particles occupy only the center of the bucket, the optimum rate decrease in proportion to the ratio of the bunch area to the bucket area. The cooling efficiency can be significantly improved if the synchrotron side-band spectrum is effectively broadened, e.g. by the transverse tune spread or by using a double rf system.
Microfluidic binary phase flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Angelescu, Dan; Menetrier, Laure; Wong, Joyce; Tabeling, Patrick; Salamitou, Philippe
2004-03-01
We present a novel binary phase flow regime where the two phases differ substantially in both their wetting and viscous properties. Optical tracking particles are used in order to investigate the details of such multiphase flow inside capillary channels. We also describe microfluidic filters we have developed, capable of separating the two phases based on capillary pressure. The performance of the filters in separating oil-water emulsions is discussed. Binary phase flow has been previously used in microchannels in applications such as emulsion generation, enhancement of mixing and assembly of custom colloidal paticles. Such microfluidic systems are increasingly used in a number of applications spanning a diverse range of industries, such as biotech, pharmaceuticals and more recently the oil industry.
Stochastic thermodynamics of chemical reaction networks.
Schmiedl, Tim; Seifert, Udo
2007-01-28
For chemical reaction networks in a dilute solution described by a master equation, the authors define energy and entropy on a stochastic trajectory and develop a consistent nonequilibrium thermodynamic description along a single stochastic trajectory of reaction events. A first-law like energy balance relates internal energy, applied (chemical) work, and dissipated heat for every single reaction. Entropy production along a single trajectory involves a sum over changes in the entropy of the network itself and the entropy of the medium. The latter is given by the exchanged heat identified through the first law. Total entropy production is constrained by an integral fluctuation theorem for networks arbitrarily driven by time-dependent rates and a detailed fluctuation theorem for networks in the steady state. Further exact relations such as a generalized Jarzynski relation and a generalized Clausius inequality are discussed. The authors illustrate these results for a three-species cyclic reaction network which exhibits nonequilibrium steady states as well as transitions between different steady states.
A Stochastic Cratering Model for Asteroid Surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richardson, J. E.; Melosh, H. J.; Greenberg, R. J.
2005-01-01
The observed cratering records on asteroid surfaces (four so far: Gaspra, Ida, Mathilde, and Eros [1-4]) provide us with important clues to their past bombardment histories. Previous efforts toward interpreting these records have led to two basic modeling styles for reproducing the statistics of the observed crater populations. The first, and most direct, method is to use Monte Carlo techniques [5] to stochastically populate a matrix-model test surface with craters as a function of time [6,7]. The second method is to use a more general, parameterized approach to duplicate the statistics of the observed crater population [8,9]. In both methods, several factors must be included beyond the simple superposing of circular features: (1) crater erosion by subsequent impacts, (2) infilling of craters by impact ejecta, and (3) crater degradation and era- sure due to the seismic effects of subsequent impacts. Here we present an updated Monte Carlo (stochastic) modeling approach, designed specifically with small- to medium-sized asteroids in mind.
Massive black hole binary mergers in dynamical galactic environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Blecha, Laura; Hernquist, Lars
2017-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) have now been detected from stellar-mass black hole binaries, and the first observations of GWs from massive black hole (MBH) binaries are expected within the next decade. Pulsar timing arrays (PTA), which can measure the years long periods of GWs from MBH binaries (MBHBs), have excluded many standard predictions for the amplitude of a stochastic GW background (GWB). We use coevolved populations of MBHs and galaxies from hydrodynamic, cosmological simulations (`Illustris') to calculate a predicted GWB. The most advanced predictions so far have included binary hardening mechanisms from individual environmental processes. We present the first calculation including all of the environmental mechanisms expected to be involved: dynamical friction, stellar `loss-cone' scattering, and viscous drag from a circumbinary disc. We find that MBH binary lifetimes are generally multiple gigayears, and only a fraction coalesce by redshift zero. For a variety of parameters, we find all GWB amplitudes to be below the most stringent PTA upper limit of A_{yr^{-1}} ≈ 10^{-15}. Our fairly conservative fiducial model predicts an amplitude of A_{yr^{-1}} ≈ 0.4× 10^{-15}. At lower frequencies, we find A_{0.1 yr^{-1}} ≈ 1.5× 10^{-15} with spectral indices between -0.4 and -0.6 - significantly flatter than the canonical value of -2/3 due to purely GW-driven evolution. Typical MBHBs driving the GWB signal come from redshifts around 0.3, with total masses of a few times 109 M⊙, and in host galaxies with very large stellar masses. Even without GWB detections, our results can be connected to observations of dual active galactic nuclei to constrain binary evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, H. S.
1985-07-01
An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morris, Carl N.
1987-01-01
Motivated by the LANDSAT problem of estimating the probability of crop or geological types based on multi-channel satellite imagery data, Morris and Kostal (1983), Hill, Hinkley, Kostal, and Morris (1984), and Morris, Hinkley, and Johnston (1985) developed an empirical Bayes approach to this problem. Here, researchers return to those developments, making certain improvements and extensions, but restricting attention to the binary case of only two attributes.
Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merritt, David
2017-01-01
Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) will eventually detect the gravitational wave (GW) background produced by a cosmological population of binary supermassive black hole (SBHs). In this talk, I review the ways in which the formation and evolution of the binary population determine the amplitude and form of the GW spectrum. A major source of systematic uncertainty is the mass function of SBHs; in the past, SBH masses have often been overestimated, and the number of SBHs with trustworthy mass estimates is still very small. The presence of gas and stars around the binaries accelerates the evolution at large separations, reducing the amplitude of the GW spectrum at low frequencies. I will highlight two recent developments in our theoretical understanding of binary evolution. (1) Slight departures from axi-symmetry in a galaxy imply a sustained supply of stars to the very center, thus overcoming the “final-parsec problem”. (2) In the generic case of a rotating nucleus, the plane of the binary’s orbit evolves predictably toward alignment with the symmetry plane of the nucleus; the binary’s eccentricity also evolves in tandem with the orientation, sometimes reaching values close to one. These processes should leave distinct imprints on the stochastic GW spectrum, and have important implications for the likelihood of GW detection in the near future.
Double Eclipsing Binary Fitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cagas, P.; Pejcha, O.
2012-06-01
The parameters of the mutual orbit of eclipsing binaries that are physically connected can be obtained by precision timing of minima over time through light travel time effect, apsidal motion or orbital precession. This, however, requires joint analysis of data from different sources obtained through various techniques and with insufficiently quantified uncertainties. In particular, photometric uncertainties are often underestimated, which yields too small uncertainties in minima timings if determined through analysis of a χ2 surface. The task is even more difficult for double eclipsing binaries, especially those with periods close to a resonance such as CzeV344, where minima get often blended with each other. This code solves the double binary parameters simultaneously and then uses these parameters to determine minima timings (or more specifically O-C values) for individual datasets. In both cases, the uncertainties (or more precisely confidence intervals) are determined through bootstrap resampling of the original data. This procedure to a large extent alleviates the common problem with underestimated photometric uncertainties and provides a check on possible degeneracies in the parameters and the stability of the results. While there are shortcomings to this method as well when compared to Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods, the ease of the implementation of bootstrapping is a significant advantage.
Stochastic reinforcement benefits skill acquisition.
Dayan, Eran; Averbeck, Bruno B; Richmond, Barry J; Cohen, Leonardo G
2014-02-14
Learning complex skills is driven by reinforcement, which facilitates both online within-session gains and retention of the acquired skills. Yet, in ecologically relevant situations, skills are often acquired when mapping between actions and rewarding outcomes is unknown to the learning agent, resulting in reinforcement schedules of a stochastic nature. Here we trained subjects on a visuomotor learning task, comparing reinforcement schedules with higher, lower, or no stochasticity. Training under higher levels of stochastic reinforcement benefited skill acquisition, enhancing both online gains and long-term retention. These findings indicate that the enhancing effects of reinforcement on skill acquisition depend on reinforcement schedules.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griebeler, Elmer L.
2011-01-01
Binary communication through long cables, opto-isolators, isolating transformers, or repeaters can become distorted in characteristic ways. The usual solution is to slow the communication rate, change to a different method, or improve the communication media. It would help if the characteristic distortions could be accommodated at the receiving end to ease the communication problem. The distortions come from loss of the high-frequency content, which adds slopes to the transitions from ones to zeroes and zeroes to ones. This weakens the definition of the ones and zeroes in the time domain. The other major distortion is the reduction of low frequency, which causes the voltage that defines the ones or zeroes to drift out of recognizable range. This development describes a method for recovering a binary data stream from a signal that has been subjected to a loss of both higher-frequency content and low-frequency content that is essential to define the difference between ones and zeroes. The method makes use of the frequency structure of the waveform created by the data stream, and then enhances the characteristics related to the data to reconstruct the binary switching pattern. A major issue is simplicity. The approach taken here is to take the first derivative of the signal and then feed it to a hysteresis switch. This is equivalent in practice to using a non-resonant band pass filter feeding a Schmitt trigger. Obviously, the derivative signal needs to be offset to halfway between the thresholds of the hysteresis switch, and amplified so that the derivatives reliably exceed the thresholds. A transition from a zero to a one is the most substantial, fastest plus movement of voltage, and therefore will create the largest plus first derivative pulse. Since the quiet state of the derivative is sitting between the hysteresis thresholds, the plus pulse exceeds the plus threshold, switching the hysteresis switch plus, which re-establishes the data zero to one transition
Multiscale Hy3S: Hybrid stochastic simulation for supercomputers
Salis, Howard; Sotiropoulos, Vassilios; Kaznessis, Yiannis N
2006-01-01
Background Stochastic simulation has become a useful tool to both study natural biological systems and design new synthetic ones. By capturing the intrinsic molecular fluctuations of "small" systems, these simulations produce a more accurate picture of single cell dynamics, including interesting phenomena missed by deterministic methods, such as noise-induced oscillations and transitions between stable states. However, the computational cost of the original stochastic simulation algorithm can be high, motivating the use of hybrid stochastic methods. Hybrid stochastic methods partition the system into multiple subsets and describe each subset as a different representation, such as a jump Markov, Poisson, continuous Markov, or deterministic process. By applying valid approximations and self-consistently merging disparate descriptions, a method can be considerably faster, while retaining accuracy. In this paper, we describe Hy3S, a collection of multiscale simulation programs. Results Building on our previous work on developing novel hybrid stochastic algorithms, we have created the Hy3S software package to enable scientists and engineers to both study and design extremely large well-mixed biological systems with many thousands of reactions and chemical species. We have added adaptive stochastic numerical integrators to permit the robust simulation of dynamically stiff biological systems. In addition, Hy3S has many useful features, including embarrassingly parallelized simulations with MPI; special discrete events, such as transcriptional and translation elongation and cell division; mid-simulation perturbations in both the number of molecules of species and reaction kinetic parameters; combinatorial variation of both initial conditions and kinetic parameters to enable sensitivity analysis; use of NetCDF optimized binary format to quickly read and write large datasets; and a simple graphical user interface, written in Matlab, to help users create biological systems
Modeling Excitable Systems Coupled Through External Medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noorbakhsh, Javad; Mehta, Pankaj
2013-03-01
Excitable systems are stable dynamical systems in which any input beyond a threshold results in a significant output. This behavior is ubiquitous in nature and is seen in biological systems such as Dictyostelium discoideum amoeba and neurons to oscillatory chemical reactions. In this work we will focus on transition to oscillation in populations of excitable systems coupled through an external medium and will study their synchronization. We will describe a mechanism to tune the frequency of oscillations using an external input and will study the effects of stochasticity and inhomogeneity on the collective behavior of the system. Furthermore we will include diffusion into the dynamics of the external medium and will study formation of spatial patterns, their characteristics and their robustness to different factors.
Detecting compact galactic binaries using a hybrid swarm-based algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouffanais, Yann; Porter, Edward K.
2016-03-01
Compact binaries in our galaxy are expected to be one of the main sources of gravitational waves for the future eLISA mission. During the mission lifetime, many thousands of galactic binaries should be individually resolved. However, the identification of the sources and the extraction of the signal parameters in a noisy environment are real challenges for data analysis. So far, stochastic searches have proven to be the most successful for this problem. In this work, we present the first application of a swarm-based algorithm combining Particle Swarm Optimization and Differential Evolution. These algorithms have been shown to converge faster to global solutions on complicated likelihood surfaces than other stochastic methods. We first demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm for the case of a single binary in a 1-mHz search bandwidth. This interesting problem gave the algorithm plenty of opportunity to fail, as it can be easier to find a strong noise peak rather than the signal itself. After a successful detection of a fictitious low-frequency source, as well as the verification binary RXJ 0806.3 +1527 , we then applied the algorithm to the detection of multiple binaries, over different search bandwidths, in the cases of low and mild source confusion. In all cases, we show that we can successfully identify the sources and recover the true parameters within a 99% credible interval.
Visual binary stars: data to investigate formation of binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kovaleva,, D.; Malkov,, O.; Yungelson, L.; Chulkov, D.
Statistics of orbital parameters of binary stars as well as statistics of their physical characteristics bear traces of star formation history. However, statistical investigations of binaries are complicated by incomplete or missing observational data and by a number of observational selection effects. Visual binaries are the most common type of observed binary stars, with the number of pairs exceeding 130 000. The most complete list of presently known visual binary stars was compiled by cross-matching objects and combining data of the three largest catalogues of visual binaries. This list was supplemented by the data on parallaxes, multicolor photometry, and spectral characteristics taken from other catalogues. This allowed us to compensate partly for the lack of observational data for these objects. The combined data allowed us to check the validity of observational values and to investigate statistics of the orbital and physical parameters of visual binaries. Corrections for incompleteness of observational data are discussed. The datasets obtained, together with modern distributions of binary parameters, will be used to reconstruct the initial distributions and parameters of the function of star formation for binary systems.
Statistical validation of stochastic models
Hunter, N.F.; Barney, P.; Paez, T.L.; Ferregut, C.; Perez, L.
1996-12-31
It is common practice in structural dynamics to develop mathematical models for system behavior, and the authors are now capable of developing stochastic models, i.e., models whose parameters are random variables. Such models have random characteristics that are meant to simulate the randomness in characteristics of experimentally observed systems. This paper suggests a formal statistical procedure for the validation of mathematical models of stochastic systems when data taken during operation of the stochastic system are available. The statistical characteristics of the experimental system are obtained using the bootstrap, a technique for the statistical analysis of non-Gaussian data. The authors propose a procedure to determine whether or not a mathematical model is an acceptable model of a stochastic system with regard to user-specified measures of system behavior. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the application of the technique.
Adaptive and Optimal Control of Stochastic Dynamical Systems
2015-09-14
control and stochastic differential games . Stochastic linear-quadratic, continuous time, stochastic control problems are solved for systems with noise...control problems for systems with arbitrary correlated n 15. SUBJECT TERMS Adaptive control, optimal control, stochastic differential games 16. SECURITY...explicit results have been obtained for problems of stochastic control and stochastic differential games . Stochastic linear- quadratic, continuous time
Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems
2016-01-01
algorithms for big data applications . (2) We studied stochastic dynamics of polymer systems in the mean field limit. (3) We studied noisy Hegselmann-Krause...DISTRIBUTION AVAILIBILITY STATEMENT 6. AUTHORS 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 15. SUBJECT TERMS b. ABSTRACT 2. REPORT TYPE 17. LIMITATION...Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Stochastic Models of Polymer Systems The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the
Stochastic roots of growth phenomena
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Lauro, E.; De Martino, S.; De Siena, S.; Giorno, V.
2014-05-01
We show that the Gompertz equation describes the evolution in time of the median of a geometric stochastic process. Therefore, we induce that the process itself generates the growth. This result allows us further to exploit a stochastic variational principle to take account of self-regulation of growth through feedback of relative density variations. The conceptually well defined framework so introduced shows its usefulness by suggesting a form of control of growth by exploiting external actions.
Binary optics: Trends and limitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.
1993-08-01
We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.
Binary optics: Trends and limitations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.
1993-01-01
We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.
Jumper, Peter H.; Fisher, Robert T.
2013-05-20
The formation of brown dwarfs (BDs) poses a key challenge to star formation theory. The observed dearth of nearby ({<=}5 AU) BD companions to solar mass stars, known as the BD desert, as well as the tendency for low-mass binary systems to be more tightly bound than stellar binaries, has been cited as evidence for distinct formation mechanisms for BDs and stars. In this paper, we explore the implications of the minimal hypothesis that BDs in binary systems originate via the same fundamental fragmentation mechanism as stars, within isolated, turbulent giant molecular cloud cores. We demonstrate analytically that the scaling of specific angular momentum with turbulent core mass naturally gives rise to the BD desert, as well as wide BD binary systems. Further, we show that the turbulent core fragmentation model also naturally predicts that very low mass binary and BD/BD systems are more tightly bound than stellar systems. In addition, in order to capture the stochastic variation intrinsic to turbulence, we generate 10{sup 4} model turbulent cores with synthetic turbulent velocity fields to show that the turbulent fragmentation model accommodates a small fraction of binary BDs with wide separations, similar to observations. Indeed, the picture which emerges from the turbulent fragmentation model is that a single fragmentation mechanism may largely shape both stellar and BD binary distributions during formation.
Evolution of Close Binary Systems
Yakut, K; Eggleton, P
2005-01-24
We collected data on the masses, radii, etc. of three classes of close binary stars: low-temperature contact binaries (LTCBs), near-contact binaries (NCBs), and detached close binaries (DCBs). They restrict themselves to systems where (1) both components are, at least arguably, near the Main Sequence, (2) the periods are less than a day, and (3) there is both spectroscopic and photometric analysis leading to reasonably reliable data. They discuss the possible evolutionary connections between these three classes, emphasizing the roles played by mass loss and angular momentum loss in rapidly-rotating cool stars.
Searching for the stochastic gravitational-wave background in Advanced LIGO's first observing run
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyers, Patrick
2017-01-01
One of the most exciting prospects of gravitational-wave astrophysics and cosmology is the measurement of the stochastic gravitational-wave background. In this talk, we discuss the most recent searches for a stochastic background with Advanced LIGO--the first performed with advanced interferometric detectors. We search for an isotropic as well as an anisotropic background, and perform a directed search for persistent gravitational waves in three promising directions. Additionally, with the accumulation of more Advanced LIGO data and the anticipated addition of Advanced Virgo to the network in 2017, we can also start to consider what the recent gravitational-wave detections--GW150914 and GW151226--tell us about when we can expect a detection of the stochastic background from binary black hole coalescences. For the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration.
Stochastic Optics: A Scattering Mitigation Framework for Radio Interferometric Imaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Michael D.
2016-12-01
Just as turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere can severely limit the angular resolution of optical telescopes, turbulence in the ionized interstellar medium fundamentally limits the resolution of radio telescopes. We present a scattering mitigation framework for radio imaging with very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) that partially overcomes this limitation. Our framework, “stochastic optics,” derives from a simplification of strong interstellar scattering to separate small-scale (“diffractive”) effects from large-scale (“refractive”) effects, thereby separating deterministic and random contributions to the scattering. Stochastic optics extends traditional synthesis imaging by simultaneously reconstructing an unscattered image and its refractive perturbations. Its advantages over direct imaging come from utilizing the many deterministic properties of the scattering—such as the time-averaged “blurring,” polarization independence, and the deterministic evolution in frequency and time—while still accounting for the stochastic image distortions on large scales. These distortions are identified in the image reconstructions through regularization by their time-averaged power spectrum. Using synthetic data, we show that this framework effectively removes the blurring from diffractive scattering while reducing the spurious image features from refractive scattering. Stochastic optics can provide significant improvements over existing scattering mitigation strategies and is especially promising for imaging the Galactic Center supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*, with the Global mm-VLBI Array and with the Event Horizon Telescope.
Brennan J. M.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Mernick, K.
2012-05-20
The full 6-dimensional [x,x'; y,y'; z,z'] stochastic cooling system for RHIC was completed and operational for the FY12 Uranium-Uranium collider run. Cooling enhances the integrated luminosity of the Uranium collisions by a factor of 5, primarily by reducing the transverse emittances but also by cooling in the longitudinal plane to preserve the bunch length. The components have been deployed incrementally over the past several runs, beginning with longitudinal cooling, then cooling in the vertical planes but multiplexed between the Yellow and Blue rings, next cooling both rings simultaneously in vertical (the horizontal plane was cooled by betatron coupling), and now simultaneous horizontal cooling has been commissioned. The system operated between 5 and 9 GHz and with 3 x 10{sup 8} Uranium ions per bunch and produces a cooling half-time of approximately 20 minutes. The ultimate emittance is determined by the balance between cooling and emittance growth from Intra-Beam Scattering. Specific details of the apparatus and mathematical techniques for calculating its performance have been published elsewhere. Here we report on: the method of operation, results with beam, and comparison of results to simulations.
Chu, J.C.
1958-06-10
A binary storage device is described comprising a toggle provided with associsted improved driver circuits adapted to produce reliable action of the toggle during clearing of the toggle to one of its two states. or transferring information into and out of the toggle. The invention resides in the development of a self-regulating driver circuit to minimize the fluctuation of the driving voltages for the toggle. The disclosed driver circuit produces two pulses in response to an input pulse: a first or ''clear'' pulse beginning nt substantially the same time but endlrg slightly sooner than the second or ''transfer'' output pulse.
Low autocorrelation binary sequences
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan
2016-04-01
Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.
Segmentation of stochastic images with a stochastic random walker method.
Pätz, Torben; Preusser, Tobias
2012-05-01
We present an extension of the random walker segmentation to images with uncertain gray values. Such gray-value uncertainty may result from noise or other imaging artifacts or more general from measurement errors in the image acquisition process. The purpose is to quantify the influence of the gray-value uncertainty onto the result when using random walker segmentation. In random walker segmentation, a weighted graph is built from the image, where the edge weights depend on the image gradient between the pixels. For given seed regions, the probability is evaluated for a random walk on this graph starting at a pixel to end in one of the seed regions. Here, we extend this method to images with uncertain gray values. To this end, we consider the pixel values to be random variables (RVs), thus introducing the notion of stochastic images. We end up with stochastic weights for the graph in random walker segmentation and a stochastic partial differential equation (PDE) that has to be solved. We discretize the RVs and the stochastic PDE by the method of generalized polynomial chaos, combining the recent developments in numerical methods for the discretization of stochastic PDEs and an interactive segmentation algorithm. The resulting algorithm allows for the detection of regions where the segmentation result is highly influenced by the uncertain pixel values. Thus, it gives a reliability estimate for the resulting segmentation, and it furthermore allows determining the probability density function of the segmented object volume.
Stacking with stochastic cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caspers, Fritz; Möhl, Dieter
2004-10-01
Accumulation of large stacks of antiprotons or ions with the aid of stochastic cooling is more delicate than cooling a constant intensity beam. Basically the difficulty stems from the fact that the optimized gain and the cooling rate are inversely proportional to the number of particles 'seen' by the cooling system. Therefore, to maintain fast stacking, the newly injected batch has to be strongly 'protected' from the Schottky noise of the stack. Vice versa the stack has to be efficiently 'shielded' against the high gain cooling system for the injected beam. In the antiproton accumulators with stacking ratios up to 105 the problem is solved by radial separation of the injection and the stack orbits in a region of large dispersion. An array of several tapered cooling systems with a matched gain profile provides a continuous particle flux towards the high-density stack core. Shielding of the different systems from each other is obtained both through the spatial separation and via the revolution frequencies (filters). In the 'old AA', where the antiproton collection and stacking was done in one single ring, the injected beam was further shielded during cooling by means of a movable shutter. The complexity of these systems is very high. For more modest stacking ratios, one might use azimuthal rather than radial separation of stack and injected beam. Schematically half of the circumference would be used to accept and cool new beam and the remainder to house the stack. Fast gating is then required between the high gain cooling of the injected beam and the low gain stack cooling. RF-gymnastics are used to merge the pre-cooled batch with the stack, to re-create free space for the next injection, and to capture the new batch. This scheme is less demanding for the storage ring lattice, but at the expense of some reduction in stacking rate. The talk reviews the 'radial' separation schemes and also gives some considerations to the 'azimuthal' schemes.
A Stochastic Collocation Algorithm for Uncertainty Analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mathelin, Lionel; Hussaini, M. Yousuff; Zang, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)
2003-01-01
This report describes a stochastic collocation method to adequately handle a physically intrinsic uncertainty in the variables of a numerical simulation. For instance, while the standard Galerkin approach to Polynomial Chaos requires multi-dimensional summations over the stochastic basis functions, the stochastic collocation method enables to collapse those summations to a one-dimensional summation only. This report furnishes the essential algorithmic details of the new stochastic collocation method and provides as a numerical example the solution of the Riemann problem with the stochastic collocation method used for the discretization of the stochastic parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manset, N.; Bastien, P.
2003-06-01
We present polarimetric observations of seven pre-main-sequence (PMS) spectroscopic binaries located in the ρ Ophiuchus and Upper Scorpius star-forming regions (SFRs). The average observed polarizations at 7660 Å are between 0.5% and 3.5%. After estimates of the interstellar polarization are removed, all binaries have an intrinsic polarization above 0.4%, even though most of them do not present other evidences for circumstellar dust. Two binaries, NTTS 162814-2427 and NTTS 162819-2423S, present high levels of intrinsic polarization between 1.5% and 2.1%, in agreement with the fact that other observations (photometry, spectroscopy) indicate the presence of circumstellar dust. Tests reveal that all seven PMS binaries have a statistically variable or possibly variable polarization. Combining these results with our previous sample of binaries located in the Taurus, Auriga, and Orion SFRs, 68% of the binaries have an intrinsic polarization above 0.5%, and 90% of the binaries are polarimetrically variable or possibly variable. NTTS 160814-1857, 162814-2427, and 162819-2423S are clearly polarimetrically variable. The first two also exhibit phase-locked variations over ~10 and ~40 orbits, respectively. Statistically, NTTS 160905-1859 is possibly variable, but it shows periodic variations not detected by the statistical tests; those variations are not phased locked and only present for short intervals of time. The amplitudes of the variations reach a few tenths of a percent, greater than for the previously studied PMS binaries located in the Taurus, Orion, and Auriga SFRs. The high-eccentricity system NTTS 162814-2427 shows single-periodic variations, in agreement with our previous numerical simulations. We compare the observations with some of our numerical simulations and also show that an analysis of the periodic polarimetric variations with the Brown, McLean, & Emslie (BME) formalism to find the orbital inclination is for the moment premature: nonperiodic events
Relativistic Binaries in Globular Clusters.
Benacquista, Matthew J; Downing, Jonathan M B
2013-01-01
Galactic globular clusters are old, dense star systems typically containing 10(4)-10(6) stars. As an old population of stars, globular clusters contain many collapsed and degenerate objects. As a dense population of stars, globular clusters are the scene of many interesting close dynamical interactions between stars. These dynamical interactions can alter the evolution of individual stars and can produce tight binary systems containing one or two compact objects. In this review, we discuss theoretical models of globular cluster evolution and binary evolution, techniques for simulating this evolution that leads to relativistic binaries, and current and possible future observational evidence for this population. Our discussion of globular cluster evolution will focus on the processes that boost the production of tight binary systems and the subsequent interaction of these binaries that can alter the properties of both bodies and can lead to exotic objects. Direct N-body integrations and Fokker-Planck simulations of the evolution of globular clusters that incorporate tidal interactions and lead to predictions of relativistic binary populations are also discussed. We discuss the current observational evidence for cataclysmic variables, millisecond pulsars, and low-mass X-ray binaries as well as possible future detection of relativistic binaries with gravitational radiation.
Multilevel Models for Binary Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Powers, Daniel A.
2012-01-01
The methods and models for categorical data analysis cover considerable ground, ranging from regression-type models for binary and binomial data, count data, to ordered and unordered polytomous variables, as well as regression models that mix qualitative and continuous data. This article focuses on methods for binary or binomial data, which are…
Stochastic inverse problem in the radiation of noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, P. L.; Maestrello, L.
1978-01-01
The reported investigation is concerned with a stochastic inverse radiation problem in a uniform medium. The problem is illustrated with the aid of a simple model consisting of an array of point sources. The entropy functional is chosen to be the structural functional in determining the source distribution. A general theory for the stochastic inverse problem is introduced. It is shown that the general procedure yields the methods of the Lagrangian multiplier, when the structural and residual functionals are specialized. Tihonov's regularization and a method related to generalized or pseudoinverses are also obtained. Examples considered for purposes of illustration are related to a continuous source with the least noise intensity, a continuous source with a potential, and an axisymmetric line source.
Optimization of Monte Carlo transport simulations in stochastic media
Liang, C.; Ji, W.
2012-07-01
This paper presents an accurate and efficient approach to optimize radiation transport simulations in a stochastic medium of high heterogeneity, like the Very High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (VHTR) configurations packed with TRISO fuel particles. Based on a fast nearest neighbor search algorithm, a modified fast Random Sequential Addition (RSA) method is first developed to speed up the generation of the stochastic media systems packed with both mono-sized and poly-sized spheres. A fast neutron tracking method is then developed to optimize the next sphere boundary search in the radiation transport procedure. In order to investigate their accuracy and efficiency, the developed sphere packing and neutron tracking methods are implemented into an in-house continuous energy Monte Carlo code to solve an eigenvalue problem in VHTR unit cells. Comparison with the MCNP benchmark calculations for the same problem indicates that the new methods show considerably higher computational efficiency. (authors)
A nonparametric stochastic optimizer for TDMA-based neuronal signaling.
Suzuki, Junichi; Phan, Dũng H; Budiman, Harry
2014-09-01
This paper considers neurons as a physical communication medium for intrabody networks of nano/micro-scale machines and formulates a noisy multiobjective optimization problem for a Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) communication protocol atop the physical layer. The problem is to find the Pareto-optimal TDMA configurations that maximize communication performance (e.g., latency) by multiplexing a given neuronal network to parallelize signal transmissions while maximizing communication robustness (i.e., unlikeliness of signal interference) against noise in neuronal signaling. Using a nonparametric significance test, the proposed stochastic optimizer is designed to statistically determine the superior-inferior relationship between given two solution candidates and seek the optimal trade-offs among communication performance and robustness objectives. Simulation results show that the proposed optimizer efficiently obtains quality TDMA configurations in noisy environments and outperforms existing noise-aware stochastic optimizers.
Some variance reduction methods for numerical stochastic homogenization.
Blanc, X; Le Bris, C; Legoll, F
2016-04-28
We give an overview of a series of recent studies devoted to variance reduction techniques for numerical stochastic homogenization. Numerical homogenization requires that a set of problems is solved at the microscale, the so-called corrector problems. In a random environment, these problems are stochastic and therefore need to be repeatedly solved, for several configurations of the medium considered. An empirical average over all configurations is then performed using the Monte Carlo approach, so as to approximate the effective coefficients necessary to determine the macroscopic behaviour. Variance severely affects the accuracy and the cost of such computations. Variance reduction approaches, borrowed from other contexts in the engineering sciences, can be useful. Some of these variance reduction techniques are presented, studied and tested here.
Stochastic models: theory and simulation.
Field, Richard V., Jr.
2008-03-01
Many problems in applied science and engineering involve physical phenomena that behave randomly in time and/or space. Examples are diverse and include turbulent flow over an aircraft wing, Earth climatology, material microstructure, and the financial markets. Mathematical models for these random phenomena are referred to as stochastic processes and/or random fields, and Monte Carlo simulation is the only general-purpose tool for solving problems of this type. The use of Monte Carlo simulation requires methods and algorithms to generate samples of the appropriate stochastic model; these samples then become inputs and/or boundary conditions to established deterministic simulation codes. While numerous algorithms and tools currently exist to generate samples of simple random variables and vectors, no cohesive simulation tool yet exists for generating samples of stochastic processes and/or random fields. There are two objectives of this report. First, we provide some theoretical background on stochastic processes and random fields that can be used to model phenomena that are random in space and/or time. Second, we provide simple algorithms that can be used to generate independent samples of general stochastic models. The theory and simulation of random variables and vectors is also reviewed for completeness.
Stochastic simulation in systems biology
Székely, Tamás; Burrage, Kevin
2014-01-01
Natural systems are, almost by definition, heterogeneous: this can be either a boon or an obstacle to be overcome, depending on the situation. Traditionally, when constructing mathematical models of these systems, heterogeneity has typically been ignored, despite its critical role. However, in recent years, stochastic computational methods have become commonplace in science. They are able to appropriately account for heterogeneity; indeed, they are based around the premise that systems inherently contain at least one source of heterogeneity (namely, intrinsic heterogeneity). In this mini-review, we give a brief introduction to theoretical modelling and simulation in systems biology and discuss the three different sources of heterogeneity in natural systems. Our main topic is an overview of stochastic simulation methods in systems biology. There are many different types of stochastic methods. We focus on one group that has become especially popular in systems biology, biochemistry, chemistry and physics. These discrete-state stochastic methods do not follow individuals over time; rather they track only total populations. They also assume that the volume of interest is spatially homogeneous. We give an overview of these methods, with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and suggest when each is more appropriate to use. We also include references to software implementations of them, so that beginners can quickly start using stochastic methods for practical problems of interest. PMID:25505503
Enhanced algorithms for stochastic programming
Krishna, A.S.
1993-09-01
In this dissertation, we present some of the recent advances made in solving two-stage stochastic linear programming problems of large size and complexity. Decomposition and sampling are two fundamental components of techniques to solve stochastic optimization problems. We describe improvements to the current techniques in both these areas. We studied different ways of using importance sampling techniques in the context of Stochastic programming, by varying the choice of approximation functions used in this method. We have concluded that approximating the recourse function by a computationally inexpensive piecewise-linear function is highly efficient. This reduced the problem from finding the mean of a computationally expensive functions to finding that of a computationally inexpensive function. Then we implemented various variance reduction techniques to estimate the mean of a piecewise-linear function. This method achieved similar variance reductions in orders of magnitude less time than, when we directly applied variance-reduction techniques directly on the given problem. In solving a stochastic linear program, the expected value problem is usually solved before a stochastic solution and also to speed-up the algorithm by making use of the information obtained from the solution of the expected value problem. We have devised a new decomposition scheme to improve the convergence of this algorithm.
Stochastic simulation in systems biology.
Székely, Tamás; Burrage, Kevin
2014-11-01
Natural systems are, almost by definition, heterogeneous: this can be either a boon or an obstacle to be overcome, depending on the situation. Traditionally, when constructing mathematical models of these systems, heterogeneity has typically been ignored, despite its critical role. However, in recent years, stochastic computational methods have become commonplace in science. They are able to appropriately account for heterogeneity; indeed, they are based around the premise that systems inherently contain at least one source of heterogeneity (namely, intrinsic heterogeneity). In this mini-review, we give a brief introduction to theoretical modelling and simulation in systems biology and discuss the three different sources of heterogeneity in natural systems. Our main topic is an overview of stochastic simulation methods in systems biology. There are many different types of stochastic methods. We focus on one group that has become especially popular in systems biology, biochemistry, chemistry and physics. These discrete-state stochastic methods do not follow individuals over time; rather they track only total populations. They also assume that the volume of interest is spatially homogeneous. We give an overview of these methods, with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each, and suggest when each is more appropriate to use. We also include references to software implementations of them, so that beginners can quickly start using stochastic methods for practical problems of interest.
Signature Visualization of Software Binaries
Panas, T
2008-07-01
In this paper we present work on the visualization of software binaries. In particular, we utilize ROSE, an open source compiler infrastructure, to pre-process software binaries, and we apply a landscape metaphor to visualize the signature of each binary (malware). We define the signature of a binary as a metric-based layout of the functions contained in the binary. In our initial experiment, we visualize the signatures of a series of computer worms that all originate from the same line. These visualizations are useful for a number of reasons. First, the images reveal how the archetype has evolved over a series of versions of one worm. Second, one can see the distinct changes between version. This allows the viewer to form conclusions about the development cycle of a particular worm.
BINARY ASTROMETRIC MICROLENSING WITH GAIA
Sajadian, Sedighe
2015-04-15
We investigate whether or not Gaia can specify the binary fractions of massive stellar populations in the Galactic disk through astrometric microlensing. Furthermore, we study whether or not some information about their mass distributions can be inferred via this method. In this regard, we simulate the binary astrometric microlensing events due to massive stellar populations according to the Gaia observing strategy by considering (i) stellar-mass black holes, (ii) neutron stars, (iii) white dwarfs, and (iv) main-sequence stars as microlenses. The Gaia efficiency for detecting the binary signatures in binary astrometric microlensing events is ∼10%–20%. By calculating the optical depth due to the mentioned stellar populations, the numbers of the binary astrometric microlensing events being observed with Gaia with detectable binary signatures, for the binary fraction of about 0.1, are estimated to be 6, 11, 77, and 1316, respectively. Consequently, Gaia can potentially specify the binary fractions of these massive stellar populations. However, the binary fraction of black holes measured with this method has a large uncertainty owing to a low number of the estimated events. Knowing the binary fractions in massive stellar populations helps with studying the gravitational waves. Moreover, we investigate the number of massive microlenses for which Gaia specifies masses through astrometric microlensing of single lenses toward the Galactic bulge. The resulting efficiencies of measuring the mass of mentioned populations are 9.8%, 2.9%, 1.2%, and 0.8%, respectively. The numbers of their astrometric microlensing events being observed in the Gaia era in which the lens mass can be inferred with the relative error less than 0.5 toward the Galactic bulge are estimated as 45, 34, 76, and 786, respectively. Hence, Gaia potentially gives us some information about the mass distribution of these massive stellar populations.
Evolution of Small Binary Asteroids with the Binary YORP Effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frouard, Julien
2013-05-01
Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): Small, Near-Earth binaries are believed to be created following the fission of an asteroid spun up by the YORP effect. It is then believed that the YORP effect acting on the secondary (Binary YORP) increases or decreases the binary mutual distance on 10^5 yr timescales. How long this mechanism can apply is not yet fully understood. We investigate the binary orbital and rotational dynamics by using non-averaged, direct numerical simulations, taking into account the relative motion of two ellipsoids (primary and secondary) and the solar perturbation. We add the YORP force and torque on the orbital and rotational motion of the secondary. As a check of our code we obtain a ~ 7.2 cm/yr drift in semi-major axis for 1999 KW4 beta, consistent with the values obtained with former analytical studies. The synchronous rotation of the secondary is required for the Binary YORP to be effective. We investigate the synchronous lock of the secondary in function of different parameters ; mutual distance, shape of the secondary, and heliocentric orbit. For example we show that the secondary of 1999 KW4 can be synchronous only up to 7 Rp (primary radius), where the resonance becomes completely chaotic even for very small eccentricities. We use Gaussian Random Spheres to obtain various secondary shapes, and check the evolution of the binaries with the Binary YORP effect.
Intrinsic optimization using stochastic nanomagnets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutton, Brian; Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Behin-Aein, Behtash; Datta, Supriyo
2017-03-01
This paper draws attention to a hardware system which can be engineered so that its intrinsic physics is described by the generalized Ising model and can encode the solution to many important NP-hard problems as its ground state. The basic constituents are stochastic nanomagnets which switch randomly between the ±1 Ising states and can be monitored continuously with standard electronics. Their mutual interactions can be short or long range, and their strengths can be reconfigured as needed to solve specific problems and to anneal the system at room temperature. The natural laws of statistical mechanics guide the network of stochastic nanomagnets at GHz speeds through the collective states with an emphasis on the low energy states that represent optimal solutions. As proof-of-concept, we present simulation results for standard NP-complete examples including a 16-city traveling salesman problem using experimentally benchmarked models for spin-transfer torque driven stochastic nanomagnets.
Intrinsic optimization using stochastic nanomagnets
Sutton, Brian; Camsari, Kerem Yunus; Behin-Aein, Behtash; Datta, Supriyo
2017-01-01
This paper draws attention to a hardware system which can be engineered so that its intrinsic physics is described by the generalized Ising model and can encode the solution to many important NP-hard problems as its ground state. The basic constituents are stochastic nanomagnets which switch randomly between the ±1 Ising states and can be monitored continuously with standard electronics. Their mutual interactions can be short or long range, and their strengths can be reconfigured as needed to solve specific problems and to anneal the system at room temperature. The natural laws of statistical mechanics guide the network of stochastic nanomagnets at GHz speeds through the collective states with an emphasis on the low energy states that represent optimal solutions. As proof-of-concept, we present simulation results for standard NP-complete examples including a 16-city traveling salesman problem using experimentally benchmarked models for spin-transfer torque driven stochastic nanomagnets. PMID:28295053
Nonlinear optimization for stochastic simulations.
Johnson, Michael M.; Yoshimura, Ann S.; Hough, Patricia Diane; Ammerlahn, Heidi R.
2003-12-01
This report describes research targeting development of stochastic optimization algorithms and their application to mission-critical optimization problems in which uncertainty arises. The first section of this report covers the enhancement of the Trust Region Parallel Direct Search (TRPDS) algorithm to address stochastic responses and the incorporation of the algorithm into the OPT++ optimization library. The second section describes the Weapons of Mass Destruction Decision Analysis Center (WMD-DAC) suite of systems analysis tools and motivates the use of stochastic optimization techniques in such non-deterministic simulations. The third section details a batch programming interface designed to facilitate criteria-based or algorithm-driven execution of system-of-system simulations. The fourth section outlines the use of the enhanced OPT++ library and batch execution mechanism to perform systems analysis and technology trade-off studies in the WMD detection and response problem domain.
Stochastic excitation of stellar oscillations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samadi, Reza
2001-05-01
Since more than about thirty years, solar oscillations are thought to be excited stochastically by the turbulent motions in the solar convective zone. It is currently believed that oscillations of stars lower than 2 solar masses - which possess an upper convective zone - are excited stochastically by turbulent convection in their outer layers. Providing that accurate measurements of the oscillation amplitudes and damping rates are available it is possible to evaluate the power injected into the modes and thus - by comparison with the observations - to constrain current theories. A recent theoretical work (Samadi & Goupil, 2001; Samadi et al., 2001) supplements and reinforces the theory of stochastic excitation of star vibrations. This process was generalized to a global description of the turbulent state of their convective zone. The comparison between observation and theory, thus generalized, will allow to better know the turbulent spectrum of stars, and this in particular thanks to the COROT mission.
Principal axes for stochastic dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasconcelos, V. V.; Raischel, F.; Haase, M.; Peinke, J.; Wächter, M.; Lind, P. G.; Kleinhans, D.
2011-09-01
We introduce a general procedure for directly ascertaining how many independent stochastic sources exist in a complex system modeled through a set of coupled Langevin equations of arbitrary dimension. The procedure is based on the computation of the eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors of local diffusion matrices. We demonstrate our algorithm by applying it to two examples of systems showing Hopf bifurcation. We argue that computing the eigenvectors associated to the eigenvalues of the diffusion matrix at local mesh points in the phase space enables one to define vector fields of stochastic eigendirections. In particular, the eigenvector associated to the lowest eigenvalue defines the path of minimum stochastic forcing in phase space, and a transform to a new coordinate system aligned with the eigenvectors can increase the predictability of the system.
Stochastic determination of matrix determinants.
Dorn, Sebastian; Ensslin, Torsten A
2015-07-01
Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes, linear operations-matrices-acting on the data are often not accessible directly but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. While efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, there is no stochastic estimate for its determinant. We introduce a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator. Our method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bayesian inference, in particular evidence calculations, model comparison, and posterior determination.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lacksonen, Thomas A.
1994-01-01
Small space flight project design at NASA Langley Research Center goes through a multi-phase process from preliminary analysis to flight operations. The process insures that each system achieves its technical objectives with demonstrated quality and within planned budgets and schedules. A key technical component of early phases is decision analysis, which is a structure procedure for determining the best of a number of feasible concepts based upon project objectives. Feasible system concepts are generated by the designers and analyzed for schedule, cost, risk, and technical measures. Each performance measure value is normalized between the best and worst values and a weighted average score of all measures is calculated for each concept. The concept(s) with the highest scores are retained, while others are eliminated from further analysis. This project automated and enhanced the decision analysis process. Automation of the decision analysis process was done by creating a user-friendly, menu-driven, spreadsheet macro based decision analysis software program. The program contains data entry dialog boxes, automated data and output report generation, and automated output chart generation. The enhancements to the decision analysis process permit stochastic data entry and analysis. Rather than enter single measure values, the designers enter the range and most likely value for each measure and concept. The data can be entered at the system or subsystem level. System level data can be calculated as either sum, maximum, or product functions of the subsystem data. For each concept, the probability distributions are approximated for each measure and the total score for each concept as either constant, triangular, normal, or log-normal distributions. Based on these distributions, formulas are derived for the probability that the concept meets any given constraint, the probability that the concept meets all constraints, and the probability that the concept is within a given
Stokowski, S.E.
1987-10-20
A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chromium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.
Stokowski, Stanley E.
1989-01-01
A laser medium is particularly useful in high average power solid state lasers. The laser medium includes a chormium dopant and preferably neodymium ions as codopant, and is primarily a gadolinium scandium gallium garnet, or an analog thereof. Divalent cations inhibit spiral morphology as large boules from which the laser medium is derived are grown, and a source of ions convertible between a trivalent state and a tetravalent state at a low ionization energy are in the laser medium to reduce an absorption coefficient at about one micron wavelength otherwise caused by the divalent cations. These divalent cations and convertible ions are dispersed in the laser medium. Preferred convertible ions are provided from titanium or cerium sources.
Partial ASL extensions for stochastic programming.
Gay, David
2010-03-31
partially completed extensions for stochastic programming to the AMPL/solver interface library (ASL).modeling and experimenting with stochastic recourse problems. This software is not primarily for military applications
Stochastic thermodynamics for delayed Langevin systems.
Jiang, Huijun; Xiao, Tiejun; Hou, Zhonghuai
2011-06-01
We discuss stochastic thermodynamics (ST) for delayed Langevin systems in this paper. By using the general principles of ST, the first-law-like energy balance and trajectory-dependent entropy s(t) can be well defined in a way that is similar to that in a system without delay. Because the presence of time delay brings an additional entropy flux into the system, the conventional second law (Δs(tot))≥0 no longer holds true, where Δs(tot) denotes the total entropy change along a stochastic path and (·) stands for the average over the path ensemble. With the help of a Fokker-Planck description, we introduce a delay-averaged trajectory-dependent dissipation functional η[χ(t)] which involves the work done by a delay-averaged force F(x,t) along the path χ(t) and equals the medium entropy change Δs(m)[x(t)] in the absence of delay. We show that the total dissipation functional R=Δs+η, where Δs denotes the system entropy change along a path, obeys (R)≥0, which could be viewed as the second law in the delayed system. In addition, the integral fluctuation theorem (e(-R))=1 also holds true. We apply these concepts to a linear Langevin system with time delay and periodic external force. Numerical results demonstrate that the total entropy change (Δs(tot)) could indeed be negative when the delay feedback is positive. By using an inversing-mapping approach, we are able to obtain the delay-averaged force F(x,t) from the stationary distribution and then calculate the functional R as well as its distribution. The second law (R)≥0 and the fluctuation theorem are successfully validated.
Stochastic Optimization of Complex Systems
Birge, John R.
2014-03-20
This project focused on methodologies for the solution of stochastic optimization problems based on relaxation and penalty methods, Monte Carlo simulation, parallel processing, and inverse optimization. The main results of the project were the development of a convergent method for the solution of models that include expectation constraints as in equilibrium models, improvement of Monte Carlo convergence through the use of a new method of sample batch optimization, the development of new parallel processing methods for stochastic unit commitment models, and the development of improved methods in combination with parallel processing for incorporating automatic differentiation methods into optimization.
Bar shapes and orbital stochasticity
Athanassoula, E. )
1990-06-01
Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the isophotes or isodensities of bars in barred galaxies are not really elliptical in shape but more rectangular. The effect this might have on the orbits in two different types of bar potentials is studied, and it is found that in both cases the percentage of stochastic orbits is much larger when the shapes are more rectangularlike or, equivalently, when the m = 4 components are more important. This can be understood with the help of the Chirikov criterion, which can predict the limit for the onset of global stochasticity. 9 refs.
QB1 - Stochastic Gene Regulation
Munsky, Brian
2012-07-23
Summaries of this presentation are: (1) Stochastic fluctuations or 'noise' is present in the cell - Random motion and competition between reactants, Low copy, quantization of reactants, Upstream processes; (2) Fluctuations may be very important - Cell-to-cell variability, Cell fate decisions (switches), Signal amplification or damping, stochastic resonances; and (3) Some tools are available to mode these - Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations (SSA and variants), Moment approximation methods, Finite State Projection. We will see how modeling these reactions can tell us more about the underlying processes of gene regulation.
Stochastic Kinetics of Nascent RNA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Heng; Skinner, Samuel O.; Sokac, Anna Marie; Golding, Ido
2016-09-01
The stochastic kinetics of transcription is typically inferred from the distribution of RNA numbers in individual cells. However, cellular RNA reflects additional processes downstream of transcription, hampering this analysis. In contrast, nascent (actively transcribed) RNA closely reflects the kinetics of transcription. We present a theoretical model for the stochastic kinetics of nascent RNA, which we solve to obtain the probability distribution of nascent RNA per gene. The model allows us to evaluate the kinetic parameters of transcription from single-cell measurements of nascent RNA. The model also predicts surprising discontinuities in the distribution of nascent RNA, a feature which we verify experimentally.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Michta, Mariusz
2017-02-01
In the paper we study properties of solutions to stochastic differential inclusions and set-valued stochastic differential equations with respect to semimartingale integrators. We present new connections between their solutions. In particular, we show that attainable sets of solutions to stochastic inclusions are subsets of values of multivalued solutions of certain set-valued stochastic equations. We also show that every solution to stochastic inclusion is a continuous selection of a multivalued solution of an associated set-valued stochastic equation. The results obtained in the paper generalize results dealing with this topic known both in deterministic and stochastic cases.
BINARIES AMONG DEBRIS DISK STARS
Rodriguez, David R.; Zuckerman, B.
2012-02-01
We have gathered a sample of 112 main-sequence stars with known debris disks. We collected published information and performed adaptive optics observations at Lick Observatory to determine if these debris disks are associated with binary or multiple stars. We discovered a previously unknown M-star companion to HD 1051 at a projected separation of 628 AU. We found that 25% {+-} 4% of our debris disk systems are binary or triple star systems, substantially less than the expected {approx}50%. The period distribution for these suggests a relative lack of systems with 1-100 AU separations. Only a few systems have blackbody disk radii comparable to the binary/triple separation. Together, these two characteristics suggest that binaries with intermediate separations of 1-100 AU readily clear out their disks. We find that the fractional disk luminosity, as a proxy for disk mass, is generally lower for multiple systems than for single stars at any given age. Hence, for a binary to possess a disk (or form planets) it must either be a very widely separated binary with disk particles orbiting a single star or it must be a small separation binary with a circumbinary disk.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pham, T. M.; Virchenko, Yu. P.
2016-08-01
We completely investigate the stationary distribution density in the space of relative concentrations for the three-parameter stochastic Horsthemke-Lefever model of a binary self-catalyzed cyclic chemical reaction with perturbations produced by thermal fluctuations of reagents taken into account. This model is a stationary diffusion random process generated by a stochastic equation with the Stratonovich differential, whose marginal distribution density admits a bifurcation restructuring from the unimodal to the bimodal phase with increasing noise intensity, which is interpreted physically as a dynamical phase transition induced by fluctuations in the system.
Gravitational waves from binary supermassive black holes missing in pulsar observations.
Shannon, R M; Ravi, V; Lentati, L T; Lasky, P D; Hobbs, G; Kerr, M; Manchester, R N; Coles, W A; Levin, Y; Bailes, M; Bhat, N D R; Burke-Spolaor, S; Dai, S; Keith, M J; Osłowski, S; Reardon, D J; van Straten, W; Toomey, L; Wang, J-B; Wen, L; Wyithe, J S B; Zhu, X-J
2015-09-25
Gravitational waves are expected to be radiated by supermassive black hole binaries formed during galaxy mergers. A stochastic superposition of gravitational waves from all such binary systems would modulate the arrival times of pulses from radio pulsars. Using observations of millisecond pulsars obtained with the Parkes radio telescope, we constrained the characteristic amplitude of this background, A(c,yr), to be <1.0 × 10(-15) with 95% confidence. This limit excludes predicted ranges for A(c,yr) from current models with 91 to 99.7% probability. We conclude that binary evolution is either stalled or dramatically accelerated by galactic-center environments and that higher-cadence and shorter-wavelength observations would be more sensitive to gravitational waves.
Testing general relativity with black-hole binary observations: results and prospects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vallisneri, Michele
2017-01-01
The first two LIGO-Virgo detections of gravitational waves from binary black-hole inspirals offered the first opportunity to test gravitation in its strong-field, relativistic-motion, and radiative sector. The initial tests reported in PRL 116 (2016) probed consistency with the predictions of general relativity, to moderate precision. The space-based observatory LISA will observe black-hole binary signals with much larger SNRs, allowing for even more precise tests. Last, the detection of a binary black-hole stochastic background with pulsar-timing arrays will offer more constraints on the speed and polarizations of gravitational waves. I review these results and examine synergies across the gravitational-wave spectrum. I discuss the main challenges and opportunities from the viewpoint of data analysis, and outline prospects for making contact with current alternative theories of gravitation, in particular those motivated by models of dark energy.
Variational principles for stochastic soliton dynamics
Holm, Darryl D.; Tyranowski, Tomasz M.
2016-01-01
We develop a variational method of deriving stochastic partial differential equations whose solutions follow the flow of a stochastic vector field. As an example in one spatial dimension, we numerically simulate singular solutions (peakons) of the stochastically perturbed Camassa–Holm (CH) equation derived using this method. These numerical simulations show that peakon soliton solutions of the stochastically perturbed CH equation persist and provide an interesting laboratory for investigating the sensitivity and accuracy of adding stochasticity to finite dimensional solutions of stochastic partial differential equations. In particular, some choices of stochastic perturbations of the peakon dynamics by Wiener noise (canonical Hamiltonian stochastic deformations, CH-SD) allow peakons to interpenetrate and exchange order on the real line in overtaking collisions, although this behaviour does not occur for other choices of stochastic perturbations which preserve the Euler–Poincaré structure of the CH equation (parametric stochastic deformations, P-SD), and it also does not occur for peakon solutions of the unperturbed deterministic CH equation. The discussion raises issues about the science of stochastic deformations of finite-dimensional approximations of evolutionary partial differential equation and the sensitivity of the resulting solutions to the choices made in stochastic modelling. PMID:27118922
Variational principles for stochastic soliton dynamics.
Holm, Darryl D; Tyranowski, Tomasz M
2016-03-01
We develop a variational method of deriving stochastic partial differential equations whose solutions follow the flow of a stochastic vector field. As an example in one spatial dimension, we numerically simulate singular solutions (peakons) of the stochastically perturbed Camassa-Holm (CH) equation derived using this method. These numerical simulations show that peakon soliton solutions of the stochastically perturbed CH equation persist and provide an interesting laboratory for investigating the sensitivity and accuracy of adding stochasticity to finite dimensional solutions of stochastic partial differential equations. In particular, some choices of stochastic perturbations of the peakon dynamics by Wiener noise (canonical Hamiltonian stochastic deformations, CH-SD) allow peakons to interpenetrate and exchange order on the real line in overtaking collisions, although this behaviour does not occur for other choices of stochastic perturbations which preserve the Euler-Poincaré structure of the CH equation (parametric stochastic deformations, P-SD), and it also does not occur for peakon solutions of the unperturbed deterministic CH equation. The discussion raises issues about the science of stochastic deformations of finite-dimensional approximations of evolutionary partial differential equation and the sensitivity of the resulting solutions to the choices made in stochastic modelling.
Modified evolution of stellar binaries from supermassive black hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bin; Wang, Yi-Han; Yuan, Ye-Fei
2017-04-01
The evolution of main-sequence binaries resided in the galactic centre is influenced a lot by the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). Due to this perturbation, the stars in a dense environment are likely to experience mergers or collisions through secular or non-secular interactions. In this work, we study the dynamics of the stellar binaries at galactic centre, perturbed by another distant SMBH. Geometrically, such a four-body system is supposed to be decomposed into the inner triple (SMBH-star-star) and the outer triple (SMBH-stellar binary-SMBH). We survey the parameter space and determine the criteria analytically for the stellar mergers and the tidal disruption events (TDEs). For a relative distant and equal masses SMBH binary, the stars have more opportunities to merge as a result from the Lidov-Kozai (LK) oscillations in the inner triple. With a sample of tight stellar binaries, our numerical experiments reveal that a significant fraction of the binaries, ∼70 per cent, experience merger eventually. Whereas the majority of the stellar TDEs are likely to occur at a close periapses to the SMBH, induced by the outer Kozai effect. The tidal disruptions are found numerically as many as ∼10 per cent for a close SMBH binary that is enhanced significantly than the one without the external SMBH. These effects require the outer perturber to have an inclined orbit (≥40°) relatively to the inner orbital plane and may lead to a burst of the extremely astronomical events associated with the detection of the SMBH binary.
Stochastically forced zonal flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, Kaushik
an approximate equation for the vorticity correlation function that is then solved perturbatively. The Reynolds stress of the pertubative solution can then be expressed as a function of the mean-flow and its y-derivatives. In particular, it is shown that as long as the forcing breaks mirror-symmetry, the Reynolds stress has a wave-like term, as a result of which the mean-flow is governed by a dispersive wave equation. In a separate study, Reynolds stress induced by an anisotropically forced unbounded Couette flow with uniform shear gamma, on a beta-plane, is calculated in conjunction with the eddy diffusivity of a co-evolving passive tracer. The flow is damped by linear drag on a time scale mu--1. The stochastic forcing is controlled by a parameter alpha, that characterizes whether eddies are elongated along the zonal direction (alpha < 0), the meridional direction (alpha > 0) or are isotropic (alpha = 0). The Reynolds stress varies linearly with alpha and non-linearly and non-monotonically with gamma; but the Reynolds stress is independent of beta. For positive values of alpha, the Reynolds stress displays an "anti-frictional" effect (energy is transferred from the eddies to the mean flow) and a frictional effect for negative values of alpha. With gamma = beta =0, the meridional tracer eddy diffusivity is v'2/(2mu), where v' is the meridional eddy velocity. In general, beta and gamma suppress the diffusivity below v'2/(2mu).
Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Molloy, Richard F.; Gallagher, Christopher T.; Leighton, David T., Jr.
1997-01-01
Electrophoresis has long been recognized as an effective analytic technique for the separation of proteins and other charged species, however attempts at scaling up to accommodate commercial volumes have met with limited success. In this report we describe a novel electrophoretic separation technique - Binary Oscillatory Crossflow Electrophoresis (BOCE). Numerical simulations indicate that the technique has the potential for preparative scale throughputs with high resolution, while simultaneously avoiding many problems common to conventional electrophoresis. The technique utilizes the interaction of an oscillatory electric field and a transverse oscillatory shear flow to create an active binary filter for the separation of charged protein species. An oscillatory electric field is applied across the narrow gap of a rectangular channel inducing a periodic motion of charged protein species. The amplitude of this motion depends on the dimensionless electrophoretic mobility, alpha = E(sub o)mu/(omega)d, where E(sub o) is the amplitude of the electric field oscillations, mu is the dimensional mobility, omega is the angular frequency of oscillation and d is the channel gap width. An oscillatory shear flow is induced along the length of the channel resulting in the separation of species with different mobilities. We present a model that predicts the oscillatory behavior of charged species and allows estimation of both the magnitude of the induced convective velocity and the effective diffusivity as a function of a in infinitely long channels. Numerical results indicate that in addition to the mobility dependence, the steady state behavior of solute species may be strongly affected by oscillating fluid into and out of the active electric field region at the ends of the cell. The effect is most pronounced using time dependent shear flows of the same frequency (cos((omega)t)) flow mode) as the electric field oscillations. Under such conditions, experiments indicate that
Stability of binaries. Part II: Rubble-pile binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Ishan
2016-10-01
We consider the stability of the binary asteroids whose members are granular aggregates held together by self-gravity alone. A binary is said to be stable whenever both its members are orbitally and structurally stable to both orbital and structural perturbations. To this end, we extend the stability analysis of Sharma (Sharma [2015] Icarus, 258, 438-453), that is applicable to binaries with rigid members, to the case of binary systems with rubble members. We employ volume averaging (Sharma et al. [2009] Icarus, 200, 304-322), which was inspired by past work on elastic/fluid, rotating and gravitating ellipsoids. This technique has shown promise when applied to rubble-pile ellipsoids, but requires further work to settle some of its underlying assumptions. The stability test is finally applied to some suspected binary systems, viz., 216 Kleopatra, 624 Hektor and 90 Antiope. We also see that equilibrated binaries that are close to mobilizing their maximum friction can sustain only a narrow range of shapes and, generally, congruent shapes are preferred.
Binary star database: binaries discovered in non-optical bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malkov, Oleg Yu.; Tessema, Solomon B.; Kniazev, Alexei Yu.
The Binary star Database (BDB) is the world's principal database of binary and multiple systems of all observational types. In particular, it should contain data on binaries discovered in non-optical bands, X-ray binaries (XRBs) and radio pulsars in binaries. The goal of the present study was to compile complete lists of such objects. Due to the lack of a unified identification system for XRBs, we had to select them from five principal catalogues of X-ray sources. After cross-identification and positional cross-matching, a general catalogue of 373 XRBs was constructed for the first time. It contains coordinates, indication of photometric and spectroscopic binarity, and extensive cross-identification. In the preparation of the catalogue, a number of XRB classification disagreements were resolved, some catalogued identifiers and coordinates were corrected, and duplicated entries in the original catalogues were found. We have also compiled a general list of 239 radio pulsars in binary systems. The list is supplied with indication of photometric, spectroscopic or X-ray binarity, and with cross-identification data.
Medium energy heavy ion operations at RHIC
Drees, K.A.; Ahrens, L.; Bai, M.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Blackler, I.M.C.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Brennan, M.; Bruno, D.; Butler, J.; Carlson, C.; Connolly, R.; D'Ottavio, T.; Fischer, W.; Fu, W.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Huang, H.; Hulsart, R.; Ingrassia, P.; Kling, N.; Lafky, M.; Laster, J.; Lee, R.C.; Litvinenko, V.; Luo, Y.; MacKay, W.W.; Marr, G.; Mapes. M.; Marusic, A.; Mernick, K.; Michnoff, R.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Morris, J.; Naylor, C.; Nemesure, S.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Robert-Demolaize, G.; Roser, T.; Sampson, P.; Satogata, T.; Schoefer, V.; Schultheiss, C.; Severino, F.; Shrey, T.; Smith, K.S.; Tepikian, S.; Thieberger, P.; Trbojevic, D.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; van Kuik, B.; Wilinski, M.; Zaltsman, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S.Y.
2011-03-28
As part of the search for a phase transition or critical point on the QCD phase diagram, an energy scan including 5 different energy settings was performed during the 2010 RHIC heavy ion run. While the top beam energy for heavy ions is at 100 GeV/n and the lowest achieved energy setpoint was significantly below RHICs injection energy of approximately 10 GeV/n, we also provided beams for data taking in a medium energy range above injection energy and below top beam energy. This paper reviews RHIC experience and challenges for RHIC medium energy operations that produced full experimental data sets at beam energies of 31.2 GeV/n and 19.5 GeV/n. The medium energy AuAu run covered two beam energies, both above the RHIC injection energy of 9.8 GeV but well below the standard store energy of 100 GeV (see table 1). The low energy and full energy runs with heavy ions in FY10 are summarized in [1] and [2]. Stochastic Cooling ([3]) was only used for 100 GeV beams and not used in the medium energy run. The efficiency of the transition from 100 GeV operation to 31.2 GeV and then to 19.5 GeV was remarkable. Setup took 32 h and 19 h respectively for the two energy settings. The time in store, defined to be the percentage of time RHIC provides beams in physics conditions versus calendar time, was approximately 52% for the entire FY10 heavy ion run. In both medium energy runs it was well above this average, 68% for 31.5 GeV and 82% for 19.5 GeV. For both energies RHIC was filled with 111 bunches with 1.2 10{sup 9} and 1.3 10{sup 9} ions per bunch respectively.
Universality in stochastic exponential growth.
Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Crooks, Gavin E; Scherer, Norbert F; Dinner, Aaron R
2014-07-11
Recent imaging data for single bacterial cells reveal that their mean sizes grow exponentially in time and that their size distributions collapse to a single curve when rescaled by their means. An analogous result holds for the division-time distributions. A model is needed to delineate the minimal requirements for these scaling behaviors. We formulate a microscopic theory of stochastic exponential growth as a Master Equation that accounts for these observations, in contrast to existing quantitative models of stochastic exponential growth (e.g., the Black-Scholes equation or geometric Brownian motion). Our model, the stochastic Hinshelwood cycle (SHC), is an autocatalytic reaction cycle in which each molecular species catalyzes the production of the next. By finding exact analytical solutions to the SHC and the corresponding first passage time problem, we uncover universal signatures of fluctuations in exponential growth and division. The model makes minimal assumptions, and we describe how more complex reaction networks can reduce to such a cycle. We thus expect similar scalings to be discovered in stochastic processes resulting in exponential growth that appear in diverse contexts such as cosmology, finance, technology, and population growth.
Stochastic cooling: recent theoretical directions
Bisognano, J.
1983-03-01
A kinetic-equation derivation of the stochastic-cooling Fokker-Planck equation of correlation is introduced to describe both the Schottky spectrum and signal suppression. Generalizations to nonlinear gain and coupling between degrees of freedom are presented. Analysis of bunch beam cooling is included.
Stochastic-field cavitation model
Dumond, J.; Magagnato, F.; Class, A.
2013-07-15
Nonlinear phenomena can often be well described using probability density functions (pdf) and pdf transport models. Traditionally, the simulation of pdf transport requires Monte-Carlo codes based on Lagrangian “particles” or prescribed pdf assumptions including binning techniques. Recently, in the field of combustion, a novel formulation called the stochastic-field method solving pdf transport based on Eulerian fields has been proposed which eliminates the necessity to mix Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques or prescribed pdf assumptions. In the present work, for the first time the stochastic-field method is applied to multi-phase flow and, in particular, to cavitating flow. To validate the proposed stochastic-field cavitation model, two applications are considered. First, sheet cavitation is simulated in a Venturi-type nozzle. The second application is an innovative fluidic diode which exhibits coolant flashing. Agreement with experimental results is obtained for both applications with a fixed set of model constants. The stochastic-field cavitation model captures the wide range of pdf shapes present at different locations.
Universality in Stochastic Exponential Growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer-Biswas, Srividya; Crooks, Gavin E.; Scherer, Norbert F.; Dinner, Aaron R.
2014-07-01
Recent imaging data for single bacterial cells reveal that their mean sizes grow exponentially in time and that their size distributions collapse to a single curve when rescaled by their means. An analogous result holds for the division-time distributions. A model is needed to delineate the minimal requirements for these scaling behaviors. We formulate a microscopic theory of stochastic exponential growth as a Master Equation that accounts for these observations, in contrast to existing quantitative models of stochastic exponential growth (e.g., the Black-Scholes equation or geometric Brownian motion). Our model, the stochastic Hinshelwood cycle (SHC), is an autocatalytic reaction cycle in which each molecular species catalyzes the production of the next. By finding exact analytical solutions to the SHC and the corresponding first passage time problem, we uncover universal signatures of fluctuations in exponential growth and division. The model makes minimal assumptions, and we describe how more complex reaction networks can reduce to such a cycle. We thus expect similar scalings to be discovered in stochastic processes resulting in exponential growth that appear in diverse contexts such as cosmology, finance, technology, and population growth.
Brownian motors and stochastic resonance.
Mateos, José L; Alatriste, Fernando R
2011-12-01
We study the transport properties for a walker on a ratchet potential. The walker consists of two particles coupled by a bistable potential that allow the interchange of the order of the particles while moving through a one-dimensional asymmetric periodic ratchet potential. We consider the stochastic dynamics of the walker on a ratchet with an external periodic forcing, in the overdamped case. The coupling of the two particles corresponds to a single effective particle, describing the internal degree of freedom, in a bistable potential. This double-well potential is subjected to both a periodic forcing and noise and therefore is able to provide a realization of the phenomenon of stochastic resonance. The main result is that there is an optimal amount of noise where the amplitude of the periodic response of the system is maximum, a signal of stochastic resonance, and that precisely for this optimal noise, the average velocity of the walker is maximal, implying a strong link between stochastic resonance and the ratchet effect.
Stochastic resonance on a circle
Wiesenfeld, K. ); Pierson, D.; Pantazelou, E.; Dames, C.; Moss, F. )
1994-04-04
We describe a new realization of stochastic resonance, applicable to a broad class of systems, based on an underlying excitable dynamics with deterministic reinjection. A simple but general theory of such single-trigger'' systems is compared with analog simulations of the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, as well as experimental data obtained from stimulated sensory neurons in the crayfish.
Binary black hole spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Den Broeck, Chris; Sengupta, Anand S.
2007-03-01
We study parameter estimation with post-Newtonian (PN) gravitational waveforms for the quasi-circular, adiabatic inspiral of spinning binary compact objects. In particular, the performance of amplitude-corrected waveforms is compared with that of the more commonly used restricted waveforms, in Advanced LIGO and EGO. With restricted waveforms, the properties of the source can only be extracted from the phasing. In the case of amplitude-corrected waveforms, the spectrum encodes a wealth of additional information, which leads to dramatic improvements in parameter estimation. At distances of ~100 Mpc, the full PN waveforms allow for high-accuracy parameter extraction for total mass up to several hundred solar masses, while with the restricted ones the errors are steep functions of mass, and accurate parameter estimation is only possible for relatively light stellar mass binaries. At the low-mass end, the inclusion of amplitude corrections reduces the error on the time of coalescence by an order of magnitude in Advanced LIGO and a factor of 5 in EGO compared to the restricted waveforms; at higher masses these differences are much larger. The individual component masses, which are very poorly determined with restricted waveforms, become measurable with high accuracy if amplitude-corrected waveforms are used, with errors as low as a few per cent in Advanced LIGO and a few tenths of a per cent in EGO. The usual spin orbit parameter β is also poorly determined with restricted waveforms (except for low-mass systems in EGO), but the full waveforms give errors that are small compared to the largest possible value consistent with the Kerr bound. This suggests a way of finding out if one or both of the component objects violate this bound. On the other hand, we find that the spin spin parameter σ remains poorly determined even when the full waveform is used. Generally, all errors have but a weak dependence on the magnitudes and orientations of the spins. We also briefly
Stochastic effects in a discretized kinetic model of economic exchange
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertotti, M. L.; Chattopadhyay, A. K.; Modanese, G.
2017-04-01
Linear stochastic models and discretized kinetic theory are two complementary analytical techniques used for the investigation of complex systems of economic interactions. The former employ Langevin equations, with an emphasis on stock trade; the latter is based on systems of ordinary differential equations and is better suited for the description of binary interactions, taxation and welfare redistribution. We propose a new framework which establishes a connection between the two approaches by introducing random fluctuations into the kinetic model based on Langevin and Fokker-Planck formalisms. Numerical simulations of the resulting model indicate positive correlations between the Gini index and the total wealth, that suggest a growing inequality with increasing income. Further analysis shows, in the presence of a conserved total wealth, a simultaneous decrease in inequality as social mobility increases, in conformity with economic data.
Modeling Langmuir isotherms with the Gillespie stochastic algorithm.
Epstein, J; Michael, J; Mandona, C; Marques, F; Dias-Cabral, A C; Thrash, M
2015-02-06
The overall goal of this work is to develop a robust modeling approach that is capable of simulating single and multicomponent isotherms for biological molecules interacting with a variety of adsorbents. Provided the ratio between the forward and reverse adsorption/desorption constants is known, the Gillespie stochastic algorithm has been shown to be effective in modeling isotherms consistent with the Langmuir theory and uptake curves that fall outside this traditional approach. We have used this method to model protein adsorption on ion-exchange adsorbents, hydrophobic interactive adsorbents and ice crystals. In our latest efforts we have applied the Gillespie approach to simulate binary and ternary isotherms from the literature involving gas-solid adsorption applications. In each case the model is consistent with the experimental results presented.
Expanded color vision in butterflies: molecular logic behind three way stochastic choices
Perry, Michael; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Saldi, Giuseppe; Huo, Lucy; Arikawa, Kentaro; Desplan, Claude
2016-01-01
Butterflies rely on color vision extensively to adapt to the natural world. Most species express a broad range of color sensitive Rhodopsins in three stochastically distributed types of ommatidia (unit eyes)1–3. The retinas of Drosophila deploy just two main types, where fate is controlled by the binary stochastic decision to express the transcription factor Spineless (Ss) in R7 photoreceptors4. We investigated how butterflies instead generate three stochastically distributed ommatidial types, resulting in a more diverse retinal mosaic that provides the basis for additional color comparisons and an expanded range of color vision. We show that the Japanese Yellow Swallowtail (Papilio xuthus, Papilionidae) and the Painted Lady (Vanessa cardui, Nymphalidae) have a second R7-like photoreceptor in each ommatidium. Independent stochastic expression of Ss in each R7-like cell results in expression of a Blue (Ss-ON) or a UV (Ss-OFF) Rhodopsin. In Papilio, these choices of Blue/Blue, Blue/UV, or UV/UV in the two R7s are coordinated with expression of additional Rhodopsins in the remaining photoreceptors, and together define the three types of ommatidia. Knocking out ss using CRISPR/Cas95,6 leads to the loss of the Blue fate in R7-like cells and transforms retinas into homogeneous fields of UV/UV-type ommatidia, with all corresponding features. Hence, the three possible outcomes of Ss expression define the three ommatidial types in butterflies. This developmental strategy allowed the deployment of an additional red-sensitive Rhodopsin in Papilio, allowing for the evolution of expanded color vision with a richer variety of receptors7,8. This surprisingly simple mechanism that makes use of two binary stochastic decisions coupled with local coordination may prove to be a general means of generating an increased diversity of developmental outcomes. PMID:27383790
Molecular logic behind the three-way stochastic choices that expand butterfly colour vision.
Perry, Michael; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Saldi, Giuseppe; Huo, Lucy; Arikawa, Kentaro; Desplan, Claude
2016-07-14
Butterflies rely extensively on colour vision to adapt to the natural world. Most species express a broad range of colour-sensitive Rhodopsin proteins in three types of ommatidia (unit eyes), which are distributed stochastically across the retina. The retinas of Drosophila melanogaster use just two main types, in which fate is controlled by the binary stochastic decision to express the transcription factor Spineless in R7 photoreceptors. We investigated how butterflies instead generate three stochastically distributed ommatidial types, resulting in a more diverse retinal mosaic that provides the basis for additional colour comparisons and an expanded range of colour vision. We show that the Japanese yellow swallowtail (Papilio xuthus, Papilionidae) and the painted lady (Vanessa cardui, Nymphalidae) butterflies have a second R7-like photoreceptor in each ommatidium. Independent stochastic expression of Spineless in each R7-like cell results in expression of a blue-sensitive (Spineless(ON)) or an ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive (Spineless(OFF)) Rhodopsin. In P. xuthus these choices of blue/blue, blue/UV or UV/UV sensitivity in the two R7 cells are coordinated with expression of additional Rhodopsin proteins in the remaining photoreceptors, and together define the three types of ommatidia. Knocking out spineless using CRISPR/Cas9 (refs 5, 6) leads to the loss of the blue-sensitive fate in R7-like cells and transforms retinas into homogeneous fields of UV/UV-type ommatidia, with corresponding changes in other coordinated features of ommatidial type. Hence, the three possible outcomes of Spineless expression define the three ommatidial types in butterflies. This developmental strategy allowed the deployment of an additional red-sensitive Rhodopsin in P. xuthus, allowing for the evolution of expanded colour vision with a greater variety of receptors. This surprisingly simple mechanism that makes use of two binary stochastic decisions coupled with local coordination may prove
Algorithmic advances in stochastic programming
Morton, D.P.
1993-07-01
Practical planning problems with deterministic forecasts of inherently uncertain parameters often yield unsatisfactory solutions. Stochastic programming formulations allow uncertain parameters to be modeled as random variables with known distributions, but the size of the resulting mathematical programs can be formidable. Decomposition-based algorithms take advantage of special structure and provide an attractive approach to such problems. We consider two classes of decomposition-based stochastic programming algorithms. The first type of algorithm addresses problems with a ``manageable`` number of scenarios. The second class incorporates Monte Carlo sampling within a decomposition algorithm. We develop and empirically study an enhanced Benders decomposition algorithm for solving multistage stochastic linear programs within a prespecified tolerance. The enhancements include warm start basis selection, preliminary cut generation, the multicut procedure, and decision tree traversing strategies. Computational results are presented for a collection of ``real-world`` multistage stochastic hydroelectric scheduling problems. Recently, there has been an increased focus on decomposition-based algorithms that use sampling within the optimization framework. These approaches hold much promise for solving stochastic programs with many scenarios. A critical component of such algorithms is a stopping criterion to ensure the quality of the solution. With this as motivation, we develop a stopping rule theory for algorithms in which bounds on the optimal objective function value are estimated by sampling. Rules are provided for selecting sample sizes and terminating the algorithm under which asymptotic validity of confidence interval statements for the quality of the proposed solution can be verified. Issues associated with the application of this theory to two sampling-based algorithms are considered, and preliminary empirical coverage results are presented.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Nancy R.; Bond, H. E.; Schaefer, G.; Mason, B. D.; Karovska, M.; Tingle, E.
2013-01-01
Cepheids (5 Msun stars) provide an excellent sample for determining the binary properties of fairly massive stars. International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations of Cepheids brighter than 8th magnitude resulted in a list of ALL companions more massive than 2.0 Msun uniformly sensitive to all separations. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) has resolved three of these binaries (Eta Aql, S Nor, and V659 Cen). Combining these separations with orbital data in the literature, we derive an unbiased distribution of binary separations for a sample of 18 Cepheids, and also a distribution of mass ratios. The distribution of orbital periods shows that the 5 Msun binaries prefer shorter periods than 1 Msun stars, reflecting differences in star formation processes.
CHAOTIC ZONES AROUND GRAVITATING BINARIES
Shevchenko, Ivan I.
2015-01-20
The extent of the continuous zone of chaotic orbits of a small-mass tertiary around a system of two gravitationally bound primaries of comparable masses (a binary star, a binary black hole, a binary asteroid, etc.) is estimated analytically, as a function of the tertiary's orbital eccentricity. The separatrix map theory is used to demonstrate that the central continuous chaos zone emerges (above a threshold in the primaries' mass ratio) due to overlapping of the orbital resonances corresponding to the integer ratios p:1 between the tertiary and the central binary periods. In this zone, the unlimited chaotic orbital diffusion of the tertiary takes place, up to its ejection from the system. The primaries' mass ratio, above which such a chaotic zone is universally present at all initial eccentricities of the tertiary, is estimated. The diversity of the observed orbital configurations of biplanetary and circumbinary exosystems is shown to be in accord with the existence of the primaries' mass parameter threshold.
Cryptography with DNA binary strands.
Leier, A; Richter, C; Banzhaf, W; Rauhe, H
2000-06-01
Biotechnological methods can be used for cryptography. Here two different cryptographic approaches based on DNA binary strands are shown. The first approach shows how DNA binary strands can be used for steganography, a technique of encryption by information hiding, to provide rapid encryption and decryption. It is shown that DNA steganography based on DNA binary strands is secure under the assumption that an interceptor has the same technological capabilities as sender and receiver of encrypted messages. The second approach shown here is based on steganography and a method of graphical subtraction of binary gel-images. It can be used to constitute a molecular checksum and can be combined with the first approach to support encryption. DNA cryptography might become of practical relevance in the context of labelling organic and inorganic materials with DNA 'barcodes'.
An adaptable binary entropy coder
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiely, A.; Klimesh, M.
2001-01-01
We present a novel entropy coding technique which is based on recursive interleaving of variable-to-variable length binary source codes. We discuss code design and performance estimation methods, as well as practical encoding and decoding algorithms.
Dynamic option pricing with endogenous stochastic arbitrage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contreras, Mauricio; Montalva, Rodrigo; Pellicer, Rely; Villena, Marcelo
2010-09-01
Only few efforts have been made in order to relax one of the key assumptions of the Black-Scholes model: the no-arbitrage assumption. This is despite the fact that arbitrage processes usually exist in the real world, even though they tend to be short-lived. The purpose of this paper is to develop an option pricing model with endogenous stochastic arbitrage, capable of modelling in a general fashion any future and underlying asset that deviate itself from its market equilibrium. Thus, this investigation calibrates empirically the arbitrage on the futures on the S&P 500 index using transaction data from September 1997 to June 2009, from here a specific type of arbitrage called “arbitrage bubble”, based on a t-step function, is identified and hence used in our model. The theoretical results obtained for Binary and European call options, for this kind of arbitrage, show that an investment strategy that takes advantage of the identified arbitrage possibility can be defined, whenever it is possible to anticipate in relative terms the amplitude and timespan of the process. Finally, the new trajectory of the stock price is analytically estimated for a specific case of arbitrage and some numerical illustrations are developed. We find that the consequences of a finite and small endogenous arbitrage not only change the trajectory of the asset price during the period when it started, but also after the arbitrage bubble has already gone. In this context, our model will allow us to calibrate the B-S model to that new trajectory even when the arbitrage already started.
Stochastic interference of fluorescence radiation in random media with large inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zimnyakov, D. A.; Asharchuk, I. A.; Yuvchenko, S. A.; Sviridov, A. P.
2017-03-01
Stochastic interference of fluorescence light outgoing from a dye-doped coarse-grained random medium, which was pumped by the continuous-wave laser radiation, was experimentally studied. It was found that the contrast of random interference patterns highly correlates with the wavelength-dependent fluorescence intensity and reaches its minimum in the vicinity of the cusp of emission spectrum. The decay in the contrast of spectrally selected speckle patterns was interpreted in terms of the pathlength distribution broadening for fluorescence radiation propagating in the medium. This broadening is presumably caused by the wavelength-dependent negative absorption of the medium.
Two-state approach to stochastic hair bundle dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clausznitzer, Diana; Lindner, Benjamin; Jülicher, Frank; Martin, Pascal
2008-04-01
Hair cells perform the mechanoelectrical transduction of sound signals in the auditory and vestibular systems of vertebrates. The part of the hair cell essential for this transduction is the so-called hair bundle. In vitro experiments on hair cells from the sacculus of the American bullfrog have shown that the hair bundle comprises active elements capable of producing periodic deflections like a relaxation oscillator. Recently, a continuous nonlinear stochastic model of the hair bundle motion [Nadrowski , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101, 12195 (2004)] has been shown to reproduce the experimental data in stochastic simulations faithfully. Here, we demonstrate that a binary filtering of the hair bundle's deflection (experimental data and continuous hair bundle model) does not change significantly the spectral statistics of the spontaneous as well as the periodically driven hair bundle motion. We map the continuous hair bundle model to the FitzHugh-Nagumo model of neural excitability and discuss the bifurcations between different regimes of the system in terms of the latter model. Linearizing the nullclines and assuming perfect time-scale separation between the variables we can map the FitzHugh-Nagumo system to a simple two-state model in which each of the states corresponds to the two possible values of the binary-filtered hair bundle trajectory. For the two-state model, analytical expressions for the power spectrum and the susceptibility can be calculated [Lindner and Schimansky-Geier, Phys. Rev. E 61, 6103 (2000)] and show the same features as seen in the experimental data as well as in simulations of the continuous hair bundle model.
A comparison of two- and three-dimensional stochastic models of regional solute movement
Shapiro, A.M.; Cvetkovic, V.D.
1990-01-01
Recent models of solute movement in porous media that are based on a stochastic description of the porous medium properties have been dedicated primarily to a three-dimensional interpretation of solute movement. In many practical problems, however, it is more convenient and consistent with measuring techniques to consider flow and solute transport as an areal, two-dimensional phenomenon. The physics of solute movement, however, is dependent on the three-dimensional heterogeneity in the formation. A comparison of two- and three-dimensional stochastic interpretations of solute movement in a porous medium having a statistically isotropic hydraulic conductivity field is investigated. To provide an equitable comparison between the two- and three-dimensional analyses, the stochastic properties of the transmissivity are defined in terms of the stochastic properties of the hydraulic conductivity. The variance of the transmissivity is shown to be significantly reduced in comparison to that of the hydraulic conductivity, and the transmissivity is spatially correlated over larger distances. These factors influence the two-dimensional interpretations of solute movement by underestimating the longitudinal and transverse growth of the solute plume in comparison to its description as a three-dimensional phenomenon. Although this analysis is based on small perturbation approximations and the special case of a statistically isotropic hydraulic conductivity field, it casts doubt on the use of a stochastic interpretation of the transmissivity in describing regional scale movement. However, by assuming the transmissivity to be the vertical integration of the hydraulic conductivity field at a given position, the stochastic properties of the hydraulic conductivity can be estimated from the stochastic properties of the transmissivity and applied to obtain a more accurate interpretation of solute movement. ?? 1990 Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Granular Medium Impacted by a Projectile: Experiment and Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crassous, J.; Valance, A.
2009-06-01
We present an experiment and a simple model of a granular projectile on a granular medium. Experiment consists in impacting an half space of PVC beads with a single bead. Numerous beads are then ejected around the impact point. The loci of ejection and velocities of the ejecta were measured. The experimental data were compared with the predictions of a simple discrete model. In this model, the energy is transferred from grain to grain on a frozen disordered medium following the law of binary collisions. This theoretical description is in remarkable agreement with the experimental observations. Besides, the present model provides a clear picture of the mechanism of energy propagation.
MCdevelop - a universal framework for Stochastic Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slawinska, M.; Jadach, S.
2011-03-01
We present MCdevelop, a universal computer framework for developing and exploiting the wide class of Stochastic Simulations (SS) software. This powerful universal SS software development tool has been derived from a series of scientific projects for precision calculations in high energy physics (HEP), which feature a wide range of functionality in the SS software needed for advanced precision Quantum Field Theory calculations for the past LEP experiments and for the ongoing LHC experiments at CERN, Geneva. MCdevelop is a "spin-off" product of HEP to be exploited in other areas, while it will still serve to develop new SS software for HEP experiments. Typically SS involve independent generation of large sets of random "events", often requiring considerable CPU power. Since SS jobs usually do not share memory it makes them easy to parallelize. The efficient development, testing and running in parallel SS software requires a convenient framework to develop software source code, deploy and monitor batch jobs, merge and analyse results from multiple parallel jobs, even before the production runs are terminated. Throughout the years of development of stochastic simulations for HEP, a sophisticated framework featuring all the above mentioned functionality has been implemented. MCdevelop represents its latest version, written mostly in C++ (GNU compiler gcc). It uses Autotools to build binaries (optionally managed within the KDevelop 3.5.3 Integrated Development Environment (IDE)). It uses the open-source ROOT package for histogramming, graphics and the mechanism of persistency for the C++ objects. MCdevelop helps to run multiple parallel jobs on any computer cluster with NQS-type batch system. Program summaryProgram title:MCdevelop Catalogue identifier: AEHW_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHW_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http
Stochastic neural network model for spontaneous bursting in hippocampal slices.
Biswal, B; Dasgupta, C
2002-11-01
A biologically plausible, stochastic, neural network model that exhibits spontaneous transitions between a low-activity (normal) state and a high-activity (epileptic) state is studied by computer simulation. Brief excursions of the network to the high-activity state lead to spontaneous population bursting similar to the behavior observed in hippocampal slices bathed in a high-potassium medium. Although the variability of interburst intervals in this model is due to stochasticity, first return maps of successive interburst intervals show trajectories that resemble the behavior expected near unstable periodic orbits (UPOs) of systems exhibiting deterministic chaos. Simulations of the effects of the application of chaos control, periodic pacing, and anticontrol to the network model yield results that are qualitatively similar to those obtained in experiments on hippocampal slices. Estimation of the statistical significance of UPOs through surrogate data analysis also leads to results that resemble those of similar analysis of data obtained from slice experiments and human epileptic activity. These results suggest that spontaneous population bursting in hippocampal slices may be a manifestation of stochastic bistable dynamics, rather than of deterministic chaos. Our results also question the reliability of some of the recently proposed, UPO-based, statistical methods for detecting determinism and chaos in experimental time-series data.
Image-based histologic grade estimation using stochastic geometry analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Petushi, Sokol; Zhang, Jasper; Milutinovic, Aladin; Breen, David E.; Garcia, Fernando U.
2011-03-01
Background: Low reproducibility of histologic grading of breast carcinoma due to its subjectivity has traditionally diminished the prognostic value of histologic breast cancer grading. The objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness and reproducibility of grading breast carcinomas with automated computer-based image processing that utilizes stochastic geometry shape analysis. Methods: We used histology images stained with Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) from invasive mammary carcinoma, no special type cases as a source domain and study environment. We developed a customized hybrid semi-automated segmentation algorithm to cluster the raw image data and reduce the image domain complexity to a binary representation with the foreground representing regions of high density of malignant cells. A second algorithm was developed to apply stochastic geometry and texture analysis measurements to the segmented images and to produce shape distributions, transforming the original color images into a histogram representation that captures their distinguishing properties between various histological grades. Results: Computational results were compared against known histological grades assigned by the pathologist. The Earth Mover's Distance (EMD) similarity metric and the K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN) classification algorithm provided correlations between the high-dimensional set of shape distributions and a priori known histological grades. Conclusion: Computational pattern analysis of histology shows promise as an effective software tool in breast cancer histological grading.
Stochastic daily precipitation model with a heavy-tailed component
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neykov, N. M.; Neytchev, P. N.; Zucchini, W.
2014-09-01
Stochastic daily precipitation models are commonly used to generate scenarios of climate variability or change on a daily timescale. The standard models consist of two components describing the occurrence and intensity series, respectively. Binary logistic regression is used to fit the occurrence data, and the intensity series is modeled using a continuous-valued right-skewed distribution, such as gamma, Weibull or lognormal. The precipitation series is then modeled using the joint density, and standard software for generalized linear models can be used to perform the computations. A drawback of these precipitation models is that they do not produce a sufficiently heavy upper tail for the distribution of daily precipitation amounts; they tend to underestimate the frequency of large storms. In this study, we adapted the approach of Furrer and Katz (2008) based on hybrid distributions in order to correct for this shortcoming. In particular, we applied hybrid gamma-generalized Pareto (GP) and hybrid Weibull-GP distributions to develop a stochastic precipitation model for daily rainfall at Ihtiman in western Bulgaria. We report the results of simulations designed to compare the models based on the hybrid distributions and those based on the standard distributions. Some potential difficulties are outlined.
Stochastic daily precipitation model with a heavy-tailed component
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neykov, N. M.; Neytchev, P. N.; Zucchini, W.
2014-02-01
Stochastic daily precipitation models are commonly used to generate scenarios of climate variability or change on a daily time scale. The standard models consist of two components describing the occurrence and intensity series, respectively. Binary logistic regression is used to fit the occurrence data, and the intensity series is modeled by a continuous-valued right-skewed distribution, such as gamma, Weibull or lognormal. The precipitation series is then modeled using the joint density and standard software for generalized linear models can be used to perform the computations. A drawback of these precipitation models is that they do not produce a sufficiently heavy upper tail for the distribution of daily precipitation amounts; they tend to underestimate the frequency of large storms. In this study we adapted the approach of Furrer and Katz (2008) based on hybrid distributions in order to correct for this shortcoming. In particular we applied hybrid gamma - generalized Pareto (GP) and hybrid Weibull-GP distributions to develop a stochastic precipitation model for daily rainfall at Ihtiman in western Bulgaria. We report the results of simulations designed to compare the models based on the hybrid distributions and those based on the standard distributions. Some potential difficulties are outlined.
Posterior predictive modeling using multi-scale stochastic inverse parameter estimates.
Waanders, Bart Van Bloemen; Marzouk, Youssef M.; Ray, Jaideep; McKenna, Sean Andrew
2010-12-01
Multi-scale binary permeability field estimation from static and dynamic data is completed using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling. The binary permeability field is defined as high permeability inclusions within a lower permeability matrix. Static data are obtained as measurements of permeability with support consistent to the coarse scale discretization. Dynamic data are advective travel times along streamlines calculated through a fine-scale field and averaged for each observation point at the coarse scale. Parameters estimated at the coarse scale (30 x 20 grid) are the spatially varying proportion of the high permeability phase and the inclusion length and aspect ratio of the high permeability inclusions. From the non-parametric, posterior distributions estimated for these parameters, a recently developed sub-grid algorithm is employed to create an ensemble of realizations representing the fine-scale (3000 x 2000), binary permeability field. Each fine-scale ensemble member is instantiated by convolution of an uncorrelated multiGaussian random field with a Gaussian kernel defined by the estimated inclusion length and aspect ratio. Since the multiGaussian random field is itself a realization of a stochastic process, the procedure for generating fine-scale binary permeability field realizations is also stochastic. Two different methods are hypothesized to perform posterior predictive tests. Different mechanisms for combining multi Gaussian random fields with kernels defined from the MCMC sampling are examined. Posterior predictive accuracy of the estimated parameters is assessed against a simulated ground truth for predictions at both the coarse scale (effective permeabilities) and at the fine scale (advective travel time distributions). The two techniques for conducting posterior predictive tests are compared by their ability to recover the static and dynamic data. The skill of the inference and the method for generating fine-scale binary permeability
Stochastic resonance in nanomechanical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Badzey, Robert L.
The phenomenon of stochastic resonance is a counter-intuitive one: adding noise to a noisy nonlinear system under the influence of a modulation results in coherent behavior. The signature of the effect is a resonance in the signal-to-noise ratio of the response over a certain range of noise power; this behavior is absent if either the modulation or the noise are absent. Stochastic resonance has attracted considerable interest over the past several decades, having been seen in a great number of physical and biological systems. Here, observation of stochastic resonance is reported for nanomechanical systems consisting of a doubly-clamped beam resonators fabricated from single-crystal silicon. Such oscillators have been found to display nonlinear and bistable behavior under the influence of large driving forces. This bistability is exploited to produce a controllable nanomechanical switch, a device that may be used as the basis for a new generation of computational memory elements. These oscillators possess large intrinsic resonance frequencies (MHz range or higher) due to their small size and relatively high stiffness; thus they have the potential to rival the current state-of-the-art of electronic and magnetic storage technologies. This small size also allows them to be packed in densities which meet or exceed the superparamagnetic limit for magnetic storage media of 100 GB/in2. Two different doubly-clamped beams were cooled to low temperatures (300 mK--4 K), and excited with a magnetomotive technique. They were driven into the nonlinear response regime, and then modulated to induce switching between their bistable states. When the modulation was reduced, the switching died out. Application of noise, either with an external broadband source or via an increase in temperature, resulted in a distinct resonance in the signal-to-noise ratio. Aside from establishing the phenomenon of stochastic resonance in yet another physical system, the observation of this effect has
PULSAR STATE SWITCHING FROM MARKOV TRANSITIONS AND STOCHASTIC RESONANCE
Cordes, J. M.
2013-09-20
Markov processes are shown to be consistent with metastable states seen in pulsar phenomena, including intensity nulling, pulse-shape mode changes, subpulse drift rates, spin-down rates, and X-ray emission, based on the typically broad and monotonic distributions of state lifetimes. Markovianity implies a nonlinear magnetospheric system in which state changes occur stochastically, corresponding to transitions between local minima in an effective potential. State durations (though not transition times) are thus largely decoupled from the characteristic timescales of various magnetospheric processes. Dyadic states are common but some objects show at least four states with some transitions forbidden. Another case is the long-term intermittent pulsar B1931+24 that has binary radio-emission and torque states with wide, but non-monotonic duration distributions. It also shows a quasi-period of 38 ± 5 days in a 13 yr time sequence, suggesting stochastic resonance in a Markov system with a forcing function that could be strictly periodic or quasi-periodic. Nonlinear phenomena are associated with time-dependent activity in the acceleration region near each magnetic polar cap. The polar-cap diode is altered by feedback from the outer magnetosphere and by return currents from the equatorial region outside the light cylinder that may also cause the neutron star to episodically charge and discharge. Orbital perturbations of a disk or current sheet provide a natural periodicity for the forcing function in the stochastic-resonance interpretation of B1931+24. Disk dynamics may introduce additional timescales in observed phenomena. Future work can test the Markov interpretation, identify which pulsar types have a propensity for state changes, and clarify the role of selection effects.
Stochastic dynamics of cholera epidemics.
Azaele, Sandro; Maritan, Amos; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea
2010-05-01
We describe the predictions of an analytically tractable stochastic model for cholera epidemics following a single initial outbreak. The exact model relies on a set of assumptions that may restrict the generality of the approach and yet provides a realm of powerful tools and results. Without resorting to the depletion of susceptible individuals, as usually assumed in deterministic susceptible-infected-recovered models, we show that a simple stochastic equation for the number of ill individuals provides a mechanism for the decay of the epidemics occurring on the typical time scale of seasonality. The model is shown to provide a reasonably accurate description of the empirical data of the 2000/2001 cholera epidemic which took place in the Kwa Zulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with possibly notable epidemiological implications.
Wavelet entropy of stochastic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zunino, L.; Pérez, D. G.; Garavaglia, M.; Rosso, O. A.
2007-06-01
We compare two different definitions for the wavelet entropy associated to stochastic processes. The first one, the normalized total wavelet entropy (NTWS) family [S. Blanco, A. Figliola, R.Q. Quiroga, O.A. Rosso, E. Serrano, Time-frequency analysis of electroencephalogram series, III. Wavelet packets and information cost function, Phys. Rev. E 57 (1998) 932-940; O.A. Rosso, S. Blanco, J. Yordanova, V. Kolev, A. Figliola, M. Schürmann, E. Başar, Wavelet entropy: a new tool for analysis of short duration brain electrical signals, J. Neurosci. Method 105 (2001) 65-75] and a second introduced by Tavares and Lucena [Physica A 357(1) (2005) 71-78]. In order to understand their advantages and disadvantages, exact results obtained for fractional Gaussian noise ( -1<α< 1) and fractional Brownian motion ( 1<α< 3) are assessed. We find out that the NTWS family performs better as a characterization method for these stochastic processes.
Stochastic dynamics of cholera epidemics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Azaele, Sandro; Maritan, Amos; Bertuzzo, Enrico; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio; Rinaldo, Andrea
2010-05-01
We describe the predictions of an analytically tractable stochastic model for cholera epidemics following a single initial outbreak. The exact model relies on a set of assumptions that may restrict the generality of the approach and yet provides a realm of powerful tools and results. Without resorting to the depletion of susceptible individuals, as usually assumed in deterministic susceptible-infected-recovered models, we show that a simple stochastic equation for the number of ill individuals provides a mechanism for the decay of the epidemics occurring on the typical time scale of seasonality. The model is shown to provide a reasonably accurate description of the empirical data of the 2000/2001 cholera epidemic which took place in the Kwa Zulu-Natal Province, South Africa, with possibly notable epidemiological implications.
Stochastic thermodynamics with information reservoirs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barato, Andre C.; Seifert, Udo
2014-10-01
We generalize stochastic thermodynamics to include information reservoirs. Such information reservoirs, which can be modeled as a sequence of bits, modify the second law. For example, work extraction from a system in contact with a single heat bath becomes possible if the system also interacts with an information reservoir. We obtain an inequality, and the corresponding fluctuation theorem, generalizing the standard entropy production of stochastic thermodynamics. From this inequality we can derive an information processing entropy production, which gives the second law in the presence of information reservoirs. We also develop a systematic linear response theory for information processing machines. For a unicyclic machine powered by an information reservoir, the efficiency at maximum power can deviate from the standard value of 1 /2 . For the case where energy is consumed to erase the tape, the efficiency at maximum erasure rate is found to be 1 /2 .
Stochastic background of atmospheric cascades
Wilk, G. ); Wlodarczyk, Z. )
1993-06-15
Fluctuations in the atmospheric cascades developing during the propagation of very high energy cosmic rays through the atmosphere are investigated using stochastic branching model of pure birth process with immigration. In particular, we show that the multiplicity distributions of secondaries emerging from gamma families are much narrower than those resulting from hadronic families. We argue that the strong intermittent like behaviour found recently in atmospheric families results from the fluctuations in the cascades themselves and are insensitive to the details of elementary interactions.
Stochastic Fluctuations in Gene Regulation
2005-04-01
AFRL-IF- RS -TR-2005-126 Final Technical Report April 2005 STOCHASTIC FLUCTUATIONS IN GENE REGULATION Boston University...be releasable to the general public, including foreign nations. AFRL-IF- RS -TR-2005-126 has been reviewed and is approved for publication...AGENCY REPORT NUMBER AFRL-IF- RS -TR-2005-126 11. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES AFRL Project Engineer: Peter J. Costianes/IFED/(315) 330-4030
Stochastic resonance across bifurcation cascades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolis, C.; Nicolis, G.
2017-03-01
The classical setting of stochastic resonance is extended to account for parameter variations leading to transitions between a unique stable state, bistability, and multistability regimes, across singularities of various kinds. Analytic expressions for the amplitude and the phase of the response in terms of key parameters are obtained. The conditions for optimal responses are derived in terms of the bifurcation parameter, the driving frequency, and the noise strength.
Optimality Functions in Stochastic Programming
2009-12-02
nonconvex. Non - convex stochastic optimization problems arise in such diverse applications as estimation of mixed logit models [2], engineering design...first- order necessary optimality conditions ; see for example Propositions 3.3.1 and 3.3.5 in [7] or Theorem 2.2.4 in [25]. If the evaluation of f j...procedures for validation analysis of a candidate point x ∈ IRn. Since P may be nonconvex, we focus on first-order necessary optimality conditions as
Stochastic cooling technology at Fermilab
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pasquinelli, Ralph J.
2004-10-01
The first antiproton cooling systems were installed and commissioned at Fermilab in 1984-1985. In the interim period, there have been several major upgrades, system improvements, and complete reincarnation of cooling systems. This paper will present some of the technology that was pioneered at Fermilab to implement stochastic cooling systems in both the Antiproton Source and Recycler accelerators. Current performance data will also be presented.
Stochastic Modeling Of Biochemical Reactions
2006-11-01
chemical reactions. Often for these reactions, the dynamics of the first M-order statistical moments of the species populations do not form a closed...results a stochastic model for gene expression is investigated. We show that in gene expression mechanisms , in which a protein inhibits its own...chemical reactions [7, 8, 4, 9, 10]. Since one is often interested in only the first and second order statistical moments for the number of molecules of
Lattice-Boltzmann-Langevin simulations of binary mixtures.
Thampi, Sumesh P; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Adhikari, R
2011-10-01
We report a hybrid numerical method for the solution of the Model H fluctuating hydrodynamic equations for binary mixtures. The momentum conservation equations with Landau-Lifshitz stresses are solved using the fluctuating lattice Boltzmann equation while the order parameter conservation equation with Langevin fluxes is solved using stochastic method of lines. Two methods, based on finite difference and finite volume, are proposed for spatial discretization of the order parameter equation. Special care is taken to ensure that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is maintained at the lattice level in both cases. The methods are benchmarked by comparing static and dynamic correlations and excellent agreement is found between analytical and numerical results. The Galilean invariance of the model is tested and found to be satisfactory. Thermally induced capillary fluctuations of the interface are captured accurately, indicating that the model can be used to study nonlinear fluctuations.
The chemically peculiar double-lined spectroscopic binary HD 90264
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quiroga, C.; Torres, A. F.; Cidale, L. S.
2010-10-01
Context. HD 90264 is a chemically peculiar (CP) double-lined spectroscopic binary system of the type He-weak. Double-lined binaries are unique sources of data for stellar masses, physical properties, and evolutionary aspects of stars. Therefore, the determination of orbital elements is of great importance to study how the physical characteristics of CP stars are affected by a companion. Aims: We carried out a detailed spectral and polarimetric study of the spectroscopic binary system HD 90264 to characterize its orbit, determine the stellar masses, and investigate the spectral variability and possible polarization of the binary components. Methods: We employed medium-resolution échelle spectra and polarimetric data obtained at the 2.15-m telescope at CASLEO Observatory, Argentina. We measured radial velocities and line equivalent widths with IRAF packages. The radial velocity curves of both binary components were obtained combining radial velocity data derived from the single line of Hg II λ3984 Åand the double lines of Mg II λ4481 Å. Polarimetric data were studied by means of the statistical method of Clarke & Stewart and the Welch test. Results: We found that both components of the binary system are chemically peculiar stars, deficient in helium, where the primary is a He variable and the secondary is a Hg-Mn star. We derived for the first time the orbital parameters of the binary system. We found that the system has a quasi-circular orbit (e ~ 0.04) with an orbital period of 15.727 days. Taking into account the circular orbit solution, we derived a mass ratio of q = MHe-w/MHg-Mn = 1.22. We also found a rotational period of around 15-16 days, suggesting a spin-orbit synchronization. Possible signs of intrinsic polarization have also been detected. Conclusions: HD 90264 is the first known binary system comprised of a He variable star as the primary component and a Hg-Mn star as the secondary one. Based on observations taken at Complejo Astronómico El
Anomalous diffusion in stochastic systems with nonhomogeneously distributed traps.
Srokowski, Tomasz
2015-05-01
The stochastic motion in a nonhomogeneous medium with traps is studied and diffusion properties of that system are discussed. The particle is subjected to a stochastic stimulation obeying a general Lévy stable statistics and experiences long rests due to nonhomogeneously distributed traps. The memory is taken into account by subordination of that process to a random time; then the subordination equation is position dependent. The problem is approximated by a decoupling of the medium structure and memory and exactly solved for a power-law position dependence of the memory. In the case of the Gaussian statistics, the density distribution and moments are derived: depending on geometry and memory parameters, the system may reveal both the subdiffusion and enhanced diffusion. The similar analysis is performed for the Lévy flights where the finiteness of the variance follows from a variable noise intensity near a boundary. Two diffusion regimes are found: in the bulk and near the surface. The anomalous diffusion exponent as a function of the system parameters is derived.
Turbulence, Spontaneous Stochasticity and Climate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eyink, Gregory
Turbulence is well-recognized as important in the physics of climate. Turbulent mixing plays a crucial role in the global ocean circulation. Turbulence also provides a natural source of variability, which bedevils our ability to predict climate. I shall review here a recently discovered turbulence phenomenon, called ``spontaneous stochasticity'', which makes classical dynamical systems as intrinsically random as quantum mechanics. Turbulent dissipation and mixing of scalars (passive or active) is now understood to require Lagrangian spontaneous stochasticity, which can be expressed by an exact ``fluctuation-dissipation relation'' for scalar turbulence (joint work with Theo Drivas). Path-integral methods such as developed for quantum mechanics become necessary to the description. There can also be Eulerian spontaneous stochasticity of the flow fields themselves, which is intimately related to the work of Kraichnan and Leith on unpredictability of turbulent flows. This leads to problems similar to those encountered in quantum field theory. To quantify uncertainty in forecasts (or hindcasts), we can borrow from quantum field-theory the concept of ``effective actions'', which characterize climate averages by a variational principle and variances by functional derivatives. I discuss some work with Tom Haine (JHU) and Santha Akella (NASA-Goddard) to make this a practical predictive tool. More ambitious application of the effective action is possible using Rayleigh-Ritz schemes.
Stochastic modeling of carbon oxidation
Chen, W.Y,; Kulkarni, A.; Milum, J.L.; Fan, L.T.
1999-12-01
Recent studies of carbon oxidation by scanning tunneling microscopy indicate that measured rates of carbon oxidation can be affected by randomly distributed defects in the carbon structure, which vary in size. Nevertheless, the impact of this observation on the analysis or modeling of the oxidation rate has not been critically assessed. This work focuses on the stochastic analysis of the dynamics of carbon clusters' conversions during the oxidation of a carbon sheet. According to the classic model of Nagle and Strickland-Constable (NSC), two classes of carbon clusters are involved in three types of reactions: gasification of basal-carbon clusters, gasification of edge-carbon clusters, and conversion of the edge-carbon clusters to the basal-carbon clusters due to the thermal annealing. To accommodate the dilution of basal clusters, however, the NSC model is modified for the later stage of oxidation in this work. Master equations governing the numbers of three classes of carbon clusters, basal, edge and gasified, are formulated from stochastic population balance. The stochastic pathways of three different classes of carbon during oxidation, that is, their means and the fluctuations around these means, have been numerically simulated independently by the algorithm derived from the master equations, as well as by an event-driven Monte Carlo algorithm. Both algorithms have given rise to identical results.
Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine.
Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara
2016-07-01
Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir.
Multiple fields in stochastic inflation
Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Noorbala, Mahdiyar; Vennin, Vincent; Wands, David
2016-06-24
Stochastic effects in multi-field inflationary scenarios are investigated. A hierarchy of diffusion equations is derived, the solutions of which yield moments of the numbers of inflationary e-folds. Solving the resulting partial differential equations in multi-dimensional field space is more challenging than the single-field case. A few tractable examples are discussed, which show that the number of fields is, in general, a critical parameter. When more than two fields are present for instance, the probability to explore arbitrarily large-field regions of the potential, otherwise inaccessible to single-field dynamics, becomes non-zero. In some configurations, this gives rise to an infinite mean number of e-folds, regardless of the initial conditions. Another difference with respect to single-field scenarios is that multi-field stochastic effects can be large even at sub-Planckian energy. This opens interesting new possibilities for probing quantum effects in inflationary dynamics, since the moments of the numbers of e-folds can be used to calculate the distribution of primordial density perturbations in the stochastic-δN formalism.
Mechanical Autonomous Stochastic Heat Engine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Serra-Garcia, Marc; Foehr, André; Molerón, Miguel; Lydon, Joseph; Chong, Christopher; Daraio, Chiara
2016-07-01
Stochastic heat engines are devices that generate work from random thermal motion using a small number of highly fluctuating degrees of freedom. Proposals for such devices have existed for more than a century and include the Maxwell demon and the Feynman ratchet. Only recently have they been demonstrated experimentally, using, e.g., thermal cycles implemented in optical traps. However, recent experimental demonstrations of classical stochastic heat engines are nonautonomous, since they require an external control system that prescribes a heating and cooling cycle and consume more energy than they produce. We present a heat engine consisting of three coupled mechanical resonators (two ribbons and a cantilever) subject to a stochastic drive. The engine uses geometric nonlinearities in the resonating ribbons to autonomously convert a random excitation into a low-entropy, nonpassive oscillation of the cantilever. The engine presents the anomalous heat transport property of negative thermal conductivity, consisting in the ability to passively transfer energy from a cold reservoir to a hot reservoir.
The Michigan Binary Star Program
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindner, Rudi P.
2007-07-01
At the end of the nineteenth century, William J. Hussey and Robert G. Aitken, both at Lick Observatory, began a systematic search for unrecorded binary stars with the aid of the 12" and 36" refracting telescopes at Lick Observatory. Aitken's work (and book on binary stars) are well known, Hussey's contributions less so. In 1905 Hussey, a Michigan engineering graduate, returned to direct the Ann Arbor astronomy program, and immediately he began to design new instrumentation for the study of binary stars and to train potential observers. For a time, he spent six months a year at the La Plata Observatory, where he discovered a number of new pairs and decided upon a major southern hemisphere campaign. He spent a decade obtaining the lenses for a large refractor, through the vicissitudes of war and depression. Finally, he obtained a site in South Africa, a 26" refractor, and a small corps of observers, but he died in London en route to fulfill his dream. His right hand man, Richard Rossiter, established the observatory and spent the next thirty years discovering and measuring binary stars: his personal total is a record for the field. This talk is an account of the methods, results, and utility of the extraordinary binary star factory in the veldt.
Universal data-based method for reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Jingwen; Shen, Zhesi; Wang, Wen-Xu; Grebogi, Celso; Lai, Ying-Cheng
2017-03-01
To understand, predict, and control complex networked systems, a prerequisite is to reconstruct the network structure from observable data. Despite recent progress in network reconstruction, binary-state dynamics that are ubiquitous in nature, technology, and society still present an outstanding challenge in this field. Here we offer a framework for reconstructing complex networks with binary-state dynamics by developing a universal data-based linearization approach that is applicable to systems with linear, nonlinear, discontinuous, or stochastic dynamics governed by monotonic functions. The linearization procedure enables us to convert the network reconstruction into a sparse signal reconstruction problem that can be resolved through convex optimization. We demonstrate generally high reconstruction accuracy for a number of complex networks associated with distinct binary-state dynamics from using binary data contaminated by noise and missing data. Our framework is completely data driven, efficient, and robust, and does not require any a priori knowledge about the detailed dynamical process on the network. The framework represents a general paradigm for reconstructing, understanding, and exploiting complex networked systems with binary-state dynamics.
Titration of selected bases in benzene-acetonitrile binary solvent system.
Amirjahed, K; al-Khamis, K I
1980-10-01
The benzene-acetonitrile binary solvent system was used in the determination of the half-neutralization potentials (hnp) of selected bases varying widely in basicity (pKb). The solvent mixtures had specific dielectric constants (Dm). The hnp values of the bases determined in a solvent of a specific Dm value were related to the corresponding pKb values. The slopes of these linear relationships were related to Dm values. A certain mixture of the binary solvent system was selected, and successful differentiating titration of various base mixtures was demonstrated in this medium. The delta hnp/delta pK versus Dm data for acids were compared with those of bases in the benzene-acetonitrile binary solvent system. The resulting data on bases were compared with previously published data on acids, and the present report describes the behavior of acids and bases in the entire composition spectrum of the benzene-acetonitrile binary solvent system.
On some electrodynamic properties of binary pulsars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sironi, Lorenzo
2006-07-01
those ions, and I will examine three possibilities, comparing their respective predictions with the flux and power-law of the observed spectrum: they could come from the mass loss induced by the tidal heating caused by the strong gravitational fields of the two orbiting stars, or maybe they could fill the Goldreich-Julian magnetosphere as well as positrons and electrons, or they could even be extracted from the pulsar atmosphere which is continuously replenished by the evaporation of nuclei from the stellar surface, since the star is being heated by the flux of high energy leptons discussed above. The last hypothesis seems to be well confirmed by the observational constraints, even if we are not able to fully explain how to free the accelerated cosmic rays from the binary system and inject them in the interstellar medium; anyway, our qualitative approach could pave the way for further and more quantitative work on the electrodynamics of binary pulsars, in order to explain the details of the acceleration and escape of ions from such fascinating systems.
Network motif identification in stochastic networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Rui; Tu, Zhidong; Chen, Ting; Sun, Fengzhu
2006-06-01
Network motifs have been identified in a wide range of networks across many scientific disciplines and are suggested to be the basic building blocks of most complex networks. Nonetheless, many networks come with intrinsic and/or experimental uncertainties and should be treated as stochastic networks. The building blocks in these networks thus may also have stochastic properties. In this article, we study stochastic network motifs derived from families of mutually similar but not necessarily identical patterns of interconnections. We establish a finite mixture model for stochastic networks and develop an expectation-maximization algorithm for identifying stochastic network motifs. We apply this approach to the transcriptional regulatory networks of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as the protein-protein interaction networks of seven species, and identify several stochastic network motifs that are consistent with current biological knowledge. expectation-maximization algorithm | mixture model | transcriptional regulatory network | protein-protein interaction network
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dede, Christopher J.
1990-01-01
Claims and rebuttals that hypermedia (the associative, nonlinear interconnection of multimedia materials) is a fundamentally innovative means of thinking and communicating are described. This representational architecture has many advantages that make it a major advance over other media; however, it also has several intrinsic problems that severly limits its effectiveness as a medium. These advantages and limits in applications are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gange, Robert Allen (Inventor)
1977-01-01
A holographic recording medium comprising a conductive substrate, a photoconductive layer and an electrically alterable layer of a linear, low molecular weight hydrocarbon polymer has improved fatigue resistance. An acrylic barrier layer can be interposed between the photoconductive and electrically alterable layers.
Medium and small-scale analysis of financial data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nawroth, Andreas P.; Peinke, Joachim
2007-08-01
A stochastic analysis of financial data is presented. In particular we investigate how the statistics of log returns change with different time delays τ. The scale-dependent behaviour of financial data can be divided into two regions. The first time range, the small-timescale region (in the range of seconds) seems to be characterised by universal features. The second time range, the medium-timescale range from several minutes upwards can be characterised by a cascade process, which is given by a stochastic Markov process in the scale τ. A corresponding Fokker-Planck equation can be extracted from given data and provides a non-equilibrium thermodynamical description of the complexity of financial data.
Experience with parametric binary dissection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bokhari, Shahid H.
1993-01-01
Parametric Binary Dissection (PBD) is a new algorithm that can be used for partitioning graphs embedded in 2- or 3-dimensional space. It partitions explicitly on the basis of nodes + (lambda)x(edges cut), where lambda is the ratio of time to communicate over an edge to the time to compute at a node. The new algorithm is faster than the original binary dissection algorithm and attempts to obtain better partitions than the older algorithm, which only takes nodes into account. The performance of parametric dissection with plain binary dissection on 3 large unstructured 3-d meshes obtained from computational fluid dynamics and on 2 random graphs were compared. It was showm that the new algorithm can usually yield partitions that are substantially superior, but that its performance is heavily dependent on the input data.
The stochastic modeling of the short-time variations of the galactic cosmic rays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wawrzynczak, A.; Modzelewska, R.
2016-08-01
We present the stochastic model of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles transport in the heliosphere. The model is created based on the numerical solution of the Parker transport equation (PTE) describing the non-stationary transport of charged particles in the turbulent medium. We present the numerical schemes for the strong order integration of the set of the stochastic differential equations (SDEs) corresponding to the non-stationary PTE. Among the employed methods are the strong order Euler-Maruyama, Milstein and stochastic Runge- Kutta methods. We perform the selection of the method resulting in the highest agreement of the model of the 27-day variation of the GCR intensity with the experimental observations.
Stochastic investigation of two-dimensional cross sections of rocks based on the climacogram
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalamioti, Anna; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Tzouka, Katerina; Lerias, Eleutherios; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris
2016-04-01
The statistical properties of soil and rock formations are essential for the characterization of the porous medium geological structure as well as for the prediction of its transport properties in groundwater modelling. We investigate two-dimensional cross sections of rocks in terms of stochastic structure of its morphology quantified by the climacogram (i.e., variance of the averaged process vs. scale). The analysis is based both in microscale and macroscale data, specifically from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) pictures and from field photos, respectively. We identify and quantify the stochastic properties with emphasis on the large scale type of decay (exponentially or power type, else known as Hurst-Kolmogorov behaviour). Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.
Stochastic Vorticity and Associated Filtering Theory
Amirdjanova, A.; Kallianpur, G.
2002-12-19
The focus of this work is on a two-dimensional stochastic vorticity equation for an incompressible homogeneous viscous fluid. We consider a signed measure-valued stochastic partial differential equation for a vorticity process based on the Skorohod-Ito evolution of a system of N randomly moving point vortices. A nonlinear filtering problem associated with the evolution of the vorticity is considered and a corresponding Fujisaki-Kallianpur-Kunita stochastic differential equation for the optimal filter is derived.
Applications of stochastic optimization, Task 4
1994-12-01
This report illustrates the power of the new stochastic optimization and stochastic programming capabilities developed around the ASPEN simulator in solving various types of design and analysis problems for advanced energy systems. A case study is presented for the Lurgi air-blown dry ash gasifier IGCC system. In addition the stochastic optimization capability can also be used for off-line quality control. The methodology is presented in the context of a simple gas turbine combustor flowsheet.
Stochastic Linear Quadratic Optimal Control Problems
Chen, S.; Yong, J.
2001-07-01
This paper is concerned with the stochastic linear quadratic optimal control problem (LQ problem, for short) for which the coefficients are allowed to be random and the cost functional is allowed to have a negative weight on the square of the control variable. Some intrinsic relations among the LQ problem, the stochastic maximum principle, and the (linear) forward-backward stochastic differential equations are established. Some results involving Riccati equation are discussed as well.
Stochastic Blockmodels with Growing Number of Classes
2011-01-01
Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS stochastic blockmodel, logit model, network confidence bounds David...simulations verifying the conditions sufficient for our results, and conclude by fitting a logit parameterization of a stochastic blockmodel with...assignment. We provide simulations verifying the conditions sufficient for our results, and conclude by fitting a logit parameterization of a stochastic
X-Shooter Medium Resolution Brown Dwarfs Library
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manjavacas, E.; Goldman, B.; Alcala, J. M.; Bonnefoy, Mickael; Allard, F.; Smart, R. L.; Bejar, V. J. S.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.; Henning, T.; Bouy, H.
2015-01-01
} We obtain medium-resolution spectra in the optical (550-1000 nm, R˜5400) and the near-infrared (1000-2500 nm, R˜3300) using the Wideband ultraviolet-infrared single target spectrograph (X-Shooter) at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). Our sample is compound of 22 brown dwarfs binary candidates with spectral types between L1 and T7. We aim to empirically confirm or refute the binarity of our candidates, comparing them to spectral templates and to other brown dwarfs in a color-magnitude diagram, for targets that have published parallaxes. } We use X-shooter at the VLT to obtain medium resolution spectra of the targets. We develop a slightly different analysis depending of the type of binaries we search for. To find L plus T brown dwarf binaries candidates, we comput spectral indices to select L-brown dwarfs plus T-brown dwarf binaries, and then we compare them to single and composite template spectra. To find potential L plus L or T plus T brown dwarf binaries, we first simulate their spectra creating synthetic binaries using combination of single template spectra. Then we compare them to our set of spectral libraries and composite of them to test if our method is able to find these binaries. } Using spectral indices, we select four possible candidates to be combination of L plus T brown dwarfs: SIMP 0136 662+0933473, 2MASSI J0423485-041403 (T0, known binary), DENIS-P J0255.0-4700 and 2MASS J13411160-3052505 We compare these candidates to single brown dwarf template spectra and combinations of them, and we select the best matches. All candidates beside SIMP 0136 662+0933473 have decent matches to composite of two single template spectra. DENIS-P J0255.0-4700 have also good agreements to several late L and early T single template spectra. To find L plus L or T plus T brown dwarfs candidates, test the comparison to templates method use before to find L plus T brown dwarf binaries. The test consist on finding synthetic L plus L and T plus T binaries by comparing with
Optical Variability Signatures from Massive Black Hole Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Frank, Koby Alexander; Lidz, Adam
2017-01-01
The hierarchical merging of dark matter halos and their associated galaxies should lead to a population of supermassive black hole binaries (MBHBs). We consider plausible optical variability signatures from MBHBs at sub-parsec separations and search for these using data from the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey (CRTS). Specifically, we model the impact of relativistic Doppler beaming on the accretion disk emission from the less massive, secondary black hole. We explore whether this Doppler modulation may be separated from other sources of stochastic variability in the accretion flow around the MBHBs, which we describe as a damped random walk (DRW). In the simple case of a circular orbit, relativistic beaming leads to a series of broad peaks — located at multiples of the orbital frequency — in the fluctuation power spectrum. We extend our analysis to the case of elliptical orbits and discuss the effect of beaming on the flux power spectrum and auto-correlation function using simulations. We present a code to model an observed light curve as a stochastic DRW-type time series modulated by relativistic beaming and apply the code to CRTS data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maiti, Sumit Kumar; Roy, Sankar Kumar
2016-05-01
In this paper, a Multi-Choice Stochastic Bi-Level Programming Problem (MCSBLPP) is considered where all the parameters of constraints are followed by normal distribution. The cost coefficients of the objective functions are multi-choice types. At first, all the probabilistic constraints are transformed into deterministic constraints using stochastic programming approach. Further, a general transformation technique with the help of binary variables is used to transform the multi-choice type cost coefficients of the objective functions of Decision Makers(DMs). Then the transformed problem is considered as a deterministic multi-choice bi-level programming problem. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the usefulness of the paper.
Jiménez-Hernández, Hugo; González-Barbosa, Jose-Joel; Garcia-Ramírez, Teresa
2010-01-01
This investigation demonstrates an unsupervised approach for modeling traffic flow and detecting abnormal vehicle behaviors at intersections. In the first stage, the approach reveals and records the different states of the system. These states are the result of coding and grouping the historical motion of vehicles as long binary strings. In the second stage, using sequences of the recorded states, a stochastic graph model based on a Markovian approach is built. A behavior is labeled abnormal when current motion pattern cannot be recognized as any state of the system or a particular sequence of states cannot be parsed with the stochastic model. The approach is tested with several sequences of images acquired from a vehicular intersection where the traffic flow and duration used in connection with the traffic lights are continuously changed throughout the day. Finally, the low complexity and the flexibility of the approach make it reliable for use in real time systems. PMID:22163616
Protocols for quantum binary voting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thapliyal, Kishore; Sharma, Rishi Dutt; Pathak, Anirban
Two new protocols for quantum binary voting are proposed. One of the proposed protocols is designed using a standard scheme for controlled deterministic secure quantum communication (CDSQC), and the other one is designed using the idea of quantum cryptographic switch, which uses a technique known as permutation of particles. A few possible alternative approaches to accomplish the same task (quantum binary voting) have also been discussed. Security of the proposed protocols is analyzed. Further, the efficiencies of the proposed protocols are computed, and are compared with that of the existing protocols. The comparison has established that the proposed protocols are more efficient than the existing protocols.
Continuous Variable Teleportation Within Stochastic Electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmichael, H. J.; Nha, Hyunchul
2004-12-01
Stochastic electrodynamics provides a local realistic interpretation of the continuous variable teleportation of coherent light. Time-domain simulations illustrate broadband features of the teleportation process.
Longterm lightcurves of X-ray binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clarkson, William
The X-ray Binaries (XRB) consist of a compact object and a stellar companion, which undergoes large-scale mass-loss to the compact object by virtue of the tight ( P orb usually hours-days) orbit, producing an accretion disk surrounding the compact object. The liberation of gravitational potential energy powers exotic high-energy phenomena, indeed the resulting accretion/ outflow process is among the most efficient energy-conversion machines in the universe. The Burst And Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) and RXTE All Sky Monitor (ASM) have provided remarkable X-ray lightcurves above 1.3keV for the entire sky, at near-continuous coverage, for intervals of 9 and 7 years respectively (with ~3 years' overlap). With an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity compared to previous survey instruments, these instruments have provided new insight into the high-energy behaviour of XRBs on timescales of tens to thousands of binary orbits. This thesis describes detailed examination of the long-term X-ray lightcurves of the neutron star XRB X2127+119, SMC X-1, Her X- 1, LMC X-4, Cyg X-2 and the as yet unclassified Circinus X-1, and for Cir X-1, complementary observations in the IR band. Chapters 1 & 2 introduce X-ray Binaries in general and longterm periodicities in particular. Chapter 3 introduces the longterm datasets around which this work is based, and the chosen methods of analysis of these datasets. Chapter 4 examines the burst history of the XRB X2127+119, suggesting three possible interpretations of the apparently contradictory X-ray emission from this system, including a possible confusion of two spatially distinct sources (which was later vindicated by high-resolution imaging). Chapters 5 and 6 describe the characterisation of accretion disk warping, providing observational verification of the prevailing theoretical framework for such disk-warps. Chapters 7 & 8 examine the enigmatic XRB Circinus X-1 with high-resolution IR spectroscopy (chapter 7) and the RXTE
Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael
2013-01-01
Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool…
BINARY YORP EFFECT AND EVOLUTION OF BINARY ASTEROIDS
Steinberg, Elad; Sari, Re'em
2011-02-15
The rotation states of kilometer-sized near-Earth asteroids are known to be affected by the Yarkevsky O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect. In a related effect, binary YORP (BYORP), the orbital properties of a binary asteroid evolve under a radiation effect mostly acting on a tidally locked secondary. The BYORP effect can alter the orbital elements over {approx}10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} years for a D{sub p} = 2 km primary with a D{sub s} = 0.4 km secondary at 1 AU. It can either separate the binary components or cause them to collide. In this paper, we devise a simple approach to calculate the YORP effect on asteroids and the BYORP effect on binaries including J{sub 2} effects due to primary oblateness and the Sun. We apply this to asteroids with known shapes as well as a set of randomly generated bodies with various degrees of smoothness. We find a strong correlation between the strengths of an asteroid's YORP and BYORP effects. Therefore, statistical knowledge of one could be used to estimate the effect of the other. We show that the action of BYORP preferentially shrinks rather than expands the binary orbit and that YORP preferentially slows down asteroids. This conclusion holds for the two extremes of thermal conductivities studied in this work and the assumption that the asteroid reaches a stable point, but may break down for moderate thermal conductivity. The YORP and BYORP effects are shown to be smaller than could be naively expected due to near cancellation of the effects at small scales. Taking this near cancellation into account, a simple order-of-magnitude estimate of the YORP and BYORP effects as a function of the sizes and smoothness of the bodies is calculated. Finally, we provide a simple proof showing that there is no secular effect due to absorption of radiation in BYORP.
KEPLER ECLIPSING BINARIES WITH STELLAR COMPANIONS
Gies, D. R.; Matson, R. A.; Guo, Z.; Lester, K. V.; Orosz, J. A.; Peters, G. J. E-mail: rmatson@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: lester@chara.gsu.edu E-mail: gjpeters@mucen.usc.edu
2015-12-15
Many short-period binary stars have distant orbiting companions that have played a role in driving the binary components into close separation. Indirect detection of a tertiary star is possible by measuring apparent changes in eclipse times of eclipsing binaries as the binary orbits the common center of mass. Here we present an analysis of the eclipse timings of 41 eclipsing binaries observed throughout the NASA Kepler mission of long duration and precise photometry. This subset of binaries is characterized by relatively deep and frequent eclipses of both stellar components. We present preliminary orbital elements for seven probable triple stars among this sample, and we discuss apparent period changes in seven additional eclipsing binaries that may be related to motion about a tertiary in a long period orbit. The results will be used in ongoing investigations of the spectra and light curves of these binaries for further evidence of the presence of third stars.
Constraining Modified Theories of Gravity with Gravitational-Wave Stochastic Backgrounds.
Maselli, Andrea; Marassi, Stefania; Ferrari, Valeria; Kokkotas, Kostas; Schneider, Raffaella
2016-08-26
The direct discovery of gravitational waves has finally opened a new observational window on our Universe, suggesting that the population of coalescing binary black holes is larger than previously expected. These sources produce an unresolved background of gravitational waves, potentially observable by ground-based interferometers. In this Letter we investigate how modified theories of gravity, modeled using the parametrized post-Einsteinian formalism, affect the expected signal, and analyze the detectability of the resulting stochastic background by current and future ground-based interferometers. We find the constraints that Advanced LIGO would be able to set on modified theories, showing that they may significantly improve the current bounds obtained from astrophysical observations of binary pulsars.
Elongated optical bottle beams generated by composite binary axicons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porfirev, A. P.; Skidanov, R. V.
2016-04-01
We provide analytical, numerical and experimental study of the possibility of forming elongated optical bottle beams (OBBs) using composite binary phase axicons. In this case, the OBB is generated by the superposition of Bessel beams in the near-field region on the axicon. To generate the OBB experimentally, we utilized a spatial light modulator. The experimental results are qualitatively consistent with the results of numerical simulations performed using Fresnel transform. Such type of optical trap can be applied in many applications of microbiology, micromechanics and meteorology to manipulate micro- and nanoobjects in liquid or gaseous medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Ming
2015-10-01
A theory of 2-stage acceleration of Galactic cosmic rays in supernova remnants is proposed. The first stage is accomplished by the supernova shock front, where a power-law spectrum is established up to a certain cutoff energy. It is followed by stochastic acceleration with compressible waves/turbulence in the downstream medium. With a broad \\propto {k}-2 spectrum for the compressible plasma fluctuations, the rate of stochastic acceleration is constant over a wide range of particle momentum. In this case, the stochastic acceleration process extends the power-law spectrum cutoff energy of Galactic cosmic rays to the knee without changing the spectral slope. This situation happens as long as the rate of stochastic acceleration is faster than 1/5 of the adiabatic cooling rate. A steeper spectrum of compressible plasma fluctuations that concentrate their power in long wavelengths will accelerate cosmic rays to the knee with a small bump before its cutoff in the comic-ray energy spectrum. This theory does not require a strong amplification of the magnetic field in the upstream interstellar medium in order to accelerate cosmic rays to the knee energy.
Liquid chromatographic extraction medium
Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.
1994-09-13
A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.
Liquid chromatographic extraction medium
Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.
1994-01-01
A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.
Stochastic solution to quantum dynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
John, Sarah; Wilson, John W.
1994-01-01
The quantum Liouville equation in the Wigner representation is solved numerically by using Monte Carlo methods. For incremental time steps, the propagation is implemented as a classical evolution in phase space modified by a quantum correction. The correction, which is a momentum jump function, is simulated in the quasi-classical approximation via a stochastic process. The technique, which is developed and validated in two- and three- dimensional momentum space, extends an earlier one-dimensional work. Also, by developing a new algorithm, the application to bound state motion in an anharmonic quartic potential shows better agreement with exact solutions in two-dimensional phase space.
Hamilton's principle in stochastic mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavon, Michele
1995-12-01
In this paper we establish three variational principles that provide new foundations for Nelson's stochastic mechanics in the case of nonrelativistic particles without spin. The resulting variational picture is much richer and of a different nature with respect to the one previously considered in the literature. We first develop two stochastic variational principles whose Hamilton-Jacobi-like equations are precisely the two coupled partial differential equations that are obtained from the Schrödinger equation (Madelung equations). The two problems are zero-sum, noncooperative, stochastic differential games that are familiar in the control theory literature. They are solved here by means of a new, absolutely elementary method based on Lagrange functionals. For both games the saddle-point equilibrium solution is given by the Nelson's process and the optimal controls for the two competing players are precisely Nelson's current velocity v and osmotic velocity u, respectively. The first variational principle includes as special cases both the Guerra-Morato variational principle [Phys. Rev. D 27, 1774 (1983)] and Schrödinger original variational derivation of the time-independent equation. It also reduces to the classical least action principle when the intensity of the underlying noise tends to zero. It appears as a saddle-point action principle. In the second variational principle the action is simply the difference between the initial and final configurational entropy. It is therefore a saddle-point entropy production principle. From the variational principles it follows, in particular, that both v(x,t) and u(x,t) are gradients of appropriate principal functions. In the variational principles, the role of the background noise has the intuitive meaning of attempting to contrast the more classical mechanical features of the system by trying to maximize the action in the first principle and by trying to increase the entropy in the second. Combining the two variational
Resolution for Stochastic Boolean Satisfiability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teige, Tino; Fränzle, Martin
The stochastic Boolean satisfiability (SSAT) problem was introduced by Papadimitriou in 1985 by adding a probabilistic model of uncertainty to propositional satisfiability through randomized quantification. SSAT has many applications, e.g., in probabilistic planning and, more recently by integrating arithmetic, in probabilistic model checking. In this paper, we first present a new result on the computational complexity of SSAT: SSAT remains PSPACE-complete even for its restriction to 2CNF. Second, we propose a sound and complete resolution calculus for SSAT complementing the classical backtracking search algorithms.
Stochastic elimination of cancer cells.
Michor, Franziska; Nowak, Martin A; Frank, Steven A; Iwasa, Yoh
2003-01-01
Tissues of multicellular organisms consist of stem cells and differentiated cells. Stem cells divide to produce new stem cells or differentiated cells. Differentiated cells divide to produce new differentiated cells. We show that such a tissue design can reduce the rate of fixation of mutations that increase the net proliferation rate of cells. It has, however, no consequence for the rate of fixation of neutral mutations. We calculate the optimum relative abundance of stem cells that minimizes the rate of generating cancer cells. There is a critical fraction of stem cell divisions that is required for a stochastic elimination ('wash out') of cancer cells. PMID:14561289
Stochastic Models of Human Errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elshamy, Maged; Elliott, Dawn M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Humans play an important role in the overall reliability of engineering systems. More often accidents and systems failure are traced to human errors. Therefore, in order to have meaningful system risk analysis, the reliability of the human element must be taken into consideration. Describing the human error process by mathematical models is a key to analyzing contributing factors. Therefore, the objective of this research effort is to establish stochastic models substantiated by sound theoretic foundation to address the occurrence of human errors in the processing of the space shuttle.
Stochastic thermodynamics of information processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso Barato, Andre
2015-03-01
We consider two recent advancements on theoretical aspects of thermodynamics of information processing. First we show that the theory of stochastic thermodynamics can be generalized to include information reservoirs. These reservoirs can be seen as a sequence of bits which has its Shannon entropy changed due to the interaction with the system. Second we discuss bipartite systems, which provide a convenient description of Maxwell's demon. Analyzing a special class of bipartite systems we show that they can be used to study cellular information processing, allowing for the definition of an entropic rate that quantifies how much a cell learns about a fluctuating external environment and that is bounded by the thermodynamic entropy production.
Molecular Motors and Stochastic Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lipowsky, Reinhard
The behavior of single molecular motors such as kinesin or myosin V, which move on linear filaments, involves a nontrivial coupling between the biochemical motor cycle and the stochastic movement. This coupling can be studied in the framework of nonuniform ratchet models which are characterized by spatially localized transition rates between the different internal states of the motor. These models can be classified according to their functional relationships between the motor velocity and the concentration of the fuel molecules. The simplest such relationship applies to two subclasses of models for dimeric kinesin and agrees with experimental observations on this molecular motor.
Bifurcation and Optimal Stochastic Control.
1982-03-01
as soon as luX InW w’(0) n L nis boundeI. To sir.iplity the notations, we denote by u = 1 . Without loss of n generality we may assume that c l...Stochastic Control. F O R M I II I • Il I i ,iii i, DD I JAP7 1473 EDITION OF I NOV S IS OSOLE’TE UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE i(,en bot. EntereJ) DAT FILMEI DIC
Stochastic Gain in Population Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Traulsen, Arne; Röhl, Torsten; Schuster, Heinz Georg
2004-07-01
We introduce an extension of the usual replicator dynamics to adaptive learning rates. We show that a population with a dynamic learning rate can gain an increased average payoff in transient phases and can also exploit external noise, leading the system away from the Nash equilibrium, in a resonancelike fashion. The payoff versus noise curve resembles the signal to noise ratio curve in stochastic resonance. Seen in this broad context, we introduce another mechanism that exploits fluctuations in order to improve properties of the system. Such a mechanism could be of particular interest in economic systems.
Sequential binary collision ionization mechanisms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Boeyen, R. W.; Watanabe, N.; Doering, J. P.; Moore, J. H.; Coplan, M. A.; Cooper, J. W.
2004-03-01
Fully differential cross sections for the electron-impact ionization of the magnesium 3s orbital have been measured in a high-momentum-transfer regime wherein the ionization mechanisms can be accurately described by simple binary collision models. Measurements where performed at incident-electron energies from 400 to 3000 eV, ejected-electron energies of 62 eV, scattering angle of 20 °, and momentum transfers of 2 to 5 a.u. In the out-of-plane geometry of the experiment the cross section is observed far off the Bethe ridge. Both first- and second-order processes can be clearly distinguished as previously observed by Murray et al [Ref. 1] and Schulz et al [Ref. 2]. Owing to the relatively large momentum of the ejected electron, the second order processes can be modeled as sequential binary collisions involving a binary elastic collision between the incident electron and ionic core and a binary knock-out collision between the incident electron and target electron. At low incident-electron energies the cross section for both first and second order processes are comparable, while at high incident energies second-order processes dominate. *Supported by NSF under grant PHY-99-87870. [1] A. J. Murray, M. B. J. Woolf, and F. H. Read J. Phys. B 25, 3021 (1992). [2] M. Schulz, R. Moshammer, D. Fischer, H. Kollmus, D. H. Madison. S. Jones and J. Ullrich, Nature 422, 48 (2003).
Generating Constant Weight Binary Codes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Knight, D.G.
2008-01-01
The determination of bounds for A(n, d, w), the maximum possible number of binary vectors of length n, weight w, and pairwise Hamming distance no less than d, is a classic problem in coding theory. Such sets of vectors have many applications. A description is given of how the problem can be used in a first-year undergraduate computational…
Zapatrin, R.R.
1992-02-01
Given a finite ortholattice L, the *-semigroup is explicitly built whose annihilator ortholattice is isomorphic to L. Thus, it is shown that any finite quantum logic is the additive part of a binary logic. Some areas of possible applications are outlined. 7 refs.
A Galactic Binary Detection Pipeline
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Littenberg, Tyson B.
2011-01-01
The Galaxy is suspected to contain hundreds of millions of binary white dwarf systems, a large fraction of which will have sufficiently small orbital period to emit gravitational radiation in band for space-based gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). LISA's main science goal is the detection of cosmological events (supermassive black hole mergers, etc.) however the gravitational signal from the galaxy will be the dominant contribution to the data - including instrumental noise over approximately two decades in frequency. The catalogue of detectable binary systems will serve as an unparalleled means of studying the Galaxy. Furthermore, to maximize the scientific return from the mission, the data must be "cleansed" of the galactic foreground. We will present an algorithm that can accurately resolve and subtract 2:: 10000 of these sources from simulated data supplied by the Mock LISA Data Challenge Task Force. Using the time evolution of the gravitational wave frequency, we will reconstruct the position of the recovered binaries and show how LISA will sample the entire compact binary population in the Galaxy.
Dynamically orthogonal field equations for stochastic flows and particle dynamics
2011-02-01
where uncertainty ‘lives’ as well as a system of Stochastic Di erential Equations that de nes how the uncertainty evolves in the time varying stochastic ... stochastic dynamical component that are both time and space dependent, we derive a system of field equations consisting of a Partial Differential Equation...a system of Stochastic Differential Equations that defines how the stochasticity evolves in the time varying stochastic subspace. These new
A non-stochastic iterative computational method to model light propagation in turbid media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McIntyre, Thomas J.; Zemp, Roger J.
2015-03-01
Monte Carlo models are widely used to model light transport in turbid media, however their results implicitly contain stochastic variations. These fluctuations are not ideal, especially for inverse problems where Jacobian matrix errors can lead to large uncertainties upon matrix inversion. Yet Monte Carlo approaches are more computationally favorable than solving the full Radiative Transport Equation. Here, a non-stochastic computational method of estimating fluence distributions in turbid media is proposed, which is called the Non-Stochastic Propagation by Iterative Radiance Evaluation method (NSPIRE). Rather than using stochastic means to determine a random walk for each photon packet, the propagation of light from any element to all other elements in a grid is modelled simultaneously. For locally homogeneous anisotropic turbid media, the matrices used to represent scattering and projection are shown to be block Toeplitz, which leads to computational simplifications via convolution operators. To evaluate the accuracy of the algorithm, 2D simulations were done and compared against Monte Carlo models for the cases of an isotropic point source and a pencil beam incident on a semi-infinite turbid medium. The model was shown to have a mean percent error less than 2%. The algorithm represents a new paradigm in radiative transport modelling and may offer a non-stochastic alternative to modeling light transport in anisotropic scattering media for applications where the diffusion approximation is insufficient.
Coevolution of binaries and circumbinary gaseous discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleming, David P.; Quinn, Thomas R.
2017-01-01
The recent discoveries of circumbinary planets by Kepler raise questions for contemporary planet formation models. Understanding how these planets form requires characterizing their formation environment, the circumbinary protoplanetary disc and how the disc and binary interact and change as a result. The central binary excites resonances in the surrounding protoplanetary disc which drive evolution in both the binary orbital elements and in the disc. To probe how these interactions impact binary eccentricity and disc structure evolution, N-body smooth particle hydrodynamics simulations of gaseous protoplanetary discs surrounding binaries based on Kepler 38 were run for 104 binary periods for several initial binary eccentricities. We find that nearly circular binaries weakly couple to the disc via a parametric instability and excite disc eccentricity growth. Eccentric binaries strongly couple to the disc causing eccentricity growth for both the disc and binary. Discs around sufficiently eccentric binaries which strongly couple to the disc develop an m = 1 spiral wave launched from the 1:3 eccentric outer Lindblad resonance which corresponds to an alignment of gas particle longitude of periastrons. All systems display binary semimajor axis decay due to dissipation from the viscous disc.
Nonlinear Phase Distortion in a Ti:Sapphire Optical Amplifier for Optical Stochastic Cooling
Andorf, Matthew; Lebedev, Valeri; Piot, Philippe; Ruan, Jinhao
2016-06-01
Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) has been considered for future high-luminosity colliders as it offers much faster cooling time in comparison to the micro-wave stochastic cooling. The OSC technique relies on collecting and amplifying a broadband optical signal from a pickup undulator and feeding the amplified signal back to the beam. It creates a corrective kick in a kicker undulator. Owing to its superb gain qualities and broadband amplification features, Titanium:Sapphire medium has been considered as a gain medium for the optical amplifier (OA) needed in the OSC*. A limiting factor for any OA used in OSC is the possibility of nonlinear phase distortions. In this paper we experimentally measure phase distortions by inserting a single-pass OA into one leg of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The measurement results are used to estimate the reduction of the corrective kick a particle would receive due to these phase distortions in the kicker undulator.
Zhu, Yingbin; Zhao, Daomu
2008-08-01
On the basis of the generalized diffraction integral formula for an ABCD optical system in the spatial domain, a propagation law for the generalized Stokes parameters of a stochastic electromagnetic beam passing through an ABCD optical system is obtained. We describe the Stokes parameters of the source as linear combinations of the elements of the cross-spectral density matrix, and study the changes in the spectral degree of polarization and in the state of the polarization ellipse of a stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model beam propagating through a gradient-index fiber with the help of generalized Stokes parameters and the cross-spectral density matrix. The medium has significant effect on the change of the spectral degree of polarization. However, when the correlation coefficients of the source satisfy the relation delta(xx)=delta(yy)=delta(xy)=delta(yx), the medium does not influence the spectral degree of polarization.
Bayesian data assimilation for stochastic multiscale models of transport in porous media.
Marzouk, Youssef M.; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Parno, Matthew; Ray, Jaideep; Lefantzi, Sophia; Salazar, Luke; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Klise, Katherine A.
2011-10-01
We investigate Bayesian techniques that can be used to reconstruct field variables from partial observations. In particular, we target fields that exhibit spatial structures with a large spectrum of lengthscales. Contemporary methods typically describe the field on a grid and estimate structures which can be resolved by it. In contrast, we address the reconstruction of grid-resolved structures as well as estimation of statistical summaries of subgrid structures, which are smaller than the grid resolution. We perform this in two different ways (a) via a physical (phenomenological), parameterized subgrid model that summarizes the impact of the unresolved scales at the coarse level and (b) via multiscale finite elements, where specially designed prolongation and restriction operators establish the interscale link between the same problem defined on a coarse and fine mesh. The estimation problem is posed as a Bayesian inverse problem. Dimensionality reduction is performed by projecting the field to be inferred on a suitable orthogonal basis set, viz. the Karhunen-Loeve expansion of a multiGaussian. We first demonstrate our techniques on the reconstruction of a binary medium consisting of a matrix with embedded inclusions, which are too small to be grid-resolved. The reconstruction is performed using an adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo method. We find that the posterior distributions of the inferred parameters are approximately Gaussian. We exploit this finding to reconstruct a permeability field with long, but narrow embedded fractures (which are too fine to be grid-resolved) using scalable ensemble Kalman filters; this also allows us to address larger grids. Ensemble Kalman filtering is then used to estimate the values of hydraulic conductivity and specific yield in a model of the High Plains Aquifer in Kansas. Strong conditioning of the spatial structure of the parameters and the non-linear aspects of the water table aquifer create difficulty for the ensemble Kalman
Hunting for brown dwarf binaries and testing atmospheric models with X-Shooter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manjavacas, E.; Goldman, B.; Alcalá, J. M.; Zapatero-Osorio, M. R.; Béjar, V. J. S.; Homeier, D.; Bonnefoy, M.; Smart, R. L.; Henning, T.; Allard, F.
2016-01-01
The determination of the brown dwarf binary fraction may contribute to the understanding of the substellar formation mechanisms. Unresolved brown dwarf binaries may be revealed through their peculiar spectra or the discrepancy between optical and near-infrared spectral-type classification. We obtained medium-resolution spectra of 22 brown dwarfs with these characteristics using the X-Shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. We aimed to identify brown dwarf binary candidates, and to test if the BT-Settl 2014 atmospheric models reproduce their observed spectra. To find binaries spanning the L-T boundary, we used spectral indices and compared the spectra of the selected candidates to single spectra and synthetic binary spectra. We used synthetic binary spectra with components of same spectral type to determine as well the sensitivity of the method to this class of binaries. We identified three candidates to be combination of L plus T brown dwarfs. We are not able to identify binaries with components of similar spectral type. In our sample, we measured minimum binary fraction of 9.1^{+9.9}_{-3.0} per cent. From the best fit of the BT-Settl models 2014 to the observed spectra, we derived the atmospheric parameters for the single objects. The BT-Settl models were able to reproduce the majority of the spectral energy distributions from our objects, and the variation of the equivalent width of the Rb I (794.8 nm) and Cs I (852.0 nm) lines with the spectral type. None the less, these models did not reproduce the evolution of the equivalent widths of the Na I (818.3 and 819.5 nm) and K I (1253 nm) lines with the spectral type.
From Complex to Simple: Interdisciplinary Stochastic Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mazilu, D. A.; Zamora, G.; Mazilu, I.
2012-01-01
We present two simple, one-dimensional, stochastic models that lead to a qualitative understanding of very complex systems from biology, nanoscience and social sciences. The first model explains the complicated dynamics of microtubules, stochastic cellular highways. Using the theory of random walks in one dimension, we find analytical expressions…
Stochastic Modeling of Laminar-Turbulent Transition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Choudhari, Meelan
2002-01-01
Stochastic versions of stability equations are developed in order to develop integrated models of transition and turbulence and to understand the effects of uncertain initial conditions on disturbance growth. Stochastic forms of the resonant triad equations, a high Reynolds number asymptotic theory, and the parabolized stability equations are developed.
Variational principles for stochastic fluid dynamics
Holm, Darryl D.
2015-01-01
This paper derives stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) for fluid dynamics from a stochastic variational principle (SVP). The paper proceeds by taking variations in the SVP to derive stochastic Stratonovich fluid equations; writing their Itô representation; and then investigating the properties of these stochastic fluid models in comparison with each other, and with the corresponding deterministic fluid models. The circulation properties of the stochastic Stratonovich fluid equations are found to closely mimic those of the deterministic ideal fluid models. As with deterministic ideal flows, motion along the stochastic Stratonovich paths also preserves the helicity of the vortex field lines in incompressible stochastic flows. However, these Stratonovich properties are not apparent in the equivalent Itô representation, because they are disguised by the quadratic covariation drift term arising in the Stratonovich to Itô transformation. This term is a geometric generalization of the quadratic covariation drift term already found for scalar densities in Stratonovich's famous 1966 paper. The paper also derives motion equations for two examples of stochastic geophysical fluid dynamics; namely, the Euler–Boussinesq and quasi-geostropic approximations. PMID:27547083
Variational principles for stochastic fluid dynamics.
Holm, Darryl D
2015-04-08
This paper derives stochastic partial differential equations (SPDEs) for fluid dynamics from a stochastic variational principle (SVP). The paper proceeds by taking variations in the SVP to derive stochastic Stratonovich fluid equations; writing their Itô representation; and then investigating the properties of these stochastic fluid models in comparison with each other, and with the corresponding deterministic fluid models. The circulation properties of the stochastic Stratonovich fluid equations are found to closely mimic those of the deterministic ideal fluid models. As with deterministic ideal flows, motion along the stochastic Stratonovich paths also preserves the helicity of the vortex field lines in incompressible stochastic flows. However, these Stratonovich properties are not apparent in the equivalent Itô representation, because they are disguised by the quadratic covariation drift term arising in the Stratonovich to Itô transformation. This term is a geometric generalization of the quadratic covariation drift term already found for scalar densities in Stratonovich's famous 1966 paper. The paper also derives motion equations for two examples of stochastic geophysical fluid dynamics; namely, the Euler-Boussinesq and quasi-geostropic approximations.
Stochastic and Coherence Resonance in Hippocampal Neurons
2007-11-02
decreases the signal to noise ratio of subthreshold synaptic inputs. Keywords - Hippocampus , neurons, stochastic resonance I. INTRODUCTION... subthreshold signals in the hippocampus ,” J. Neurophysiology , in press. [3] J. Collins C.C. Chow and T.T. Imboff, “Stochastic resonance without...nonlinear systems whereby the introduction of noise enhances the detection of subthreshold signals. Both computer simulations and experimental
Entropy production along a stochastic trajectory and an integral fluctuation theorem.
Seifert, Udo
2005-07-22
For stochastic nonequilibrium dynamics like a Langevin equation for a colloidal particle or a master equation for discrete states, entropy production along a single trajectory is studied. It involves both genuine particle entropy and entropy production in the surrounding medium. The integrated sum of both Delatas(tot) is shown to obey a fluctuation theorem (exp([-Deltas(tot) = 1 for arbitrary initial conditions and arbitrary time-dependent driving over a finite time interval.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huerta, E. A.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Gair, Jonathan R.; Taylor, Stephen R.
2015-09-01
We present a detailed analysis of the expected signal-to-noise ratios of supermassive black hole binaries on eccentric orbits observed by pulsar timing arrays. We derive several analytical relations that extend the results of Peters and Mathews [Phys. Rev. D 131, 435 (1963)] to quantify the impact of eccentricity in the detection of single resolvable binaries in the pulsar timing array band. We present ready-to-use expressions to compute the increase/loss in signal-to-noise ratio of eccentric single resolvable sources whose dominant harmonic is located in the low/high frequency sensitivity regime of pulsar timing arrays. Building upon the work of Phinney (arXiv:astro-ph/0108028) and Enoki and Nagashima [Prog. Theor. Phys. 117, 241 (2007)], we present an analytical framework that enables the construction of rapid spectra for a stochastic gravitational-wave background generated by a cosmological population of eccentric sources. We confirm previous findings which indicate that, relative to a population of quasicircular binaries, the strain of a stochastic, isotropic gravitational-wave background generated by a cosmological population of eccentric binaries will be suppressed in the frequency band of pulsar timing arrays. We quantify this effect in terms of signal-to-noise ratios in a pulsar timing array.
RHIC stochastic cooling motion control
Gassner, D.; DeSanto, L.; Olsen, R.H.; Fu, W.; Brennan, J.M.; Liaw, CJ; Bellavia, S.; Brodowski, J.
2011-03-28
Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beams are subject to Intra-Beam Scattering (IBS) that causes an emittance growth in all three-phase space planes. The only way to increase integrated luminosity is to counteract IBS with cooling during RHIC stores. A stochastic cooling system for this purpose has been developed, it includes moveable pick-ups and kickers in the collider that require precise motion control mechanics, drives and controllers. Since these moving parts can limit the beam path aperture, accuracy and reliability is important. Servo, stepper, and DC motors are used to provide actuation solutions for position control. The choice of motion stage, drive motor type, and controls are based on needs defined by the variety of mechanical specifications, the unique performance requirements, and the special needs required for remote operations in an accelerator environment. In this report we will describe the remote motion control related beam line hardware, position transducers, rack electronics, and software developed for the RHIC stochastic cooling pick-ups and kickers.
Stochastic Methods for Aircraft Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pelz, Richard B.; Ogot, Madara
1998-01-01
The global stochastic optimization method, simulated annealing (SA), was adapted and applied to various problems in aircraft design. The research was aimed at overcoming the problem of finding an optimal design in a space with multiple minima and roughness ubiquitous to numerically generated nonlinear objective functions. SA was modified to reduce the number of objective function evaluations for an optimal design, historically the main criticism of stochastic methods. SA was applied to many CFD/MDO problems including: low sonic-boom bodies, minimum drag on supersonic fore-bodies, minimum drag on supersonic aeroelastic fore-bodies, minimum drag on HSCT aeroelastic wings, FLOPS preliminary design code, another preliminary aircraft design study with vortex lattice aerodynamics, HSR complete aircraft aerodynamics. In every case, SA provided a simple, robust and reliable optimization method which found optimal designs in order 100 objective function evaluations. Perhaps most importantly, from this academic/industrial project, technology has been successfully transferred; this method is the method of choice for optimization problems at Northrop Grumman.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taylor, Stephen; Sampson, Laura; Simon, Joseph
2016-03-01
There has recently been significant interest in how the galactic environments of supermassive black-hole binaries influences the stochastic gravitational-wave background signal from a population of these systems, and in how the resulting detection prospects for pulsar-timing arrays are effected. Tackling these problems requires us to have robust and computationally-efficient models for the strain spectrum as a function of different environment influences or the binary orbital eccentricity. In this talk we describe a new method of constructing these models from a small number of synthesized black-hole binary populations which have varying input physics. We use these populations to train an interpolant via Gaussian-process regression, allowing us to carry real physics into our subsequent pulsar-timing array inferences, and to also correctly propagate forward uncertainties from our interpolation.
A Monte Carlo model for determination of binary diffusion coefficients in gases
Panarese, A.; Bruno, D.; Colonna, G.; Diomede, P.; Laricchiuta, A.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.
2011-06-20
A Monte Carlo method has been developed for the calculation of binary diffusion coefficients in gas mixtures. The method is based on the stochastic solution of the linear Boltzmann equation obtained for the transport of one component in a thermal bath of the second one. Anisotropic scattering is included by calculating the classical deflection angle in binary collisions under isotropic potential. Model results are compared to accurate solutions of the Chapman-Enskog equation in the first and higher orders. We have selected two different cases, H{sub 2} in H{sub 2} and O in O{sub 2}, assuming rigid spheres or using a model phenomenological potential. Diffusion coefficients, calculated in the proposed approach, are found in close agreement with Chapman-Enskog results in all the cases considered, the deviations being reduced using higher order approximations.
Stationary Size Distributions of Growing Cells with Binary and Multiple Cell Division
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rading, M. M.; Engel, T. A.; Lipowsky, R.; Valleriani, A.
2011-10-01
Populations of unicellular organisms that grow under constant environmental conditions are considered theoretically. The size distribution of these cells is calculated analytically, both for the usual process of binary division, in which one mother cell produces always two daughter cells, and for the more complex process of multiple division, in which one mother cell can produce 2 n daughter cells with n=1,2,3,… . The latter mode of division is inspired by the unicellular algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The uniform response of the whole population to different environmental conditions is encoded in the individual rates of growth and division of the cells. The analytical treatment of the problem is based on size-dependent rules for cell growth and stochastic transition processes for cell division. The comparison between binary and multiple division shows that these different division processes lead to qualitatively different results for the size distribution and the population growth rates.
Thomas, Philipp; Matuschek, Hannes; Grima, Ramon
2012-01-01
The accepted stochastic descriptions of biochemical dynamics under well-mixed conditions are given by the Chemical Master Equation and the Stochastic Simulation Algorithm, which are equivalent. The latter is a Monte-Carlo method, which, despite enjoying broad availability in a large number of existing software packages, is computationally expensive due to the huge amounts of ensemble averaging required for obtaining accurate statistical information. The former is a set of coupled differential-difference equations for the probability of the system being in any one of the possible mesoscopic states; these equations are typically computationally intractable because of the inherently large state space. Here we introduce the software package intrinsic Noise Analyzer (iNA), which allows for systematic analysis of stochastic biochemical kinetics by means of van Kampen's system size expansion of the Chemical Master Equation. iNA is platform independent and supports the popular SBML format natively. The present implementation is the first to adopt a complementary approach that combines state-of-the-art analysis tools using the computer algebra system Ginac with traditional methods of stochastic simulation. iNA integrates two approximation methods based on the system size expansion, the Linear Noise Approximation and effective mesoscopic rate equations, which to-date have not been available to non-expert users, into an easy-to-use graphical user interface. In particular, the present methods allow for quick approximate analysis of time-dependent mean concentrations, variances, covariances and correlations coefficients, which typically outperforms stochastic simulations. These analytical tools are complemented by automated multi-core stochastic simulations with direct statistical evaluation and visualization. We showcase iNA's performance by using it to explore the stochastic properties of cooperative and non-cooperative enzyme kinetics and a gene network associated with
[An improved differential medium, CA medium, for differentiating Shigella].
Tokoro, M; Nagano, I; Goto, K; Nakamura, A
1990-07-01
We devised a Citrate-Acetate (CA) medium for rapidly differentiating Shigella. The medium consisted of 3.0 g of sodium citrate, 2.0 g of sodium acetate, 0.2 g of glucose, 1.0 g of dipotassium phosphate, 1.0 g of mono ammonium phosphate, 0.2 g of magnesium sulfate, 5.0 g of sodium chloride, 0.08 g of brom thymol blue, 15.0 g of agar, and 1000 ml of distilled water. An evaluation was made of the CA medium, for the rapid differentiation of 23 Shigella strains, 129 Escherichia coli strains and 130 isolates, that formed colourless colonies suspected to be Shigella on SS agar plate, from feces of healthy people. The results obtained were as follows 1) On the CA medium, all Shigella strains did not grow and there was no change in colour. 2) Positive growth rates of E. coli strains after incubation for 24 hr at 37 degrees C on CA medium, sodium acetate medium (Acet) and Christensen citrate medium (C-Cit) were 96.0%, 95.2% and 28.0%, respectively. Therefore, the positive growth rate of E. coli strains after incubation for 24 hr on CA medium was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that on C-Cit medium. 3) Positive growth rates of isolates after incubation for 24 hr at 37 degrees C on CA medium, Acet medium and C-Cit medium were 95.4%, 83.1% and 71.5%, respectively. Therefore, the positive growth rates of isolates after incubation for 24 hr on CA medium was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) than that on Acet medium and C-Cit medium.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
A semiempirical method for analysis of the reflectance spectra of binary mineral mixtures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, P. E.; Smith, M. O.; Taylor-George, S.; Adams, J. B.
1983-01-01
A simple semiempirical method is presented for determination of the spectral reflectance of a powdered binary mineral mixture. This technique uses a two-stream radiative transfer model (a modified Kubelka-Munk model) on a particulate medium of isotroic scatterers The particles are assumed to be much larger than the wavelength of light under consideration. This same method can be used to determine the relative proportion of components in a mixture for which the spectral reflectance is known. Binary mixtures of olivine, two pyroxenes, and magnetite are used to test this model. The theoretical and empirical results agree approximately within experimental errors.
DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON
Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood
2005-06-30
Dense medium cyclones (DMCs) are known to be efficient, high-tonnage devices suitable for upgrading particles in the 50 to 0.5 mm size range. This versatile separator, which uses centrifugal forces to enhance the separation of fine particles that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash and lead-zinc ores. Due to the high tonnage, a small increase in DMC efficiency can have a large impact on plant profitability. Unfortunately, the knowledge base required to properly design and operate DMCs has been seriously eroded during the past several decades. In an attempt to correct this problem, a set of engineering tools have been developed to allow producers to improve the efficiency of their DMC circuits. These tools include (1) low-cost density tracers that can be used by plant operators to rapidly assess DMC performance, (2) mathematical process models that can be used to predict the influence of changes in operating and design variables on DMC performance, and (3) an expert advisor system that provides plant operators with a user-friendly interface for evaluating, optimizing and trouble-shooting DMC circuits. The field data required to develop these tools was collected by conducting detailed sampling and evaluation programs at several industrial plant sites. These data were used to demonstrate the technical, economic and environmental benefits that can be realized through the application of these engineering tools.
Binary nucleation at low temperatures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zahoransky, R. A.; Peters, F.
1985-01-01
The onset of homogeneous condensation of binary vapors in the supersaturated state is studied in ethanol/n-propanol and water/ethanol via their unsteady expansion in a shock tube at temperatures below 273 K. Ethanol/n-propanol forms a nearly ideal solution, whereas water/ethanol is an example of a strongly nonideal mixture. Vapor mixtures of various compositions are diluted in dry air at small mole fractions and expanded in the driver section from room temperature. The onset of homogeneous condensation is detected optically and the corresponding thermodynamic state is evaluated. The experimental results are compared with the binary nucleation theory, and the particular problems of theoretical evaluation at low temperatures are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Erastova, L. K.
2016-06-01
Thirty spectroscopic binary stars were found in the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS). They show composite spectra - WD(DA)+dM or dC (for example Liebert et al. 1994). They may have red color, if the radiation of the red star dominates, and blue one, if the blue star is brighter and have peculiar spectrum in our survey plate. We obtained slit spectra for most of such objects. But we often see the spectrum of one component, because our slit spectra did not cover all optical range. We examine by eye the slit spectra of all SBS stellar objects (˜700) in SDSS DR7, DR8 or DR9 independent on our observations. We confirmed or discovered the duplicity of 30 stars. Usually they are spectroscopic binaries, where one component is WD (DA) and the second one is a red star with or without emission. There also are other components combinations. Sometimes there are emission lines, probably, indicating variable ones.
Mass transfer between binary stars
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Modisette, J. L.; Kondo, Y.
1980-01-01
The transfer of mass from one component of a binary system to another by mass ejection is analyzed through a stellar wind mechanism, using a model which integrates the equations of motion, including the energy equation, with an initial static atmosphere and various temperature fluctuations imposed at the base of the star's corona. The model is applied to several situations and the energy flow is calculated along the line of centers between the two binary components, in the rotating frame of the system, thereby incorporating the centrifugal force. It is shown that relatively small disturbances in the lower chromosphere or photosphere can produce mass loss through a stellar wind mechanism, due to the amplification of the disturbance propagating into the thinner atmosphere. Since there are many possible sources of the disturbance, the model can be used to explain many mass ejection phenomena.
Close supermassive binary black holes.
Gaskell, C Martin
2010-01-07
It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive black-hole binary (SMBB). The AGN J1536+0441 ( = SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that J1536+0441 is an example of line emission from a disk. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBBs is significant, and argues either that the merging of close SMBBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.
The Effect of Shape Model Uncertainty on the Geophysical Predictions of Binary Asteroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMahon, Jay W.; Scheeres, Daniel
2014-11-01
Recent work by Jacobson and Scheeres (ApJ Vol. 736, L19) have shown that for a binary asteroid system in and equilibrium between tides and the binary YORP effect, the ratio Q/k can be determined, where Q is the tidal dissipation number and k is the tidal Love number. In their work, the value for B (the binary YORP coefficient) was that computed by McMahon and Scheeres (Icarus Vol. 209, pp 494-509, 2010) for binary asteroid 1999 KW4. Using this value, it was shown that the geophysical parameters Q/k can be estimated. Furthermore, we can similarly compute μQ based on the relationship between μ and k (where μ is the rigidity parameter), as discussed by Scheirich et al (ACM, Niigata, Japan, 2012, No. 1667, id.6123). These geophysical predictions, however, depend directly on the value of the binary YORP coefficient used, which is uncertain due to the limited shape model accuracy.In this study, we analyze the effect of shape model uncertainty on the predictions of Q/k and μQ. The 1999 KW4 secondary shape model is stochastically perturbed based on the radar observation accuracy (Ostro et al, Science Vol. 314, pp 1276-1280, 2006). Furthermore the detail of the topography is varied by adding more vertices to create a higher resolution shape model. For each newly perturbed shape model, the binary YORP coefficient is computed using our most advanced modeling software, and is used to derive new values for the geophysical parameter relationships. Furthermore we compute the B for a variety of known asteroid shape models as investigated by McMahon and Scheeres (44th AAS DPS, Reno, NV, 2012. Abstract No. 105.08). The results give effective error bounds on the Q/k (and derived μQ) predictions based on the shape model uncertainties.
Floral Morphogenesis: Stochastic Explorations of a Gene Network Epigenetic Landscape
Aldana, Maximino; Benítez, Mariana; Cortes-Poza, Yuriria; Espinosa-Soto, Carlos; Hartasánchez, Diego A.; Lotto, R. Beau; Malkin, David; Escalera Santos, Gerardo J.; Padilla-Longoria, Pablo
2008-01-01
In contrast to the classical view of development as a preprogrammed and deterministic process, recent studies have demonstrated that stochastic perturbations of highly non-linear systems may underlie the emergence and stability of biological patterns. Herein, we address the question of whether noise contributes to the generation of the stereotypical temporal pattern in gene expression during flower development. We modeled the regulatory network of organ identity genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana flower as a stochastic system. This network has previously been shown to converge to ten fixed-point attractors, each with gene expression arrays that characterize inflorescence cells and primordial cells of sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels. The network used is binary, and the logical rules that govern its dynamics are grounded in experimental evidence. We introduced different levels of uncertainty in the updating rules of the network. Interestingly, for a level of noise of around 0.5–10%, the system exhibited a sequence of transitions among attractors that mimics the sequence of gene activation configurations observed in real flowers. We also implemented the gene regulatory network as a continuous system using the Glass model of differential equations, that can be considered as a first approximation of kinetic-reaction equations, but which are not necessarily equivalent to the Boolean model. Interestingly, the Glass dynamics recover a temporal sequence of attractors, that is qualitatively similar, although not identical, to that obtained using the Boolean model. Thus, time ordering in the emergence of cell-fate patterns is not an artifact of synchronous updating in the Boolean model. Therefore, our model provides a novel explanation for the emergence and robustness of the ubiquitous temporal pattern of floral organ specification. It also constitutes a new approach to understanding morphogenesis, providing predictions on the population dynamics of cells with different
Cool Star Binaries with ALEXIS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stern, Robert A.
1998-01-01
We proposed to search for high-temperature, flare-produced Fe XXIII line emission from active cool star binary systems using the ALEXIS all-sky survey. Previous X-ray transient searches with ARIEL V and HEAO-1, and subsequent shorter duration monitoring with the GINGA and EXOSAT satellites demonstrated that active binaries can produce large (EM approximately equals 10(exp 55-56/cu cm) X-ray flares lasting several hours or longer. Hot plasma from these flares at temperatures of 10(exp 7)K or more should produce Fe XXIII line emission at lambda = 132.8 A, very near the peak response of ALEXIS telescopes 1A and 2A. Our primary goals were to estimate flare frequency for the largest flares in the active binary systems, and, if the data permitted, to derive a distribution of flare energy vs. frequency for the sample as a whole. After a long delay due to the initial problems with the ALEXIS attitude control, the heroic efforts on the part of the ALEXIS satellite team enabled us to carry out this survey. However, the combination of the higher than expected and variable background in the ALEXIS detectors, and the lower throughput of the ALEXIS telescopes resulted in no convincing detections of large flares from the active binary systems. In addition, vignetting-corrected effective exposure times from the ALEXIS aspect solution were not available prior to the end of this contract; therefore, we were unable to convert upper limits measured in ALEXIS counts to the equivalent L(sub EUV).
Stochastic thermodynamics for active matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speck, Thomas
2016-05-01
The theoretical understanding of active matter, which is driven out of equilibrium by directed motion, is still fragmental and model oriented. Stochastic thermodynamics, on the other hand, is a comprehensive theoretical framework for driven systems that allows to define fluctuating work and heat. We apply these definitions to active matter, assuming that dissipation can be modelled by effective non-conservative forces. We show that, through the work, conjugate extensive and intensive observables can be defined even in non-equilibrium steady states lacking a free energy. As an illustration, we derive the expressions for the pressure and interfacial tension of active Brownian particles. The latter becomes negative despite the observed stable phase separation. We discuss this apparent contradiction, highlighting the role of fluctuations, and we offer a tentative explanation.
Stochastic sensing through covalent interactions
Bayley, Hagan; Shin, Seong-Ho; Luchian, Tudor; Cheley, Stephen
2013-03-26
A system and method for stochastic sensing in which the analyte covalently bonds to the sensor element or an adaptor element. If such bonding is irreversible, the bond may be broken by a chemical reagent. The sensor element may be a protein, such as the engineered P.sub.SH type or .alpha.HL protein pore. The analyte may be any reactive analyte, including chemical weapons, environmental toxins and pharmaceuticals. The analyte covalently bonds to the sensor element to produce a detectable signal. Possible signals include change in electrical current, change in force, and change in fluorescence. Detection of the signal allows identification of the analyte and determination of its concentration in a sample solution. Multiple analytes present in the same solution may be detected.
Thermodynamics of stochastic Turing machines.
Strasberg, Philipp; Cerrillo, Javier; Schaller, Gernot; Brandes, Tobias
2015-10-01
In analogy to Brownian computers we explicitly show how to construct stochastic models which mimic the behavior of a general-purpose computer (a Turing machine). Our models are discrete state systems obeying a Markovian master equation, which are logically reversible and have a well-defined and consistent thermodynamic interpretation. The resulting master equation, which describes a simple one-step process on an enormously large state space, allows us to thoroughly investigate the thermodynamics of computation for this situation. Especially in the stationary regime we can well approximate the master equation by a simple Fokker-Planck equation in one dimension. We then show that the entropy production rate at steady state can be made arbitrarily small, but the total (integrated) entropy production is finite and grows logarithmically with the number of computational steps.
Stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zacate, Matthew O.; Evenson, William E.
2011-04-01
The stochastic hyperfine interactions modeling library (SHIML) provides a set of routines to assist in the development and application of stochastic models of hyperfine interactions. The library provides routines written in the C programming language that (1) read a text description of a model for fluctuating hyperfine fields, (2) set up the Blume matrix, upon which the evolution operator of the system depends, and (3) find the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the Blume matrix so that theoretical spectra of experimental techniques that measure hyperfine interactions can be calculated. The optimized vector and matrix operations of the BLAS and LAPACK libraries are utilized; however, there was a need to develop supplementary code to find an orthonormal set of (left and right) eigenvectors of complex, non-Hermitian matrices. In addition, example code is provided to illustrate the use of SHIML to generate perturbed angular correlation spectra for the special case of polycrystalline samples when anisotropy terms of higher order than A can be neglected. Program summaryProgram title: SHIML Catalogue identifier: AEIF_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEIF_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU GPL 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 8224 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 312 348 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: Any Operating system: LINUX, OS X RAM: Varies Classification: 7.4 External routines: TAPP [1], BLAS [2], a C-interface to BLAS [3], and LAPACK [4] Nature of problem: In condensed matter systems, hyperfine methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Mössbauer effect (ME), muon spin rotation (μSR), and perturbed angular correlation spectroscopy (PAC) measure electronic and magnetic structure within Angstroms of nuclear probes through the hyperfine interaction. When
Heuristic-biased stochastic sampling
Bresina, J.L.
1996-12-31
This paper presents a search technique for scheduling problems, called Heuristic-Biased Stochastic Sampling (HBSS). The underlying assumption behind the HBSS approach is that strictly adhering to a search heuristic often does not yield the best solution and, therefore, exploration off the heuristic path can prove fruitful. Within the HBSS approach, the balance between heuristic adherence and exploration can be controlled according to the confidence one has in the heuristic. By varying this balance, encoded as a bias function, the HBSS approach encompasses a family of search algorithms of which greedy search and completely random search are extreme members. We present empirical results from an application of HBSS to the realworld problem of observation scheduling. These results show that with the proper bias function, it can be easy to outperform greedy search.
Multiscale Stochastic Simulation and Modeling
James Glimm; Xiaolin Li
2006-01-10
Acceleration driven instabilities of fluid mixing layers include the classical cases of Rayleigh-Taylor instability, driven by a steady acceleration and Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, driven by an impulsive acceleration. Our program starts with high resolution methods of numerical simulation of two (or more) distinct fluids, continues with analytic analysis of these solutions, and the derivation of averaged equations. A striking achievement has been the systematic agreement we obtained between simulation and experiment by using a high resolution numerical method and improved physical modeling, with surface tension. Our study is accompanies by analysis using stochastic modeling and averaged equations for the multiphase problem. We have quantified the error and uncertainty using statistical modeling methods.
Stochastic resonance in attention control
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitajo, K.; Yamanaka, K.; Ward, L. M.; Yamamoto, Y.
2006-12-01
We investigated the beneficial role of noise in a human higher brain function, namely visual attention control. We asked subjects to detect a weak gray-level target inside a marker box either in the left or the right visual field. Signal detection performance was optimized by presenting a low level of randomly flickering gray-level noise between and outside the two possible target locations. Further, we found that an increase in eye movement (saccade) rate helped to compensate for the usual deterioration in detection performance at higher noise levels. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that noise can optimize a higher brain function which involves distinct brain regions above the level of primary sensory systems -- switching behavior between multi-stable attention states -- via the mechanism of stochastic resonance.
Multiple Stochastic Point Processes in Gene Expression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murugan, Rajamanickam
2008-04-01
We generalize the idea of multiple-stochasticity in chemical reaction systems to gene expression. Using Chemical Langevin Equation approach we investigate how this multiple-stochasticity can influence the overall molecular number fluctuations. We show that the main sources of this multiple-stochasticity in gene expression could be the randomness in transcription and translation initiation times which in turn originates from the underlying bio-macromolecular recognition processes such as the site-specific DNA-protein interactions and therefore can be internally regulated by the supra-molecular structural factors such as the condensation/super-coiling of DNA. Our theory predicts that (1) in case of gene expression system, the variances ( φ) introduced by the randomness in transcription and translation initiation-times approximately scales with the degree of condensation ( s) of DNA or mRNA as φ ∝ s -6. From the theoretical analysis of the Fano factor as well as coefficient of variation associated with the protein number fluctuations we predict that (2) unlike the singly-stochastic case where the Fano factor has been shown to be a monotonous function of translation rate, in case of multiple-stochastic gene expression the Fano factor is a turn over function with a definite minimum. This in turn suggests that the multiple-stochastic processes can also be well tuned to behave like a singly-stochastic point processes by adjusting the rate parameters.
Heterogeneities of flow in stochastically generated porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Smolarkiewicz, Piotr K.; Winter, C. Larrabee
2012-11-01
Heterogeneous flows are observed to result from variations in the geometry and topology of pore structures within stochastically generated three dimensional porous media. A stochastic procedure generates media comprising complex networks of connected pores. Inside each pore space, the Navier-Stokes equations are numerically integrated until steady state velocity and pressure fields are attained. The intricate pore structures exert spatially variable resistance on the fluid, and resulting velocity fields have a wide range of magnitudes and directions. Spatially nonuniform fluid fluxes are observed, resulting in principal pathways of flow through the media. In some realizations, up to 25% of the flux occurs in 5% of the pore space depending on porosity. The degree of heterogeneity in the flow is quantified over a range of porosities by tracking particle trajectories and calculating their attributes including tortuosity, length, and first passage time. A representative elementary volume is first computed so the dependence of particle based attributes on the size of the domain through which they are followed is minimal. High correlations between the dimensionless quantities of porosity and tortuosity are calculated and a logarithmic relationship is proposed. As the porosity of a medium increases the flow field becomes more uniform.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olson, Gordon L.
2017-03-01
Gray and multigroup radiation is transported through 3D media consisting of spheres randomly placed in a uniform background. Comparisons are made between using constant radii spheres and three different distributions of sphere radii. Because of the computational cost of 3D calculations, only the lowest angle order, n=1, is tested. If the mean chord length is held constant, using different radii distributions makes little difference. This is true for both gray and multigroup solutions. 3D transport solutions are compared to 2D and 1D solutions with the same mean chord lengths. 2D disk and 3D sphere media give solutions that are nearly identical while 1D slab solutions are fundamentally different.
Olson, Gordon Lee
2016-12-06
Here, gray and multigroup radiation is transported through 3D media consisting of spheres randomly placed in a uniform background. Comparisons are made between using constant radii spheres and three different distributions of sphere radii. Because of the computational cost of 3D calculations, only the lowest angle order, n=1, is tested. If the mean chord length is held constant, using different radii distributions makes little difference. This is true for both gray and multigroup solutions. 3D transport solutions are compared to 2D and 1D solutions with the same mean chord lengths. 2D disk and 3D sphere media give solutions that aremore » nearly identical while 1D slab solutions are fundamentally different.« less
Olson, Gordon Lee
2016-12-06
Here, gray and multigroup radiation is transported through 3D media consisting of spheres randomly placed in a uniform background. Comparisons are made between using constant radii spheres and three different distributions of sphere radii. Because of the computational cost of 3D calculations, only the lowest angle order, n=1, is tested. If the mean chord length is held constant, using different radii distributions makes little difference. This is true for both gray and multigroup solutions. 3D transport solutions are compared to 2D and 1D solutions with the same mean chord lengths. 2D disk and 3D sphere media give solutions that are nearly identical while 1D slab solutions are fundamentally different.
Majorana approach to the stochastic theory of line shapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komijani, Yashar; Coleman, Piers
2016-08-01
Motivated by recent Mössbauer experiments on strongly correlated mixed-valence systems, we revisit the Kubo-Anderson stochastic theory of spectral line shapes. Using a Majorana representation for the nuclear spin we demonstrate how to recast the classic line-shape theory in a field-theoretic and diagrammatic language. We show that the leading contribution to the self-energy can reproduce most of the observed line-shape features including splitting and line-shape narrowing, while the vertex and the self-consistency corrections can be systematically included in the calculation. This approach permits us to predict the line shape produced by an arbitrary bulk charge fluctuation spectrum providing a model-independent way to extract the local charge fluctuation spectrum of the surrounding medium. We also derive an inverse formula to extract the charge fluctuation from the measured line shape.
Laser control of molecular excitations in stochastic dissipative media.
Tremblay, Jean Christophe
2011-05-07
In the present work, ideas for controlling photochemical reactions in dissipative environments using shaped laser pulses are presented. New time-local control algorithms for the stochastic Schrödinger equation are introduced and compared to their reduced density matrix analog. The numerical schemes rely on time-dependent targets for guiding the reaction along a preferred path. The methods are tested on the vibrational control of adsorbates at metallic surfaces and on the ultrafast electron dynamics in a strong dissipative medium. The selective excitation of the specific states is achieved with improved yield when using the new algorithms. Both methods exhibit similar convergence behavior and results compare well with those obtained using local optimal control for the reduced density matrix. The favorable scaling of the methods allows to tackle larger systems and to control photochemical reactions in dissipative media of molecules with many more degrees of freedom.
Stochastic inflation in a simple two-field model
Mollerach, S. ); Matarrese, S. ); Ortolan, A. ); Lucchin, F. )
1991-09-15
The dynamics of a nondominating scalar field during inflation is considered in the framework of the stochastic approach where its motion and that of the inflaton are described by two coupled Langevin equations. Curvature perturbations induced by the inflaton make the problem that of a Brownian motion in a random medium. The associated Fokker-Planck equation is solved for a free massless field in a power-law inflation driven by an inflaton with an exponential potential: this simple model could describe the dynamics of the axion, or any other pseudoGoldstone boson, during inflation. In spite of being free, the field shows a highly non-Gaussian behavior on scales much larger than the present horizon; on observable scales it gives rise to isocurvature perturbations which are both essentially Gaussian and scale-free.
Weisheimer, Antje; Corti, Susanna; Palmer, Tim; Vitart, Frederic
2014-01-01
The finite resolution of general circulation models of the coupled atmosphere–ocean system and the effects of sub-grid-scale variability present a major source of uncertainty in model simulations on all time scales. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts has been at the forefront of developing new approaches to account for these uncertainties. In particular, the stochastically perturbed physical tendency scheme and the stochastically perturbed backscatter algorithm for the atmosphere are now used routinely for global numerical weather prediction. The European Centre also performs long-range predictions of the coupled atmosphere–ocean climate system in operational forecast mode, and the latest seasonal forecasting system—System 4—has the stochastically perturbed tendency and backscatter schemes implemented in a similar way to that for the medium-range weather forecasts. Here, we present results of the impact of these schemes in System 4 by contrasting the operational performance on seasonal time scales during the retrospective forecast period 1981–2010 with comparable simulations that do not account for the representation of model uncertainty. We find that the stochastic tendency perturbation schemes helped to reduce excessively strong convective activity especially over the Maritime Continent and the tropical Western Pacific, leading to reduced biases of the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), cloud cover, precipitation and near-surface winds. Positive impact was also found for the statistics of the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), showing an increase in the frequencies and amplitudes of MJO events. Further, the errors of El Niño southern oscillation forecasts become smaller, whereas increases in ensemble spread lead to a better calibrated system if the stochastic tendency is activated. The backscatter scheme has overall neutral impact. Finally, evidence for noise-activated regime transitions has been found in a cluster analysis of mid
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Indik, Nathaniel; Haris, K.; Dal Canton, Tito; Fehrmann, Henning; Krishnan, Badri; Lundgren, Andrew; Nielsen, Alex B.; Pai, Archana
2017-01-01
Gravitational wave searches to date have largely focused on non-precessing systems. Including precession effects greatly increases the number of templates to be searched over. This leads to a corresponding increase in the computational cost and can increase the false alarm rate of a realistic search. On the other hand, there might be astrophysical systems that are entirely missed by non-precessing searches. In this paper we consider the problem of constructing a template bank using stochastic methods for neutron star-black hole binaries allowing for precession, but with the restrictions that the total angular momentum of the binary is pointing toward the detector and that the neutron star spin is negligible relative to that of the black hole. We quantify the number of templates required for the search, and we explicitly construct the template bank. We show that despite the large number of templates, stochastic methods can be adapted to solve the problem. We quantify the parameter space region over which the non-precessing search might miss signals.
Shaping protein distributions in stochastic self-regulated gene expression networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pájaro, Manuel; Alonso, Antonio A.; Vázquez, Carlos
2015-09-01
In this work, we study connections between dynamic behavior and network parameters, for self-regulatory networks. To that aim, a method to compute the regions in the space of parameters that sustain bimodal or binary protein distributions has been developed. Such regions are indicative of stochastic dynamics manifested either as transitions between absence and presence of protein or between two positive protein levels. The method is based on the continuous approximation of the chemical master equation, unlike other approaches that make use of a deterministic description, which as will be shown can be misleading. We find that bimodal behavior is a ubiquitous phenomenon in cooperative gene expression networks under positive feedback. It appears for any range of transcription and translation rate constants whenever leakage remains below a critical threshold. Above such a threshold, the region in the parameters space which sustains bimodality persists, although restricted to low transcription and high translation rate constants. Remarkably, such a threshold is independent of the transcription or translation rates or the proportion of an active or inactive promoter and depends only on the level of cooperativity. The proposed method can be employed to identify bimodal or binary distributions leading to stochastic dynamics with specific switching properties, by searching inside the parameter regions that sustain such behavior.
Pulsed Accretion onto Eccentric and Circular Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong
2016-08-01
We present numerical simulations of circumbinary accretion onto eccentric and circular binaries using the moving-mesh code AREPO. This is the first set of simulations to tackle the problem of binary accretion using a finite-volume scheme on a freely moving mesh, which allows for accurate measurements of accretion onto individual stars for arbitrary binary eccentricity. While accretion onto a circular binary shows bursts with period of ˜ 5 times the binary period P b, accretion onto an eccentric binary is predominantly modulated at the period ˜ 1{P}{{b}}. For an equal-mass circular binary, the accretion rates onto individual stars are quite similar to each other, following the same variable pattern in time. By contrast, for eccentric binaries, one of the stars can accrete at a rate 10-20 times larger than its companion. This “symmetry breaking” between the stars, however, alternates over timescales of order 200P b and can be attributed to a slowly precessing, eccentric circumbinary disk. Over longer timescales, the net accretion rates onto individual stars are the same, reaching a quasi-steady state with the circumbinary disk. These results have important implications for the accretion behavior of binary T Tauri stars and supermassive binary black holes.
GALAXY ROTATION AND RAPID SUPERMASSIVE BINARY COALESCENCE
Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Khan, Fazeel Mahmood
2015-09-10
Galaxy mergers usher the supermassive black hole (SMBH) in each galaxy to the center of the potential, where they form an SMBH binary. The binary orbit shrinks by ejecting stars via three-body scattering, but ample work has shown that in spherical galaxy models, the binary separation stalls after ejecting all the stars in its loss cone—this is the well-known final parsec problem. However, it has been shown that SMBH binaries in non-spherical galactic nuclei harden at a nearly constant rate until reaching the gravitational wave regime. Here we use a suite of direct N-body simulations to follow SMBH binary evolution in both corotating and counterrotating flattened galaxy models. For N > 500 K, we find that the evolution of the SMBH binary is convergent and is independent of the particle number. Rotation in general increases the hardening rate of SMBH binaries even more effectively than galaxy geometry alone. SMBH binary hardening rates are similar for co- and counterrotating galaxies. In the corotating case, the center of mass of the SMBH binary settles into an orbit that is in corotation resonance with the background rotating model, and the coalescence time is roughly a few 100 Myr faster than a non-rotating flattened model. We find that counterrotation drives SMBHs to coalesce on a nearly radial orbit promptly after forming a hard binary. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave astronomy, hypervelocity star production, and the effect on the structure of the host galaxy.
All Bright Cold Classical KBOs are Binary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Noll, Keith S.; Parker, Alex H.; Grundy, William M.
2014-11-01
When sorted by absolute magnitude as seen in ground based observations, an extremely high fraction of the brightest Cold Classical (CC) Kuiper Belt objects (KBO) are, in fact resolved as binaries when observed at higher angular resolution. Of the 22 CCs brighter than H=6.1 observed by HST, 16 have been found to be binary yielding a binary fraction of 73±10%. When low inclination interlopers from the hot population and close binaries are considered, this very high fraction is consistent with 100% of bright CCs being binary. At fainter absolute magnitudes, this fraction drops to ~20%. Such a situation is a natural outcome of a broken size distribution with a steep drop-off in the number of CCs with individual component diameters larger than 150 km (for an assumed albedo of 0.15). A sharp cutoff in the size distribution for CCs is consistent with formation models that suggest that most planetesimals form at a preferred modal size of order 100 km.The very high fraction of binaries among the largest CCs also serves to limit the separation distribution of KBO binaries. At most, 27% of the brightest CCs are possible unresolved binaries. The apparent power law distribution of binary separation must cut off near the current observational limits of HST ( 1800 km at 43 AU). It is worth noting, however, that this observation does not constrain how many components of resolved binaries may themselves be unresolved multiples like 47171 1999 TC36. Finally, it is important to point out that, when sorted by the size of the primary rather than absolute magnitude of the unresolved pair, the fraction of binaries is relatively constant with size (Nesvorny et al. 2011, AJ 141, 159) eliminating observational bias as cause of the pile up of binaries among the brightest Cold Classical Kuiper Belt objects.The very high fraction of binaries among the brightest CCs appears to be an effect of the underlying CC size distribution.
Stochastic system identification in structural dynamics
Safak, Erdal
1988-01-01
Recently, new identification methods have been developed by using the concept of optimal-recursive filtering and stochastic approximation. These methods, known as stochastic identification, are based on the statistical properties of the signal and noise, and do not require the assumptions of current methods. The criterion for stochastic system identification is that the difference between the recorded output and the output from the identified system (i.e., the residual of the identification) should be equal to white noise. In this paper, first a brief review of the theory is given. Then, an application of the method is presented by using ambient vibration data from a nine-story building.
Permanence of Stochastic Lotka-Volterra Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Meng; Fan, Meng
2017-04-01
This paper proposes a new definition of permanence for stochastic population models, which overcomes some limitations and deficiency of the existing ones. Then, we explore the permanence of two-dimensional stochastic Lotka-Volterra systems in a general setting, which models several different interactions between two species such as cooperation, competition, and predation. Sharp sufficient criteria are established with the help of the Lyapunov direct method and some new techniques. This study reveals that the stochastic noises play an essential role in the permanence and characterize the systems being permanent or not.
A stochastic subgrid model for sheared turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertoglio, J. P.
A new subgrid model for homogeneous turbulence is proposed. The model is used in a method of Large Eddy Simulation coupled with an E.D.Q.N.M. prediction of the statistical properties of the small scales. The model is stochastic in order to allow a 'disaveraging' of the informations provided by the E.D.Q.N.M. closure. It is based on stochastic amplitude equations for two-point closures. It allows backflow of energy from the small scales, introduces stochasticity into L.E.S., and is well adapted to nonisotropic fields. A few results are presented here.
Connecting deterministic and stochastic metapopulation models.
Barbour, A D; McVinish, R; Pollett, P K
2015-12-01
In this paper, we study the relationship between certain stochastic and deterministic versions of Hanski's incidence function model and the spatially realistic Levins model. We show that the stochastic version can be well approximated in a certain sense by the deterministic version when the number of habitat patches is large, provided that the presence or absence of individuals in a given patch is influenced by a large number of other patches. Explicit bounds on the deviation between the stochastic and deterministic models are given.
A multilevel stochastic collocation method for SPDEs
Gunzburger, Max; Jantsch, Peter; Teckentrup, Aretha; Webster, Clayton
2015-03-10
We present a multilevel stochastic collocation method that, as do multilevel Monte Carlo methods, uses a hierarchy of spatial approximations to reduce the overall computational complexity when solving partial differential equations with random inputs. For approximation in parameter space, a hierarchy of multi-dimensional interpolants of increasing fidelity are used. Rigorous convergence and computational cost estimates for the new multilevel stochastic collocation method are derived and used to demonstrate its advantages compared to standard single-level stochastic collocation approximations as well as multilevel Monte Carlo methods.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Flows of Diffeomorphisms
2007-01-01
be the unique solution of the ordinary differential equation ∂ηs,t(x) ∂t .= b ( ηs,t(x), t ) , ηs,s(x) = x, 0 ≤ s ≤ t ≤ 1. (5.2) Then it follows that...solving finite dimensional Itô stochastic differential equations . More precisely, suppose b, fi, i = 1, . . . ,m are functions from Rd × [0, T ] to Rd...s, T ]. This stochastic process is called the solution of Itô’s stochastic differential equation based on the Brownian motion F . From [15, Theorem
Stochastic Satbility and Performance Robustness of Linear Multivariable Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, Laurie E.; Stengel, Robert F.
1990-01-01
Stochastic robustness, a simple technique used to estimate the robustness of linear, time invariant systems, is applied to a single-link robot arm control system. Concepts behind stochastic stability robustness are extended to systems with estimators and to stochastic performance robustness. Stochastic performance robustness measures based on classical design specifications are introduced, and the relationship between stochastic robustness measures and control system design parameters are discussed. The application of stochastic performance robustness, and the relationship between performance objectives and design parameters are demonstrated by means of example. The results prove stochastic robustness to be a good overall robustness analysis method that can relate robustness characteristics to control system design parameters.
Stochastic pump effect and geometric phases in dissipative and stochastic systems
Sinitsyn, Nikolai
2008-01-01
The success of Berry phases in quantum mechanics stimulated the study of similar phenomena in other areas of physics, including the theory of living cell locomotion and motion of patterns in nonlinear media. More recently, geometric phases have been applied to systems operating in a strongly stochastic environment, such as molecular motors. We discuss such geometric effects in purely classical dissipative stochastic systems and their role in the theory of the stochastic pump effect (SPE).
An effective medium theory for three-dimensional elastic heterogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jordan, Thomas H.
2015-11-01
A second-order Born approximation is used to formulate a self-consistent theory for the effective elastic parameters of stochastic media with ellipsoidal distributions of small-scale heterogeneity. The covariance of the stiffness tensor is represented as the product of a one-point tensor variance and a two-point scalar correlation function with ellipsoidal symmetry, which separates the statistical properties of the local anisotropy from those of the geometric anisotropy. The spatial variations can then be rescaled to an isotropic distribution by a simple metric transformation; the spherical average of the strain Green's function in the transformed space reduces to a constant Kneer tensor, and the second-order corrections to the effective elastic parameters are given by the contraction of the rescaled Kneer tensor against the single-point variance of the stiffness tensor. Explicit results are derived for stochastic models in which the heterogeneity is transversely isotropic and its second moments are characterized by a horizontal-to-vertical aspect ratio η. If medium is locally isotropic, the expressions for the anisotropic effective moduli reduce in the limit η → ∞ to Backus's second-order expressions for a 1-D stochastic laminate. Comparisons with the exact Backus theory show that the second-order approximation predicts the effective anisotropy for non-Gaussian media fairly well for relative rms fluctuations in the moduli smaller than about 30 per cent. A locally anisotropic model is formulated in which the local elastic properties have hexagonal symmetry, guided by a Gaussian random vector field that is transversely isotropic and specified by a horizontal-to-vertical orientation ratio ξ. The self-consistent theory provides closed-form expressions for the dependence of the effective moduli on 0 < ξ < ∞ and 0 < η < ∞. The effective-medium parametrizations described here appear to be suitable for incorporation into tomographic modelling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hertfelder, C.; Kümmerer, B.
2001-03-01
The mathematical model describing a light beam prepared in an arbitrary quantum optical state is a quasifree quantum stochastic process on the C* algebra of the canonical commutatation relations. For such quantum stochastic processes the concept of stochastic states is introduced. Stochastic quantum states have a classical analog in the following sense: If the light beam is prepared in a stochastic state, one can construct a generalized classical stochastic process, such that the distributions of the quantum observables and the classical random variables coincide. A sufficient algebraic condition for the stochasticity of a quantum state is formulated. The introduced formalism generalizes the Wigner representation from a single field mode to a continuum of modes. For the special case of a single field mode the stochasticity condition provides a new criterion for the positivity of the Wigner function related to the given state. As an example the quantized eletromagnetic field in empty space at temperature T=0 is discussed. It turns out that the corresponding classical stochastic process is not a white noise but a colored noise with a linearly increasing spectrum.
Liu, Meng; Wang, Ke; Wu, Qiong
2011-09-01
Stochastic competitive models with pollution and without pollution are proposed and studied. For the first system with pollution, sufficient criteria for extinction, nonpersistence in the mean, weak persistence in the mean, strong persistence in the mean, and stochastic permanence are established. The threshold between weak persistence in the mean and extinction for each population is obtained. It is found that stochastic disturbance is favorable for the survival of one species and is unfavorable for the survival of the other species. For the second system with pollution, sufficient conditions for extinction and weak persistence are obtained. For the model without pollution, a partial stochastic competitive exclusion principle is derived.
Binary Black Holes from Dense Star Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Carl
2017-01-01
The recent detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of compact object astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the universe, we must compare these observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. In this talk, I will review our current understanding of cluster dynamics, describing how binary black holes can be formed through gravitational interactions in dense stellar environments, such as globular clusters and galactic nuclei. I will review the properties and merger rates of binary black holes from the dynamical formation channel. Finally, I will describe how the spins of a binary black hole are determined by its formation history, and how we can use this to discriminate between dynamically-formed binaries and those formed from isolated evolution in galactic fields.
Stochastic differential equation model to Prendiville processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Granita, Bahar, Arifah
2015-10-01
The Prendiville process is another variation of the logistic model which assumes linearly decreasing population growth rate. It is a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) taking integer values in the finite interval. The continuous time Markov chain can be approximated by stochastic differential equation (SDE). This paper discusses the stochastic differential equation of Prendiville process. The work started with the forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain of Prendiville process. Then it was formulated in the form of a central-difference approximation. The approximation was then used in Fokker-Planck equation in relation to the stochastic differential equation of the Prendiville process. The explicit solution of the Prendiville process was obtained from the stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the mean and variance function of the Prendiville process could be easily found from the explicit solution.
Bootstrap performance profiles in stochastic algorithms assessment
Costa, Lino; Espírito Santo, Isabel A.C.P.; Oliveira, Pedro
2015-03-10
Optimization with stochastic algorithms has become a relevant research field. Due to its stochastic nature, its assessment is not straightforward and involves integrating accuracy and precision. Performance profiles for the mean do not show the trade-off between accuracy and precision, and parametric stochastic profiles require strong distributional assumptions and are limited to the mean performance for a large number of runs. In this work, bootstrap performance profiles are used to compare stochastic algorithms for different statistics. This technique allows the estimation of the sampling distribution of almost any statistic even with small samples. Multiple comparison profiles are presented for more than two algorithms. The advantages and drawbacks of each assessment methodology are discussed.
Stochastic differential equation model to Prendiville processes
Granita; Bahar, Arifah
2015-10-22
The Prendiville process is another variation of the logistic model which assumes linearly decreasing population growth rate. It is a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) taking integer values in the finite interval. The continuous time Markov chain can be approximated by stochastic differential equation (SDE). This paper discusses the stochastic differential equation of Prendiville process. The work started with the forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain of Prendiville process. Then it was formulated in the form of a central-difference approximation. The approximation was then used in Fokker-Planck equation in relation to the stochastic differential equation of the Prendiville process. The explicit solution of the Prendiville process was obtained from the stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the mean and variance function of the Prendiville process could be easily found from the explicit solution.
Stochasticity and determinism in models of hematopoiesis.
Kimmel, Marek
2014-01-01
This chapter represents a novel view of modeling in hematopoiesis, synthesizing both deterministic and stochastic approaches. Whereas the stochastic models work in situations where chance dominates, for example when the number of cells is small, or under random mutations, the deterministic models are more important for large-scale, normal hematopoiesis. New types of models are on the horizon. These models attempt to account for distributed environments such as hematopoietic niches and their impact on dynamics. Mixed effects of such structures and chance events are largely unknown and constitute both a challenge and promise for modeling. Our discussion is presented under the separate headings of deterministic and stochastic modeling; however, the connections between both are frequently mentioned. Four case studies are included to elucidate important examples. We also include a primer of deterministic and stochastic dynamics for the reader's use.
Communication: Embedded fragment stochastic density functional theory
Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Roi; Rabani, Eran
2014-07-28
We develop a method in which the electronic densities of small fragments determined by Kohn-Sham density functional theory (DFT) are embedded using stochastic DFT to form the exact density of the full system. The new method preserves the scaling and the simplicity of the stochastic DFT but cures the slow convergence that occurs when weakly coupled subsystems are treated. It overcomes the spurious charge fluctuations that impair the applications of the original stochastic DFT approach. We demonstrate the new approach on a fullerene dimer and on clusters of water molecules and show that the density of states and the total energy can be accurately described with a relatively small number of stochastic orbitals.
Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, Murugappan
We study the translocation of a flexible polymer in a confined geometry subjected to a time-periodic external drive to explore stochastic resonance. We describe the equilibrium translocation process in terms of a Fokker-Planck description and use a discrete two-state model to describe the effect of the external driving force on the translocation dynamics. We observe that no stochastic resonance is possible if the associated free-energy barrier is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain experiences a stochastic resonance effect only in presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interaction. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.
Extending stochastic network calculus to loss analysis.
Luo, Chao; Yu, Li; Zheng, Jun
2013-01-01
Loss is an important parameter of Quality of Service (QoS). Though stochastic network calculus is a very useful tool for performance evaluation of computer networks, existing studies on stochastic service guarantees mainly focused on the delay and backlog. Some efforts have been made to analyse loss by deterministic network calculus, but there are few results to extend stochastic network calculus for loss analysis. In this paper, we introduce a new parameter named loss factor into stochastic network calculus and then derive the loss bound through the existing arrival curve and service curve via this parameter. We then prove that our result is suitable for the networks with multiple input flows. Simulations show the impact of buffer size, arrival traffic, and service on the loss factor.
Stochastic structure formation in random media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klyatskin, V. I.
2016-01-01
Stochastic structure formation in random media is considered using examples of elementary dynamical systems related to the two-dimensional geophysical fluid dynamics (Gaussian random fields) and to stochastically excited dynamical systems described by partial differential equations (lognormal random fields). In the latter case, spatial structures (clusters) may form with a probability of one in almost every system realization due to rare events happening with vanishing probability. Problems involving stochastic parametric excitation occur in fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics, plasma physics, astrophysics, and radiophysics. A more complicated stochastic problem dealing with anomalous structures on the sea surface (rogue waves) is also considered, where the random Gaussian generation of sea surface roughness is accompanied by parametric excitation.
Simulated annealing and stochastic learning in optical neural nets: An optical Boltzmann machine
Shae, Zonyin.
1989-01-01
This dissertation deals with the study of stochastic learning and neural computation in opto-electronic hardware. It presents the first demonstration of a fully operational optical learning machine. Learning in the machine is stochastic taking place in a self-organized multi-layered opto-electronic neural net with plastic connectivity weights that are formed in a programmable non-volatile spatial light modulator. Operation of the machine is made possible by two developments in this work: (a) Fast annealing by optically induced tremors in the energy landscape of the net. The objective of this scheme is to exploit the parallelism of the optical noise pattern so as to speed up the simulated annealing process. The procedure can be viewed as that of generating controlled gradually decreasing deformations or tremors in the energy landscape of the net that prevents entrapment in a local minimum energy state. Both the random drawing of neurons and the state update of the net are now done in parallel at the same time and without having to computer explicitly the change in the energy of the net and associated Boltzmann factor as required ordinarily in the Metropolis-Kirkpartrik simulated annealing algorithm. This leads to significant acceleration of the annealing process. (b) Stochastic learning with binary weights. Learning in opto-electronic neural nets can be simplified greatly if binary weights can be used. A third development, that is the development of schemes for driving and enhancing the frame rate of magneto-optic spatial light modulators, can make the machine learning speed potentially fast. Details of these developments together with the principle, architecture, structure, and performance evaluation of this machine are given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wani, Naveel; Maqbool, Bari; Iqbal, Naseer; Misra, Ranjeev
2016-07-01
X-ray binaries and AGNs are powered by accretion discs around compact objects, where the x-rays are emitted from the inner regions and uv emission arise from the relatively cooler outer parts. There has been an increasing evidence that the variability of the x-rays in different timescales is caused by stochastic fluctuations in the accretion disc at different radii. These fluctuations although arise in the outer parts of the disc but propagate inwards to give rise to x-ray variability and hence provides a natural connection between the x-ray and uv variability. There are analytical expressions to qualitatively understand the effect of these stochastic variabilities, but quantitative predictions are only possible by a detailed hydrodynamical study of the global time dependent solution of standard accretion disc. We have developed numerical efficient code (to incorporate all these effects), which considers gas pressure dominated solutions and stochastic fluctuations with the inclusion of boundary effect of the last stable orbit.
Symmetrical Hierarchical Stochastic Searching on the Line in Informative and Deceptive Environments.
Zhang, Junqi; Wang, Yuheng; Wang, Cheng; Zhou, MengChu
2016-03-08
A stochastic point location (SPL) problem aims to find a target parameter on a 1-D line by operating a controlled random walk and receiving information from a stochastic environment (SE). If the target parameter changes randomly, we call the parameter dynamic; otherwise static. SE can be 1) informative (p > 0.5 where p represents the probability for an environment providing a correct suggestion) and 2) deceptive (p < 0.5). Up till now, hierarchical stochastic searching on the line (HSSL) is the most efficient algorithms to catch static or dynamic parameter in an informative environment, but unable to locate the target parameter in a deceptive environment and to recognize an environment's type (informative or deceptive). This paper presents a novel solution, named symmetrical HSSL, by extending an HSSL binary tree-based search structure to a symmetrical form. By means of this innovative way, the proposed learning mechanism is able to converge to a static or dynamic target parameter in the range of not only 0.618¹ < p < 1, but also 0 < p < 0.382. Finally, the experimental results show that our scheme is efficient and feasible to solve the SPL problem in any SE.
Stochastic description of quantum Brownian dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Yun-An; Shao, Jiushu
2016-08-01
Classical Brownian motion has well been investigated since the pioneering work of Einstein, which inspired mathematicians to lay the theoretical foundation of stochastic processes. A stochastic formulation for quantum dynamics of dissipative systems described by the system-plus-bath model has been developed and found many applications in chemical dynamics, spectroscopy, quantum transport, and other fields. This article provides a tutorial review of the stochastic formulation for quantum dissipative dynamics. The key idea is to decouple the interaction between the system and the bath by virtue of the Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation or Itô calculus so that the system and the bath are not directly entangled during evolution, rather they are correlated due to the complex white noises introduced. The influence of the bath on the system is thereby defined by an induced stochastic field, which leads to the stochastic Liouville equation for the system. The exact reduced density matrix can be calculated as the stochastic average in the presence of bath-induced fields. In general, the plain implementation of the stochastic formulation is only useful for short-time dynamics, but not efficient for long-time dynamics as the statistical errors go very fast. For linear and other specific systems, the stochastic Liouville equation is a good starting point to derive the master equation. For general systems with decomposable bath-induced processes, the hierarchical approach in the form of a set of deterministic equations of motion is derived based on the stochastic formulation and provides an effective means for simulating the dissipative dynamics. A combination of the stochastic simulation and the hierarchical approach is suggested to solve the zero-temperature dynamics of the spin-boson model. This scheme correctly describes the coherent-incoherent transition (Toulouse limit) at moderate dissipation and predicts a rate dynamics in the overdamped regime. Challenging problems
Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson
2012-01-01
We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.
Measuring Close Binary Stars with Speckle Interferometry
2014-09-01
Measuring Close Binary Stars with Speckle Interferometry Keith T. Knox Air Force Research Laboratory ABSTRACT Speckle interferometry...Labeyrie, 1970) is a well-tested and still used method for detecting and measuring binary stars that are closer together than the width of the...orientation of the binary star system (Horch, 1996, Tokovinin, 2010). In this talk, a method for analyzing the fringes in the power spectrum will be
Some stochastic aspects of intergranular creep cavitation
Fariborz, S.J.; Farris, J.P.; Harlow, D.G.; Delph, T.J.
1987-10-01
We present some results obtained from a simplified stochastic model of intergranular creep cavitation. The probabilistic features of the model arise from the inclusion of random cavity placement on the grain boundary and time-discrete stochastic cavity nucleation. Among the predictions of the model are Weibull-distributed creep rupture failure times and a Weibull distribution of cavity radii. Both of these predictions have qualitative experimental support. 18 refs., 7 figs.
Stochastic Semidefinite Programming: Applications and Algorithms
2012-03-03
doi: 2011/09/07 13:38:21 13 TOTAL: 1 Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: Baha M. Alzalg and K. A. Ariyawansa, Stochastic...symmetric programming over integers. International Conference on Scientific Computing, Las Vegas, Nevada, July 18--21, 2011. Baha M. Alzalg. On recent...Proceeding publications (other than abstracts): PaperReceived Baha M. Alzalg, K. A. Ariyawansa. Stochastic mixed integer second-order cone programming
Stochastic synchronization in finite size spiking networks.
Doiron, Brent; Rinzel, John; Reyes, Alex
2006-09-01
We study a stochastic synchronization of spiking activity in feedforward networks of integrate-and-fire model neurons. A stochastic mean field analysis shows that synchronization occurs only when the network size is sufficiently small. This gives evidence that the dynamics, and hence processing, of finite size populations can be drastically different from that observed in the infinite size limit. Our results agree with experimentally observed synchrony in cortical networks, and further strengthen the link between synchrony and propagation in cortical systems.
Complexity and synchronization in stochastic chaotic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dang, Thai Son; Palit, Sanjay Kumar; Mukherjee, Sayan; Hoang, Thang Manh; Banerjee, Santo
2016-02-01
We investigate the complexity of a hyperchaotic dynamical system perturbed by noise and various nonlinear speech and music signals. The complexity is measured by the weighted recurrence entropy of the hyperchaotic and stochastic systems. The synchronization phenomenon between two stochastic systems with complex coupling is also investigated. These criteria are tested on chaotic and perturbed systems by mean conditional recurrence and normalized synchronization error. Numerical results including surface plots, normalized synchronization errors, complexity variations etc show the effectiveness of the proposed analysis.
Optimal factory scheduling using stochastic dominance A
Wurman, P.R.
1996-12-31
Generating optimal production schedules for manufacturing facilities an area of great theoretical and practical importance. During the last decade, an effort has been made to reconcile the techniques developed by the AI and OR communities. The work described here aims to continue in this vein by showing how a class of well-defined stochastic scheduling problems can be mapped into a general search procedure. This approach improves upon other methods by handling the general case of multidimensional stochastic costs.
Prediction Theory of Periodically Correlated Stochastic Processes
2015-05-12
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The research dealt with the prediction problem for periodically correlated sequences, that is the stochastic sequences...was to develop an alternative technique for analysis such sequences . In the first published paper we 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND...Aug-2014 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Prediction Theory of Periodically Correlated Stochastic Processes. The
Sequential decision analysis for nonstationary stochastic processes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schaefer, B.
1974-01-01
A formulation of the problem of making decisions concerning the state of nonstationary stochastic processes is given. An optimal decision rule, for the case in which the stochastic process is independent of the decisions made, is derived. It is shown that this rule is a generalization of the Bayesian likelihood ratio test; and an analog to Wald's sequential likelihood ratio test is given, in which the optimal thresholds may vary with time.
Desynchronization of stochastically synchronized chemical oscillators
Snari, Razan; Tinsley, Mark R. E-mail: kshowalt@wvu.edu; Faramarzi, Sadegh; Showalter, Kenneth E-mail: kshowalt@wvu.edu; Wilson, Dan; Moehlis, Jeff; Netoff, Theoden Ivan
2015-12-15
Experimental and theoretical studies are presented on the design of perturbations that enhance desynchronization in populations of oscillators that are synchronized by periodic entrainment. A phase reduction approach is used to determine optimal perturbation timing based upon experimentally measured phase response curves. The effectiveness of the perturbation waveforms is tested experimentally in populations of periodically and stochastically synchronized chemical oscillators. The relevance of the approach to therapeutic methods for disrupting phase coherence in groups of stochastically synchronized neuronal oscillators is discussed.
Stochastic Forcing for Ocean Uncertainty Prediction
2013-09-30
shallow water waves governed by Korteweg-de Vries ( KdV ) dynamics with stochastic forcing. Uncertain Boundary Conditions and DO Equations : A...schemes to time-integrate shallow water surface waves governed by KdV equations with external stochastic forcing. We find that the DO scheme is...free- surface primitive equation model and Error Subspace Statistical Estimation (ESSE). The variability in the pdfs are illustrated and discussed
Critical Casimir effect in classical binary liquid mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gambassi, A.; Maciołek, A.; Hertlein, C.; Nellen, U.; Helden, L.; Bechinger, C.; Dietrich, S.
2009-12-01
If a fluctuating medium is confined, the ensuing perturbation of its fluctuation spectrum generates Casimir-like effective forces acting on its confining surfaces. Near a continuous phase transition of such a medium the corresponding order parameter fluctuations occur on all length scales and therefore close to the critical point this effect acquires a universal character, i.e., to a large extent it is independent of the microscopic details of the actual system. Accordingly it can be calculated theoretically by studying suitable representative model systems. We report on the direct measurement of critical Casimir forces by total internal reflection microscopy with femtonewton resolution. The corresponding potentials are determined for individual colloidal particles floating above a substrate under the action of the critical thermal noise in the solvent medium, constituted by a binary liquid mixture of water and 2,6-lutidine near its lower consolute point. Depending on the relative adsorption preferences of the colloid and substrate surfaces with respect to the two components of the binary liquid mixture, we observe that, upon approaching the critical point of the solvent, attractive or repulsive forces emerge and supersede those prevailing away from it. Based on the knowledge of the critical Casimir forces acting in film geometries within the Ising universality class and with equal or opposing boundary conditions, we provide the corresponding theoretical predictions for the sphere—planar wall geometry of the experiment. The experimental data for the effective potential can be interpreted consistently in terms of these predictions and a remarkable quantitative agreement is observed.
Critical Casimir effect in classical binary liquid mixtures.
Gambassi, A; Maciołek, A; Hertlein, C; Nellen, U; Helden, L; Bechinger, C; Dietrich, S
2009-12-01
If a fluctuating medium is confined, the ensuing perturbation of its fluctuation spectrum generates Casimir-like effective forces acting on its confining surfaces. Near a continuous phase transition of such a medium the corresponding order parameter fluctuations occur on all length scales and therefore close to the critical point this effect acquires a universal character, i.e., to a large extent it is independent of the microscopic details of the actual system. Accordingly it can be calculated theoretically by studying suitable representative model systems. We report on the direct measurement of critical Casimir forces by total internal reflection microscopy with femtonewton resolution. The corresponding potentials are determined for individual colloidal particles floating above a substrate under the action of the critical thermal noise in the solvent medium, constituted by a binary liquid mixture of water and 2,6-lutidine near its lower consolute point. Depending on the relative adsorption preferences of the colloid and substrate surfaces with respect to the two components of the binary liquid mixture, we observe that, upon approaching the critical point of the solvent, attractive or repulsive forces emerge and supersede those prevailing away from it. Based on the knowledge of the critical Casimir forces acting in film geometries within the Ising universality class and with equal or opposing boundary conditions, we provide the corresponding theoretical predictions for the sphere-planar wall geometry of the experiment. The experimental data for the effective potential can be interpreted consistently in terms of these predictions and a remarkable quantitative agreement is observed.
Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries
Muñoz, Diego J.; Lai, Dong
2015-01-01
The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov–Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like. PMID:26159412
Survival of planets around shrinking stellar binaries.
Muñoz, Diego J; Lai, Dong
2015-07-28
The discovery of transiting circumbinary planets by the Kepler mission suggests that planets can form efficiently around binary stars. None of the stellar binaries currently known to host planets has a period shorter than 7 d, despite the large number of eclipsing binaries found in the Kepler target list with periods shorter than a few days. These compact binaries are believed to have evolved from wider orbits into their current configurations via the so-called Lidov-Kozai migration mechanism, in which gravitational perturbations from a distant tertiary companion induce large-amplitude eccentricity oscillations in the binary, followed by orbital decay and circularization due to tidal dissipation in the stars. Here we explore the orbital evolution of planets around binaries undergoing orbital decay by this mechanism. We show that planets may survive and become misaligned from their host binary, or may develop erratic behavior in eccentricity, resulting in their consumption by the stars or ejection from the system as the binary decays. Our results suggest that circumbinary planets around compact binaries could still exist, and we offer predictions as to what their orbital configurations should be like.
Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M.
2016-04-01
We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.
Stochastic learning via optimizing the variational inequalities.
Tao, Qing; Gao, Qian-Kun; Chu, De-Jun; Wu, Gao-Wei
2014-10-01
A wide variety of learning problems can be posed in the framework of convex optimization. Many efficient algorithms have been developed based on solving the induced optimization problems. However, there exists a gap between the theoretically unbeatable convergence rate and the practically efficient learning speed. In this paper, we use the variational inequality (VI) convergence to describe the learning speed. To this end, we avoid the hard concept of regret in online learning and directly discuss the stochastic learning algorithms. We first cast the regularized learning problem as a VI. Then, we present a stochastic version of alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMMs) to solve the induced VI. We define a new VI-criterion to measure the convergence of stochastic algorithms. While the rate of convergence for any iterative algorithms to solve nonsmooth convex optimization problems cannot be better than O(1/√t), the proposed stochastic ADMM (SADMM) is proved to have an O(1/t) VI-convergence rate for the l1-regularized hinge loss problems without strong convexity and smoothness. The derived VI-convergence results also support the viewpoint that the standard online analysis is too loose to analyze the stochastic setting properly. The experiments demonstrate that SADMM has almost the same performance as the state-of-the-art stochastic learning algorithms but its O(1/t) VI-convergence rate is capable of tightly characterizing the real learning speed.
Automated Flight Routing Using Stochastic Dynamic Programming
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ng, Hok K.; Morando, Alex; Grabbe, Shon
2010-01-01
Airspace capacity reduction due to convective weather impedes air traffic flows and causes traffic congestion. This study presents an algorithm that reroutes flights in the presence of winds, enroute convective weather, and congested airspace based on stochastic dynamic programming. A stochastic disturbance model incorporates into the reroute design process the capacity uncertainty. A trajectory-based airspace demand model is employed for calculating current and future airspace demand. The optimal routes minimize the total expected traveling time, weather incursion, and induced congestion costs. They are compared to weather-avoidance routes calculated using deterministic dynamic programming. The stochastic reroutes have smaller deviation probability than the deterministic counterpart when both reroutes have similar total flight distance. The stochastic rerouting algorithm takes into account all convective weather fields with all severity levels while the deterministic algorithm only accounts for convective weather systems exceeding a specified level of severity. When the stochastic reroutes are compared to the actual flight routes, they have similar total flight time, and both have about 1% of travel time crossing congested enroute sectors on average. The actual flight routes induce slightly less traffic congestion than the stochastic reroutes but intercept more severe convective weather.
Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process.
Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M
2016-04-14
We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.
Young and Waltzing Binary Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2001-10-01
ADONIS Observes Low-mass Eclipsing System in Orion Summary A series of very detailed images of a binary system of two young stars have been combined into a movie . In merely 3 days, the stars swing around each other. As seen from the earth, they pass in front of each other twice during a full revolution, producing eclipses during which their combined brightness diminishes . A careful analysis of the orbital motions has now made it possible to deduce the masses of the two dancing stars . Both turn out to be about as heavy as our Sun. But while the Sun is about 4500 million years old, these two stars are still in their infancy. They are located some 1500 light-years away in the Orion star-forming region and they probably formed just 10 million years ago . This is the first time such an accurate determination of the stellar masses could be achieved for a young binary system of low-mass stars . The new result provides an important piece of information for our current understanding of how young stars evolve. The observations were obtained by a team of astronomers from Italy and ESO [1] using the ADaptive Optics Near Infrared System (ADONIS) on the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory. PR Photo 29a/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before primary eclipse PR Photo 29b/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-primary eclipse PR Photo 29c/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after primary eclipse PR Photo 29d/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system before secondary eclipse PR Photo 29e/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system at mid-secondary eclipse PR Photo 29f/01 : The RXJ 0529.4+0041 system after secondary eclipse PR Video Clip 06/01 : Video of the RXJ 0529.4+0041 system Binary stars and stellar masses Since some time, astronomers have noted that most stars seem to form in binary or multiple systems. This is quite fortunate, as the study of binary stars is the only way in which it is possible to measure directly one of the most fundamental quantities of a star, its mass. The mass of a
Stochastic model for gene transcription on Drosophila melanogaster embryos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prata, Guilherme N.; Hornos, José Eduardo M.; Ramos, Alexandre F.
2016-02-01
We examine immunostaining experimental data for the formation of stripe 2 of even-skipped (eve) transcripts on D. melanogaster embryos. An estimate of the factor converting immunofluorescence intensity units into molecular numbers is given. The analysis of the eve dynamics at the region of stripe 2 suggests that the promoter site of the gene has two distinct regimes: an earlier phase when it is predominantly activated until a critical time when it becomes mainly repressed. That suggests proposing a stochastic binary model for gene transcription on D. melanogaster embryos. Our model has two random variables: the transcripts number and the state of the source of mRNAs given as active or repressed. We are able to reproduce available experimental data for the average number of transcripts. An analysis of the random fluctuations on the number of eves and their consequences on the spatial precision of stripe 2 is presented. We show that the position of the anterior or posterior borders fluctuate around their average position by ˜1 % of the embryo length, which is similar to what is found experimentally. The fitting of data by such a simple model suggests that it can be useful to understand the functions of randomness during developmental processes.
Medium term hurricane catastrophe models: a validation experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonazzi, Alessandro; Turner, Jessica; Dobbin, Alison; Wilson, Paul; Mitas, Christos; Bellone, Enrica
2013-04-01
Climate variability is a major source of uncertainty for the insurance industry underwriting hurricane risk. Catastrophe models provide their users with a stochastic set of events that expands the scope of the historical catalogue by including synthetic events that are likely to happen in a defined time-frame. The use of these catastrophe models is widespread in the insurance industry but it is only in recent years that climate variability has been explicitly accounted for. In the insurance parlance "medium term catastrophe model" refers to products that provide an adjusted view of risk that is meant to represent hurricane activity on a 1 to 5 year horizon, as opposed to long term models that integrate across the climate variability of the longest available time series of observations. In this presentation we discuss how a simple reinsurance program can be used to assess the value of medium term catastrophe models. We elaborate on similar concepts as discussed in "Potential Economic Value of Seasonal Hurricane Forecasts" by Emanuel et al. (2012, WCAS) and provide an example based on 24 years of historical data of the Chicago Mercantile Hurricane Index (CHI), an insured loss proxy. Profit and loss volatility of a hypothetical primary insurer are used to score medium term models versus their long term counterpart. Results show that medium term catastrophe models could help a hypothetical primary insurer to improve their financial resiliency to varying climate conditions.
Noise-based logic: Binary, multi-valued, or fuzzy, with optional superposition of logic states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kish, Laszlo B.
2009-03-01
A new type of deterministic (non-probabilistic) computer logic system inspired by the stochasticity of brain signals is shown. The distinct values are represented by independent stochastic processes: independent voltage (or current) noises. The orthogonality of these processes provides a natural way to construct binary or multi-valued logic circuitry with arbitrary number N of logic values by using analog circuitry. Moreover, the logic values on a single wire can be made a (weighted) superposition of the N distinct logic values. Fuzzy logic is also naturally represented by a two-component superposition within the binary case ( N=2). Error propagation and accumulation are suppressed. Other relevant advantages are reduced energy dissipation and leakage current problems, and robustness against circuit noise and background noises such as 1/f, Johnson, shot and crosstalk noise. Variability problems are also non-existent because the logic value is an AC signal. A similar logic system can be built with orthogonal sinusoidal signals (different frequency or orthogonal phase) however that has an extra 1/N type slowdown compared to the noise-based logic system with increasing number of N furthermore it is less robust against time delay effects than the noise-based counterpart.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salem, Mohamed
Most of the physically realizable optical sources are radiating in a random manner given the random nature of the radiation of a large number of atoms that constitute the source. Besides, a lot of natural and synthetic materials are fluctuating randomly. Hence, the optical fields that one encounters, in most of the applications are fluctuating and must be treated using random or stochastic functions. Within the framework of the scalar-coherence theory, one can describe changes of the properties of any stochastic field such as the spectral density and the spectral degree of coherence on propagation in any linear medium, deterministic or random. One of the frequently encountered random media is the atmospheric turbulence, where the fluctuating refractive index of such medium severely degrades any signal propagating through it; especially it causes intensity fades of the signal. The usage of stochastic beams at the transmitter instead of deterministic ones has been suggested sometime ago to suppress the severe effects of intensity fluctuations caused by the atmospheric turbulence. In this dissertation, we study the usage of partially coherent beams in long path propagation schemes through turbulent atmosphere such as one frequently encounters in remote sensing, in the use of communication systems, and in guiding. Also the used detection scheme at the receiver is important to quantify the received signal efficiently, hence we compare the performance of incoherent (direct) detection versus coherent (heterodyne) detection upon the use of either one of them at the receiver of the communication system of beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere and namely we evaluate the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) for each case. The scalar-coherence theory ignored the vector nature of stochastic fields, which should be taken into account for some applications such as the ones that depend on the change of the polarization of the field. Recently generalization for the scalar
Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang
2015-01-01
With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network. PMID:26633400
Li, Yihe; Li, Bofeng; Gao, Yang
2015-11-30
With the increased availability of regional reference networks, Precise Point Positioning (PPP) can achieve fast ambiguity resolution (AR) and precise positioning by assimilating the satellite fractional cycle biases (FCBs) and atmospheric corrections derived from these networks. In such processing, the atmospheric corrections are usually treated as deterministic quantities. This is however unrealistic since the estimated atmospheric corrections obtained from the network data are random and furthermore the interpolated corrections diverge from the realistic corrections. This paper is dedicated to the stochastic modelling of atmospheric corrections and analyzing their effects on the PPP AR efficiency. The random errors of the interpolated corrections are processed as two components: one is from the random errors of estimated corrections at reference stations, while the other arises from the atmospheric delay discrepancies between reference stations and users. The interpolated atmospheric corrections are then applied by users as pseudo-observations with the estimated stochastic model. Two data sets are processed to assess the performance of interpolated corrections with the estimated stochastic models. The results show that when the stochastic characteristics of interpolated corrections are properly taken into account, the successful fix rate reaches 93.3% within 5 min for a medium inter-station distance network and 80.6% within 10 min for a long inter-station distance network.
Stochastic modelling of animal movement
Smouse, Peter E.; Focardi, Stefano; Moorcroft, Paul R.; Kie, John G.; Forester, James D.; Morales, Juan M.
2010-01-01
Modern animal movement modelling derives from two traditions. Lagrangian models, based on random walk behaviour, are useful for multi-step trajectories of single animals. Continuous Eulerian models describe expected behaviour, averaged over stochastic realizations, and are usefully applied to ensembles of individuals. We illustrate three modern research arenas. (i) Models of home-range formation describe the process of an animal ‘settling down’, accomplished by including one or more focal points that attract the animal's movements. (ii) Memory-based models are used to predict how accumulated experience translates into biased movement choices, employing reinforced random walk behaviour, with previous visitation increasing or decreasing the probability of repetition. (iii) Lévy movement involves a step-length distribution that is over-dispersed, relative to standard probability distributions, and adaptive in exploring new environments or searching for rare targets. Each of these modelling arenas implies more detail in the movement pattern than general models of movement can accommodate, but realistic empiric evaluation of their predictions requires dense locational data, both in time and space, only available with modern GPS telemetry. PMID:20566497
Stochastic phase-change neurons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tuma, Tomas; Pantazi, Angeliki; Le Gallo, Manuel; Sebastian, Abu; Eleftheriou, Evangelos
2016-08-01
Artificial neuromorphic systems based on populations of spiking neurons are an indispensable tool in understanding the human brain and in constructing neuromimetic computational systems. To reach areal and power efficiencies comparable to those seen in biological systems, electroionics-based and phase-change-based memristive devices have been explored as nanoscale counterparts of synapses. However, progress on scalable realizations of neurons has so far been limited. Here, we show that chalcogenide-based phase-change materials can be used to create an artificial neuron in which the membrane potential is represented by the phase configuration of the nanoscale phase-change device. By exploiting the physics of reversible amorphous-to-crystal phase transitions, we show that the temporal integration of postsynaptic potentials can be achieved on a nanosecond timescale. Moreover, we show that this is inherently stochastic because of the melt-quench-induced reconfiguration of the atomic structure occurring when the neuron is reset. We demonstrate the use of these phase-change neurons, and their populations, in the detection of temporal correlations in parallel data streams and in sub-Nyquist representation of high-bandwidth signals.
Stochastic phase-change neurons.
Tuma, Tomas; Pantazi, Angeliki; Le Gallo, Manuel; Sebastian, Abu; Eleftheriou, Evangelos
2016-08-01
Artificial neuromorphic systems based on populations of spiking neurons are an indispensable tool in understanding the human brain and in constructing neuromimetic computational systems. To reach areal and power efficiencies comparable to those seen in biological systems, electroionics-based and phase-change-based memristive devices have been explored as nanoscale counterparts of synapses. However, progress on scalable realizations of neurons has so far been limited. Here, we show that chalcogenide-based phase-change materials can be used to create an artificial neuron in which the membrane potential is represented by the phase configuration of the nanoscale phase-change device. By exploiting the physics of reversible amorphous-to-crystal phase transitions, we show that the temporal integration of postsynaptic potentials can be achieved on a nanosecond timescale. Moreover, we show that this is inherently stochastic because of the melt-quench-induced reconfiguration of the atomic structure occurring when the neuron is reset. We demonstrate the use of these phase-change neurons, and their populations, in the detection of temporal correlations in parallel data streams and in sub-Nyquist representation of high-bandwidth signals.
Multidimensional stochastic approximation Monte Carlo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zablotskiy, Sergey V.; Ivanov, Victor A.; Paul, Wolfgang
2016-06-01
Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) has been established as a mathematically founded powerful flat-histogram Monte Carlo method, used to determine the density of states, g (E ) , of a model system. We show here how it can be generalized for the determination of multidimensional probability distributions (or equivalently densities of states) of macroscopic or mesoscopic variables defined on the space of microstates of a statistical mechanical system. This establishes this method as a systematic way for coarse graining a model system, or, in other words, for performing a renormalization group step on a model. We discuss the formulation of the Kadanoff block spin transformation and the coarse-graining procedure for polymer models in this language. We also apply it to a standard case in the literature of two-dimensional densities of states, where two competing energetic effects are present g (E1,E2) . We show when and why care has to be exercised when obtaining the microcanonical density of states g (E1+E2) from g (E1,E2) .
Lower hybrid wavepacket stochasticity revisited
Fuchs, V.; Krlín, L.; Pánek, R.; Preinhaelter, J.; Seidl, J.; Urban, J.
2014-02-12
Analysis is presented in support of the explanation in Ref. [1] for the observation of relativistic electrons during Lower Hybrid (LH) operation in EC pre-heated plasma at the WEGA stellarator [1,2]. LH power from the WEGA TE11 circular waveguide, 9 cm diameter, un-phased, 2.45 GHz antenna, is radiated into a B≅0.5 T, Ðœ„n{sub e}≅5×10{sup 17} 1/m{sup 3} plasma at T{sub e}≅10 eV bulk temperature with an EC generated 50 keV component [1]. The fast electrons cycle around flux or drift surfaces with few collisions, sufficient for randomizing phases but insufficient for slowing fast electrons down, and thus repeatedly interact with the rf field close to the antenna mouth, gaining energy in the process. Our antenna calculations reveal a standing electric field pattern at the antenna mouth, with which we formulate the electron dynamics via a relativistic Hamiltonian. A simple approximation of the equations of motion leads to a relativistic generalization of the area-preserving Fermi-Ulam (F-U) map [3], allowing phase-space global stochasticity analysis. At typical WEGA plasma and antenna conditions, the F-U map predicts an LH driven current of about 230 A, at about 225 W of dissipated power, in good agreement with the measurements and analysis reported in [1].
Stochastic models of intracellular transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.
2013-01-01
The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Srinivasan, Gopalakrishnan; Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik
2016-07-01
Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) have emerged as a powerful neuromorphic computing paradigm to carry out classification and recognition tasks. Nevertheless, the general purpose computing platforms and the custom hardware architectures implemented using standard CMOS technology, have been unable to rival the power efficiency of the human brain. Hence, there is a need for novel nanoelectronic devices that can efficiently model the neurons and synapses constituting an SNN. In this work, we propose a heterostructure composed of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) and a heavy metal as a stochastic binary synapse. Synaptic plasticity is achieved by the stochastic switching of the MTJ conductance states, based on the temporal correlation between the spiking activities of the interconnecting neurons. Additionally, we present a significance driven long-term short-term stochastic synapse comprising two unique binary synaptic elements, in order to improve the synaptic learning efficiency. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed synaptic configurations and the stochastic learning algorithm on an SNN trained to classify handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset, using a device to system-level simulation framework. The power efficiency of the proposed neuromorphic system stems from the ultra-low programming energy of the spintronic synapses.
Srinivasan, Gopalakrishnan; Sengupta, Abhronil; Roy, Kaushik
2016-01-01
Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) have emerged as a powerful neuromorphic computing paradigm to carry out classification and recognition tasks. Nevertheless, the general purpose computing platforms and the custom hardware architectures implemented using standard CMOS technology, have been unable to rival the power efficiency of the human brain. Hence, there is a need for novel nanoelectronic devices that can efficiently model the neurons and synapses constituting an SNN. In this work, we propose a heterostructure composed of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction (MTJ) and a heavy metal as a stochastic binary synapse. Synaptic plasticity is achieved by the stochastic switching of the MTJ conductance states, based on the temporal correlation between the spiking activities of the interconnecting neurons. Additionally, we present a significance driven long-term short-term stochastic synapse comprising two unique binary synaptic elements, in order to improve the synaptic learning efficiency. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed synaptic configurations and the stochastic learning algorithm on an SNN trained to classify handwritten digits from the MNIST dataset, using a device to system-level simulation framework. The power efficiency of the proposed neuromorphic system stems from the ultra-low programming energy of the spintronic synapses. PMID:27405788
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garai, Sisir Kumar
2011-07-01
Conversion of optical data from decimal to binary format is very important in optical computing and optical signal processing. There are many binary code systems to represent decimal numbers, the most common being the binary coded decimal (BCD) and gray code system. There are a wide choice of BCD codes, one of which is a natural BCD having a weighted code of 8421, by means of which it is possible to represent a decimal number from 0 to 9 with a combination of 4bit binary digits. The reflected binary code, also known as the Gray code, is a binary numeral system where two successive values differ in only 1bit. The Gray code is very important in digital optical communication as it is used to prevent spurious output from optical switches as well as to facilitate error correction in digital communications in an optical domain. Here in this communication, the author proposes an all-optical frequency encoded method of ``:decimal to binary, BCD,'' ``binary to gray,'' and ``gray to binary'' data conversion using the high-speed switching actions of semiconductor optical amplifiers. To convert decimal numbers to a binary form, a frequency encoding technique is adopted to represent two binary bits, 0 and 1. The frequency encoding technique offers advantages over conventional encoding techniques in terms of less probability of bit errors and greater reliability. Here the author has exploited the polarization switch made of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a property of nonlinear rotation of the state of polarization of the probe beam in SOA for frequency conversion to develop the method of frequency encoded data conversion.
Stochastic Parametrisations and Regime Behaviour of Atmospheric Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arnold, Hannah; Moroz, Irene; Palmer, Tim
2013-04-01
-18, Shinfield Park, Reading, 1996. ECMWF. E. N. Lorenz. Regimes in simple systems. J. Atmos. Sci., 63(8):2056-2073, 2006. T. N Palmer. A nonlinear dynamical perspective on model error: A proposal for non-local stochastic-dynamic parametrisation in weather and climate prediction models. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 127(572):279-304, 2001. T. N. Palmer, R. Buizza, F. Doblas-Reyes, T. Jung, M. Leutbecher, G. J. Shutts, M. Steinheimer, and A. Weisheimer. Stochastic parametrization and model uncertainty. Technical Report 598, European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, 2009. J. Rougier, D. M. H. Sexton, J. M. Murphy, and D. Stainforth. Analyzing the climate sensitivity of the HadSM3 climate model using ensembles from different but related experiments. J. Climate, 22:3540-3557, 2009. S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K. B. Averyt, Tignor M., and H. L. Miller. Climate models and their evaluation. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 2007. Cambridge University Press. D. A Stainforth, T. Aina, C. Christensen, M. Collins, N. Faull, D. J. Frame, J. A. Kettleborough, S. Knight, A. Martin, J. M. Murphy, C. Piani, D. Sexton, L. A. Smith, R. A Spicer, A. J. Thorpe, and M. R Allen. Uncertainty in predictions of the climate response to rising levels of greenhouse gases. Nature, 433(7024):403-406, 2005.
The Young Visual Binary Database
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prato, Lisa A.; Avilez, Ian; Allen, Thomas; Zoonematkermani, Saeid; Biddle, Lauren; Muzzio, Ryan; Wittal, Matthew; Schaefer, Gail; Simon, Michal
2017-01-01
We have obtained adaptive optics imaging and high-resolution H-band and in some cases K-band spectra of each component in close to 100 young multiple systems in the nearby star forming regions of Taurus, Ophiuchus, TW Hya, and Orion. The binary separations for the pairs in our sample range from 30 mas to 3 arcseconds. The imaging and most of our spectra were obtained with instruments behind adaptive optics systems in order to resolve even the closest companions. We are in the process of determining fundamental stellar and circumstellar properties, such as effective temperature, Vsin(i), veiling, and radial velocity, for each component in the entire sample. The beta version of our database includes systems in the Taurus region and provides plots, downloadable ascii spectra, and values of the stellar and circumstellar properties for both stars in each system. This resource is openly available to the community at http://jumar.lowell.edu/BinaryStars/. In this poster we describe initial results from our analysis of the survey data. Support for this research was provided in part by NSF award AST-1313399 and by NASA Keck KPDA funding.
Close binary neutron star systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marronetti, Pedro
1999-12-01
We present a method to calculate solutions to the initial value problem in (3 + 1) general relativity corresponding to binary neutron-star systems (BNS) in irrotational quasi-equilibrium orbits. The initial value equations are solved using a conformally flat spatial metric tensor. The stellar fluid dynamics corresponds to that of systems with zero vorticity in the inertial reference frame. Irrotational systems like the ones analyzed in the present work are likely to resemble the final stages of the evolution of neutron-star binaries, thus providing insights on the inspiral process. The fluid velocity is derived from the gradient of a scalar potential. A numerical program was developed to solve the elliptic equations for the metric fields and the fluid velocity potential. We discuss the different numerical techniques employed to achieve high resolution across the stellar volume, as well as the methods used to find solutions to the Poisson-like equations with their corresponding boundary conditions. We present sequences of quasi-stable circular orbits which conserve baryonic mass. These sequences mimic the time evolution of the inspiral and are obtained without solving the complex evolution equations. They also provide sets of initial value data for future time evolution codes, which should be valid very close to the final merger. We evaluate the emission of gravitational radiation during the evolution through multipole expansions methods.
Interacting jets from binary protostars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murphy, G. C.; Lery, T.; O'Sullivan, S.; Spicer, D.; Bacciotti, F.; Rosen, A.
2008-02-01
Aims: We investigate potential models that could explain why multiple proto-stellar systems predominantly show single jets. During their formation, stars most frequently produce energetic outflows and jets. However, binary jets have only been observed in a very small number of systems. Methods: We model numerically 3D binary jets for various outflow parameters. We also model the propagation of jets from a specific source, namely L1551 IRS 5, known to have two jets, using recent observations as constraints for simulations with a new MHD code. We examine their morphology and dynamics, and produce synthetic emission maps. Results: We find that the two jets interfere up to the stage where one of them is almost destroyed or engulfed into the second one. We are able to reproduce some of the observational features of L1551 such as the bending of the secondary jet. Conclusions: While the effects of orbital motion are negligible over the jets dynamical timeline, their interaction has significant impact on their morphology. If the jets are not strictly parallel, as in most observed cases, we show that the magnetic field can help the collimation and refocusing of both of the two jets.
VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hot subdwarf binaries from MUCHFUSS (Kupfer+, 2015)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kupfer, T.; Geier, S.; Heber, U.; Ostensen, R. H.; Barlow, B. N.; Maxted, P. F. L.; Heuser, C.; Schaffenroth, V.; Gaensicke, B. T.
2015-06-01
Follow-up medium resolution spectroscopy of 12 sdB binaries was obtained using different instruments including the CAHA-3.5m telescope with the TWIN spectrograph, the ESO-NTT telescope with the EFOSC2 spectrograph, the SOAR telescope with the Goodman spectrograph, the Gemini-North/South telescopes with the GMOS-N/S spectrographs and the William Herschel telescope (WHT) with the ISIS spectrograph. (3 data files).
Numerical Analysis of Stochastic Dynamical Systems in the Medium-Frequency Range
2003-02-01
frequency vibration analysis such as the statistical energy analysis (SEA), the traditional modal analysis (well-suited for high and low: frequency...that the first few structural normal modes primarily constitute the total response. In the higher frequency range, the statistical energy analysis (SEA
Dynamics of osmosis in a porous medium
Cardoso, Silvana S. S.; Cartwright, Julyan H. E.
2014-01-01
We derive from kinetic theory, fluid mechanics and thermodynamics the minimal continuum-level equations governing the flow of a binary, non-electrolytic mixture in an isotropic porous medium with osmotic effects. For dilute mixtures, these equations are linear and in this limit provide a theoretical basis for the widely used semi-empirical relations of Kedem & Katchalsky (Kedem & Katchalsky 1958 Biochim. Biophys. Acta 27, 229–246 (doi:10.1016/0006-3002(58)90330-5), which have hitherto been validated experimentally but not theoretically. The above linearity between the fluxes and the driving forces breaks down for concentrated or non-ideal mixtures, for which our equations go beyond the Kedem–Katchalsky formulation. We show that the heretofore empirical solute permeability coefficient reflects the momentum transfer between the solute molecules that are rejected at a pore entrance and the solvent molecules entering the pore space; it can be related to the inefficiency of a Maxwellian demi-demon. PMID:26064566
Fill-in binary loop pulse-torque quantizer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lory, C. B.
1975-01-01
Fill-in binary (FIB) loop provides constant heating of torque generator, an advantage of binary current switching. At the same time, it avoids mode-related dead zone and data delay of binary, an advantage of ternary quantization.
Fabricating binary optics: An overview of binary optics process technology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stern, Margaret B.
1993-01-01
A review of binary optics processing technology is presented. Pattern replication techniques have been optimized to generate high-quality efficient microoptics in visible and infrared materials. High resolution optical photolithography and precision alignment is used to fabricate maximally efficient fused silica diffractive microlenses at lambda = 633 nm. The degradation in optical efficiency of four-phase-level fused silica microlenses resulting from an intentional 0.35 micron translational error has been systematically measured as a function of lens speed (F/2 - F/60). Novel processes necessary for high sag refractive IR microoptics arrays, including deep anisotropic Si-etching, planarization of deep topography and multilayer resist techniques, are described. Initial results are presented for monolithic integration of photonic and microoptic systems.
The Black Hole X-ray Binary Population of M51 as seen by Chandra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kilgard, Roy E.; Dorn-Wallenstein, Trevor; Kuntz, K. D.; Desjardins, Tyler D.
2014-06-01
We present an analysis of the black hole X-ray binary population of the interacting galaxy system M51 from new and archival observations by the Chandra X-ray Observatory with total exposure time of nearly 1 Ms. This dataset allows us to probe spectral and temporal variability of the X-ray source population on timescales ranging from tens of seconds to years. We examine both the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) population, which likely consists of black hole binaries based solely on luminosity, and the less luminous binaries that show evidence for harboring black holes. We further examine the environments of these sources within the host galaxy using new and archival Hubble Space Telescope observations to determine the probable mass donor stars in the system. We also present initial results from an effort to study the interaction of the luminous X-ray binaries with the interstellar medium of M51. This sample includes all of the historical ULXs as well as a new transient ULX which is a probable black hole low mass X-ray binary.
ON NEUTRAL ABSORPTION AND SPECTRAL EVOLUTION IN X-RAY BINARIES
Miller, J. M.; Cackett, E. M.; Reis, R. C.
2009-12-10
Current X-ray observatories make it possible to follow the evolution of transient and variable X-ray binaries across a broad range in luminosity and source behavior. In such studies, it can be unclear whether evolution in the low-energy portion of the spectrum should be attributed to evolution in the source, or instead to evolution in neutral photoelectric absorption. Dispersive spectrometers make it possible to address this problem. We have analyzed a small but diverse set of X-ray binaries observed with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer across a range in luminosity and different spectral states. The column density in individual photoelectric absorption edges remains constant with luminosity, both within and across source spectral states. This finding suggests that absorption in the interstellar medium strongly dominates the neutral column density observed in spectra of X-ray binaries. Consequently, evolution in the low-energy spectrum of X-ray binaries should properly be attributed to evolution in the source spectrum. We discuss our results in the context of X-ray binary spectroscopy with current and future X-ray missions.
Benchmark solutions for transport in d-dimensional Markov binary mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Larmier, Coline; Hugot, François-Xavier; Malvagi, Fausto; Mazzolo, Alain; Zoia, Andrea
2017-03-01
Linear particle transport in stochastic media is key to such relevant applications as neutron diffusion in randomly mixed immiscible materials, light propagation through engineered optical materials, and inertial confinement fusion, only to name a few. We extend the pioneering work by Adams, Larsen and Pomraning [1] (recently revisited by Brantley [2]) by considering a series of benchmark configurations for mono-energetic and isotropic transport through Markov binary mixtures in dimension d. The stochastic media are generated by resorting to Poisson random tessellations in 1 d slab, 2 d extruded, and full 3 d geometry. For each realization, particle transport is performed by resorting to the Monte Carlo simulation. The distributions of the transmission and reflection coefficients on the free surfaces of the geometry are subsequently estimated, and the average values over the ensemble of realizations are computed. Reference solutions for the benchmark have never been provided before for two- and three-dimensional Poisson tessellations, and the results presented in this paper might thus be useful in order to validate fast but approximated models for particle transport in Markov stochastic media, such as the celebrated Chord Length Sampling algorithm.
An Acidity Scale for Binary Oxides.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Smith, Derek W.
1987-01-01
Discusses the classification of binary oxides as acidic, basic, or amphoteric. Demonstrates how a numerical scale for acidity/basicity of binary oxides can be constructed using thermochemical data for oxoacid salts. Presents the calculations derived from the data that provide the numeric scale values. (TW)
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.
Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R
2014-01-01
We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.
Gravitational radiation, inspiraling binaries, and cosmology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chernoff, David F.; Finn, Lee S.
1993-01-01
We show how to measure cosmological parameters using observations of inspiraling binary neutron star or black hole systems in one or more gravitational wave detectors. To illustrate, we focus on the case of fixed mass binary systems observed in a single Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)-like detector. Using realistic detector noise estimates, we characterize the rate of detections as a function of a threshold SNR Rho(0), H0, and the binary 'chirp' mass. For Rho(0) = 8, H0 = 100 km/s/Mpc, and 1.4 solar mass neutron star binaries, the sample has a median redshift of 0.22. Under the same assumptions but independent of H0, a conservative rate density of coalescing binaries implies LIGO will observe about 50/yr binary inspiral events. The precision with which H0 and the deceleration parameter q0 may be determined depends on the number of observed inspirals. For fixed mass binary systems, about 100 observations with Rho(0) = 10 in the LIGO will give H0 to 10 percent in an Einstein-DeSitter cosmology, and 3000 will give q0 to 20 percent. For the conservative rate density of coalescing binaries, 100 detections with Rho(0) = 10 will require about 4 yrs.
The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.
Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R
2006-01-01
We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs) within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA). Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars - compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.
The chemical evolution of the solar neighbourhood: the effect of binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Donder, E.; Vanbeveren, D.
2002-03-01
In this paper we compute the time evolution of the elements ( 4He, 12C, 14N, 16O, 20Ne, 24Mg, 28Si, 32S, 40Ca and 56Fe) and of the supernova rates in the solar neighbourhood by means of a galactic chemical evolutionary code that includes in detail the evolution of both single and binary stars. Special attention is payed to the formation of black holes. Our main conclusions: in order to predict the galactic time evolution of the different types of supernovae, it is essential to compute in detail the evolution of the binary population, the observed time evolution of carbon is better reproduced by a galactic model where the effect is included of a significant fraction of intermediate mass binaries, massive binary mass exchange provides a possible solution for the production of primary nitrogen during the very early phases of galactic evolution, chemical evolutionary models with binaries or without binaries but with a detailed treatment of the SN Ia progenitors predict very similar age-metallicity relations and very similar G-dwarf distributions whereas the evolution of the yields as function of time of the elements 4He, 16O, 20Ne, 24Mg, 28Si, 32S and 40Ca differ by no more than a factor of two or three, the observed time evolution of oxygen is best reproduced when most of the oxygen produced during core helium burning in ALL massive stars serves to enrich the interstellar medium. This can be used as indirect evidence that (massive) black hole formation in single stars and binary components is always preceded by a supernova explosion.
New medium licensed for campylobacter
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A medium, “Campy-Cefex”, has been licensed by the ARS Office of Technology Transfer with Becton Dickinson (No. 1412-002) and Neogen (No. 1412-001) based on patent No. 5,891,709, “Campy-Cefex Selective and Differential Medium for Campylobacter” by Dr. Norman Stern of the Poultry Microbiological Safet...
The Fraction of KBO Contact Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lacerda, Pedro
2007-05-01
We use Roche binary models to improve previous estimates of the contact binariy fraction within the Kuiper Belt object (KBO) population (Sheppard & Jewitt 2004). Our simulations can be used to determine the lightcurve range of Roche binaries at arbitrary observing geometries, and for different surface types. This allows us to better correct the apparent fraction for observing geometry effects. We find that at least 9% of KBOs are contact binaries. Such high incidence of KBOs contact binaries has important implications to binary formation and collisional evolution scenarios. PL is grateful to the Portuguese Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia (BPD/SPFH/18828/2004) for financial support. This work was supported, in part, by a grant from the NSF to David C. Jewitt.
Neutron Star Mass Distribution in Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Young-Min
2016-05-01
Massive neutron stars with ∼ 2Mʘ have been observed in neutron star-white dwarf binaries. On the other hand, well-measured neutron star masses in double-neutron-star binaries are still consistent with the limit of 1.5Mʘ. These observations raised questions on the neutron star equations of state and the neutron star binary evolution processes. In this presentation, a hypothesis of super-Eddington accretion and its implications are discussed. We argue that a 2Mʘ neutron star is an outcome of the super-Eddington accretion during the evolution of neutron star-white dwarf binary progenitors. We also suggest the possibility of the existence of new type of neutron star binary which consists of a typical neutron star and a massive compact companion (high-mass neutron star or black hole) with M ≥ 2Mʘ.
Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quintana, Elisa V.; Lissauer, Jack J.
More than half of all main sequence stars, and an even larger fraction of pre-main sequence stars, reside in binary or multiple systems (Duquennoy and Mayor 1991; Mathieu et al. 2000). The presence of planet-forming material has been indirectly observed around one or both components of some young binaries, and (Mathieu et al. 2000) numerical simulations of the formation of binary stars suggest that disks form within these systems, as well (Bodenheimer et al. 2000). Terrestrial planets and the cores of giant planets are thought to form by an accretion process within a disk of dust and gas (Safronov 1969; Lissauer 1993), and therefore may be common in binary star systems. In this chapter, we present the results from numerical simulations of the final stages of terrestrial planet formation around one or both stars of a binary.
Asteroid Systems: Binaries, Triples, and Pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Margot, J.-L.; Pravec, P.; Taylor, P.; Carry, B.; Jacobson, S.
In the past decade, the number of known binary near-Earth asteroids has more than quadrupled and the number of known large main-belt asteroids with satellites has doubled. Half a dozen triple asteroids have been discovered, and the previously unrecognized populations of asteroid pairs and small main-belt binaries have been identified. The current observational evidence confirms that small (≲20 km) binaries form by rotational fission and establishes that the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect powers the spin-up process. A unifying paradigm based on rotational fission and post-fission dynamics can explain the formation of small binaries, triples, and pairs. Large (>~20 km) binaries with small satellites are most likely created during large collisions.
Stochastic Microlensing: Mathematical Theory and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teguia, Alberto Mokak
Stochastic microlensing is a central tool in probing dark matter on galactic scales. From first principles, we initiate the development of a mathematical theory of stochastic microlensing. We first construct a natural probability space for stochastic microlensing and characterize the general behaviour of the random time delay functions' random critical sets. Next we study stochastic microlensing in two distinct random microlensing scenarios: The uniform stars' distribution with constant mass spectrum and the spatial stars' distribution with general mass spectrum. For each scenario, we determine exact and asymptotic (in the large number of point masses limit) stochastic properties of the random time delay functions and associated random lensing maps and random shear tensors, including their moments and asymptotic density functions. We use these results to study certain random observables, such as random fixed lensed images, random bending angles, and random magnifications. These results are relevant to the theory of random fields and provide a platform for further generalizations as well as analytical limits for checking astrophysical studies of stochastic microlensing. Continuing our development of a mathematical theory of stochastic microlensing, we study the stochastic version of the Image Counting Problem, first considered in the non-random setting by Einstein and generalized by Petters. In particular, we employ the Kac-Rice formula and Morse theory to deduce general formulas for the expected total number of images and the expected number of saddle images for a general random lensing scenario. We further generalize these results by considering random sources defined on a countable compact covering of the light source plane. This is done to introduce the notion of global expected number of positive parity images due to a general lensing map. Applying the result to the uniform stars' distribution random microlensing scenario, we calculate the asymptotic global
Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lissauer, J. J.; Quintana, E. V.; Adams, F. C.; Chambers, J. E.
2006-01-01
Most stars reside in binary/multiple star systems; however, previous models of planet formation have studied growth of bodies orbiting an isolated single star. Disk material has been observed around one or both components of various young close binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such disks, they can remain dynamically stable for very long times. We have simulated the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets in both circumbinary disks around 'close' binary star systems with stellar separations ($a_B$) in the range 0.05 AU $\\le a_B \\le$ 0.4 AU and binary eccentricities in the range $0 \\le e \\le 0.8$ and circumstellar disks around individual stars with binary separations of tens of AU. The initial disk of planetary embryos is the same as that used for simulating the late stages of terrestrial planet growth within our Solar System and around individual stars in the Alpha Centauri system (Quintana et al. 2002, A.J., 576, 982); giant planets analogous to Jupiter and Saturn are included if their orbits are stable. The planetary systems formed around close binaries with stellar apastron distances less than or equal to 0.2 AU with small stellar eccentricities are very similar to those formed in the Sun-Jupiter-Saturn, whereas planetary systems formed around binaries with larger maximum separations tend to be sparser, with fewer planets, especially interior to 1 AU. Likewise, when the binary periastron exceeds 10 AU, terrestrial planets can form over essentially the entire range of orbits allowed for single stars with Jupiter-like planets, although fewer terrestrial planets tend to form within high eccentricity binary systems. As the binary periastron decreases, the radial extent of the terrestrial planet systems is reduced accordingly. When the periastron is 5 AU, the formation of Earth-like planets near 1 AU is compromised.
Constraining Accreting Binary Populations in Normal Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lehmer, Bret; Hornschemeier, A.; Basu-Zych, A.; Fragos, T.; Jenkins, L.; Kalogera, V.; Ptak, A.; Tzanavaris, P.; Zezas, A.
2011-01-01
X-ray emission from accreting binary systems (X-ray binaries) uniquely probe the binary phase of stellar evolution and the formation of compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes. A detailed understanding of X-ray binary systems is needed to provide physical insight into the formation and evolution of the stars involved, as well as the demographics of interesting binary remnants, such as millisecond pulsars and gravitational wave sources. Our program makes wide use of Chandra observations and complementary multiwavelength data sets (through, e.g., the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey [SINGS] and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey [GOODS]), as well as super-computing facilities, to provide: (1) improved calibrations for correlations between X-ray binary emission and physical properties (e.g., star-formation rate and stellar mass) for galaxies in the local Universe; (2) new physical constraints on accreting binary processes (e.g., common-envelope phase and mass transfer) through the fitting of X-ray binary synthesis models to observed local galaxy X-ray binary luminosity functions; (3) observational and model constraints on the X-ray evolution of normal galaxies over the last 90% of cosmic history (since z 4) from the Chandra Deep Field surveys and accreting binary synthesis models; and (4) predictions for deeper observations from forthcoming generations of X-ray telesopes (e.g., IXO, WFXT, and Gen-X) to provide a science driver for these missions. In this talk, we highlight the details of our program and discuss recent results.
Stochastic Indicators for Waste Site Characterization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christakos, George; Hristopulos, Dionissios T.
1996-08-01
Site characterization is an important prerequisite of risk assessment and remediation strategies. Evaluation of the health effects of groundwater and soil contamination depends on the adequate analysis of spatial heterogeneity, exceedance levels, and uncertainties. In this work we formulate and calculate stochastic indicators that provide a rigorous characterization of exposure levels in sites with heterogeneous contaminant distributions and offer valuable information for a cost-effective cleanup analysis. These site indicators are general and can be used for different types and distributions of groundwater and soil contaminants. Important properties of the stochastic indicators are examined which can evaluate the potential for contamination at large scales, and improve understanding of threatened and damaged ecosystems. Analytically tractable formulas are derived that allow the practical estimation of site indicators on the basis of experimental data. Scale and modeling effects on contaminant level analysis are examined in terms of the stochastic indicators. Site cleanup costs depend directly on inferred characteristics of the stochastic indicators, which thus can play an important role in waste site management. Applications are discussed that offer insight regarding certain aspects of stochastic site characterization. Analytical methods of site characterization are compared to numerical simulations. It is shown that the latter can provide a practical alternative to the former, but they could lead to inaccurate results if they are not interpreted carefully.
Robustness analysis of stochastic biochemical systems.
Ceska, Milan; Safránek, David; Dražan, Sven; Brim, Luboš
2014-01-01
We propose a new framework for rigorous robustness analysis of stochastic biochemical systems that is based on probabilistic model checking techniques. We adapt the general definition of robustness introduced by Kitano to the class of stochastic systems modelled as continuous time Markov Chains in order to extensively analyse and compare robustness of biological models with uncertain parameters. The framework utilises novel computational methods that enable to effectively evaluate the robustness of models with respect to quantitative temporal properties and parameters such as reaction rate constants and initial conditions. We have applied the framework to gene regulation as an example of a central biological mechanism where intrinsic and extrinsic stochasticity plays crucial role due to low numbers of DNA and RNA molecules. Using our methods we have obtained a comprehensive and precise analysis of stochastic dynamics under parameter uncertainty. Furthermore, we apply our framework to compare several variants of two-component signalling networks from the perspective of robustness with respect to intrinsic noise caused by low populations of signalling components. We have successfully extended previous studies performed on deterministic models (ODE) and showed that stochasticity may significantly affect obtained predictions. Our case studies demonstrate that the framework can provide deeper insight into the role of key parameters in maintaining the system functionality and thus it significantly contributes to formal methods in computational systems biology.
Record-Breaking Eclipsing Binary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-05-01
A new record holder exists for the longest-period eclipsing binary star system: TYC-2505-672-1. This intriguing system contains a primary star that is eclipsed by its companion once every 69 years with each eclipse lasting several years!120 Years of ObservationsIn a recent study, a team of scientists led by Joseph Rodriguez (Vanderbilt University) characterizes the components of TYC-2505-672-1. This binary star system consists of an M-type red giant star that undergoes a ~3.45-year-long, near-total eclipse with a period of ~69.1 years. This period is more than double that of the previous longest-period eclipsing binary!Rodriguez and collaborators combined photometric observations of TYC-2505-672-1 by the Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescope (KELT) with a variety of archival data, including observations by the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) network and historical data from the Digital Access to a Sky Century @ Harvard (DASCH) program.In the 120 years spanned by these observations, two eclipses are detected: one in 1942-1945 and one in 2011-2015. The authors use the observations to analyze the components of the system and attempt to better understand what causes its unusual light curve.Characterizing an Unusual SystemObservations of TYC-2505-672-1 plotted from 1890 to 2015 reveal two eclipses. (The blue KELT observations during the eclipse show upper limits only.) [Rodriguez et al. 2016]By modeling the systems emission, Rodriguez and collaborators establish that TYC-2505-672-1 consists of a 3600-K primary star thats the M giant orbited by a small, hot, dim companion thats a toasty 8000 K. But if the companion is small, why does the eclipse last several years?The authors argue that the best model of TYC-2505-672-1 is one in which the small companion star is surrounded by a large, opaque circumstellar disk. Rodriguez and collaborators suggest that the companion could be a former red giant whose atmosphere was stripped from it, leaving behind
White Dwarfs in Astrometric Binaries?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Oliversen, N. A.; Evans, N. R.; Feibelman, W. A.; Kamper, K. W.
1993-12-01
Lippincott (1978, Space Sci Rev, 22, 153) compiled a list of astrometric binaries with unseen companions typically within 20 pc of the sun. Red companions have been observed in a number of these systems (e.g. McCarthy, D. W. 1983, IAU Coll. # 76, p. 107). Unseen, low mass companions could also be white dwarfs. We have obtained IUE observations of stars on the list which have primaries with spectral types M1 or earlier (white dwarf companions of cooler primaries could be detected from the ground), and are brighter than 10 mag, which do not have known red companions. Preliminary reductions (comparison with standard stars of appropriate spectral types) indicate that there are no white dwarfs in the sample. Further processing is being done to determine limits on possible white dwarf temperatures.
Interdiffusion in binary ionic mixtures
Boercker, D.B.; Pollock, E.L.
1987-08-15
In this paper we present molecular-dynamics and kinetic-theory calculations of the interdiffusion coefficients in dense binary ionic mixtures for conditions appropriate to both astrophysical and inertial-confinement fusion (ICF) plasmas. The diffusion coefficient is the product of a Green-Kubo integral and a thermodynamic prefactor. The molecular-dynamics and kinetic-theory estimates of the Green-Kubo portion agree very well, and it is found that this integral may also be well represented by the usual concentration-weighted sum of self-diffusion coefficients. In addition, the low-density limit of the thermodynamic prefactor is shown to represent an enhancement of the diffusion by the ''ambipolar'' electric field.
Irradiation-induced composition patterns in binary solid solutions
Dubey, Santosh; El-Azab, Anter
2013-09-28
A theoretical/computational model for the irradiation-driven compositional instabilities in binary solid solutions has been developed. The model is suitable for investigating the behavior of structural alloys and metallic nuclear fuels in a reactor environment as well as the response of alloy thin films to ion beam irradiation. The model is based on a set of reaction-diffusion equations for the dynamics of vacancies, interstitials, and lattice atoms under irradiation. The dynamics of these species includes the stochastic generation of defects by collision cascades as well as the defect reactions and diffusion. The atomic fluxes in this model are derived based on the transitions of lattice defects. The set of reaction-diffusion equations are stiff, hence a stiffly stable method, also known as the Gear method, has been used to numerically approximate the equations. For the Cu-Au alloy in the solid solution regime, the model results demonstrate the formation of compositional patterns under high-temperature particle irradiation, with Fourier space properties (Fourier spectrum, average wavelength, and wavevector) depending on the cascade damage characteristics, average composition, and irradiation temperature.
Kinetically driven ordered phase formation in binary colloidal crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bochicchio, D.; Videcoq, A.; Ferrando, R.
2013-02-01
The aggregation of binary colloids of the same size and balanced charges is studied by Brownian dynamics simulations for dilute suspensions. It is shown that, under appropriate conditions, the formation of colloidal crystals is dominated by kinetic effects leading to the growth of well-ordered crystallites of the sodium-chloride (NaCl) bulk phase. These crystallites form with very high probability even when the cesium-chloride (CsCl) phase is more stable thermodynamically. Global optimization searches show that this result is not related to the most favorable structures of small clusters, which are either amorphous or of the CsCl structure. The formation of the NaCl phase is related to the specific kinetics of the crystallization process, which takes place by a two-step mechanism. In this mechanism, dense fluid aggregates form at first and then crystallization follows. It is shown that the type of short-range order in these dense fluid aggregates determines which phase is finally formed in the crystallites. The role of hydrodynamic effects in the aggregation process is analyzed by stochastic rotation dynamics - molecular dynamics simulations, and we find that these effects do not play a major role in the formation of the crystallites.
Stability of multiplanet systems in binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzari, F.; Gallina, G.
2016-10-01
Context. When exploring the stability of multiplanet systems in binaries, two parameters are normally exploited: the critical semimajor axis ac computed by Holman & Wiegert (1999, AJ, 117, 621) within which planets are stable against the binary perturbations, and the Hill stability limit Δ determining the minimum separation beyond which two planets will avoid mutual close encounters. Both these parameters are derived in different contexts, i.e. Δ is usually adopted for computing the stability limit of two planets around a single star while ac is computed for a single planet in a binary system. Aims: Our aim is to test whether these two parameters can be safely applied in multiplanet systems in binaries or if their predictions fail for particular binary orbital configurations. Methods: We have used the frequency map analysis (FMA) to measure the diffusion of orbits in the phase space as an indicator of chaotic behaviour. Results: First we revisited the reliability of the empirical formula computing ac in the case of single planets in binaries and we find that, in some cases, it underestimates by 10-20% the real outer limit of stability and it does not account for planets trapped in resonance with the companion star well beyond ac. For two-planet systems, the value of Δ is close to that computed for planets around single stars, but the level of chaoticity close to it substantially increases for smaller semimajor axes and higher eccentricities of the binary orbit. In these configurations ac also begins to be unreliable and non-linear secular resonances with the stellar companion lead to chaotic behaviour well within ac, even for single planet systems. For two planet systems, the superposition of mean motion resonances, either mutual or with the binary companion, and non-linear secular resonances may lead to chaotic behaviour in all cases. We have developed a parametric semi-empirical formula determining the minimum value of the binary semimajor axis, for a given
Computational stochastic model of ions implantation
Zmievskaya, Galina I. Bondareva, Anna L.; Levchenko, Tatiana V.; Maino, Giuseppe
2015-03-10
Implantation flux ions into crystal leads to phase transition /PT/ 1-st kind. Damaging lattice is associated with processes clustering vacancies and gaseous bubbles as well their brownian motion. System of stochastic differential equations /SDEs/ Ito for evolution stochastic dynamical variables corresponds to the superposition Wiener processes. The kinetic equations in partial derivatives /KE/, Kolmogorov-Feller and Einstein-Smolukhovskii, were formulated for nucleation into lattice of weakly soluble gases. According theory, coefficients of stochastic and kinetic equations uniquely related. Radiation stimulated phase transition are characterized by kinetic distribution functions /DFs/ of implanted clusters versus their sizes and depth of gas penetration into lattice. Macroscopic parameters of kinetics such as the porosity and stress calculated in thin layers metal/dielectric due to Xe{sup ++} irradiation are attracted as example. Predictions of porosity, important for validation accumulation stresses in surfaces, can be applied at restoring of objects the cultural heritage.
Maximal stochastic transport in the Lorenz equations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Sahil; Wettlaufer, John
2015-11-01
We calculate the stochastic upper bounds for the Lorenz equations using an extension of the background method. In analogy with Rayleigh-Benard convection the upper bounds are for heat transport versus Rayleigh number. As might be expected the stochastic upper bounds are larger than the deterministic counterpart of Souza and Doering (2015), but their variation with noise amplitude exhibits surprising behavior. Below the transition to chaotic dynamics the upper bounds increase monotonically with noise amplitude. However, in the chaotic regime this monotonicity is lost; at a particular Rayleigh number the bound may increase or decrease with noise amplitude. The origin of this behavior is the coupling between the noise and unstable periodic orbits. This is confirmed by examining the close returns plots of the full solutions to the stochastic equations. Finally, we note that these solutions demonstrate that the effect of noise is equivalent to the effect of chaos.
Stochastic Differential Equation of Earthquakes Series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mariani, Maria C.; Tweneboah, Osei K.; Gonzalez-Huizar, Hector; Serpa, Laura
2016-07-01
This work is devoted to modeling earthquake time series. We propose a stochastic differential equation based on the superposition of independent Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes driven by a Γ (α, β ) process. Superposition of independent Γ (α, β ) Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes offer analytic flexibility and provides a class of continuous time processes capable of exhibiting long memory behavior. The stochastic differential equation is applied to the study of earthquakes by fitting the superposed Γ (α, β ) Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model to earthquake sequences in South America containing very large events (Mw ≥ 8). We obtained very good fit of the observed magnitudes of the earthquakes with the stochastic differential equations, which supports the use of this methodology for the study of earthquakes sequence.
Structural factoring approach for analyzing stochastic networks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Shier, Douglas R.
1991-01-01
The problem of finding the distribution of the shortest path length through a stochastic network is investigated. A general algorithm for determining the exact distribution of the shortest path length is developed based on the concept of conditional factoring, in which a directed, stochastic network is decomposed into an equivalent set of smaller, generally less complex subnetworks. Several network constructs are identified and exploited to reduce significantly the computational effort required to solve a network problem relative to complete enumeration. This algorithm can be applied to two important classes of stochastic path problems: determining the critical path distribution for acyclic networks and the exact two-terminal reliability for probabilistic networks. Computational experience with the algorithm was encouraging and allowed the exact solution of networks that have been previously analyzed only by approximation techniques.
Functional integral approach for multiplicative stochastic processes.
Arenas, Zochil González; Barci, Daniel G
2010-05-01
We present a functional formalism to derive a generating functional for correlation functions of a multiplicative stochastic process represented by a Langevin equation. We deduce a path integral over a set of fermionic and bosonic variables without performing any time discretization. The usual prescriptions to define the Wiener integral appear in our formalism in the definition of Green's functions in the Grassman sector of the theory. We also study nonperturbative constraints imposed by Becchi, Rouet and Stora symmetry (BRS) and supersymmetry on correlation functions. We show that the specific prescription to define the stochastic process is wholly contained in tadpole diagrams. Therefore, in a supersymmetric theory, the stochastic process is uniquely defined since tadpole contributions cancels at all order of perturbation theory.
Stochastic resonance in geomagnetic polarity reversals.
Consolini, Giuseppe; De Michelis, Paola
2003-02-07
Among noise-induced cooperative phenomena a peculiar relevance is played by stochastic resonance. In this paper we offer evidence that geomagnetic polarity reversals may be due to a stochastic resonance process. In detail, analyzing the distribution function P(tau) of polarity residence times (chrons), we found the evidence of a stochastic synchronization process, i.e., a series of peaks in the P(tau) at T(n) approximately (2n+1)T(Omega)/2 with n=0,1,...,j and T(omega) approximately 0.1 Myr. This result is discussed in connection with both the typical time scale of Earth's orbit eccentricity variation and the recent results on the typical time scale of climatic long-term variation.
Stochastic approach to equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics.
Tomé, Tânia; de Oliveira, Mário J
2015-04-01
We develop the stochastic approach to thermodynamics based on stochastic dynamics, which can be discrete (master equation) and continuous (Fokker-Planck equation), and on two assumptions concerning entropy. The first is the definition of entropy itself and the second the definition of entropy production rate, which is non-negative and vanishes in thermodynamic equilibrium. Based on these assumptions, we study interacting systems with many degrees of freedom in equilibrium or out of thermodynamic equilibrium and how the macroscopic laws are derived from the stochastic dynamics. These studies include the quasiequilibrium processes; the convexity of the equilibrium surface; the monotonic time behavior of thermodynamic potentials, including entropy; the bilinear form of the entropy production rate; the Onsager coefficients and reciprocal relations; and the nonequilibrium steady states of chemical reactions.
Vaccine enhanced extinction in stochastic epidemic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billings, Lora; Mier-Y-Teran, Luis; Schwartz, Ira
2012-02-01
We address the problem of developing new and improved stochastic control methods that enhance extinction in disease models. In finite populations, extinction occurs when fluctuations owing to random transitions act as an effective force that drives one or more components or species to vanish. Using large deviation theory, we identify the location of the optimal path to extinction in epidemic models with stochastic vaccine controls. These models not only capture internal noise from random transitions, but also external fluctuations, such as stochastic vaccination scheduling. We quantify the effectiveness of the randomly applied vaccine over all possible distributions by using the location of the optimal path, and we identify the most efficient control algorithms. We also discuss how mean extinction times scale with epidemiological and social parameters.
Regeneration of stochastic processes: an inverse method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghasemi, F.; Peinke, J.; Sahimi, M.; Rahimi Tabar, M. R.
2005-10-01
We propose a novel inverse method that utilizes a set of data to construct a simple equation that governs the stochastic process for which the data have been measured, hence enabling us to reconstruct the stochastic process. As an example, we analyze the stochasticity in the beat-to-beat fluctuations in the heart rates of healthy subjects as well as those with congestive heart failure. The inverse method provides a novel technique for distinguishing the two classes of subjects in terms of a drift and a diffusion coefficients which behave completely differently for the two classes of subjects, hence potentially providing a novel diagnostic tool for distinguishing healthy subjects from those with congestive heart failure, even at the early stages of the disease development.
Three-dimensional convection of binary mixtures in porous media.
Umla, R; Augustin, M; Huke, B; Lücke, M
2011-11-01
We investigate convection patterns of binary mixtures with a positive separation ratio in porous media. As setup, we choose the Rayleigh-Bénard system of a fluid layer heated from below. Results are obtained by a multimode Galerkin method. Using this method, we compute square and crossroll patterns, and we analyze their structural, bifurcation, and stability properties. Evidence is provided that, for a strong enough Soret effect, both structures exist as stable forms of convection. Some of their properties are found to be similar to square and crossroll convection in the system without porous medium. However, there are also qualitative differences. For example, squares can be destabilized by oscillatory perturbations with square symmetry in porous media, and their velocity isolines are deformed in the so-called Soret regime.
Boriding of Binary Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ucar, Nazim; Dogan, Sule; Karakas, Mustafa Serdar; Calik, Adnan
2016-11-01
Boriding of binary Ni-Ti shape memory alloys was carried out in a solid medium at 1273 K for 2, 4, 6, and 8 h using the powder pack method with proprietary Ekabor-Ni powders. Characterization of the boride layer formed on the surface of alloys was done by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The presence of boride, silicide, and borosilicide phases in the boride layers was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The thickness and microhardness of the boride layers increased with increasing boriding time. Hardness profiles showed a rapid decrease in hardness moving from the boride layer to the main structure. The high hardness of the boride layer was attributed mainly to the formation of TiB2. A parabolic relationship was observed between layer thickness and boriding time, and the growth rate constant for the boriding treatment was calculated as 0.62×10-8 cm2 s-1.
Ultrarelativistic electromagnetic counterpart to binary neutron star mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kyutoku, Koutarou; Ioka, Kunihito; Shibata, Masaru
2014-01-01
We propose a possibility of ultrarelativistic electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational waves from binary neutron star mergers at nearly all the viewing angles. Our proposed mechanism relies on the merger-shock propagation accelerating a smaller mass in the outer parts of the neutron star crust to a larger Lorentz factor Γ with smaller energy ˜1047Γ-1 erg. This mechanism is difficult to resolve by current 3D numerical simulations. The outflows emit synchrotron flares for seconds to days by shocking the ambient medium. Ultrarelativistic flares shine at an early time and in high-energy bands, potentially detectable by current X-ray to radio instruments, such as Swift XRT and Pan-STARRS, and even in low ambient density ˜10-2 cm-3 by EVLA. The flares probe the merger position and time, and the merger types as black hole-neutron star outflows would be non-/mildly relativistic.
Discovery of collimated ejection from the symbiotic binary BF Cygni
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skopal, A.; Tomov, N. A.; Tomova, M. T.
2013-03-01
Context. Detection of collimated ejection from white dwarfs (WD) in symbiotic binaries is very rare and has employed a variety of methods in X-ray, radio, optical imagery, and spectroscopy. To date, its signature in the optical spectra has only been recorded for four objects (MWC 560, Hen 3-1341, StHα 190, and Z And). Aims: We present the first observational evidence of highly-collimated bipolar ejection from the symbiotic binary BF Cyg, which developed during its current (2006-12) active phase, and determine their physical parameters. Methods: We monitored the outburst with the optical high-resolution spectroscopy and multicolour UBVRCIC photometry. Results: During 2009, three years after the 2006-eruption of BF Cyg, satellite components to Hα and Hβ lines emerged in the spectrum. During 2012, they became stable and were located symmetrically with respect to the main emission core of the line. Spectral properties of these components suggest bipolar ejection collimated within an opening angle of ≲15°, whose radiation is produced by an optically thin medium with the emission measure of 1-2 × 1059 (d/3.8 kpc)2 cm-3. Conclusions: Formation of the collimated ejection a few years after the eruption and its evolution on a time scale of years at a constant optical brightness can aid us in better understanding the accretion process during the active phases of symbiotic stars. Based on data collected with 2-m telescope at the Rozhen National Astronomical Observatory and the David Dunlap Observatory.
Effective binary theory of multi-component nucleation
Kalikmanov, V. I.
2015-03-28
Classical theory of multi-component nucleation [O. Hirschfelder, J. Chem. Phys. 61, 2690 (1974)] belongs to the class of the so-called intractable problems: it requires computational time which is an exponential function of the number of components N. For a number of systems of practical interest with N > 10, the brute-force use of the classical theory becomes virtually impossible and one has to resort to an effective medium approach. We present an effective binary model which captures important physics of multi-component nucleation. The distinction between two effective species is based on the observation that while all N components contribute to the cluster thermodynamic properties, there is only a part of them which trigger the nucleation process. The proposed 2D-theory takes into account adsorption by means of the Gibbs dividing surface formalism and uses statistical mechanical considerations for the treatment of small clusters. Theoretical predictions for binary-, ternary-, and 14-component mixtures are compared with available experimental data and other models.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
O'Hanlon, Fiona; Paterson, Lindsay
2017-01-01
This paper investigates the factors influencing the likelihood of choice of Gaelic-medium primary education in Scotland by means of the analysis of a national survey of public attitudes conducted in 2012. Binary logistic regression is used to investigate the association of five dimensions found in previous literature to be associated with the…
Topology optimization under stochastic stiffness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asadpoure, Alireza
Topology optimization is a systematic computational tool for optimizing the layout of materials within a domain for engineering design problems. It allows variation of structural boundaries and connectivities. This freedom in the design space often enables discovery of new, high performance designs. However, solutions obtained by performing the optimization in a deterministic setting may be impractical or suboptimal when considering real-world engineering conditions with inherent variabilities including (for example) variabilities in fabrication processes and operating conditions. The aim of this work is to provide a computational methodology for topology optimization in the presence of uncertainties associated with structural stiffness, such as uncertain material properties and/or structural geometry. Existing methods for topology optimization under deterministic conditions are first reviewed. Modifications are then proposed to improve the numerical performance of the so-called Heaviside Projection Method (HPM) in continuum domains. Next, two approaches, perturbation and Polynomial Chaos Expansion (PCE), are proposed to account for uncertainties in the optimization procedure. These approaches are intrusive, allowing tight and efficient coupling of the uncertainty quantification with the optimization sensitivity analysis. The work herein develops a robust topology optimization framework aimed at reducing the sensitivity of optimized solutions to uncertainties. The perturbation-based approach combines deterministic topology optimization with a perturbation method for the quantification of uncertainties. The use of perturbation transforms the problem of topology optimization under uncertainty to an augmented deterministic topology optimization problem. The PCE approach combines the spectral stochastic approach for the representation and propagation of uncertainties with an existing deterministic topology optimization technique. The resulting compact representations
Stochastic P-bifurcation and stochastic resonance in a noisy bistable fractional-order system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, J. H.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.; Liu, H. G.; Litak, G.; Li, X.
2016-12-01
We investigate the stochastic response of a noisy bistable fractional-order system when the fractional-order lies in the interval (0, 2]. We focus mainly on the stochastic P-bifurcation and the phenomenon of the stochastic resonance. We compare the generalized Euler algorithm and the predictor-corrector approach which are commonly used for numerical calculations of fractional-order nonlinear equations. Based on the predictor-corrector approach, the stochastic P-bifurcation and the stochastic resonance are investigated. Both the fractional-order value and the noise intensity can induce an stochastic P-bifurcation. The fractional-order may lead the stationary probability density function to turn from a single-peak mode to a double-peak mode. However, the noise intensity may transform the stationary probability density function from a double-peak mode to a single-peak mode. The stochastic resonance is investigated thoroughly, according to the linear and the nonlinear response theory. In the linear response theory, the optimal stochastic resonance may occur when the value of the fractional-order is larger than one. In previous works, the fractional-order is usually limited to the interval (0, 1]. Moreover, the stochastic resonance at the subharmonic frequency and the superharmonic frequency are investigated respectively, by using the nonlinear response theory. When it occurs at the subharmonic frequency, the resonance may be strong and cannot be ignored. When it occurs at the superharmonic frequency, the resonance is weak. We believe that the results in this paper might be useful for the signal processing of nonlinear systems.
On strongly GA-convex functions and stochastic processes
Bekar, Nurgül Okur; Akdemir, Hande Günay; İşcan, İmdat
2014-08-20
In this study, we introduce strongly GA-convex functions and stochastic processes. We provide related well-known Kuhn type results and Hermite-Hadamard type inequality for strongly GA-convex functions and stochastic processes.
On strongly GA-convex functions and stochastic processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bekar, Nurgül Okur; Akdemir, Hande Günay; Işcan, Imdat
2014-08-01
In this study, we introduce strongly GA-convex functions and stochastic processes. We provide related well-known Kuhn type results and Hermite-Hadamard type inequality for strongly GA-convex functions and stochastic processes.
Minimum uncertainty and squeezing in diffusion processes and stochastic quantization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Demartino, S.; Desiena, S.; Illuminati, Fabrizo; Vitiello, Giuseppe
1994-01-01
We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states.
A Note on the Stochastic Nature of Feynman Quantum Paths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Botelho, Luiz C. L.
2016-11-01
We propose a Fresnel stochastic white noise framework to analyze the stochastic nature of the Feynman paths entering on the Feynman Path Integral expression for the Feynman Propagator of a particle quantum mechanically moving under a time-independent potential.
Absolute Value Boundedness, Operator Decomposition, and Stochastic Media and Equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adomian, G.; Miao, C. C.
1973-01-01
The research accomplished during this period is reported. Published abstracts and technical reports are listed. Articles presented include: boundedness of absolute values of generalized Fourier coefficients, propagation in stochastic media, and stationary conditions for stochastic differential equations.
Electrochemical detection of benzo(a)pyrene in acetonitrile-water binary medium.
Du, Chunyan; Hu, Yaqi; Li, Yunchao; Fan, Louzhen; Li, Xiaohong
2015-06-01
Electrochemical oxidation of adsorbed benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was explored in acetonitrile-water. When the GCE was incubated in 100 nM BaP acetonitrile-water (V(water):V(acetonitrile)=1:1) for 10 min at open circuit, and then transferred into blank acetonitrile-water (V(water):V(acetonitrile)=1:1, pH= 0.70) for differential pulse voltammetry measurement, a distinct oxidation peak at 0.98 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was observed. The peak potential was about 180 mV lower than that in acetonitrile. Importantly, the peak current was more than 22 times greater. The effects of water on BaP preconcentration on the electrode and electrochemical oxidation were revealed, respectively. Based on the results, an electrochemical assay for BaP detection was developed. The GCE was respectively incubated in acetonitrile-water (V(water):V(acetonitrile)=1:1)with BaP concentration ranged from 0 nM to 1000 nM, and then transferred into the corresponding blank acetonitrile-water (pH= 0.70) for DPV measurements. When the BaP concentration was increased, an increased oxidative current at 0.98 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) was observed, and a detection limit of 0.67 nM was achieved. Because all other priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons could not be electrochemically oxidized at 0.98 V, the electrochemical assay showed very high selectivity to BaP. Finally, the developed electrochemical assay was successfully applied to determination of BaP in a series of real world samples, such as drinking water, tap water, lake water and river water.
PERIODIC SIGNALS IN BINARY MICROLENSING EVENTS
Guo, Xinyi; Stefano, Rosanne Di; Esin, Ann; Taylor, Jeffrey
2015-08-20
Gravitational microlensing events are powerful tools for the study of stellar populations. In particular, they can be used to discover and study a variety of binary systems. A large number of binary lenses have already been found through microlensing surveys and a few of these systems show strong evidence of orbital motion on the timescale of the lensing event. We expect that more binary lenses of this kind will be detected in the future. For binaries whose orbital period is comparable to the event duration, the orbital motion can cause the lensing signal to deviate drastically from that of a static binary lens. The most striking property of such light curves is the presence of quasi-periodic features, which are produced as the source traverses the same regions in the rotating lens plane. These repeating features contain information about the orbital period of the lens. If this period can be extracted, then much can be learned about the lensing system even without performing time-consuming, detailed light-curve modeling. However, the relative transverse motion between the source and the lens significantly complicates the problem of period extraction. To resolve this difficulty, we present a modification of the standard Lomb–Scargle periodogram analysis. We test our method for four representative binary lens systems and demonstrate its efficiency in correctly extracting binary orbital periods.
Terrestrial Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lissauer, Jack J.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Chambers, John; Duncan, Martin J.; Adams, Fred
2003-01-01
Most stars reside in multiple star systems; however, virtually all models of planetary growth have assumed an isolated single star. Numerical simulations of the collapse of molecular cloud cores to form binary stars suggest that disks will form within such systems. Observations indirectly suggest disk material around one or both components within young binary star systems. If planets form at the right places within such circumstellar disks, they can remain in stable orbits within the binary star systems for eons. We are simulating the late stages of growth of terrestrial planets within binary star systems, using a new, ultrafast, symplectic integrator that we have developed for this purpose. We show that the late stages of terrestrial planet formation can indeed take place in a wide variety of binary systems and we have begun to delineate the range of parameter space for which this statement is true. Results of our initial simulations of planetary growth around each star in the alpha Centauri system and other 'wide' binary systems, as well as around both stars in very close binary systems, will be presented.
Planet Formation in Binary Star Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Rebecca
About half of observed exoplanets are estimated to be in binary systems. Understanding planet formation and evolution in binaries is therefore essential for explaining observed exoplanet properties. Recently, we discovered that a highly misaligned circumstellar disk in a binary system can undergo global Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations of the disk inclination and eccentricity. These oscillations likely have a significant impact on the formation and orbital evolution of planets in binary star systems. Planet formation by core accretion cannot operate during KL oscillations of the disk. First, we propose to consider the process of disk mass transfer between the binary members. Secondly, we will investigate the possibility of planet formation by disk fragmentation. Disk self gravity can weaken or suppress the oscillations during the early disk evolution when the disk mass is relatively high for a narrow range of parameters. Thirdly, we will investigate the evolution of a planet whose orbit is initially aligned with respect to the disk, but misaligned with respect to the orbit of the binary. We will study how these processes relate to observations of star-spin and planet orbit misalignment and to observations of planets that appear to be undergoing KL oscillations. Finally, we will analyze the evolution of misaligned multi-planet systems. This theoretical work will involve a combination of analytic and numerical techniques. The aim of this research is to shed some light on the formation of planets in binary star systems and to contribute to NASA's goal of understanding of the origins of exoplanetary systems.
Application of Stochastic and Deterministic Approaches to Modeling Interstellar Chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pei, Yezhe
This work is about simulations of interstellar chemistry using the deterministic rate equation (RE) method and the stochastic moment equation (ME) method. Primordial metal-poor interstellar medium (ISM) is of our interest and the socalled “Population-II” stars could have been formed in this environment during the “Epoch of Reionization” in the baby universe. We build a gas phase model using the RE scheme to describe the ionization-powered interstellar chemistry. We demonstrate that OH replaces CO as the most abundant metal-bearing molecule in such interstellar clouds of the early universe. Grain surface reactions play an important role in the studies of astrochemistry. But the lack of an accurate yet effective simulation method still presents a challenge, especially for large, practical gas-grain system. We develop a hybrid scheme of moment equations and rate equations (HMR) for large gas-grain network to model astrochemical reactions in the interstellar clouds. Specifically, we have used a large chemical gas-grain model, with stochastic moment equations to treat the surface chemistry and deterministic rate equations to treat the gas phase chemistry, to simulate astrochemical systems as of the ISM in the Milky Way, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We compare the results to those of pure rate equations and modified rate equations and present a discussion about how moment equations improve our theoretical modeling and how the abundances of the assorted species are changed by varied metallicity. We also model the observed composition of H2O, CO and CO2 ices toward Young Stellar Objects in the LMC and show that the HMR method gives a better match to the observation than the pure RE method.
Stochastic dynamics of bionanosystems: Multiscale analysis and specialized ensembles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pankavich, S.; Miao, Y.; Ortoleva, J.; Shreif, Z.; Ortoleva, P.
2008-06-01
An approach for simulating bionanosystems such as viruses and ribosomes is presented. This calibration-free approach is based on an all-atom description for bionanosystems, a universal interatomic force field, and a multiscale perspective. The supramillion-atom nature of these bionanosystems prohibits the use of a direct molecular dynamics approach for phenomena such as viral structural transitions or self-assembly that develop over milliseconds or longer. A key element of these multiscale systems is the cross-talk between, and consequent strong coupling of processes over many scales in space and time. Thus, overall nanoscale features of these systems control the relative probability of atomistic fluctuations, while the latter mediate the average forces and diffusion coefficients that induce the dynamics of these nanoscale features. This feedback loop is overlooked in typical coarse-grained methods. We elucidate the role of interscale cross-talk and overcome bionanosystem simulation difficulties with (1) automated construction of order parameters (OPs) describing suprananometer scale structural features, (2) construction of OP-dependent ensembles describing the statistical properties of atomistic variables that ultimately contribute to the entropies driving the dynamics of the OPs, and (3) the derivation of a rigorous equation for the stochastic dynamics of the OPs. As the OPs capture hydrodynamic modes in the host medium, ``long-time tails'' in the correlation functions yielding the generalized diffusion coefficients do not emerge. Since the atomic-scale features of the system are treated statistically, several ensembles are constructed that reflect various experimental conditions. Attention is paid to the proper use of the Gibbs hypothesized equivalence of long-time and ensemble averages to accommodate the varying experimental conditions. The theory provides a basis for a practical, quantitative bionanosystem modeling approach that preserves the cross
Master-equation approach to stochastic neurodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohira, Toru; Cowan, Jack D.
1993-09-01
A master-equation approach to the stochastic neurodynamics proposed by Cowan [in Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 3, edited by R. P. Lippman, J. E. Moody, and D. S. Touretzky (Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, 1991), p. 62] is investigated in this paper. We deal with a model neural network that is composed of two-state neurons obeying elementary stochastic transition rates. We show that such an approach yields concise expressions for multipoint moments and an equation of motion. We apply the formalism to a (1+1)-dimensional system. Exact and approximate expressions for various statistical parameters are obtained and compared with Monte Carlo simulations.
Operation of Distributed Generation Under Stochastic Prices
Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris
2005-11-30
We model the operating decisions of a commercial enterprisethatneeds to satisfy its periodic electricity demand with either on-sitedistributed generation (DG) or purchases from the wholesale market. Whilethe former option involves electricity generation at relatively high andpossibly stochastic costs from a set of capacity-constrained DGtechnologies, the latter implies unlimited open-market transactions atstochastic prices. A stochastic dynamic programme (SDP) is used to solvethe resulting optimisation problem. By solving the SDP with and withoutthe availability of DG units, the implied option values of the DG unitsare obtained.
Methods for Scaling to Doubly Stochastic Form,
1981-06-26
BIRKHOFF, G.: Tres observaciones sobre le algebra lineal , Rev. univ. nec. Tucuman, ser A, . 147-151, [1948] BRUALDI, R.A., S.V. PARTER, and H. SCHNEIDER...scaling square, nonnegative matrices to dou- bly stochastic form are described. A generalized version of the convergence theorem in SINKI-ORN and KNOPP... matrices D and E for a given square nonnegative matrix, A, such that DAE is doubly stochastic--or determine that such :.p h" du:es 7’. -,.xist. A
An exact accelerated stochastic simulation algorithm.
Mjolsness, Eric; Orendorff, David; Chatelain, Philippe; Koumoutsakos, Petros
2009-04-14
An exact method for stochastic simulation of chemical reaction networks, which accelerates the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA), is proposed. The present "ER-leap" algorithm is derived from analytic upper and lower bounds on the multireaction probabilities sampled by SSA, together with rejection sampling and an adaptive multiplicity for reactions. The algorithm is tested on a number of well-quantified reaction networks and is found experimentally to be very accurate on test problems including a chaotic reaction network. At the same time ER-leap offers a substantial speedup over SSA with a simulation time proportional to the 23 power of the number of reaction events in a Galton-Watson process.
Fermilab recycler stochastic cooling commissioning and performance
D. Broemmelsiek; Ralph Pasquinelli
2003-06-04
The Fermilab Recycler is a fixed 8 GeV kinetic energy storage ring located in the Fermilab Main Injector tunnel near the ceiling. The Recycler has two roles in Run II. First, to store antiprotons from the Fermilab Antiproton Accumulator so that the antiproton production rate is no longer compromised by large numbers of antiprotons stored in the Accumulator. Second, to receive antiprotons from the Fermilab Tevatron at the end of luminosity periods. To perform each of these roles, stochastic cooling in the Recycler is needed to preserve and cool antiprotons in preparation for transfer to the Tevatron. The commissioning and performance of the Recycler stochastic cooling systems will be reviewed.